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Sample records for posttreatment ocd severity

  1. A pilot randomized controlled trial of aerobic exercise as an adjunct to OCD treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Ana M; Brown, Richard A; Strong, David R; McLaughlin, Nicole; Garnaat, Sarah L; Mancebo, Maria; Riebe, Deborah; Desaulniers, Julie; Yip, Agustin G; Rasmussen, Steven; Greenberg, Benjamin D

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of aerobic exercise for decreasing OCD symptom severity, other mental health outcomes, and increasing exercise behaviors and cardiorespiratory fitness among individuals with OCD. Fifty-six patients (64% female; mean age=38.8years) with OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score of 16 or greater despite engaging in OCD treatment were randomized to 12-weeks of supervised plus home-based moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (AE; n=28) or to 12-weeks of health education sessions (HE; n=28). Random intercepts mixed models examined differences between conditions at post-treatment. Though no difference between conditions on outcomes was observed, both AE and HE showed significant reduction in OCD symptom severity, depression and anxiety at post-treatment. Relative to HE, significant increases were noted in amount of exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness for those in the AE condition. At post-treatment, 30.4% of the AE condition (7 of 23) were treatment-responders (using the commonly accepted measure of 35% symptom reduction from baseline). In the HE condition, 7.7% of the sample (2 of 26) met this criterion at post-treatment. The results of this preliminary study suggest that exercise and health-focused interventions may be beneficial adjuncts to existing OCD treatment. Future studies with larger samples are needed to more definitively answer questions the efficacy of AE for reducing OCD symptoms and improving related clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Obsessive-compulsive personality traits: how are they related to OCD severity?

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    Wetterneck, Chad T; Little, Tannah E; Chasson, Gregory S; Smith, Angela H; Hart, John M; Stanley, Melinda A; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that comorbid obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with greater overall OCD severity, functional impairment, and poorer treatment outcomes (Coles et al., 2008; Lochner et al., 2010; Pinto, 2009). However, research has only examined the effects of OCPD categorically and has yet to thoroughly examine the impact of individual OCPD characteristics dimensionally. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the relationships between various OCPD-related dimensions (e.g., perfectionism, rigidity) and OCD symptomology and severity. The study recruited a sample of OCD patients (n=51) in the OCD units of two residential treatment facilities. Findings yielded significant relationships between OCD severity and the following OCPD dimensions: flexibility, doubts about actions (a dimension of perfectionism), and hoarding. Interpretations of these results and the implications for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment outcome are discussed. Furthermore, the current study provides insight into a unique perspective which leaves room for more symptom overlap and variability between OCD and OCPD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Predictors of posttreatment drinking outcomes in patients with alcohol dependence.

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    Flórez, Gerardo; Saiz, Pilar A; García-Portilla, Paz; De Cos, Francisco J; Dapía, Sonia; Alvarez, Sandra; Nogueiras, Luis; Bobes, Julio

    2015-01-01

    This cohort study examined how predictors of alcohol dependence treatment outcomes work together over time by comparing pretreatment and posttreatment predictors. A sample of 274 alcohol-dependent patients was recruited and assessed at baseline, 6 months after treatment initiation (end of the active intervention phase), and 18 months after treatment initiation (end of the 12-month research follow-up phase). At each assessment point, the participants completed a battery of standardized tests [European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI), Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS), Alcohol Timeline Followback (TLFB), Fagerström, and International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE)] that measured symptom severity and consequences; biological markers of alcohol consumption were also tested at each assessment point. A sequential strategy with univariate and multivariate analyses was used to identify how pretreatment and posttreatment predictors influence outcomes up to 1 year after treatment. Pretreatment variables had less predictive power than posttreatment ones. OCDS scores and biological markers of alcohol consumption were the most significant variables for the prediction of posttreatment outcomes. Prior pharmacotherapy treatment and relapse prevention interventions were also associated with posttreatment outcomes. The findings highlight the positive impact of pharmacotherapy during the first 6 months after treatment initiation and of relapse prevention during the first year after treatment and how posttreatment predictors are more important than pretreatment predictors.

  4. Comorbid obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): a marker of severity.

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    Lochner, Christine; Serebro, Paul; van der Merwe, Lize; Hemmings, Sian; Kinnear, Craig; Seedat, Soraya; Stein, Dan J

    2011-06-01

    Comorbid obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is well-described in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It remains unclear, however, whether OCPD in OCD represents a distinct subtype of OCD or whether it is simply a marker of severity in OCD. The aim of this study was to compare a large sample of OCD subjects (n=403) with and without OCPD on a range of demographic, clinical and genetic characteristics to evaluate whether comorbid OCPD in OCD represents a distinct subtype of OCD, or is a marker of severity. Our findings suggest that OCD with and without OCPD are similar in terms of gender distribution and age at onset of OC symptoms. Compared to OCD-OCPD (n=267, 66%), those with OCD+OCPD (n=136, 34%) are more likely to present with the OC symptom dimensions which reflect the diagnostic criteria for OCPD (e.g., hoarding), and have significantly greater OCD severity, comorbidity, functional impairment, and poorer insight. Furthermore there are no differences in distribution of gene variants, or response to treatment in the two groups. The majority of our findings suggest that in OCD, patients with OCPD do not have a highly distinctive phenomenological or genetic profile, but rather that OCPD represents a marker of severity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A meta-analysis of family accommodation and OCD symptom severity.

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    Wu, Monica S; McGuire, Joseph F; Martino, Charitie; Phares, Vicky; Selles, Robert R; Storch, Eric A

    2016-04-01

    Family accommodation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by myriad behaviors, such as modifying family routines, facilitating avoidance, and engaging in compulsions to reduce obsessional distress. It has been linked to various deleterious outcomes including increased functional impairment and poorer treatment response for OCD. Although extant literature suggests a linear relationship between family accommodation and OCD symptom severity, the magnitude and statistical significance of this association has been inconsistent across studies, indicating that moderators may be influencing this relationship. The present study examined this relationship using meta-analytic techniques, and investigated sample-dependent (age, gender, comorbid anxiety/mood disorders) and methodological (administration method and number of items used in family accommodation measure, informant type, sample size, publication year) moderators. Forty-one studies were included in the present meta-analysis, and the overall effect size (ES) for the correlation between family accommodation and OCD symptom severity was moderate (r=.42). Moderator analyses revealed that the number of items on the family accommodation scale moderated the ES. No other sample-dependent or methodological characteristics emerged as moderators. In addition to being the first systematic examination of family accommodation moderators, these results highlight the moderate relationship between family accommodation and OCD severity that is influenced by measurement scales. Findings may be used to guide clinical care and inform future investigations by providing a more nuanced understanding of family accommodation in OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of treatment on quality of life and functioning in OCD.

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    Asnaani, Anu; Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Alpert, Elizabeth; McLean, Carmen P; Simpson, H Blair; Foa, Edna B

    2017-02-01

    Given that obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with impaired quality of life (QoL) and functioning, it is important examine whether therapeutic recovery from OCD leads to improvements on these important secondary outcomes. Only a few studies have examined how measures of OCD symptom severity relate to QoL and functioning among patients receiving treatment for OCD. OCD severity was measured with the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), a self-report scale of OCD, and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), an interview measure of OCD. Participants were 100 adults with a primary diagnosis of OCD on serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) enrolled in a randomized clinical trial comparing SRI augmentation with either exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) therapy, risperidone, or pill placebo. At baseline, mid-treatment, and post-treatment, patients completed assessments for OCD symptoms and QoL/functioning measures. Multilevel modeling was used to assess changes in QoL/functioning over the course of treatment and to compare such changes across treatment conditions. Improvements in QoL/functioning were significantly greater among those receiving EX/RP compared to those receiving risperidone. Compared to pill placebo, EX/RP performed better on measures of functioning but not QoL. Greater improvement in individual OCI-R scores was associated with greater improvements in QoL/functioning, regardless of condition. In addition, Y-BOCS scores appeared to moderate improvements in QoL over the course of all treatment conditions, such that those with higher Y-BOCS scores showed the greatest improvements in QoL over time. Improvements in QoL/functioning were associated with reduction in OCD symptom severity. The implications on OCD treatment and clinical research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. OCD with comorbid OCPD: a subtype of OCD?

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    Coles, Meredith E; Pinto, Anthony; Mancebo, Maria C; Rasmussen, Steven A; Eisen, Jane L

    2008-03-01

    The current study examined the validity of using comorbid obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) to identify a subtype of individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Data for the current study were drawn from an ongoing, longitudinal study of the course of OCD and include intake assessments for 238 subjects with primary and current DSM-IV OCD who were treatment seeking. More than one fourth of the subjects (N=65, 27%) met criteria for comorbid OCPD. As compared to OCD-OCPD subjects, the OCD+OCPD subjects had a significantly younger age at onset of first OC symptoms (p=0.013), and a higher rate of symmetry and hoarding obsessions, and cleaning, ordering, repeating, and hoarding compulsions (all p'sOCPD had higher rates of comorbid anxiety disorders (p=0.007) and avoidant personality disorder (p=0.006). The OCD+OCPD subjects also had significantly lower ratings of global functioning (p=0.001) and more impaired social functioning (p=0.004), despite a lack of significant differences on overall severity of OCD symptoms. Our findings indicate that individuals with both OCD and OCPD have distinct clinical characteristics in terms of age at onset of initial OC symptoms, the types of obsessions and compulsions they experience, and psychiatric comorbidity. Our findings, coupled with data from family studies showing a higher than expected frequency of OCPD in first degree relatives of OCD probands, suggest that OCD associated with OCPD may represent a specific subtype of OCD. Additional research is warranted to further establish the validity of this subtype.

  8. Basal ganglia dysfunction in OCD: subthalamic neuronal activity correlates with symptoms severity and predicts high-frequency stimulation efficacy.

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    Welter, M-L; Burbaud, P; Fernandez-Vidal, S; Bardinet, E; Coste, J; Piallat, B; Borg, M; Besnard, S; Sauleau, P; Devaux, B; Pidoux, B; Chaynes, P; Tézenas du Montcel, S; Bastian, A; Langbour, N; Teillant, A; Haynes, W; Yelnik, J; Karachi, C; Mallet, L

    2011-05-03

    Functional and connectivity changes in corticostriatal systems have been reported in the brains of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); however, the relationship between basal ganglia activity and OCD severity has never been adequately established. We recently showed that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), a central basal ganglia nucleus, improves OCD. Here, single-unit subthalamic neuronal activity was analysed in 12 OCD patients, in relation to the severity of obsessions and compulsions and response to STN stimulation, and compared with that obtained in 12 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). STN neurons in OCD patients had lower discharge frequency than those in PD patients, with a similar proportion of burst-type activity (69 vs 67%). Oscillatory activity was present in 46 and 68% of neurons in OCD and PD patients, respectively, predominantly in the low-frequency band (1-8 Hz). In OCD patients, the bursty and oscillatory subthalamic neuronal activity was mainly located in the associative-limbic part. Both OCD severity and clinical improvement following STN stimulation were related to the STN neuronal activity. In patients with the most severe OCD, STN neurons exhibited bursts with shorter duration and interburst interval, but higher intraburst frequency, and more oscillations in the low-frequency bands. In patients with best clinical outcome with STN stimulation, STN neurons displayed higher mean discharge, burst and intraburst frequencies, and lower interburst interval. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis of a dysfunction in the associative-limbic subdivision of the basal ganglia circuitry in OCD's pathophysiology.

  9. A meta-analytic review of the relationship between family accommodation and OCD symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Clara; Hale, Lucy; Stobie, Blake

    2015-06-01

    Accommodation of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms by family members is common. This paper presents a systematic meta-analytic review on family accommodation and OCD symptom severity. Fourteen studies investigating the relationship between family accommodation and OCD symptoms were selected. The medium effect size of the relationship between family accommodation and OCD symptom severity was significant (r = .35; 95% CI: .23 to .47), based on a Hunter-Schmidt random effects model with a total of 849 participants. Although there was some evidence of publication bias, Rosenthal's fail-safe N suggested that 596 studies with zero effect would be needed to reduce the mean effect size to non-significant. Findings are discussed in the context of the limitations of the studies, and in particular the reliance on cross-sectional designs which impede causal conclusions. Future research to evaluate a family accommodation intervention in a randomized controlled design and using mediation analysis to explore change mechanisms is called for. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tic-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): phenomenology and treatment outcome in the Pediatric OCD Treatment Study II.

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    Conelea, Christine A; Walther, Michael R; Freeman, Jennifer B; Garcia, Abbe M; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Khanna, Muniya; Franklin, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Prior research has shown that youth with co-occurring tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may differ from those with non-tic-related OCD in terms of clinical characteristics and treatment responsiveness. A broad definition of "tic-related" was used to examine whether children with tics in the Pediatric OCD Treatment Study II differed from those without tics in terms of demographic and phenomenological characteristics and acute treatment outcomes. Participants were 124 youth aged 7 to 17 years, inclusive, with a primary diagnosis of OCD who were partial responders to an adequate serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) trial. Participants were randomized to medication management, medication management plus instructions in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or medication management plus full CBT. Tic status was based on the presence of motor and/or vocal tics on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. Tics were identified in 53% of the sample. Those with tic-related OCD did not differ from those with non-tic-related OCD in terms of age, family history of tics, OCD severity, OCD-related impairment, or comorbidity. Those with tics responded equally in all treatment conditions. Tic-related OCD was very prevalent using a broad definition of tic status. Results suggest that youth with this broad definition of tic-related OCD do not have increased OCD severity or inference, higher comorbidity rates or severity, or worsened functioning, and support the use of CBT in this population. This highlights the importance of not making broad assumptions about OCD symptoms most likely to occur in an individual with comorbid tics. Clinical trial registration information-Treatment of Pediatric OCD for SRI Partial Responders; http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00074815. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigating Treatment Outcomes Across OCD Symptom Dimensions in a Clinical Sample of OCD Patients.

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    Chase, Tannah; Wetterneck, Chad T; Bartsch, Robert A; Leonard, Rachel C; Riemann, Bradley C

    2015-01-01

    Despite the heterogeneous nature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), many self-report assessments do not adequately capture the clinical picture presenting within each symptom dimension, particularly unacceptable thoughts (UTs). In addition, obsessions and ordering/arranging compulsions are often underrepresented in samples of treatment outcome studies for OCD. Such methodological discrepancies may obscure research findings comparing treatment outcomes across OCD symptom dimensions. This study aimed to improve upon previous research by investigating treatment outcomes across OCD symptom dimensions using the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, which offers a more comprehensive assessment of UTs. The study included a primarily residential sample of 134 OCD patients. Results indicated that there were no significant differences in treatment outcomes across symptom dimensions. However, the severity of UTs remained significantly greater than other symptom dimensions at both admission and discharge. Thus, it is possible that UTs may exhibit uniquely impairing features, compared with other symptom dimensions. It is also possible that these findings may reflect the characteristics of the residential OCD samples. These speculations as well as implications for OCD treatment and future research are discussed.

  12. Fatigue Experiences Among OCD Outpatients.

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    Pasquini, Massimo; Piacentino, Daria; Berardelli, Isabella; Roselli, Valentina; Maraone, Annalisa; Tarsitani, Lorenzo; Biondi, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    Patients with OCD are impaired in multiple domains of functioning and quality of life. While associated psychopathology complaints and neuropsychological deficits were reported, the subjective experience of general fatigue and mental fatigue was scarcely investigated. In this single-center case-control study we compared 50 non-depressed OCD outpatients consecutively recruited and 50 panic disorder (PD) outpatients, to determine whether they experienced fatigue differently. Assessment consisted of structured clinical interview for DSM-IV criteria by using the SCID-I and the SCID-II. Symptom severity was assessed using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Clinical Global Impressions Scale, severity and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Fatigue was assessed by using the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI). Regarding MFI physical fatigue, an OR of 0.196 (95 % CI 0.080-0.478) was found, suggesting that its presence is associated with lower odds of OCD compared to PD. The same can be said for MFI mental fatigue, as an OR of 0.138 (95 % CI 0.049-0.326) was found, suggesting that its presence is associated with lower odds of OCD. Notably, OCD patients with OCDP co-morbidity reported higher scores of mental fatigue. In this study fatigue, including mental fatigue, seems not to be a prominent experience among adult non-depressed OCD patients.

  13. Nonfunctional Redundant Acts Characterize OCD, Even in OCD-Unrelated Tasks: A Demonstration in Questionnaire Completion.

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    Amitai, Maya; Arnon, Nitzan; Shaham, Noa; Gur, Shay; Apter, Alan; Weizman, Abraham; Hermesh, Haggai

    2017-01-01

    Ethological methods used to analyze human obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) rituals demonstrated excess of unnecessary repetitions as well as irrelevant, idiosyncratic acts (additions) compared to normal activity. A question that still remains is whether these well-known repetitions and additions are manifested in behaviors unrelated to the OCD rituals. Our objectives were to: (1) assess whether OCD-related repetitions and additions as found in previous studies also affect the patients' activity of filling out questionnaires and (2) evaluate the specificity of these behaviors to OCD as opposed to other anxiety disorders and healthy controls. Several standardized disorder-specific self-report questionnaires were used in order to assess the patient's psychopathologies. The style of filling-out these questionnaires by OCD and non-OCD anxiety outpatients and normal controls was analyzed. Four categories were used: omissions, repetitions, corrections, and additions. The OCD group scored significantly higher on the number of additions as compared with both the anxiety group and the nonclinical group, and significantly higher on the number of corrections and repetitions as compared with the nonclinical group. The hallmarks of OCD, repetitions and additions, are manifested not only in the patient's rituals and thoughts, but in apparently "neutral" tasks that do not a priori involve the intrusive thoughts, urges, and images typical of obsessive-compulsive behavior. Additions seem to be more specific to OCD than repetitions. These two executive faults impede routine functionality of OCD patients in tasks related and unrelated to their rituals. Our study delineates simple, observable behavioral characteristics that distinguish between OCD and non-OCD anxiety patients as well as healthy individuals. These symptomatic behaviors may offer a clue to personality traits or deficits in executive functions that possibly play a part in the pathophysiology of OCD. Our results are an

  14. Sleep and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

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    Paterson, Jessica L; Reynolds, Amy C; Ferguson, Sally A; Dawson, Drew

    2013-12-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic mental illness that can have a debilitating effect on daily functioning. A body of research reveals altered sleep behaviour in OCD sufferers; however, findings are inconsistent and there is no consensus on the nature of this relationship. Understanding sleep disturbance in OCD is of critical importance given the known negative consequences of disturbed sleep for mood and emotional wellbeing. A systematic literature search was conducted of five databases for studies assessing sleep in adults diagnosed with OCD. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria and qualitative data analysis methods were used to identify common themes. There was some evidence of reduced total sleep time and sleep efficiency in OCD patients. Many of the sleep disturbances noted were characteristic of depression. However, some OCD sufferers displayed delayed sleep onset and offset and an increased prevalence of delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). Severe OCD symptoms were consistently associated with greater sleep disturbance. While the sleep of OCD patients has not been a major focus to date, the existing literature suggests that addressing sleep disturbance in OCD patients may ensure a holistic approach to treatment, enhance treatment efficacy, mitigate relapse and protect against the onset of co-morbid psychiatric illnesses. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?

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    Anholt, Gideon E.; Cath, Danielle C.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2010-01-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and…

  16. A Pilot Test of the Additive Benefits of Physical Exercise to CBT for OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Neil A; Richter, Margaret A; Lerman, Bethany; Regev, Rotem

    2015-01-01

    The majority of "responders" to first-line cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are left with residual symptoms that are clinically relevant and disabling. Therefore, there is pressing need for widely accessible efficacious alternative and/or adjunctive treatments for OCD. Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise may be one such intervention in the mood and anxiety disorders broadly, although we are aware of only two positive small-scale pilot studies that have tested its clinical benefits in OCD. This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of adding a structured physical exercise programme to CBT for OCD. A standard CBT group was delivered concurrently with a 12-week customized exercise programme to 11 participants. The exercise regimen was individualized for each participant based on peak heart rate measured using an incremental maximal exercise test. Reports of exercise adherence across the 12-week regimen exceeded 80%. A paired-samples t-test indicated very large treatment effects in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores from pre- to post-treatment in CBT group cohorts led by expert CBT OCD specialists (d = 2.55) and junior CBT clinician non-OCD specialists (d = 2.12). These treatment effects are very large and exceed effects typically observed with individual and group-based CBT for OCD based on leading meta-analytic reviews, as well as previously obtained treatment effects for CBT using the same recruitment protocol without exercise. As such, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility and significant potential clinical utility of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme delivered in conjunction with CBT for OCD.

  17. Obsessions and worry beliefs in an inpatient OCD population.

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    Calleo, Jessica S; Hart, John; Björgvinsson, Thröstur; Stanley, Melinda A

    2010-12-01

    Dysfunctional beliefs in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and worry are thought to contribute to vulnerability and maintenance of pathological anxiety. In this study, five belief domains concerning responsibility/threat estimation, perfectionism, intolerance of uncertainty, importance/control of thoughts and thought-action fusion were examined to see whether they differentially predicted worry and obsession severity in patients with severe OCD. Correlational analysis revealed that perfectionism and intolerance of uncertainty were associated with worry, whereas beliefs in the importance and control of thoughts and thought-action fusion were associated with obsession severity when obsession severity and worry, respectively, were controlled. In regression analyses, thought-action fusion and intolerance of uncertainty predicted OCD severity. The relation between dysfunctional beliefs and specific subtypes of OCD symptoms was also examined. Specific relationships were identified, including perfectionism with ordering, obsessions with control/importance of thoughts and checking and washing with threat estimation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. International OCD Foundation

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    ... and productive lives. Join Donate Volunteer Events International OCD Foundation Research. Resources. Respect. About OCD About IOCDF ... Donate Here Why Should You Attend the Annual OCD Conference? Watch the Video Find Help Search the ...

  19. Cognitions in children with OCD. A pilot study for age specific relations with severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, L. M.; de Haan, E.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive theory, postulates that dysfunctional cognitions play a maintaining or even aetiological role in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this study it was hypothesised that if distorted cognitions play a central role in OCD, there should be a relation between cognitive measures and the

  20. Familiality of factor analysis-derived YBOCS dimensions in OCD-affected sibling pairs from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Gregor; Pinto, Anthony; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Samuels, Jack; Fyer, Abby J; Pauls, David; Knowles, James A; McCracken, James T; Piacentini, John; Riddle, Mark A; Rauch, Scott L; Rasmussen, Steven A; Willour, Virginia L; Grados, Marco A; Cullen, Bernadette; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Shugart, Yin-Yao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf; Wang, Ying; Ronquillo, Jonne; Nestadt, Gerald; Murphy, Dennis L

    2007-03-01

    Identification of familial, more homogenous characteristics of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may help to define relevant subtypes and increase the power of genetic and neurobiological studies of OCD. While factor-analytic studies have found consistent, clinically meaningful OCD symptom dimensions, there have been only limited attempts to evaluate the familiality and potential genetic basis of such dimensions. Four hundred eighteen sibling pairs with OCD were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) Symptom Checklist and Severity scales. After controlling for sex, age, and age of onset, robust sib-sib intraclass correlations were found for two of the four YBOCS factors: Factor IV (hoarding obsessions and compulsions (p = .001) and Factor I (aggressive, sexual, and religious obsessions, and checking compulsions; p = .002). Smaller, but still significant, familiality was found for Factor III (contamination/cleaning; p = .02) and Factor II (symmetry/ordering/arranging; p = .04). Limiting the sample to female subjects more than doubled the familiality estimates for Factor II (p = .003). Among potentially relevant comorbid conditions for genetic studies, bipolar I/II and major depressive disorder were strongly associated with Factor I (p sibling pairs with OCD are familial with some gender-dependence, exhibit relatively specific relationships to comorbid psychiatric disorders and thus may be useful as refined phenotypes for molecular genetic studies of OCD.

  1. Quality of life in children with OCD with and without comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidle, Bernhard; Jozefiak, Thomas; Ivarsson, Tord; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2014-10-29

    Quality of life (QoL) is a well-established outcome measure. However, in contrast to adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), little is known about QoL in children with OCD. This study aimed to assess QoL, social competence and school functioning of paediatric patients with OCD by comparing them with the general population and assessing the relations between comorbidity, duration and severity of symptoms, family accommodation and QoL. Children and adolescents (n = 135), aged 7-17 (mean 13 [SD 2.7] years; 48.1% female) were assessed at baseline for treatment. QoL was assessed by self-report and caregiver's proxy report on the Questionnaire for Measuring Health-related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents (KINDL-R) and compared with an age- and sex-matched sample from the general population. Social competence and school functioning were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist, comorbidity with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (Present and Lifetime Version), severity of OCD with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and the families' involvement with the child's OCD symptoms with the Family Accommodation Scale. QoL and social competence were reduced (p OCD compared with controls (KINDL-R mean score 62.40 [SD 13.00] versus 69.72 [12.38] in self-reports and 61.63 [SD 13.27] versus 74.68 [9.97] in parent reports). Patients with comorbidity had lower QoL (p = .001) in proxy ratings than those with OCD only (mean score 56.26 [SD 12.47] versus 64.30 [SD 12.75]). In parent proxy reports, severity of OCD (r = -.28) and family accommodation (r = -.40) correlated moderately negatively with QoL. To our knowledge, this is the largest QoL study of paediatric OCD. QoL was markedly reduced in children with OCD, especially in those with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Based on our findings, we suggest employing QoL assessment in order to have a more comprehensive understanding of childhood OCD. This study was

  2. Posttreatment attrition and its predictors, attrition bias, and treatment efficacy of the anxiety online programs.

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    Al-Asadi, Ali M; Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny

    2014-10-14

    Although relatively new, the field of e-mental health is becoming more popular with more attention given to researching its various aspects. However, there are many areas that still need further research, especially identifying attrition predictors at various phases of assessment and treatment delivery. The present study identified the predictors of posttreatment assessment completers based on 24 pre- and posttreatment demographic and personal variables and 1 treatment variable, their impact on attrition bias, and the efficacy of the 5 fully automated self-help anxiety treatment programs for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A complex algorithm was used to diagnose participants' mental disorders based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision; DSM-IV-TR). Those who received a primary or secondary diagnosis of 1 of 5 anxiety disorders were offered an online 12-week disorder-specific treatment program. A total of 3199 individuals did not formally drop out of the 12-week treatment cycle, whereas 142 individuals formally dropped out. However, only 347 participants who completed their treatment cycle also completed the posttreatment assessment measures. Based on these measures, predictors of attrition were identified and attrition bias was examined. The efficacy of the 5 treatment programs was assessed based on anxiety-specific severity scores and 5 additional treatment outcome measures. On average, completers of posttreatment assessment measures were more likely to be seeking self-help online programs; have heard about the program from traditional media or from family and friends; were receiving mental health assistance; were more likely to learn best by reading, hearing and doing; had a lower pretreatment Kessler-6 total score; and were older

  3. Elevated Autism Spectrum Disorder Traits in Young Children with OCD.

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    Stewart, Elyse; Cancilliere, Mary Kathryn; Freeman, Jennifer; Wellen, Brianna; Garcia, Abbe; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Franklin, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Studies have shown a high prevalence of autistic spectrum traits in both children and adults with psychiatric disorders; however the prevalence rate has not yet been investigated in young children with OCD. The aim of the current study was to (1) determine whether ASD traits indicated by the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) were elevated in young children with OCD who do not have a specific ASD diagnosis and (2) determine if ASD traits were associated with OCD severity. Participants (N = 127) were children ages 5-8 years enrolled in the pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder treatment study for young children (POTS Jr.). Results indicated that the SRS showed elevated autistic traits in the sample and was associated with OCD severity whereas the SCQ did not indicate heightened ASD symptoms. Implications of these results are discussed.

  4. The suicidality continuum in a large sample of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velloso, P; Piccinato, C; Ferrão, Y; Aliende Perin, E; Cesar, R; Fontenelle, L; Hounie, A G; do Rosário, M C

    2016-10-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has a chronic course leading to huge impact in the patient's functioning. Suicidal thoughts and attempts are much more frequent in OCD subjects than once thought before. To empirically investigate whether the suicidal phenomena could be analyzed as a suicidality severity continuum and its association with obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and quality of life (QoL), in a large OCD sample. Cross-sectional study with 548 patients diagnosed with OCD according to the DSM-IV criteria, interviewed in the Brazilian OCD Consortium (C-TOC) sites. Patients were evaluated by OCD experts using standardized instruments including: Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS); Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DYBOCS); Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID); and the SF-36 QoL Health Survey. There were extremely high correlations between all the suicidal phenomena. OCD patients with suicidality had significantly lower QoL, higher severity in the "sexual/religious", "aggression" and "symmetry/ordering" OC symptom dimensions, higher BDI and BA scores and a higher frequency of suicide attempts in a family member. In the regression analysis, the factors that most impacted suicidality were the sexual dimension severity, the SF-36 QoL Mental Health domain, the severity of depressive symptoms and a relative with an attempted suicide history. Suicidality could be analyzed as a severity continuum and patients should be carefully monitored since they present with suicidal ideation. Lower QoL scores, higher scores on the sexual dimension and a family history of suicide attempts should be considered as risk factors for suicidality among OCD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Error-Related Negativity and Tic History in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Gregory L.; Carrasco, Melisa; Harbin, Shannon M.; Nienhuis, Jenna K.; LaRosa, Christina E.; Chen, Poyu; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Gehring, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential following an incorrect response, which is often increased in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the relationship of the ERN to comorbid tic disorders has not been examined in patients with OCD. This study compared ERN amplitudes in patients with tic-related OCD, patients with non-tic-related OCD, and healthy controls. Method The ERN, correct response negativity, and error number were measured during an Eriksen flanker task to assess performance monitoring in 44 youth with a lifetime diagnosis of OCD and 44 matched healthy controls ranging in age from 10 to 19 years. Nine youth with OCD had a lifetime history of tics. Results ERN amplitudewas significantly increased in OCD patients compared to healthy controls. ERN amplitude was significantly larger in patients with non-tic-related OCD than either patients with tic-related OCD or controls. ERN amplitude had a significant negative correlation with age in healthy controls but not patients with OCD. Instead, in patients with non-tic-related OCD, ERN amplitude had a significant positive correlation with age at onset of OCD symptoms. ERN amplitude in patients was unrelated to OCD symptom severity, current diagnostic status, or treatment effects. Conclusions The results provide further evidence of increased error-related brain activity in pediatric OCD. The difference in the ERN between patients with tic-related and non-tic-related OCD provides preliminary evidence of a neurobiological difference between these two OCD subtypes. The results indicate the ERN is a trait-like measure that may serve as a biomarker for non-tic-related OCD. PMID:22917203

  6. Cigarette smoking in obsessive-compulsive disorder and unaffected parents of OCD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Pizzagalli, Diego A; Geller, Daniel A; Reuman, Lillian; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is more prevalent among individuals with psychiatric disorders than the general population. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be an intriguing exception, although no recent study has investigated this hypothesis in OCD patients. Moreover, it is unknown whether reduced smoking rates are present in unaffected first-degree relatives of OCD patients. We assessed smoking prevalence in adults with OCD and unaffected parents of youth with OCD (PYOCD). To this end, 113 adults with OCD completed online questionnaires assessing symptom severity and smoking status. Smoking status was obtained from an independent sample of 210 PYOCD assessed for psychiatric diagnoses. Smoking prevalence rates in adults with OCD (13.3%; n=15) and PYOCD (9.5%; n=20) samples were significantly lower than those found in representative samples of the general population (19-24%, all POCD subset without clinically significant depressive symptoms (n=54). Low prevalence of smoking in OCD may be familial and unique among psychiatric disorders, and might represent a possible state-independent OCD marker. Hypotheses concerning the uncharacteristically low prevalence rates are discussed with relation to OCD phenomenology and pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The impact of lifetime PTSD on the seven-year course and clinical characteristics of OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojserkis, Rachel; Boisseau, Christina L; Reddy, Madhavi K; Mancebo, Maria C; Eisen, Jane L; Rasmussen, Steven A

    2017-12-01

    Research has suggested that the co-occurrence of PTSD in individuals with OCD is associated with more severe symptoms and less responsivity to empirically supported treatment as compared to individuals with OCD and no history of PTSD. However, much of this work has been limited by non-empirical case report design, cross-sectional and retrospective analyses, or small sample sizes. The current study extended this research by comparing the clinical characteristics of individuals with OCD with and without a lifetime PTSD diagnosis in a large, naturalistic, longitudinal sample over the course of seven years. At baseline, individuals with comorbid lifetime PTSD reported significantly more severe symptoms of OCD (including symptom levels and insight), lower quality of life, and higher rates of comorbid lifetime mood and substance use disorders than participants without lifetime PTSD. Further, individuals with comorbid OCD and lifetime PTSD reported significantly more severe OCD symptoms over the course of seven years than those without lifetime PTSD. These results are largely consistent with the existing literature and support the need to consider PTSD symptoms in the assessment and treatment of OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Decreased Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) and Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) in Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Anthony J; Pietsch, Stefanie C

    2013-01-01

    There is support for the role of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the etiology of mood disorders. Recent research has shown that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) modulates GABAergic inhibition and seizure susceptibility. This study was designed to determine and correlate plasma levels of HGF and GABA as well as symptom severity in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Plasma from 15 individuals with OCD (9 males, 6 females;, mean age 38.7 years) and 17 neurotypical controls (10 males, 7 females; mean age 35.2 years) was assessed for HGF, GABA, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) concentration using enzyme-linked immunosorbest assays ELISAs. Symptom severity was assessed in these OCD individuals and compared with HGF and GABA concentrations. In this preliminary study, individuals with OCD had significantly decreased HGF levels, decreased plasma levels of GABA and decreased uPA. We found that both uPA and uPAR levels correlate with HGF. Both low uPA and low uPAR levels correlate with high symptom severity in individuals with OCD. Low GABA levels in OCD individuals also correlate with high symptom severity. These results demonstrate a preliminary association between HGF, GABA, uPA levels, and OCD and suggest that plasma GABA and uPA levels are related to symptom severity in individuals with OCD.

  9. Neurological soft signs, dissociation and alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapancı, Zafer; Yıldırım, Abdullah; Boysan, Murat

    2017-11-21

    A body of evidence has supported that patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have increased rates of various neurological soft signs (NSS) compared to controls. Various lines of research has documented robust relationships between OCD and dissociative symptomatology. The study aimed to examine the associations between obsessive-compulsive symptoms, dissociative experiences alexithymia, and NSS. The study included thirty OCD patients and thirty healthy controls, matched for age, marital status, education, and income. The Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES), Padua Inventory-Revised (PI-R), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) were administered. In comparison to healthy controls, patients with OCD had difficulty sequencing for complex motor acts and greater absorption/ imaginative involvement. Using latent class analysis, the study sample was classified into two homogenous subsets as mild NSS (n = 45) and severe NSS (n = 15). Majority of the participants who were grouped into severe NSS latent class were OCD patient (n = 14, 93.3%). Furthermore, those with severe NSS reported greater levels of alexithymia and more severe obsessive-compulsive symptoms, particularly precision. We concluded that relationships between OCD severity and NSS appear to be of crucial importance. Our data along with accumulated evidence suggest that OCD associated with pronounced NSS may represent a specific subtype of the disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Complementary medicine, self-help, and lifestyle interventions for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and the OCD spectrum: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; Camfield, David; Berk, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) current standard pharmacotherapies may be of limited efficacy. Non-conventional interventions such as Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), self-help techniques, and lifestyle interventions are commonly used by sufferers of OCD, however to date no systematic review of this specific area exists. We conducted a systematic review of studies using CAM, self-help, and lifestyle interventions for treatment of OCD and trichotillomania (TTM). PubMed, PsycINFO, China Academic Journals Full-text Database, The Cochrane Library and CINAHL were searched (up to Jan 11th 2011), for controlled clinical trials using non-conventional interventions for OCD. A quality analysis using a purpose-designed scale and an estimation of effect sizes (Cohen's d) where data was available, were also calculated. The literature search revealed 14 studies that met inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of nutraceutical studies (nutrients and herbal medicines) were rated as high (mean 8.6/10), whereas mind-body or self-help studies were poorer (mean 6.1/10). In OCD, tentative evidentiary support from methodologically weak studies was found for mindfulness meditation (d=0.63), electroacupuncture (d=1.16), and kundalini yoga (d=1.61). Better designed studies using the nutrient glycine (d=1.10), and traditional herbal medicines milk thistle (insufficient data for calculating d) and borage (d=1.67) also revealed positive results. A rigorous study showed that N-acetylcysteine (d=1.31) was effective in TTM, while self-help technique "movement decoupling" also demonstrated efficacy (d=0.94). Mixed evidence was found for myo-inositol (mean d=0.98). Controlled studies suggest that St John's wort, EPA, and meridian-tapping are ineffective in treating OCD. While several studies were positive, these were un-replicated and commonly used small samples. This precludes firm confidence in the strength of clinical effect. Preliminary evidence however is encouraging

  11. OCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ane Søndergaard

    Det er svært at leve med tvangstanker og tvangshandlinger. De ramte selv kan have vanskeligt ved at forstå lidelsen, og den misforstås ofte både af pårørende og fagfolk. Bogen er skrevet med henblik på at skabe en bedre forståelse af OCD (obsessive-compulsive disorder eller på dansk tvangstanker og...... -handlinger). Den er således både relevant for dem, der er i berøring med sygdommen, og dem, der har en faglig interesse i emnet. Bogen indeholder en række personlige beretninger fra voksne, der lider af OCD, og hver fortælling efterfølges af en psykologfaglig uddybning. Bogen beskæftiger sig ikke blot med...

  12. Do obsessional beliefs discriminate OCD without tic patients from OCD with tic and Tourette's syndrome patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anholt, G.E.; Cath, D.C.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; van Oppen, P.; Smit, J.H.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable overlap in symptomatology between Tourette's syndrome (TS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Increased rates of tics are found in OCD and up to 60% obsessive-compulsive symptoms in TS. However, in OCD obsessive-compulsive symptoms are more often anxiety-related and, as a

  13. Scrupulosity and contamination OCD are not associated with deficits in response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jessica; Siev, Jedidiah; Abramovitch, Amitai; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2016-03-01

    Prior research has indicated a number of neuropsychological deficits in patients with OCD consistent with the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical model of the disorder. Response inhibition (RI), defined as the inability to inhibit a prepotent response, has been identified as a possible candidate endophenotype for OCD. However, the results from previous studies of RI in OCD patients have been mixed, suggesting the possibility that some OCD dimensions may be associated with deficits in RI while others may not. The present study aimed to examine RI using a Go/No-Go (GNG) task in two OCD symptom dimensions, one of which, scrupulosity, has never been subject to neuropsychological investigation. A total of 63 individuals, consisting of scrupulous OCD (n = 26), contamination OCD (n = 18) and non-psychiatric controls (n = 19) completed study measures. Controlling for depression symptoms, no significant performance differences were found between the groups on the GNG test, indicating no deficits in RI among contamination or scrupulous OCD. Results are consistent with several prior studies of RI in OCD that found no differences as compared to non-psychiatric controls, especially on GNG tests, and with more recent suggestions that RI may not constitute a clinical significant impaired domain in OCD. Limitations included a primarily highly educated and Caucasian sample. Additional conclusions include careful consideration of the RI measures selected for future studies, as well as the need for further investigation into the neuropsychological and neurobiological nature of scrupulous OCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The neurobiological link between OCD and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Silvia; Grünblatt, Edna; Drechsler, Renate; Riederer, Peter; Walitza, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two of the most common neuropsychiatric diseases in paediatric populations. The high comorbidity of ADHD and OCD with each other, especially of ADHD in paediatric OCD, is well described. OCD and ADHD often follow a chronic course with persistent rates of at least 40-50 %. Family studies showed high heritability in ADHD and OCD, and some genetic findings showed similar variants for both disorders of the same pathogenetic mechanisms, whereas other genetic findings may differentiate between ADHD and OCD. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies suggest that partly similar executive functions are affected in both disorders. The deficits in the corresponding brain networks may be responsible for the perseverative, compulsive symptoms in OCD but also for the disinhibited and impulsive symptoms characterizing ADHD. This article reviews the current literature of neuroimaging, neurochemical circuitry, neuropsychological and genetic findings considering similarities as well as differences between OCD and ADHD.

  15. Tic or Compulsion? It's Tourettic OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansueto, Charles; Keuler, David

    2005-01-01

    A subgroup of individuals suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) frequently present to treatment with an atypical yet distinguishable array of symptoms akin to both Tourettes disorder (TD) and OCD. These individuals often receive standard treatments for OCD (or less likely, TD) that fail to address the blended features of their…

  16. The impact of symptomatic hoarding in OCD and its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Catherine; Oldfield, Victoria B; Gordon, Olivia; Forrester, Elizabeth; Salkovskis, Paul M

    2010-03-01

    The value of defining subtypes in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has become an important issue for recent debate. Probably the most robust example of subtyping is the identification of hoarding as being different both in terms of psychopathology and response to treatment. To identify differences in psychopathology and treatment response in OCD patients with and without additional hoarding symptoms. Patients who had undertaken CBT for OCD were selected as falling into either a high or a low hoarding group. The high hoarding group (n = 18) was selected on the basis of a high score on the hoarding subscale of a self-report measure of OCD symptoms in addition to reaching clinician judged "threshold" on the hoarding item of the Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) SCID-II module. The low hoarding group (n = 20) was selected on the basis of a low score on the hoarding subscale and a clinician judgement that the hoarding item of the OCPD SCID-II module was "absent". On some measures of pre-treatment psychopathology, patients with OCD with hoarding symptoms were more severely affected than those without hoarding symptoms. It was found that there was no difference in eventual treatment outcome between the two groups, although there was some evidence that the hoarding group showed greater symptom decreases. The presence of hoarding symptoms does not negatively impact on the treatment of OCD.

  17. Treatment with Ziprasidone for schizophrenia patients with OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juven-Wetzler, Alzbeta; Fostick, Leah; Cwikel-Hamzany, Shlomit; Balaban, Evgenya; Zohar, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been observed in about 15% of schizophrenic patients and has been associated with poor prognosis. Therefore, there is a need for specific treatment options for these patients (schizo-obsessive, ScOCD). This is an open, prospective study, aiming to test the efficacy of Ziprasidone (80-200mg/d) in ScOCD patients and comparing the response to the treatment between stable schizophrenic (N=16) and stable ScOCD (N=29) patients. Treatment effect with Ziprasidone was different in schizophrenic patients when stratified based on OCD comorbidity. Overall, the effect on OCD symptoms (as measured by the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, YBOCS) was found to be bimodal-either no response or exacerbation (for 45% of the patients, n=13) or significant improvement of symptoms (55%, n=16). Those who improved in OCD symptoms, improved also in negative and general schizophrenia symptoms, while ScOCD-unimproved group worsened in all symptoms. Whereas schizophrenic patients without OCD responded in a modest Gaussian distribution, they improved in schizophrenia negative symptoms and in general anxiety. This data suggests that schizo-obsessive disorder is a distinct and complex condition with more than one underlying pathogenesis. Definition of these ScOCD subgroups defined by their response to Ziprasidone might contribute to personalized medicine within the OCD-schizophrenia spectrum. Moreover, this finding suggests that ScOCD may be considered as a special schizophrenic subtype and its inclusion in schizophrenia treatment studies need to be further explored due to its divergent response. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Efficacy of technology-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for OCD versus control conditions, and in comparison with therapist-administered CBT: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dèttore, Davide; Pozza, Andrea; Andersson, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a well-established treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, few patients receive CBT, due to factors such as geographic limitations, perceived stigmatization, and lack of CBT services. Technology-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (T-CBT) could be an effective strategy to improve patients' access to CBT. To date, a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of T-CBT for OCD has not been conducted. This study used meta-analytic techniques to summarize evidence on the efficacy of T-CBT for OCD versus control conditions and therapist-administered CBT. A meta-analysis according to Prisma guidelines was conducted on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of T-CBT for OCD. Treatment was classified as T-CBT if evidence-based CBT active ingredients for OCD were included (psychoeducation, ERP, and cognitive restructuring), delivered through health technologies (e.g. self-help books, leaflets, and other forms of bibliotherapy) or remote communication technologies (e.g. the Internet, web-cameras, telephones, telephone-interactive voice response systems, and CD-ROMS). Studies using validated outcomes for OCD or depression were included. Eight trials were included (N = 420). Two trials were classified as at high risk of bias. T-CBT seemed to be superior to control conditions on OCD symptom outcomes at post-treatment (d = 0.82, 99% CI = 0.55-1.08, p = 0.001), but not on comorbid depression (d = 0.33, 99% CI = - 0.01-0.67, p = 0.020). Difference in the efficacy on OCD symptoms between T-CBT and therapist-administered CBT was not significant, despite a trend favouring therapist-administered CBT emerged (d = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.03-0.87, p = 0.033). Directions for research are discussed. Further RCTs are warranted to examine the efficacy of T-CBT for OCD.

  19. Induced not just right and incompleteness experiences in OCD patients and non-clinical individuals: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornés-Romero, Gertrudis; Belloch, Amparo

    2017-12-01

    Research on incompleteness and not-just right experiences, (INC/NJREs) indicate that some OCD symptom dimensions are motivated by these experiences rather than by anxiety. Most published data are correlational, using non-clinical individuals. This study sought to examine INC/NJREs in vivo in non-clinical and OCD individuals. Study 1: Ninety-three undergraduates were randomly assigned to a INC/NJREs induction (n=44) or non-induction task (n=47). Scores on self-reports assessing INC, NJREs, OCD, Anxiety, and Depression were also recorded. Study 2: Twenty adults with OCD performed the induction task and completed the same questionnaire-packet as the non-clinical participants. Study 1: The induction-group scored higher on several DVs of the experimental task, as INC/NJREs and uncomfortable physical sensations predicted impulses/urges to do something. All the DVs correlated with INC, NJREs, and OCD symptoms. Anxiety was only related to suppressing difficulties of the most intense sensation. Study 2: Results were comparable to those found in non-clinical people. Induced INC/NJREs correlated with compulsions severity and were associated with ordering, washing, and hoarding symptoms. OCDs did not differ from non-clinical subjects in the number of induced INC/NJREs, but they were more disturbing, difficult to suppress, and instigated more urges to do in OCDs. The small group of OCDs and the lack of a non-OCD clinical group kept us from drawing conclusions about the specificity of INC/NJREs to some OCD symptoms. Findings support the role of INC/NJREs as stimuli triggering urges and/impulses to do and their impact on OCD severity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Core OCD Symptoms: Exploration of Specificity and Relations with Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasik, Sara M.; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Chmielewski, Michael; Watson, David

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition, comprised of multiple symptom domains. This study used aggregate composite scales representing three core OCD dimensions (Checking, Cleaning, Rituals), as well as Hoarding, to examine the discriminant validity, diagnostic specificity, and predictive ability of OCD symptom scales. The core OCD scales demonstrated strong patterns of convergent and discriminant validity – suggesting that these dimensions are distinct from other self-reported symptoms – whereas hoarding symptoms correlated just as strongly with OCD and non-OCD symptoms in most analyses. Across analyses, our results indicated that Checking is a particularly strong, specific marker of OCD diagnosis, whereas the specificity of Cleaning and Hoarding to OCD was less strong. Finally, the OCD Checking scale was the only significant predictor of OCD diagnosis in logistic regression analyses. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of assessing OCD symptom dimensions separately and implications for classification. PMID:23026094

  1. Distinguishing Fear Versus Distress Symptomatology in Pediatric OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenman, Michelle; Peris, Tara; Bergman, R Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; O'Neill, Joseph; McCracken, James T; Piacentini, John

    2017-02-01

    Prior research has identified OCD subtypes or "clusters" of symptoms that differentially relate to clinical features of the disorder. Given the high comorbidity between OCD and anxiety, OCD symptom clusters may more broadly associate with fear and/or distress internalizing constructs. This study examines fear and distress dimensions, including physical concerns (fear), separation anxiety (fear), perfectionism (distress), and anxious coping (distress), as predictors of previously empirically-derived OCD symptom clusters in a sample of 215 youth diagnosed with primary OCD (ages 7-17, mean age = 12.25). Self-reported separation fears predicted membership in Cluster 1 (aggressive, sexual, religious, somatic obsessions, and checking compulsions) while somatic/autonomic fears predicted membership in Cluster 2 (symmetry obsessions and ordering, counting, repeating compulsions). Results highlight the diversity of pediatric OCD symptoms and their differential association with fear, suggesting the need to carefully assess both OCD and global fear constructs that might be directly targeted in treatment.

  2. Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Depressive Symptoms: Clinical Correlates and CBT Treatment Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H M; Lester, K J; Jassi, A; Heyman, I; Krebs, G

    2015-07-01

    Depression frequently co-occurs with paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet the clinical correlates and impact of depression on CBT outcomes remain unclear. The prevalence and clinical correlates of depression were examined in a paediatric specialist OCD-clinic sample (N = 295; Mean = 15 [7 - 18] years, 42 % female), using both dimensional (Beck Depression Inventory-youth; n = 261) and diagnostic (Development and Wellbeing Assessment; n = 127) measures of depression. The impact of depressive symptoms and suspected disorders on post-treatment OCD severity was examined in a sub-sample who received CBT, with or without SSRI medication (N = 100). Fifty-one per-cent of patients reported moderately or extremely elevated depressive symptoms and 26 % (95 % CI: 18 - 34) met criteria for a suspected depressive disorder. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders were associated with worse OCD symptom severity and global functioning prior to CBT. Individuals with depression were more likely to be female, have had a psychiatric inpatient admission and less likely to be attending school (ps depressive symptom severity significantly decreased after CBT. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders predicted worse post-treatment OCD severity (βs = 0.19 and 0.26, ps Depression is common in paediatric OCD and is associated with more severe OCD and poorer functioning. However, depression severity decreases over the course of CBT for OCD and is not independently associated with worse outcomes, supporting the recommendation for treatment as usual in the presence of depressive symptoms.

  3. OCD and transvestism: is there a relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, C H; Hounie, A; de Tubino Scanavino, M; Miguel, E C

    2001-06-01

    There have been reports of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with comorbid paraphilias. In this paper, two cases of comorbidity between OCD and transvestism are reported with the aim of discussing possible explanations for this association. Longitudinal case studies of two patients with OCD and tranvestism according to the DSM-IV were assessed using semi-structured interviews. Both patients presented with OCD and comorbid transvestism with different clinical features and treatment response. The case whose cross-dressing was more egodystonic responded better to treatment. It is possible that some cases of transvestism are OCD-related while others are more related to a gender identity disorder. A dimensional approach focusing on common phenomenological and neurobiological substrates is suggested as particularly useful for clinical management and future research of both disorders.

  4. Functional neuroimaging of avoidance habits in OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Claire M; Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke M; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Sule, Akeem; Fineberg, Naomi A; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to determine the neural correlates of excessive habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We aimed to (i) test for neurobiological convergence with the known pathophysiology of OCD and (ii) infer, based on abnormalities in brain activation, whether these habits arise from dysfunction in the goal-directed or habit system. Method Thirty-seven OCD patients and 33 controls learned to avoid shocks while undergoing a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan. Following 4 blocks of training, we tested if the avoidance response had become a habit by removing the threat of shock and measuring continued avoidance. We tested for task-related differences in brain activity in 3 ROIs, the caudate, putamen and medial orbitofrontal cortex at a statistical threshold of phabit formation in OCD patients, which was associated with hyper-activation in the caudate. Activation in this region was also associated with subjective ratings of increased urge to perform habits. The OCD group, as a whole, showed hyper-activation in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) during the acquisition of avoidance, however this did not relate directly to habit formation. Conclusions OCD patients exhibited excessive habits that were associated with hyper-activation in a key region implicated in the pathophysiology of OCD, the caudate nucleus. Prior studies suggest that this region is important for goal-directed behavior, suggesting that habit-forming biases in OCD may be a result of impairments in this system, rather than differences in the build up of stimulus-response habits themselves. PMID:25526600

  5. The link between ADHD-like inattention and obsessions and compulsions during treatment of youth with OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzick, Andrew G; McNamara, Joseph P H; Reid, Adam M; Balkhi, Amanda M; Storch, Eric A; Murphy, Tanya K; Goodman, Wayne K; Bussing, Regina; Geffken, Gary R

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been found to be highly comorbid in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Some have proposed, however, that obsessive anxiety may cause inattention and executive dysfunction, leading to inappropriate ADHD diagnoses in those with OCD. If this were the case, these symptoms would be expected to decrease following successful OCD treatment. The present study tested this hypothesis and evaluated whether ADHD symptoms at baseline predicted OCD treatment response. Obsessive-compulsive and ADHD symptoms were assessed in 50 youth enrolled in a randomized controlled trial investigating selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and cognitive behavioral treatment. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) revealed that ADHD symptoms at baseline do not significantly predict treatment outcome. A multivariate RMANOVA found that OCD treatment response moderated change in inattention; participants who showed greater reduction in OCD severity experienced greater reduction in ADHD-inattentive symptoms, while those with less substantial reduction in obsessions and compulsions showed less change. These findings suggest that children and adolescents with OCD and inattention may experience meaningful improvements in attention problems following OCD treatment. Thus, in many youth with OCD, inattention may be inherently tied to obsessions and compulsions. Clinicians may consider addressing OCD in treatment before targeting inattentive-type ADHD.

  6. Explicit instructions facilitate performance of OCD participants but impair performance of non-OCD participants on a serial reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soref, Assaf; Liberman, Nira; Abramovitch, Amitai; Dar, Reuven

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that individuals diagnosed with OCD tend to rely on explicit processing while performing implicit learning tasks. We sought to investigate whether individuals with OCD are capable of implicit learning, but would demonstrate improved performance when explicit processing strategies are enhanced. Twenty-four participants with OCD and 24 non-psychiatric control (NPC) participants performed an implicit learning task in which they responded to a single target stimulus that successively appears at one of four locations according to an underlying sequence. We manipulated the learning strategy by informing half of the participants that the target stimulus location was determined by an underlying sequence, which they should identify (intentional learning). The other half of the participants was not informed of the existence of the underlying sequence, and was expected to learn the sequence implicitly (standard learning). We predicted that OCD participants will exhibit inferior performance compared to NPC participants in the standard learning condition, and that intentional learning instructions would impair the performance of NPC participants, but enhance the performance of OCD participants. The results supported these predictions and suggest that individuals with OCD prefer controlled to automatic processing. We discuss the implications of this conclusion to our understanding of OCD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Still Struggling: Characteristics of Youth with OCD Who Are Partial Responders to Medication Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J.; Sapyta, J.; Garcia, A.; Fitzgerald, D.; Khanna, M.; Choate-Summers, M.; Moore, P.; Chrisman, A.; Haff, N.; Naeem, A.; March, J.; Franklin, M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to examine the characteristics of a large sample of youth with OCD who are partial responders (i.e., still have clinically significant symptoms) to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) medication. The sample will be described with regard to: demographics, treatment history, OCD symptoms/severity, family history and…

  8. Widespread structural brain changes in OCD: a systematic review of voxel-based morphometry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Federica; Piras, Fabrizio; Chiapponi, Chiara; Girardi, Paolo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    . Morphometric changes in both "affective" and "executive" parallel the disease clinical course, being at the same time responsible for variation in symptom severity. Thus, OCD mechanisms involve a more widespread network of cerebral dysfunctions than previously thought, which may explain the heterogeneity in clinical manifestations and symptom severity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Association splitting of the sexual orientation-OCD-relevant semantic network.

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    Ching, Terence H W; Williams, Monnica T

    2018-05-01

    There is little research on treating symptoms of sexual orientation-obsessive-compulsive disorder (SO-OCD). Semantic networks represent a new cognitive approach for understanding cognitive mechanisms of SO-OCD. Specifically, we tested whether the self-help cognitive technique of association splitting (AS) developed from this approach would be efficacious in reducing SO-OCD symptoms and thought suppression. One hundred and twenty heterosexual undergraduates (82 females, 38 males) were randomly assigned to either the AS or waitlist control group. At baseline and four weeks later, participants completed items assessing SO-OCD symptoms, measures of sexual obsessions and thought suppression, and an association task in which they generated associations to different cue words. Generated associations were coded based on SO-OCD relevance and emotional valence. Results indicated reductions in SO-OCD-relevant associations across levels of emotional valence and SO-OCD-irrelevant negative associations, and increases in SO-OCD-irrelevant positive and neutral associations, only in the AS group. Furthermore, there were reductions in SO-OCD symptoms, sexual obsessions, and thought suppression only in the AS group. Importantly, these findings were obtained with overall large effect sizes. AS appears to be an efficacious self-help technique in reducing SO-OCD symptoms, sexual obsessions, and thought suppression. Clinical implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  10. A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Different Cortical Targets Used in Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Simone; Eslick, Guy D; Brakoulias, Vlasios

    2018-02-09

    Randomised and sham-controlled trials (RCTs) of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have yielded conflicting results, which may be due to the variability in rTMS parameters used. We performed an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of rTMS for the treatment of OCD and aimed to determine whether certain rTMS parameters, such as cortical target, may be associated with higher treatment effectiveness. After conducting a systematic literature review for RCTs on rTMS for OCD through to 1 December 2016 using MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Google, and Google Scholar, we performed a random-effects meta-analysis with the outcome measure as pre-post changes in Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores. To determine whether rTMS parameters may have influenced treatment effectiveness, studies were further analysed according to cortical target, stimulation frequency, and length of follow-up. Data were obtained from 18 RCTs on rTMS in the treatment of OCD. Overall, rTMS yielded a modest effect in reducing Y-BOCS scores with Hedge's g of 0.79 (95% CI = 0.43-1.15, p OCD. The therapeutic effects of rTMS also appear to persist post-treatment and may offer beneficial long-term effectiveness. With our findings, it is suggested that future large-scale studies focus on the supplementary motor area and include follow-up periods of 12 weeks or more.

  11. Health anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD.

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    Villadsen, Anna; Thorgaard, Mette V; Hybel, Katja A; Jensen, Jens Søndergaard; Thomsen, Per H; Rask, Charlotte U

    2017-02-01

    Health anxiety (HA) is an overlooked area in paediatric research. Little is known about the occurrence of HA symptoms in a child and adolescent psychiatric setting, and there are no age-appropriate diagnostic criteria and only limited number of assessment tools. It is therefore likely that HA is seen as part of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) due to construct overlap and the diagnostic uncertainty of HA in this age group. In the present study, the extent of HA symptoms was investigated in 94 children and adolescents with a primary ICD-10 diagnosis of OCD. Self-reported HA symptoms were assessed using the Childhood Illness Attitude Scales. Clinician-rated OCD symptoms and severity were measured using the Children's Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Information on socio-demographics was obtained from the child's/adolescent's medical record. The distribution of HA symptoms resembled a normal curve shifted to the right compared with a normal population of Danish children, and 30 % presented with high HA symptoms. Chi-squared tests were used to examine the proportion of children and adolescents with high HA symptoms in relation to various clinical characteristics. Clinician-rated illness worries and comorbid anxiety disorder were associated with high self-reported HA symptoms. The results contribute to the understanding of how HA and OCD overlap conceptually in young patients and bring attention to the need for improved recognition of OCD patients dominated by illness worries. Further research in the description of childhood HA is important in order to understand whether HA is a distinct disorder early in life.

  12. Cross-cutting issues and future directions for the OCD spectrum.

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    Hollander, Eric; Kim, Suah; Braun, Ashley; Simeon, Daphne; Zohar, Joseph

    2009-11-30

    The research planning agenda for DSM-V examined possible similarities in phenomenology, comorbidity, familial and genetic features, brain circuitry, and treatment response between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and several related disorders that are characterized by repetitive thoughts or behaviors. Such data support a re-examination of the DSM-IV-TR classification of OCD and the anxiety disorders, with possible inclusion of a group of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs) in DSM-V. Various disorders were systematically examined for inclusion in such a grouping, and later a smaller number were determined to meet threshold criteria for inclusion in the OCSDs. The disorders that were originally examined included OCD, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), Tourette's syndrome (TS) and other tic disorders, Sydenham's chorea, Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS), trichotillomania (TTM), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), autism, eating disorders, Huntington's and Parkinson's disease, impulse control disorders, as well as substance and behavioral addictions. Certain disorders such as BDD, OCPD, TS, and TTM share many commonalities with OCD in phenomenology, comorbidity, familial and genetic features, brain circuitry, and treatment response. Other disorders, such as the impulse control disorders (ICDs) share some common features with OCD, but also differ in many ways as well. The articles presented in this issue of Psychiatry Research are a result of this international collaboration, which examined diagnostic and classification issues of OCSDs for DSM-V in a conference titled "The Future of Psychiatric Diagnosis: Refining the Research Agenda: Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior Spectrum" held in June 2006 at the American Psychiatric Association's headquarters in Arlington, VA.

  13. Bipolar disorder comorbidity in patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, Gayatri; Paul, Imon; Viswanath, Biju; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Math, Suresh Bada; Reddy, Y C Janardhan

    2017-03-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is considered to be a common comorbid condition in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but there is limited literature on the prevalence of BD and its clinical correlates in those with a primary diagnosis of OCD. We studied the prevalence of BD in a sample of consecutively registered outpatients attending a specialty OCD clinic in India over a period of 13 months. One hundred and seventy-one patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD were assessed systematically using structured and semi-structured instruments. The prevalence of lifetime BD in OCD was 4%. The OCD + BD group had an episodic course of OCD and higher rate of lifetime suicide attempts. BD may not be as highly prevalent in OCD as reported in literature. Those with OCD seem to have only a marginally higher risk for developing BD than the general population. A diagnosis of BD seems to have a pathoplastic effect on the course of OCD. Patients with OCD-BD comorbidity have to be specifically assessed for suicide risk.

  14. Distinct subcortical volume alterations in pediatric and adult OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedhoe, Premika S.W.; Schmaal, Lianne; Abe, Yoshinari; Ameis, Stephanie H.; Arnold, Paul D.; Batistuzzo, Marcelo C.; Benedetti, Francesco; Beucke, Jan C.; Bollettini, Irene; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Calvo, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Cho, Kang Ik K.; Dallaspezia, Sara; Denys, Damiaan; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Giménez, Mònica; Gruner, Patricia; Hanna, Gregory L.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Hoexter, Marcelo Q.; Huyser, Chaim; Ikari, Keisuke; Jahanshad, Neda; Kathmann, Norbert; Kaufmann, Christian; Koch, Kathrin; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lazaro, Luisa; Liu, Yanni; Lochner, Christine; Marsh, Rachel; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Mataix-Cols, David; Menchón, José M.; Minuzzii, Luciano; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C.; Piras, Fabrizio; Piras, Federica; Pittenger, Christopher; Reddy, Y.C. Janardhan; Sato, Joao R.; Simpson, H. Blair; Soreni, Noam; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Stevens, Michael C.; Szeszko, Philip R.; Tolin, David F.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Zhen; van Wingen, Guido A.; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je-Yeon; Zhao, Qing; Thompson, Paul M.; Stein, Dan J.; van den Heuvel, Odile A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Structural brain imaging studies in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) have produced inconsistent findings. This may be partially due to limited statistical power from relatively small samples and clinical heterogeneity related to variation in disease profile and developmental stage. Methods To address these limitations, we conducted a meta- and mega-analysis of data from OCD sites worldwide. T1 images from 1,830 OCD patients and 1,759 controls were analyzed, using coordinated and standardized processing, to identify subcortical brain volumes that differ in OCD patients and healthy controls. We additionally examined potential modulating effects of clinical characteristics on morphological differences in OCD patients. Results The meta-analysis indicated that adult patients had significantly smaller hippocampal volumes (Cohen’s d=−0.13; p=5.1x10−3, % difference −2.80) and larger pallidum volumes (d=0.16; p=1.6x10−3, % difference 3.16) compared to adult controls. Both effects were stronger in medicated patients compared to controls (d=−0.29; p=2.4x10−5, % difference −4.18 and d=0.29; p=1.2x10−5, % difference 4.38, respectively). Unmedicated pediatric patients had larger thalamic volumes (d=0.38, p=2.1x10−3) compared to pediatric controls. None of these findings were mediated by sample characteristics such as mean age or field strength. Overall the mega-analysis yielded similar results. Conclusion Our study indicates a different pattern of subcortical abnormalities in pediatric versus adult OCD patients. The pallidum and hippocampus seem to be of importance in adult OCD, whereas the thalamus seems to be key in pediatric OCD. This highlights the potential importance of neurodevelopmental alterations in OCD, and suggests that further research on neuroplasticity in OCD may be useful. PMID:27609241

  15. Individuals With OCD Lack Unrealistic Optimism Bias in Threat Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetsche, Ulrike; Rief, Winfried; Exner, Cornelia

    2015-07-01

    Overestimating the occurrence of threatening events has been highlighted as a central cognitive factor in the maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study examined the different facets of this cognitive bias, its underlying mechanisms, and its specificity to OCD. For this purpose, threat estimation, probabilistic classification learning (PCL) and psychopathological measures were assessed in 23 participants with OCD, 30 participants with social phobia, and 31 healthy controls. Whereas healthy participants showed an optimistic expectation bias regarding positive and negative future events, OCD participants lacked such a bias. This lack of an optimistic expectation bias was not specific to OCD. Compared to healthy controls, OCD participants overestimated their personal risk for experiencing negative events, but did not differ from controls in their risk estimation regarding other people. Finally, OCD participants' biases in the prediction of checking-related events were associated with their impairments in learning probabilistic cue-outcome associations in a disorder-relevant context. In sum, the present results add to a growing body of research demonstrating that cognitive biases in OCD are context-dependent. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Buddhism, behavior change, and OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Tom

    2003-06-01

    For individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), the difficulty of their situation comes as no surprise. But what might be less expected is how directly their situation is spoken to in Buddhist teachings. Still, in nearly all mainstream discussions of psychiatric disorders, including OCD, the rich philosophical and spiritual dimensions of these conditions and the related treatment and care tend to be either ignored or disguised in euphemisms and vague explanations. This article sheds light on this hidden aspect of psychiatry and psychiatric nursing through a philosophical analysis of one of the most popular approaches to treating OCD, Schwartz's four-step method from Brain Lock. In so doing, the argument is made that sharing the philosophical and spiritual foundations of treatment and care promises not only to deepen the insights and skills of clinicians but also to empower clients as participants in their own journeys toward wellness and beyond.

  17. Dissecting OCD Circuits: From Animal Models to Targeted Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmari, Susanne E.; Dougherty, Darin D.

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a chronic, severe mental illness with up to 2–3% prevalence worldwide, which has been classified as one of the world’s 10 leading causes of illness-related disability according to the World Health Organization, largely because of the chronic nature of disabling symptoms 1. Despite the severity and high prevalence of this chronic and disabling disorder, there is still relatively limited understanding of its pathophysiology. However, this is now rapidly changing due to development of powerful technologies that can be used to dissect the neural circuits underlying pathologic behaviors. In this article, we describe recent technical advances that have allowed neuroscientists to start identifying the circuits underlying complex repetitive behaviors using animal model systems. In addition, we review current surgical and stimulation-based treatments for OCD that target circuit dysfunction. Finally, we discuss how findings from animal models may be applied in the clinical arena to help inform and refine targeted brain stimulation-based treatment approaches. PMID:25952989

  18. A solid majority remit following evidence-based OCD treatments: a 3-year naturalistic outcome study in pediatric OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Karin; Skarphedinsson, Gudmundur; Skärsäter, Ingela; Haugland, Bente Storm Mowatt; Ivarsson, Tord

    2018-03-03

    This study reports follow-up 2 and 3 years after the initial assessment of a sample of youth with a primary diagnosis of OCD. Participants were 109 children and adolescents, aged 5-17 years, recruited from a specialized, outpatient OCD clinic in Sweden. Patients were treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), augmented when indicated by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). In cases where SSRIs were insufficient, augmentation with a second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) was applied. Participants were assessed with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS), Children's OCD Impact Scale (COIS), and Children's Depressive Inventory (CDI) at follow-ups 2 and 3 years after baseline assessment. Treatment response was defined as CY-BOCS total score ≤ 15, and remission was defined as CY-BOCS total score ≤ 10. Analyzing the outcomes with linear mixed-effects models (LME) showed a decrease in OCD symptom load from 23 to 6.9 at the 3-year follow-up. Moreover, two of three (66.1%) participants were in remission, and another 19.2% had responded to treatment at the 3-year follow-up. Thus, 85.3% of participants responded to treatment. Moreover, during the follow-up period, participants' psychosocial functioning had significantly improved, and depressive symptoms had significantly decreased. The results suggest that evidence-based treatment for pediatric OCD, following expert consensus guidelines, has long-term positive effects for most children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD. The results also indicate that improvements are maintained over a 3-year period, at least, and that improvement is also found with regard to psychosocial functioning and depressive symptoms.

  19. Frontal alpha asymmetry in OCD patients and unaffected first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützmann, Rosa; Riesel, Anja; Klawohn, Julia; Heinzel, Stephan; Kaufmann, Christian; Bey, Katharina; Lennertz, Leonard; Wagner, Michael; Kathmann, Norbert

    2017-08-01

    Frontal electroencephalographic alpha asymmetry as an indicator of trait approach and trait inhibition systems has previously been studied in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with mixed results. We explored frontal alpha asymmetry as a possible risk factor in OCD by investigating a large sample of OCD patients (n = 113), healthy control participants (n = 113), and unaffected 1st-degree relatives of OCD patients (n = 37). Additionally, the relationship between OCD symptom dimensions and frontal alpha asymmetry was explored. OCD patients and healthy control participants did not differ in alpha asymmetry scores. Hence, the current results do not support the notion that OCD as a diagnostic entity is associated with a shift in frontal cortical activity. Furthermore, alpha asymmetry scores were not statistically related to specific OCD symptom dimensions. Reasons for inconsistent results in OCD are discussed and should be explored in future studies. Compared to OCD patients and healthy control participants, unaffected 1st-degree relatives of OCD patients showed increased left frontal activity. Such asymmetry has previously been found to be associated with positive affect and adaptive emotion regulation under stress. Because stressful life events play an important role in the onset and exacerbation of OCD, increased left frontal activity might serve as a resilience factor in unaffected 1st-degree relatives. Future studies should follow up on these results with longitudinal risk studies and pre- and posttherapy assessments to further explore causality of this putative factor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The role of guilt sensitivity in OCD symptom dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melli, Gabriele; Carraresi, Claudia; Poli, Andrea; Marazziti, Donatella; Pinto, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    Although some studies have found that guilt may precede, motivate, or be a consequence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between guilt and OCD has been under investigated. The studies that explored the role of trait guilt (guilt propensity) in OCD reported inconsistent findings and failed to support its predictive role. Since it has been suggested that OCD patients perceive guilt in a more threatening manner, it might also be relevant to test to what extent they negatively evaluate the experience of guilt (i.e., guilt sensitivity; GS). Study 1 investigated the psychometric properties of a new 10-item Italian measure developed to assess GS-named Guilt Sensitivity Questionnaire-in a nonclinical sample (N = 473). Results from exploratory factor analyses supported the unidimensionality of the scale. It also showed excellent internal consistency and good discriminant validity. Study 2 investigated the role of GS in OCD symptoms, in particular with regard to responsibility for harm obsessions and checking compulsions, using a heterogeneous OCD sample (N = 61) and a control group of patients with anxiety disorders (N = 47). GS was the unique significant predictor of checking related OCD symptoms independent of negative mood states and obsessive beliefs. Guilt Sensitivity Questionnaire scores of patients with responsibility for harm concerns were significantly higher than those of patients with other kinds of obsessive concerns and with anxiety disorders. Findings supported the hypothesis that GS plays a relevant role in OCD symptoms when checking rituals are primarily involved. Implications for current cognitive behavioral models are discussed. Guilt sensitivity may play a role in checking-related OCD symptoms. We developed a psychometrically sound unidimensional 10-item scale to assess guilt sensitivity. Guilt sensitivity was a unique predictor of checking-related OCD symptoms. Targeting beliefs about the intolerability/dangerousness of

  1. Thought-action fusion and thought suppression in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; Diepstraten, P; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P

    2001-07-01

    To examine the significance of thought-action fusion (TAF) and thought suppression tendencies, the present study obtained pre- and post-treatment questionnaire data on these constructs in a sample of OCD patients (n=24) and non-OCD anxiety patients (n=20). Results indicate that TAF and suppression are correlated with severity of psychopathology. Yet, the associations between TAF and psychopathology are not typical for OCD, but do also occur in other anxiety disorders (e.g., panic disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, and social phobia). As well, mean scores on the TAF and thought suppression measures dropped significantly from pre- to post-treatment, indicating that TAF and thought suppression are susceptible to change during psychotherapy.

  2. Pregenual Anterior Cingulate Dysfunction Associated with Depression in OCD: An Integrated Multimodal fMRI/1H MRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayonnejad, Reza; Deshpande, Rangaprakash; Ajilore, Olusola; Moody, Teena; Morfini, Francesca; Ly, Ronald; O'Neill, Joseph; Feusner, Jamie D

    2018-04-01

    Depression is a commonly occurring symptom in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and is associated with worse functional impairment, poorer quality of life, and poorer treatment response. Understanding the underlying neurochemical and connectivity-based brain mechanisms of this important symptom domain in OCD is necessary for development of novel, more globally effective treatments. To investigate biopsychological mechanisms of comorbid depression in OCD, we examined effective connectivity and neurochemical signatures in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC), a structure known to be involved in both OCD and depression. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) data were obtained from participants with OCD (n=49) and healthy individuals of equivalent age and sex (n=25). Granger causality-based effective (directed) connectivity was used to define causal networks involving the right and left pACC. The interplay between fMRI connectivity, 1 H MRS and clinical data was explored by applying moderation and mediation analyses. We found that the causal influence of the right dorsal anterior midcingulate cortex (daMCC) on the right pACC was significantly lower in the OCD group and showed significant correlation with depressive symptom severity in the OCD group. Lower and moderate levels of glutamate (Glu) in the right pACC significantly moderated the interaction between right daMCC-pACC connectivity and depression severity. Our results suggest a biochemical-connectivity-psychological model of pACC dysfunction contributing to depression in OCD, particularly involving intracingulate connectivity and glutamate levels in the pACC. These findings have implications for potential molecular and network targets for treatment of this multi-faceted psychiatric condition.

  3. Childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder: a tic-related subtype of OCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichstedt, J A; Arnold, S L

    2001-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric condition characterized by recurrent obsessions or compulsions that cause significant impairment or distress. Although OCD was once perceived to be relatively rare in childhood, current estimates suggest that as many as half of all adult OCD cases may have their onset in childhood or adolescence. In general, there appears to be a great deal of continuity between the clinical presentation of OCD in children and that in adults. Yet, numerous differences have also been found between child and adult OCD, including differences in sex distribution, patterns of comorbidity, and degree of familial loading. These differences raise the issue of whether obsessive-compulsive symptoms that have their onset in childhood, but perhaps persist into adult life, are meaningfully different from those that emerge de novo in adulthood. In this article, current research on child- and adult-onset OCD is critically reviewed. It is proposed that child-onset OCD represents a phenomenologically and etiologically distinct subtype of OCD, bearing a close genetic relationship to tic-disorders and possibly sharing a common or similar pathogenesis. Clinical implications of the child- versus adult-onset OCD distinction are discussed.

  4. Disorders Related to (And Sometimes Confused with) OCD

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    ... Schizophrenia and people with OCD both may have: Strange or bizarre thoughts. Thoughts that include sexual violent ... Your gift has the power to change the life of someone living with OCD. Donate Membership International ...

  5. Should OCD be classified as an anxiety disorder in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Fineberg, Naomi A; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Denys, Damiaan; Lochner, Christine; Nestadt, Gerald; Leckman, James F; Rauch, Scott L; Phillips, Katharine A

    2010-06-01

    In DSM-III, DSM-III-R, and DSM-IV, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was classified as an anxiety disorder. In ICD-10, OCD is classified separately from the anxiety disorders, although within the same larger category as anxiety disorders (as one of the "neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders"). Ongoing advances in our understanding of OCD and other anxiety disorders have raised the question of whether OCD should continue to be classified with the anxiety disorders in DSM-V. This review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. Evidence is reviewed for retaining OCD in the category of anxiety disorders, and for moving OCD to a separate category of obsessive-compulsive (OC)-spectrum disorders, if such a category is included in DSM-V. Our preliminary recommendation is that OCD be retained in the category of anxiety disorders but that this category also includes OC-spectrum disorders along with OCD. If this change is made, the name of this category should be changed to reflect this proposed change. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Polymorphisms within the neuronal cadherin (CDH2) gene are associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a South African cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, N W; Lochner, C; Stein, D J; Hemmings, S M J

    2016-02-01

    OCD is characterised by recurrent obsessions and compulsions that result in severe distress and increased risk for comorbidity. Recently published findings have indicated that the neuronal cadherin gene (CDH2) plays a role in the development of canine OCD, and led us to investigate the human ortholog, CDH2, in a human OCD cohort. Seven CDH2 polymorphisms were selected and genotyped in a South African Caucasian cohort of 234 OCD patients and 180 healthy controls using TaqMan assays. Polymorphisms were analysed in a single-locus and haplotypic context. Of the seven polymorphisms, two reached statistical significance for OCD under additive and codominant models of inheritance (rs1120154 and rs12605662). CDH2 SNP, rs1120154, C-allele carriers were found to be significantly associated with lower risk to develop OCD compared to TT-homozygotes (OR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.32-0.75; p OCD compared to TT-homozygotes (OR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.30-0.71; p OCD diagnosis (*rs8087457-rs1148374: A-T). Polymorphisms within the CDH2 gene are associated with susceptibility to OCD in a South African cohort.

  7. Development and Psychometric Properties of the OCD Family Functioning (OFF) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S. Evelyn; Hu, Yu-Pei; Hezel, Dianne M.; Proujansky, Rachel; Lamstein, Abby; Walsh, Casey; Ben-Joseph, Elana Pearl; Gironda, Christina; Jenike, Michael; Geller, Daniel A.; Pauls, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) influences not only patients but also family members. Although the construct of family accommodation has received attention in OCD literature, no measures of overall family functioning are currently available. The OCD Family Functioning (OFF) Scale was developed to explore the context, extent, and perspectives of functional impairment in families affected by OCD. It is a three-part, self-report measure capturing independent perspectives of patients and relatives. A total of 400 subjects were enrolled between 2008 and 2010 from specialized OCD clinics and OCD research studies. Psychometric properties of this scale were examined including internal consistency, test–retest reliability, convergent and divergent validity, and exploratory factor analyses. Both patient and relative versions of the OFF Scale demonstrated excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient = 0.96). The test–retest reliability was also adequate (ICC = 0.80). Factor analyses determined that the OFF Scale comprises a family functioning impairment factor and four OCD symptom factors that were consistent with previously reported OCD symptom dimension studies. The OFF Scale demonstrated excellent convergent validity with the Family Accommodation Scale and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Information gathered regarding emotional impact and family role-specific impairment was novel and not captured by other examined scales. The OFF Scale is a reliable and valid instrument for the clinical and research assessment of family functioning in pediatric and adult OCD. This will facilitate the exploration of family functioning impairment as a potential risk factor, as a moderator and as a treatment outcome measure in OCD. PMID:21553962

  8. 'Learning to live with OCD is a little mantra I often repeat': understanding the lived experience of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the contemporary therapeutic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Helen; Perera-Delcourt, Ramesh

    2014-03-01

    While there has been an abundance of quantitative studies that examine the clinical features and treatment modalities of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), only a few qualitative research studies examining the experience of OCD have been documented. Our objectives were to explore and understand psychosocial aspects of OCD and to provide qualitative accounts of the condition and its treatment rather than concentrating on its psychopathology. We also wanted to locate the role cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) played in the condition for our participants. Data for the study came from a series of nine semi-structured interviews carried out with individuals who self-identified as having OCD. Participants were recruited through two leading UK-based OCD charities. We used interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) to analyse the accounts and participants gave feedback as to the validity of the themes in early stages of analysis. We report two superordinate themes--Having OCD (with subordinate themes 'wanting to be normal and fit it', 'failing at life' and 'loving and hating OCD') and The Impact of Therapy (with subordinate themes of 'wanting therapy', 'finding the roots' and 'a better self'). Having OCD as a condition meant that individuals experienced a sense of overwhelming personal failure matched against age appropriate life cycle goals. This crisis of the self was bolstered by public and self-stigma about the condition. While clinical diagnosis and therapeutic interventions were significant, participants reported dialectical tensions experienced with OCD, pointing to the complexity of psychological functioning in the condition. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Disrupted latent decision processes in medication-free pediatric OCD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhan, Ceyla; Bulut, Gresa Çarkaxhiu; Gökçe, Sebla; Ozbas, Duru; Turkakin, Esin; Dursun, Onur Burak; Yazgan, Yanki; Balcı, Fuat

    2017-01-01

    Decision-making in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder has typically been investigated in the adult population. Computational approaches have recently started to get integrated into these studies. However, decision-making research in pediatric OCD populations is scarce. We investigated latent decision processes in 21 medication-free pediatric OCD patients and 23 healthy control participants. We hypothesized that OCD patients would be more cautious and less efficient in evidence accumulation than controls in a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) task. Pediatric OCD patients were less efficient than controls in accumulating perceptual evidence and showed a tendency to be more cautious. In comparison to post-correct decisions, OCD patients increased decision thresholds after erroneous decisions, whereas healthy controls decreased decision thresholds. These changes were coupled with weaker evidence accumulation after errors in both groups. The small sample size limited the power of the study. Our results demonstrate poorer decision-making performance in pediatric OCD patients at the level of latent processes, specifically in terms of evidence accumulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationships between cognitive appraisals of adolescents with OCD and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadak, Muhammed Tayyib; Balsak, Fuat; Besiroglu, Lutfullah; Çelik, Cihat

    2014-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate cognitive models of OCD via the influence of mothers' cognitive appraisals on children's cognitions and OCD symptoms. Our sample consisted of 21 adolescents with OCD, their mothers and 27 parent-child dyads for control group without OCD. Subjects with OCD and their mothers were administered The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), The Thought-Action Fusion Scale (TAFS), The White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI), The Padua Inventory-Revised (PI-R) and The Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity (PIOS). While the BDI (t=2.18, pOCD subjects were significantly higher than the mothers of control subjects, the comparisons for the PI, TAF likelihood and PIOS scores of groups were not significant. Intradyadic correlation revealed significant relationships for PI-Rumination, PI-Checking and WBSI scales between the scores of parent and child in OCD dyads, (respectively, r=0.49, P=0.11; r=0.37, P=0.045; and r=0.47, P=0.014). There was no significant relationship in the control group. Our results partially supported that mothers' cognitive appraisals are associated with the cognitive appraisal of adolescents. A cognitive intradyadic interaction between mother and child might be more likely in the presence of OCD in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Parent perspectives on biomarkers for OCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise; Borgelt, Emily L.; Stewart, S. Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates parent perspectives on potential future applications of neuroimaging and genetic research in the obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) clinic: for prediction, diagnosis, and treatment choice. It does so with a reflective eye on parental motivations for discussing near...... but still uncertain technological futures, and with attention to the conceptual and normative difficulties that such time-travelling talk presents. Grounded in qualitative interviews with parents whose children had participated in an OCD neuroimaging and genetic research study in the United States, we...

  12. Spatial behavior reflects the mental disorder in OCD patients with and without comorbid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoni, Anat; Hermesh, Haggai; Fineberg, Naomi A; Eilam, David

    2014-02-01

    Resolving the entangled nosological dilemma of whether obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with and without schizophrenia (schizo-OCD and OCD, respectively) are two independent entities or whether schizo-OCD is a combined product of its parent disorders. Studying motor activity in OCD and in schizo-OCD patients. Performance of the patients was compared with the performance of the same motor task by a matching control individual. Behavior in both schizo-OCD and OCD patients differed from controls in the excessive repetition and addition of acts, thus validating an identical OC facet. However, there was a significant difference in spatial behavior. Schizo-OCD patients traveled over a greater area with less focused activity as typical to schizophrenia patients and in contrast to OCD patients, who were more focused and traveled less in a confined area. While schizo-OCD and OCD patients share most of the OC ritualistic attributes, they differ in the greater spread of activity in schizo-OCD, which is related to schizophrenia disorder. It is suggested that the finding on difference in spatial behavior is a reflection of the mental differences between OCD and schizophrenia. In other words, this could be an overt and observable manifestation of the mental state, and therefore may facilitate the nosology of OC spectrum disorders and OCD. It seems as if both the OCD patients' focus on specific thoughts, and the contrasting wandering thoughts of schizophrenia patients, are reflected in the focused activity of the former and wandering from one place to the next of the latter.

  13. Thought-action fusion and its relationship to schizotypy and OCD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han-Joo; Cougle, Jesse R; Telch, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Thought-action fusion (TAF) is a cognitive bias that has been linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Preliminary evidence suggests schizotypal traits may be associated with some types of OCD obsessions but not others. We examined the relationship between each of the two major types of TAF (i.e., likelihood and moral), schizotypal traits, and OCD symptoms in 969 nonclinical undergraduate students. We hypothesized that likelihood TAF would be associated with schizotypal traits; whereas moral TAF would not. Consistent with prediction, schizotypal-magical thinking was significantly associated with likelihood TAF even after controlling for the effects of OCD symptoms, general anxiety, and depression. Moreover, the relationship between likelihood TAF and OCD symptoms was significantly attenuated after controlling for schizotypal traits. In contrast, moral TAF demonstrated negligible association with OCD symptoms, depression, or schizotypal traits. These findings provide preliminary support for the linkage between likelihood TAF and schizotypal traits.

  14. Utility of the Leyton Obsessional Inventory to distinguish OCD and OCPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, David; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Grados, Marco; Cullen, Bernadette; Riddle, Mark; Liang, Kung-Yee; Nestadt, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    The Leyton Obsessional Inventory (LOI) is a self-report questionnaire that assesses obsessional symptoms. The ability of the LOI to distinguish between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has not been adequately addressed. Our purpose is to identify dimensions of obsessional symptoms from the LOI and determine how well they distinguish between OCD and OCPD. The LOI was completed by 488 participants diagnosed by trained clinicians. Factor analysis was performed on responses to the interference items of the LOI. The relationship between the factors, OCD and OCPD was evaluated using logistic regression. Five factors underlying the LOI were identified: (I) obsessional ruminations and compulsions, (II) ordering and arranging, (III) organizing activities, (IV) contamination, and (V) parsimony. Factors I, III, and IV were strongly associated with OCD. Only Factor II was associated with OCPD. Factor IV was negatively associated with obsessive-compulsive personality traits. LOI factors are useful in discriminating between OCD and OCPD. Obsessional ruminations and compulsions, organizing activities, and contamination fears may indicate OCD, and ordering and arranging symptoms may indicate OCPD rather than OCD. Parsimony may indicate neither disorder, and contamination, the absence of OCPD traits compared with the other LOI factors. These findings may contribute to effective diagnosis and treatment by allowing the LOI to screen for OCD and OCPD in a population exhibiting obsessional symptoms and traits.

  15. Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Compulsive Checking in OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomsky, Adam S.; Shafran, Roz; Coughtrey, A. E.; Rachman, S.

    2010-01-01

    There is substantial evidence for the effectiveness of psychological treatments for OCD, and various approaches have been widely recommended. These approaches tend to be characterized by exposure and response prevention (ERP) and also tend to be applied equally to all forms of OCD. Patients/clients (and some therapists) often find ERP to be a…

  16. Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), an endoplasmic reticulum storage disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skagen, Peter Storgaard; Horn, T; Kruse, H A

    2011-01-01

    Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) fragments, cartilage and blood from four patients were used for morphological and molecular analysis. Controls included articular cartilage and blood samples from healthy individuals. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed abnormalities...... in chondrocytes and extracellular matrix of cartilage from OCD patients. Abnormal type II collagen heterofibrils in "bundles" and chondrocytes with abnormal accumulation of matrix proteins in distended rough endoplasmic reticulum were typical findings. Further, Von Kossa staining and TEM showed empty lacunae...... polymorphism was found within the COL2A1 gene for one patient. We suggest that OCD lesions are caused by an alteration in chondrocyte matrix synthesis causing an endoplasmic reticulum storage disease phenotype, which disturbs or abrupts endochondral ossification....

  17. Stove checking behaviour in people with OCD vs. anxious controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucarelli, Bianca; Purdon, Christine

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the repetition of an action degrades memory for that action, as well as confidence that is has been done correctly. This has important implications for understanding the compulsive repetition of actions characteristic of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). At this time, though, much of the research has been conducted on analogue or nonclinical OCD samples in comparison to healthy controls and often using virtual, as opposed to actual, threat stimuli. Furthermore, although it has been argued that people with OCD are overly attentive to threat stimuli, the research on actual attention to threat is scant. People with a principal diagnosis of OCD (n = 30) and people with a clinically significant diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, but no OCD (n = 18) completed measures of memory confidence and responsibility and then underwent a stove-checking task in a functioning kitchen while wearing a portable eye tracking device. Pre- and post-task ratings of harm and responsibility were taken, along with post-task ratings of memory and certainty. People with OCD did not exhibit poorer memory confidence than the anxious control (AC) group, but did report greater trait and state responsibility for harm. The OCD group checked longer than did the AC group and check duration predicted post-task ratings of harm, but to the same extent in both groups. People with OCD attended to threat items less than did the AC group. Greater visual attention to the stove during the checking period was associated with greater post-task ratings of responsibility and harm and with less certainty in and memory for the check - but only for the AC group. The sample size was modest, women were over-represented and problems with the eye tracking device reduced the amount of reliable data available for analysis. Compulsions are complex actions that are mediated by many trait, state and contextual factors. People with OCD may be able to circumvent self

  18. Toward Understanding the Heterogeneity in OCD: Evidence from narratives in adult patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Bhalla, Ish P; Griepp, Matthew; Kelmendi, Benjamin; Davidson, Larry; Pittenger, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background Current attempts at understanding the heterogeneity in OCD have relied on quantitative methods. The results of such work point towards a dimensional structure for OCD. Existing qualitative work in OCD has focused on understanding specific aspects of the OCD experience in greater depth. However, qualitative methods are also of potential value in furthering our understanding of OCD heterogeneity by allowing for open-ended exploration of the OCD experience and correlating identified subtypes with patient narratives. Aims We explored variations in patients’ experience prior to, during, and immediately after performing their compulsions. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 adults with OCD, followed by inductive thematic analysis. Participant responses were not analyzed within the context of an existing theoretical framework, and themes were labeled descriptively. Results The previously dichotomy of ‘anxiety’ vs ‘incompleteness’ emerged organically during narrative analysis. In addition, we found that some individuals with OCD utilize their behaviors as a way to cope with stress and anxiety more generally. Other participants did not share this experience and denied finding any comfort in their OC behaviors. The consequences of attention difficulties were highlighted, with some participants describing how difficulty focusing on a task could influence the need for it to be repeated multiple times. Conclusions The extent to which patients use OCD as a coping mechanism is a relevant distinction with potential implications for treatment engagement. Patients may experience ambivalence about suppressing behaviors that they have come to rely upon for management of stress and anxiety, even if these behaviors represent symptoms of a psychiatric illness. PMID:25855685

  19. Traumatic and Adverse Attachment Childhood Experiences are not Characteristic of OCD but of Depression in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Tord; Saavedra, Fanny; Granqvist, Pehr; Broberg, Anders G

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether adverse attachment experience might contribute to the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We interviewed 100 adolescents, 25 each with primary OCD, depressive disorder (DD), OCD plus DD and general population controls (CTRs) using the adult attachment interview to assess attachment experiences (AEs), including traumatic and adverse AE (TAE). Adolescents with OCD, OCD+DD and DD had little evidence of secure base/safe haven parental behaviour and their childhood attachment needs judged to be rejected as compared to the controls. Overprotection was not characteristic of OCD, and parents using the child for their own needs (elevated levels of involving/role reversal) occurred only in DD, with low levels in OCD, OCD+DD and CTR. Traumatic experiences, often multiple, and/or attachment related were reported significantly more often in the DD group, and was less common in OCD+DD, CTR and particularly in the OCD group. In OCD, little TAE was reported and adverse AE were less serious and seem unlikely to contribute directly to OCD aetiology. In DD and to some degree in OCD+DD serious AE/TAE may have some etiological significance for the depressive states.

  20. Yes: The Symptoms of OCD and Depression Are Discrete and Not Exclusively Negative Affectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. Moore

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and Depression are classified as separate disorders, the high incidence of co-morbidity and the strong correlations between measures of each has led to debate about the nature of their relationship. Some authors have proposed that OCD is in fact a mood disorder while others have suggested that the two disorders are grounded in negative affectivity. A third proposition is that depression is an essential part of OCD but that OCD is a separate disorder from depression. The aim in this study was to investigate these diverse propositions in a non-clinical sample and also to determine whether factors implicated in each, that is anxious and depressive cognitions, hopelessness, and self-criticism, would demonstrate commonality as predictors of the symptoms of OCD and of depression. Two hundred participants (59% female (M age = 34 years, SD = 16 completed the Padua Inventory, Carroll Rating Scale, Cognitions Checklist, Self-Criticism Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory-Revised and a Negative Affectivity Schedule. Results indicated a strong correlation between OCD and depression, depression, and negative affectivity but a weaker relationship between OCD and negative affectivity. Path analyses revealed that both anxious and depressive cognitions, as well as hostility predicted both disorders but the Beta-weights were stronger on OCD. Self-criticism predicted only depression while hopelessness failed to predict either disorder but was itself predicted by depressive cognitions. Depression was a stronger indicator of negative affect than OCD and while OCD positively predicted depression, depression was a negative indicator of OCD. These results support the hypothesis that OCD and depression are discrete disorders and indicate that while depression is implicated in OCD, the reverse does not hold. While both disorders are related to negative affectivity, this relationship is much stronger

  1. Yes: The Symptoms of OCD and Depression Are Discrete and Not Exclusively Negative Affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kathleen A; Howell, Jacqui

    2017-01-01

    Although Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Depression are classified as separate disorders, the high incidence of co-morbidity and the strong correlations between measures of each has led to debate about the nature of their relationship. Some authors have proposed that OCD is in fact a mood disorder while others have suggested that the two disorders are grounded in negative affectivity. A third proposition is that depression is an essential part of OCD but that OCD is a separate disorder from depression. The aim in this study was to investigate these diverse propositions in a non-clinical sample and also to determine whether factors implicated in each, that is anxious and depressive cognitions, hopelessness, and self-criticism, would demonstrate commonality as predictors of the symptoms of OCD and of depression. Two hundred participants (59% female) ( M age = 34 years, SD = 16) completed the Padua Inventory, Carroll Rating Scale, Cognitions Checklist, Self-Criticism Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory-Revised and a Negative Affectivity Schedule. Results indicated a strong correlation between OCD and depression, depression, and negative affectivity but a weaker relationship between OCD and negative affectivity. Path analyses revealed that both anxious and depressive cognitions, as well as hostility predicted both disorders but the Beta-weights were stronger on OCD. Self-criticism predicted only depression while hopelessness failed to predict either disorder but was itself predicted by depressive cognitions. Depression was a stronger indicator of negative affect than OCD and while OCD positively predicted depression, depression was a negative indicator of OCD. These results support the hypothesis that OCD and depression are discrete disorders and indicate that while depression is implicated in OCD, the reverse does not hold. While both disorders are related to negative affectivity, this relationship is much stronger for depression

  2. Sleep disturbances in treatment-seeking OCD-patients: Changes after concentrated exposure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Håkon; Havnen, Audun; Hansen, Bjarne; Öst, Lars-Göran; Kvale, Gerd

    2018-04-01

    Research indicates that patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) frequently suffer from comorbid sleep difficulties, and that these difficulties often are not clinically recognized and diagnosed. There has been limited research investigating if comorbid sleep difficulties impair treatment outcome for OCD and if the sleep difficulties change following OCD-treatment. Thirty-six patients with obsessive compulsive disorder underwent concentrated exposure treatment delivered in a group over four consecutive days and were assessed with measures of OCD, depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance at three different time points (pre, post and 6 months follow-up). The sample was characterized by a high degree of comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. At pre-treatment nearly 70% of the patients reported sleep difficulties indicative of primary insomnia. The results showed that patients had large reductions of OCD-symptoms as well as significant improvements in sleep disturbance assessed after treatment, and that these improvements were maintained at follow-up. Sleep disturbance did not impair treatment outcome, on the contrary patients with higher degree of sleep disturbance at pre-treatment had better outcome on OCD-symptoms after treatment. The results indicated that the majority of the OCD sample suffered from sleep disturbances and that these sleep disturbances were significantly reduced following adequate treatment of OCD without specific sleep interventions. However, a proportion of the patients suffered from residual symptoms of insomnia after treatment. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Seeking help for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD): a qualitative study of the enablers and barriers conducted by a researcher with personal experience of OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen J; Rose, Diana; Salkovskis, Paul M

    2017-06-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) can be hugely disabling. Although very effective psychological treatments exist, many people delay years before seeking help or never seek treatment. There have been clinical observation and short questionnaire studies on why people delay, but little qualitative research exists on this complex subject. The present qualitative study aimed to identify the barriers to seeking treatment and the factors that encourage or push people to seek help for their OCD (positive and negative enablers). A qualitative, exploratory study using in-depth, individual, semi-structured interviews was conducted by a researcher with personal experience of OCD. Seventeen people with OCD, contacted through the charity OCD-UK, were interviewed about the factors that impacted on their decision to seek help or not. The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Barriers identified were stigma, 'internal / cognitive' factors, not knowing what their problem was, factors relating to their GP or treatment, and fear of criminalisation. Positive enablers identified were being supported to seek help, information and personal accounts of OCD in the media, and confidence in their GP. Negative enablers were reaching a crisis point and for some participants (whose intrusive thoughts were about harming children) feeling driven to seek treatment because of the nature of the thoughts, that is, seeking help to prevent the 'harm' they feared they were capable of doing. Participants identified a range of barriers and enablers that impacted on their decision to seek help or not. These give important indicators about the likely causes for delayed help seeking in OCD and ways in which people might be encouraged to seek help earlier. People with OCD may face a wide range of barriers to seeking help, including concern about the reaction of health professionals. The level of awareness, kindness, and understanding shown by first-line practitioners can be very important to

  4. Competitive Memory Training (COMET) for OCD: a self-treatment approach to obsessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brooke C; Wittekind, Charlotte E; Talhof, Alina; Korrelboom, Kees; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Competitive Memory Training (COMET) is a cognitive intervention that aims to change the maladaptive cognitive-emotional networks underlying obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). COMET has not been previously tried as a self-help intervention. The present study tested the preliminary feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of COMET for OCD implemented as a self-help intervention. Sixty-five participants with OCD recruited through online OCD self-help fora completed an online baseline assessment including measures of OCD symptoms, self-esteem, and depression. Participants were randomly assigned to either COMET or a wait-list control group. All participants were approached 4 weeks later to complete an online post-assessment. There was no evidence for a greater decline of OCD symptoms or depression under COMET. When analyses were limited to only those participants who reported reading the entire manual at least once, self-esteem was higher at post-assessment in the COMET group. Although 78.1% of patients in the COMET group rated it as appropriate for self-administration, only 56.5% performed COMET exercises regularly and 26.4% read the entire manual at least once. The feasibility and effectiveness of COMET as a self-help internet intervention for OCD was not supported in this study. Further work is needed to better understand if modifications to our implementation of COMET may yield improved outcomes.

  5. Quality of life in children with OCD before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidle, Bernhard; Ivarsson, Tord; Thomsen, Per Hove; Lydersen, Stian; Jozefiak, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is a well-established outcome measure. In contrast to adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), little is known about the effects of treatment on QoL in children with OCD. This study aimed to assess QoL after cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in children and adolescents with OCD compared with the general population and to explore factors associated with potential changes in QoL after treatment. QoL was assessed in 135 children and adolescents (ages 7-17; mean 13 [SD 2.7] years; 48.1% female) before and after 14 CBT sessions, using self-report and a caregivers proxy report of the Questionnaire for Measuring Health-related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents (KINDL-R). QoL was compared with an age- and gender-matched sample from the general population. Before treatment, QoL was markedly lower in children with OCD compared with the general population. QoL improved significantly in CBT responders (mean score change 7.4), to the same range as QoL in the general population. Non-responders reported no QoL changes after treatment, except for one patient. Comorbidity, family accommodation and psychosocial functioning were not associated with changes in QoL after treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the changes in QoL after treatment of paediatric OCD. The assessment of QoL beyond symptoms and function in children with OCD has been shown to be reliable and informative. The results of this study support the application of QoL assessment as an additional measure of treatment outcome in children and adolescents with OCD.

  6. Is late-onset OCD a distinct phenotype? Findings from a comparative analysis of "age at onset" groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Eesha; Sundar, A Shyam; Thennarasu, Kandavel; Reddy, Y C Janardhan

    2015-10-01

    Significant differences in clinical profile and comorbidity patterns have been observed between "juvenile-onset" and "adult-onset" obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). There is little systematic research on onset of OCD after the fourth decade. The current study aims to compare the demographic, clinical, and comorbidity patterns of patients with "juvenile-onset" (OCD. Eight hundred two consecutive patients who consulted a specialty OCD clinic at a tertiary care hospital in India were evaluated with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, and the Clinical Global Impression scale. 37.4%, 57.4%, and 5.2% of patients had juvenile-, adult-, and late-onset OCD, respectively. Late-onset OCD was associated with female gender (χ2=42, pOCD in first-degree relatives (χ2=20.4, pOCD was significantly associated with female gender, collecting compulsions, and less aggressive obsessions, in comparison with adult-onset OCD. In comparison with juvenile-onset, late-onset OCD was significantly associated with female gender, presence of precipitating factors, and less aggressive obsessions, sexual obsessions, and repeating compulsions. Late-onset OCD is characterized by female gender, lesser familial loading for OCD, and presence of precipitating factors, suggesting that it may have a distinct pathophysiology compared to juvenile- and adult-onset OCD. Systematic research is required to understand the family-genetic, neuropsychological, and neurobiological correlates of late-onset OCD.

  7. A Case of Physically Abused OCD Patient Who Physically Abused Her own Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba AYAZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It was suggested that along with genetic factors various psychosocial factors may play a role in the development of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD. Parents’ childrearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences are among the mostly investigated ones. In literature it was indicated that child rearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences may play a role in the development of OCD. There are studies which show that child rearing styles including excessive protection, critical and rejective are associated with the development of OCD. However, it is still controversial that which child rearing styles lead to the OCD through which mechanisms. Besides, in literature it was shown that emotional traumatic experiences lead to the development of OCD through various factors. In addition, understanding what kind of conflict and problems are reflected by people with OCD diagnosis into the relationship with their children is important in terms of interventions that protect the mental health of the child. In this article, it was aimed to discuss psychosocial factors related to the development of OCD symptoms, by examining a case in detail, who had childhood traumatic experiences and has been raised in an environment where negative parenting styles exist, and who physically abused her own child.

  8. Acute obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostick, Leah; Nacasch, Nitsa; Zohar, Joseph

    2012-04-01

    Posttraumatic obsessions have been reported in a few studies and case series. However, as the patients described were chronic, and the onset of their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms was dated some time previously, this hampers interpretation of the temporal, biological and psychological relationship of OCD following traumatic events. In the current paper we describe the emergence of posttraumatic obsessions a short time following the exposure to a traumatic event. The emergence of posttraumatic obsessions, a few months after exposure to trauma, is described for five veterans. All the veterans participated in combat during the summer of 2006 (in the Second Lebanon War). For all cases, OCD symptoms were initially related to the trauma but later became generalized and independent. The course of the symptoms suggests a potential environmental role in the development of OCD following an exposure to a traumatic event. These observations suggest a biological linkage between exposure to trauma and OCD.

  9. OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD) IN GENERAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Patients seldom volunteer OCD as the presenting complaint. They may not ... repeated requests for cancer screening. (somatic ... family support, selective serotonergic ... ioural therapy as part of a holistic approach. Establish treatment goals.

  10. Factor analysis of symptom profile in early onset and late onset OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Sarkar, Siddharth; Gupta, Gourav; Kate, Natasha; Ghosh, Abhishek; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the factor structure of early and late onset OCD. Additionally, cluster analysis was conducted in the same sample to assess the applicability of the factors. 345 participants were assessed with Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale symptom checklist. Patients were classified as early onset (onset of symptoms at age ≤ 18 years) and late onset (onset at age > 18 years) OCD depending upon the age of onset of the symptoms. Factor analysis and cluster analysis of early-onset and late-onset OCD was conducted. The study sample comprised of 91 early onset and 245 late onset OCD subjects. Males were more common in the early onset group. Differences in the frequency of phenomenology related to contamination related, checking, repeating, counting and ordering/arranging compulsions were present across the early and late onset groups. Factor analysis of YBOCS revealed a 3 factor solution for both the groups, which largely concurred with each other. These factors were named as hoarding and symmetry (factor-1), contamination (factor-2) and aggressive, sexual and religious factor (factor-3). To conclude this study shows that factor structure of symptoms of OCD seems to be similar between early-onset and late-onset OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comorbidity, age of onset and suicidality in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): An international collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakoulias, V; Starcevic, V; Belloch, A; Brown, C; Ferrao, Y A; Fontenelle, L F; Lochner, C; Marazziti, D; Matsunaga, H; Miguel, E C; Reddy, Y C J; do Rosario, M C; Shavitt, R G; Shyam Sundar, A; Stein, D J; Torres, A R; Viswasam, K

    2017-07-01

    To collate data from multiple obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) treatment centers across seven countries and five continents, and to report findings in relation to OCD comorbidity, age of onset of OCD and comorbid disorders, and suicidality, in a large clinical and ethnically diverse sample, with the aim of investigating cultural variation and the utility of the psychiatric diagnostic classification of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Researchers in the field of OCD were invited to contribute summary statistics on current and lifetime psychiatric comorbidity, age of onset of OCD and comorbid disorders and suicidality in their patients with OCD. Data from 3711 adult patients with primary OCD came from Brazil (n=955), India (n=802), Italy (n=750), South Africa (n=565), Japan (n=322), Australia (n=219), and Spain (n=98). The most common current comorbid disorders were major depressive disorder (28.4%; n=1055), obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (24.5%, n=478), generalized anxiety disorder (19.3%, n=716), specific phobia (19.2%, n=714) and social phobia (18.5%, n=686). Major depression was also the most commonly co-occurring lifetime diagnosis, with a rate of 50.5% (n=1874). OCD generally had an age of onset in late adolescence (mean=17.9years, SD=1.9). Social phobia, specific phobia and body dysmorphic disorder also had an early age of onset. Co-occurring major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and psychotic disorders tended to have a later age of onset than OCD. Suicidal ideation within the last month was reported by 6.4% (n=200) of patients with OCD and 9.0% (n=314) reported a lifetime history of suicide attempt. In this large cross-continental study, comorbidity in OCD was common. The high rates of comorbid major depression and anxiety disorders emphasize the need for clinicians to assess and monitor for these disorders. Earlier ages of onset of OCD, specific phobia and social phobia may indicate some relatedness between these

  12. A novel approach to challenging OCD related beliefs using a mobile-app: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero, María; Belloch, Amparo; Doron, Guy

    2018-06-01

    According to cognitive models, obsessive compulsive symptoms result from catastrophic misinterpretations of commonly occurring intrusive experiences and the use of counterproductive strategies to manage them. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) related beliefs such as inflated responsibility, importance of thoughts and perfectionism increases the likelihood of such misinterpretations. Consistent with a growing body of literature supporting the usefulness of mobile delivered technologies in fostering cognitive behavior change, the present study assessed the effectiveness of a novel cognitive training exercise designed to challenge OCD-related beliefs. This mobile app training exercise consists of users having to pull statements challenging OCD beliefs towards themselves (downwards) and to throw away (push upwards) contra-productive self-statements. 36 third-year BA students started the trial. Twenty completed pre and post measures of OCD-beliefs, mood and OCD symptoms including relationship-obsessions. Participants were instructed to complete 3 min of daily training for a period of 15 days. No significant differences were found between completers and non-completers on demographic and most symptom related measures at Time 1. Repeated-measures MANOVA of the 20 completers showed a significant reduction on all OCD symptoms measures and on OCD-beliefs. No significant reduction was found in depression symptoms. Regression analysis showed change in levels of OCD-beliefs was associated with reduction in OCD symptoms at Time 2 over and above OCD symptoms at Time 1. The study is an open trial with non-clinical participants. This mobile delivered training exercise may be useful for the reduction and relapse prevention of OCD-related beliefs and symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Animal behavior as a conceptual framework for the study of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, David; Zor, Rama; Fineberg, Naomi; Hermesh, Haggai

    2012-06-01

    Research on affective disorders may benefit from the methodology of studying animal behavior, in which tools are available for qualitatively and quantitatively measuring and assessing behavior with as much sophistication and attention to detail as in the analysis of the brain. To illustrate this, we first briefly review the characteristics of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and then demonstrate how the quinpirole rat model is used as a conceptual model in studying human OCD patients. Like the rat model, the study of OCD in humans is based on video-telemetry, whereby observable, measurable, and relatively objective characteristics of OCD behavior may be extracted. In this process, OCD rituals are defined in terms of the space in which they are executed and the movements (acts) that are performed at each location or object in this space. Accordingly, OCD behavior is conceived of as comprising three hierarchical components: (i) rituals (as defined by the patients); (ii) visits to objects/locations in the environment at which the patient stops during the ritual; and (iii) acts performed at each object/location during visits. Scoring these structural components (behavioral units) is conveniently possible with readily available tools for behavioral description and analysis, providing quantitative and qualitative measures of the OCD hallmarks of repetition and addition, as well as the reduced functionality in OCD behavior. Altogether, the concept that was developed in the context of an animal model provides a useful tool that may facilitate OCD diagnosis, assessment and treatment, and may be similarly applied for other psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News From NIH NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... and Alcoholism (NIAAA) have identified a previously unknown gene variant that doubles an individual's risk for obsessive- ...

  15. A Case of Physically Abused OCD Patient Who Physically Abused Her own Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuðba AYAZ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It was suggested that along with genetic factors various psychosocial factors may play a role in the development of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD. Parents’ childrearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences are among the mostly investigated ones. In literature it was indicated that child rearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences may play a role in the development of OCD. There are studies which show that child rearing styles including excessive protection, critical and rejective are associated with the development of OCD. However, it is still controversial that which child rearing styles lead to the OCD through which mechanisms. Besides, in literature it was shown that emotional traumatic experiences lead to the development of OCD through various factors. In addition, understanding what kind of conflict and problems are reflected by people with OCD diagnosis into the relationship with their children is important in terms of interventions that protect the mental health of the child. In this article, it was aimed to discuss psychosocial factors related to the development of OCD symptoms, by examining a case in detail, who had childhood traumatic experiences and has been raised in an environment where negative parenting styles exist, and who physically abused her own child. (Journal of Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy and Research 2013, 2: 116-120 [JCBPR 2013; 2(2.000: 116-120

  16. Do patients with OCD and pathological gambling have similar dysfunctional cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anholt, G.E.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Cath, D.C.; van Oppen, P.; Nelissen, H.; Smit, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    The obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD) theory postulates that a wide range of disorders is closely related to OCD. Current cognitive models ascertain that certain beliefs leading to misinterpretation of the significance of intrusions are important in the etiology and maintenance of OCD.

  17. Cognitive deficits are a matter of emotional context: inflexible strategy use mediates context-specific learning impairments in OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetsche, Ulrike; Rief, Winfried; Westermann, Stefan; Exner, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the interplay between cognitive deficits and emotional context in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and social phobia (SP). Specifically, this study examines whether the inflexible use of efficient learning strategies in an emotional context underlies impairments in probabilistic classification learning (PCL) in OCD, and whether PCL impairments are specific to OCD. Twenty-three participants with OCD, 30 participants with SP and 30 healthy controls completed a neutral and an OCD-specific PCL task. OCD participants failed to adopt efficient learning strategies and showed fewer beneficial strategy switches than controls only in an OCD-specific context, but not in a neutral context. Additionally, OCD participants did not show any explicit memory impairments. Number of beneficial strategy switches in the OCD-specific task mediated the difference in PCL performance between OCD and control participants. Individuals with SP were impaired in both PCL tasks. In contrast to neuropsychological models postulating general cognitive impairments in OCD, the present findings suggest that it is the interaction between cognition and emotion that is impaired in OCD. Specifically, activated disorder-specific fears may impair the flexible adoption of efficient learning strategies and compromise otherwise unimpaired PCL. Impairments in PCL are not specific to OCD.

  18. Effective behavioural strategies for reducing disgust in contamination-related OCD: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvik, Dominika; Boschen, Mark J; Neumann, David L

    2015-12-01

    Disgust is an understudied but important emotion in various psychological disorders. Over the last decade, increasing evidence suggests that disgust is also present in various subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), especially in contamination-related OCD (C-OCD). The treatment of choice for C-OCD is exposure with response prevention, originally designed to reduce fear-associated emotions thought to be acquired through Pavlovian conditioning (PC). However, disgust has been proposed to be acquired through evaluative conditioning (EC) and according to the referential model of this form of learning, there are functional differences between PC and EC that need to be considered in the treatment of disgust-related responses. Alternative strategies suggested by EC-based models include counterconditioning (contingent presentation of the CS with a US of opposite valence) and US revaluation (contingent presentation of the US with US of opposite valence). Drawing on the referential model, this paper reviews evidence for the effectiveness of each strategy to identify the most theoretically sound and empirically valid intervention to reduce disgust in C-OCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Children's Naive Concepts of OCD and How They Are Affected by Biomedical Versus Cognitive Behavioural Psychoeducation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butlin, B; Wilson, C

    2018-04-04

    How we conceptualize mental health conditions is important as it impacts on a wide range of mediators of treatment outcome. We do not know how children intuitively conceptualize obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), nor do we know the relative impact of biomedical or cognitive behavioural conceptual explanations, yet both are being widely used in psychoeducation for children with OCD. This study identified children's naive concepts of OCD, and the comparative impact of biomedical versus cognitive behavioural psychoeducation on perceived prognosis. A within- and between-subjects experimental design was used. After watching a video of a young person describing their OCD, 202 children completed a questionnaire examining their concepts of the condition. They repeated the questionnaire following a second equivalent video, this time preceded by either biomedical or cognitive behavioural psychoeducation. Participants' naive concepts of OCD reflected predominant models of OCD in healthcare. Even at the minimal dose of psychoeducation, participants' conceptualizations of OCD changed. Prior exposure to OCD resulted in a stronger alignment with the biomedical model. Exposure to biomedical psychoeducation resulted in participants predicting a slower recovery with less chance of complete remission. Psychoeducation for childhood OCD is impactful. Despite its wide use by clinicians and mental health services, biomedical psychoeducation appears to have deleterious effects. Children's concepts of OCD merit attention but caution should be applied in how they are targeted.

  20. Microglial Dysregulation in OCD, Tourette Syndrome, and PANDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Frick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is accumulating evidence that immune dysregulation contributes to the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, Tourette syndrome, and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS. The mechanistic details of this pathophysiology, however, remain unclear. Here we focus on one particular component of the immune system: microglia, the brain’s resident immune cells. The role of microglia in neurodegenerative diseases has been understood in terms of classic, inflammatory activation, which may be both a consequence and a cause of neuronal damage. In OCD and Tourette syndrome, which are not characterized by frank neural degeneration, the potential role of microglial dysregulation is much less clear. Here we review the evidence for a neuroinflammatory etiology and microglial dysregulation in OCD, Tourette syndrome, and PANDAS. We also explore new hypotheses as to the potential contributions of microglial abnormalities to pathophysiology, beyond neuroinflammation, including failures in neuroprotection, lack of support for neuronal survival, and abnormalities in synaptic pruning. Recent advances in neuroimaging and animal model work are creating new opportunities to elucidate these issues.

  1. Microglial Dysregulation in OCD, Tourette Syndrome, and PANDAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that immune dysregulation contributes to the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), Tourette syndrome, and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS). The mechanistic details of this pathophysiology, however, remain unclear. Here we focus on one particular component of the immune system: microglia, the brain's resident immune cells. The role of microglia in neurodegenerative diseases has been understood in terms of classic, inflammatory activation, which may be both a consequence and a cause of neuronal damage. In OCD and Tourette syndrome, which are not characterized by frank neural degeneration, the potential role of microglial dysregulation is much less clear. Here we review the evidence for a neuroinflammatory etiology and microglial dysregulation in OCD, Tourette syndrome, and PANDAS. We also explore new hypotheses as to the potential contributions of microglial abnormalities to pathophysiology, beyond neuroinflammation, including failures in neuroprotection, lack of support for neuronal survival, and abnormalities in synaptic pruning. Recent advances in neuroimaging and animal model work are creating new opportunities to elucidate these issues. PMID:28053994

  2. The Impact of Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder on Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Olivia M; Salkovskis, Paul M; Bream, Victoria

    2016-07-01

    It is often suggested that, in general, co-morbid personality disorders are likely to interfere with CBT based treatment of Axis I disorders, given that personality disorders are regarded as dispositional and are therefore considered less amenable to change than axis I psychiatric disorders. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of co-occurring obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) on cognitive-behavioural treatment for OCD. 92 individuals with a diagnosis of OCD participated in this study. Data were drawn from measures taken at initial assessment and following cognitive-behavioural treatment at a specialist treatment centre for anxiety disorders. At assessment, participants with OCD and OCPD had greater overall OCD symptom severity, as well as doubting, ordering and hoarding symptoms relative to those without OCPD; however, participants with co-morbid OCD and OCPD demonstrated greater treatment gains in terms of OCD severity, checking and ordering than those without OCPD. Individuals with OCD and OCPD had higher levels of checking, ordering and overall OCD severity at initial assessment; however, at post-treatment they had similar scores to those without OCPD. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of research on axis I and II co-morbidity and the impact of axis II disorders on treatment for axis I disorders.

  3. Enhancing Exposure and Response Prevention for OCD: A Couple-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Baucom, Donald H.; Wheaton, Michael G.; Boeding, Sara; Fabricant, Laura E.; Paprocki, Christine; Fischer, Melanie S.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of individual therapy by exposure and response prevention (ERP) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is well established, yet not all patients respond well, and some show relapse on discontinuation. This article begins by providing an overview of the personal and interpersonal experiences of OCD, focusing on interpersonal…

  4. Should OCD be classified as an anxiety disorder in DSM-V?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Dan J.; Fineberg, Naomi A.; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Denys, Damiaan; Lochner, Christine; Nestadt, Gerald; Leckman, James F.; Rauch, Scott L.; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2010-01-01

    In DSM-III, DSM-III-R, and DSM-IV, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was classified as an anxiety disorder. In ICD-10, OCD is classified separately from the anxiety disorders, although within the same larger category as anxiety disorders (as one of the "neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform

  5. Rapid mechanisms of DBS in OCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, P.P.

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) for therapy-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients is capable of improving psychiatric symptoms within seconds to minutes following stimulation initiation. This extraordinary response enticed my interest in exploring the underlying mechanism of DBS for

  6. Cross-disorder genome-wide analyses suggest a complex genetic relationship between Tourette's syndrome and OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Neale, Benjamin M; Davis, Lea K; Gamazon, Eric R; Derks, Eske M; Evans, Patrick; Edlund, Christopher K; Crane, Jacquelyn; Fagerness, Jesen A; Osiecki, Lisa; Gallagher, Patience; Gerber, Gloria; Haddad, Stephen; Illmann, Cornelia; McGrath, Lauren M; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Arepalli, Sampath; Barlassina, Cristina; Barr, Cathy L; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrió, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Black, Donald W; Bloch, Michael H; Brentani, Helena; Bruun, Ruth D; Budman, Cathy L; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond D; Cappi, Carolina; Silgado, Julio C Cardona; Cavallini, Maria C; Chavira, Denise A; Chouinard, Sylvain; Cook, Edwin H; Cookson, M R; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Cusi, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Gilbert, Donald L; Girard, Simon L; Grabe, Hans J; Grados, Marco A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Hardy, John; Heiman, Gary A; Hemmings, Sian M J; Herrera, Luis D; Hezel, Dianne M; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L; King, Robert A; Konkashbaev, Anuar I; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; Manunta, Paolo; Marconi, Maurizio; McCracken, James T; Mesa Restrepo, Sandra C; Moessner, Rainald; Moorjani, Priya; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L; Naarden, Allan L; Nurmi, Erika; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A; Pakstis, Andrew J; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L; Renner, Tobias; Reus, Victor I; Richter, Margaret A; Riddle, Mark A; Robertson, Mary M; Romero, Roxana; Rosário, Maria C; Rosenberg, David; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sabatti, Chiara; Salvi, Erika; Sampaio, Aline S; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Service, Susan K; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S; Smit, Jan H; Stein, Dan J; Strengman, Eric; Tischfield, Jay A; Turiel, Maurizio; Valencia Duarte, Ana V; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Weale, Mike; Weiss, Robert; Wendland, Jens R; Westenberg, Herman G M; Shugart, Yin Yao; Hounie, Ana G; Miguel, Euripedes C; Nicolini, Humberto; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cath, Danielle C; McMahon, William; Posthuma, Danielle; Oostra, Ben A; Nestadt, Gerald; Rouleau, Guy A; Purcell, Shaun; Jenike, Michael A; Heutink, Peter; Hanna, Gregory L; Conti, David V; Arnold, Paul D; Freimer, Nelson B; Stewart, S Evelyn; Knowles, James A; Cox, Nancy J; Pauls, David L

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The authors report a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Tourette's syndrome and OCD. The authors conducted a GWAS in 2,723 cases (1,310 with OCD, 834 with Tourette's syndrome, 579 with OCD plus Tourette's syndrome/chronic tics), 5,667 ancestry-matched controls, and 290 OCD parent-child trios. GWAS summary statistics were examined for enrichment of functional variants associated with gene expression levels in brain regions. Polygenic score analyses were conducted to investigate the genetic architecture within and across the two disorders. Although no individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) achieved genome-wide significance, the GWAS signals were enriched for SNPs strongly associated with variations in brain gene expression levels (expression quantitative loci, or eQTLs), suggesting the presence of true functional variants that contribute to risk of these disorders. Polygenic score analyses identified a significant polygenic component for OCD (p=2×10(-4)), predicting 3.2% of the phenotypic variance in an independent data set. In contrast, Tourette's syndrome had a smaller, nonsignificant polygenic component, predicting only 0.6% of the phenotypic variance (p=0.06). No significant polygenic signal was detected across the two disorders, although the sample is likely underpowered to detect a modest shared signal. Furthermore, the OCD polygenic signal was significantly attenuated when cases with both OCD and co-occurring Tourette's syndrome/chronic tics were included in the analysis (p=0.01). Previous work has shown that Tourette's syndrome and OCD have some degree of shared genetic variation. However, the data from this study suggest that there are also distinct

  7. Moral thought-action fusion and OCD symptoms: the moderating role of religious affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siev, Jedidiah; Chambless, Dianne L; Huppert, Jonathan D

    2010-04-01

    The empirical literature on the relationship between moral thought-action fusion (TAF) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by mixed findings. Previous studies have reported religious group differences in moral TAF and the relationship between moral TAF and religiosity. In light of those studies and considering the apparent role of moral TAF in scrupulosity, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the possible role of religion as a moderator of the relationship between moral TAF and OCD symptoms. The results revealed that (a) Christians endorsed higher levels of moral TAF than did Jews independent of OCD symptoms; (b) religiosity was correlated with moral TAF in Christians but not in Jews, suggesting that Christian religious adherence is related to beliefs about the moral import of thoughts; and (c) moral TAF was related to OCD symptoms only in Jews. That is, for Christians, moral TAF was related to religiosity but not OCD symptoms, and for Jews, moral TAF was related to OCD symptoms but not religiosity. These results imply that moral TAF is only a marker of pathology when such beliefs are not culturally normative (e.g., as a function of religious teaching or doctrine). (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A pilot study exploring the association of morphological changes with 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in OCD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Shinichi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Mitsuyasu, Hiroshi; Okada, Kayo; Gotoh, Leo; Tomita, Mayumi; Sanematsu, Hirokuni; Murayama, Keitaro; Ikari, Keisuke; Kuwano, Masumi; Yoshiura, Takashi; Kawasaki, Hiroaki; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2017-01-01

    Clinical and pharmacological studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have suggested that the serotonergic systems are involved in the pathogenesis, while structural imaging studies have found some neuroanatomical abnormalities in OCD patients. In the etiopathogenesis of OCD, few studies have performed concurrent assessment of genetic and neuroanatomical variables. We carried out a two-way ANOVA between a variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR) in the serotonin transporter gene and gray matter (GM) volumes in 40 OCD patients and 40 healthy controls (HCs). We found that relative to the HCs, the OCD patients showed significant decreased GM volume in the right hippocampus, and increased GM volume in the left precentral gyrus. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in OCD patients had a statistical tendency of stronger effects on the right frontal pole than those in HCs. Our results showed that the neuroanatomical changes of specific GM regions could be endophenotypes of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in OCD.

  9. Social behavior in deer mice as a novel interactive paradigm of relevance for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmarans, De Wet; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

    2017-04-01

    Greater obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom severity may be associated with poor social adjustment. Rather than possessing deficits in social skill per se, OCD patients may be more socially isolative in the presence of normal controls. We aimed to apply a novel social interaction challenge (SIC) to an established animal model of OCD, viz., the deer mouse, to assess complex social behavior in animals by investigating group sociability and its response to chronic escitalopram treatment (50 mg/kg/day × 28 days), both within and between non (N)- (viz., normal) and high (H)- (viz., OCD-like) stereotypical cohorts. Using automated screening, we scored approach behavior, episodes of proximity, duration of proximity, and relative net weighted movement. H animals socialized more with one another within cohort in all of the above parameters compared to the within-cohort behavior of N animals. Furthermore, the social behavior of H animals toward one another, both within and between cohort demonstrated significant improvements following chronic escitalopram treatment. However, the study also demonstrates that the social interaction between H and N animals remain poor even after chronic escitalopram treatment. To conclude, findings from the current investigation support clinical data demonstrating altered sociability in patients with OCD.

  10. In the wake of a possible mistake: Security motivation, checking behavior, and OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Andrea L; Woody, Erik Z; Schmidt, Louis A; Van Ameringen, Michael; Szechtman, Henry

    2015-12-01

    In previous experiments, OCD washers did not differ significantly from controls in their initial level of activation in response to the potential threat of contamination; however, they were less able to reduce their activation by engaging in hand-washing, suggesting that the key problem in OCD is a faulty stopping mechanism. The main objectives of the present experiments were to develop a similar experimental paradigm for investigating checking behavior, and to use it to test the hypothesis that a faulty stopping mechanism also underlies OCD checking. Participants sorted pills under the guise of beta testing a new medication system and then were given suggestions of the possibility of having made mistakes with potentially serious consequences. Later, participants engaged in a 90-s checking period and an unlimited period of checking. At baseline and three other times during the experiment, security motivation was measured with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and subjective ratings of confidence. Experiment 1 established the parameters of the paradigm in non-patient participants, and Experiment 2 contrasted OCD checkers with OCD washers and non-patients. Results for both subjective and physiological measures of security motivation closely replicated previous findings for washing behavior. Groups did not differ significantly in initial activation, but the OCD checkers were unable to reduce their activation by engaging in period of checking that was ample for returning controls to baseline. The sample size for the patient groups was modest. These results lend further support to the security-motivation theory of OCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phenomenology of OCD: lessons from a large multicenter study and implications for ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavitt, Roseli G; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Oki, Fábio; Ferrao, Ygor A; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Torres, Albina R; Diniz, Juliana B; Costa, Daniel L C; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Hoexter, Marcelo Q; Miguel, Euripedes C; Simpson, H Blair

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), addressing specific questions about the nature of obsessions and compulsions, and to contribute to the World Health Organization's (WHO) revision of OCD diagnostic guidelines. Data from 1001 patients from the Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders were used. Patients were evaluated by trained clinicians using validated instruments, including the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the University of Sao Paulo Sensory Phenomena Scale, and the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale. The aims were to compare the types of sensory phenomena (SP, subjective experiences that precede or accompany compulsions) in OCD patients with and without tic disorders and to determine the frequency of mental compulsions, the co-occurrence of obsessions and compulsions, and the range of insight. SP were common in the whole sample, but patients with tic disorders were more likely to have physical sensations and urges only. Mental compulsions occurred in the majority of OCD patients. It was extremely rare for OCD patients to have obsessions without compulsions. A wide range of insight into OCD beliefs was observed, with a small subset presenting no insight. The data generated from this large sample will help practicing clinicians appreciate the full range of OCD symptoms and confirm prior studies in smaller samples the degree to which insight varies. These findings also support specific revisions to the WHO's diagnostic guidelines for OCD, such as describing sensory phenomena, mental compulsions and level of insight, so that the world-wide recognition of this disabling disorder is increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Bipolar obsessive-compulsive disorder: confirmation of results of the "ABC-OCD" survey in 2 populations of patient members versus non-members of an association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantouche, E G; Kochman, F; Demonfaucon, C; Barrot, I; Millet, B; Lancrenon, S; Akiskal, H S

    2002-01-01

    Clinical data are largely focused on depressive comorbidity in OCD. However in practice, treating resistant or severe OCD sufferers revealed many cases who seem to have an authentic OCD with a hidden comorbid bipolar disorder. Most reports had evaluated the OCD comorbidity in unipolar and bipolar mood disorders (Kruger et al., 1995; Chen et Dilsaver, 1995). The only investigation in clinical population focused on the reverse issue was conducted in Pisa. Perugi et al. (1997) have showed in a consecutive series of 315 OCD outpatients, that 15.7% presented a bipolar comorbidity, mostly with BP-II disorder. Further analyses suggested that when comorbidity occurs with bipolar and unipolar depression, it has a differential impact on the clinical picture and course of OCD. The rate of bipolar comorbidity in OCD was analyzed in a recent epidemiological survey undertaken by the French Association of patients suffering from OCD (FA-OCD or AFTOC in French). In a sample of 453 OCD patients, 76% had suffered from a major depression, 11% from bipolar disorder (DSM IV mania or hypomania), 30% from hypomania (cases that obtained a score > or = 10 on the self-rated Angst Hypomania Checklist). According to the score > or = 10 on Self-rated Questionnaire for Cyclothymic Temperament, 50% were classified as cyclothymic. The self-assessment of soft-bipolar dimensions, such as hypomania and cyclothymia was previously validated in a multi-site study in major depression (Hantouche et al., 1998). Further analyses showed that comorbidity with soft bipolarity was characterized by significant interactions with high levels of impulsivity, anger attacks and suicidal behavior. In order to confirm these data, another cohort (n = 175 patients treated by psychiatrists for OCD) was formed and named "PSY-OCD". Comparative analyses between the two populations allowed showing very few demographic and clinical differences. The frequency rate of "bipolar OCD" was equivalent in both populations: BP

  13. Deep Brain Stimulation of Medial Dorsal and Ventral Anterior Nucleus of the Thalamus in OCD: A Retrospective Case Series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maarouf

    Full Text Available The current notion that cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits are involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD has instigated the search for the most suitable target for deep brain stimulation (DBS. However, despite extensive research, uncertainty about the ideal target remains with many structures being underexplored. The aim of this report is to address a new target for DBS, the medial dorsal (MD and the ventral anterior (VA nucleus of the thalamus, which has thus far received little attention in the treatment of OCD.In this retrospective trial, four patients (three female, one male aged 31-48 years, suffering from therapy-refractory OCD underwent high-frequency DBS of the MD and VA. In two patients (de novo group the thalamus was chosen as a primary target for DBS, whereas in two patients (rescue DBS group lead implantation was performed in a rescue DBS attempt following unsuccessful primary stimulation.Continuous thalamic stimulation yielded no significant improvement in OCD symptom severity. Over the course of thalamic DBS symptoms improved in only one patient who showed "partial response" on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive (Y-BOCS Scale. Beck Depression Inventory scores dropped by around 46% in the de novo group; anxiety symptoms improved by up to 34%. In the de novo DBS group no effect of DBS on anxiety and mood was observable.MD/VA-DBS yielded no adequate alleviation of therapy-refractory OCD, the overall strategy in targeting MD/VA as described in this paper can thus not be recommended in DBS for OCD. The magnocellular portion of MD (MDMC, however, might prove a promising target in the treatment of mood related and anxiety disorders.

  14. Deep Brain Stimulation of Medial Dorsal and Ventral Anterior Nucleus of the Thalamus in OCD: A Retrospective Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarouf, Mohammad; Neudorfer, Clemens; El Majdoub, Faycal; Lenartz, Doris; Kuhn, Jens; Sturm, Volker

    2016-01-01

    The current notion that cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits are involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has instigated the search for the most suitable target for deep brain stimulation (DBS). However, despite extensive research, uncertainty about the ideal target remains with many structures being underexplored. The aim of this report is to address a new target for DBS, the medial dorsal (MD) and the ventral anterior (VA) nucleus of the thalamus, which has thus far received little attention in the treatment of OCD. In this retrospective trial, four patients (three female, one male) aged 31-48 years, suffering from therapy-refractory OCD underwent high-frequency DBS of the MD and VA. In two patients (de novo group) the thalamus was chosen as a primary target for DBS, whereas in two patients (rescue DBS group) lead implantation was performed in a rescue DBS attempt following unsuccessful primary stimulation. Continuous thalamic stimulation yielded no significant improvement in OCD symptom severity. Over the course of thalamic DBS symptoms improved in only one patient who showed "partial response" on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive (Y-BOCS) Scale. Beck Depression Inventory scores dropped by around 46% in the de novo group; anxiety symptoms improved by up to 34%. In the de novo DBS group no effect of DBS on anxiety and mood was observable. MD/VA-DBS yielded no adequate alleviation of therapy-refractory OCD, the overall strategy in targeting MD/VA as described in this paper can thus not be recommended in DBS for OCD. The magnocellular portion of MD (MDMC), however, might prove a promising target in the treatment of mood related and anxiety disorders.

  15. Patients with OCD report lower quality of life after controlling for expert-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangard, Leila; Fadaei, Vahid; Sajadi, Arezoo; Haghighi, Mohammad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Matinnia, Nasrin; Bajoghli, Hafez; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Lang, Undine; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-12-02

    One to three percent of the adult population suffers from obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). Previous studies have also shown that, compared to controls, patients with OCD report a lower QoL. The latter is associated with self-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety. The aim of the present study was to compare the quality of life of OCD patients with that of healthy controls, while introducing expert-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety as covariates. Gender was also taken into account as an additional associated factor. A total of 100 patients diagnosed with OCD (mean age: 32 years; 64% females) and healthy 100 controls (mean age: 31 years; 59% females; no discernible psychiatric disorder) took part in the present cross-sectional study. All participants completed questionnaires covering socio-demographic characteristics and dimensions of QoL. Experts rated participants' symptoms of OCD (Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale) and depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale). Compared to healthy controls, patients with OCD reported a lower QoL, and had higher symptoms of depression and anxiety. This pattern was particularly pronounced among female patients with OCD. QoL was lower in patients with OCD, even when controlling for depression and anxiety. Results from binary logistic regressions showed that female gender, low QoL and higher symptoms of OCD, depression and anxiety together predicted status as patient with OCD. Compared to healthy controls, patients with OCD have a poorer quality of life and this is independent of depression or anxiety, and is particularly pronounced among female patients. Thus, treatment of OCD might take into account patients' comorbidities and gender. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Polygenic risk score and heritability estimates reveals a genetic relationship between ASD and OCD.

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    Guo, W; Samuels, J F; Wang, Y; Cao, H; Ritter, M; Nestadt, P S; Krasnow, J; Greenberg, B D; Fyer, A J; McCracken, J T; Geller, D A; Murphy, D L; Knowles, J A; Grados, M A; Riddle, M A; Rasmussen, S A; McLaughlin, N C; Nurmi, E L; Askland, K D; Cullen, B A; Piacentini, J; Pauls, D L; Bienvenu, O J; Stewart, S E; Goes, F S; Maher, B; Pulver, A E; Valle, D; Mattheisen, M; Qian, J; Nestadt, G; Shugart, Y Y

    2017-07-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that conceivably share genetic risk factors. However, the underlying genetic determinants remain largely unknown. In this work, the authors describe a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ASD and OCD. The OCD dataset includes 2998 individuals in nuclear families. The ASD dataset includes 6898 individuals in case-parents trios. GWAS summary statistics were examined for potential enrichment of functional variants associated with gene expression levels in brain regions. The top ranked SNP is rs4785741 (chromosome 16) with P value=6.9×10 -7 in our re-analysis. Polygenic risk score analyses were conducted to investigate the genetic relationship within and across the two disorders. These analyses identified a significant polygenic component of ASD, predicting 0.11% of the phenotypic variance in an independent OCD data set. In addition, we examined the genomic architecture of ASD and OCD by estimating heritability on different chromosomes and different allele frequencies, analyzing genome-wide common variant data by using the Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) program. The estimated global heritability of OCD is 0.427 (se=0.093) and 0.174 (se=0.053) for ASD in these imputed data. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Hoping for more: How cognitive science has and hasn't been helpful to the OCD clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, Allison J; Ashbaugh, Andrea R; Radomsky, Adam S

    2018-04-12

    Cognitive-behavioural models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) stemmed from knowledge acquired from cognitive science. Researchers continue to apply basic cognitive-affective science methods to understanding OCD, with the overarching goal of improving and refining evidence-based treatments. However, the degree to which such research has contributed to this goal is unclear. We reviewed OCD research in the general areas that comprise basic cognitive science, and evaluated the degree to which it has contributed to our understanding of the development, maintenance, and treatment of OCD. We focused on studies that either compared people with and without OCD and/or used experimental psychopathology methods with human participants, and attempted to resolve some of the conflicting theories related to the importance of cognitive deficits vs. cognitive biases. Overall, we observed equivocal findings for deficits in perception, attention, memory, and executive functioning. Moreover, many so-called deficits were moderated and/or explained by OCD-relevant beliefs, highlighting the role of confidence in cognitive processes as integral to our understanding of OCD. We discussed these findings in terms of cognitive measurement, cognitive-behavioural models, and clinical applicability, and made recommendations for future research that may offer innovation and insight helpful to clinicians working to improve the symptoms and lives of people with OCD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adulthood outcome of tic and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity in children with Tourette syndrome.

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    Bloch, Michael H; Peterson, Bradley S; Scahill, Lawrence; Otka, Jessica; Katsovich, Lily; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F

    2006-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder that is characterized by both motor and phonic tics. One half to two thirds of children with TS experience a reduction or complete resolution of tic symptoms during adolescence. At least one third of adults with TS have comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). To clarify the clinical course of tic and OCD symptoms in children with TS and determine if baseline clinical measurements in childhood are associated with future symptom severity in late adolescence and early adulthood. Prospective cohort study. Yale Child Study Center tic and OCD outpatient specialty clinic. Forty-six children with TS who received a structured clinical evaluation prior to age 14 years. Expert-rated tic and OCD symptom severity at follow-up interview an average of 7.6 years later (range, 3.8-12.8 years). Eighty-five percent of subjects reported a reduction in tic symptoms during adolescence. Only increased tic severity in childhood was associated with increased tic severity at follow-up. The average age at worst-ever tic severity was 10.6 years. Forty-one percent of patients with TS reported at one time experiencing at least moderate OCD symptoms. Worst-ever OCD symptoms occurred approximately 2 years later than worst-ever tic symptoms. Increased childhood IQ was strongly associated with increased OCD severity at follow-up. Obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms in children with TS became more severe at a later age and were more likely to persist than tic symptoms.

  19. Neural correlates of processing harmonic expectancy violations in children and adolescents with OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Judith; Roessner, Veit

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exhibit enhanced awareness of embedded stimulus patterns as well as enhanced allocation of attention towards unexpected stimuli. Our study aimed at investigating these OCD characteristics by running the harmonic expectancy violation paradigm in 21 boys with OCD and 29 healthy controls matched for age, gender and IQ during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. Each trial consisted of a chord sequence in which the first four chords induced a strong expectancy for a harmonic chord at the next position. In 70% of the trials the fifth chord fulfilled this expectancy (harmonic condition), while in 30% the expectancy was violated (disharmonic condition). Overall, the harmonic condition elicited blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activation in the auditory cortex, while during the disharmonic condition the precuneus, the auditory cortex, the medial frontal gyrus, the premotor cortex, the lingual gyrus, the inferior frontal gyrus and the superior frontal gyrus were activated. In a cluster extending from the right superior temporal gyrus to the inferior frontal gyrus, boys with OCD exhibited increased activation compared to healthy controls in the harmonic condition and decreased activation in the disharmonic condition. Our findings might indicate that patients with OCD are excessively engaged in processing the implicit structure embedded in music stimuli, but they speak against the suggestion that OCD is associated with a misallocation of attention towards the processing of unexpected stimuli.

  20. Neural correlates of processing harmonic expectancy violations in children and adolescents with OCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Buse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD exhibit enhanced awareness of embedded stimulus patterns as well as enhanced allocation of attention towards unexpected stimuli. Our study aimed at investigating these OCD characteristics by running the harmonic expectancy violation paradigm in 21 boys with OCD and 29 healthy controls matched for age, gender and IQ during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scan. Each trial consisted of a chord sequence in which the first four chords induced a strong expectancy for a harmonic chord at the next position. In 70% of the trials the fifth chord fulfilled this expectancy (harmonic condition, while in 30% the expectancy was violated (disharmonic condition. Overall, the harmonic condition elicited blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD activation in the auditory cortex, while during the disharmonic condition the precuneus, the auditory cortex, the medial frontal gyrus, the premotor cortex, the lingual gyrus, the inferior frontal gyrus and the superior frontal gyrus were activated. In a cluster extending from the right superior temporal gyrus to the inferior frontal gyrus, boys with OCD exhibited increased activation compared to healthy controls in the harmonic condition and decreased activation in the disharmonic condition. Our findings might indicate that patients with OCD are excessively engaged in processing the implicit structure embedded in music stimuli, but they speak against the suggestion that OCD is associated with a misallocation of attention towards the processing of unexpected stimuli.

  1. Increased decision thresholds enhance information gathering performance in juvenile Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

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    Iannaccone, Reto; Brem, Silvia; Walitza, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can be described as cautious and hesitant, manifesting an excessive indecisiveness that hinders efficient decision making. However, excess caution in decision making may also lead to better performance in specific situations where the cost of extended deliberation is small. We compared 16 juvenile OCD patients with 16 matched healthy controls whilst they performed a sequential information gathering task under different external cost conditions. We found that patients with OCD outperformed healthy controls, winning significantly more points. The groups also differed in the number of draws required prior to committing to a decision, but not in decision accuracy. A novel Bayesian computational model revealed that subjective sampling costs arose as a non-linear function of sampling, closely resembling an escalating urgency signal. Group difference in performance was best explained by a later emergence of these subjective costs in the OCD group, also evident in an increased decision threshold. Our findings present a novel computational model and suggest that enhanced information gathering in OCD can be accounted for by a higher decision threshold arising out of an altered perception of costs that, in some specific contexts, may be advantageous. PMID:28403139

  2. An Uncontrolled Examination of a 5-Day Intensive Treatment for Pediatric OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Stephen P.; Jacobsen, Amy Brown

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of a 5-day intensive treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Fifteen children with OCD received a week-long treatment based on exposure and response prevention (ERP). The intervention also emphasized teaching children and parents how to conduct ERP independently at home. All families…

  3. The glutamate and the immune systems: new targets for the pharmacological treatment of OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Albert, Umberto; Mucci, Federico; Piccinni, Armando

    2017-11-08

    In the last decades the pharmacological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been significantly promoted by the effectiveness of selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the subsequent development of the 5-HT hypothesis of OCD. However, since a large majority of patients (between 40% and 60 %) do not respond to SSRIs or strategies based on the modulation of the 5-HT system, it is now essential to search for other possible therapeutic targets. The aim of this paper was to review current literature through a PubMed and Google Scholar search of novel hypotheses and related compounds for the treatment of OCD, with a special focus on the glutammate and the immune systems. The literature would indicate that glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter, might play an important role in the pathophysiology of OCD. In addition, a series of clinical study would also support the potential efficacy of drugs modulating the glutamate system. The role of the immune system alterations in OCD in both children and adults needs to be more deeply elucidated. In children, it has been widely described a subtype of OCD resulting from infections driven by group A streptococcus β-hemolitic and belonging to the so-called "pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus" (PANDAS). In adults, available findings are meager and controversial, although interesting. The glutamate and the immune systems represent two intriguing topics of research that hold promises of development of open novel treatment strategies in OCD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and female reproductive cycle events: results from the OCD and reproduction collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guglielmi, Valeria; Vulink, Nienke C. C.; Denys, Damiaan; Wang, Ying; Samuels, Jack F.; Nestadt, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Women with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often report that symptoms first appear or exacerbate during reproductive cycle events; however, little is known about these relationships. The goals of this study were to examine, in a US and a European female OCD sample, onset and exacerbation of OCD

  5. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and female reproductive cycle events: results from the OCD and reproduction collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Valeria; Vulink, Nienke C C; Denys, Damiaan; Wang, Ying; Samuels, Jack F; Nestadt, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    Women with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often report that symptoms first appear or exacerbate during reproductive cycle events; however, little is known about these relationships. The goals of this study were to examine, in a US and a European female OCD sample, onset and exacerbation of OCD in reproductive cycle events, and to investigate the likelihood of repeat exacerbation in subsequent pregnancies and postpartum periods. Five hundred forty-two women (United States, n = 352; Dutch, n = 190) who met DSM-IV criteria for OCD, completed self-report questionnaires designed to assess OCD onset and symptom exacerbation associated with reproductive events. OCD onset occurred within 12 months after menarche in 13.0%, during pregnancy in 5.1%, at postpartum in 4.7%, and at menopause in 3.7%. Worsening of pre-existing OCD was reported by 37.6% of women at premenstruum, 33.0% during pregnancy, 46.6% postpartum, and 32.7% at menopause. Exacerbation in first pregnancy was significantly associated with exacerbation in second pregnancy (OR = 10.82, 95% CI 4.48-26.16), as was exacerbation in first postpartum with exacerbation in second postpartum (OR = 6.86, 95% CI 3.27-14.36). Results were replicated in both samples. Reproductive cycle events are periods of increased risk for onset and exacerbation of OCD in women. The present study is the first to provide significant evidence that exacerbation in or after first pregnancy is a substantial risk factor for exacerbation in or after a subsequent pregnancy. Further research is needed to identify factors related to exacerbation, so that physicians may provide appropriate recommendations to women regarding clinical issues involving OCD and reproductive cycle events. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Validity of Quinpirole Sensitization Rat Model of OCD: Linking Evidence from Animal and Clinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlik, Ales; Radostová, Dominika; Hatalova, Hana; Vales, Karel; Nekovarova, Tereza; Koprivova, Jana; Svoboda, Jan; Horacek, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with 1-3% prevalence. OCD is characterized by recurrent thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors (compulsions). The pathophysiology of OCD remains unclear, stressing the importance of pre-clinical studies. The aim of this article is to critically review a proposed animal model of OCD that is characterized by the induction of compulsive checking and behavioral sensitization to the D2/D3 dopamine agonist quinpirole. Changes in this model have been reported at the level of brain structures, neurotransmitter systems and other neurophysiological aspects. In this review, we consider these alterations in relation to the clinical manifestations in OCD, with the aim to discuss and evaluate axes of validity of this model. Our analysis shows that some axes of validity of quinpirole sensitization model (QSM) are strongly supported by clinical findings, such as behavioral phenomenology or roles of brain structures. Evidence on predictive validity is contradictory and ambiguous. It is concluded that this model is useful in the context of searching for the underlying pathophysiological basis of the disorder because of the relatively strong biological similarities with OCD.

  7. Stroop task among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and pathological gambling (PG) in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peles, Einat; Weinstein, Aviv; Sason, Anat; Adelson, Miriam; Schreiber, Shaul

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the impaired attention selection (Stroop interference effect) and general performance [reaction times (RTs)] on the Stroop task among methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), pathological gambling (PG), both PG/OCD or none, and the influence if having ADHD. Eighty-six patients and 15 control subjects underwent the Stroop task, which measured RTs of condition-related words (color, obsessive compulsive disorder, pathological gambling, addiction) and neutral words. MMT patients had longer RTs on the Stroop task compared with controls. RTs were longer among patients with OCD and in those who abused drugs on the study day. The combined PG/OCD group had the longest RTs, but they were also characterized as abusing more drugs, being older, and having worse cognitive status. Stroop color interference differed only among MMT patients with ADHD, and it was higher among those with OCD than those without OCD. The modified condition-related Stroop did not show any interference effect of OCD, addiction, or gambling words. MMT patients had generally poorer performance, as indicated by longer RTs, that were related to clinical OCD, drug abuse, poor cognitive state, and older age. Patients with both clinical OCD and ADHD had a higher Stroop interference effect, which is a reflection of an attention deficit. In order to improve clinical approach and treatment of MMT patients, OCD and ADHD should be evaluated (and treated as needed).

  8. Does higher severity really correlate with a worse quality of life in obsessive–compulsive disorder? A meta-regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozza A

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Pozza,1 Christine Lochner,2 Fabio Ferretti,1 Alessandro Cuomo,3 Anna Coluccia1 1Department of Medical Sciences, Surgery and Neurosciences, Santa Maria alle Scotte University Hospital of Siena, Siena, Italy; 2SU/UCT MRC Unit on Anxiety and Stress Disorders, Department of Psychiatry, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; 3Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Siena School of Medicine and Department of Mental Health, University of Siena Medical Center (AOUS, Siena, Italy Background: Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD is one of the leading causes of disability and reduced quality of life (QOL, with impairment in a number of domains. However, there is a paucity of literature on the association between severity of OCD symptoms and QOL, and the data that do exist are inconsistent. In addition, the role of severity in QOL has not been summarized as yet from a cross-generational perspective (ie, across childhood/adolescence and adulthood. Through meta-regression techniques, the current study summarized evidence about the moderator role of severity of OCD symptoms on differences in global QOL between individuals with OCD and controls. Methods: Online databases were searched, and cross-sectional case–control studies comparing participants of all ages with OCD with controls on self-report QOL measures were included. Random-effect meta-regression techniques were used to comment on the role of illness severity in global QOL in individuals with OCD. Results: Thirteen studies were included. A positive significant association emerged between OCD severity and effect sizes on global QOL: in samples with higher severity, there were narrower differences in QOL between patients with OCD and controls than in samples with lower severity. Such positive association was confirmed by a sensitivity analysis conducted on studies including only adults, where the difference in QOL ratings between patients and controls was significantly narrower

  9. Sensitivity study and parameter optimization of OCD tool for 14nm finFET process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhensheng; Chen, Huiping; Cheng, Shiqiu; Zhan, Yunkun; Huang, Kun; Shi, Yaoming; Xu, Yiping

    2016-03-01

    Optical critical dimension (OCD) measurement has been widely demonstrated as an essential metrology method for monitoring advanced IC process in the technology node of 90 nm and beyond. However, the rapidly shrunk critical dimensions of the semiconductor devices and the increasing complexity of the manufacturing process bring more challenges to OCD. The measurement precision of OCD technology highly relies on the optical hardware configuration, spectral types, and inherently interactions between the incidence of light and various materials with various topological structures, therefore sensitivity analysis and parameter optimization are very critical in the OCD applications. This paper presents a method for seeking the optimum sensitive measurement configuration to enhance the metrology precision and reduce the noise impact to the greatest extent. In this work, the sensitivity of different types of spectra with a series of hardware configurations of incidence angles and azimuth angles were investigated. The optimum hardware measurement configuration and spectrum parameter can be identified. The FinFET structures in the technology node of 14 nm were constructed to validate the algorithm. This method provides guidance to estimate the measurement precision before measuring actual device features and will be beneficial for OCD hardware configuration.

  10. Post-treatment haemolysis in severe imported malaria after intravenous artesunate: case report of three patients with hyperparasitaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolling Thierry

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parenteral artesunate has been shown to be a superior treatment option compared to parenteral quinine in adults and children with severe malaria. Little evidence, however, is available on long-term safety. Recently, cases of late-onset haemolysis after parenteral treatment with artesunate have been reported in European travellers with imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Therefore, an extended follow-up of adult patients treated for severe imported malaria was started in August 2011 at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf. Until January 2012, three patients with hyperparasitaemia (range: 14-21% were included for analysis. In all three patients, delayed haemolysis was detected in the second week after the first dose of intravenous artesunate. Reticulocyte production index remained inadequately low in the 7 – 14 days following the first dose of artesunate despite rapid parasite clearance. Post-treatment haemolysis after parenteral artesunate may be of clinical relevance in particular in imported severe malaria characterized by high parasite levels. Extended follow-up of at least 30 days including controls of haematological parameters after artesunate treatment seems to be indicated. Further investigations are needed to assess frequency and pathophysiological background of this complication.

  11. The long-term association of OCD and depression and its moderators: A four-year follow up study in a large clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibi, L; van Oppen, P; van Balkom, A J L M; Eikelenboom, M; Rickelt, J; Schruers, K R J; Anholt, G E

    2017-07-01

    Depression is the most common comorbidity in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the mechanisms of depressive comorbidity in OCD are poorly understood. We assessed the directionality and moderators of the OCD-depression association over time in a large, prospective clinical sample of OCD patients. Data were drawn from 382 OCD patients participating at the Netherlands Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Association (NOCDA) study. Cross-lagged, structural equation modeling analyses were used to assess the temporal association between OCD and depressive symptoms. Assessments were conducted at baseline, two-year and four-year follow up. Cognitive and interpersonal moderators of the prospective association between OCD and depressive symptoms were tested. Cross-lagged analyses demonstrated that OCD predicts depressive symptoms at two-year follow up and not vice a versa. This relationship disappeared at four-year follow up. Secure attachment style moderated the prospective association between OCD and depression. Depressive comorbidity in OCD might constitute a functional consequence of the incapacitating OCD symptoms. Both OCD and depression symptoms demonstrated strong stability effects between two-year and four-year follow up, which may explain the lack of association between them in that period. Among OCD patients, secure attachment represents a buffer against future depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Is there potential for repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) as a treatment of OCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Rashid; Robbins, Trevor W

    2017-09-01

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common and highly debilitating psychiatric disorder. Amongst OCD sufferers are a significant number (40-60%) of so-called non-responders who do not fully respond to commonly available treatments, which include medications (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors-SSRIs) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Modern 'neuromodulatory' techniques such as Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) potentially offer alternative forms of treatment for OCD patients who either do not respond to, or are unable or unwilling to take SSRIs and undergo CBT. Although shown to be effective in treatment resistant OCD, DBS requires invasive neurosurgical procedures with associated risks. On the other hand, rTMS and tDCS are non-invasive forms of treatment, which are largely risk free, but the evidence of their efficacy so far is somewhat limited, with only small number of published studies. In this brief survey we will address the potential of rTMS as a therapeutic tool for OCD and review the published literature on the cortical targets for rTMS used so far. We will also discuss some of the newer variants of rTMS techniques only a few of which have been employed so far, and speculate whether there might be a place for rTMS as a standard treatment in OCD, along side CBT, SSRIs and DBS.

  13. Investigation and modeling of CPL mask profiles using OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan-Chen; Lin, Ren-Hao; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Huang, Cheng-Hsuan; Lien, Ta-Cheng; Chen, Chia-Jen; Lee, Gaston; Lee, Hsin-Chang; Yen, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    Mask profile of chromeless phase-shifting lithography (CPL) defined by OCD has been investigated. In CPL masks, unbalanced bombardments caused by different ion accelerations lead to the formation of micro-notch structures. A better understanding of micro-notch structures is essential for quality gating of mask processes to improve of CPL mask profiles. By measuring 12 of 16 elements of Mueller matrix, we are able to set up a model to simulate the depth of micro-notch structure profile which shows good correlation with TEM images. Moreover, values of CD, quartz etching depth and side wall angle acquired by OCD are presented and compared with those obtained by SEM, TEM and AFM, respectively.

  14. The Relationship between Obsessive Compulsive Personality and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Treatment Outcomes: Predictive Utility and Clinically Significant Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri, Shalane K; McEvoy, Peter M; Egan, Sarah J; Kane, Robert T; Rees, Clare S; Anderson, Rebecca A

    2017-09-01

    The evidence regarding whether co-morbid obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is associated with treatment outcomes in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is mixed, with some research indicating that OCPD is associated with poorer response, and some showing that it is associated with improved response. We sought to explore the role of OCPD diagnosis and the personality domain of conscientiousness on treatment outcomes for exposure and response prevention for OCD. The impact of co-morbid OCPD and conscientiousness on treatment outcomes was examined in a clinical sample of 46 participants with OCD. OCPD diagnosis and scores on conscientiousness were not associated with poorer post-treatment OCD severity, as indexed by Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) scores, although the relative sample size of OCPD was small and thus generalizability is limited. This study found no evidence that OCPD or conscientiousness were associated with treatment outcomes for OCD. Further research with larger clinical samples is required.

  15. A Framework for Understanding the Emerging Role of Corticolimbic-Ventral Striatal Networks in OCD-Associated Repetitive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jesse; Ahmari, Susanne E

    2015-01-01

    Significant interest in the mechanistic underpinnings of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has fueled research on the neural origins of compulsive behaviors. Converging clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that abnormal repetitive behaviors are driven by dysfunction in cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) circuits. These findings suggest that compulsive behaviors arise, in part, from aberrant communication between lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and dorsal striatum. An important body of work focused on the role of this network in OCD has been instrumental to progress in the field. Disease models focused primarily on these regions, however, fail to capture an important aspect of the disorder: affective dysregulation. High levels of anxiety are extremely prevalent in OCD, as is comorbidity with major depressive disorder. Furthermore, deficits in processing rewards and abnormalities in processing emotional stimuli are suggestive of aberrant encoding of affective information. Accordingly, OCD can be partially characterized as a disease in which behavioral selection is corrupted by exaggerated or dysregulated emotional states. This suggests that the networks producing OCD symptoms likely expand beyond traditional lateral OFC and dorsal striatum circuit models, and highlights the need to cast a wider net in our investigation of the circuits involved in generating and sustaining OCD symptoms. Here, we address the emerging role of medial OFC, amygdala, and ventral tegmental area projections to the ventral striatum (VS) in OCD pathophysiology. The VS receives strong innervation from these affect and reward processing regions, and is therefore poised to integrate information crucial to the generation of compulsive behaviors. Though it complements functions of dorsal striatum and lateral OFC, this corticolimbic-VS network is less commonly explored as a potential source of the pathology underlying OCD. In this review, we discuss this network's potential role as

  16. DNA Methylation at the Neonatal State and at the Time of Diagnosis: Preliminary Support for an Association with the Estrogen Receptor 1, Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid B Receptor 1, and Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein in Female Adolescent Patients with OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Judith Becker; Hansen, Christine Søholm; Starnawska, Anna; Mattheisen, Manuel; Børglum, Anders Dupont; Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Hollegaard, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder. Non-genetic factors and their interaction with genes have attracted increasing attention. Epigenetics is regarded an important interface between environmental signals and activation/repression of genomic responses. Epigenetic mechanisms have not previously been examined in OCD in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to examine the DNA methylation profile of selected genes in blood spots from neonates later diagnosed with OCD and in the same children/adolescents at the time of diagnosis compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Furthermore, we wanted to characterize the association of the differential methylation profiles with the severity of OCD and treatment outcome. Dried and new blood spot samples were obtained from 21 female children/adolescents with verified OCD and 12 female controls. The differential methylation was analyzed using a linear model and the correlation with the severity of OCD and treatment outcome was analyzed using the Pearson correlation. We evaluated selected Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip probes within and up to 100,000 bp up- and downstream of 14 genes previously associated with OCD (SLC1A1, SLC25A12, GABBR1, GAD1, DLGAP1, MOG, BDNF, OLIG2, NTRK2 and 3, ESR1, SL6A4, TPH2, and COMT). The study found no significantly differential methylation. However, preliminary support for a difference was found for the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor 1 (cg10234998, cg17099072) in blood samples at birth and for the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) (cg10939667), the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) (cg16650906), and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (cg14080521) in blood samples at the time of diagnosis. Preliminary support for an association was observed between the methylation profiles of GABBR1 and MOG and baseline severity, treatment effect, and responder status; and between the methylation profile of ESR1 and baseline

  17. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder with Suicide Obsessions in a First Responder without Previous Diagnosis of OCD or History of Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachamallu, Vivekananda; Song, Michael M; Liu, Haiying; Giles, Charles L; McMahon, Terry

    2017-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a distressing and often debilitating disorder characterized by obsessions, compulsions, or both that are time-consuming and cause impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. There are many published studies reporting higher risk of suicidality in OCD patients, as well as studies describing increased risk of suicidality in OCD patients with other comorbid psychiatric conditions such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Existing case reports on OCD with suicide as the obsessive component describe patients with long standing diagnosis of OCD with suicidal ideations or previous suicide attempts. This report describes the case of a 28-year-old male, who works as a first responder, who presented with new onset symptoms characteristic of MDD and PTSD, with no past history of OCD or suicidality who developed OCD with suicidal obsessions. Differentiating between suicidal ideation in the context of other psychiatric illnesses and suicidal obsessions in OCD is critical to ensuring accurate diagnosis and timely provision of most appropriate treatment. The combination of exposure and response prevention therapy and pharmacotherapy with sertraline and olanzapine was effective in helping the patient manage the anxiety and distress stemming from the patient's OCD with suicidal obsession.

  18. Prevalence and severity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and their relationships with dermatological diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Sheikhmoonesi; Zohreh Hajheidari; Abbas Masoudzadeh; Reza Ali Mohammadpour; Mahbubeh Mozaffari

    2014-01-01

    Most obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients meet psychiatrists 5 to 10 years after onset of OCD .Its relatively high prevalence ratio and the delay in seeking help suggest that patients with OCD may seek help at non-psychiatric clinics. The present study was undertaken to provide some epidemiological data on the prevalence and severity of OCD in dermatological patients. The participants included 265 consecutive patients with primary dermatologic chief complaint. They were visited by a d...

  19. Assessment of Quality of Life (QOL) in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Dysthymic Disorder (DD): A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudev, Roopesh Gopal Nariyandada; Yallappa, Sudarshan Chikkanayakanahalli; Saya, Ganesh Kumar

    2015-05-01

    There is paucity of data on Quality of Life (QOL) in non-psychotic mental disorders. To assess the Quality of Life (QOL) in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and compare it with Dysthymic Disorder (DD). This hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in 30 patients each diagnosed to have OCD and DD during October 2009 to September 2011 in a medical institution in Davanagere, Karnataka, India. DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic statistical manual-IV-Text Revised) criteria was used for diagnosis of OCD and DD. Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and WHO QOL BREF (brief form) scales were used. Data was analysed by independent sample t-test. Overall QOL score was 51.07(SD=11.47) and 50.91(SD=7.41) in OCD and DD groups respectively. QOL score was comparatively low in psychological domain with score of 44.12(SD=14.14) and 45.10(12.35) in OCD and DD respectively. There was no significant difference in the QOL score of the two groups with respect to socio demographic variables in OCD group, but it was different with respect to place of residence in DD group (p0.05). Overall QOL score was average and there was no significant difference of QOL score between the OCD and DD groups implying that both these non-psychotic mental disorders may have same influence or effect on QOL of the subjects. Further analytical studies will explore the associated factors of QOL in OCD and DD.

  20. Reduced availability of serotonin transporters in obsessive-compulsive disorder correlates with symptom severity - a [11C]DASB PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimold, M.; Smolka, M.N.; Zimmer, A.

    2007-01-01

    Reduced availability of brainstem serotonin transporters (5-HTT) has been observed in vivo in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, results vary and may be influenced by competition with endogenous serotonin. Using positron emission tomography (PET) and [ 11 C]DASB, a specific 5-HTT ligand that showed no competition with serotonin for 5-HTT binding in vitro, we tested the hypothesis that 5-HTT availability is reduced in OCD patients and correlated with OCD severity. 5-HTT availability in the thalamus and the midbrain was measured in nine drug-free OCD patients and compared with 19 healthy controls, matched for the individual combination of 5-HTT genotype, gender and smoking status. OCD severity was assessed with the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS). 5-HTT availability was significantly reduced in the thalamus and midbrain of OCD patients. Age and 5-HTT in the thalamus explained 83 % of OCD severity in patients that were drug-free for at least 1 year. This PET study confirms a central role of the serotonergic system, particularly the thalamus in the pathogenesis of obsessive compulsive disorder. (author)

  1. Discrepancy between morphological findings in juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (OCD): a comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roßbach, Björn Peter; Paulus, Alexander Christoph; Niethammer, Thomas Richard; Wegener, Veronika; Gülecyüz, Mehmet Fatih; Jansson, Volkmar; Müller, Peter Ernst; Utzschneider, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of preoperative MRI for the staging of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions of the knee and the talus in juvenile patients, using arthroscopy as the gold standard of diagnosis. Sixty-three juvenile patients (range 8-16 years) with an OCD of the knee or the talus underwent arthroscopy after MRI. In 54/9 out of 63 cases, 1.5/3 T MR scanners were used. The OCD stage was classified according the staging criteria of Dipaola et al. Arthroscopic findings were compared with MRI reports in each patient. From the 63 juvenile patients, MRI/arthroscopy revealed a stage I OCD in 4/19 patients, stage II in 31/22 patients, stage III in 22/9 patients and stage IV in 6/6 patients. No osteochondral pathology was evident in arthroscopy in seven out of 63 patients. The overall accuracy of preoperative MRI in staging an OCD lesion of the knee or the talus was 41.3%. In 33 out of 63 patients (52.4%), arthroscopy revealed a lower OCD stage than in the preoperative MRI grading, and in four out of 63 cases (6.4%), the intraoperative arthroscopic grading was worse than in preoperative MRI prior to surgery. The utilization of the 3 T MRI provided a correct diagnosis with 44.4%. Even with today's modern MRI scanners, it is not possible to predict an accurate OCD stage in children. The children's orthopaedist should not solely rely on the MRI when it comes to the decision to further conservative or surgical treatment of a juvenile OCD, but rather should take surgical therapy in consideration within persisting symptoms despite a low OCD stage provided by MRI. III.

  2. Posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucott, John N

    2015-06-01

    The prognosis following appropriate antibiotic treatment of early or late Lyme disease is favorable but can be complicated by persistent symptoms of unknown cause termed posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS), characterized by fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, and cognitive complaints that persist for 6 months or longer after completion of antibiotic therapy. Risk factors include delayed diagnosis, increased severity of symptoms, and presence of neurologic symptoms at time of initial treatment. Two-tier serologic testing is neither sensitive nor specific for diagnosis of PTLDS because of variability in convalescent serologic responses after treatment of early Lyme disease. Optimal treatment of PTLDS awaits more precise understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in this illness and future treatment trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Repetitive behaviors in Tourette's syndrome and OCD with and without tics: What are the differences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cath, D.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Landman, A.D.; Woerkom, T.C.A.M. van; Wetering, B.J.M. van de; Roos, R.A.C.; Rooijmans, H.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) share obsessive–compulsive phenomena. The aims of this study were to compare the OC symptom distribution between GTS and OCD and to investigate whether a subdivision of these phenomena into obsessions, compulsions and

  4. Neurocognitive Performance in Children with ADHD and OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Kahraman-Lanzerath, Berrak; Zepf, Florian D.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have both been linked to dysfunction in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry (CSTCC). However, the exact nature of neurocognitive deficits remains to be investigated in both disorders. We applied two neuropsychological tasks that tap into different…

  5. Association between TNF-α-238G/A gene polymorphism and OCD susceptibility: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Caixiao; Ma, Xinyan; Qi, Shunxiang; Han, Guangyue; Li, Yan; Liu, Yanfang; Liu, Lanfen

    2018-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is an important cytokine and has been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. TNF-α gene is located on a region that has been found to be associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We performed this meta-analysis to assess the relationship between susceptibility to OCD and the TNF-α-238G/A gene polymorphism. An extensive search of the available literature on the association between the susceptibility to OCD and the TNF gene polymorphism was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Embase, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, and Chongqing VIP database. The database was searched up to December 2016 and includes language of English and/or Chinese with the keywords of "obsessive-compulsive disorder" or "OCD," polymorphism or variant or mutation, "tumor necrosis factor" or "TNF" or "cytokine." The association between TNF-α-238G/A gene polymorphism and the susceptibility of OCD was anticipated by odds ratio (OR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Four studies including 435 cases and 1073 controls were incorporated in our meta-analysis. In general, TNF-α-238G/A gene polymorphism might lead to a decreased risk of OCD susceptibility (G vs A genotype model: OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.37-2.77, P = .981; GG vs AA+AG model: OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.37-2.36, P = .879; GG+AG vs AA model: OR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.06-0.73, P = .014; GG vs AA model: OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06-0.71, P = .012; AG vs AA model: OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.07-1.16, P = .081; GG+AA vs AG model: OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.55-2.51, P = .683). TNF-α-238G/A gene polymorphism might lead to a decreased risk of OCD susceptibility.

  6. Clinical correlates and genetic linkage of social and communication difficulties in families with obsessive-compulsive disorder: Results from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Jack; Shugart, Yin Yao; Wang, Ying; Grados, Marco A; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Pinto, Anthony; Rauch, Scott L; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Knowles, James A; Fyer, Abby J; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L; Cullen, Bernadette; Rasmussen, Steven A; Stewart, S Evelyn; Geller, Dan A; Maher, Brion S; Goes, Fernando S; Murphy, Dennis L; McCracken, James T; Riddle, Mark A; Nestadt, Gerald

    2014-06-01

    Some individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have autistic-like traits, including deficits in social and communication behaviors (pragmatics). The objective of this study was to determine if pragmatic impairment aggregates in OCD families and discriminates a clinically and genetically distinct subtype of OCD. We conducted clinical examinations on, and collected DNA samples from, 706 individuals with OCD in 221 multiply affected OCD families. Using the Pragmatic Rating Scale (PRS), we compared the prevalence of pragmatic impairment in OCD-affected relatives of probands with and without pragmatic impairment. We also compared clinical features of OCD-affected individuals in families having at least one, versus no, individual with pragmatic impairment, and assessed for linkage to OCD in the two groups of families. The odds of pragmatic impairment were substantially greater in OCD-affected relatives of probands with pragmatic impairment. Individuals in high-PRS families had greater odds of separation anxiety disorder and social phobia, and a greater number of schizotypal personality traits. In high-PRS families, there was suggestive linkage to OCD on chromosome 12 at marker D12S1064 and on chromosome X at marker DXS7132 whereas, in low-PRS families, there was suggestive linkage to chromosome 3 at marker D3S2398. Pragmatic impairment aggregates in OCD families. Separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, and schizotypal personality traits are part of a clinical spectrum associated with pragmatic impairment in these families. Specific regions of chromosomes 12 and X are linked to OCD in high-PRS families. Thus, pragmatic impairment may distinguish a clinically and genetically homogeneous subtype of OCD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mother-Child Interactions and Childhood OCD: Effects of CBT on Mother and Child Observed Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlup, Barbara; Farrell, Lara; Barrett, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This waitlist-controlled study investigates the impact of a group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy with family involvement (CBT-F) on observed mother and child behaviors in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-four children and adolescents with OCD and their mothers were observed during family discussions before and after…

  8. A psycho-behavioral perspective on modelling obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in animals: The role of context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmarans, De Wet; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

    2017-05-23

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a heterogeneous and debilitating condition, characterized by intrusive thoughts and compulsive repetition. Animal models of OCD are important tools that have the potential to contribute significantly to our understanding of the condition. Although there is consensus that pre-clinical models are valuable in elucidating the underlying neurobiology in psychiatric disorders, the current paper attempts to prompt ideas on how interpretation of animal behavior can be expanded upon to more effectively converge with the human disorder. Successful outcomes in psychopharmacology involves rational design and synthesis of novel compounds and their testing in well-designed animal models. As part of a special journal issue on OCD, this paper will 1) review the psycho-behavioral aspects of OCD that are of importance on how the above ideas can be articulated, 2) briefly elaborate on general issues that are important for the development of animal models of OCD, with a particular focus on the role and importance of context, 3) propose why translational progress may often be less than ideal, 4) highlight some of the significant contributions afforded by animal models to advance understanding, and 5) conclude by identifying novel behavioral constructs for future investigations that may contribute to the face, predictive and construct validity of OCD animal models. We base these targets on an integrative approach to face and construct validity, and note that the issue of treatment-resistance in the clinical context should receive attention in current animal models of OCD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Effectiveness of cognitive-coping therapy and alteration of resting-state brain function in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Zeng; Wang, Chang-Hong; Gao, Zhong-Zhan; Ma, Jian-Dong; Huang, Ping; Li, Heng-Fen; Sang, De-En; Shan, Xiao-Wen; Kou, Shao-Jie; Li, Zhi-Rong; Ma, Li; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Ouyang, Hua; Lian, Hong-Kai; Zang, Yu-Feng; Hu, Xian-Zhang

    2017-01-15

    Cognitive-coping therapy (CCT), integrating cognitive theory with stress-coping theory, is an efficacious therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the potential brain mediation for the effectiveness remains unclear. We sought to investigate differences of resting-state brain function between OCD and healthy controls and if such differences would be changed by a four-week CCT. Thirty-one OCD patients were recruited and randomized into CCT (n=15) and pharmacotherapy plus CCT (pCCT, n=16) groups, together with 25 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was scored to evaluate the severity in symptoms. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was scanned pre- and post-treatment. For patients, Y-BOCS scores were reduced during four-week treatment for CCT and pCCT (Pleft hippocampus, parahippocampus, and temporal lobes, but lower in the right orbitofrontal cortex, rectus, bilateral calcarine, cuneus, lingual, occipital, left parietal, postcentral, precentral, and parietal (corrected Pbrain function was different between OCD and controls; such differences disappeared after OCD symptoms were relieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. OCD is associated with an altered association between sensorimotor gating and cortical and subcortical 5-HT1b receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittenger, Christopher; Adams, Thomas G; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Crowley, Michael J; Nabulsi, Nabeel; James Ropchan; Gao, Hong; Kichuk, Stephen A; Simpson, Ryan; Billingslea, Eileen; Hannestad, Jonas; Bloch, Michael; Mayes, Linda; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Carson, Richard E

    2016-05-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by impaired sensorimotor gating, as measured using prepulse inhibition (PPI). This effect may be related to abnormalities in the serotonin (5-HT) system. 5-HT1B agonists can impair PPI, produce OCD-like behaviors in animals, and exacerbate OCD symptoms in humans. We measured 5-HT1B receptor availability using (11)C-P943 positron emission tomography (PET) in unmedicated, non-depressed OCD patients (n=12) and matched healthy controls (HC; n=12). Usable PPI data were obtained from 20 of these subjects (10 from each group). There were no significant main effects of OCD diagnosis on 5-HT1B receptor availability ((11)C-P943 BPND); however, the relationship between PPI and (11)C-P943 BPND differed dramatically and significantly between groups. 5-HT1B receptor availability in the basal ganglia and thalamus correlated positively with PPI in controls; these correlations were lost or even reversed in the OCD group. In cortical regions there were no significant correlations with PPI in controls, but widespread positive correlations in OCD patients. Positive correlations between 5-HT1B receptor availability and PPI were consistent across diagnostic groups only in two structures, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. Differential associations of 5-HT1B receptor availability with PPI in patients suggest functionally important alterations in the serotonergic regulation of cortical/subcortical balance in OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnosis of OCD Patients Using Drawing Features of Bender Gestalt Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boostani R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since psychological tests such as questionnaire or drawing tests are almost qualitative, their results carry a degree of uncertainty and sometimes subjectivity. The deficiency of all drawing tests is that the assessment is carried out after drawing the objects and lots of information such as pen angle, speed, curvature and pressure are missed through the test. In other words, the psychologists cannot assess their patients while running the tests. One of the famous drawing tests to measure the degree of Obsession Compulsion Disorder (OCD is the Bender Gestalt, though its reliability is not promising. Objective: The main objective of this study is to make the Bender Gestalt test quantitative; therefore, an optical pen along with a digital tablet is utilized to preserve the key drawing features of OCD patients during the test. Materials and Methods: Among a large population of patients who referred to a special clinic of OCD, 50 under therapy subjects voluntarily took part in this study. In contrast, 50 subjects with no sign of OCD performed the test as a control group. This test contains 9 shapes and the participants were not constraint to draw the shapes in a certain interval of time; consequently, to classify the stream of feature vectors (samples through drawing Hidden Markov Model (HMM is employed and its flexibility increased by incorporating the fuzzy technique into its learning scheme. Results: Applying fuzzy HMM classifier to the data stream of subjects could classify two groups up to 95.2% accuracy, whereas the results by applying the standard HMM resulted in 94.5%. In addition, multi-layer perceptron (MLP, as a strong static classifier, is applied to the features and resulted in 86.6% accuracy. Conclusion: Applying the pair of T-test to the results implies a significant supremacy of the fuzzy HMM to the standard HMM and MLP classifiers.

  12. From an animal model to human patients: An example of a translational study on obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, David

    2017-05-01

    The application of similar analyses enables a direct projection from translational research in animals to human studies. Following is an example of how the methodology of a specific animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was applied to study human patients. Specifically, the quinpirole rat model for OCD was based on analyzing the trajectories of travel among different locales, and scoring the set of acts performed at each locale. Applying this analytic approach in human patients unveiled various aspects of OCD, such as the repetition and addition of acts, incompleteness, and the link between behavior and specific locations. It is also illustrated how the same analytical approach could be applicable to studying other mental disorders. Finally, it is suggested that the development of OCD could be explained by the four-phase sequence of Repetition, Addition, Condensation, and Elimination, as outlined in the study of ontogeny and phylogeny and applied to normal development of behavior. In OCD, this sequence is curtailed, resulting in the abundant repetition and addition of acts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Decision Making and Cognitive Behavioral Flexibility in a OCD Sample: a Study in a Virtual Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Paglia, Filippo; la Cascia, Caterina; Rizzo, Rosalinda; Riva, Giuseppe; la Barbera, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological disorders are common in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) patients. Executive functions, verbal fluency and verbal memory, shifting attention from one aspect of stimuli to others, mental flexibility, engaging in executive planning and decision making, are the most involved cognitive domains. We focus on two aspects of neuropsychological function: decision making and cognitive behavioral flexibility, assessed through a virtual version of the Multiple Errand Test (V-MET), developed using the NeuroVR software. Thirty OCD patients were compared with thirty matched control subjects. The results showed the presence of difficulties in OCD patients with tasks where the goal is not clear, the information is incomplete or the parameters are ill-defined.

  14. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention outcome for obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Anthony; Liebowitz, Michael R; Foa, Edna B; Simpson, H Blair

    2011-08-01

    Despite elevated rates of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), no study has specifically examined comorbid OCPD as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) outcome. Participants were adult outpatients (n = 49) with primary OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) total score ≥ 16 despite a therapeutic serotonin reuptake inhibitor dose for at least 12 weeks prior to entry. Participants received 17 sessions of EX/RP over 8 weeks. OCD severity was assessed with the YBOCS pre- and post-treatment by independent evaluators. At baseline, 34.7% of the OCD sample met criteria for comorbid DSM-IV OCPD, assessed by structured interview. OCPD was tested as a predictor of outcome both as a diagnostic category and as a dimensional score (severity) based on the total number of OCPD symptoms coded as present and clinically significant at baseline. Both OCPD diagnosis and greater OCPD severity predicted worse EX/RP outcome, controlling for baseline OCD severity, Axis I and II comorbidity, prior treatment, quality of life, and gender. When the individual OCPD criteria were tested separately, only perfectionism predicted worse treatment outcome, over and above the previously mentioned covariates. These findings highlight the importance of assessing OCPD and suggest a need to directly address OCPD-related traits, especially perfectionism, in the context of EX/RP to minimize their interference in outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Panorama des pensions 2015 les indicateurs de l'OCDE et du G20

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Rapport bisannuel de l’OCDE sur les systèmes de pension dans les pays de l’Organisation. Chaque édition propose une vue d’ensemble et une comparaison des politiques en matière de pension dans les pays de l’OCDE et du rôle des réformes et des pensions privées. Cette première partie est suivie par une série de rapports par pays qui analysent la situation dans chacun des pays de l’Organisation.

  16. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, which genes? Which functions? Which pathways? An integrated holistic view regarding OCD and its complex genetic etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Ali; Ghadirivasfi, Mohammad; Shahsavand Ananloo, Esmaeil

    2017-09-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent obtrusive and repetitive acts typically occurred following anxiety. In the last two decades, studies done on the gene sequences, large-scale and point mutations and gene-gene, gene-environment and gene-drug interactions have led to the discovery of hundreds of genes associated with OCD. Although each gene in turn is a part of the etiology of this disorder; however, OCD, like other mental disorders is complex and a comprehensive and integrated view is necessary to understand its genetic basis. In this study, through an extensive review of existing published studies, all genes associated with OCD were found. Then, in order to integrate the results, all the interactions between these genes were explored and the achievement was represented as an interactive genetic network. Furthermore, the reconstructed network was analyzed. It was found that GRIN2A, GRIN2B and GRIA2 are the most central nodes in the network. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis showed that glutamate-related pathways are the main deficient systems in patients with OCD. By studying genes shared between OCD and other diseases, it was cleared that OCD, epilepsy and some types of cancer have the most number of shared genes. The results of this study, in addition to reviewing the available results as a comprehensive and integrated manner, provide new hypotheses for future studies.

  17. Manifestation of Incompleteness in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) as Reduced Functionality and Extended Activity beyond Task Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zor, Rama; Szechtman, Henry; Hermesh, Haggai; Fineberg, Naomi A.; Eilam, David

    2011-01-01

    Background This study focused on hypotheses regarding the source of incompleteness in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). For this, we had to document the behavioral manifestation of incompleteness in compulsive rituals, predicting that an exaggerated focus on acts that are appropriate for the task will support the hypothesis on heightened responsibility/perfectionism. In contrast, activity past the expected terminal act for the motor task would support the “stop signal deficiency” hypothesis. Methodology and Principal Findings We employed video-telemetry to analyze 39 motor OCD rituals and compared each with a similar task performed by a non-OCD individual, in order to objectively and explicitly determine the functional end of the activity. We found that 75% of OCD rituals comprised a “tail,” which is a section that follows the functional end of the task that the patients ascribed to their activity. The other 25% tailless rituals comprised a relatively high number and higher rate of repetition of non-functional acts. Thus, in rituals with tail, incompleteness was manifested by the mere presence of the tail whereas in tailless rituals, incompleteness was manifested by the reduced functionality of the task due to an inflated execution and repetition of non-functional acts. Conclusions The prevalence of activity after the functional end (“tail”) and the elevated non-functionality in OCD motor rituals support the “lack of stop signal” theories as the underlying mechanism in OCD. Furthermore, the presence and content of the tail might have a therapeutic potential in cognitive-behavior therapy. PMID:21966460

  18. Comparison between HPSEC-OCD and F-EEMs for assessing DBPs formation in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah, Euis Nurul; Chou, Yung-Chen; Yeh, Hsuan-Hsien

    2017-03-21

    In this study, natural organic matter (NOM) in source water, as well as the treated water after coagulation with or without potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ) preoxidation, was characterized by using high performance size exclusion chromatography with organic carbon detector (HPSEC-OCD) and fluorescence excitation emission matrices (F-EEMs) with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis. Bulk parameters, such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ultraviolet light absorbance at 254 nm (UV 254 ), were also analyzed. The results show that KMnO 4 preoxidation caused the breakdown of high molecular weight (MW) organics into low MW organics. All organics, whether those that existed in the source water or those generated by KMnO 4 preoxidation, could be partly removed by coagulation. Combining the derived organic fractions obtained from HPSEC-OCD with peak-fitting and from F-EEMs with PARAFAC on the same sample, humic substances have been specified as the main organic composition. Further, the predictive models for trihalomethanes formation potential (THMFP) and haloacetic acids formation potential (HAAFP) based on organic fractions from HPSEC-OCD have higher accuracy than those based on the components from PARAFAC modeling. These models provide useful tools to specify the organic fractions from HPSEC-OCD and F-EEMs that constitute active precursors towards trihalomethanes (THMs) or haloacetic acids (HAAs) formation in water. Further, by knowing the major organic precursors, it would facilitate choosing the appropriate water treatment process for disinfection by-products (DBPs) control.

  19. Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Gerhard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT is widely regarded as an effective treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, but access to CBT therapists is limited. Internet-based CBT (ICBT with therapist support is a way to increase access to CBT but has not been developed or tested for OCD. The aim of this study was to evaluate ICBT for OCD. Method An open trial where patients (N = 23 received a 15-week ICBT program with therapist support consisting of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and exposure with response prevention. The primary outcome was the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS, which was assessed by a psychiatrist before and immediately after treatment. Secondary outcomes were self-rated measures of OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms, general functioning, anxiety and quality of life. All assessments were made at baseline and post-treatment. Results All participants completed the primary outcome measure at all assessment points. There were reductions in OCD symptoms with a large within-group effect size (Cohen's d = 1.56. At post-treatment, 61% of participants had a clinically significant improvement and 43% no longer fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of OCD. The treatment also resulted in statistically significant improvements in self-rated OCD symptoms, general functioning and depression. Conclusions ICBT with therapist support reduces OCD symptoms, depressive symptoms and improves general functioning. Randomized trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of this new treatment format. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01348529

  20. Pavlovian disgust conditioning as a model for contamination-based OCD: Evidence from an analogue study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Thomas; Olatunji, Bunmi O

    2017-06-01

    Pavlovian fear conditioning provides a model for anxiety-related disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, disgust is the predominant emotional response to contamination, which is a common theme in OCD. The present study sought to identify disgust conditioning abnormalities that may underlie excessive contamination concerns relevant to OCD. Individuals high and low in contamination concern (HCC, n = 32; LCC, n = 30) completed an associative learning task in which one neutral face (conditioned stimulus; CS+) was followed by a disgusting image (unconditioned stimulus; US) and another neutral face (CS-) was unreinforced. Following this acquisition procedure, there was an extinction procedure in which both CSs were presented unreinforced. The groups did not show significant differences in discriminant responding to the CSs following acquisition. However, following extinction, the HCC group reported less reduction in their expectancy of the US following the CS+, and also reported greater disgust to the CS+, compared to the LCC group. Increased disgust to the CS+ following both acquisition and extinction was correlated with increased symptoms of contamination-based OCD and increased disgust sensitivity. Additionally, disgust sensitivity mediated group differences in disgust responding to the CS+ at acquisition and extinction. Also, failure to adjust US expectancy in response to extinction partially mediated group differences in disgust to the CS+ following extinction. Together, these findings suggest that excessive contamination concerns observed in OCD may be related to difficulty inhibiting acquired disgust, possibly due to elevated disgust sensitivity that characterizes the disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Low intensity interventions for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): a qualitative study of mental health practitioner experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellatly, Judith; Pedley, Rebecca; Molloy, Christine; Butler, Jennifer; Lovell, Karina; Bee, Penny

    2017-02-22

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating mental health disorder that can substantially impact upon quality of life and everyday functioning. Guidelines recommend pharmacological and psychological treatments, using a cognitive behaviour therapy approach (CBT) including exposure and response prevention, but access has generally been poor. Low intensity psychological interventions have been advocated. The evidence base for these interventions is emerging but there is a paucity of information regarding practitioners' perceptions and experiences of supporting individuals with OCD using this approach. Qualitative interviews were undertaken with psychological wellbeing practitioners (PWPs) (n = 20) delivering low intensity psychological interventions for adults with OCD within the context of a large pragmatic effectiveness trial. Interviews explored the feasibility and acceptability of delivering two interventions; guided self-help and supported computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT), within Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services in NHS Trusts. Interviews were recorded with consent, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. PWPs acknowledged the benefits of low intensity psychological interventions for individuals experiencing OCD symptoms on an individual and population level. Offering low intensity support provided was perceived to have the opportunity to overcome existing service barriers to access treatment, improve patient choice and flexibility. Professional and service relevant issues were also recognised including self-beliefs about supporting people with OCD and personal training needs. Challenges to implementation were recognised in relation to practitioner resistance and intervention delivery technical complications. This study has provided insight into the implementation of new low intensity approaches to the management of OCD within existing mental health services. Benefits from a practitioner, service

  2. Evaluation of cognitive behaviour therapy for paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder in the context of tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sophie; Stark, Daniel; Shafran, Roz; Heyman, Isobel; Krebs, Georgina

    2015-12-01

    Paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorders (TD) often present together. However, there has been relatively little research on whether comorbid tic disorders influence response to cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for OCD. This study aimed to examine the outcomes of CBT for paediatric patients with OCD and a tic disorder compared to a matched group of children with OCD and no tics. Outcomes were compared post-treatment and at 3 or 6 month follow-up. Participants were 29 young people with tic disorders and OCD (OCD + TD) and 29 young people with OCD without tic disorders (OCD-TD) who were matched according to age, gender and baseline OCD symptom severity. All participants received a course of CBT and outcomes were assessed using the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). OCD symptoms reduced over the course of CBT to an equivalent extent in the OCD + TD and OCD-TD groups. Response or remission rates did not differ significantly at either post-intervention or follow-up between those with OCD + TD and those with OCD-TD. For both groups, response rates were high - 72% of both groups were classified as responders post-intervention and, at follow-up, 81% of the OCD + TD group and 82% of the OCD no tics group responded. Those with OCD + TD responded in significantly fewer sessions than those with OCD without tics. A number of potential confounding factors were not assessed and therefore could not be controlled for, such as other comorbidities and stability of medication. Paediatric patients with OCD and tic disorders respond equally well to standard CBT for OCD as compared to those with OCD and no tics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Should OCD leave the anxiety disorders in DSM-V? The case for obsessive compulsive-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Eric; Braun, Ashley; Simeon, Daphne

    2008-01-01

    Recently in 2006, a group of experts in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive compulsive-related disorders (OCRDs) convened in Washington, DC, to review existing data on the relationships between these various disorders, and to suggest approaches to address the gaps in our knowledge, in preparation for the upcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (Fifth Edition) (DSM-V). As a result of this meeting, the Research Planning Agenda for DSM-V: OCRD Work Group suggested removing OCD from the anxiety disorders, where it is currently found. This proposal is in accordance with the current International Classification of Mental Disorders (ICD-10) classification of OCD as a separate category from the anxiety disorders. Although the ICD-10 places both OCD and the anxiety disorders under the umbrella category of "neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders," they are two separate categories, distinct from one another. As OCD and other putative OCRDs share aspects of phenomenology, comorbidity, neurotransmitter/peptide systems, neurocircuitry, familial and genetic factors, and treatment response, it was proposed to create a new category in DSM-V entitled OCRDs. Alternatively, the OCRDs might be conceptualized as a new category within the broader category of anxiety disorders. Future studies are needed to better define the relationships among these disorders, and to study boundary issues for this proposed category. There are both advantages and disadvantages in creating a new diagnostic category in DSM-V, and these are discussed in this article.

  4. D-cycloserine augmentation in behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia J

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jing Xia,1 Yanqiu Du,2 Jiyang Han,1 Guo Liu,1 Xumei Wang11Department of Psychiatry, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Heping District Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Medicine, Shenyang Ninth People’s Hospital, Tiexi District, Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of ChinaObjective: To evaluate the overall effect of D-cycloserine (DCS augmentation on exposure and response prevention (ERP therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD.Methods: Clinical studies on the effect of DCS augmentation on ERP therapy for OCD compared to placebo were included for meta analysis. The primary outcome was the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS. Meta-analyses were performed with a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model using the Cochrane Review Manager (RevMan, version 5.2 to calculate the odds ratio and the mean difference, with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals.Results: A total of six studies was included in the current meta-analyses, and their data were extracted. Among them, four were for analyses of DCS and Y-BOCS at midtreatment, six for analysis at posttreatment, and four at 3-month follow-up. Besides, three of the six eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis of the DCS and Clinical Global Impression – Severity Scale at posttreatment, and three in the meta-analysis of DCS and proportions of treatment responders and of subjects attaining clinical remission status criteria at posttreatment. Our meta-analyses do not reveal a significant effect of DCS augmentation in ERP therapy for OCD patients, except when measured at midtreatment. Compared to the placebo group, DCS augmentation did show a trend toward significantly lower/decreased Y-BOCS; when measured at posttreatment and in the subpopulation of DCS taken before some of the ERP sessions, DCS augmentation showed a trend toward significantly lower/decreased Y-BOCS.Conclusion: Our result suggested that with the careful

  5. Approaching contamination-related stimuli with an implicit Approach-Avoidance Task: Can it reduce OCD symptoms? An online pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Ricarda; Feist, Ansgar; Moritz, Steffen; Wittekind, Charlotte E

    2017-12-01

    Dual-process models suggest that automatic behavioral tendencies contribute to the development and maintenance of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) symptoms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) to reduce OCD symptoms and associated distress. The study was set up as an online intervention. Participants with OCD symptoms (N = 101) were randomly assigned either to one of two experimental conditions or a waitlist control group upon completion of an online baseline survey. Participants were instructed to respond to contamination-related and neutral pictures by pulling or pushing a computer mouse, respectively. In one AAT condition, contamination-relevant pictures remained on the screen one second after pulling (lock condition), while pictures disappeared immediately after pulling in the standard AAT. Participants completed an online re-assessment four weeks after baseline. For analyses, only data of patients with contamination-related OCD symptoms were analyzed. A significant reduction in distress caused by OCD symptoms was found for both AAT training groups. Furthermore, a reduction in compulsions occurred for the group using the standard AAT. No significant effect was found for the control group. Implicit behavioral tendencies prior to and after training were not assessed. Findings tentatively suggest that the AAT might be effective in reducing washing-/contamination-related OCD symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Social Support and Symptom Severity Among Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder or Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Palardy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD are characterized by major behavioral dysruptions that may affect patients’ social and marital functioning. The disorders’ impact on interpersonal relationships may also affect the quality of support patients receive from their social network. The main goal of this systematic review is to determine the association between social or marital support and symptom severity among adults with PD/A or OCD. A systematic search of databases was executed and provided 35 eligible articles. Results from OCD studies indicated a negative association between marital adjustment and symptom severity, and a positive association between accommodation from relatives and symptom severity. However, results were inconclusive for negative forms of social support (e.g. criticism, hostility. Results from PD/A studies indicated a negative association between perceived social support and symptom severity. Also, results from studies using an observational measure of marital adjustment indicated a negative association between quality of support from the spouse and PD/A severity. However, results were inconclusive for perceived marital adjustment and symptom severity. In conclusion, this systematic review generally suggests a major role of social and marital support in PD/A and OCD symptomatology. However, given diversity of results and methods used in studies, more are needed to clarify the links between support and symptom severity among patients with PD/A and OCD.

  7. OCD candidate gene SLC1A1/EAAT3 impacts basal ganglia-mediated activity and stereotypic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zike, Isaac D; Chohan, Muhammad O; Kopelman, Jared M; Krasnow, Emily N; Flicker, Daniel; Nautiyal, Katherine M; Bubser, Michael; Kellendonk, Christoph; Jones, Carrie K; Stanwood, Gregg; Tanaka, Kenji Fransis; Moore, Holly; Ahmari, Susanne E; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2017-05-30

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, disabling condition with inadequate treatment options that leave most patients with substantial residual symptoms. Structural, neurochemical, and behavioral findings point to a significant role for basal ganglia circuits and for the glutamate system in OCD. Genetic linkage and association studies in OCD point to SLC1A1 , which encodes the neuronal glutamate/aspartate/cysteine transporter excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3)/excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAC1). However, no previous studies have investigated EAAT3 in basal ganglia circuits or in relation to OCD-related behavior. Here, we report a model of Slc1a1 loss based on an excisable STOP cassette that yields successful ablation of EAAT3 expression and function. Using amphetamine as a probe, we found that EAAT3 loss prevents expected increases in ( i ) locomotor activity, ( ii ) stereotypy, and ( iii ) immediate early gene induction in the dorsal striatum following amphetamine administration. Further, Slc1a1 -STOP mice showed diminished grooming in an SKF-38393 challenge experiment, a pharmacologic model of OCD-like grooming behavior. This reduced grooming is accompanied by reduced dopamine D 1 receptor binding in the dorsal striatum of Slc1a1 -STOP mice. Slc1a1 -STOP mice also exhibit reduced extracellular dopamine concentrations in the dorsal striatum both at baseline and following amphetamine challenge. Viral-mediated restoration of Slc1a1 /EAAT3 expression in the midbrain but not in the striatum results in partial rescue of amphetamine-induced locomotion and stereotypy in Slc1a1 -STOP mice, consistent with an impact of EAAT3 loss on presynaptic dopaminergic function. Collectively, these findings indicate that the most consistently associated OCD candidate gene impacts basal ganglia-dependent repetitive behaviors.

  8. Organic characterisation of cave drip water by LC-OCD and fluorescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutlidge, Helen; Andersen, Martin S.; Baker, Andy; Chinu, Khorshed J.; Cuthbert, Mark O.; Jex, Catherine N.; Marjo, Christopher E.; Markowska, Monika; Rau, Gabriel C.

    2015-10-01

    Cathedral Cave, Wellington, Australia, is a natural laboratory for studying water movement and geochemical processes in the unsaturated zone by using artificial irrigation to activate drip sites within the cave. Water sampled from two drip sites activated by irrigations carried out in summer 2014 was analysed for dissolved inorganic ions and fluorescent organic matter. The analysis allowed the development of a conceptual flow path model for each drip site. DOM analysis was further complemented by liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), applied for the first time to karst drip waters, allowing the characterisation of six organic matter fractions. The differences in organic matter fractions at each drip site are interpreted as a signature of the proposed flow paths. LC-OCD was also compared with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of the fluorescence and good correlations were observed for high molecular weight organic matter. Strong positive correlations were also observed for high molecular weight matter and Cu and Ni. This is suggestive of colloidal transport of Cu and Ni by organic matter with high molecular weight, while small molecular weight colloids were not efficient transporters. LC-OCD uniquely provides information on non-fluorescent organic matter and can be used to further quantify drip water organic matter composition.

  9. Optimising treatment resources for OCD: a review of the evidence base for technology-enhanced delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Karina; Bee, Penny

    2011-12-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and disabling mental health problem. Only a minority of people receive evidence-based psychological treatments, and this deficit has prompted an increasing focus on delivering cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in new and innovative ways. To conduct a scoping review of the published evidence base for CBT-based interventions incorporating a health technology in the treatment of OCD. The questions posed by the review were (a) are technology-assisted treatments clinically effective, (b) are patient outcomes durable and (c) are more innovative services deemed acceptable by those individuals who engage in them? Scoping review of published studies using any study design examining CBT interventions incorporating a health technology for OCD. Electronic databases searched included MEDLINE (1966-2010), PsycInfo (1967-2010), EMBASE (1980-2010) and CINAHL databases (1982-2010). Thirteen studies were identified, of these, five used bibliotherapy, five examined computerised CBT (cCBT), two investigated telephone delivered CBT and one evaluated video conferencing. Overall studies were small and methodologically flawed, which precludes definitive conclusions of clinical effectiveness, durability or stakeholder satisfaction. To date the evidence base for technology-enhanced OCD treatments has undergone limited development. Future research should seek to overcome the methodological shortcomings of published work by conducting large-scale trials that incorporate clinical, cost and acceptability outcomes.

  10. Evaluation of the efficacy of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbakhsh, Seyedeh Pardis; Manteghi, Ali Akhondpour; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Mahyari, Saman; Gholampour, Beheshteh; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-08-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder that is causally linked to dysregulation of the serotonergic system. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of Withania somnifera (W. somnifera) root extract as an adjunct therapy to standard OCD treatment. Thirty patients with a confirmed diagnosis of OCD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria participated in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial and were randomly assigned to the treatment group (W. somnifera extract, 120mg/day; n=15) or the placebo group (n=15). All patients were under treatment with Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), and were instructed to take 4 capsules of the extract or placebo per day, preferably after meals, for a period of six weeks. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was used in order to assess the severity of OCD symptoms at baseline and at the end of the trial. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software and Y-BOCS values were presented as median and range (Min-Max). Comparison of the change in Y-BOCS score during the course of the trial revealed a significantly greater effect of W. somnifera (26 (14-40) [pre-treatment] versus 14 (4-40) [post-treatment]; change: -8 (-23 to 0)) versus placebo (18 (11-33) [pre-treatment] versus 16 (10-31) [post-treatment]; change: -2 (-4 to 0)) (P<0.001). The extract was safe and no adverse event was reported during the trial. W. somnifera extract may be beneficial as a safe and effective adjunct to SSRIs in the treatment of OCD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, McKenzie L.; Guo, Wei; Samuels, Jack F.; Wang, Ying; Nestadt, Paul S.; Krasnow, Janice; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Fyer, Abby J.; McCracken, James T.; Geller, Daniel A.; Murphy, Dennis L.; Knowles, James A.; Grados, Marco A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Rasmussen, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify any potential genetic overlap between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We hypothesized that since these disorders share a sub-phenotype, they may share common risk alleles. In this manuscript, we report the overlap found between these two disorders. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted between ADHD and OCD, and polygenic risk scores (PRS) were calculated for both disorders. In addition, ...

  12. Diagnosis of the OCD Patients using Drawing Features of the Bender Gestalt Shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boostani, R; Asadi, F; Mohammadi, N

    2017-03-01

    Since psychological tests such as questionnaire or drawing tests are almost qualitative, their results carry a degree of uncertainty and sometimes subjectivity. The deficiency of all drawing tests is that the assessment is carried out after drawing the objects and lots of information such as pen angle, speed, curvature and pressure are missed through the test. In other words, the psychologists cannot assess their patients while running the tests. One of the famous drawing tests to measure the degree of Obsession Compulsion Disorder (OCD) is the Bender Gestalt, though its reliability is not promising. The main objective of this study is to make the Bender Gestalt test quantitative; therefore, an optical pen along with a digital tablet is utilized to preserve the key drawing features of OCD patients during the test. Among a large population of patients who referred to a special clinic of OCD, 50 under therapy subjects voluntarily took part in this study. In contrast, 50 subjects with no sign of OCD performed the test as a control group. This test contains 9 shapes and the participants were not constraint to draw the shapes in a certain interval of time; consequently, to classify the stream of feature vectors (samples through drawing) Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is employed and its flexibility increased by incorporating the fuzzy technique into its learning scheme. Applying fuzzy HMM classifier to the data stream of subjects could classify two groups up to 95.2% accuracy, whereas the results by applying the standard HMM resulted in 94.5%. In addition, multi-layer perceptron (MLP), as a strong static classifier, is applied to the features and resulted in 86.6% accuracy. Applying the pair of T-test to the results implies a significant supremacy of the fuzzy HMM to the standard HMM and MLP classifiers.

  13. Infrared spectra and tunneling dynamics of the N2-D2O and OC-D2O complexes in the v2 bend region of D2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Zheng, Rui; Li, Song; Yang, Yu; Duan, Chuanxi

    2013-12-07

    The rovibrational spectra of the N2-D2O and OC-D2O complexes in the v2 bend region of D2O have been measured in a supersonic slit jet expansion using a rapid-scan tunable diode laser spectrometer. Both a-type and b-type transitions were observed for these two complexes. All transitions are doubled, due to the heavy water tunneling within the complexes. Assuming the tunneling splittings are the same in K(a) = 0 and K(a) = 1, the band origins, all three rotational and several distortion constants of each tunneling state were determined for N2-D2O in the ground and excited vibrational states, and for OC-D2O in the excited vibrational state, respectively. The averaged band origin of OC-D2O is blueshifted by 2.241 cm(-1) from that of the v2 band of the D2O monomer, compared with 1.247 cm(-1) for N2-D2O. The tunneling splitting of N2-D2O in the ground state is 0.16359(28) cm(-1), which is about five times that of OC-D2O. The tunneling splittings decrease by about 26% for N2-D2O and 23% for OC-D2O, respectively, upon excitation of the D2O bending vibration, indicating an increase of the tunneling barrier in the excited vibrational state. The tunneling splittings are found to have a strong dependence on intramolecular vibrational excitation as well as a weak dependence on quantum number K(a).

  14. Abnormal functional connectivity of brain network hubs associated with symptom severity in treatment-naive patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: A resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lin; Meng, Chun; Jiang, Ying; Tang, Qunfeng; Wang, Shuai; Xie, Xiyao; Fu, Xiangshuai; Jin, Chunhui; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Jidong

    2016-04-03

    Abnormal brain networks have been observed in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, detailed network hub and connectivity changes remained unclear in treatment-naive patients with OCD. Here, we sought to determine whether patients show hub-related connectivity changes in their whole-brain functional networks. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and voxel-based graph-theoretic analysis to investigate functional connectivity strength and hubs of whole-brain networks in 29 treatment-naive patients with OCD and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Correlation analysis was applied for potential associations with OCD symptom severity. OCD selectively targeted brain regions of higher functional connectivity strength than the average including brain network hubs, mainly distributed in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits and additionally parietal, occipital, temporal and cerebellar regions. Moreover, affected functional connectivity strength in the cerebellum, the medial orbitofrontal cortex and superior occipital cortex was significantly associated with global OCD symptom severity. Our results provide the evidence about OCD-related brain network hub changes, not only in the CSTC circuits but more distributed in whole brain networks. Data suggest that whole brain network hub analysis is useful for understanding the pathophysiology of OCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Post-treatment intracranial hemorrhage of brain metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Kim, Kyu Bo; Chie, Eui Kyu; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Lee, Hyo Suk; Ha, Sung W. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of post-treatment intracranial hemorrhage of brain metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Medical records of 81 patients who have been diagnosed of brain metastases from HCC and underwent surgery, radiosurgery and/or whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) between January 2000 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Intracranial hemorrhage was present in 64 patients (79%) at the time of diagnosis. Median value of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level was 1,700 ng/mL. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status for 20 patients was greater than 2. Fifty-seven patients underwent WBRT and the others were treated with surgery and/or radiosurgery without WBRT. During follow-up, 12 events of intracranial hemorrhage after treatment were identified. Three-month post-treatment hemorrhage rate was 16.1%. Multivariate analyses revealed that ECOG performance status, AFP, and WBRT were associated with post-treatment hemorrhage (p = 0.013, 0.013, and 0.003, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that 3-month post-treatment hemorrhage rate of new lesion was higher in patients treated without WBRT, although statistical significance was not reached. (18.6% vs. 4.6%; p = 0.104). Ten of 12 patients with post-treatment hemorrhage died with neurologic cause. WBRT should be considered to prevent post-treatment hemorrhage in the treatment of brain metastases from HCC.

  16. A study of phenomenology, psychiatric co-morbidities, social and adaptive functioning in children and adolescents with OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Yaduvanshi, Rakesh; Arya, Amit; Gupta, Pawan Kumar; Sitholey, Prabhat

    2016-08-01

    To study the phenomenology, social, adaptive and global functioning of children and adolescents with OCD. Studies have shown varying prevalence of paediatric OCD ranging from 1% to 4%. Childhood-onset OCD have some important differences in sex distribution, presentation, co-morbidities and insight. 25 subjects (6 to ≤18 years) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of OCD were included in this study. Subjects were evaluated using K-SADS-PL, Children's Y-BOCS, HoNOSCA, C-GAS and VABS-II. The mean age of the sample was 14.9±2.2 years. Obsession of contamination was commonest (68%) followed by aggressive obsession (60%); commonest compulsions were washing and cleaning (72%) followed by checking (56%). Most distressing obsessions were obsession of doubt about their decision (28%), having horrible thoughts about their family being hurt (20%) and thought that something terrible is going to happen and it will be their fault (16%). Most subjects rate spending far too much time in washing hands (60%) as most distressing compulsion, followed by rewriting and checking compulsions (both 12%). 76% subjects have co-morbid psychiatric diagnosis. Anxiety disorders (24%), depression (16%), and dissociative disorder (16%) were common co-morbidities. Mean C-GAS score of the sample was 53.2±9.9. 44% of subjects had below average adaptive functioning. The study shows that, most frequent obsessions and compulsions may be different from most distressing ones and this finding might have clinical implication. Most of the children and adolescent with OCD have co-morbidities. Children also had problems in adaptive functioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. EVALUATION DES POLITIQUES PUBLIQUES DE GESTION DES INONDATIONS AU JAPON - RAPPORT DE L'OCDE

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacs , Yves; Forestier , Ségolène; Lahidji , Ulf; Stevens , Barrie; Radisch , Jack; Schieb , Pierre-Alain

    2009-01-01

    18 p.; International audience; Méthodologie En coopération avec le gouvernement Japonais, le programme de l'OCDE sur l'avenir a entrepris en 2006 une évaluation de la politique Japonaise en matière de gestion des inondations. L'équipe sélectionnée par l'OCDE en charge de cette évaluation était composée d'experts indépendants. Suite à une étude préliminaire, l'équipe d'experts s'est déplacée au Japon pour interviewer des membres du gouvernement, des collectivités locales, des associations non ...

  18. Towards improving treatment for childhood OCD: Analyzing mediating mechanisms & non-response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, L.H.

    2013-01-01

    What are mediating mechanisms in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)? For whom does CBT work and for whom is CBT less effective? What should be recommended for those children who do not sufficiently benefit from CBT? The studies described in the

  19. Abnormal regional spontaneous neuronal activity associated with symptom severity in treatment-naive patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder revealed by resting-state functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Linlin; Fu, Xiangshuai; Wang, Shuai; Tang, Qunfeng; Chen, Xingui; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Fuquan; Zhou, Zhenhe; Tian, Lin

    2017-02-15

    A large number of neuroimaging studies have revealed the dysfunction of brain activities in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during various tasks. However, regional spontaneous activity abnormalities in OCD are gradually being revealed. In this current study, we aimed to investigate cerebral regions with abnormal spontaneous activity using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and further explored the relationship between the spontaneous neuronal activity and symptom severity of patients with OCD. Thirty-one patients with OCD and 32 age-and sex-matched normal controls received the fMRI scans and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) approach was applied to identify the abnormal brain activity. We found that patients with OCD showed decreased fALFF not only in the cortical-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits like the thalamus, but also in other cerebral systems like the cerebellum, the parietal cortex and the temporal cortex. Additionally, OCD patients demonstrated significant associations between decreased fALFF and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity in the thalamus, the paracentral lobule and the cerebellum. Our results provide evidence for abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity in distributed cerebral areas and support the notion that brain areas outside the CSTC circuits may also play an important role in the pathophysiology of OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Pediatric Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire in Two Samples of Youth with OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, B; Skriner, L C; Freeman, J; Stewart, E; Garcia, A; Sapyta, J; Franklin, M

    2017-02-01

    Researchers have demonstrated that quality of life (QOL) is an important construct to measure in individuals with mental health disorders, yet only a small amount of research has been dedicated to examining QOL and its response to treatment in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The current study explored the psychometric properties of a measure of QOL, the Pediatric Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (PQ-LES-Q), by examining the reliability, validity, and treatment sensitivity of this measure delivered in two separate RCTs for OCD (total N = 251 across both studies). Our results provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the PQ-LES-Q in adolescents with OCD (all Cronbach's alphas >.89, convergent validity correlations significant at the p < .05 level), but that an adaptation of the measure many be necessary for valid use in younger children with OCD.

  1. No Evidence for Object Alternation Impairment in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Jelinek, Lena; Hottenrott, Birgit; Klinge, Ruth; Randjbar, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have consistently ascribed the orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Cognitive tests presumed sensitive to this region, such as the Object Alternation Task (OAT), are considered important tools to verify this assumption and to investigate the impact of…

  2. OCD? Not Me! Protocol for the development and evaluation of a web-based self-guided treatment for youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Clare S; Anderson, Rebecca A; Finlay-Jones, Amy

    2015-04-29

    OCD? Not Me! is a novel, web-based, self-guided intervention designed to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in young people aged 12-18, using the principles of exposure and response prevention. The current paper presents the protocol for the development of the programme and for an open trial that will evaluate the effectiveness of this programme for OCD in young people, and associated distress and symptom accommodation in their parents and caregivers. We will measure the impact of the OCD? Not Me! programme on OCD symptoms using the Children's Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (C-FOCI), and both the self-report and parent report of the Children's Obsessional Compulsive Inventory-Revised (ChOCI-R). The impact of the programme on OCD-related functional impairment will be measured using the parent report of the Child Obsessive-Compulsive Impact Scale-Revised (COIS-R). Secondary outcome measures include the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Youth Quality of Life-Short Form (YQoL-SF). The 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) will be used to measure the impact of the programme on parent/caregiver distress, while the Family Accommodation Scale (FAS) will be used to measure change in family accommodation of OCD symptoms. Multilevel mixed effects linear regression will be used to analyse the impact of the intervention on the outcome measures. This study has been approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee. The results of the study will be reported in international peer-reviewed journals. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12613000152729. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. OCD og orofaciale dyskinesier forårsaget af sjælden basalganglielidelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmgreen, Søren Bruno; Danielsen, Erik Hvid

    2014-01-01

    Bevægeforstyrrelser hos psykiatriske patienter skyldes sædvanligvis ekstrapyramidale bivirkninger til antipsykotisk medicin. Her beskrives en sjælden årsag til orofaciale dyskinesier, tungedystoni og koreiforme bevægelser hos en 31-årig mand i behandling for obsessiv-kompulsiv lidelse (OCD)....

  4. Clinical and electrophysiological outcomes of deep TMS over the medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices in OCD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmi, Lior; Alyagon, Uri; Barnea-Ygael, Noam; Zohar, Joseph; Dar, Reuven; Zangen, Abraham

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a chronic and disabling disorder with poor response to pharmacological treatments. Converging evidences suggest that OCD patients suffer from dysfunction of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit, including in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). To examine whether modulation of mPFC-ACC activity by deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (DTMS) affects OCD symptoms. Treatment resistant OCD participants were treated with either high-frequency (HF; 20 Hz), low-frequency (LF; 1 Hz), or sham DTMS of the mPFC and ACC for five weeks, in a double-blinded manner. All treatments were administered following symptoms provocation, and EEG measurements during a Stroop task were acquired to examine changes in error-related activity. Clinical response to treatment was determined using the Yale-Brown-Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS). Interim analysis revealed that YBOCS scores were significantly improved following HF (n = 7), but not LF stimulation (n = 8), compared to sham (n = 8), and thus recruitment for the LF group was terminated. Following completion of the study, the response rate in the HF group (n = 18) was significantly higher than that of the sham group (n = 15) for at least one month following the end of the treatment. Notably, the clinical response in the HF group correlated with increased Error Related Negativity (ERN) in the Stroop task, an electrophysiological component that is attributed to ACC activity. HF DTMS over the mPFC-ACC alleviates OCD symptoms and may be used as a novel therapeutic intervention. Notwithstanding alternative explanations, this may stem from DTMS ability to directly modify ACC activity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Further evidence for biased semantic networks in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): when knives are no longer associated with buttering bread but only with stabbing people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, Lena; Hauschildt, Marit; Hottenrott, Birgit; Kellner, Michael; Moritz, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    Semantic network models suggest that individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) process words with multiple meanings (e.g., "knife") more likely in an OC-related (i.e., "weapon") than in a neutral way (i.e., "cutlery"). Initial evidence was found in an online study. The aim of the current study was to investigate semantic networks in a clinical OCD sample and particularly to identify whether changes in semantic networks following the add-on intervention association splitting (AS) exceeded changes expected through cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) alone. An association task was presented to 36 healthy controls and 70 OCD patients over a period of eight weeks with OCD patients receiving CBT and an add-on intervention (randomized allocation to either AS or a computerized cognitive training). Participants were asked to generate up to five associations to standardized (OC-relevant, negative, neutral) and individual cue words. Associations were rated with regard to OC-relevance and valence. Analyses revealed that OCD participants produced a) significantly more OC-relevant associations and b) more negative associations than controls for cue words. In the OCD sample, the OC-relevance and valence of associations changed after therapy for personal cue words. This effect was associated with AS at statistical trend level. No clinical control group was recruited; no inter-rater reliability was assessed for the association task. Further evidence for biased associative networks in OCD was found. Associations of individually chosen cue words proved to be modifiable by therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiological aspects on the course of development of porcine epiphyseal osteochondrosis (OCD) from 42 up to 147 days of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittegeko, S.B.P.; Arnbjerg, J.

    1994-01-01

    The articular-epiphyseal (A-E) cartilage complex of the distal humeral and femoral epiphyseal condyles of eight intact pigs (4 male & 4 female) of the same age were radiologically examined every 3 weeks, beginning at 42 days up to 147 days of age; to determine the age of onset, the course and trend of development of osteochondrosis (OCD). The earliest Dyschondroplasia (Osteochondrotic) lesions were demonstrated radiologically in the A-E complexes of the humeral condyles of 42-day-old pigs and in the femoral condyles at 63 days of age. Thus the radiographic examination of live animals to demonstrate subchondral radiolucency typical for OCD lesions in the condylar A-E complexes of pigs is not of limited value until the animals were > 100 days old as indicated in earlier reports. Also the course of further development of OCD lesions associated with A-E complexes was followed. The radiolucency was seen to develop to a certain extent, and then either to regress, and stabilize or even to progress as the animal grows. Some lesions regressed completely. Also some of the regressed lesions may become active again and become progressive. However, the course of development of femoral condyle A-E complexes OCD lesions was seen to be progressive continuously, or progressive then stable and then progressive again. The regressive course and trend of osteochondrotic lesions was not observed in the femoral condyle A-E complexes up to day 147 of age. Therefore, the course and trend of development of the A-E complexes OCD is not constantly the same

  7. Development of Vertical Buffered Electropolishing for Its Post-Treatment Technology on 1.5 GHz Niobium SRF Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Song; Lu Xiang-Yang; Lin Lin; Zhao Kui; Wu, A. T.; Rimmer, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    We report the latest research development of vertical buffered electropolishing on its post-treatment procedure as well as the effects of several major post-treatment techniques for buffered electropolishing (BEP) processed 1.5 GHz niobium (Nb) superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. With the established post-treatment procedure, an accelerating gradient of 28.4 MV/m is obtained on a single cell cavity of the cebaf shape. This is the best result in the history of BEP development. The cavity is limited by quench with a high quality factor over 1.2 × 10 10 at the quench point. Analyses from optical inspection and temperature-mapping show that the quench should be originated from the pits that were already present on the cavity before this BEP treatment. All of these factors indicate that this procedure will have a great potential to produce better results if cavities without intrinsic performance limiting imperfections are used. (nuclear physics)

  8. Functional Neurosurgery in the Treatment of Severe Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Major Depression: Overview of Disease Circuits and Therapeutic Targeting for the Clinician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dhwani B.; Pesiridou, Angeliki; Baltuch, Gordon H.; Malone, Donald A.; O’Reardon, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been a concerted effort to expand our understanding of the neural circuitry involved in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. Distinct neuronal circuits and networks have been implicated in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) involving feedback loops between the cortex, striatum, and thalamus. When neurosurgery is used as a therapeutic tool in severe OCD and MDD, the goal is to modulate specific targets or nodes within these networks in an effort to produce symptom relief. Currently, four lesioning neurosurgical procedures are utilized for treatment refractory OCD and MDD: cingulotomy, capsulotomy, subcaudate tractotomy, and limbic leucotomy. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a novel neurosurgical approach that has some distinct advantages over lesioning procedures. With DBS, the desired clinical effect can be achieved by reversible, high frequency stimulation in a nucleus or at a node in the circuit without the need to produce an irreversible lesion. Recent trials of deep brain stimulation in both OCD and MDD at several neuroanatomical targets have reported promising early results in highly refractory patients and with a good safety profile. Future definitive trials in MDD and OCD are envisaged. PMID:19727257

  9. Offshore and coastal dispersion (OCD) model. Users guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, S.R.; Schulman, L.L.; Paine, R.J.; Pleim, J.E.

    1984-09-01

    The Offshore and Coastal Dispersion (OCD) model was adapted from the EPA guideline model MPTER to simulate the effect of offshore emissions from point sources in coastal regions. Modifications were made to incorporate overwater plume transport and dispersion as well as changes that occur as the plume crosses the shoreline. Hourly meteorological data are needed from overwater and overland locations. Turbulence intensities are used but are not mandatory. For overwater dispersion, the turbulence intensities are parameterized from boundary-layer similarity relationships if they are not measured. Specifications of emission characteristics and receptor locations are the same as for MPTER; 250 point sources and 180 receptors may be used

  10. Complex metrology on 3D structures using multi-channel OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagalwala, Taher; Mahendrakar, Sridhar; Vaid, Alok; Isbester, Paul K.; Cepler, Aron; Kang, Charles; Yellai, Naren; Sendelbach, Matthew; Ko, Mihael; Ilgayev, Ovadia; Katz, Yinon; Tamam, Lilach; Osherov, Ilya

    2017-03-01

    Device scaling has not only driven the use of measurements on more complex structures, in terms of geometry, materials, and tighter ground rules, but also the need to move away from non-patterned measurement sites to patterned ones. This is especially of concern for very thin film layers that have a high thickness dependence on structure geometry or wafer pattern factor. Although 2-dimensional (2D) sites are often found to be sufficient for process monitoring and control of very thin films, sometimes 3D sites are required to further simulate structures within the device. The measurement of film thicknesses only a few atoms thick on complex 3D sites, however, are very challenging. Apart from measuring thin films on 3D sites, there is also a critical need to measure parameters on 3D sites, which are weak and less sensitive for OCD (Optical Critical Dimension) metrology, with high accuracy and precision. Thus, state-ofthe-art methods are needed to address such metrology challenges. This work introduces the concept of Enhanced OCD which uses various methods to improve the sensitivity and reduce correlations for weak parameters in a complex measurement. This work also describes how more channels of information, when used correctly, can improve the precision and accuracy of weak, non-sensitive or complex parameters of interest.

  11. Effects of hydrothermal post-treatment on microstructures and morphology of titanate nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Huogen; Yu Jiaguo; Cheng Bei; Zhou Minghua

    2006-01-01

    Titanate nanoribbons were prepared via a hydrothermal treatment of rutile-type TiO 2 powders in a 10 M NaOH solution at 200 deg. C for 48 h. The as-prepared titanate nanoribbons were then hydrothermally post-treated at 150 deg. C for 12-36 h. The titanate nanoribbons before and after hydrothermal post-treatment were characterized with FESEM, XRD, TEM, UV-VIS and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The results showed that the hydrothermal post-treatment not only promoted the phase transformation from titanate to anatase TiO 2 , but also was beneficial to the removal of Na + ions remained in the titanate nanoribbons. After hydrothermal post-treatment, the TiO 2 samples retained the one-dimensional structure feature of the titanate nanoribbons and showed an obvious increase in the specific surface area and the pore volume

  12. Rapid and Checkable Electrical Post-Treatment Method for Organic Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangheon; Seo, Yu-Seong; Shin, Won Suk; Moon, Sang-Jin; Hwang, Jungseek

    2016-01-01

    Post-treatment processes improve the performance of organic photovoltaic devices by changing the microscopic morphology and configuration of the vertical phase separation in the active layer. Thermal annealing and solvent vapor (or chemical) treatment processes have been extensively used to improve the performance of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. In this work we introduce a new post-treatment process which we apply only electrical voltage to the BHJ-OPV devices. We used the commercially available P3HT [Poly(3-hexylthiophene)] and PC61BM (Phenyl-C61-Butyric acid Methyl ester) photovoltaic materials as donor and acceptor, respectively. We monitored the voltage and current applied to the device to check for when the post-treatment process had been completed. This electrical treatment process is simpler and faster than other post-treatment methods, and the performance of the electrically treated solar cell is comparable to that of a reference (thermally annealed) device. Our results indicate that the proposed treatment process can be used efficiently to fabricate high-performance BHJ-OPV devices. PMID:26932767

  13. Relationship between severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and schizotypy in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Haruka Yamamoto,1 Hideto Tsuchida,1 Takashi Nakamae,1 Seiji Nishida,1 Yuki Sakai,1 Akihito Fujimori,1 Jin Narumoto,1 Yoshihisa Wada,1 Takafumi Yoshida,2 Chiaki Taga,3 Kenji Fukui11Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Kyoto Cognitive Behavior Therapy Counseling Room, Kyoto, Japan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD patients exhibit a noninhibition response pattern very similar to that observed in schizotypy patients in cognitive tasks. It has been suggested that the reduced cognitive inhibition observed in both schizotypy and OCD may result in the frequent entry into awareness of unacceptable urges and intrusive thoughts. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the severity of obsession or compulsion and schizotypy in OCD.Patients and methods: Sixty subjects (25 males and 35 females who were OCD outpatients in the University Hospital at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine during the period 2008–2010 were enrolled in the study. Assessments of these patients were made using the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A. The Pearson correlation coefficients between Y-BOCS and SPQ scores were calculated. Furthermore, hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to assess whether schizotypy predicted the severity of obsession and compulsion.Results: By calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient, it was found that the Y-BOCS obsession score, not the Y-BOCS compulsion score, was correlated with the SPQ total score. Results of the hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis showed that SPQ total score was a significant predictor of the Y-BOCS obsession score, after accounting for control

  14. Cross-Disorder Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest a Complex Genetic Relationship Between Tourette's Syndrome and OCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Davis, Lea K.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Derks, Eske M.; Evans, Patrick; Edlund, Christopher K.; Crane, Jacquelyn; Osiecki, Lisa; Gallagher, Patience; Gerber, Gloria; Haddad, Stephen; Illmann, Cornelia; McGrath, Lauren M.; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Arepalli, Sampath; Barlassina, Cristina; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrio, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Black, Donald W.; Bloch, Michael H.; Brentani, Helena; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond D.; Cappi, Carolina; Silgado, Julio C. Cardona; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chavira, Denise A.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Cook, Edwin H.; Cookson, M. R.; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Cusi, Daniete; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Gilbert, Donald L.; Girard, Simon L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Gruenblatt, Edna; Hardy, John; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M. J.; Herrera, Luis D.; Hezel, Dianne M.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L.; King, Robert A.; Konkashbaev, Anuar I.; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; Manunta, Paolo; Marconi, Maurizio; McCracken, James T.; Restrepo, Sandra C. Mesa; Moessner, Rainald; Moorjani, Priya; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L.; Nurmi, Erika; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlo N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L.; Renner, Tobias; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Robertson, Mary M.; Romero, Roxana; Rosario, Maria C.; Rosenberg, David; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sabatti, Chiara; Salvi, Erika; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Service, Susan K.; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Strengman, Eric; Tischfield, Jay A.; Turiel, Maurizio; Duarte, Ana V. Valencia; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Weale, Mike; Weiss, Robert; Wendland, Jens R.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.; Shugart, Yin Yao; Hounie, Ana G.; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Nicolini, Humberto; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cath, Danielle C.; McMahon, William; Posthuma, Danielle; Oostra, Ben A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Routeau, Guy A.; Purcell, Shaun; Jenike, Michael A.; Heutink, Peter; Hanna, Gregory L.; Conti, David V.; Arnold, Paul D.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Stewart, Evelyn; Knowles, James A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Pauls, David L.

    Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The

  15. Cross-Disorder Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest a Complex Genetic Relationship Between Tourette's Syndrome and OCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Neale, Benjamin M; Davis, Lea K; Gamazon, Eric R; Derks, Eske M; Evans, Patrick; Edlund, Christopher K; Crane, Jacquelyn; Fagerness, Jesen A; Osiecki, Lisa; Gallagher, Patience; Gerber, Gloria; Haddad, Stephen; Illmann, Cornelia; McGrath, Lauren M; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Arepalli, Sampath; Barlassina, Cristina; Barr, Cathy L; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrió, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Black, Donald W; Bloch, Michael H; Brentani, Helena; Bruun, Ruth D; Budman, Cathy L; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond D; Cappi, Carolina; Silgado, Julio C Cardona; Cavallini, Maria C; Chavira, Denise A; Chouinard, Sylvain; Cook, Edwin H; Cookson, M R; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Cusi, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Gilbert, Donald L; Girard, Simon L; Grabe, Hans J; Grados, Marco A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Hardy, John; Heiman, Gary A; Hemmings, Sian M J; Herrera, Luis D; Hezel, Dianne M; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L; King, Robert A; Konkashbaev, Anuar I; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; Manunta, Paolo; Marconi, Maurizio; McCracken, James T; Mesa Restrepo, Sandra C; Moessner, Rainald; Moorjani, Priya; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L; Naarden, Allan L; Nurmi, Erika; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A; Pakstis, Andrew J; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L; Renner, Tobias; Reus, Victor I; Richter, Margaret A; Riddle, Mark A; Robertson, Mary M; Romero, Roxana; Rosário, Maria C; Rosenberg, David; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sabatti, Chiara; Salvi, Erika; Sampaio, Aline S; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Service, Susan K; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S; Smit, Jan H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113700644; Stein, Dan J; Strengman, Eric; Tischfield, Jay A; Turiel, Maurizio; Valencia Duarte, Ana V; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Weale, Mike; Weiss, Robert; Wendland, Jens R; Westenberg, Herman G M; Shugart, Yin Yao; Hounie, Ana G; Miguel, Euripedes C; Nicolini, Humberto; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cath, Danielle C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/194111423; McMahon, William; Posthuma, Danielle; Oostra, Ben A; Nestadt, Gerald; Rouleau, Guy A; Purcell, Shaun; Jenike, Michael A; Heutink, Peter; Hanna, Gregory L; Conti, David V; Arnold, Paul D; Freimer, Nelson B; Stewart, S Evelyn; Knowles, James A; Cox, Nancy J; Pauls, David L

    OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The

  16. Cross-disorder genome-wide analyses suggest a complex genetic relationship between Tourette's syndrome and OCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Dongmei; Cusi, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Denys, D.; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Heutink, Peter; Cox, Nancy J; Pauls, David L

    OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The

  17. Comparing two basic subtypes in OCD across three large community samples: a pure compulsive versus a mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Stephanie; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Kawohl, Wolfram; Müller, Mario; Rössler, Wulf; Hengartner, Michael P; Castelao, Enrique; Vandeleur, Caroline; Angst, Jules; Preisig, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Due to its heterogeneous phenomenology, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been subtyped. However, these subtypes are not mutually exclusive. This study presents an alternative subtyping approach by deriving non-overlapping OCD subtypes. A pure compulsive and a mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype (including subjects manifesting obsessions with/without compulsions) were analyzed with respect to a broad pattern of psychosocial risk factors and comorbid syndromes/diagnoses in three representative Swiss community samples: the Zurich Study (n = 591), the ZInEP sample (n = 1500), and the PsyCoLaus sample (n = 3720). A selection of comorbidities was examined in a pooled database. Odds ratios were derived from logistic regressions and, in the analysis of pooled data, multilevel models. The pure compulsive subtype showed a lower age of onset and was characterized by few associations with psychosocial risk factors. The higher social popularity of the pure compulsive subjects and their families was remarkable. Comorbidities within the pure compulsive subtype were mainly restricted to phobias. In contrast, the mixed obsessive-compulsive subtype had a higher prevalence and was associated with various childhood adversities, more familial burden, and numerous comorbid disorders, including disorders characterized by high impulsivity. The current comparison study across three representative community surveys presented two basic, distinct OCD subtypes associated with differing psychosocial impairment. Such highly specific subtypes offer the opportunity to learn about pathophysiological mechanisms specifically involved in OCD.

  18. Cross-Disorder Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest a Complex Genetic Relationship Between Tourette's Syndrome and OCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, D.M.; Mathews, C.A.; Scharf, J.M.; Neale, B.M.; Davis, L.K.; Gamazon, E.R.; Derks, E.M.; Evans, P.; Edlund, C.K.; Crane, J.; Osiecki, L.; Gallagher, P.; Gerber, G.; Haddad, S.; Illmann, C.; McGrath, L.M.; Mayerfeld, C.; Arepalli, S.; Barlassina, C.; Barr, C.L.; Bellodi, L.; Benarroch, F.; Berrio, G.B.; Bienvenu, O.J.; Black, D.W.; Bloch, M.H.; Brentani, H.; Bruun, R.D.; Budman, C.L.; Camarena, B.; Campbell, D.D.; Cappi, C.; Silgado, J.C.C.; Cavallini, M.C.; Chavira, D.A.; Chouinard, S.; Cook, E.H.; Cookson, M.R.; Coric, V.; Cullen, B.; Cusi, D.; Delorme, R.; Denys, D.; Dion, Y.; Eapen, V.; Egberts, K.; Falkai, P.; Fernandez, T.; Fournier, E.; Garrido, H.; Geller, D.; Gilbert, D.L.; Girard, S.L.; Grabe, H.J.; Grados, M.A.; Greenberg, B.D.; Gross-Tsur, V.; Grunblatt, E.; Hardy, J.; Heiman, G.A.; Hemmings, S.M.J.; Herrera, L.D.; Hezel, D.M.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Jankovic, J.; Kennedy, J.L.; King, R.A.; Konkashbaev, A.I.; Kremeyer, B.; Kurlan, R.; Lanzagorta, N.; Leboyer, M.; Leckman, J.F.; Lennertz, L.; Liu, C.Y.; Lochner, C.; Lowe, T.L.; Lupoli, S.; Macciardi, F.; Maier, W.; Manunta, P.; Marconi, M.; McCracken, J.T.; Restrepo, S.C.M.; Moessner, R.; Moorjani, P.; Morgan, J.; Muller, H.; Murphy, D.L.; Naarden, A.L.; Nurmi, E.; Ochoa, W.C.; Ophoff, R. A.; Pakstis, A.J.; Pato, M.T.; Pato, C.N.; Piacentini, J.; Pittenger, C.; Pollak, Y.; Smit, J.H.; Posthuma, D.; Cox, N.J.; Pauls, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identi fication of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The

  19. Cross-disorder genome-wide analyses suggest a complex genetic relationship between Tourette's syndrome and OCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Davis, Lea K.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Derks, Eske M.; Evans, Patrick; Edlund, Christopher K.; Crane, Jacquelyn; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Osiecki, Lisa; Gallagher, Patience; Gerber, Gloria; Haddad, Stephen; Illmann, Cornelia; McGrath, Lauren M.; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Arepalli, Sampath; Barlassina, Cristina; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrió, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Black, Donald W.; Bloch, Michael H.; Brentani, Helena; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond D.; Cappi, Carolina; Silgado, Julio C. Cardona; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chavira, Denise A.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Cook, Edwin H.; Cookson, M. R.; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Cusi, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Gilbert, Donald L.; Girard, Simon L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Hardy, John; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M. J.; Herrera, Luis D.; Hezel, Dianne M.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L.; King, Robert A.; Konkashbaev, Anuar I.; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; Manunta, Paolo; Marconi, Maurizio; McCracken, James T.; Mesa Restrepo, Sandra C.; Moessner, Rainald; Moorjani, Priya; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L.; Nurmi, Erika; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlos N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L.; Renner, Tobias; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Robertson, Mary M.; Romero, Roxana; Rosário, Maria C.; Rosenberg, David; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sabatti, Chiara; Salvi, Erika; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Service, Susan K.; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Strengman, Eric; Tischfield, Jay A.; Turiel, Maurizio; Valencia Duarte, Ana V.; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Weale, Mike; Weiss, Robert; Wendland, Jens R.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.; Shugart, Yin Yao; Hounie, Ana G.; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Nicolini, Humberto; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cath, Danielle C.; McMahon, William; Posthuma, Danielle; Oostra, Ben A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Rouleau, Guy A.; Purcell, Shaun; Jenike, Michael A.; Heutink, Peter; Hanna, Gregory L.; Conti, David V.; Arnold, Paul D.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Knowles, James A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Pauls, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The authors report a

  20. Intrafraction Bladder Motion in Radiation Therapy Estimated From Pretreatment and Posttreatment Volumetric Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroudi, Farshad, E-mail: farshad.foroudi@petermac.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Pham, Daniel [Radiation Therapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Bressel, Mathias [Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Gill, Suki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Kron, Tomas [Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: The use of image guidance protocols using soft tissue anatomy identification before treatment can reduce interfractional variation. This makes intrafraction clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) changes more important, including those resulting from intrafraction bladder filling and motion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the required intrafraction margins for soft tissue image guidance from pretreatment and posttreatment volumetric imaging. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T2-T4) underwent an adaptive radiation therapy protocol using daily pretreatment cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with weekly posttreatment CBCT. A total of 235 pairs of pretreatment and posttreatment CBCT images were retrospectively contoured by a single radiation oncologist (CBCT-CTV). The maximum bladder displacement was measured according to the patient's bony pelvis movement during treatment, intrafraction bladder filling, and bladder centroid motion. Results: The mean time between pretreatment and posttreatment CBCT was 13 minutes, 52 seconds (range, 7 min 52 sec to 30 min 56 sec). Taking into account patient motion, bladder centroid motion, and bladder filling, the required margins to cover intrafraction changes from pretreatment to posttreatment in the superior, inferior, right, left, anterior, and posterior were 1.25 cm (range, 1.19-1.50 cm), 0.67 cm (range, 0.58-1.12 cm), 0.74 cm (range, 0.59-0.94 cm), 0.73 cm (range, 0.51-1.00 cm), 1.20 cm (range, 0.85-1.32 cm), and 0.86 cm (range, 0.73-0.99), respectively. Small bladders on pretreatment imaging had relatively the largest increase in pretreatment to posttreatment volume. Conclusion: Intrafraction motion of the bladder based on pretreatment and posttreatment bladder imaging can be significant particularly in the anterior and superior directions. Patient motion, bladder centroid motion, and bladder filling all contribute to changes between

  1. Le rapport Coopération pour le développement de l'OCDE souligne ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    14 févr. 2018 ... Source: Rapport Coopération pour le développement 2017 de l'OCDE ... des nouvelles sources de données et des nouveaux types de données qui ... constituent quelques-unes des nouvelles sources d'information qui offrent ...

  2. Distinct Subcortical Volume Alterations in Pediatric and Adult OCD : A Worldwide Meta- and Mega-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boedhoe, Premika S W; Schmaal, Lianne; Abe, Yoshinari; Ameis, Stephanie H; Arnold, Paul D; Batistuzzo, Marcelo C; Benedetti, Francesco; Beucke, Jan C; Bollettini, Irene; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Calvo, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Cho, Kang Ik K; Dallaspezia, Sara; Denys, D.; Fitzgerald, Kate D; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Giménez, Mònica; Gruner, Patricia; Hanna, Gregory L; Hibar, Derrek P; Hoexter, Marcelo Q; Hu, Hao; Huyser, Chaim; Ikari, Keisuke; Jahanshad, Neda; Kathmann, Norbert; Kaufmann, Christian; Koch, Kathrin; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lazaro, Luisa; Liu, Yanni; Lochner, Christine; Marsh, Rachel; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Mataix-Cols, David; Menchón, José M; Minuzzii, Luciano; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Piras, Fabrizio; Piras, Federica; Pittenger, Christopher; Reddy, Y C Janardhan; Sato, Joao R; Simpson, H Blair; Soreni, Noam; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Stevens, Michael C; Szeszko, Philip R; Tolin, David F; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Zhen; van Wingen, Guido A; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je-Yeon; Zhao, Qing; Thompson, Paul M; Stein, Dan J; van den Heuvel, Odile A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Structural brain imaging studies in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have produced inconsistent findings. This may be partially due to limited statistical power from relatively small samples and clinical heterogeneity related to variation in illness profile and developmental stage. To

  3. Telephone cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Cynthia M; Mataix-Cols, David; Lovell, Karina; Krebs, Georgina; Lang, Katie; Byford, Sarah; Heyman, Isobel

    2014-12-01

    Many adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not have access to evidence-based treatment. A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial was conducted in a specialist OCD clinic to evaluate the effectiveness of telephone cognitive-behavioral therapy (TCBT) for adolescents with OCD compared to standard clinic-based, face-to-face CBT. Seventy-two adolescents, aged 11 through 18 years with primary OCD, and their parents were randomized to receive specialist TCBT or CBT. The intervention provided differed only in the method of treatment delivery. All participants received up to 14 sessions of CBT, incorporating exposure with response prevention (E/RP), provided by experienced therapists. The primary outcome measure was the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Blind assessor ratings were obtained at midtreatment, posttreatment, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that TCBT was not inferior to face-to-face CBT at posttreatment, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up. At 12-month follow-up, there were no significant between-group differences on the CY-BOCS, but the confidence intervals exceeded the non-inferiority threshold. All secondary measures confirmed non-inferiority at all assessment points. Improvements made during treatment were maintained through to 12-month follow-up. Participants in each condition reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention received. TCBT is an effective treatment and is not inferior to standard clinic-based CBT, at least in the midterm. This approach provides a means of making a specialized treatment more accessible to many adolescents with OCD. Clinical trial registration information-Evaluation of telephone-administered cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for young people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); http://www.controlled-trials.com; ISRCTN27070832. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Telephone Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Non-inferiority Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Cynthia M.; Mataix-Cols, David; Lovell, Karina; Krebs, Georgina; Lang, Katie; Byford, Sarah; Heyman, Isobel

    2014-01-01

    Objective Many adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not have access to evidence-based treatment. A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial was conducted in a specialist OCD clinic to evaluate the effectiveness of telephone cognitive-behavioral therapy (TCBT) for adolescents with OCD compared to standard clinic-based, face-to-face CBT. Method Seventy-two adolescents, aged 11 through 18 years with primary OCD, and their parents were randomized to receive specialist TCBT or CBT. The intervention provided differed only in the method of treatment delivery. All participants received up to 14 sessions of CBT, incorporating exposure with response prevention (E/RP), provided by experienced therapists. The primary outcome measure was the Children’s Yale–Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Blind assessor ratings were obtained at midtreatment, posttreatment, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Results Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that TCBT was not inferior to face-to-face CBT at posttreatment, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up. At 12-month follow-up, there were no significant between-group differences on the CY-BOCS, but the confidence intervals exceeded the non-inferiority threshold. All secondary measures confirmed non-inferiority at all assessment points. Improvements made during treatment were maintained through to 12-month follow-up. Participants in each condition reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention received. Conclusion TCBT is an effective treatment and is not inferior to standard clinic-based CBT, at least in the midterm. This approach provides a means of making a specialized treatment more accessible to many adolescents with OCD. Clinical trial registration information–Evaluation of telephone-administered cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for young people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); http://www.controlled-trials.com; ISRCTN27070832. PMID:25457928

  5. Computer-Based Script Training for Aphasia: Emerging Themes from Post-Treatment Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Leora R.; Halper, Anita S.; Kaye, Rosalind C.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents results of post-treatment interviews following computer-based script training for persons with chronic aphasia. Each of the 23 participants received 9 weeks of AphasiaScripts training. Post-treatment interviews were conducted with the person with aphasia and/or a significant other person. The 23 interviews yielded 584 coded…

  6. Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), an endoplasmic reticulum storage disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skagen, Peter Storgaard; Horn, T; Kruse, H A

    2011-01-01

    in chondrocytes and extracellular matrix of cartilage from OCD patients. Abnormal type II collagen heterofibrils in "bundles" and chondrocytes with abnormal accumulation of matrix proteins in distended rough endoplasmic reticulum were typical findings. Further, Von Kossa staining and TEM showed empty lacunae...... close to mineralized "islands" in the cartilage and hypertrophic chondrocytes containing accumulated matrix proteins. Immunostaining revealed: (1) that types I, II, VI and X collagens and aggrecans were deposited intracellulary and (2) co-localization within the islands of types I, II, X collagens...... and aggrecan indicating that hypertrophic chondrocytes express a phenotype of bone cells during endochondral ossification. Types I, VI and X collagens were also present across the entire dissecates suggesting that chondrocytes were dedifferentiated. DNA sequencings were non-conclusive, only single nucleotide...

  7. Post-treatment and reuse of secondary effluents using natural ltreatment systems: the Indian practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D; Asolekar, S R; Sharma, S K

    2015-10-01

    Paper summarizes the results of India-wide survey of natural treatment systems (NTSs) for wastewater treatment and reuse. The quality of treated wastewater from different types of NTSs was analyzed for various physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters, and needs for post-treatment were identified. Currently, about 1838 million liters per day (MLD) of wastewater is being treated using NTSs, of which the contributions of polishing ponds, waste stabilization ponds, duckweed ponds, constructed wetlands, and Karnal technology were found to be 53.39, 45.15, 0.13, 0.55, and 0.78%, respectively. Among the NTSs studied, constructed wetland was found most efficient in removal of pollutants including nitrogen, phosphorus, total coliform, and fecal coliform in the range of 76, 61, 99.956, and 99.923%, respectively. Of all types of NTSs, only constructed wetland was found to meet the total coliform count requirements (effluents for irrigation; effluents from 48 systems are being discharged into river or lake, and remaining 38 systems have not found any designated use of treated effluent. The chlorination was the only post-treatment, which is being practiced at only three wastewater treatment facilities. During post-treatment, 1-2 ppm of chlorine is applied to the secondary effluent irrespective of its quality. The treated effluents from different NTSs contain fecal bacteria in the magnitude of 10(3) to 10(5), which may cause the severe health impacts through contamination of groundwater as well as surface water resources.

  8. Post-Treatment Hemodynamics of a Basilar Aneurysm and Bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J; Hartman, J; Rodriguez, J; Maitland, D

    2008-01-16

    Aneurysm re-growth and rupture can sometimes unexpectedly occur following treatment procedures that were initially considered to be successful at the time of treatment and post-operative angiography. In some cases, this can be attributed to surgical clip slippage or endovascular coil compaction. However, there are other cases in which the treatment devices function properly. In these instances, the subsequent complications are due to other factors, perhaps one of which is the post-treatment hemodynamic stress. To investigate whether or not a treatment procedure can subject the parent artery to harmful hemodynamic stresses, computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed on a patient-specific basilar aneurysm and bifurcation before and after a virtual endovascular treatment. The simulations demonstrate that the treatment procedure produces a substantial increase in the wall shear stress. Analysis of the post-treatment flow field indicates that the increase in wall shear stress is due to the impingement of the basilar artery flow upon the aneurysm filling material and to the close proximity of a vortex tube to the artery wall. Calculation of the time-averaged wall shear stress shows that there is a region of the artery exposed to a level of wall shear stress that can cause severe damage to endothelial cells. The results of this study demonstrate that it is possible for a treatment procedure, which successfully excludes the aneurysm from the vascular system and leaves no aneurysm neck remnant, to elevate the hemodynamic stresses to levels that are injurious to the immediately adjacent vessel wall.

  9. A randomized controlled trial comparing EMDR and CBT for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Zoe; Lovell, Karina; Blore, David; Ali, Shehzad; Delgadillo, Jaime

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as a treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), by comparison to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) based on exposure and response prevention. This was a pragmatic, feasibility randomized controlled trial in which 55 participants with OCD were randomized to EMDR (n = 29) or CBT (n = 26). The Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale was completed at baseline, after treatment and at 6 months follow-up. Treatment completion and response rates were compared using chi-square tests. Effect size was examined using Cohen's d and multilevel modelling. Overall, 61.8% completed treatment and 30.2% attained reliable and clinically significant improvement in OCD symptoms, with no significant differences between groups (p > .05). There were no significant differences between groups in Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale severity post-treatment (d = -0.24, p = .38) or at 6 months follow-up (d = -0.03, p = .90). EMDR and CBT had comparable completion rates and clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. OCD-like behavior is caused by dysfunction of thalamo-amygdala circuits and upregulated TrkB/ERK-MAPK signaling as a result of SPRED2 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, M; Weber, M; Post, A M; Popp, S; Grein, J; Zechner, M; Guerrero González, H; Kreis, A; Schmitt, A G; Üçeyler, N; Lesch, K-P; Schuh, K

    2018-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric disease affecting about 2% of the general population. It is characterized by persistent intrusive thoughts and repetitive ritualized behaviors. While gene variations, malfunction of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits, and dysregulated synaptic transmission have been implicated in the pathogenesis of OCD, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we show that OCD-like behavior in mice is caused by deficiency of SPRED2, a protein expressed in various brain regions and a potent inhibitor of Ras/ERK-MAPK signaling. Excessive self-grooming, reflecting OCD-like behavior in rodents, resulted in facial skin lesions in SPRED2 knockout (KO) mice. This was alleviated by treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. In addition to the previously suggested involvement of cortico-striatal circuits, electrophysiological measurements revealed altered transmission at thalamo-amygdala synapses and morphological differences in lateral amygdala neurons of SPRED2 KO mice. Changes in synaptic function were accompanied by dysregulated expression of various pre- and postsynaptic proteins in the amygdala. This was a result of altered gene transcription and triggered upstream by upregulated tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB)/ERK-MAPK signaling in the amygdala of SPRED2 KO mice. Pathway overactivation was mediated by increased activity of TrkB, Ras, and ERK as a specific result of SPRED2 deficiency and not elicited by elevated brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Using the MEK inhibitor selumetinib, we suppressed TrkB/ERK-MAPK pathway activity in vivo and reduced OCD-like grooming in SPRED2 KO mice. Altogether, this study identifies SPRED2 as a promising new regulator, TrkB/ERK-MAPK signaling as a novel mediating mechanism, and thalamo-amygdala synapses as critical circuitry involved in the pathogenesis of OCD.

  11. Initial severity and antidepressant efficacy for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder: An individual patient data meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Ymkje Anna; Roest, Annelieke M; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; de Jonge, Peter

    2018-06-01

    It has been suggested that antidepressant benefits are smaller for mild than severe depression. Because antidepressants are also used for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we examined the influence of severity for these disorders. We used individual patient data of eight trials (3,430 participants) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); four trials (1,195 participants) for social anxiety disorder (SAD); four trials (1,132 participants) for OCD; three trials (1,071 participants) for PTSD; and 10 trials (2,151 participants) for panic disorder (PD). Mixed-effects models were used to investigate an interaction between severity and treatment group. For GAD and PD, severity moderated antidepressant efficacy. The antidepressant-placebo difference was 1.4 (95% CI: 0.4-2.5; SMD: 0.21) Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) points for participants with mild GAD (baseline HAM-A = 10), increasing to 4.0 (3.4-4.6; SMD: 0.45) or greater for severely ill participants (HAM-A ≥ 30). For PD, the difference was 0.4 (0.3-0.6) panic attacks/2 weeks for participants with 10 panic attacks/2 weeks at baseline, increasing to 4.7 (3.0-6.4) for participants with 40. For SAD, OCD, and PTSD, no interaction was found. Across severity levels, the differences were 16.1 (12.9-19.3; SMD: 0.59) Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale points, 3.4 (2.5-4.4, SMD: 0.39) Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale points, and 10.3 (6.9-13.6; SMD: 0.41) Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale points. Antidepressants are equally effective across severity levels for SAD, OCD, and PTSD. For GAD and PD, however, benefits are small at low severity, and the benefit-risk ratio may be unfavorable for these patients. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. No deficits in nonverbal memory, metamemory and internal as well as external source memory in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Ruhe, Claudia; Jelinek, Lena; Naber, Dieter

    2009-04-01

    A large body of literature suggests that some symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) result from mnemonic dysfunctions. The present study tested various formulations of the memory deficit hypothesis considering important moderators, such as depression and response slowing. Thirty-two OCD patients and 32 healthy controls were presented verbal or nonverbal instructions for actions (e.g. simple gestures). These actions should either be performed or imagined. For recognition, previously presented as well as novel actions were displayed. Decisions had to be made whether an action was previously displayed (verbally vs. nonverbally) or not and whether an action was performed or imagined (internal source memory). Moreover, both judgments required confidence ratings. Groups did not differ in memory accuracy and metamemory for verbally presented material. Patients displayed some impairment for nonverbally presented material and imagined instructions, which, however, could be fully accounted for by response slowing and depressive symptoms. The study challenges the view that primary memory deficits underlie OCD or any of its subtypes. We claim that research should move forward from the mere study of objective impairment to the assessment of cognitive performance in conjunction with personality traits such as inflated responsibility.

  13. Evaluación de competencias matemáticas: proyecto PISA/OCDE 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Rico, Luis

    2004-01-01

    Las ideas que aquí se presentan son un resumen e interpretación de las publicadas en el capítulo Mathematics Literacy, incluido en el documento editado en 2003 por la OCDE The PISA 2003 Assessment Framework y aparecen en el documento Aproximación a un modelo de evaluación: el proyecto PISA 2000, que ha sido publicado por el Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deportes.

  14. Does the therapy manual or the therapist matter most in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder? A randomized controlled trial of exposure with response or ritual prevention in 118 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oppen, Patricia; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Smit, Johannes H; Schuurmans, Josien; van Dyck, Richard; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2010-09-01

    The importance of the therapist's education and experience for the successful behavior treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has not been investigated. Data on the relative effectiveness of self-controlled versus therapist-controlled in vivo exposure with response or ritual prevention (ERP) have yielded conflicting results. The present study compared the effectiveness of 4 different modes of delivery of ERP in a referred sample of OCD patients. Of the 146 eligible OCD outpatients, 118 patients enrolled in this randomized controlled trial and were randomly assigned to (1) therapist-controlled ERP performed by experienced behavior therapists; (2) therapist-controlled ERP performed by master's students of clinical psychology; (3) self-controlled ERP performed by experienced behavior therapists; and (4) self-controlled ERP performed by master's students of clinical psychology. This trial was performed from January 1999 to January 2005. Our analyses revealed no significant differences in clinical outcome between any of the different modes of delivery of ERP at posttreatment. The different ERP modes of delivery were associated with significant pretreatment to posttreatment improvement on all measurements, with large effect sizes on the primary outcome measure, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Our results indicate that clinically inexperienced master's students with no postgraduate training can be as capable as experienced and certified behavior therapists in treating OCD patients, as long as therapists adhere to a standardized treatment manual and adequate training and supervision is provided. In contrast to other studies, we did not find a supposed benefit of therapist-controlled ERP versus self-controlled ERP in patients with OCD. www.trialregister.nl Identifier: NTR1444. © Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  15. Validity of Quinpirole Sensitization Rat Model of OCD: Linking Evidence from Animal and Clinical Studie

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuchlík, Aleš; Radostová, Dominika; Hatalová, Hana; Valeš, Karel; Nekovářová, Tereza; Kopřivová, J.; Svoboda, Jan; Horáček, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, Oct 26 (2016), č. článku 209. ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-34524A Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : OCD * quinpirole * animal model * brain circuits * rat * human Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.104, year: 2016

  16. Post-treatment of Plasma-Sprayed Amorphous Ceramic Coatings by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chraska, T.; Pala, Z.; Mušálek, R.; Medřický, J.; Vilémová, M.

    2015-04-01

    Alumina-zirconia ceramic material has been plasma sprayed using a water-stabilized plasma torch to produce free standing coatings. The as-sprayed coatings have very low porosity and are mostly amorphous. The amorphous material crystallizes at temperatures above 900 °C. A spark plasma sintering apparatus has been used to heat the as-sprayed samples to temperatures above 900 °C to induce crystallization, while at the same time, a uniaxial pressure of 80 MPa has been applied to their surface. After such post-treatment, the ceramic samples are crystalline and have very low open porosity. The post-treated material exhibits high hardness and significantly increased flexural strength. The post-treated samples have a microstructure that is best described as nanocomposite with the very small crystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix.

  17. Síndrome de Asperger e TOC: comorbidade ou unidade? Asperger syndrome and OCD: comorbidity or unity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Aranha Fonseca

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Comportamentos repetitivos, estereotipias e interesses restritos são alguns dos principais sintomas que compõem o transtorno de Asperger. Todavia, até que ponto é possível diferenciá-los de sintomas obsessivo-compulsivos que preencham critérios para transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo (TOC? Muitas vezes, não é possível. Este trabalho relata o caso de um paciente com síndrome de Asperger e TOC. Abordamos até que ponto é realmente importante a distinção de um TOC como comorbidade distinta do Asperger, bem como nossa conduta terapêutica, na qual um inibidor seletivo da recaptura de serotonina (ISRS em doses altas (fluoxetina foi fundamental para melhor adaptação do paciente a suas funções socioocupacionais, melhorando significativamente sua qualidade de vida.Repetitive behavior, stereotypies and restricted interests are some of the main symptoms that compound the Asperger’s disorder. However, until what point is possible to differentiate them from obsessive-compulsive symptoms that meet criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD? Many times, that’s not possible. This work reports the case of a patient with Asperger syndrome and OCD. We bring up until what point is really important the distinction of OCD as a comorbidity different from Asperger, and also our therapeutic conduct, in which high doses of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor - SSRI - (fluoxetine was fundamental to a better socio-occupational adjustment of the patient, significantly improving his quality of life.

  18. The More You Do It, the Easier It Gets: Exposure and Response Prevention for OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himle, Michael B.; Franklin, Martin E.

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript is one in a series of invited papers to this journal. The purpose of the series is to highlight and discuss the similarities and differences between various behavioral and cognitive-behavioral approaches to the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The first article in this series (Twohig & Whittal) describes the case…

  19. The formation of neodymium conversion coating and the influence of post-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Xiufang [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, 145 Nantong St., Harbin 150001 (China); Jin Guo, E-mail: jg97721@yahoo.com.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, 145 Nantong St., Harbin 150001 (China); Yang Yuyun; Liu Erbao; Lin Lili; Zhong Jinggao [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, 145 Nantong St., Harbin 150001 (China)

    2012-01-15

    In this paper, neodymium-based conversion coating is used as a substitute for toxic chromate conversion coating on AZ91D magnesium alloys. Its formation and growth were observed via SEM, EDS, XPS, electrochemical tests and weighting experiment. The influence of post-treatment on neodymium conversion coating was measured by FTIR and electrochemical experiments in terms of morphology, component, surface functional group and corrosion resistance. The dissolution of matrix and the deposition of neodymium/magnesium oxides compete with each other in initial time. Then the deposition of neodymium oxides dominates the process. Compact coating is obtained after 20 min immersion and it is mainly made of neodymium oxides and a small amount of magnesium oxides/hydroxides. The coating post-treated is rich in OH{sup -} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3+}. The post-treatment can improve the corrosion resistance of the neodymium conversion coating effectually examined by EIS.

  20. The formation of neodymium conversion coating and the influence of post-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Xiufang; Jin Guo; Yang Yuyun; Liu Erbao; Lin Lili; Zhong Jinggao

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, neodymium-based conversion coating is used as a substitute for toxic chromate conversion coating on AZ91D magnesium alloys. Its formation and growth were observed via SEM, EDS, XPS, electrochemical tests and weighting experiment. The influence of post-treatment on neodymium conversion coating was measured by FTIR and electrochemical experiments in terms of morphology, component, surface functional group and corrosion resistance. The dissolution of matrix and the deposition of neodymium/magnesium oxides compete with each other in initial time. Then the deposition of neodymium oxides dominates the process. Compact coating is obtained after 20 min immersion and it is mainly made of neodymium oxides and a small amount of magnesium oxides/hydroxides. The coating post-treated is rich in OH - and PO 4 3+ . The post-treatment can improve the corrosion resistance of the neodymium conversion coating effectually examined by EIS.

  1. Post-treatment surveillance in a large cohort of patients with colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chung-Yuan; Delclos, George L; Chan, Wenyaw; Du, Xianglin L

    2011-05-01

    To determine how patients complied with different components of guideline-recommended post-treatment surveillance in a large nationwide population-based cohort of patients with colon cancer. Retrospective cohort study. We used the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database to identify patients 66 years or older diagnosed as having stage I to stage III colon adenocarcinoma between January 2000 and June 2002 with a follow-up duration of at least 3.5 years. After tumor resection, patients who completed at least 2 office visits per year for 3 years, at least 2 carcinoembryonic antigen tests per year (in the first and second years of follow-up), and at least 1 colonoscopy within 3 years were defined as meeting the recommended post-treatment care. We identified 7348 patients, with a median follow-up duration of 59 months. Adherence to post-treatment surveillance was 83.9% for office visits, 29.4% for carcinoembryonic antigen tests, and 74.3% for colonoscopy. Younger age at diagnosis, white race/ethnicity, married status, advanced tumor stage, fewer comorbidities, and chemotherapy use were significantly associated with guideline adherence. Adherence to colon cancer posttreatment surveillance was low, although proportions of patients complying with office visits and colonoscopy were reasonably high. Underlying reasons for noncompliance, which varied by type of service, may need further investigation.

  2. L’OCDE évalue les compétences des adultes

    OpenAIRE

    Bardi, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Une dizaine d’années après les premiers résultats du Programme international de suivi des acquis des élèves (PISA), l’Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE) livre une étude sur les compétences des adultes de 16 à 65 ans. Ce nouveau Programme pour l’évaluation internationale des compétences des adultes (PIIAC) est conçu en cycles, dont le premier s’achève en 2013. Il vise à informer sur la maîtrise des compétences jugées indispensables pour évoluer dans un monde hyp...

  3. Case Study: Severe Self-Injurious Behavior in Comorbid Tourette's Disorder and OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Korey K.; Baptista-Neto, Lourival; Beasley, Pamela J.; Lobis, Robert; Pravdova, Iva

    2004-01-01

    This case report describes the successful treatment of severe self-injurious behavior in a 16-year-old adolescent with Tourette's disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Treatment is described from initial presentation to the emergency department for severe self-inflicted oral lacerations through discharge from the inpatient psychiatric…

  4. Effects of Physico-Chemical Post-Treatments on the Semi-Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Tian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sludge production in wastewater treatment plants is increasing worldwide due to the increasing population. This work investigated the effects of ultrasonic (ULS, ultrasonic-ozone (ULS-Ozone and ultrasonic + alkaline (ULS+ALK post-treatments on the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge in semi-continuous anaerobic reactors. Three conditions were tested with different hydraulic retention times (HRT, 10 or 20 days and sludge recycle ratios (R = QR/Qin (%: 50 or 100%. Biogas yield increased by 17.8% when ULS+ALK post-treatment was applied to the effluent of a reactor operating at 20 days HRT and at a 100% recycle ratio. Operation at 10 days HRT also improved the biogas yield (277 mL CH4/g VSadded (VS: volatile solids versus 249 mL CH4/g VSadded in the control. The tested post-treatment methods showed 4–7% decrease in effluent VS. The post-treatment resulted in a decrease in the cellular ATP (Adenosine tri-phosphate concentration indicating stress imposed on microorganisms in the reactor. Nevertheless, this did not prevent higher biogas production. Based on the results, the post-treatment of digested sludge or treating the sludge between two digesters is an interesting alternative to pre-treatments.

  5. The effect of post-treatment time and temperature on cerium-based conversion coatings on Al 2024-T3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, Daimon K [Missouri University of Science and Technology, 101 Straumanis Hall, 401 West 16th Street, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)], E-mail: dkhvwb@mst.edu; Fahrenholtz, William G. [Missouri University of Science and Technology, 101 Straumanis Hall, 401 West 16th Street, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)], E-mail: billf@mst.edu; O' Keefe, Matthew J. [Missouri University of Science and Technology, 101 Straumanis Hall, 401 West 16th Street, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Corrosion performance, morphology, and electrochemical characteristics of cerium-based conversion coatings on Al 2024-T3 were examined as a function of phosphate post-treatment time and temperature. Corrosion resistance improved after post-treatment in 2.5 wt.% NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} for times up to 10 min or temperatures up to 85 deg. C. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization testing correlated to neutral salt spray corrosion performance. Hydrated cerium oxide and peroxide species present in the as-deposited coatings were transformed to CePO{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O for post-treatments at longer times and/or higher temperatures. Based on these results, processes active during post-treatment are kinetically dependent and strongly influenced by the post-treatment time and temperature.

  6. Fourier Transform Infrared spectrum of the OCD bending mode in methanol-D1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Indra

    2016-03-01

    The infrared (IR) spectra corresponding to OCD bending vibration of asymmetrically deuterated methanol species CH2DOH have been recorded with a Fourier Transform Spectrometer. The spectrum shows a typical structure of a parallel a-type band. This is expected because the bending vibration mainly executed parallel to the symmetry axis The Q-branch lines are grouped closely around 896 cm-1 and the P- and R-Branches show complex structure. Nonetheless it was possible to assign a-type P- and R-branch lines up to K value of 8 and J value up to about 20 in most cases. The Q-branch lines for higher K values can be followed to about J = 15, the presence of which confirmed the assignments. The observations suggest that in the OCD bend some energy levels are highly interacted by highly excited torsional state from the ground torsional state. A full catalogue is presented along with the effective molecular parameters. An intensity anomaly was also observed in the transitions. So far it has been possible to assign only transitions between e0 ← e0 states. Plausible explanations of intensity anomaly are presented. Lastly, a number of optically pumped far infrared (FIR) laser lines have been assigned either to exact or tentative quantum states. These assignments should prove valuable for production of new FIR laser lines.

  7. Complications and posttreatment care following invasive laser skin resurfacing: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Lin, Shi-Bin; Cheng, Biao

    2018-06-01

    Laser skin resurfacing (LSR) has been used for facial rejuvenation for the last 20 years. Posttreatment care after LSR is essential to decrease the risk of complications. Currently, no unified standards or criteria exist for invasive LSR posttreatment care. We aimed to identify the optimal wound care timing and choice of specific local, systemic, and general medical measures required to decrease complications. We performed a systematic search of the PubMed/MEDLINE electronic databases and included only articles written and published in the English language, with no restrictions on the publication time (year). The search yielded 316 potentially relevant articles, 133 of which met our review criteria. Most of the studies on this topic have focused on wound care during the early stage, typically the first 2 weeks. Closed dressings may offer a more ideal, moist wound environment. The use of medications must be judicious. The ongoing emergence of new methods and products warrants evaluation in future large clinical trials. Familiarity with the complications following invasive LSR and the provision of optimal, effective, and timely posttreatment care may substantially decrease the risks associated with the treatment modality.

  8. Post-treatment fertility in patients with testicular cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossaa, S.D.; Aabyholm, T.; Normann, N.; Jetne, V.

    1986-01-01

    Sperm analysis and serum hormone measurements (LH, FSH, testosterone) were performed in 29 patients after orchiectomy for seminoma before and after irradiation. Before radiotherapy 14 of 20 orchiectomised patients were azoospermic or had impaired spermatogenesis. A minimum sperm count was found 1 year after radiotherapy with gradual improvement up to 2 years. The recovery of sperm cell production was impaired most in patients with pre-treatment sperm counts < 3 million/ ml. Serum testosterone remained at low normal levels throughout the observation period. The mean serum FSH was increased 1 year after radiotherapy but returned to normal in 50% of patients within 3 years after treatment. This post-treatment increase in FSH was significantly correlated with increased pre-treatment FSH but not with the gonadal dose, which was 1 to 3% of the target dose. Severe disturbances in spermatogenesis, observed 2 to 3 years after radiotherapy for early seminoma, are likely to be the expression of a highly impaired pre-treatment sperm cell production and only to a lesser degree dependent on the irradiation of the remaining testicle. (author)

  9. Physical activity and post-treatment weight trajectory in anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianini, Loren M; Klein, Diane A; Call, Christine; Walsh, B. Timothy; Wang, Yuanjia; Wu, Peng; Attia, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study compared an objective measurement of physical activity (PA) in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) at low-weight, weight-restored, and post-treatment time points, and also compared PA in AN with that of healthy controls (HC). Method Sixty-one female inpatients with AN wore a novel accelerometer (the IDEEA) which measured PA at three time points: a) low-weight, b) weight-restored, and c) one month post-hospital discharge. Twenty-four HCs wore the IDEEA at one time point. Results Inpatients with AN became more physically active than they were at low-weight at weight restoration and following treatment discharge. Post-treatment patients with AN were more physically active than HCs during the day and less active at night, which was primarily accounted for by amount of time spent on feet, including standing and walking. Greater time spent on feet during the weight-restoration time point of inpatient treatment was associated with more rapid decrease in BMI over the 12 months following treatment discharge. Fidgeting did not differ between patients and controls, did not change with weight restoration, and did not predict post-treatment weight change. Discussion Use of a novel accelerometer demonstrated greater PA in AN than in healthy controls. PA following weight restoration in AN, particularly time spent in standing postures, may contribute to weight loss in the year following hospitalization. PMID:26712105

  10. Social skills training for juvenile delinquents : post-treatment changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, Trudy; Asscher, Jessica J.; Hoeve, Machteld; van der Laan, Peter H.; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods: The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U,

  11. Social Skills Training for Juvenile Delinquents: Post-Treatment Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, Trudy; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hoeve, M.; van der Laan, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods: The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U,

  12. Social skills training for juvenile delinquents : Post-treatment changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, T.; Asscher, J.J.; Hoeve, M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U, a

  13. What’s left feels right : Studies in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body integrity identity disorder (BIID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade the nosology status of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders has been topic of debate. Whereas in DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV) obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was classified as an anxiety disorder, in DSM-V it is classified as a

  14. Morphology modification of perovskite film by a simple post-treatment process in perovskite solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J.; Yang, Y.; Zhao, Y.L., E-mail: sdyulong@cumt.edu.cn; Che, M.; Zhu, L.; Gu, X.Q.; Qiang, Y.H., E-mail: yhqiang@cumt.edu.cn

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Perovskite films were post-treated by DMF/CBZ, DMSO/CBZ, or GBL/CBZ blend solvents. • This process could repair pinholes and enhance coverage in perovskite film. • This technique could modify charge transfer process at TiO{sub 2}/perovskite interface. - Abstract: A homogenous perovskite thin film with high coverage is a determining factor for high performance perovskite solar cells. Unlike previous pre-treatments aiming at perovskite precursor, we proposed a simple method to modify the morphology of perovskite films by post-treatment process using mixed solvents of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or 1,4-butyrolactone (GBL) with chlorobenzene (CBZ) in this paper. As good solvent of perovskite, DMF, DMSO, and GBL could dissolve the formed perovskite film. Meanwhile, CBZ, anti-solvent of perovskite film, could decrease the dissolving capacity of these good solvents. Therefore, the perovskite film coverage might be improved by the partial dissolution and recrystallization after solvent post-treatment process. Electrochemical impedance spectrometry (EIS) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) indicated that this post-treatment process could enhance charge transfer at TiO{sub 2}/perovskite interface. Finally, the conversion efficiency increased from 10.10% to 11.82%, 11.68%, and 10.66% using perovskite films post-treated by DMF/CBZ, DMSO/CBZ, and GBL/CBZ blend solvents, respectively.

  15. Sevoflurane posttreatment prevents oxidative and inflammatory injury in ventilator-induced lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Wagner

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving clinical treatment but it can induce or aggravate lung injury. New therapeutic strategies, aimed at reducing the negative effects of mechanical ventilation such as excessive production of reactive oxygen species, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and transmigration as well as activation of neutrophil cells, are needed to improve the clinical outcome of ventilated patients. Though the inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane is known to exert organ-protective effects, little is known about the potential of sevoflurane therapy in ventilator-induced lung injury. This study focused on the effects of delayed sevoflurane application in mechanically ventilated C57BL/6N mice. Lung function, lung injury, oxidative stress, and inflammatory parameters were analyzed and compared between non-ventilated and ventilated groups with or without sevoflurane anesthesia. Mechanical ventilation led to a substantial induction of lung injury, reactive oxygen species production, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, and neutrophil influx. In contrast, sevoflurane posttreatment time dependently reduced histological signs of lung injury. Most interestingly, increased production of reactive oxygen species was clearly inhibited in all sevoflurane posttreatment groups. Likewise, the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and MIP-1β and neutrophil transmigration were completely prevented by sevoflurane independent of the onset of sevoflurane administration. In conclusion, sevoflurane posttreatment time dependently limits lung injury, and oxidative and pro-inflammatory responses are clearly prevented by sevoflurane irrespective of the onset of posttreatment. These findings underline the therapeutic potential of sevoflurane treatment in ventilator-induced lung injury.

  16. Influence of Post-treatment Methods on Pressure Change of Filter Bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihua Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The PPS needle-punched non-woven filters with different post-treatments were studied by filter testing system. The pressure drop was measured at various filtration velocity, dust deposition time and the temperature during the experiment; and the effect of dust-cleaning as the consequence of pressure of filter bag was measured. The results showed that post-treatments transformed the surfaces of filters, and the dust formation differed greatly. Excessively high filtration velocity decreased the peak pressure in the process of dust-cleaning. The pressure of filter bag was increased as the dust layers were thickened. The higher temperature in filtration rose the peak pressure of filter bag, but decreased the rate of rising.

  17. Is there any difference between open and arthroscopic treatment for osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the humeral capitellum: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Li, Yi Jun; Guo, Si Yi; Zhang, Hai Long

    2018-03-01

    We present a systematic review of the recent literatures regarding the arthroscopic and open technique in fragment fixation for osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the humeral capitellum and an analysis of the subjective and objective outcomes between these two procedures. PubMed and EMBASE were reviewed for suitable articles relating to fragment fixation for OCD, both open and arthroscopic. We included all studies reporting on the clinical outcomes of these two procedures that were published in the English language. Data extracted from each study included level of evidence, number of patients, surgical techniques, length of follow-up, clinical outcome measures including outcome scores, range of motion (ROM), return to sports, osseous union and complications. We analyzed each study to determine the primary outcome measurement. A total of ten studies met our inclusion criteria. Among all studies, 35 arthroscopic procedures and 107 open procedures were performed. After the procedure, 70 patients (86.4%) in the open group returned to their sports, and 32 patients (91.4%) in the arthroscopic group returned to their sports. In the arthroscopic group, patients gained 14.1 degrees of flexion and 9.5 degrees of extension after surgery. In the open group, patients gained 8 degrees of flexion and 5.7 degrees of extension. Five patients (4.7%) had complications in the open group. No complication was found in the arthroscopic group. Both open and arthroscopic lesion debridement with fragment fixation are successful in treating unstable OCD. The arthroscopic technique may be a better choice than the open procedure, but we need high-level evidence to determine the superiority of the open or arthroscopic techniques in treating elbow OCD. Level III.

  18. Les pensions dans les pays de l'OCDE 2009 panorama des systèmes de retraite

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2009-01-01

    Les politiques menées en matière de pensions et de retraite ont connu des évolutions considérables au cours des dernières années, les pouvoirs publics s’efforçant de concilier deux objectifs : assurer des revenus suffisants aux retraités et garantir la viabilité financière à long terme des systèmes de retraite face au vieillissement de la population. Panorama des Pensions 2009 propose un cadre de référence cohérent permettant de comparer les politiques adoptées dans ce domaine par les différents pays de l’OCDE, ainsi qu’un ensemble de données fiables. Cette troisième édition renferme des informations actualisées sur les principales caractéristiques des pensions versées au sein des pays de l’OCDE et contient des projections relatives aux revenus que percevront demain les salariés d’aujourd’hui. Elle offre également une gamme élargie d’indicateurs, parmi lesquels figurent des données chiffrées concernant les actifs, les performances des investissements, l’ampleur des ...

  19. Impulsive suicide attempts predict post-treatment relapse in alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnar, Marcin; Ilgen, Mark A; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wnorowska, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Brower, Kirk J

    2008-10-01

    The present study was designed to examine the influence of suicidality on relapse in alcohol-dependent patients. Specifically, a lifetime suicide attempt at baseline was used to predict relapse in the year after treatment. Also, the unique contribution of impulsive suicide attempts was examined. A total of 154 patients with alcohol dependence, consecutively admitted to four addiction treatment facilities in Warsaw, Poland participated in the study. Of the 154 eligible patients, 118 (76.6%) completed a standardized follow-up assessment at 12 months. Previous suicide attempts were common in adults treated for alcohol dependence with 43% patients in the present sample reporting an attempt at some point during their lifetime. Additionally, more than 62% of those with a lifetime suicide attempt reported making an impulsive attempt. Lifetime suicide attempts were not associated with post-treatment relapse (chi-square=2.37, d.f.=1, p=0.124). However, impulsive suicide attempts strongly predicted relapse (OR=2.81, 95% CI=1.13-6.95, p=0.026) and time to relapse (OR=2.10, 95% CI=1.18-3.74, p=0.012) even after adjusting for other measures of baseline psychopathology, depression, impulsivity, hopelessness and alcohol use severity. This study is the first to document the relationship between pre-treatment impulsive suicide attempts and higher likelihood of post-treatment relapse in alcohol-dependent patents. Clinicians should routinely conduct an assessment for previous suicide attempts in patients with alcohol use disorders, and when impulsive suicidality is reported, they should recognize the increased risk for relapse and formulate their patients' treatment plans accordingly with the goals of reducing both alcoholic relapse and suicide rates.

  20. A preliminary study of cognitive-behavioral family-based treatment versus parent training for young children with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Alcázar, Ana I; Iniesta-Sepúlveda, Marina; Storch, Eric A; Rosa-Alcázar, Ángel; Parada-Navas, José L; Olivares Rodríguez, José

    2017-01-15

    Cognitive-Behavioral Family-Based Treatment (CBFT) is the standard of care in young children with OCD. Developmental considerations, parent desires, and cost-effective advantages motivate research to explore the relative efficacy of parent-only interventions. The main goal in this study was to test the effectiveness and feasibility of a parent only intervention for OCD in young children, comparing, in a preliminary fashion the relative efficacy of reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms through two treatment conditions: 1) an individual CBFT for early OCD involving both parents and children, and 2) the family component of the intervention involving only individual Parent Training (PT). Twenty treatment-seeking families from two private outpatient clinics in Spain were alternately assigned to one of the two treatment conditions. Participants had a primary diagnosis of OCD and a mean age of 6.62 years (65% males). Interventions were conducted by the same therapist and the assessments were administered by independent clinicians who were blind to the experimental conditions of the participants. Assessment time-points were pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up (including diagnosis, symptom severity, global functioning, family accommodation, externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and satisfaction measures). The two ways of implementation, involving child and parents (CBFT) or involving only parents (PT), produced clinical improvements and were well-accepted by parents and children. The CBFT condition was superior to the PT condition in reducing externalizing problems. reduced sample size and absence of randomization were the main limitations of this study. these results suggest, in a preliminary manner, that the need to have the child present at session with the clinician could be decreased for some children, as well as the overall feasibility of working only with parents for the implementation of CBT for OCD in very young children. Copyright © 2016

  1. Influence of silane films in the zinc coating post-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Marlla Vallerius da; Menezes, Tiago Lemos; Malfatti, Celia de Fraga; Muller, Iduvirges Lourdes; Oliveira, Claudia Trindade; Bonino, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The sol-gel process based on silanes precursors appeared in recent years as a strong alternative for post-treatment to provide an optimization of the protective efficacy of zinc. Moreover, this process has been used to replace chemical chromating conversion based on hexavalent chromium. The silane films are hybrid compounds that provide characteristics of both polymeric materials, such as flexibility and functional compatibility, and ceramic materials, such as high strength and durability. The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of silane films obtained by dip-coating, on the characteristics of electrodeposited zinc coatings. The xerogel films showed a homogeneous surface and a better performance on the corrosion resistance than zinc coating without post-treatment, what can be confirmed by the electrochemical impedance results. These tests showed that application of the silane film promotes the occurrence of one more time constant compared to pure zinc system, hindering the corrosion process. (author)

  2. A new method of evaluating posterior occlusion and its relation to posttreatment occlusal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, C E; Buschang, P H; Behrents, R G; Throckmorton, G S; English, J D

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between posterior occlusion and posttreatment changes in other occlusal variables. Pretreatment (T1), posttreatment (T2), and postretention (T3) records were obtained for 49 Class I (n = 23) and Class II (n = 26) extraction cases. Overbite, overjet, mandibular incisor irregularity, right and left molar deviations, midline deviation, and mandibular arch length were measured, and occlusal registrations were made of each set of dental casts. The proximity of posterior occlusal surfaces was measured as the contact or near-contact areas at or below 300 microm thickness, based on the optical densities of scanned images of the posterior occlusal registrations. The treatment changes for overbite, overjet, right and left molar deviation, and arch length were significantly greater in the Class II group, and the reductions in incisor irregularity were greater in the Class I group. No other class differences were found. Overbite, overjet, and incisor irregularity increased after treatment, and arch length continued to decrease, with no significant class differences. Contact and near-contact areas at or below 300 microm constituted 7% of the functional occlusal table for both classes at the end of treatment, having decreased significantly in both groups (21% in Class I and 29% in Class II) during treatment. Because contact and near-contact areas increased in some patients and decreased in others, there were no significant posttreatment changes. Negative correlations were found between contact and near-contact areas at T2 and changes in overjet from T2 to T3, and between contact and near-contact areas at T3 and changes in overbite from T2 to T3. No relationships were found between posterior contact and near-contact area and incisor irregularity. We concluded that (1) the area of actual and near contacts at or below 300 microm decreased significantly with treatment, indicating that, despite excellent treatment results by

  3. Nightguard vital bleaching: side effects and patient satisfaction 10 to 17 years post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushell, Lee W; Ritter, André V; Garland, Glenn E; Tiwana, Karen K; Smith, Lynn R; Broome, Angela; Leonard, Ralph H

    2012-06-01

      The long-term patient satisfaction and safety of nightguard vital bleaching (NGVB) requires further evaluation.   The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients' satisfaction and identify side effects of NGVB up to 17 years post-treatment.   Thirty-one participants who had completed previous NGVB studies using 10% carbamide peroxide were contacted at least 10 years post-treatment (range 10-17 years, average 12.3 years). Participants reported shade satisfaction (very satisfied [VS], partially satisfied [PS], or not satisfied [NS]) as well as potential complications. Participants had teeth # 6 to 11 examined for tooth vitality, gingival inflammation (Löe's Gingival Index [GI]), and radiographically for external cervical resorption (ECR).   All of the participants had successful lightening of their teeth. Sixty-one percent (19) had not retreated their teeth. Of those who had not retreated their teeth and who responded to the question of whitening satisfaction, 31% (4/13) were VS, 54% (7/13) were PS, and 15% (2/13) were NS with their current shade. Of those who had retreated their teeth, all were VS or PS. Ninety-one percent of the examined teeth had GI = 0 (normal), 7% had GI = 1 (mild inflammation), and 2% had GI = 2 (moderate inflammation). Sixty-nine percent of teeth tested responded to a cold stimulus. Radiographs did not detect ECR or apical lesions. No participant reported having a gingival biopsy post-treatment, and 87% would whiten again.   Patient satisfaction with NGVB may last as long as 12.3 years in average (range 10-17 years) post-treatment. GI and ECR findings were considered within the normal expectations for the sample studied, suggesting minimal clinical post-NGVB side effects up to 17 years. Nightguard vital bleaching provides patient satisfaction with minimal side effects up to 17 years post-treatment. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Caudate volumes in childhood predict symptom severity in adults with Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Michael H; Leckman, James F; Zhu, Hongtu; Peterson, Bradley S

    2005-10-25

    Most children with Tourette syndrome (TS) experience a marked decline in the severity of tic symptoms during adolescence. Currently no clinical measures can predict whose tic symptoms will persist into adulthood. Previous cross-sectional imaging studies have identified reduced caudate nucleus volumes in subjects with TS. To evaluate whether caudate nucleus volumes in childhood can predict the severity of tic or obsessive-compulsive symptoms at follow-up in early adulthood. In a prospective longitudinal study, clinical status and basal ganglia volumes of 43 children with TS were measured on high-resolution magnetic resonance images before age 14 years. Follow-up clinical assessments were conducted after age 16 years, an average of 7.5 years later. Linear regression and Tobit regression analyses were used to assess the association of basal ganglia volumes measured in childhood with the severity of tic and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms at the time of childhood MRI and at follow-up in early adulthood. Volumes of the caudate nucleus correlated significantly and inversely with the severity of tic and OCD symptoms in early adulthood. Caudate volumes did not correlate with the severity of symptoms at the time of the MRI scan. Caudate volumes in children with Tourette syndrome predict the severity of tic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in early adulthood. This study provides compelling evidence that morphologic disturbances of the caudate nucleus within cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits are central to the persistence of both tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms into adulthood.

  5. Fluorinated cellular polypropylene films with time-invariant excellent surface electret properties by post-treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Zhenlian; Mao Mingjun; Yao Junlan; Zhang Yewen; Xia Zhongfu

    2010-01-01

    In this work, to improve the electret properties of cellular polypropylene films, they were fluorinated and post-treated with nitrous oxide and by isothermal crystallization. Surface electret properties of the samples were investigated by thermally stimulated discharge current measurements, and their compositions and structures were analysed by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and wide angle x-ray diffraction, respectively. Time-dependent deterioration of surface electret properties was observed for the fluorinated samples without the nitrous oxide post-treatment. However, deterioration did not occur for the fluorinated samples post-treated with nitrous oxide, and time-invariant excellent surface electret properties or deep surface charge traps were obtained by the combined post-treatments of the fluorinated samples with nitrous oxide and by isothermal crystallization. Based on the analyses of composition and structure of the treated samples, the deterioration was clarified to be due to a trace of oxygen in the reactive mixture, which led to the formation of peroxy RO 2 . radicals in the fluorinated surface layer. The time invariability of surface electret properties was owing to the rapid termination of the peroxy RO 2 . radicals by nitrous oxide. And the deep surface charge traps resulted from the isothermal crystallization treatment which led to an increase in the efficient charging interface between the crystallite and amorphous region and its property change.

  6. Post-treatment pain in teeth with primary infections

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus Djalma Pécora; Cynthia Rodrigues de Araújo Estrela; Orlando Aguirre Guedes; Aldo Brugnera Junior; Carlos Estrela

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this assay was to evaluate longitudinal studies about the pain after endodontic treatment, with primary infection, using a systematic review. Methods: A MEDLINE search strategy was developed to identify articles using the following uniterms: endodontic(s) and pulpal pain, endodontic(s) and periapical pain, endodontic(s) and symptom, endodontic(s) and flare-ups, endodontic(s) pain and post-treatment, endodontic(s) and inter-appointment/interappointment. The search inc...

  7. Seguro médico público en la OCDE y Unión Europea: características y tendencias

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelia Valiño Castro

    1997-01-01

    Expone las características de los seguros médicos públicos en la OCDE y en particular en la UE a través de una revisión panorámica de los sistemas públicos de salud utilizando los datos para 1995 de ambas instituciones.

  8. Experimental studies of the dissociative recombination processes for the dimethyl ether ions CD3OCD2+ and (CD3)2OD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, M.; Österdahl, F.; Thomas, R. D.; Zhaunerchyk, V.; Vigren, E.; Kaminska, M.; Af Ugglas, M.; Källberg, A.; Simonsson, A.; Paál, A.; Larsson, M.; Geppert, W. D.

    2010-05-01

    Aims: Determination of branching fractions, cross sections and thermal rate coefficients for the dissociative recombination of CD3OCD2+ (0-0.3 eV) and (CD3)2OD+ (0-0.2 eV) at the low relative kinetic energies encountered in the interstellar medium. Methods: The measurements were carried out using merged electron and ion beams at the CRYRING storage ring, Stockholm, Sweden. Results: For (CD3)2OD+ we have experimentally determined the branching fraction for ejection of a single hydrogen atom in the DR process to be maximally 7% whereas 49% of the reactions involve the break up of the COC chain into two heavy fragments and 44% ruptures both C-O bonds. The DR of CD3OCD2+ is dominated by fragmentation of the COC chain into two heavy fragments. The measured thermal rate constants and cross sections are k(T) = 1.7±0.5 × 10-6(T/300)-0.77±0.01 cm3 s-1, σ = 1.2±0.4 × 10-15(Ecm[eV])-1.27±0.01 cm2 and k(T) = 1.7±0.6 × 10-6(T/300)-0.70 ± 0.02 cm3 s-1, σ = 1.7±0.6 × 10-15(Ecm[eV])-1.20±0.02 cm2 for CD3OCD2+ and (CD3)2OD+, respectively.

  9. Biological markers for anxiety disorders, OCD and PTSD: A consensus statement. Part II: Neurochemistry, neurophysiology and neurocognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Baldwin, David; Abelli, Marianna; Bolea-Alamanac, Blanca; Bourin, Michel; Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Cinosi, Eduardo; Davies, Simon; Domschke, Katharina; Fineberg, Naomi; Grünblatt, Edna; Jarema, Marek; Kim, Yong-Ku; Maron, Eduard; Masdrakis, Vasileios; Mikova, Olya; Nutt, David; Pallanti, Stefano; Pini, Stefano; Ströhle, Andreas; Thibaut, Florence; Vaghix, Matilde M.; Won, Eunsoo; Wedekind, Dirk; Wichniak, Adam; Woolley, Jade; Zwanzger, Peter; Riederer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objective Biomarkers are defined as anatomical, biochemical or physiological traits that are specific to certain disorders or syndromes. The objective of this paper is to summarise the current knowledge of biomarkers for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods Findings in biomarker research were reviewed by a task force of international experts in the field, consisting of members of the World Federation of Societies for Biological Psychiatry Task Force on Biological Markers and of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Anxiety Disorders Research Network. Results The present article (Part II) summarises findings on potential biomarkers in neurochemistry (neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine or GABA, neuropeptides such as cholecystokinin, neurokinins, atrial natriuretic peptide, or oxytocin, the HPA axis, neurotrophic factors such as NGF and BDNF, immunology and CO2 hypersensitivity), neurophysiology (EEG, heart rate variability) and neurocognition. The accompanying paper (Part I) focuses on neuroimaging and genetics. Conclusions Although at present, none of the putative biomarkers is sufficient and specific as a diagnostic tool, an abundance of high quality research has accumulated that should improve our understanding of the neurobiological causes of anxiety disorders, OCD and PTSD. PMID:27419272

  10. How frequently is the thymus seen on whole-body iodine-131 diagnostic and post-treatment scans?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J. [Departments of Medicine and Nuclear Medicine, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow (United Kingdom); McDougall, I.R. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine how often the thymus is visualized on whole-body radioiodine scans. One hundred and seventy-five patients had 325 diagnostic scans and 200 post-treatment scans. Activity in the mediastinum possibly consistent with the thymus was seen on seven scans in six patients. Four of these were diagnostic scans (three were second follow-up scans, and the fourth, a third follow-up scan). Three post-treatment scans demonstrated mediastinal uptake. Only one patient had persistent mediastinal uptake on both a post-treatment scan and a subsequent follow-up diagnostic scan. None of these six patients were treated as a result of this finding and none has clinical or biochemical evidence of metastatic disease. (orig.)

  11. How frequently is the thymus seen on whole-body iodine-131 diagnostic and post-treatment scans?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.; McDougall, I.R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine how often the thymus is visualized on whole-body radioiodine scans. One hundred and seventy-five patients had 325 diagnostic scans and 200 post-treatment scans. Activity in the mediastinum possibly consistent with the thymus was seen on seven scans in six patients. Four of these were diagnostic scans (three were second follow-up scans, and the fourth, a third follow-up scan). Three post-treatment scans demonstrated mediastinal uptake. Only one patient had persistent mediastinal uptake on both a post-treatment scan and a subsequent follow-up diagnostic scan. None of these six patients were treated as a result of this finding and none has clinical or biochemical evidence of metastatic disease. (orig.)

  12. Age Predicts Disruption of the Articular Surface of the Femoral Condyles in Knee OCD: Can We Reduce Usage of Arthroscopy and MRI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegall, Evan; Faust, John R; Herzog, Mackenzie M; Marshall, Kelley W; Willimon, S Clifton; Busch, Michael T

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if patient age could accurately identify disrupted articular cartilage overlying an osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesion of the femoral condyle in adolescents. This could have important implications for imaging and treatment decisions. All patients from 2001 to 2014 who were arthroscopically treated for a femoral condyle OCD were included in this Institutional Review Board-approved study. Exclusion criteria were trochlear and patellar OCD lesions, idiopathic arthritis, and traumatic osteochondral injuries. Arthroscopy was performed to visualize and probe the articular surface. Arthroscopic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were recorded as "intact" or "disrupted" cartilage. Extra-articular drilling was performed when the articular cartilage was intact. There were 119 patients (81 male, 68%) with 139 OCD lesions in 136 knees. The mean age at time of surgery was 13.0 years (range, 7.2 to 19.3 y). At arthroscopy, 115 knees had intact cartilage and 24 had disrupted cartilage. There was a significant difference in age between patients with intact versus disrupted cartilage at arthroscopy (12.5 vs. 15.3 y; POCD lesions had MRIs preoperatively, showing 69 as intact and 19 (24%) disrupted. MRI reading for cartilage status had 94% sensitivity and 97% specificity. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that age (P<0.01) and MRI status (P<0.0001) were strong predictors of cartilage status. Sixteen years was the critical age in which both sensitivity was maximized and false positive probability was minimized. Over the age of 17 years, 7 of 7 (100%) had disrupted cartilage. Age alone was 100% sensitive for children below the age of 10, and 96% sensitive below the age of 13. Age was a good predictor of cartilage status in both younger (<13 y) and older (≥17 y) patients in this study. For patients in the mid-range group (13 through 16 y), age alone is not an adequate predictor of cartilage status, but adding MRI

  13. Removal of NOM-constituents as characterized by LC-OCD and F-EEM during drinking water treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Baghoth, S. A.

    2011-11-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is of concern in drinking water because it causes adverse aesthetic qualities such as taste, odour, and colour; impedes the performance of treatment processes; and decreases the effectiveness of oxidants and disinfectants while contributing to undesirable disinfection by-products. The effective removal of NOM during drinking water treatment requires a good understanding of its character. Because of its heterogeneity, NOM characterization necessitates the use of multiple analytical techniques. In this study, NOM in water samples from two drinking water treatment trains was characterized using liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (F-EEMs) with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). These characterization methods indicate that the raw and treated waters are dominated by humic substances. The results show that whereas the coagulation process for both plants may be optimized for the removal of bulk DOC, it is not likewise optimized for the removal of specific NOM fractions. A five component PARAFAC model was developed for the F-EEMs, three of which are humic-like, while two are protein-like. These PARAFAC components and the LC-OCD fractions represented effective tools for the performance evaluation of the two water treatment plants in terms of the removal of NOM fractions. © IWA Publishing 2011.

  14. Mechanical Harvesting Effectively Controls Young Typha spp. Invasion and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data Enhances Post-treatment Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane C. Lishawa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The ecological impacts of invasive plants increase dramatically with time since invasion. Targeting young populations for treatment is therefore an economically and ecologically effective management approach, especially when linked to post-treatment monitoring to evaluate the efficacy of management. However, collecting detailed field-based post-treatment data is prohibitively expensive, typically resulting in inadequate documentation of the ecological effects of invasive plant management. Alternative approaches, such as remote detection with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, provide an opportunity to advance the science and practice of restoration ecology. In this study, we sought to determine the plant community response to different mechanical removal treatments to a dominant invasive wetland macrophyte (Typha spp. along an age-gradient within a Great Lakes coastal wetland. We assessed the post-treatment responses with both intensive field vegetation and UAV data. Prior to treatment, the oldest Typha stands had the lowest plant diversity, lowest native sedge (Carex spp. cover, and the greatest Typha cover. Following treatment, plots that were mechanically harvested below the surface of the water differed from unharvested control and above-water harvested plots for several plant community measures, including lower Typha dominance, lower native plant cover, and greater floating and submerged aquatic species cover. Repeated-measures analysis revealed that above-water cutting increased plant diversity and aquatic species cover across all ages, and maintained native Carex spp. cover in the youngest portions of Typha stands. UAV data revealed significant post-treatment differences in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI scores, blue band reflectance, and vegetation height, and these remotely collected measures corresponded to field observations. Our findings suggest that both mechanically harvesting the above-water biomass of young Typha stands

  15. Micropore structure stabilization in organosilica membranes by gaseous catalyst post-treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dral, A. Petra; van Eck, Ernst R.H.; Winnubst, Louis; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2018-01-01

    A post-treatment involving repeated exposure to gaseous HCl alternated with heating is demonstrated to strongly accelerate the recently reported structural evolution in organically bridged silica networks. Films, powders and membranes derived from 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane were exposed to

  16. Thought-action fusion in individuals with OCD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, N; Freshman, M; Ramsey, B; Neary, E; Brigidi, B

    2001-07-01

    Rachman (Rachman, S. (1993). Obsessions, responsibility, and guilt. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 149-154) suggested that patients with OCD may interpret thoughts as having special importance, thus experiencing thought-action fusion (TAF). Shafran, Thordarson and Rachman (Shafran, R., Thordarson, D. S. & Rachman, S. (1996). Thought-action fusion in obsessive compulsive disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 710, 379-391) developed a questionnaire (TAF) and found that obsessives scored higher than non-obsessives on the measure. In the current study, we modified the TAF to include a scale that assessed the "likelihood of events happening to others" as well as ratings of the responsibility and cost for having these thoughts. Replicating previous findings, we found that individuals with OC symptoms gave higher ratings to the likelihood of negative events happening as a result of their negative thoughts. Individuals with OC symptoms also rated the likelihood that they would prevent harm by their positive thoughts higher than did individuals without OC symptoms. These results suggest that the role of thought-action fusion in OCs may extend to exaggerated beliefs about thoughts regarding the reduction of harm.

  17. Photocatalytic post-treatment in waste water reclamation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gerald; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Verostko, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    A photocatalytic water purification process is described which effectively oxidizes organic impurities common to reclaimed waste waters and humidity condensates to carbon dioxide at ambient temperatures. With this process, total organic carbon concentrations below 500 ppb are readily achieved. The temperature dependence of the process is well described by the Arrhenius equation and an activation energy barrier of 3.5 Kcal/mole. The posttreatment approach for waste water reclamation described here shows potential for integration with closed-loop life support systems.

  18. Influence of lactic acid and post-treatment recovery time on the heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Yasuo; Miake, Kiyotaka; Nakamura, Hiromi; Kage-Nakadai, Eriko; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2017-09-18

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lactic acid (LA) with and without organic material at various post-treatment recovery times on the heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). LA decreased Lm numbers; however, the effect was remarkably attenuated by the presence of organic matter. Five strains of Lm were treated with LA and the listericidal effects were compared. The effect of LA varied depending on the strain, with ≥3.0% (w/w) LA required to kill the Lm strains in a short time. The heat resistance of Lm treated with LA was examined with respect to the time interval between the acid treatment and the subsequent manufacturing step. The heat resistance of Lm was shown to significantly increase during the post-treatment period. Heat tolerance (D value) increased up to 3.4-fold compared with the non-treated control bacteria. RNA sequencing and RT-PCR analyses suggested that several stress chaperones, proteins controlled by RecA and associated with high-temperature survival, were involved in the mechanism of enhanced heat resistance. These results are applicable to manufacturers when LA and heat treatment methods are utilized for the effective control of Lm in foods. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship between types and severity of repetitive behaviors in Gilles de la Tourette's disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cath, D.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Wetering, B.J.M. van de; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Landman, A.D.; Woerkom, T.C.A.M. van; Roos, R.A.C.; Rooijmans, H.G.M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigated which categories of obsessive-compulsive and Tourette-related behaviors in Gilles de la Tourette's disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) without tics are experienced as most severe across the study groups and what the differences are in symptom

  20. Development of a foundation for a case definition of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucott, John N; Crowder, Lauren A; Kortte, Kathleen B

    2013-06-01

    The study objective is to demonstrate the clinical and research utility of an operationalized definition of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS), as proposed by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Seventy-four patients with confirmed erythema migrans and 14 controls were enrolled. Patient-reported symptoms and health function (SF-36) were collected pre-treatment and at follow-up visits over 6 months post-treatment. Eight (11%) patients met our operationalized definition of PTLDS, which included self-reported symptoms of fatigue, widespread musculoskeletal pain or cognitive complaints, and functional impact as measured by a T score of definition of PTLDS allows for identification of those patients who are treated for early Lyme disease and have significant post-treatment illness, as they have both residual symptoms and impact on daily life functioning. With further refinement and improvement of this operationalized definition, the true incidence of PTLDS can be determined and future studies can be designed to examine its pathophysiology and treatment. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. End-of-treatment abstinence self-efficacy, behavioral processes of change, and posttreatment drinking outcomes in Project MATCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Taylor Berens; DiClemente, Carlo C; Pitts, Steven C

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated whether alcohol abstinence self-efficacy at the end of alcohol treatment was moderated by utilization of behavioral processes of change (coping activities used during a behavior change attempt). It was hypothesized that self-efficacy would be differentially important in predicting posttreatment drinking outcomes depending on the level of behavioral processes, such that the relation between self-efficacy and outcomes would be stronger for individuals who reported low process use. Analyses were also estimated with end-of-treatment abstinence included as a covariate. Data were analyzed from alcohol-dependent individuals in both treatment arms of Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity; N = 1,328), a large alcohol treatment study. Self-efficacy was moderated by behavioral process use in predicting drinking frequency 6 and 12 months posttreatment and drinking quantity 6 months posttreatment such that self-efficacy was more strongly related to posttreatment drinking when low levels of processes were reported than high levels, but interactions were attenuated when end-of-treatment abstinence was controlled for. Significant quadratic relations between end-of-treatment self-efficacy and 6- and 12-month posttreatment drinking quantity and frequency were found (p behavioral processes was attenuated when end-of-treatment abstinence was controlled for, the quadratic effect of self-efficacy on outcomes remained significant. The pattern of these effects did not support the idea of "overconfidence" as a negative indicator. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Time course of enhancement of chromosomal aberration production in human lyphocytes by post-treatment with aphidicolin following X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have shown earlier that the DNA polymerase inhibitor, aphidicolin, enhances the production of chromosomal aberration by X-rays when administered as a post-treatment. The effect is marked in metaphases collected for the first hour or two following irradiation. Because the yield of X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations falls rapidly with increasing irradiation-fixation interval in G 2 cells it is possible that a difference in yield between cells post-treated with a drug like aphidicolin and those not-treated could arise simply through alteration of the time required for post-treated cells to reach metaphase. The results of the present experiments agree with those of the earlier one in that the X-ray and X-ray plus 1.5 h 5 x 10 -5 M aphidicolin post-treatment-induced chromatid aberration yield fall very rapidly with increasing X-ray-fixation interval, with the marked excess caused by the post-treatment rapidly disappearing and the yield for post-treated samples fixed between 3 and 6 h post-irradiation becoming no greater than those for samples treated with X-rays alone. The answer to the question of whether the yields increase again at later irradiation-fixation intervals, though complicated by the greater delay in aphidicolin post-treated samples and by admixture at later fixation times of metaphases that were in G 1 when irradiated, appears clearly to be yes. (author). 15 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  3. Do DNA double-strand breaks induced by Alu I lead to development of novel aberrations in the second and third post-treatment mitoses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, A.; Bonk, K.; Mueller, M.U.; Streffer, C.; Obe, G.

    1996-01-01

    Several authors have reported that ionizing radiation can give rise to novel aberrations several mitotic divisions after the exposure. At our institute this phenomenon has been observed in mouse preimplantation embryos. This cell system is uniquely well suited for such investigations because the first three cell divisions show a high degree of synchrony. Thus the expression of chromosomal aberrations at the first, second and third mitosis after irradiation can be scored unambiguously. To investigate whether DNA double-strand breaks may be the lesions responsible for the delayed expression of chromosomal aberrations, we have studied the frequencies of aberrations in the first, second and third mitosis after treatment of one-cell mouse embryos with the restriction enzyme Alu I. Embryos were permeabilized with Streptolysin-O. The results indicate that the induction of double-strand breaks does not lead to novel aberrations in the third post-treatment mitosis. Several embryos scored at the second mitosis showed very high numbers of aberrations, indicating that Alu I may remain active in the cells for a period of one cell cycle. After treatment with Streptolysin-O alone, enhanced aberration frequencies were observed in the third post-treatment mitosis, suggesting that membrane damage has a delayed effect on the cellular integrity. 44 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  4. What's left feels right: Studies in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body integrity identity disorder (BIID).

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade the nosology status of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders has been topic of debate. Whereas in DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV) obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was classified as an anxiety disorder, in DSM-V it is classified as a separate entity with compulsivity as the main symptom. The first part of this thesis consists of studies that contributed to this debate, investigating the prevalence of obsessions in the general popul...

  5. CCL19 as a Chemokine Risk Factor for Posttreatment Lyme Disease Syndrome: a Prospective Clinical Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloski, Mark J.; Rebman, Alison W.; Crowder, Lauren A.; Wagner, Catriona A.; Robinson, William H.; Bechtold, Kathleen T.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 10% to 20% of patients optimally treated for early Lyme disease develop persistent symptoms of unknown pathophysiology termed posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). The objective of this study was to investigate associations between PTLDS and immune mediator levels during acute illness and at several time points following treatment. Seventy-six participants with physician-documented erythema migrans and 26 healthy controls with no history of Lyme disease were enrolled. Sixty-four cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory markers were measured at each visit for a total of 6 visits over 1 year. An operationalized definition of PTLDS incorporating symptoms and functional impact was applied at 6 months and 1 year following treatment completion, and clinical outcome groups were defined as the return-to-health, symptoms-only, and PTLDS groups. Significance analysis of microarrays identified 7 of the 64 immune mediators to be differentially regulated by group. Generalized logit regressions controlling for potential confounders identified posttreatment levels of the T-cell chemokine CCL19 to be independently associated with clinical outcome group. Receiver operating characteristic analysis identified a CCL19 cutoff of >111.67 pg/ml at 1 month following treatment completion to be 82% sensitive and 83% specific for later PTLDS. We speculate that persistently elevated CCL19 levels among participants with PTLDS may reflect ongoing, immune-driven reactions at sites distal to secondary lymphoid tissue. Our findings suggest the relevance of CCL19 both during acute infection and as an immunologic risk factor for PTLDS during the posttreatment phase. Identification of a potential biomarker predictor for PTLDS provides the opportunity to better understand its pathophysiology and to develop early interventions in the context of appropriate and specific clinical information. PMID:27358211

  6. Políticas de nanotecnología en Argentina a la luz de criterios de la OCDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Foladori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la política pública de nanotecnología en Argentina según indicadores de la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico (ocde. La ocde realizó una encuesta a 24 países para comparar políticas públicas en nanotecnología. En este artículo aplicamos ese cuestionario y buscamos responderlo para el caso argentino. El cuestionario consta de 11 dimensiones: Plan nacional, Participación social en la política, Relación entre sector privado y público, Riesgo a la salud y el medio ambiente, Cooperación internacional, Participación en foros internacionales, Regulación, Financiamiento directo, Calificación del trabajo, Apoyo a la empresa privada, y Propiedad intelectual. El resultado muestra que la orientación de las políticas públicas intenta privilegiar la pequeña y mediana empresa y garantizar la participación empresarial en investigaciones, pero no existe un plan ni una política coordinada. Además, resaltan los escasos avances en materia de regulación de riesgo a la salud y el medio ambiente.

  7. [Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorders treated in an outpatient clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beig, Inga; Döpfner, Manfred; Goletz, Hildegard; Plück, Julia; Dachs, Lydia; Kinnen, Claudia; Walter, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered as treatment of first choice for children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). However, its effectiveness has so far mostly been examined in randomized controlled trials with strictly manualized interventions. Only few studies have examined whether the effectiveness of CBT for juvenile OCD generalizes to clinical practice. To test the effectiveness of CBT under routine care conditions, data of n = 53 patients with parent-ratings and n = 53 patients with self-ratings that were treated in a university-based outpatient clinic for child and adolescent psychotherapy was analyzed. Pre-post-mean-comparisons, effect sizes and the clinical significance of changes of the symptoms were examined. OCD and comorbid symptoms were significantly reduced during treatment. Strong effect sizes (Cohen’s d) were found for parent rated (d = 0.91) and patient rated (d = 0.88) OCD symptoms. Moderate to strong pre-post-effect sizes were found for the reduction of parent rated (d = 0.55 to d = 0.87) and patient rated (d = 0.46 to d = 0.74) comorbid symptoms. The percentage of children and adolescents who achieved clinically significant improvements and no longer showed dysfunctional OCD symptoms post-treatment was 46.3 % according to the parent-ratings and 59.4 % according to the self-ratings. Concerning comorbid symptoms the same was reached for between 22.5 % and 45.5 % of the patients (parent-ratings) and between 32.0 % and 81.8 % (self-ratings) respectively. Significant reductions in both OCD and comorbid symptoms were demonstrated over the course of cognitive-behavioral therapy of juvenile OCD disorders in a university outpatient clinic for child and adolescent psychotherapy. These results indicate that routine CBT treatment is an effective way to treat juvenile OCD disorders in clinical practice.

  8. Counseling patients on facial volume replacement and adherence with posttreatment instructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Day

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Doris DayDay Dermatology and Aesthetics New York, USAAbstract: Use of injectable volume replacement products has increased dramatically in the US in recent years. An optimal outcome with volume replacement depends on a thorough ­knowledge of the products on the part of the dermatologic/aesthetic physician specialist, identification of patients with a likelihood of benefiting from volume replacement procedures, selection of an appropriate product for the individual patient, and effective patient counseling to ensure adherence to posttreatment care instructions. Adherence to physician instructions in the field of dermatology appears limited, and there is very little published information on adherence to physician instructions following facial volume replacement procedures. The purpose of this review is to provide strategies for understanding and overcoming the barriers to adherence with the widely used dermal fillers. Strategies include using patient-centered techniques, such as a motivational interview encouraging the patient to follow postprocedure care instructions, eg, massage. In this case, demonstrating massage techniques while the patient is still in the office, with patient participation and detailed feedback, also contributes to good adherence with posttreatment care instructions. Telephone counseling, reminder postcards, and text messages may help improve clinic attendance for follow-up. Motivated patients who demonstrate good ­adherence to physician instructions generally respond well to volume replacement treatments, and usually experience fewer adverse events than patients who do not follow instructions. Although promoting adherence to pretreatment and posttreatment protocols remains a challenge, patient counseling throughout the treatment process can lead to successful results.Keywords: improving adherence, injectable volume replacement, product selection, ­rejuvenation procedure, soft tissue augmentation

  9. Familial study of ataxia telangiectasia. Heterozygotes identification on the basis of sensitivity of gamma-irradiated cultures to caffeine post-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlak, A.L.; Kotecki, M.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of caffeine (CF), γ-irradiation + CF post-treatment on chromosomal aberrations were studied in lymphocyte cultures from a patient with ataxia telangiectasia (AT), his parents and brother. In the studied family both the homozygotes and the obligatory heterozygotes of AT showed increased sensitivity to CF post-treatment. Individual differences in sensitivity to γ-irradiation + CF post-treatment proved to be correlated with the sensitivity of non-irradiated cells to CF treatment, but not to γ-irradiation. (author). 19 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Familial study of ataxia telangiectasia. Heterozygotes identification on the basis of sensitivity of gamma-irradiated cultures to caffeine post-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlak, A.L.; Kotecki, M. [Polska Akademia Nauk, Poznan (Poland). Zaklad Genetyki Czlowieka; Ignatowicz, R. [Centrum Zdrowia Dziecka, Warsaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The effects of caffeine (CF), {gamma}-irradiation + CF post-treatment on chromosomal aberrations were studied in lymphocyte cultures from a patient with ataxia telangiectasia (AT), his parents and brother. In the studied family both the homozygotes and the obligatory heterozygotes of AT showed increased sensitivity to CF post-treatment. Individual differences in sensitivity to {gamma}-irradiation + CF post-treatment proved to be correlated with the sensitivity of non-irradiated cells to CF treatment, but not to {gamma}-irradiation. (author). 19 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Post-treatment problems of African American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsevick, Andrea M; Leader, Amy; Bradley, Patricia K; Avery, Tiffany; Dean, Lorraine T; DiCarlo, Melissa; Hegarty, Sarah E

    2016-12-01

    African American breast cancer survivors (AABCS) have a lower survival rate across all disease stages (79 %) compared with White survivors (92 %) and often have more aggressive forms of breast cancer requiring multimodality treatment, so they could experience a larger burden of post-treatment quality of life (QOL) problems. This paper reports a comprehensive assessment of the number, severity, and domains of problems faced by AABCS within 5 years after treatment completion and identifies subgroups at risk for these problems. A population-based random sample was obtained from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry of African American females over 18 years of age who completed primary treatment for breast cancer in the past 5 years. A mailed survey was used to document survivorship problems. Two hundred ninety-seven AABCS completed the survey. The median number of survivor problems reported was 15. Exploratory factor analysis of the problem scale revealed four domains: emotional problems, physical problems, lack of resources, and sexuality problems. Across problem domains, younger age, more comorbid conditions, and greater medical mistrust were risk factors for more severe problems. The results demonstrated that AABCS experienced significant problem burden in the early years after diagnosis and treatment. In addition to emotional and physical problem domains that were documented in previous research, two problem domains unique to AABCS included lack of resources and sexuality concerns. At risk groups should be targeted for intervention. The study results reported in this manuscript will inform future research to address problems of AABCS as they make the transition from cancer patient to cancer survivor.

  12. Granisetron adjunct to fluvoxamine for moderate to severe obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Neda; Moin, Mahdieh; Sanati, Mohammad; Tajdini, Masih; Hosseini, Seyed-Mohammad-Reza; Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Najand, Babak; Salimi, Samrand; Tabrizi, Mina; Ashrafi, Mandana; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2012-10-01

    Several small studies have shown beneficial effects of ondansetron, a serotonin 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The efficacy of other 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists in patients with OCD is still unclear. Granisetron does not alter cytochrome P450 activity and might have a lower risk of drug interactions, a longer duration of action and a better tolerability profile than other 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of granisetron augmentation of fluvoxamine in patients with OCD. This was a two-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study conducted from November 2011 to March 2012. The study setting was outpatient clinics of two large referral centres. Study participants were men and women, aged 18-60 years, who met the diagnostic criteria of OCD based on the DSM-IV-TR and who had a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score of at least 21. Participants were randomly assigned to granisetron (Kytril(®); SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA, USA) 1 mg every 12 hours or placebo every 12 hours in addition to fluvoxamine for 8 weeks. Patients were assessed using the Y-BOCS at baseline, second, fourth, sixth and eighth weeks. The primary outcome measure was the difference in the score change of Y-BOCS total score from baseline to week 8 between the two groups. We also compared changes in the obsession and compulsion subscales of the Y-BOCS, and frequencies of partial response (≥25% reduction in Y-BOCS score), complete response (≥35% reduction in Y-BOCS score) and remission (Y-BOCS score ≤16) between the two groups. Of the 42 included patients, 39 (20 in the placebo group, 19 in the granisetron group) completed the study. Significant time X treatment interaction was observed for total Y-BOCS (F [2.097, 79.678] = 4.941, p = 0.009), obsession (F [2.337, 88.799] = 4.938, p = 0.006) and compulsion (F [2.050, 77

  13. Subclinical autism spectrum symptoms in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arildskov, Trine Wigh; Højgaard, David R M A; Skarphedinsson, Gudmundur; Thomsen, Per Hove; Ivarsson, Tord; Weidle, Bernhard; Melin, Karin Holmgren; Hybel, Katja A

    2016-07-01

    The literature on subclinical autism spectrum (ASD) symptoms in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is scarce, and it remains unclear whether ASD symptoms are related to OCD severity. The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of ASD symptoms and age and sex differences in children and adolescents with OCD, and to explore the relation between ASD symptoms and OCD severity. This is the largest study of ASD symptoms in an OCD population to date, and the first directly aimed at elucidating sex and age differences in this matter. The study used baseline data from the Nordic Long-term OCD Treatment Study in which parents of 257 children and adolescents with OCD aged 7-17 completed the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire. OCD severity was assessed with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Pediatric OCD patients were found to exhibit elevated rates of ASD symptoms compared to a norm group of school-age children. ASD symptoms were concentrated in a subgroup with a prevalence of 10-17 %. This subgroup was characterized by a male preponderance with a sex ratio of approximately 2.6:1, while children versus adolescents with OCD exhibited similar rates. Autism-specific social and communication difficulties were not related to OCD severity, while restricted repetitive behavior was positively related to OCD severity. The results indicate that clinicians need to be aware of ASD symptoms in children and adolescents with OCD since one out of ten exhibits such symptoms at a clinical sub-threshold.

  14. Mesophilic and thermophilic activated sludge post-treatment of paper mill process water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, J.C.T.; Bouwhuis, E.; Klapwijk, A.; Spanjers, H.; Lier, van J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing system closure in paper mills and higher process water temperatures make the applicability of thermophilic treatment systems increasingly important. The use of activated sludge as a suitable thermophilic post-treatment system for anaerobically pre-treated paper process water from a paper

  15. Family accommodation of anxiety symptoms in youth undergoing intensive multimodal treatment for anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder: Nature, clinical correlates, and treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Buissonnière-Ariza, Valérie; Schneider, Sophie C; Højgaard, Davíð; Kay, Brian C; Riemann, Bradley C; Eken, Stephanie C; Lake, Peter; Nadeau, Joshua M; Storch, Eric A

    2018-01-01

    Family accommodation is associated with a range of clinical features including symptom severity, functional impairment, and treatment response. However, most previous studies in children and adolescents investigated family accommodation in samples of youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or anxiety disorders receiving non-intensive outpatient services. In this study, we aimed to investigate family accommodation of anxiety symptoms in a sample of youth with clinical anxiety levels undergoing an intensive multimodal intervention for anxiety disorders or OCD. We first assessed the internal consistency of the Family Accommodation Scale - Anxiety (FASA). We next examined family accommodation presentation and correlates. The FASA showed high internal consistency for all subscales and total score, and good item and subscale correlations with the total score. All parents reported at least mild accommodation, and the mean levels of family accommodation were particularly high. Child age, anxiety severity, and comorbid depressive symptoms predicted baseline accommodation. However, the association between anxiety severity and family accommodation no longer remained significant after adding the other factors to the model. In addition, family accommodation partially mediated the relationship between anxiety severity and functional impairment. Finally, post-treatment changes in family accommodation predicted changes in symptom severity and functional impairment. These findings suggest the FASA is an appropriate tool to assess family accommodation in intensive treatment samples. Further, they underline the importance of addressing family accommodation in this population given the particularly high levels of accommodating behaviors and the evidence for adverse outcomes associated with this feature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of pre-treatment and post-treatment use of selenium in retinal ischemia reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Yazici

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of selenium in rat retinal ischemia reperfusion (IR model and compare pre-treatment and post-treatment use. METHODS: Selenium pre-treatment group (n=8 was treated with intraperitoneal (i.p. selenium 0.5 mg/kg for 7d and terminated 24h after the IR injury. Selenium post-treatment group (n=8 was treated with i.p. selenium 0.5 mg/kg for 7d after the IR injury with termination at the end of the 7d period. Sham group (n=8 received i.p. saline injections identical to the selenium volume for 7d with termination 24h after the IR injury. Control group (n=8 received no intervention. Main outcome measures were retina superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione (GSH, total antioxidant status (TAS, malondialdehyde (MDA, DNA fragmentation levels, and immunohistological apoptosis evaluation. RESULTS: Compared to the Sham group, selenium pre-treatment had a statistical difference in all parameters except SOD. Post-treatment selenium also resulted in statistical differences in all parameters except the MDA levels. When comparing selenium groups, the pre-treatment selenium group had a statistically higher success in reduction of markers of cell damage such as MDA and DNA fragmentation. In contrast, the post-selenium treatment group had resulted in statistically higher levels of GSH. Histologically both selenium groups succeeded to limit retinal thickening and apoptosis. Pre-treatment use was statistically more successful in decreasing apoptosis in ganglion cell layer compared to post-treatment use. CONCLUSION: Selenium was successful in retinal protection in IR injuries. Pre-treatment efficacy was superior in terms of prevention of tissue damage and apoptosis.

  17. Risk factors associated with short-term post-treatment outcomes of clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón-Sánchez, C; Ruegg, P L

    2011-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize 60-d outcomes after treatment of mild (abnormal milk) and moderate (abnormal milk and abnormal udder) cases of clinical mastitis (CM) occurring in a single quarter of cows on Wisconsin farms (n=4) and to determine risk factors associated with those outcomes. Duplicate milk samples were collected from the affected quarter of each cow for microbiological analysis at the onset of CM (PRE) and 21 d later (POST). Cows were treated only in the affected quarter using an intramammary product containing 125 mg of ceftiofur. Bacteriological cure was defined as absence of pathogens in the POST sample obtained from the enrolled quarter. Recurrence was defined for the cow when CM occurred after the milk-withholding period for the enrolled case of CM. Retention in the herd was defined when a cow was retained within the herd for the 60-d follow-up period. Somatic cell count reduction (SCCR) was defined at the cow level as somatic cell count (SCC) below 200,000 cells/mL at the Dairy Herd Improvement Association test day occurring between 21 to 55 d post-treatment. The effects of farm, days in milk, parity, severity, microbiological diagnosis at PRE, previous milk yield, previous SCC, previous occurrence of CM and treatment duration on selected post-treatment outcomes were assessed using Chi-squared analysis and logistic regression. Microbiological results at PRE were distributed as: Escherichia coli (n=14), Klebsiella spp. (n=11), Enterobacter spp. (n=8), Serratia spp. (n=7), other gram-negative species (n=3), Streptococcus spp. (n=25), coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=4); Staphylococcus aureus (n=1); Streptococcus agalactiae (n=1), other gram-positive species (n=9), and culture negative (n=60). Treated quarters were more likely to experience bacteriological cure when the cow experienced CM for the first time in the lactation and when no pathogen was recovered from PRE milk samples obtained from the enrolled quarter. Parity and

  18. Relationship of serum ferritin level and tic severity in children with Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debabrata; Burkman, Elizabeth

    2017-08-01

    Tics can be considered hyperkinetic movements akin to restless leg syndrome (RLS). Drawing the analogy of iron deficiency as an etiology of RLS, it is conceivable that iron deficiency may underlie or worsen tics in Tourette syndrome (TS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum ferritin levels and tic severity, as well as consequent impact on life, in children with TS. Children tic severity, impact on life, medication, comorbidities, blood count, and serum ferritin at diagnosis and follow-up. In fifty-seven patients, M:F = 2:1, serum ferritin was 48.0 ± 33.28 ng/mL, tic severity score 2.3 ± 0.80, impact on life score 2.2 ± 0.93, and composite score 4.57 ± 1.6. Serum ferritin was not influenced by comorbid obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), or anxiety (P > 0.16). Thirty-eight percent with low serum ferritin (≤50 ng/mL) (n = 37) had severe tics (>5 composite score), compared with 25% in normal ferritin group (n = 20). Over 6-12 months, tic severity score improved in both iron treated groups, deficient (2.70 to 1.90) and sufficient (2.40 to 1.95), whereas tics worsened or remained the same when not treated with iron. Our data suggest iron deficiency may be associated with more severe tics with higher impact on TS children, independent of the presence of OCD, ADHD, or anxiety. Iron supplementation showed a trend towards improvement of tic severity upon follow-up. We suggest a double-blind, placebo-controlled prospective study to reach a definite conclusion.

  19. Further insight into the role of metacognitive beliefs in schizophrenia and OCD patients: testing a mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolon, Catherine; Larøi, Frank; Stephan, Yannick; Capdevielle, Delphine; Yazbek, Hanan; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Gely-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Raffard, Stéphane

    2014-12-15

    This study explored the mediation effect of metacognitive beliefs on the relationship between intrusive thoughts and emotional distress in schizophrenia (N=49) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (N=35). Intrusive thoughts impact on anxiety and depression through beliefs about uncontrollability and danger of thoughts in schizophrenia. Negative beliefs in general mediated the effect of intrusive thoughts on anxiety in obsessive-compulsive disorder. The results suggest that metacognitive beliefs may be a vulnerability factor for emotional and psychological disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Correlates of comorbid anxiety and externalizing disorders in childhood obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Audra K; Lewin, Adam B; Bergman, R Lindsey; Lee, Joyce C; Piacentini, John

    2010-08-01

    The present study examines the influence of diagnostic comorbidity on the demographic, psychiatric, and functional status of youth with a primary diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Two hundred and fifteen children (ages 5-17) referred to a university-based OCD specialty clinic were compared based on DSM-IV diagnostic profile: OCD without comorbid anxiety or externalizing disorder, OCD plus anxiety disorder, and OCD plus externalizing disorder. No age or gender differences were found across groups. Higher OCD severity was found for the OCD + ANX group, while the OCD + EXT group reported greater functional impairment than the other two groups. Lower family cohesion was reported by the OCD + EXT group compared to the OCD group and the OCD + ANX group reported higher family conflict compared to the OCD + EXT group. The OCD + ANX group had significantly lower rates of tic disorders while rates of depressive disorders did not differ among the three groups. The presence of comorbid anxiety and externalizing psychopathology are associated with greater symptom severity and functional and family impairment and underscores the importance of a better understanding of the relationship of OCD characteristics and associated disorders. Results and clinical implications are further discussed.

  1. Influence of TiCl4 post-treatment condition on TiO2 electrode for enhancement photovoltaic efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Tae Sung; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bark, Chung Wung; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2014-10-01

    Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) treatment processed by chemical bath deposition is usually adopted as pre- and post-treatment for nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) film deposition in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) technology. TiCl4 post-treatment is a widely known method capable of improving the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. In this work, the effect of TiCl4 post-treatment on the TiO2 electrode is proposed and compared to the untreated film. A TiO2 passivating layer was deposited on FTO glass by RF magnetron sputtering. The TiO2 sol prepared sol-gel method, nanoporous TiO2 upper layer was deposited by screen printing method on the passivating layer. TiCl4 post-treatment was deposited on the substrate by hydrolysis of TiCl4 aqueous solution. Crystalline structure was adjusted by various TiCl4 concentration and dipping time: 20 mM-150 mM and 30 min-120 min. The conversion efficiency was measured by solar simulator (100 mW/cm2). The dye-sensitized solar cell using TiCl4 post-treatment was measured the maximum conversion efficiency of 5.04% due to electron transport effectively. As a result, the DSSCs based on TiCl4 post-treatment showed better photovoltaic performance than cells made purely of TiO2 nanoparticles. The relative DSSCs devices are characterized in terms of short circuit current density, open circuit voltage, fill factor, conversion efficiency.

  2. A systematic review of the effectiveness of CBT/ERP group therapy of OCD: A meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Hjalti; Hougaard, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit

    , as well as reviewers of the literature have focused on within single treatments effect sizes rather between group effect sizes. OBJECTIVES To make a systematic review, and by methods of meta analysis compute a pooled within effect size of studies of group CBT of OCD and compare these to previously.......05 and 1.25 respectively, with an overall combined pooled within effect size across the categories at 1.18. Finally a between effect sizes of the four studies comparing group therapy to waitlist control group was reported at.1.12 CONCLUSION The reported within effect sizes in this meta-analysis (range 1...

  3. Fate of oestrogens during anaerobic blackwater treatment with micro-aerobic post-treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, de T.Z.D.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2007-01-01

    The fate of oestrone (E1), 17b-oestradiol (E2) and 17a-ethynyloestradiol (EE2) was investigated in a concentrated blackwater treatment system consisting of an UASB septic tank, with micro-aerobic post-treatment. In UASB septic tank effluent a (natural) total concentration of 4.02 mg/L E1 and 18.69

  4. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: an open trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Lenhard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT as the first line treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. However, a substantial proportion of patients do not have access to such treatment. We developed and tested the feasibility, efficacy and acceptability of a novel therapist-guided, Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT platform for adolescents with OCD. METHODS: An interactive, age-appropriate ICBT platform ("BiP OCD" was developed. Twenty-one adolescents (12-17 years with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD and their parents were enrolled in the study. All participants received 12 weeks of ICBT with therapist support. The primary outcome measure was the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS. Acceptability was assessed at post-treatment. RESULTS: Participants completed on average 8.29 (SD = 3.0 of the 12 treatment chapters. Treatment yielded significant improvements on all clinician-, parent- and most self-administered outcome measures, with a large effect size of d = 2.29 (95% CI 1.5-3.07 on the CY-BOCS. Patients continued to improve at follow-up. At 6-month follow-up, 71% were classified as responders (≥35% decrease on the CY-BOCS and 76% as being in remission (CY-BOCS score ≤12. Average clinician support time was less than 20 minutes per patient per week. The majority of participants felt that BiP OCD was age-appropriate and rated the treatment as good or very good. CONCLUSIONS: ICBT could be efficacious, acceptable, and cost-effective for adolescents with OCD. More rigorously controlled studies are needed to further evaluate the treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT01809990.

  5. The association between obsessive compulsive disorder and obsessive compulsive personality disorder: prevalence and clinical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Olivia M; Salkovskis, Paul M; Oldfield, Victoria B; Carter, Natalie

    2013-09-01

    The relationship between Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) has been the subject of interest for some time due to the historical assumption that OCPD causes OCD. This study systematically examined the association between OCD and OCPD in terms of prevalence and clinical presentation. The specificity of the association between OCD and OCPD was investigated relative to another axis I anxiety disorder (Panic disorder). Data for this study were drawn from measures taken at initial assessment at a specialist treatment centre for anxiety disorders. Of the 359 participants included in this study, 189 had a principal diagnosis of OCD, while 170 had a principal diagnosis of Panic disorder. Measures included SCID I and II interview modules and self-report measures of anxiety, depression, and OCD syptomatology. Significantly elevated rates of OCPD were found in OCD relative to Panic disorder. Regardless of axis I disorder, individuals with comorbid OCPD reported more severe depression relative to those without. Participants with both OCD and OCPD had greater self-reported OCD symptom severity, doubting, ordering, and hoarding symptoms at assessment relative to those without OCPD. Participants with OCD and comorbid OCPD also reported significantly higher levels of alcohol consumption. There appears to be a significant and specific association between OCD and OCPD. Co-occurring OCD and OCPD is associated with greater severity of impairment in terms of certain OCD symptoms. The significant and specific association between OCD and OCPD suggests that OCPD occurs more frequently with OCD than previously suggested. A comorbid OCPD diagnosis is associated with a greater degree of depression, regardless of axis I disorder, either OCD or Panic disorder. This is an important consideration, as depression can interfere with therapeutic progress (Foa, 1979). Participants with OCD and OCPD had greater self-reported OCD severity, along

  6. Early Disseminated Lyme Disease with Carditis Complicated by Posttreatment Lyme Disease Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Cheryl; Harrison, Andrew; Aucott, John

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. When untreated, infection may spread to the heart, nervous system, and joints. Cardiac involvement usually manifests as abnormalities of the conduction system and bradycardia. Treatment of Lyme disease is generally effective, with a subset of patients experiencing persistent, sometimes long-term symptoms called posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome.

  7. Influence of post-treatment strategies on the properties of activated chars from broiler manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Isabel M; Boykin, Debbie L; Thomas Klasson, K; Uchimiya, Minori

    2014-01-01

    There are a myriad of carbonaceous precursors that can be used advantageously to produce activated carbons or chars, due to their low cost, availability and intrinsic properties. Because of the nature of the raw material, production of granular activated chars from broiler manure results in a significant ash fraction. This study was conducted to determine the influence of several pre- and post-treatment strategies in various physicochemical and adsorptive properties of the resulting activated chars. Pelletized samples of broiler litter and cake were pyrolyzed at 700 °C for 1h followed by a 45 min steam activation at 800 °C at different water flow rates from 1 to 5 mL min(-1). For each activation strategy, samples were either water-rinsed or acid-washed and rinsed or used as is (no acid wash/rinse). Activated char's physicochemical and adsorptive properties towards copper ions were selectively affected by both pre- and post-treatments. Percent ash reduction after either rinsing or acid washing ranged from 1.1 to 15.1% but washed activated chars were still alkaline with pH ranging from 8.4 to 9.1. Acid washing or water rinsing had no significant effect in the ability of the activated char to adsorb copper ions, however it significantly affected surface area, pH, ash content and carbon content. Instead, manure type (litter versus cake) and the activation water flow rate were determining factors in copper ion adsorption which ranged from 38 mg g(-1) to 104 mg g(-1) of activated char. Moreover, strong positive correlations were found between copper uptake and concentration of certain elements in the activated char such as phosphorous, sulfur, calcium and sodium. Rinsing could suffice as a post treatment strategy for ash reduction since no significant differences in the carbon properties were observed between rinsed and acid wash treatments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. A Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) Study on Ornithine Cyclodeaminase (OCD): A Tale of Two Iminiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Bogdan F.; Bushnell, Eric A. C.; De Luna, Phil; Gauld, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Ornithine cyclodeaminase (OCD) is an NAD+-dependent deaminase that is found in bacterial species such as Pseudomonas putida. Importantly, it catalyzes the direct conversion of the amino acid L-ornithine to L-proline. Using molecular dynamics (MD) and a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method in the ONIOM formalism, the catalytic mechanism of OCD has been examined. The rate limiting step is calculated to be the initial step in the overall mechanism: hydride transfer from the L-ornithine’s Cα–H group to the NAD+ cofactor with concomitant formation of a Cα=NH2 + Schiff base with a barrier of 90.6 kJ mol−1. Importantly, no water is observed within the active site during the MD simulations suitably positioned to hydrolyze the Cα=NH2 + intermediate to form the corresponding carbonyl. Instead, the reaction proceeds via a non-hydrolytic mechanism involving direct nucleophilic attack of the δ-amine at the Cα-position. This is then followed by cleavage and loss of the α-NH2 group to give the Δ1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate that is subsequently reduced to L-proline. PMID:23202934

  9. A Molecular Dynamics (MD and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM Study on Ornithine Cyclodeaminase (OCD: A Tale of Two Iminiums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Gauld

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ornithine cyclodeaminase (OCD is an NAD+-dependent deaminase that is found in bacterial species such as Pseudomonas putida. Importantly, it catalyzes the direct conversion of the amino acid L-ornithine to L-proline. Using molecular dynamics (MD and a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM method in the ONIOM formalism, the catalytic mechanism of OCD has been examined. The rate limiting step is calculated to be the initial step in the overall mechanism: hydride transfer from the L-ornithine’s Cα–H group to the NAD+ cofactor with concomitant formation of a Cα=NH2+ Schiff base with a barrier of 90.6 kJ mol−1. Importantly, no water is observed within the active site during the MD simulations suitably positioned to hydrolyze the Cα=NH2+ intermediate to form the corresponding carbonyl. Instead, the reaction proceeds via a non-hydrolytic mechanism involving direct nucleophilic attack of the δ-amine at the Cα-position. This is then followed by cleavage and loss of the α-NH2 group to give the Δ1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate that is subsequently reduced to L-proline.

  10. Water Vapor Adsorption on Biomass Based Carbons under Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Conditions: Effect of Post-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nausika Querejeta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of post-treatment upon the H2O adsorption performance of biomass-based carbons was studied under post-combustion CO2 capture conditions. Oxygen surface functionalities were partially replaced through heat treatment, acid washing, and wet impregnation with amines. The surface chemistry of the final carbon is strongly affected by the type of post-treatment: acid treatment introduces a greater amount of oxygen whereas it is substantially reduced after thermal treatment. The porous texture of the carbons is also influenced by post-treatment: the wider pore volume is somewhat reduced, while narrow microporosity remains unaltered only after acid treatment. Despite heat treatment leading to a reduction in the number of oxygen surface groups, water vapor adsorption was enhanced in the higher pressure range. On the other hand acid treatment and wet impregnation with amines reduce the total water vapor uptake thus being more suitable for post-combustion CO2 capture applications.

  11. The correlates of obsessive-compulsive, schizotypal, and borderline personality disorders in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melca, Isabela A; Yücel, Murat; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2015-06-01

    We assessed correlates of obsessive-compulsive (OCPD), schizotypal (SPD) and borderline (BPD) personality disorders in 110 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. We found OCD patients with OCPD (20.9%) to exhibit higher rates of hoarding and bipolar disorders, increased severity of hoarding and symmetry, lower prevalence of unacceptable thoughts involving sex and religion and less non-planning impulsivity. Conversely, OCD patients with SPD (13.6%) displayed more frequently bipolar disorder, increased severity of depression and OCD neutralization, greater prevalence of "low-order" behaviors (i.e., touching), lower low-planning impulsivity and greater "behavioral" compulsivity. Finally, in exploratory analyses, OCD patients with BPD (21.8%) exhibited lower education, higher rates of several comorbid psychiatric disorders, greater frequency of compulsions involving interpersonal domains (e.g. reassurance seeking), increased severity of depression, anxiety and OCD dimensions other than symmetry and hoarding, more motor and non-planning impulsivity, and greater "cognitive" compulsivity. These findings highlight the importance of assessing personality disorders in OCD samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Managing the impact of posttreatment fatigue on the family: breast cancer survivors share their experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Julianne S; Bellin, Melissa H; Scarvalone, Susan; Appling, Sue; Helzlsouer, Kathy J

    2011-06-01

    With improvements in both early detection and treatments for breast cancer, the number of survivors has increased dramatically in recent decades. One of the most common lingering symptoms posttreatment for cancer survivors is chronic fatigue. Based on family stress theory and Rolland's typology of illness, this qualitative study extends our understanding of the impact of persistent posttreatment fatigue on families and how breast cancer survivors manage the family issues that arise because of this chronic stressor. Participants included 35 female survivors of breast cancer (mean age = 54 years) who experienced fatigue after the completion of active cancer treatment, with the exception of long-term hormonal therapy. Data were generated from (a) observations of group sessions from a randomized controlled fatigue intervention designed to reduce fatigue in breast cancer survivors, (b) individual in-depth interviews, and (c) family sessions. Qualitative analysis revealed two broad themes that illustrate how the survivors manage the impact of fatigue on their families: Interpreting the meaning of the fatigue and Dealing with the inability to perform family roles. Study findings describe the difficulties in family adaptation when the family is not able to assign a clear meaning to a chronic symptom posttreatment and build upon family stress theory by highlighting interrelationships among communication patterns and role shifts in the family system. ©2011 APA

  13. Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Posttreatment Evaluation of Anal Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houard, Clémence; Pinaquy, Jean-Baptiste; Mesguich, Charles; Henriques de Figueiredo, Bénédicte; Cazeau, Anne-Laure; Allard, Jean-Baptiste; Laharie, Hortense; Bordenave, Laurence; Fernandez, Philippe; Vendrely, Véronique

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relevance of PET/CT and 18 F-FDG as a strategy for response evaluation after chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer. For this, the performance of posttreatment 18 F-FDG PET/CT, the impact on patient care, and the predictive value of metabolic response were assessed. Methods: This was a retrospective and multicenter analysis of 87 patients treated by chemoradiotherapy for anal squamous cell carcinoma between October 2007 and October 2013. All patients underwent systematic posttreatment 18 F-FDG PET/CT and were followed with at least a clinical examination every 4 mo for 2 y and every 6 mo thereafter. Disease progression was confirmed by biopsy for all patients in the case of local recurrence before surgery. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were used to test for associations between metabolic or clinical endpoints and progression-free survival (PFS) or cause-specific survival (CSS). Results: The median follow-up was 25 mo. 18 F-FDG PET/CT was performed 1-8 mo (median, 4 mo) after completion of chemoradiotherapy. Overall, 25 patients relapsed and 13 died. The posttherapy 18 F-FDG PET/CT did not show any abnormal 18 F-FDG uptake (complete metabolic response [CMR]) in 55 patients whereas 32 displayed incomplete response (non-CMR): 15 patients with partial response and 17 with disease progression. The sensitivity of 18 F-FDG PET/CT to detect residual tumor tissue was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75%-97%), specificity was 85% (95% CI, 75%-92%), positive predictive value was 72% (95% CI, 61%-90%), and negative predictive value was 96.4% (95% CI, 90%-98.7%). The 2-y PFS was 96% (95% CI, 90-100) for patients with CMR and 28% (95% CI, 14-47) for non-CMR patients ( P PET/CT changed patient management in 14 cases (16%), with relevant modifications in 12 (14%). A Cox proportional hazards model of survival outcome indicated that a CMR was the only significant predictor of PFS and CSS ( P PET/CT shows good accuracy in posttreatment

  14. MR imaging of the skin and nipple of the breast: differentiation between tumour recurrence and post-treatment change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralleigh, G.; Walker, A.E.; Hall-Craggs, M.A.; Lakhani, S.R.; Saunders, C.

    2001-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the breast has been found to be valuable in the assessment of local recurrence of previously treated breast cancer. We looked specifically at the appearances of the skin and nipple of the treated breast in order to describe the appearances of post-treatment change and recurrence in this region. Thirty-nine women treated for breast cancer had MR imaging of one or both breasts reviewed retrospectively with particular attention to the nipple and skin. The skin and chest wall were assessed for patients with mastectomies. All available histology of the skin and/or nipple, obtained following MR imaging, was reviewed. In patients who did not undergo surgery following MR imaging, clinical follow-up was obtained. Six of 39 cases had nodular enhancing areas seen on MR imaging, which correlated with histology demonstrating tumour recurrence within the skin and/or nipple. Of the remaining 33 patients, changes of linear or diffuse enhancement were seen in the skin and/or nipple of 15 patients. These changes were shown to be benign post-treatment changes at surgery/biopsy in 4 cases or by clinical follow-up in the remainder. In this article we demonstrate differing patterns of contrast enhancement within the skin and nipple in recurrent breast carcinoma vs post-treatment changes. This suggests that contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the breast may be a useful tool in differentiating tumour recurrence from post-treatment changes within the skin and nipple. (orig.)

  15. Risk of cervical cancer after completed post-treatment follow-up of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Helmerhorst, Theo; Habbema, Dik

    2012-01-01

    To compare the risk of cervical cancer in women with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia who returned to routine screening after having completed post-treatment follow-up with consecutive normal smear test results with women with a normal primary smear test result....

  16. Integrating precision medicine in the study and clinical treatment of a severely mentally ill person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. O’Rawe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. In recent years, there has been an explosion in the number of technical and medical diagnostic platforms being developed. This has greatly improved our ability to more accurately, and more comprehensively, explore and characterize human biological systems on the individual level. Large quantities of biomedical data are now being generated and archived in many separate research and clinical activities, but there exists a paucity of studies that integrate the areas of clinical neuropsychiatry, personal genomics and brain-machine interfaces.Methods. A single person with severe mental illness was implanted with the Medtronic Reclaim® Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS Therapy device for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD, targeting his nucleus accumbens/anterior limb of the internal capsule. Programming of the device and psychiatric assessments occurred in an outpatient setting for over two years. His genome was sequenced and variants were detected in the Illumina Whole Genome Sequencing Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA-certified laboratory.Results. We report here the detailed phenotypic characterization, clinical-grade whole genome sequencing (WGS, and two-year outcome of a man with severe OCD treated with DBS. Since implantation, this man has reported steady improvement, highlighted by a steady decline in his Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS score from ∼38 to a score of ∼25. A rechargeable Activa RC neurostimulator battery has been of major benefit in terms of facilitating a degree of stability and control over the stimulation. His psychiatric symptoms reliably worsen within hours of the battery becoming depleted, thus providing confirmatory evidence for the efficacy of DBS for OCD in this person. WGS revealed that he is a heterozygote for the p.Val66Met variant in BDNF, encoding a member of the nerve growth factor family, and which has been found to predispose carriers to various psychiatric illnesses. He

  17. A case of recurrent depressive disorder presenting with Alice in Wonderland syndrome: psychopathology and pre- and post-treatment FDG-PET findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tatsushi; Okamura, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Miwako; Momose, Toshimitsu; Kondo, Shinsuke

    2017-04-27

    Alice in Wonderland syndrome (AIWS) is a rare neuropsychiatric syndrome that typically manifests in distortion of extrapersonal visual image, altered perception of one's body image, and a disturbed sense of the passage of distance and time. Several conditions have been reported to contribute to AIWS, although its biological basis is still unknown. Here, we present the first case demonstrating a clear concurrence of recurrent depressive disorder and AIWS. The clinical manifestations and pre- and post-treatment fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomographic (FDG-PET) images provide insights into the psychopathological and biological basis of AIWS. We describe a 63-year-old Japanese male who developed two distinct episodes of major depression concurrent with AIWS. In addition to typical AIWS perceptual symptoms, he complained of losing the ability to intuitively grasp the seriousness of news and the value of money, which implies disturbance of high-order cognition related to estimating magnitude and worth. Both depression and AIWS remitted after treatment in each episode. Pre-treatment FDG-PET images showed significant hypometabolism in the frontal cortex and hypermetabolism in the occipital and parietal cortex. Post-treatment images showed improvement of these abnormalities. The clinical co-occurrence of depressive episodes and presentation of AIWS can be interpreted to mean that they have certain functional disturbances in common. In view of incapacity, indifference, devitalization, altered perception of one's body image, and disturbed sense of time and space, the features of AIWS analogous to those of psychotic depression imply a common psychopathological basis. These high-order brain dysfunctions are possibly associated with the metabolic abnormalities in visual and parietotemporal association cortices that we observed on the pre- and post-treatment FDG-PET images in this case, while the hypometabolism in the frontal cortex is probably associated with depressive

  18. Effect of post-treatment conditions on the inactivation of helminth eggs (Ascaris suum) after the composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darimani, Hamidatu S; Ito, Ryusei; Maiga, Ynoussa; Sou, Mariam; Funamizu, Naoyuki; Maiga, Amadou H

    2016-01-01

    Safe and appropriate disposal of human waste is a basic requirement for sanitation and protection of public health. For proper sanitation and nutrient recovery, it is necessary to ensure effective treatment methods to complete pathogen destruction in excreta prior to reuse. Composting toilets convert faeces to a reusable resource such as fertilizer or humus for organic agriculture. A composting toilet for rural Burkina Faso was created by modifying a commercial model available in Japan to improve hygiene and increase food production. The toilet has shown to result in a degraded final product, but its effectiveness for pathogen destruction was unclear due to low temperatures generated from the toilet. This study aimed to sanitize compost withdrawn from the composting toilet for food production by setting post-treatment conditions. The inactivation kinetics of Ascaris suum eggs, selected as an indicator for helminth eggs, was determined during post-treatment at different temperatures (30°C, 40°C, 50°C and 60°C) with varying moisture contents (MC) (50%, 60% and 70%). The treatment of compost in a possible additional post-treatment after the composting process was tried in the laboratory test. Inactivation of A. suum eggs was fast with greater than two log reductions achieved within 2 h for temperature 50°C and 50% MC and greater than three log reductions for temperature 60°C and 50% MC within 3 h. Statistical analysis showed the significant impact of temperature and moisture on the inactivation rates of A. suum eggs. The post-treatment can efficiently increase helminth eggs destruction prior to reuse.

  19. Enhanced Performance of Thin Film Composite Forward Osmosis Membrane by Chemical Post-Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Chen, Jiangrong; Cao, Zhen; Wang, Jian; Guo, Chungang

    2018-01-01

    Forward osmosis is an attractive technique in water purification and desalination fields. Enhancement of the forward osmosis membrane performance is essential to the application of this technique. In this study, an optimized chemical post-treatment approach which was used to improve RO membrane performance was employed for enhancing water flux of thin film composite forward osmosis membrane. Home-made polysulfide-based forward osmosis membrane was prepared and nitric acid, sulfuric acid, ethanol, 2-propanol were employed as post-treatment solutions. After a short-term treatment, all the membrane samples manifested water flux enhancement compared with their untreated counterparts. Over 50% increase of water flux had been obtained by ethanol solution treatment. The swelling, changes of hydrophobicity and solvency in both active layer and substrate were verified as the major causes for the enhancement of the water flux. It is noted that the treatment time and solution concentration should be controlled to get both appropriate water flux and reverse salt flux. The results obtained in this study will be useful for further FO membrane development and application.

  20. Disparity between General Symptom Relief and Remission Criteria in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A Post-treatment Bifactor Item Response Theory Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ariana E; Reise, Steven P; Marder, Stephen R; Mansolf, Maxwell; Han, Carol; Bilder, Robert M

    2017-12-01

    Objective: Total scale scores derived by summing ratings from the 30-item PANSS are commonly used in clinical trial research to measure overall symptom severity, and percentage reductions in the total scores are sometimes used to document the efficacy of treatment. Acknowledging that some patients may have substantial changes in PANSS total scores but still be sufficiently symptomatic to warrant diagnosis, ratings on a subset of 8 items, referred to here as the "Remission set," are sometimes used to determine if patients' symptoms no longer satisfy diagnostic criteria. An unanswered question remains: is the goal of treatment better conceptualized as reduction in overall symptom severity, or reduction in symptoms below the threshold for diagnosis? We evaluated the psychometric properties of PANSS total scores, to assess whether having low symptom severity post-treatment is equivalent to attaining Remission. Design: We applied a bifactor item response theory (IRT) model to post-treatment PANSS ratings of 3,647 subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia assessed at the termination of 11 clinical trials. The bifactor model specified one general dimension to reflect overall symptom severity, and five domain-specific dimensions. We assessed how PANSS item discrimination and information parameters varied across the range of overall symptom severity (θ), with a special focus on low levels of symptoms (i.e., θexpected PANSS item score of 1.83, a rating between "Absent" and "Minimal" for a PANSS symptom. Results: The application of the bifactor IRT model revealed: (1) 88% of total score variation was attributable to variation in general symptom severity, and only 8% reflected secondary domain factors. This implies that a general factor may provide a good indicator of symptom severity, and that interpretation is not overly complicated by multidimensionality; (2) Post-treatment, 534 individuals (about 15% of the whole sample) scored in the "Relief" range of general symptom

  1. Evidence that the presence of psychosis in non-psychotic disorder is environment-dependent and mediated by severity of non-psychotic psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guloksuz, S; van Nierop, M; Lieb, R; van Winkel, R; Wittchen, H-U; van Os, J

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that in affective, non-psychotic disorders: (i) environmental exposures increase risk of subthreshold psychotic experiences (PEs) and strengthen connectivity between domains of affective and subthreshold psychotic psychopathology; and (ii) PEs are a marker of illness severity. In 3021 adolescents from the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology cohort, we tested whether the association between PEs and presence of DSM-IV mood disorder (MD)/obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) would be moderated by risk factors for psychosis (cannabis use, childhood trauma and urbanicity), using the interaction contrast ratio (ICR) method. Furthermore, we analysed whether the interaction between environment and PEs was mediated by non-psychotic psychopathology. The association between PEs and MD/OCD was moderated by urbanicity (ICR = 2.46, p = 0.005), cannabis use (ICR = 3.76, p = 0.010) and, suggestively, trauma (ICR = 1.91, p = 0.063). Exposure to more than one environmental risk factor increased the likelihood of co-expression of PEs in a dose-response fashion. Moderating effects of environmental exposures were largely mediated by the severity of general non-psychotic psychopathology (percentage explained 56-68%, all p psychopathology. The findings are compatible with a relational model of psychopathology in which more severe clinical states are the result of environment-induced disturbances spreading through a psychopathology network.

  2. Somebody to lean on: Social relationships predict post-treatment depression severity in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Mats; Lundin, Andreas; Tee, Fwo Yi; Burström, Bo; Forsell, Yvonne

    2017-03-01

    Supportive social relationships can help protect against depression, but few studies have examined how social relationships influence the response to depression treatment. We examined longitudinal associations between the availability of social relationships and depression severity following a 12-week intervention. In total, 946 adults aged 18-71 years with mild-to-moderate depression were recruited from primary care centres across Sweden and treated for 12 weeks. The interventions included internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT), 'usual care' (CBT or supportive counselling) and exercise. The primary outcome was the change in depression severity. The availability of social relationships were self-rated and based on the Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI). Prospective associations were explored using and logistic regression models. Participants with greater access to supportive social relationships reported larger improvements in depression compared to those with 'low' availability of relationships (β= -3.95, 95% CI= -5.49, -2.41, psocial relationships appear to play a key role in recovery from depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Curcumin pretreatment and post-treatment both improve the antioxidative ability of neurons with oxygen-glucose deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-xian Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that induced expression of endogenous antioxidative enzymes thr-ough activation of the antioxidant response element/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 pathway may be a neuroprotective strategy. In this study, rat cerebral cortical neurons cultured in vitro were pretreated with 10 μM curcumin or post-treated with 5 μM curcumin, respectively before or after being subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation for 24 hours. Both pretreatment and post-treatment resulted in a significant decrease of cell injury as indicated by propidium iodide/Hoechst 33258 staining, a prominent increase of Nrf2 protein expression as indicated by western blot analysis, and a remarkable increase of protein expression and enzyme activity in whole cell lysates of thioredoxin before ischemia, after ischemia, and after reoxygenation. In addition, post-treatment with curcumin inhibited early DNA/RNA oxidation as indicated by immunocytochemistry and increased nuclear Nrf2 protein by inducing nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. These findings suggest that curcumin activates the expression of thioredoxin, an antioxidant protein in the Nrf2 pathway, and protects neurons from death caused by oxygen-glucose deprivation in an in vitro model of ischemia/reperfusion. We speculate that pharmacologic stimulation of antioxidant gene expression may be a promising approach to neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia.

  4. A Feasible and Effective Post-Treatment Method for High-Quality CH3NH3PbI3 Films and High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxiao Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology control of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3 thin-film is crucial for the high-efficiency perovskite solar cells, especially for their planar structure devices. Here, a feasible and effective post-treatment method is presented to improve the quality of MAPbI3 films by using methylamine (CH3NH2 vapor. This post-treatment process is studied thoroughly, and the perovskite films with smooth surface, high preferential growth orientation and large crystals are obtained after 10 s treatment in MA atmosphere. It enhances the light absorption, and increases the recombination lifetime. Ultimately, the power conversion efficiency (PCE of 15.3% for the FTO/TiO2/MAPbI3/spiro-OMeTAD/Ag planar architecture solar cells is achieved in combination with this post-treatment method. It represents a 40% improvement in PCE compared to the best control cell. Moreover, the whole post-treatment process is simple and cheap, which only requires some CH3NH2 solution in absolute ethanol. It is beneficial to control the reaction rate by changing the volume of the solution. Therefore, we are convinced that the post-treatment method is a valid and essential approach for the fabrication of high-efficiency perovskite solar cells.

  5. Non-target screening to trace ozonation transformation products in a wastewater treatment train including different post-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollée, Jennifer E; Bourgin, Marc; von Gunten, Urs; McArdell, Christa S; Hollender, Juliane

    2018-05-25

    Ozonation and subsequent post-treatments are increasingly implemented in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for enhanced micropollutant abatement. While this technology is effective, micropollutant oxidation leads to the formation of ozonation transformation products (OTPs). Target and suspect screening provide information about known parent compounds and known OTPs, but for a more comprehensive picture, non-target screening is needed. Here, sampling was conducted at a full-scale WWTP to investigate OTP formation at four ozone doses (2, 3, 4, and 5 mg/L, ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 gO 3 /gDOC) and subsequent changes during five post-treatment steps (i.e., sand filter, fixed bed bioreactor, moving bed bioreactor, and two granular activated carbon (GAC) filters, relatively fresh and pre-loaded). Samples were measured with online solid-phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS) using electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive and negative modes. Existing non-target screening workflows were adapted to (1) examine the formation of potential OTPs at four ozone doses and (2) compare the removal of OTPs among five post-treatments. In (1), data processing included principal component analysis (PCA) and chemical knowledge on possible oxidation reactions to prioritize non-target features likely to be OTPs. Between 394 and 1328 unique potential OTPs were detected in positive ESI for the four ozone doses tested; between 12 and 324 unique potential OTPs were detected in negative ESI. At a specific ozone dose of 0.5 gO 3 /gDOC, 27 parent compounds were identified and were related to 69 non-target features selected as potential OTPs. Two OTPs were confirmed with reference standards (venlafaxine N-oxide and chlorothiazide); 34 other potential OTPs were in agreement with literature data and/or reaction mechanisms. In (2), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was applied on profiles detected in positive ESI mode across the

  6. Motivation to change and posttreatment temptation to drink: a multicenter study among alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiabane, Elena; Ottonello, Marcella; Zavan, Valeria; Pistarini, Caterina; Giorgi, Ines

    2017-01-01

    An inpatient 28-day rehabilitation program for alcohol dependence is focused on detoxification, enhancing motivation to change, and coping strategies for the management of emotional distress and temptation to drink. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1) changes over time in motivation to change, anxiety, and depression in individuals undergoing residential rehabilitation treatment for alcohol addiction, and 2) which pretreatment factors are associated with posttreatment temptation to drink. We assessed 432 patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) consecutively recruited from seven residential rehabilitation centers in Northern Italy. Patients were assessed by means of self-report questionnaires at the beginning of rehabilitation (pretreatment) and before their hospital discharge (posttreatment) regarding motivation to change and self-efficacy (motivation assessment of change - alcoholism version), readiness to change and temptation to drink (visual analog scales), and depression and anxiety (cognitive behavioral assessment - outcome evaluation). Results showed an overall improvement in motivation to change and a significant reduction over time in depression and anxiety levels for the total sample, particularly patients with low baseline level of temptation to drink. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that significant predictors of posttreatment temptation to drink were polysubstance dependence ( p change ( p =0.01), and self-efficacy ( p =0.05). Inpatients' rehabilitation for alcohol dependence is associated with an overall improvement in motivation to change and a significant reduction of psychological distress. Treatments for alcohol-dependent patients should focus on motivation to change, negative moods, and relapse prevention strategies for the management of craving.

  7. An empirical investigation of incompleteness in a large clinical sample of obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrava, Nicholas J; Boisseau, Christina L; Eisen, Jane L; Mancebo, Maria C; Rasmussen, Steven A

    2016-08-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a disorder with heterogeneous clinical presentations. To advance our understanding of this heterogeneity we investigated the prevalence and clinical features associated with incompleteness (INC), a putative underlying core feature of OCD. We predicted INC would be prominent in individuals with OCD and associated with greater severity and impairment. We examined the impact of INC in 307 adults with primary OCD. Participants with clinically significant INC (22.8% of the sample) had significantly greater OCD severity, greater rates of comorbidity, poorer ratings of functioning, lower quality of life, and higher rates of unemployment and disability. Participants with clinically significant INC were also more likely to be diagnosed with OCPD and to endorse symmetry/exactness obsessions and ordering/arranging compulsions than those who reported low INC. Our findings provide evidence that INC is associated with greater severity, comorbidity, and impairment, highlighting the need for improved assessment and treatment of INC in OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Wilson's disease: two treatment modalities. Correlations to pretreatment and posttreatment brain MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiros da Costa, Maria do Desterro; Spitz, Mariana; Bacheschi, Luiz Alberto; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Leite, Claudia Costa; Lucato, Leandro Tavares

    2009-01-01

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies on Wilson's disease (WD) show lack of correlations between neurological and neuroimaging features. Long-term follow-up reports with sequential brain MRI in patients with neurological WD comparing different modalities of treatment are scarce. Eighteen patients with neurological WD underwent pretreatment and posttreatment brain MRI scans to evaluate the range of abnormalities and the evolution along these different periods. All patients underwent at least two MRI scans at different intervals, up to 11 years after the beginning of treatment. MRI findings were correlated with clinical picture, clinical severity, duration of neurological symptoms, and treatment with two different drugs. Patients were divided into two groups according to treatment: d-penicillamine (D-P), zinc (Zn), and Zn after the onset of severe intolerance to D-P. MRI scans before treatment showed, in all patients, hypersignal intensity lesions on T2- and proton-density-weighted images bilaterally and symmetrically at basal nuclei, thalamus, brain stem, cerebellum, brain cortex, and brain white matter. The most common neurological symptoms were: dysarthria, parkinsonism, dystonia, tremor, psychiatric disturbances, dysphagia, risus sardonicus, ataxia, chorea, and athetosis. From the neurological point of view, there was no difference on the evolution between the group treated exclusively with D-P and the one treated with Zn. Analysis of MRI scans with longer intervals after the beginning of treatment depicted a trend for neuroimaging worsening, without neurological correspondence, among patients treated with Zn. Neuroimaging pattern of evolution was more favorable for the group that received exclusively D-P. (orig.)

  9. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and quality of life outcomes: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Coluccia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (OCD is a chronic disabling psychological condition, which can severely affect quality of life (QOL. Growing interest has been dedicated to assessing which domains of QOL are more severely affected in patients with OCD. However, research yielded conflicting findings. Investigating QOL in OCD could suggest the need for integration of interventions aimed at improving those specific domains more severely impaired by obsessions and compulsions.Methods. We will conduct a systematic review of cross-sectional case-control studies according to PRISMA guidelines, where patients with a primary OCD diagnosis were compared on QOL outcomes with healthy controls. Primary objectives will be to examine differences in QOL outcomes between patients with OCD and healthy controls, and to assess which QOL domains are more severely impaired in patients compared with controls, particularly subjective well-being, social and interpersonal functioning, work functioning, and family functioning. Subsequently, the study will investigate potential moderators of QOL in OCD, including participants characteristics (age, sex, presence of comorbid personality disorders, OCD symptom severity, severity of concurrent depressive symptoms, duration of OCD symptoms, and generational cohort, and study characteristics (date of publication and methodological quality of the studies. Online databases will be searched (PsycINFO, PubMED, Science Direct, Cinahl, Biological Abstracts, Psyclit, Embase, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar. To locate unpublished records, conference abstracts, doctoral dissertations and theses will be handsearched, and experts will be contacted. Statistical analyses will be performed though random effect model meta-analysis. Risk of bias assessments will be conducted using the instrument Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies.

  10. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder co-occurring with obsessive-compulsive disorder: Conceptual and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Brakoulias, Vlasios; Sammut, Peter; Moses, Karen; Milicevic, Denise; Hannan, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    There are ongoing uncertainties in the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). This study aimed to test the proposition that OCPD may be a marker of severity of OCD by comparing groups of OCD individuals with and without OCPD on a number of variables. A total of 148 adults with a principal diagnosis of OCD were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Sheehan Disability Scale, Vancouver Obsessional Compulsive Inventory and Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. Participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCPD were compared with those without OCPD. Some 70 (47.3%) participants were diagnosed with OCPD. The groups of participants with and without OCPD did not differ significantly with respect to any of the demographic variables, clinician-rated severity of OCD, levels of disability and mean age of onset of OCD. All self-rated OCD symptom dimensions except for contamination and checking were significantly more prominent in participants with OCPD, as were all self-rated dimensions of psychopathology. Participants with OCPD had significantly more frequent hoarding compulsions and obsessions involving a need to collect and keep objects. Of Axis I disorders, only panic disorder was significantly more frequent in participants with OCPD than in those without OCPD. A high frequency of OCPD among individuals with OCD suggests a strong, although not necessarily a unique, relationship between the two conditions. This finding may also be a consequence of the blurring of the boundary between OCD and OCPD by postulating that hoarding and hoarding-like behaviours characterise both disorders. Results of this study do not support the notion that OCD with OCPD is a marker of clinician-rated severity of OCD. However, individuals with OCPD had more prominent OCD symptoms, they were more distressed and exhibited various other psychopathological phenomena more intensely

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of universal noninvasive testing for post-treatment confirmation of Helicobacter pylori eradication and the impact of patient adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boklage, Susan H; Mangel, Allen W; Ramamohan, Varun; Mladsi, Deirdre; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The treatment failure rate for Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy is ~20% due to poor patient compliance and increased antibiotic resistance. This analysis assessed the cost-effectiveness of universal post-treatment testing to confirm eradication of H. pylori infection in adults. Decision-analytic models evaluated the cost-effectiveness of universal post-treatment testing (urea breath test [UBT] or monoclonal fecal antigen test [mFAT]) vs no testing (Model 1), and UBT vs mFAT after adjusting for patient adherence to testing (Model 2) in adults who previously received first-line antimicrobial therapy. Patients testing positive received second-line quadruple therapy; no further action was taken for those testing negative or with no testing (Model 1) or for those nonadherent to testing (Model 2). In addition to testing costs, excess lifetime costs and reduced quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) due to continuing H. pylori infection were considered in the model. Expected total costs per patient were higher for post-treatment testing (UBT: US$325.76; mFAT: US$242.12) vs no testing (US$182.41) in Model 1 and for UBT (US$336.75) vs mFAT (US$326.24) in Model 2. Expected QALYs gained per patient were 0.71 and 0.72 for UBT and mFAT, respectively, vs no testing (Model 1), and the same was 0.37 for UBT vs mFAT (Model 2). The estimated incremental costs per QALY gained for post-treatment testing vs no testing were US$82.90-US$202.45 and, after adjusting for adherence, US$28.13 for UBT vs mFAT. Universal post-treatment testing was found to be cost-effective for confirming eradication of H. pylori infection following first-line therapy. Better adherence to UBT relative to mFAT was the key to its cost-effectiveness.

  12. Self-guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT for obsessive–compulsive disorder: 12 month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany M. Wootton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT may reduce barriers to treatment faced by people with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD. To date, most research on iCBT for OCD has evaluated clinician-guided treatments. However, self-guided treatments, which do not involve contact with a clinician, have considerable public health potential and may be particularly advantageous for those patients who report stigma as a principal barrier to treatment. The findings of a recent trial of self-guided iCBT for symptoms of OCD highlighted the potential of this approach and found large within-group effect sizes from pre- to post-treatment on the YBOCS-SR (d = 1.37, sustained at 3-month follow-up (d = 1.17. In addition, 32% of participants met criteria for clinically significant change at 3-month follow-up. The present study reports the long-term outcomes of that trial (N = 28. Twelve out of 28 participants (43% completed the 12 month follow-up. A large within-group effect size was found on the YBOCS-SR (d = 1.08 and 33% met criteria for clinically significant change at 12-month follow-up. No significant changes in symptoms were found between 3-month follow-up and 12-month follow-up, demonstrating that participants maintained their treatment gains in the long term. These results add to the emerging literature supporting the potential of self-guided iCBT for individuals with symptoms of OCD.

  13. Integrated nitrogen removal biofilter system with ceramic membrane for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dong-Jin; Yun, Chan-Young; Kim, Woo-Yeol; Zhang, Xing-Ya; Kim, Dae-Gun; Chang, Duk; Sunwoo, Young; Hong, Ki-Ho

    2016-12-01

    The pre-denitrification biofilm process for nitrogen removal was combined with ceramic membrane with pore sizes of 0.05-0.1 µm as a system for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater. The system was operated under an empty bed hydraulic retention time of 7.8 h, recirculation ratio of 3, and transmembrane pressure of 0.47 bar. The system showed average removals of organics, total nitrogen, and solids as high as 93%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. Rapid nitrification could be achieved and denitrification was performed in the anoxic filter without external carbon supplements. The residual particulate organics and nitrogen in effluent from biofilm process could be also removed successfully through membrane filtration and the removal of total coliform was noticeably improved after membrane filtration. Thus, a system composed of the pre-denitrification biofilm process with ceramic membrane would be a compact and flexible option for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater.

  14. Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder with tic symptoms: clinical presentation and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højgaard, Davíð R M A; Skarphedinsson, Gudmundur; Nissen, Judith Becker; Hybel, Katja A; Ivarsson, Tord; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2017-06-01

    Some studies have shown that children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and co-morbid tics differ from those without co-morbid tics in terms of several demographic and clinical characteristics. However, not all studies have confirmed these differences. This study examined children and adolescents with OCD and with possible or definite tic specifiers according to the DSM-5 in order to see whether they differ from patients without any tic symptoms regarding clinical presentation and outcome of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The full sample included 269 patients (aged 7-17) with primary DSM-IV OCD who had participated in the Nordic Long-term Treatment Study (NordLOTS). Symptoms of tics were assessed using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS-PL). One or more tic symptoms were found in 29.9% of participants. Those with OCD and co-morbid tic symptoms were more likely male, more likely to have onset of OCD at an earlier age, and differed in terms of OCD symptom presentation. More specifically, such participants also showed more symptoms of OCD-related impairment, externalization, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), social anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the two groups showed no difference in terms of OCD severity or outcome of CBT. Children and adolescents with OCD and co-morbid tic symptoms differ from those without tic symptoms in several aspects of clinical presentation, but not in their response to CBT. Our results underscore the effectiveness of CBT for tic-related OCD. Nordic Long-term Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Treatment Study; www.controlled-trials.com ; ISRCTN66385119.

  15. Sustainable treatment of rubber latex processing wastewater : the UASB-system combined with aerobic post-treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viet Nguyen Trung,

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of this PhD-thesis is to assess the applicability of UASB-process for treating RLP wastewater and the feasibility of some adequate post-treatment processes for the effluent of the anaerobic treatment process.

    The studies were carried out in The Netherlands during

  16. Social cognition and metacognition in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an explorative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi; Bethge, Mareike; Luksnat, Stefanie; Nalato, Fabio; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe psychiatric condition that is, among other features, characterized by marked impairment in social functioning. Although theoretically plausible with regard to neurobiological underpinnings of OCD, there is little research about possible impairments in social cognitive and meta-cognitive abilities and their connections with social functioning in patients with OCD. Accordingly, we sought to examine social cognitive skills and metacognition in OCD. Twenty OCD patients and age-, sex-, and education-matched 20 healthy controls were assessed using neurocognitive and diverse social cognitive skills including the Ekman 60 Faces test, the Hinting Task, the faux pas test, and a proverb test. In addition, the Metacognition Questionnaire-30 was administered to both the OCD and the control groups. Social functioning was measured using the Personal and Social Performance Scale. Symptom severity in patients was determined by the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory. No group differences emerged in basic social cognitive abilities. In contrast, compared to controls, OCD patients scored higher on all MCQ dimensions, particularly negative beliefs about worry, uncontrollability, and danger; beliefs about need to control thoughts; and cognitive self-consciousness. There were no significant correlations between social or metacognitive parameters and OCD symptom severity. However, in the patient group, depression and metacognition predicted social functioning. OCD patients show normal basal social cognitive abilities, but dysfunctional metacognitive profiles, which may contribute to their psychosocial impairment.

  17. Field efficacy evaluation and post-treatment contamination risk assessment of an ultraviolet disinfection and safe storage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reygadas, Fermin; Gruber, Joshua S; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara L

    2015-11-15

    Inconsistent use of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) systems reduces their potential health benefits. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection is more convenient than some existing HWTS systems, but it does not provide post-treatment residual disinfectant, which could leave drinking water vulnerable to recontamination. In this paper, using as-treated analyses, we report on the field efficacy of a UV disinfection system at improving household drinking water quality in rural Mexico. We further assess the risk of post-treatment contamination from the UV system, and develop a process-based model to better understand household risk factors for recontamination. This study was part of a larger cluster-randomized stepped wedge trial, and the results complement previously published population-level results of the intervention on diarrheal prevalence and water quality. Based on the presence of Escherichia coli (proportion of households with ≥ 1 E. coli/100 mL), we estimated a risk difference of -28.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): -33.9%, -22.1%) when comparing intervention to control households; -38.6% (CI: -48.9%, -28.2%) when comparing post- and pre-intervention results; and -37.1% (CI: -45.2%, -28.9%) when comparing UV disinfected water to alternatives within the household. We found substantial increases in post-treatment E. coli contamination when comparing samples from the UV system effluent (5.0%) to samples taken from the storage container (21.1%) and drinking glasses (26.0%). We found that improved household infrastructure, additional extractions from the storage container, additional time from when the storage container was filled, and increased experience of the UV system operator were associated with reductions in post-treatment contamination. Our results suggest that the UV system is efficacious at improving household water quality when used as intended. Promoting safe storage habits is essential for an effective UV system dissemination. The drinking

  18. Evaluation of pre-existing antibody presence as a risk factor for posttreatment anti-drug antibody induction: analysis of human clinical study data for multiple biotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Li; Rup, Bonita

    2013-07-01

    Biotherapeutic-reactive antibodies in treatment-naïve subjects (i.e., pre-existing antibodies) have been commonly detected during clinical immunogenicity assessments; however information on pre-existing antibody prevalence, physiological effects, and impact on posttreatment anti-drug antibody (ADA) induction remains limited. In this analysis, pre-existing antibody prevalence and impact on posttreatment ADA induction were determined using ADA data from 12 biotherapeutics analyzed in 32 clinical studies. Approximately half (58%) of the biotherapeutics were associated with some level of pre-existing antibodies and 67% of those were associated with posttreatment ADA induction. Across all studies, 5.6% of study subjects demonstrated presence of pre-existing antibodies, among which, 17% of the individual subjects had posttreatment increases in their ADA titers while 16% had decreased titers and 67% had no change in titers. However, in studies conducted in the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) population, 14.8% of RA patients were associated with pre-existing antibodies and 30% of those had posttreatment titer increases. The results suggest that in most study subjects, pre-existing antibodies pose a low risk for posttreatment ADA induction. That said, the high risk of induction implicated for RA patients, primarily observed in treatments evaluating novel antibody-based constructs, indicates that further understanding of the contribution of product and disease-specific factors is needed. Cross-industry efforts to collect and analyze a larger data set would enhance understanding of the prevalence, nature, and physiological consequences of pre-existing antibodies, better inform the immunogenicity risk profiles of products associated with these antibodies and lead to better fit-for-purpose immunogenicity management and mitigation strategies.

  19. Valorization of lignin and cellulose in acid-steam-exploded corn stover by a moderate alkaline ethanol post-treatment based on an integrated biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng; Zhang, Yue; Yue, Wen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yun-Yan; Yuan, Tong-Qi; Sun, Run-Cang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the unsustainable consumption of fossil resources, great efforts have been made to convert lignocellulose into bioethanol and commodity organic compounds through biological methods. The conversion of cellulose is impeded by the compactness of plant cell wall matrix and crystalline structure of the native cellulose. Therefore, appropriate pretreatment and even post-treatment are indispensable to overcome this problem. Additionally, an adequate utilization of coproduct lignin will be important for improving the economic viability of modern biorefinery industries. The effectiveness of moderate alkaline ethanol post-treatment on the bioconversion efficiency of cellulose in the acid-steam-exploded corn stover was investigated in this study. Results showed that an increase of the alcoholic sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration from 0.05 to 4% led to a decrease in the lignin content in the post-treated samples from 32.8 to 10.7%, while the cellulose digestibility consequently increased. The cellulose conversion of the 4% alcoholic NaOH integrally treated corn stover reached up to 99.3% after 72 h, which was significantly higher than that of the acid steam exploded corn stover without post-treatment (57.3%). In addition to the decrease in lignin content, an expansion of cellulose I lattice induced by the 4% alcoholic NaOH post-treatment played a significant role in promoting the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover. More importantly, the lignin fraction (AL) released during the 4% alcoholic NaOH post-treatment and the lignin-rich residue (EHR) remained after the enzymatic hydrolysis of the 4% alcoholic NaOH post-treated acid-steam-exploded corn stover were employed to synthesize lignin-phenol-formaldehyde (LPF) resins. The plywoods prepared with the resins exhibit satisfactory performances. An alkaline ethanol system with an appropriate NaOH concentration could improve the removal of lignin and modification of the crystalline structure of cellulose in acid

  20. Towards a post-traumatic subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Cocchi, Luca; Harrison, Ben J; Shavitt, Roseli G; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Ferrão, Ygor A; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Cordioli, Aristides V; Yücel, Murat; Pantelis, Christos; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Miguel, Euripedes C; Torres, Albina R

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated whether traumatic events are associated with a distinctive pattern of socio-demographic and clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We compared socio-demographic and clinical features of 106 patients developing OCD after post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; termed post-traumatic OCD), 41 patients developing OCD before PTSD (pre-traumatic OCD), and 810 OCD patients without any history of PTSD (non-traumatic OCD) using multinomial logistic regression analysis. A later age at onset of OCD, self-mutilation disorder, history of suicide plans, panic disorder with agoraphobia, and compulsive buying disorder were independently related to post-traumatic OCD. In contrast, earlier age at OCD onset, alcohol-related disorders, contamination-washing symptoms, and self-mutilation disorder were all independently associated with pre-traumatic OCD. In addition, patients with post-traumatic OCD without a previous history of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) showed lower educational levels, greater rates of contamination-washing symptoms, and more severe miscellaneous symptoms as compared to post-traumatic OCD patients with a history of OCS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder complicated by comorbid eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, H Blair; Wetterneck, Chad T; Cahill, Shawn P; Steinglass, Joanna E; Franklin, Martin E; Leonard, Rachel C; Weltzin, Theodore E; Riemann, Bradley C

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) commonly co-occur, but there is little data for how to treat these complex cases. To address this gap, we examined the naturalistic outcome of 56 patients with both disorders, who received a multimodal treatment program designed to address both problems simultaneously. A residential treatment program developed a cognitive-behavioral approach for patients with both OCD and an eating disorder by integrating exposure and response prevention (ERP) treatment for OCD with ERP strategies targeting eating pathology. Patients also received a supervised eating plan, medication management, and social support. At admission and discharge, patients completed validated measures of OCD severity (the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale--Self Report [Y-BOCS-SR]), eating disorder severity (the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire), and depressive severity (the Beck Depression Inventory II [BDI-II]). Body mass index (BMI) was also measured. Paired-sample t-tests examined change on these measures. Between 2006 and 2011, 56 individuals completed all study measures at admission and discharge. Mean length of stay was 57 days (SD = 27). Most (89%) were on psychiatric medications. Significant decreases were observed in OCD severity, eating disorder severity, and depression. Those with bulimia nervosa showed more improvement than those with anorexia nervosa. BMI significantly increased, primarily among those underweight at admission. Simultaneous treatment of OCD and eating disorders using a multimodal approach that emphasizes ERP techniques for both OCD and eating disorders can be an effective treatment strategy for these complex cases.

  2. Association study between genetic monoaminergic polymorphisms and OCD response to clomipramine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Miguita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we investigated the 5HTTLPR and STin2 polymorphisms in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4, the G861C polymorphism (rs6296 of the serotonin receptor 1D beta (HTR1B, the T102C (rs6113 and C516T (rs6305 polymorphisms of the serotonin receptor gene subtype 2A (HTR2A, the DAT UTR, DAT intron 8 and DAT intron 14 of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3, the Val-158-Met (rs4680 polymorphism of the COMT and the silent mutation G1287A (rs5569 in the norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2. We genotyped 41 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD outpatients, classified as good-responders (n=27 and poor-responders (n=14 to treatment with clomipramine according to the Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS. Patients who achieved a reduction in symptoms of 40% or more in YBOCS after 14 weeks of treatment were considered good-responders. Genotypes and alleles distribution of the investigated polymorphisms were compared between both groups. We did not find association between the studied polymorphisms and clomipramine response in our sample.

  3. Harm avoidance and childhood adversities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and their unaffected first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bey, K; Lennertz, L; Riesel, A; Klawohn, J; Kaufmann, C; Heinzel, S; Grützmann, R; Kathmann, N; Wagner, M

    2017-04-01

    The etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is assumed to involve interactions between genetically determined vulnerability factors and significant environmental features. Here, we aim to investigate how the personality trait harm avoidance and the experience of childhood adversities contribute to OCD. A total of 169 patients with OCD, 157 healthy comparison subjects, and 57 unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with OCD participated in the study. Harm avoidance was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the severity of childhood adversities was measured with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Both patients with OCD and relatives showed elevated levels of harm avoidance compared to controls. Furthermore, patients exhibited significantly higher scores than relatives. This linear pattern was observed throughout all subscales of harm avoidance, and remained stable after controlling for the severity of depressive and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. With regard to childhood adversities, patients with OCD reported higher levels than relatives and controls. Our results provide further evidence for a diathesis-stress model of OCD. While patients and unaffected relatives share elevated levels of harm avoidance, supporting the role of harm avoidance as an endophenotype of OCD, a heightened severity of childhood adversity was only observed in patients. The assumed biological underpinnings of these findings are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A screening algorithm for early detection of major depressive disorder in head and neck cancer patients post-treatment: Longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Melissa; Rosberger, Zeev; Ianovski, Lola E; Hier, Michael; Zeitouni, Anthony; Kost, Karen; Mlynarek, Alex; Black, Martin; MacDonald, Christina; Richardson, Keith; Zhang, Xun; Fuhrmann, Fabienne; Chartier, Gabrielle; Frenkiel, Saul

    2018-03-13

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify predictors of Major Depressive Disorder in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients in the immediate post-treatment period (ie, at 3 months post-diagnosis), with a focus on previously unexamined historical and contextual factors. Prospective longitudinal study of 223 consecutive adults (72% participation) newly diagnosed with a first occurrence of primary HNC, including validated psychometric measures, Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM Disorders, and medical chart reviews. The 3-month period prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder was 20.4%; with point prevalences of 6.8% upon HNC diagnosis, 14.2% at 3 months, and 22.6% lifetime. Patients most susceptible to developing Major Depressive Disorder in the immediate post-treatment period: were diagnosed with advanced-stage cancer rather than early-stage cancer (O.R. = 4.94, P = 0.04), received surgery only (O.R. = 8.73, P = 0.04), presented a lifetime history of Anxiety Disorder on SCID-I (O.R. = 6.62; P = 0.01), and indicated higher pre-treatment levels of anxiety on the HADS (O.R. = 0.45, P = 0.05). Our results outline the predominant role of anxiety upon diagnosis as a precursor to post-treatment Major Depressive Disorder, suggesting the need for identification and prophylactic treatment of anxiety upon diagnosis in head and neck cancer patients. Further investigation into pathways by which pre-treatment anxiety predisposes to post-treatment Major Depressive Disorder in this population is warranted. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Improving Nanofiber Membrane Characteristics and Membrane Distillation Performance of Heat-Pressed Membranes via Annealing Post-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minwei Yao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun membranes are gaining interest for use in membrane distillation (MD due to their high porosity and interconnected pore structure; however, they are still susceptible to wetting during MD operation because of their relatively low liquid entry pressure (LEP. In this study, post-treatment had been applied to improve the LEP, as well as its permeation and salt rejection efficiency. The post-treatment included two continuous procedures: heat-pressing and annealing. In this study, annealing was applied on the membranes that had been heat-pressed. It was found that annealing improved the MD performance as the average flux reached 35 L/m2·h or LMH (>10% improvement of the ones without annealing while still maintaining 99.99% salt rejection. Further tests on LEP, contact angle, and pore size distribution explain the improvement due to annealing well. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses of the membranes showed that there was an increase in the crystallinity of the polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP membrane; also, peaks indicating the α phase of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF became noticeable after annealing, indicating some β and amorphous states of polymer were converted into the α phase. The changes were favorable for membrane distillation as the non-polar α phase of PVDF reduces the dipolar attraction force between the membrane and water molecules, and the increase in crystallinity would result in higher thermal stability. The present results indicate the positive effect of the heat-press followed by an annealing post-treatment on the membrane characteristics and MD performance.

  6. Risk Factors for Post-treatment Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pelle B; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby; Lauritzen, Jes B

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Complex regional pain syndrome is a challenging condition that includes a broad spectrum of sensory, autonomic, and motor features predominantly in extremities recovering from a trauma. Few large-scale studies have addressed occurrence of and factors associated with complex regional......, gender, initial diagnosis, treatment, and amount of compensation were extracted. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify variables associated with approval of the claim. For carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients, we registered whether symptoms were bilateral or unilateral...... normal neurophysiology. CONCLUSIONS: Female gender, surgical treatment, and treatment to the upper limb were risk factors. Elective surgery accounted for a large number of post-treatment CRPS patients. In CTS patients developing CRPS, normal neurophysiological examination findings were common...

  7. Autism spectrum disorders in adult outpatients with obsessive compulsive disorder in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikramanayake, Waduge Nishani Maheshi; Mandy, William; Shahper, Sonia; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Kolli, Sangeetha; Osman, Selma; Reid, Jemma; Jefferies-Sewell, Kiri; Fineberg, Naomi Anne

    2018-03-01

    Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) frequently show traits of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This is one of the first studies to explore the clinical impact of the overlap between OCD and ASD as a categorical diagnosis. A cross-sectional survey in 73 adult outpatients with DSM-IV OCD. Autistic traits were measured using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). A clinical estimate ASD diagnosis was made by interview using DSM-IV-TR criteria. OCD patients with and without autistic traits or ASD were compared on demographic and clinical parameters and level of OCD treatment-resistance based on treatment history. Thirty-four (47%) patients scored above the clinical threshold on the AQ (≥26) and 21 (27.8%) met diagnostic criteria for ASD. These diagnoses had not been made before. Patients with autistic traits showed a borderline significant increase in OCD symptom-severity (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS); p = .054) and significantly increased impairment of insight (Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale; p = .01). There was a positive correlation between AQ and Y-BOCS scores (p = .04), but not with OCD treatment resistance. There is a high prevalence of previously undiagnosed ASD in patients with OCD. ASD traits are associated with greater OCD symptom-severity and poor insight.

  8. Seasonal mood changes in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Oğuz; Metin, Barış; Ünsalver, Barış Önen; Sayar, Gökben Hızlı

    2017-12-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is frequently associated with mood disorders. However, to date, the co-occurrence of OCD with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) has not been investigated. We have aimed to estimate the prevalence of seasonal mood changes in patients with OCD and explore the contribution of seasonality in mood to the severity of OCD. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), the Yale-Brown Obsession and Compulsion Scale (Y-BOCS), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 Items (HDRS-17), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were administered to patients with OCD (n=104) and controls (n=125). The degree of seasonality was measured by the Global Seasonality Score (GSS) calculated from the SPAQ. SAD and subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder (S-SAD) were significantly more prevalent in patients with OCD (53%, n=55) than controls (25%, n=31). When patients were assessed in the season in which SAD occurs, depression and compulsions (but not obsessions, OCD or anxiety) were more severe than those assessed in a season during which SAD does not occur. SAD frequently co-occurs with OCD and, given this co-occurrence, depression symptoms in some patients with OCD might be expected to vary on a seasonal basis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quality of Life and its Correlates in Patients With Obsessive-compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ying Hou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The care of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD has raised quality of life (QOL issues. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of QOL between patients with and without OCD, and to examine the associations between QOL and sociodemographic data, course of illness, psychopathology, perceived social support, and treatment characteristics. The QOL levels measured with the Taiwan version of the Short Form of the World Health Organization Questionnaire on Quality of Life were compared between 57 subjects with OCD and 106 subjects without OCD. The correlates of QOL were examined among subjects with OCD. The analysis revealed that QOL scores for the general, physical, psychological and social relationship domains were lower in the OCD group than in the control group; however, no difference in the environmental domain was found. Multiple factors were associated with poor QOL in subjects with OCD, including comorbid depression, severe obsession symptoms, perceived low social support, severe adverse effects of medication, combined use of mood stabilizers, and low social status. Different domains of QOL are differently affected by OCD. The QOL of subjects with OCD was correlated to multiple factors that were specific to individual subjects and influenced by interactions with treatment and the social environment.

  10. Posttreatment and retention outcomes with and without periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics assessed using ABO objective grading system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J Ferguson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The posttreatment and retention outcomes following nonextraction orthodontic therapy, with and without corticotomy, were assessed using the American Board of Orthodontists objective grading system (OGS. Purpose: The purpose was to determine if the course of retention was any different following alveolar decortication and augmentation bone grafting, i.e., periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics (PAOO. Materials and Methods: Study casts and panoramic radiographs of patients with and without PAOO (28 subjects each were selected on the basis of the following: (1 comprehensive nonextraction orthodontic treatment using straight wire edgewise appliances for Class I crowding, (2 availability of immediate posttreatment records and retention records at least 1 year post de-bracketing, and (3 use of Hawley removable retainers with similar wearing instructions. Results: Independent and paired t-test statistical testing revealed the following: (1 Posttreatment orthodontic outcomes were the same, with or without corticotomy. (2 During retention, 5 of 8 ABO grading criteria improved for the sample without corticotomy, and 6 of 8 ABO grading criteria improved for the group with corticotomy. (3 Retention outcome scores were lower (better for alignment and marginal ridges in the corticotomy-facilitated group. (4 The total score was significantly lower (better for the corticotomy group at retention and the increment of total score change decreased (improved significantly more during retention following corticotomy. Conclusions: The retention phase was more favorable following corticotomy because the amount of OGS total score change demonstrated a significantly improved retention outcome following PAOO therapy.

  11. Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Late Post-Treatment Pain in Women Treated for Primary Breast Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Maja; O Connor, Maja; OToole, Mia Skytte

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for late post-treatment pain in women treated for primary breast cancer. METHODS: A randomized wait list-controlled trial was conducted with 129 women treated for breast cancer reporting post-treatment pain (score ≥ 3...... pain rehabilitation strategy for women treated for breast cancer. In addition, the effect on neuropathic pain, a pain type reported by women treated for breast cancer, further suggests the potential of MBCT but should be considered preliminary....

  12. Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: Does it imply a specific subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garyfallos, George; Katsigiannopoulos, Konstantinos; Adamopoulou, Aravela; Papazisis, Georgios; Karastergiou, Anastasia; Bozikas, Vasilios P

    2010-05-15

    The present study examined whether the comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) constitute a specific subtype of OCD. The study sample consisted of 146 consecutive outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD. Diagnoses were established using MINI, IPDE, YBOCS and YBOCS-SC. OCD patients with comorbid OCPD were compared with OCD patients without OCPD on various sociodemographic and clinical variables. Almost one third of the OCD subjects met criteria for comorbid OCPD. OCD+OCPD patients had a significantly earlier age at onset of initial OC symptoms, earlier age at onset of OCD and more obsessions and compulsions than pure obsessions compared to the patients with OCDOCPD. OCD+OCPD patients also had a higher rate of comorbidity with avoidant personality disorder and showed more impairment in global functioning. There were not differences between the two sub-groups on severity of OCD symptoms and also on type of OCD onset. Our results indicate that the comorbidity of OCD with OCPD is associated with a number of specific clinical characteristics of OCD. These findings in conjunction with of current clinical, family and genetic studies provide some initial evidence that OCD comorbid with OCPD constitute a specific subtype of OCD. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of obsessive-compulsive disorder in pregnancy on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezginç, Kazim; Uguz, Faruk; Karatayli, Savaş; Zeytinci, Esra; Aşkin, Rüstem; Güler, Ozkan; Sahin, Figen; Murat Emül, H; Ozbulut, Omer; Geçici, Omer

    2008-01-01

    Aim. To examine the effects of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) on quality of life in pregnant women. Material and method. Twenty-five pregnant women diagnosed as OCD in two university outpatient clinics were included for the study. Twenty-five pregnant women with no mental disorders and the same sociodemographic properties were taken as the control group. The diagnosis of OCD was confirmed with the DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders Structured Clinic Interview Diagnosis/Clinic Version (SCID-I/CV). In order to measure the severity of OCD Yale-Brown Obsession and Compulsion Scale was performed. Quality of life was evaluated by WHO (World Health Organisation) Life Quality Scale - Short Form (WHOQOL-Brief). Results. The whole subgroup of points of WHOQOL-Brief was significantly lower in OCD patients compared to control group (in all subgroups Penviromental areas. Besides, there was a negative correlation between the duration of OCD and WHOQOL-Brief psychological health subarea (P <0.05). Conclusion. OCD negatively effects the quality of life in pregnant women and is correlated with the severity of the disorder.

  14. El papel del modelo económico chaebol en la participación de Corea del Sur en la OCDE

    OpenAIRE

    Prada Villalobos, Camilo Alberto

    2014-01-01

    La presente investigación busca dilucidar el papel del modelo económico del chaebol en la participación de Corea del Sur en la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico OCDE. Las investigaciones en torno al modelo chaebol y sus privilegios en Corea del Sur no han sido enfocadas directamente hacia el ámbito internacional y la influencia que puede tener allí dicho modelo. La investigación busca demostrar que el éxito del modelo económico del chaebol sirvió como incentivo para s...

  15. Mystical experience relational language as a way of Teresa sanjuanista loving openness to others. Interview with Maximiliano Garcia Herraiz, OCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALALITE Argentina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Maximiliano Herraiz García OCD, Carmelite saints founders specialist and writer career and international recognition, Spanish by birth lived for ten years in Africa, and has traveled five continents evangelizing through the Carmelite mystics in dialogue with universal mysticism, now convinced of experiential dimension of faith. In this interview he reflects on the relationship between mystical experience and language, linking mission and mystical literature. As part of the preparation for the Fifth Centenary of the Birth of Teresa of Avila, highlights the urgency of considering his theology of friendship and ascetic mysticism as roads for the current century Christianity.

  16. Radioprotection by caffeine pre-treatment and post-treatment in the bone marrow chromosomes of mice given whole-body γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, Z.; Kesavan, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of caffeine given as pre- and post-treatment in mice exposed to whole-body γ-irradiation (1.5 Gy 60 Co γ-rays) was studied. The pre-treatment was either acute or chronic. The acute dose (5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg body weight) was in the form of an injection given intraperitoneally, 30 min before irradiation. The chronic administration was in the form of caffeine solution (4.208x10 -3 M and 7.72x10 -4 M) contained in drinking water for 5 weeks prior to radiation exposure. The acute pre-treatment with caffeine reduced the radiation-induced frequency of chromosomal aberrations discernibly, whereas chronic pre-treatment afforded a much more significant degree of radioprotection. The caffeine post-treatment (5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg body weight) was given in the form of an intraperitoneal injection to the mice immediately following whole-body γ-irradiation. It is noted that both post-treatment concentrations of caffeine also significantly reduced the frequency of chromosomal aberrations induced by γ-rays. These data are briefly discussed in terms of possible mechanistic considerations. (author). 33 refs.; 3 tabs

  17. Radioprotection by caffeine pre-treatment and post-treatment in the bone marrow chromosomes of mice given whole-body [gamma]-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooqi, Z.; Kesavan, P.C. (Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). School of Life Sciences)

    1992-10-01

    The effect of caffeine given as pre- and post-treatment in mice exposed to whole-body [gamma]-irradiation (1.5 Gy [sup 60]Co [gamma]-rays) was studied. The pre-treatment was either acute or chronic. The acute dose (5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg body weight) was in the form of an injection given intraperitoneally, 30 min before irradiation. The chronic administration was in the form of caffeine solution (4.208x10[sup -3] M and 7.72x10[sup -4] M) contained in drinking water for 5 weeks prior to radiation exposure. The acute pre-treatment with caffeine reduced the radiation-induced frequency of chromosomal aberrations discernibly, whereas chronic pre-treatment afforded a much more significant degree of radioprotection. The caffeine post-treatment (5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg body weight) was given in the form of an intraperitoneal injection to the mice immediately following whole-body [gamma]-irradiation. It is noted that both post-treatment concentrations of caffeine also significantly reduced the frequency of chromosomal aberrations induced by [gamma]-rays. These data are briefly discussed in terms of possible mechanistic considerations. (author). 33 refs.; 3 tabs.

  18. Depression and risk of suicide in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: A hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Kumar Chaudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD is a chronic, distressing, anxiety disorder associated with significant functional impairment. Patient with OCD often suffer from one or more co-morbid disorders. Major depression has been the most common co-morbid syndrome. Comorbid Axis I disorders along with increased severity of comorbid depressive and anxiety symptoms, increased severity of obsessions, feelings of hopelessness and past history of suicide attempts have been associated with worsening levels of suicidality in OCD (Angelakis I, Gooding P., 2015. As per data Thirty-six percent of the patients of OCD report lifetime suicidal thoughts and 11% have a history of attempted suicide(Torres AR, Ramos-Cerqueira AT, et al, 2011. There is a reasonable probability that the patient of OCD have suicidal thoughts, plans or actually attempt suicide. Aim: To assess depression and suicidality in OCD patients. Method: This study was conducted on 50 patients diagnosed with OCD as per ICD 10 criteria, both outpatient & indoor, from department of psychiatry, Dayanand Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. A socio-demographic proforma (containing demographic details, Hamilton Depression Rating & Scale, Columbia suicide severity rating scale (CSSRS & Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Symptom Checklist (YBOCS were administered. Results: Mild depression was found out to be 40% whereas 16% were suffering from moderate depression and 10% and 14% had severe and very severe depression respectively. Suicidal ideation was found in 52 % of patients.16% of patients had history of actual attempt. Data showed that 70% of females had suicidal ideations. It was also found that in cases of severe and very severe depression associated with OCD all the patients had suicidal ideations as compared to 35% in mild and 87.5% in moderate depressive patients. It was found that 40% of severe depressive and 28.57% of very severe depressive patients had attempted

  19. Streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections and psychosocial stress predict future tic and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haiqun; Williams, Kyle A; Katsovich, Liliya; Findley, Diane B; Grantz, Heidi; Lombroso, Paul J; King, Robert A; Bessen, Debra E; Johnson, Dwight; Kaplan, Edward L; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F

    2010-04-01

    One goal of this prospective longitudinal study was to identify new group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections (GABHS) in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared with healthy control subjects. We then examined the power of GABHS infections and measures of psychosocial stress to predict future tic, obsessive-compulsive (OC), and depressive symptom severity. Consecutive ratings of tic, OC, and depressive symptom severity were obtained for 45 cases and 41 matched control subjects over a 2-year period. Clinical raters were blinded to the results of laboratory tests. Laboratory personnel were blinded to case or control status and clinical ratings. Structural equation modeling for unbalanced repeated measures was used to assess the sequence of new GABHS infections and psychosocial stress and their impact on future symptom severity. Increases in tic and OC symptom severity did not occur after every new GABHS infection. However, the structural equation model found that these newly diagnosed infections were predictive of modest increases in future tic and OC symptom severity but did not predict future depressive symptom severity. In addition, the inclusion of new infections in the model greatly enhanced, by a factor of three, the power of psychosocial stress in predicting future tic and OC symptom severity. Our data suggest that a minority of children with TS and early-onset OCD were sensitive to antecedent GABHS infections. These infections also enhanced the predictive power of current psychosocial stress on future tic and OC symptom severity. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of joint traction on functional improvement and quality of life in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Sadat Naeimee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Osteoarthritis (OA is the most prevalent joint disease in adults around the world and its incidence rises with age. Patients with severe knee osteoarthritis often complain of pain and severe functional disability. Most of conservative treatments used in this group of patients induce poor improvements. This study evaluated the effect of joint traction on quality of life of patients with severe knee osteoarthritis.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, forty female patients with severe knee OA were randomly assigned to two following groups; common physiotherapy treatment and common physiotherapy treatment accompanied by knee distraction. Quality of life was evaluated pre- and post-treatment and also one month follow-up using the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS questionnaire.Results: Common physiotherapy treatment accompanied by knee distraction resulted in significantly better quality of life post-treatment and at 1month follow-up, compared to common physiotherapy treatment alone (P<0.01.Conclusion: Common physiotherapy treatment accompanied by knee distraction induces significant improvement in quality of life in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis compared to common physiotherapy treatment alone.

  1. A Preliminary Investigation of Pathways to Inflated Responsibility Beliefs in Children with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lindsey M; Coles, Meredith E

    2018-05-01

    Cognitive theorists posit that inflated responsibility beliefs contribute to the development of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Salkovskis et al. (1999) proposed that experiencing heightened responsibility, overprotective parents and rigid rules, and thinking one influenced or caused a negative life event act as 'pathways' to the development of inflated responsibility beliefs, thereby increasing risk for OCD. Studies in adults with OCD and non-clinical adolescents support the link between these experiences and responsibility beliefs (Coles et al., 2015; Halvaiepour and Nosratabadi, 2015), but the theory has never been tested in youth with current OCD. We provided an initial test of the theory by Salkovskis et al. (1999) in youth with OCD. We predicted that childhood experiences proposed by Salkovskis et al. (1999) would correlate positively with responsibility and harm beliefs and OCD symptom severity. Twenty youth with OCD (age 9‒16 years) completed a new child-report measure of the experiences hypothesized by Salkovskis et al. (1999), the Pathways to Inflated Responsibility Beliefs Scale-Child Version (PIRBS-CV). Youth also completed the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire-Child Version (Coles et al., 2010) and the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (Foa et al., 2010). Consistent with hypotheses, the PIRBS-CV was significantly related to responsibility and harm beliefs and OCD symptom severity. Results provide initial support for the theory proposed by Salkovskis et al. (1999) as applied to youth with OCD. Future studies are needed to further assess the model in early-onset OCD.

  2. Childhood trauma, sexual functions, psychiatric comorbidity and sociodemographic data in obsessive-compulsive disorders with sexual obsessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Göksan Yavuz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We compared the childhood trauma, the severityof sexual functions, comorbidity of axis I psychiatricdisorder, the types and severity of obsessive-compulsivedisorder (OCD and sociodemographic data of patientswith or without sexual obsession in OCD.Methods: Eighty patients of OCD were recruited fromincluding consecutive admissions to an outpatient clinic.Primary OCD patients assessed each subject using theStructured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders(SCID-I. OCD symptoms and symptoms severity was assessedby the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale(YBOCS. Traumas were assessed by the ChildhoodTrauma Experiences Questionnaire. Sexual functions severitywas assessed by the Arizona Sexual ExperienceScale (ASEX. Current depressive and anxiety symptomsscore were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton RatingScale for Depression (HAM-D and the Hamilton AnxietyScale (HAM-A.Results: The frequency of sexual obsession was 15%in our clinical populations diagnosed with OCD. Historyof emotional abuse and incest were associated with asignificantly higher rate of OCD with sexual obsessions.Religious, aggressive, hoarding obsessions and hoardingcompulsions were associated with a significantly higherrate of OCD with sexual obsessions. Comorbidity of Somatoformdisorder was associated with a significantlyhigher rate of OCD with sexual obsessions. Subjects whohave OCD with sexual obsessions did not significantly differfrom those without sexual obsessions on any ASEX scores, Y-BOCS scores, HAM-D, HAM-A and demographicfeatures.Conclusion: Sexual obsessions were related to religious,aggressive, hoarding obsessions and hoarding compulsions,the emotional abuse, incest and a comorbidy ofsomatoform disorder.Key words: sexual obsessions, childhood trauma, comorbidity

  3. The dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist quinpirole increases checking-like behaviour in an operant observing response task with uncertain reinforcement: a novel possible model of OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Dawn M; Noschang, Cristie; d'Angelo, Laure-Sophie Camilla; Noble, Christie A; Day, Jacob O; Dongelmans, Marie Louise; Theobald, David E; Mar, Adam C; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Robbins, Trevor W

    2014-05-01

    Excessive checking is a common, debilitating symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In an established rodent model of OCD checking behaviour, quinpirole (dopamine D2/3-receptor agonist) increased checking in open-field tests, indicating dopaminergic modulation of checking-like behaviours. We designed a novel operant paradigm for rats (observing response task (ORT)) to further examine cognitive processes underpinning checking behaviour and clarify how and why checking develops. We investigated i) how quinpirole increases checking, ii) dependence of these effects on D2/3 receptor function (following treatment with D2/3 receptor antagonist sulpiride) and iii) effects of reward uncertainty. In the ORT, rats pressed an 'observing' lever for information about the location of an 'active' lever that provided food reinforcement. High- and low-checkers (defined from baseline observing) received quinpirole (0.5mg/kg, 10 treatments) or vehicle. Parametric task manipulations assessed observing/checking under increasing task demands relating to reinforcement uncertainty (variable response requirement and active-lever location switching). Treatment with sulpiride further probed the pharmacological basis of long-term behavioural changes. Quinpirole selectively increased checking, both functional observing lever presses (OLPs) and non-functional extra OLPs (EOLPs). The increase in OLPs and EOLPs was long-lasting, without further quinpirole administration. Quinpirole did not affect the immediate ability to use information from checking. Vehicle and quinpirole-treated rats (VEH and QNP respectively) were selectively sensitive to different forms of uncertainty. Sulpiride reduced non-functional EOLPs in QNP rats but had no effect on functional OLPs. These data have implications for treatment of compulsive checking in OCD, particularly for serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor treatment-refractory cases, where supplementation with dopamine receptor antagonists may be beneficial

  4. The dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist quinpirole increases checking-like behaviour in an operant observing response task with uncertain reinforcement: A novel possible model of OCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Dawn M.; Noschang, Cristie; d’Angelo, Laure-Sophie Camilla; Noble, Christie A.; Day, Jacob O.; Dongelmans, Marie Louise; Theobald, David E.; Mar, Adam C.; Urcelay, Gonzalo P.; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive checking is a common, debilitating symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In an established rodent model of OCD checking behaviour, quinpirole (dopamine D2/3-receptor agonist) increased checking in open-field tests, indicating dopaminergic modulation of checking-like behaviours. We designed a novel operant paradigm for rats (observing response task (ORT)) to further examine cognitive processes underpinning checking behaviour and clarify how and why checking develops. We investigated i) how quinpirole increases checking, ii) dependence of these effects on D2/3 receptor function (following treatment with D2/3 receptor antagonist sulpiride) and iii) effects of reward uncertainty. In the ORT, rats pressed an ‘observing’ lever for information about the location of an ‘active’ lever that provided food reinforcement. High- and low-checkers (defined from baseline observing) received quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg, 10 treatments) or vehicle. Parametric task manipulations assessed observing/checking under increasing task demands relating to reinforcement uncertainty (variable response requirement and active-lever location switching). Treatment with sulpiride further probed the pharmacological basis of long-term behavioural changes. Quinpirole selectively increased checking, both functional observing lever presses (OLPs) and non-functional extra OLPs (EOLPs). The increase in OLPs and EOLPs was long-lasting, without further quinpirole administration. Quinpirole did not affect the immediate ability to use information from checking. Vehicle and quinpirole-treated rats (VEH and QNP respectively) were selectively sensitive to different forms of uncertainty. Sulpiride reduced non-functional EOLPs in QNP rats but had no effect on functional OLPs. These data have implications for treatment of compulsive checking in OCD, particularly for serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor treatment-refractory cases, where supplementation with dopamine receptor antagonists may be

  5. Pseudointercondylar notch sign: manifestation of osteochondritis dissecans of the trochlea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruthi, Sumit; Parnell, Shawn E.; Thapa, Mahesh M.

    2009-01-01

    Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is an idiopathic condition affecting the articular epiphysis. Initially described in the knee, this entity affects several other parts of the body such as the talar dome, tarsal navicular, and femoral capital epiphysis. OCD of the elbow primarily involves the capitellum. OCD involving the trochlea has rarely been reported. We describe an unusual and interesting case of OCD affecting the trochlea, mimicking a pseudointercondylar notch. (orig.)

  6. Clinical features of tic-related obsessive-compulsive disorder: results from a large multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes de Alvarenga, Pedro; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Dominguez Alves, Anna Claudia; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Fossaluza, Victor; Hounie, Ana Gabriela; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Rodrigues Torres, Albina

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with comorbid tic disorders (TD) in a large, multicenter, clinical sample. A cross-sectional study was conducted that included 813 consecutive OCD outpatients from the Brazilian OCD Research Consortium and used several instruments of assessment, including the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), the USP Sensory Phenomena Scale, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The sample mean current age was 34.9 years old (SE 0.54), and the mean age at obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) onset was 12.8 years old (SE 0.27). Sensory phenomena were reported by 585 individuals (72% of the sample). The general lifetime prevalence of TD was 29.0% (n = 236), with 8.9% (n = 72) presenting Tourette syndrome, 17.3% (n = 141) chronic motor tic disorder, and 2.8% (n = 23) chronic vocal tic disorder. The mean tic severity score, according to the YGTSS, was 27.2 (SE 1.4) in the OCD + TD group. Compared to OCD patients without comorbid TD, those with TD (OCD + TD group, n = 236) were more likely to be males (49.2% vs. 38.5%, p disorders in general: separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, impulse control disorders in general, and skin picking. Also, the "aggressive," "sexual/religious," and "hoarding" symptom dimensions were more severe in the OCD + TD group. Tic-related OCD may constitute a particular subgroup of the disorder with specific phenotypical characteristics, but its neurobiological underpinnings remain to be fully disentangled.

  7. Protection afforded by pre- or post-treatment with 4-phenylbutyrate against liver injury induced by acetaminophen overdose in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Daisuke; Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Miyata, Keishi; Tomishima, Yoshiro; Kondo, Yuki; Irikura, Mitsuru; Iwawaki, Takao; Oike, Yuichi; Irie, Tetsumi

    2014-09-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol; APAP) is a widely used analgesic/antipyretic drug with few adverse effects at therapeutic doses; suicidal or unintentional overdose of APAP frequently induces severe hepatotoxicity. To explore a new and effective antidote for APAP hepatotoxicity, this study examined the effects of sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) on liver injury induced by APAP overdose in mice. Liver injury was induced in C57BL/6 male mice by intraperitoneal injection of APAP (400mg/kg). The effects of 4-PBA (100-200mg/kg) treatment at 1h before the APAP injection were evaluated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and blood ammonia levels, hepatic pathological changes, including histopathology, DNA damage, nitrotyrosine formation, and mRNA or protein expression involved in the development of hepatotoxicity, such as X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and B-cell lymphoma 2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim). In addition, glutathione depletion and CYP2E1 protein expression, which are measures of the metabolic conversion of APAP to a toxic metabolite, were examined. Furthermore, we examined the effects of post-treatment with 4-PBA against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. When administered at 1h before APAP injection, 4-PBA significantly prevented the increase in serum ALT and blood ammonia levels, centrilobular necrosis of hepatocytes, DNA fragmentation, and nitrotyrosine formation induced by APAP in mice. 4-PBA also inhibited hepatic Xbp1 mRNA splicing and JNK phosphorylation induced by APAP, but did not suppress CHOP and Bim mRNA and protein expression. In addition, 4-PBA had little effect on hepatic glutathione depletion and CYP2E1 expression, parameters of toxic APAP metabolite production. Post-treatment with 4-PBA administration at 1 or 2h after APAP injection also attenuated the increase in serum ALT and blood ammonia levels and hepatic pathological changes in APAP

  8. Hypofractionated passively scattered proton radiotherapy for low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer is not associated with post-treatment testosterone suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kil, Whoon Jong; Nichols, Romaine C. Jr. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States); Univ. of Florida Proton Therapy Inst., Jacksonville (United States)], e-mail: rnichols@floridaproton.org; And others

    2013-04-15

    Background: To investigate post-treatment changes in serum testosterone in low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with hypofractionated passively scattered proton radiotherapy. Material and methods: Between April 2008 and October 2011, 228 patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer were enrolled into an institutional review board-approved prospective protocol. Patients received doses ranging from 70 Cobalt Gray Equivalent (CGE) to 72.5 CGE at 2.5 CGE per fraction using passively scattered protons. Three patients were excluded for receiving androgen deprivation therapy (n = 2) or testosterone supplementation (n = 1) before radiation. Of the remaining 226 patients, pretreatment serum testosterone levels were available for 217. Of these patients, post-treatment serum testosterone levels were available for 207 in the final week of treatment, 165 at the six-month follow-up, and 116 at the 12-month follow-up. The post-treatment testosterone levels were compared with the pretreatment levels using Wilcoxon's signed-rank test for matched pairs. Results: The median pretreatment serum testosterone level was 367.7 ng/dl (12.8 nmol/l). The median changes in post-treatment testosterone value were as follows: +3.0 ng/dl (+0.1 nmol/l) at treatment completion; +6.0 ng/dl (+0.2 nmol/l) at six months after treatment; and +5.0 ng/dl (0.2 nmol/l) at 12 months after treatment. None of these changes were statistically significant. Conclusion: Patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with hypofractionated passively scattered proton radiotherapy do not experience testosterone suppression. Our findings are consistent with physical measurements demonstrating that proton radiotherapy is associated with less scatter radiation exposure to tissues beyond the beam paths compared with intensity-modulated photon radiotherapy.

  9. Relations between Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and personality: beyond Axis I-Axis II comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kevin D; Clark, Lee Anna; Watson, David

    2006-01-01

    Most research on relations between Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and personality addresses only comorbidity rates between OCD and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD). We first investigated empirical OCD-OCPD relations, but then also examined patterns of dimensional traits in OCD patients versus students and general outpatients. Results did not support a specific OCD-OCPD relation and the implications of this conclusion are discussed. Regarding traits, OCD patients shared with other patients elevated negative affectivity and lower positive affectivity. Differences on several lower order dimensions, including lower scores on manipulativeness, mistrust, and disinhibition distinguished the personality profile of OCD patients from others. Also noteworthy was a pattern of very low self-image for OCD patients, as suggested by the combination of low self-esteem and low entitlement scores. Overall, OCD patients showed a more specific pattern of personality pathology than did general outpatients, who were elevated more generally across personality disorders and negative affectivity scales.

  10. The clinical and radiological importance of extraarticular contrast material leakage into adjacent synovial compartments on ankle MR arthrography in patients with OCD and anterolateral impingement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogul, Hayri, E-mail: drhogul@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Guzel, Yunus [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Medical Faculty, Ordu University, Ordu (Turkey); Pirimoglu, Berhan [Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Tuncer, Kutsi [Department of Orthopedic, Medical Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Polat, Gokhan; Ergun, Fatih; Sade, Recep; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Yuce, Ihsan; Kantarci, Mecit [Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the tibiotalar joint capacity and the localisation, frequency and amount of extravasation in patients with extraarticular contrast material leakage into adjacent synovial compartments on ankle magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography. Materials and methods: Sites of extravasation were determined in the ankle MR arthrograms of 69 patients. Thirty-four patients without extraarticular contrast material leakage into locations unrelated to the injection path were included as a control group. Volumetric measurements of extraarticular contrast material leakage and the tibiotalar joint capacity were performed on a three dimensional (3D) volume measurement workstation. Results: Extravasation of contrast material occurred through the anterior, posterior, and anterolateral recesses of the tibiotalar joint. The most common site of extravasation was along the flexor hallucis longus tendon synovium (24.6%). The amount of extravasation was significantly higher in patients with ankle osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) than in patients with a different diagnosis (p = 0.039). Loose bodies were detected in all OCD’s patients with insufficient tibiotalar joint distention. Conclusions: Connections between the ankle joint and neighboring synovial compartments can decrease the diagnostic value of ankle MR arthrography examinations due to inadequate joint distention. Large injection volumes should be used for ankle MR arthrography of patients with OCD (especially OCD’s patients with loose body) and impingement syndrome.

  11. The clinical and radiological importance of extraarticular contrast material leakage into adjacent synovial compartments on ankle MR arthrography in patients with OCD and anterolateral impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogul, Hayri; Guzel, Yunus; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Tuncer, Kutsi; Polat, Gokhan; Ergun, Fatih; Sade, Recep; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Yuce, Ihsan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the tibiotalar joint capacity and the localisation, frequency and amount of extravasation in patients with extraarticular contrast material leakage into adjacent synovial compartments on ankle magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography. Materials and methods: Sites of extravasation were determined in the ankle MR arthrograms of 69 patients. Thirty-four patients without extraarticular contrast material leakage into locations unrelated to the injection path were included as a control group. Volumetric measurements of extraarticular contrast material leakage and the tibiotalar joint capacity were performed on a three dimensional (3D) volume measurement workstation. Results: Extravasation of contrast material occurred through the anterior, posterior, and anterolateral recesses of the tibiotalar joint. The most common site of extravasation was along the flexor hallucis longus tendon synovium (24.6%). The amount of extravasation was significantly higher in patients with ankle osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) than in patients with a different diagnosis (p = 0.039). Loose bodies were detected in all OCD’s patients with insufficient tibiotalar joint distention. Conclusions: Connections between the ankle joint and neighboring synovial compartments can decrease the diagnostic value of ankle MR arthrography examinations due to inadequate joint distention. Large injection volumes should be used for ankle MR arthrography of patients with OCD (especially OCD’s patients with loose body) and impingement syndrome.

  12. Comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder with bipolar disorder: A distinct form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemiroglu, Filiz; Sevincok, Levent; Sen, Gulnur; Mersin, Sanem; Kocabas, Oktay; Karakus, Kadir; Vahapoglu, Fatih

    2015-12-30

    We examined whether the patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) comorbidity may represent a distinct form of BD. The subjects diagnosed with BD (n=48), OCD (n=61), and BD with OCD (n=32) were compared in terms of several socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Previous history of suicidal attempts was more likely to be higher in BD-OCD group compared to the other two groups. A more episodic course of OCD, higher rates of rapid cycling, and the seasonality were found in BD-OCD patients. The frequency of bipolar II and NOS subtypes was more prevalent in patients with BD-OCD than in OCD patients. The first diagnosed illness was BD in the majority of BD-OCD cases. It was found that first affective episode was major depression in half of BD-OCD patients. Age at onset of BD was found to be earlier in BD-OCD group compared to pure BD patients. Bipolarity may not have a specific effect on the phenomenology of OC symptoms. The episodic course of OCD, seasonality, rapid cycling, earlier onset of BD, and impulsivity in BD-OCD patients may be indicative for a distinct form of BD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimation of the convergence order of rigorous coupled-wave analysis for OCD metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuan; Liu, Shiyuan; Chen, Xiuguo; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2011-12-01

    In most cases of optical critical dimension (OCD) metrology, when applying rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) to optical modeling, a high order of Fourier harmonics is usually set up to guarantee the convergence of the final results. However, the total number of floating point operations grows dramatically as the truncation order increases. Therefore, it is critical to choose an appropriate order to obtain high computational efficiency without losing much accuracy in the meantime. In this paper, the convergence order associated with the structural and optical parameters has been estimated through simulation. The results indicate that the convergence order is linear with the period of the sample when fixing the other parameters, both for planar diffraction and conical diffraction. The illuminated wavelength also affects the convergence of a final result. With further investigations concentrated on the ratio of illuminated wavelength to period, it is discovered that the convergence order decreases with the growth of the ratio, and when the ratio is fixed, convergence order jumps slightly, especially in a specific range of wavelength. This characteristic could be applied to estimate the optimum convergence order of given samples to obtain high computational efficiency.

  14. Catecholamine-related gene expression in blood correlates with tic severity in tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Joan; Tian, Yingfang; Stamova, Boryana; Lit, Lisa; Corbett, Blythe; Ander, Brad; Zhan, Xinhua; Jickling, Glen; Bos-Veneman, Netty; Liu, Da; Hoekstra, Pieter; Sharp, Frank

    2012-12-30

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a heritable disorder characterized by tics that are decreased in some patients by treatment with alpha adrenergic agonists and dopamine receptor blockers. Thus, this study examines the relationship between catecholamine gene expression in blood and tic severity. TS diagnosis was confirmed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria and tic severity measured using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) for 26 un-medicated subjects with TS. Whole blood was collected and Ribonucleic acid (RNA) processed on Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST arrays. An Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) identified 3627 genes correlated with tic severity (pdisorders, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Correlation of gene expression in peripheral blood with tic severity may allow inferences about catecholamine pathway dysfunction in TS subjects. Findings built on previous work suggest that at least some genes expressed peripherally are relevant for central nervous system (CNS) pathology in the brain of individuals with TS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of progressive resistance training on lean body mass in post-treatment cancer patients – A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lønbro, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Loss of lean body mass is a common problem in many post-treatment cancer patients and may negatively affect physical capacity in terms of maximal muscle strength and functional performance. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific evidence on the effect of progressive resistance training on lean body mass in post-treatment cancer patients. A comprehensive literature search was conducted and ultimately 12 studies were included. Methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the PEDro scale and the effect of progressive resistance training was reported as the range of mean changes among RCTs and non-RCTs. Six RCTs and six non-RCTs were included in the study. In the RCTs the change in lean body mass in the progressive resistance training groups relative to control groups ranged from −0.4% to 3.9%, and in four of six trials the training effect was significantly larger than the change in the control groups. In the six non-RCTs, the mean change in lean body mass over time ranged from −0.01 to 11.8% which was significant in two of the trials. The included studies reported no or very limited adverse events following progressive resistance training. Based on 12 heterogenic studies there is moderate evidence supporting a positive effect of progressive resistance training on lean body mass in post-treatment cancer patients

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of universal noninvasive testing for post-treatment confirmation of Helicobacter pylori eradication and the impact of patient adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boklage SH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Susan H Boklage,1 Allen W Mangel,2 Varun Ramamohan,2 Deirdre Mladsi,2 Tao Wang1 1Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc, Princeton, NJ, 2RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA Background: The treatment failure rate for Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy is ~20% due to poor patient compliance and increased antibiotic resistance. This analysis assessed the cost-effectiveness of universal post-treatment testing to confirm eradication of H. pylori infection in adults.Methods: Decision-analytic models evaluated the cost-effectiveness of universal post-treatment testing (urea breath test [UBT] or monoclonal fecal antigen test [mFAT] vs no testing (Model 1, and UBT vs mFAT after adjusting for patient adherence to testing (Model 2 in adults who previously received first-line antimicrobial therapy. Patients testing positive received second-line quadruple therapy; no further action was taken for those testing negative or with no testing (Model 1 or for those nonadherent to testing (Model 2. In addition to testing costs, excess lifetime costs and reduced quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs due to continuing H. pylori infection were considered in the model.Results: Expected total costs per patient were higher for post-treatment testing (UBT: US$325.76; mFAT: US$242.12 vs no testing (US$182.41 in Model 1 and for UBT (US$336.75 vs mFAT (US$326.24 in Model 2. Expected QALYs gained per patient were 0.71 and 0.72 for UBT and mFAT, respectively, vs no testing (Model 1, and the same was 0.37 for UBT vs mFAT (Model 2. The estimated incremental costs per QALY gained for post-treatment testing vs no testing were US$82.90–US$202.45 and, after adjusting for adherence, US$28.13 for UBT vs mFAT.Conclusion: Universal post-treatment testing was found to be cost-effective for confirming eradication of H. pylori infection following first-line therapy. Better adherence to UBT relative to mFAT was the key to its cost-effectiveness. Keywords: health

  17. Patterns of Anxious Arousal During a Speech Task Between Nonanxious Controls and Individuals With Social Anxiety Disorder Pre- and Posttreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol S; Wadsworth, Lauren P; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A

    2017-11-01

    Although research indicates that anxious arousal in response to feared stimuli is related to treatment outcome (Heimberg et al., 1990), less is known about the patterns of anxious arousal. We identified patterns of anxious arousal in individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) at pre- (n= 61) and posttreatment (n= 40; 12-session CBGT, Heimberg & Becker, 2002), and in non-anxious controls (NACs; n= 31) using an assessment speech task administered at pretreatment (SAD) or the pretreatment equivalent (NACs), as well as at posttreatment (SAD only). We identified nine patterns of anxious arousal across groups that we further clustered into three groups: fear habituation, fear plateau, and fear increase. Chi-square and adjusted standardized residual analyses revealed that individuals in the pretreatment SAD group displayed the fear habituation patterns significantly more than chance and the fear plateau patterns significantly less than chance. In contrast, NACs displayed the fear plateau patterns significantly more than chance and the fear habituation patterns significantly less than chance. At posttreatment, treatment non-responders displayed fear habituation patterns significantly more than chance, whereas treatment responders displayed the fear habituation patterns significantly less than chance. Findings indicate that fear habituation during an anxiety-provoking assessment task is not necessary for treatment response. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. A study of cognitive function in treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder treated with capsulotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Feilong; Li, Peng; Li, Bin; Zhang, Shizhen; Zhang, Xinjie; Yang, Sen; Liu, Hongbin; Wang, Wei

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Anterior capsulotomy (AC) is sometimes used as a last resort for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Previous studies assessing neuropsychological outcomes in patients with OCD have identified several forms of cognitive dysfunction that are associated with the disease, but few have focused on changes in cognitive function in OCD patients who have undergone surgery. In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of AC on the cognitive function of patients with treatment-refractory OCD. METHODS The authors selected 14 patients with treatment-refractory OCD who had undergone bilateral AC between 2007 and 2013, 14 nonsurgically treated OCD patients, and 14 healthy control subjects for this study. The 3 groups were matched for sex, age, and education. Several neuropsychological tests, including Similarities and Block Design, which are subsets of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence; Immediate and Delayed Logical Memory and Immediate and Delayed Visual Reproduction, which are subsets of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised; and Corrects, Categories, Perseverative Errors, Nonperseverative Errors, and Errors, subtests of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, were conducted in all 42 subjects at baseline and after AC, after nonsurgical treatment, or at 6-month intervals, as appropriate. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was used to measure OCD symptoms in all 28 OCD patients. RESULTS The Y-BOCS scores decreased significantly in both OCD groups during the 12-month follow-up period. Surgical patients showed higher levels of improvement in verbal memory, visual memory, visuospatial skills, and executive function than the nonsurgically treated OCD patients. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study suggest that AC not only reduces OCD symptoms but also attenuates moderate cognitive deficits.

  19. A cross-sectional study of insight and family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Factors predicting treatment outcome in pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) include disease severity, functional impairment, comorbid disorders, insight, and family accommodation (FA). Treatment of pediatric OCD is often only partly successful as some of these predictors are not targeted with conventional therapy. Among these, insight and FA were identified to be modifiable predictors of special relevance to pediatric OCD. Despite their clinical relevance, insight and FA remain understudied in youth with OCD. This study examined the clinical correlates of insight and FA and determined whether FA mediates the relationship between symptom severity and functional impairment in pediatric OCD. Methods This was a cross-sectional, outpatient study. Thirty-five treatment-naive children and adolescentswith DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD (mean age: 13.11 ± 3.16; 54.3% males) were included. Standard questionnaires were administered for assessing the study variables. Insight and comorbidities were assessed based on clinician’s interview. Subjects were categorized as belonging to a high insight or a low insight group, and the differences between these two groups were analyzed using ANOVA. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated for the remaining variables of interest. Mediation analysis was carried out using structural equation modeling. Results Relative to those in the high insight group, subjects in the low insight group were younger, had more severe disease and symptoms, and were accommodated to a greater extent by their families. In addition, comorbid depression was more frequent in subjects belonging to the low insight group. Family accommodation was positively related to disease severity, symptom severity, and functional impairment. Family accommodation totally mediated the relationship between symptom severity and functional impairment. Conclusions Results support the differences in the diagnostic criteria between adult and

  20. Paternal overprotection in obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression with obsessive traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takafumi; Taga, Chiaki; Matsumoto, Yoshitake; Fukui, Kenji

    2005-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated that a parental rearing style showing a low level of care on the parental bonding instrument (PBI) is a risk factor for depression, and that there is a relationship between the overprotective rearing style on the PBI and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, there is no study on the parental rearing attitudes in depressive patients divided into two groups based on their obsessive traits. In this study, we evaluated the parental rearing attitudes and examined the differences among four groups: depressive patients with severe obsessive traits, depressive patients with mild obsessive traits, OCD patients, and healthy volunteers. We divided the depressive patients into severe and mild groups based on their obsessive traits on the Mausdley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). We compared PBI scores among four groups of 50 subjects matched for age and sex: depressive patients with severe obsessive traits, depressive patients with mild obsessive traits, OCD patients, and healthy volunteers. The paternal protection scores in the depressive patients with severely obsessive traits and the OCD patients were significantly higher than those in the depressive patients with mildly obsessive traits and healthy volunteers. This study indicated that the depressive patients with severe obsessive traits and the OCD patients have similar paternal controlling and interfering rearing attitudes. We conclude that the paternal controlling and interfering rearing attitudes are linked to the development of OCD and depression with obsessive traits, and are not linked to the development of depression itself.

  1. Proton Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer Is Not Associated With Post-Treatment Testosterone Suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, R. Charles, E-mail: rnichols@floridaproton.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Morris, Christopher G.; Hoppe, Bradford S.; Henderson, Randal H.; Marcus, Robert B.; Mendenhall, William M.; Li Zuofeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Williams, Christopher R.; Costa, Joseph A. [Division of Urology, University of Florida Shands Hospital, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Mendenhall, Nancy P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Three independent studies of photon (x-ray) radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer have demonstrated evidence of testosterone suppression after treatment. The present study was undertaken to determine whether this would also be the case with conformal protons. Methods and Materials: Between August 2006 and October 2007, 171 patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer were enrolled and underwent treatment according to University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute institutional review board-approved PR01 and PR02 protocols. Of the 171 patients, 18 were excluded because they had received androgen deprivation therapy either before (n = 17) or after (n = 1) RT. The pretreatment serum testosterone level was available for 150 of the remaining 153 patients. These 150 patients were included in the present study. The post-treatment levels were compared with the pretreatment levels. Results: The median baseline pretreatment serum testosterone level was 357.9 ng/dL. The median post-treatment testosterone value was 375.5 ng/dL at treatment completion (p = .1935) and 369.9 ng/dL (p = .1336), 348.7 ng/dL (p = .7317), 353.4 ng/dL (p = .6996), and 340.9 ng/dL (p = .1669) at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after proton therapy, respectively. Conclusions: Conformal proton therapy to the prostate, as delivered using University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute PR01 and PR02 protocols, did not appear to significantly affect the serum testosterone levels within 24 months after RT.

  2. Proton Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer Is Not Associated With Post-Treatment Testosterone Suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R. Charles; Morris, Christopher G.; Hoppe, Bradford S.; Henderson, Randal H.; Marcus, Robert B.; Mendenhall, William M.; Li Zuofeng; Williams, Christopher R.; Costa, Joseph A.; Mendenhall, Nancy P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Three independent studies of photon (x-ray) radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer have demonstrated evidence of testosterone suppression after treatment. The present study was undertaken to determine whether this would also be the case with conformal protons. Methods and Materials: Between August 2006 and October 2007, 171 patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer were enrolled and underwent treatment according to University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute institutional review board-approved PR01 and PR02 protocols. Of the 171 patients, 18 were excluded because they had received androgen deprivation therapy either before (n = 17) or after (n = 1) RT. The pretreatment serum testosterone level was available for 150 of the remaining 153 patients. These 150 patients were included in the present study. The post-treatment levels were compared with the pretreatment levels. Results: The median baseline pretreatment serum testosterone level was 357.9 ng/dL. The median post-treatment testosterone value was 375.5 ng/dL at treatment completion (p = .1935) and 369.9 ng/dL (p = .1336), 348.7 ng/dL (p = .7317), 353.4 ng/dL (p = .6996), and 340.9 ng/dL (p = .1669) at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after proton therapy, respectively. Conclusions: Conformal proton therapy to the prostate, as delivered using University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute PR01 and PR02 protocols, did not appear to significantly affect the serum testosterone levels within 24 months after RT.

  3. Wilson's disease: two treatment modalities. Correlations to pretreatment and posttreatment brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiros da Costa, Maria do Desterro [Federal University of Paraiba, Movement Disorders Unit, Paraiba (Brazil); Spitz, Mariana; Bacheschi, Luiz Alberto; Barbosa, Egberto Reis [University of Sao Paulo, Movement Disorders Unit, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Leite, Claudia Costa; Lucato, Leandro Tavares [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies on Wilson's disease (WD) show lack of correlations between neurological and neuroimaging features. Long-term follow-up reports with sequential brain MRI in patients with neurological WD comparing different modalities of treatment are scarce. Eighteen patients with neurological WD underwent pretreatment and posttreatment brain MRI scans to evaluate the range of abnormalities and the evolution along these different periods. All patients underwent at least two MRI scans at different intervals, up to 11 years after the beginning of treatment. MRI findings were correlated with clinical picture, clinical severity, duration of neurological symptoms, and treatment with two different drugs. Patients were divided into two groups according to treatment: d-penicillamine (D-P), zinc (Zn), and Zn after the onset of severe intolerance to D-P. MRI scans before treatment showed, in all patients, hypersignal intensity lesions on T2- and proton-density-weighted images bilaterally and symmetrically at basal nuclei, thalamus, brain stem, cerebellum, brain cortex, and brain white matter. The most common neurological symptoms were: dysarthria, parkinsonism, dystonia, tremor, psychiatric disturbances, dysphagia, risus sardonicus, ataxia, chorea, and athetosis. From the neurological point of view, there was no difference on the evolution between the group treated exclusively with D-P and the one treated with Zn. Analysis of MRI scans with longer intervals after the beginning of treatment depicted a trend for neuroimaging worsening, without neurological correspondence, among patients treated with Zn. Neuroimaging pattern of evolution was more favorable for the group that received exclusively D-P. (orig.)

  4. Predicting Post-Treatment-Initiation Alcohol Use among Patients with Severe Mental Illness and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradizza, Clara M.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Vincent, Paula C.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Connors, Gerard J.; Mercer, Nicole D.

    2009-01-01

    Few investigators studying alcohol abuse among individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) have examined predictors of posttreatment alcohol outcomes. In the present study, a multivariate approach based on a theoretical model was used to study the relationship between psychosocial factors and post-treatment-initiation alcohol use. Predictors of…

  5. The effect of progressive resistance training on lean body mass in post-treatment cancer patients - A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønbro, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Loss of lean body mass is a common problem in many post-treatment cancer patients and may negatively affect physical capacity in terms of maximal muscle strength and functional performance. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific evidence on the effect of progressive...... resistance training on lean body mass in post-treatment cancer patients. A comprehensive literature search was conducted and ultimately 12 studies were included. Methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the PEDro scale and the effect of progressive resistance training was reported...... as the range of mean changes among RCTs and non-RCTs. Six RCTs and six non-RCTs were included in the study. In the RCTs the change in lean body mass in the progressive resistance training groups relative to control groups ranged from -0.4% to 3.9%, and in four of six trials the training effect...

  6. Effects of gender and executive function on visuospatial working memory in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martoni, Riccardo Maria; Salgari, Giulia; Galimberti, Elisa; Cavallini, Maria Cristina; O'Neill, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is the ability of the brain to transiently store and manipulate visual information. VSWM deficiencies have been reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but not consistently, perhaps due to variability in task design and clinical patient factors. To explore this variability, this study assessed effects of the design factors task difficulty and executive organizational strategy and of the clinical factors gender, OCD symptom dimension, and duration of illness on VSWM in OCD. The CANTAB spatial working memory, spatial recognition memory, delayed matching to sample, and stop signal tasks were administered to 42 adult OCD patients and 42 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Aims were to detect a possible VSWM deficit in the OCD sample, to evaluate influences of the above task and patient factors, to determine the specificity of the deficit to the visuospatial subdomain, and to examine effects of sustained attention as potential neurocognitive confound. We confirmed previous findings of a VSWM deficit in OCD that was more severe for greater memory load (task difficulty) and that was affected by task strategy (executive function). We failed to demonstrate significant deficits in neighboring or confounding neurocognitive subdomains (visual object recognition or visual object short-term memory, sustained attention). Notably, the VSWM deficit was only significant for female patients, adding to evidence for sexual dimorphism in OCD. Again as in prior work, more severe OCD symptoms in the symmetry dimension (but no other dimension) significantly negatively impacted VSWM. Duration of illness had no significant effect on VSWM. VSWM deficits in OCD appear more severe with higher task load and may be mediated through poor task strategy. Such deficits may present mainly in female patients and in (male and female) patients with symmetry symptoms.

  7. Posttreatment Feeding Affects Mortality of Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Exposed to Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Insecticide sprays and dusts are used for controlling bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. In natural environments, bed bugs have daily access to hosts after they are exposed to insecticides. The established laboratory insecticide bioassay protocols do not provide feeding after insecticide treatments, which can result in inflated mortality compared with what would be encountered in the field. We evaluated the effect of posttreatment feeding on mortality of bed bugs treated with different insecticides. None of the insecticides tested had a significant effect on the amount of blood consumed and percent feeding. The effect of posttreatment feeding on bed bug mortality varied among different insecticides. Feeding significantly reduced mortality in bed bugs exposed to deltamethrin spray, an essential oil mixture (Bed Bug Fix) spray, and diatomaceous earth dust. Feeding increased the mean survival time for bed bugs treated with chlorfenapyr spray and a spray containing an essential oil mixture (Ecoraider), but did not affect the final mortality. First instars hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray had reduced feeding compared with nymphs hatched from nontreated eggs. Those nymphs hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray and successfully fed had reduced mortality and a higher mean survival time than those without feeding. We conclude that the availability of a bloodmeal after insecticide exposure has a significant effect on bed bug mortality. Protocols for insecticide efficacy testing should consider offering a bloodmeal to the treated bed bugs within 1 to 3 d after treatment. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Post-treatment of Fly Ash by Ozone in a Fixed Bed Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Hougaard; Melia, M. C.; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    to be fast. A kinetic model has been formulated, describing the passivation of carbon, and it includes the stoichiometry of the ozone consumption (0.8 mol of O-3/kg of C) and an ineffective ozone loss caused by catalytic decomposition. The simulated results correlated well with the experimental data....... prevents the AEA to be adsorbed. In the present work, two fly ashes have been ozonated in a fixed bed reactor and the results showed that ozonation is a potential post-treatment method that can lower the AEA requirements of a fly ash up to 6 times. The kinetics of the carbon oxidation by ozone was found...

  9. Curso clínico e prognóstico do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Mary A

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-term course and prognosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is insufficiently known. To identify predictors of OCD course, follow-up studies of patients with OCD were reviewed and their findings summarized. According to these studies, the following variables were correlated with poor outcome: early onset, severity of OCD symptoms, chronic course, poor social functioning at baseline, lifetime history of comorbid psychiatric and personality disorders, presence of parental Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, and delayed response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the beginning of the treatment. Due to the availability of new treatments, most patients with OCD can expect significant improvement, but not complete remission of the disorder. The reviewed follow-up studies support previous reports on the chronicity of OCD.

  10. Posttreatment prostatic-specific antigen doubling time as a surrogate endpoint for prostate cancer-specific survival: An analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 92-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valicenti, Richard K.; DeSilvio, Michelle; Hanks, Gerald E.; Porter, Arthur; Brereton, Harmar; Rosenthal, Seth A.; Shipley, William U.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated whether posttreatment prostatic-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) was predictive of prostate cancer mortality by testing the Prentice requirements for a surrogate endpoint. Methods and Materials: We analyzed posttreatment PSA measurements in a cohort of 1,514 men with localized prostate cancer (T2c-4 and PSA level Cox = 0.002), PSADT Cox Cox Cox Cox = 0.4). The significant posttreatment PSADTs were also significant predictors of CSS (p Cox < 0.001). After adjusting for T stage, Gleason score and PSA, all of Prentice's requirements were not met, indicating that the effect of PSADT on CSS was not independent of the randomized treatment. Conclusions: Prostatic specific antigen doubling time is significantly associated with CSS, but did not meet all of Prentice's requirements for a surrogate endpoint of CSS. Thus, the risk of dying of prostate cancer is not fully explained by PSADT

  11. My elder brother Fr Prof.Benignus Józef Wanat OCD. Personal family reminiscences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Wanat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Father Józef Benignus Wanat OCD was born in Frydrychowice, near Wadowice, into a large and impoverished farming family. He had seven brothers and one sister and was the third son of Franciszek and Maria Wanat. His hard working family was one of character displaying religious devotion, and demonstrating generosity to others in times of need. During the Nazi occupation, his parents took into their two-roomed house, a family of eight who were deprived of their own home in brutal circumstances. Out of necessity, and due to lack of space, the three oldest sons slept in the stable under the roof on a makeshift bed. After graduating from High School, and in answer to his calling, Benignus entered a novitiate in the Discalced Carmelites’ Monastery in Czerna. He completed his philosophy studies in Poznan and his theological studies at the Major Seminary of Discalced Carmelite Fathers in Kraków, where he was ordained a priest. In Krakow, at the Jagiellonian University’s Faculty of History and Philosophy, Fr. Benignus pursued extramural studies in the field of archives. He graduated from the Pontifical Academy of Theology in Kraków in the History of Art and having successfully defended his doctoral dissertation, he earned the the title of professor doctor. He was a member of the faculty of art in this university and he lectured on the History of Art of the Church with emphasis on European art. He was the founder of the Archives of the Discalced Carmelites in Czerna. He wrote prolifically on the History of Art of the Discalced Carmelite Order and the Discalced Carmelite Nuns researching and visiting many and various sites for his articles. This led to his magnumopus, a monograph on the Discalced Carmelite Order in Poland. He was elected several times as Provincial Superior of the Discalced Carmelites Province in Poland and he was appointed the first Provincial Superior of the Province of Kraków which included being the Prior of several monasteries

  12. Carbon-encapsulated nickel-cobalt alloys nanoparticles fabricated via new post-treatment strategy for hydrogen evolution in alkaline media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hailing; Youliwasi, Nuerguli; Zhao, Lei; Chai, Yongming; Liu, Chenguang

    2018-03-01

    This paper addresses a new post-treatment strategy for the formation of carbon-encapsulated nickel-cobalt alloys nanoparticles, which is easily controlled the performance of target products via changing precursor composition, calcination conditions (e.g., temperature and atmosphere) and post-treatment condition. Glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified by the as-obtained carbon-encapsulated mono- and bi-transition metal nanoparticles exhibit excellent electro-catalytic activity for hydrogen production in alkaline water electrolysis. Especially, Ni0.4Co0.6@N-Cs800-b catalyst prepared at 800 °C under an argon flow exhibited the best electrocatalytic performance towards HER. The high HER activity of the Ni0.4Co0.6@N-Cs800-b modified electrode is related to the appropriate nickel-cobalt metal ratio with high crystallinity, complete and homogeneous carbon layers outside of the nickel-cobalt with high conductivity and the synergistic effect of nickel-cobalt alloys that also accelerate electron transfer process.

  13. Implementing novel models of posttreatment care for cancer survivors: Enablers, challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefford, Michael; Kinnane, Nicole; Howell, Paula; Nolte, Linda; Galetakis, Spiridoula; Bruce Mann, Gregory; Naccarella, Lucio; Lai-Kwon, Julia; Simons, Katherine; Avery, Sharon; Thompson, Kate; Ashley, David; Haskett, Martin; Davies, Elise; Whitfield, Kathryn

    2015-12-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology and US Institute of Medicine emphasize the need to trial novel models of posttreatment care, and disseminate findings. In 2011, the Victorian State Government (Australia) established the Victorian Cancer Survivorship Program (VCSP), funding six 2-year demonstration projects, targeting end of initial cancer treatment. Projects considered various models, enrolling people of differing cancer types, age and residential areas. We sought to determine common enablers of success, as well as challenges/barriers. Throughout the duration of the projects, a formal "community of practice" met regularly to share experiences. Projects provided regular formal progress reports. An analysis framework was developed to synthesize key themes and identify critical enablers and challenges. Two external reviewers examined final project reports. Discussion with project teams clarified content. Survivors reported interventions to be acceptable, appropriate and effective. Strong clinical leadership was identified as a critical success factor. Workforce education was recognized as important. Partnerships with consumers, primary care and community organizations; risk stratified pathways with rapid re-access to specialist care; and early preparation for survivorship, self-management and shared care models supported positive project outcomes. Tailoring care to individual needs and predicted risks was supported. Challenges included: lack of valid assessment and prediction tools; limited evidence to support novel care models; workforce redesign; and effective engagement with community-based care and issues around survivorship terminology. The VCSP project outcomes have added to growing evidence around posttreatment care. Future projects should consider the identified enablers and challenges when designing and implementing survivorship care. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Evidence-Based Assessment of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Rapp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD is a neuropsychiatric illness that often develops in childhood, affects 1%–2% of the population, and causes significant impairment across the lifespan. The first step in identifying and treating OCD is a thorough evidence-based assessment. This paper reviews the administration pragmatics, psychometric properties, and limitations of commonly used assessment measures for adults and youths with OCD. This includes diagnostic interviews, clinician-administered symptom severity scales, self-report measures, and parent/child measures. Additionally, adjunctive measures that assess important related factors (ie, impairment, family accommodation, and insight are also discussed. This paper concludes with recommendations for an evidence-based assessment based on individualized assessment goals that include generating an OCD diagnosis, determining symptom severity, and monitoring treatment progress.

  15. Plate assay for chemical- and radiation-induced mutagenesis of CAN1 in yeast as a function of post-treatment DNA replication: The effect of rad6-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemontt, J.F.; Lair, S.V.

    1982-01-01

    An agar post-treatment method was used to monitor levels of ultraviolet light- and hydrazine-induced mutagenesis at CAN1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a function of post-treatment cell division prior to selection for canavanine-resistant mutants with a top-agar overlay containing canavanine. The advantage of this method is that its permits reliable measurements of mutation induction during the early period before, during, and after the first round of post-treatment DNA replication. In strains that are wild-type for DNA repair, ultraviolet light mutagenesis appears to be a pre-replicative phenomenon, while mutation by hydrazine involves a replicative or post-replicative mechanism. Most chemical mutagenesis in yeast requires a functional RAD6 gene. Hydrazine mutability is also reduced by rad6-1, suggesting a possible misrepair mechanism. (orig.)

  16. Error-related negativity and tic history in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Gregory L; Carrasco, Melisa; Harbin, Shannon M; Nienhuis, Jenna K; LaRosa, Christina E; Chen, Poyu; Fitzgerald, Kate D; Gehring, William J

    2012-09-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential after an incorrect response, which is often increased in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the relation of the ERN to comorbid tic disorders has not been examined in patients with OCD. This study compared ERN amplitudes in patients with tic-related OCD, patients with non-tic-related OCD, and healthy controls. The ERN, correct response negativity, and error number were measured during an Eriksen flanker task to assess performance monitoring in 44 youth with a lifetime diagnosis of OCD and 44 matched healthy controls ranging in age from 10 to 19 years. Nine youth with OCD had a lifetime history of tics. ERN amplitude was significantly increased in patients with OCD compared with healthy controls. ERN amplitude was significantly larger in patients with non-tic-related OCD than in patients with tic-related OCD or controls. ERN amplitude had a significant negative correlation with age in healthy controls but not in patients with OCD. Instead, in patients with non-tic-related OCD, ERN amplitude had a significant positive correlation with age at onset of OCD symptoms. ERN amplitude in patients was unrelated to OCD symptom severity, current diagnostic status, or treatment effects. The results provide further evidence of increased error-related brain activity in pediatric OCD. The difference in the ERN between patients with tic-related and those with non-tic-related OCD provides preliminary evidence of a neurobiological difference between these two OCD subtypes. The results indicate the ERN is a trait-like measurement that may serve as a biomarker for non-tic-related OCD. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Motivation to change and posttreatment temptation to drink: a multicenter study among alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiabane E

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Elena Fiabane,1,2 Marcella Ottonello,1,3 Valeria Zavan,4 Caterina Pistarini,1 Ines Giorgi5 1Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, ICS Maugeri Spa SB, Institute of Genoa Nervi, Genoa, 2Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, 3Department of Medicine, PhD Program in Advance Sciences and Technologies in Rehabilitation Medicine and Sport, Università di Tor Vergata, Rome, 4Alcohol Unit, Addiction Department, Alessandria, 5Psychology Unit, ICS Maugeri Spa SB, Scientific Institute of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Background: An inpatient 28-day rehabilitation program for alcohol dependence is focused on detoxification, enhancing motivation to change, and coping strategies for the management of emotional distress and temptation to drink. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1 changes over time in motivation to change, anxiety, and depression in individuals undergoing residential rehabilitation treatment for alcohol addiction, and 2 which pretreatment factors are associated with posttreatment temptation to drink.Methods: We assessed 432 patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision consecutively recruited from seven residential rehabilitation centers in Northern Italy. Patients were assessed by means of self-report questionnaires at the beginning of rehabilitation (pretreatment and before their hospital discharge (posttreatment regarding motivation to change and self-efficacy (motivation assessment of change – alcoholism version, readiness to change and temptation to drink (visual analog scales, and depression and anxiety (cognitive behavioral assessment – outcome evaluation.Results: Results showed an overall improvement in motivation to change and a significant reduction over time in depression and anxiety levels for the total sample, particularly patients with low baseline level of temptation to drink

  18. Endobronchial valves in severe emphysematous patients: CT evaluation of lung fissures completeness, treatment radiological response and quantitative emphysema analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel, E-mail: marcelk46@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marcelk46@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina; Paula, Wagner Diniz de [University of Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Brasilia University Hospital; Gompelmann, Daniela [University of Heidelberg (Germany). Department of Pneumology and Respiratory Medicine of the Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University of Heidelberg (Germany). Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Heussel, Claus Peter; Puderbach, Michael [University of Heidelberg (Germany). Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine of the Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik)

    2013-01-15

    Objective: To evaluate lung fissures completeness, post-treatment radiological response and quantitative CT analysis (QCTA) in a population of severe emphysematous patients submitted to endobronchial valves (EBV) implantation. Materials and Methods: Multi-detectors CT exams of 29 patients were studied, using thin-section low dose protocol without contrast. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed all images in consensus; fissures completeness was estimated in 5% increments and post-EBV radiological response (target lobe atelectasis/volume loss) was evaluated. QCTA was performed in pre and post-treatment scans using a fully automated software. Results: CT response was present in 16/29 patients. In the negative CT response group, all 13 patients presented incomplete fissures, and mean oblique fissures completeness was 72.8%, against 88.3% in the other group. QCTA most significant results showed a reduced post-treatment total lung volume (LV) (mean 542 ml), reduced EBV-submitted LV (700 ml) and reduced emphysema volume (331.4 ml) in the positive response group, which also showed improved functional tests. Conclusion: EBV benefit is most likely in patients who have complete interlobar fissures and develop lobar atelectasis. In patients with no radiological response we observed a higher prevalence of incomplete fissures and a greater degree of incompleteness. The fully automated QCTA detected the post-treatment alterations, especially in the treated lung analysis. (author)

  19. Dopaminergic activity in Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Damiaan; de Vries, Froukje; Cath, Danielle; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke; Veltman, Dick J; van der Doef, Thalia F; Boellaard, Ronald; Westenberg, Herman; van Balkom, Anton; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; van Berckel, Bart N M

    2013-11-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) both are neuropsychiatric disorders associated with abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission. Aims of this study were to quantify striatal D2/3 receptor availability in TS and OCD, and to examine dopamine release and symptom severity changes in both disorders following amphetamine challenge. Changes in [(11)C]raclopride binding potential (BP(ND)) were assessed using positron emission tomography before and after administration of d-amphetamine (0.3 mg kg(-1)) in 12 TS patients without comorbid OCD, 12 OCD patients without comorbid tics, and 12 healthy controls. Main outcome measures were baseline striatal D2/3 receptor BP(ND) and change in BP(ND) following amphetamine as a measure of dopamine release. Voxel-based analysis revealed significantly decreased baseline [(11)C]raclopride BP(ND) in bilateral putamen of both patient groups vs. healthy controls, differences being more pronounced in the TS than in the OCD group. Changes in BP(ND) following amphetamine were not significantly different between groups. Following amphetamine administration, tic severity increased in the TS group, which correlated with BP(ND) changes in right ventral striatum. Symptom severity in the OCD group did not change significantly following amphetamine challenge and was not associated with changes in BP(ND). This study provides evidence for decreased striatal D2/3 receptor availability in TS and OCD, presumably reflecting higher endogenous dopamine levels in both disorders. In addition, it provides the first direct evidence that ventral striatal dopamine release is related to the pathophysiology of tics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhanced error related negativity amplitude in medication-naïve, comorbidity-free obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawani, Hema; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Basavaraju, Shrinivasa; Bose, Anushree; Mahavir Agarwal, Sri; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Janardhan Reddy, Y C

    2018-04-01

    Error monitoring and response inhibition is a key cognitive deficit in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Frontal midline regions such as the cingulate cortex and pre-supplementary motor area are considered critical brain substrates of this deficit. Electrophysiological equivalent of the above dysfunction is a fronto-central event related potential (ERP) which occurs after an error called the error related negativity (ERN). In this study, we sought to compare the ERN parameters between medication-naïve, comorbidity-free subjects with OCD and healthy controls (HC). Age, sex and handedness matched subjects with medication-naïve, comorbidity-free OCD (N = 16) and Healthy Controls (N = 17) performed a modified version of the flanker task while EEG was acquired for ERN. EEG signals were recorded from the electrodes FCz and Cz. Clinical severity of OCD was assessed using the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. The subjects with OCD had significantly greater ERN amplitude at Cz and FCz. There were no significant correlations between ERN measures and illness severity measures. Overactive performance monitoring as evidenced by enhanced ERN amplitude could be considered as a biomarker for OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Oral hygiene compliance in orthodontic patients: a randomized controlled study on the effects of a post-treatment communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzani, Mauro; Ragazzini, Giulia; Delucchi, Alessia; Mutinelli, Sabrina; Barreca, Carlo; Rinchuse, Daniel J; Servetto, Roberto; Piras, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have recently demonstrated that a post-treatment communication to explain the importance of an oral hygiene can improve the orthodontic patients' compliance over a period of 66 days. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of a structured follow-up communication after orthodontic appliance application on oral hygiene compliance after 30-40 days. Eighty-four orthodontic participants enrolled from patients who were beginning fixed orthodontic treatment at the Orthodontic Department, Gaslini Hospital, Genova, between July and October 2014 were randomly assigned to one of three trial arms. Before the bonding, all patients underwent a session of oral hygiene aimed at obtaining an plaque index of "zero." At the following orthodontic appointment, the plaque index was calculated for each patient in order to assess oral hygiene compliance. The first group served as control and did not receive any post-procedure communication, the second group received a structured text message giving reassurance, and the third group received a structured telephone call. Participants were blinded to group assignment and were not made aware that the text message or the telephone call was part of the study. (The research protocol was approved by the Italian Comitato Etico Regionale della Liguria-sezione 3^ c/o IRCCS-Istituto G. Gaslini 845/2014, and it is not registered in the trial's register.) RESULTS: Thirty patients were randomly assigned to the control group, 28 participants to the text message group, and 26 to the telephone group. Participants who received a post-treatment communication reported higher level of oral hygiene compliance than participants in the control group. The plaque index was 0.3 (interquartile range (Iqr), 0.60) and 0.75 (Iqr, 1.30), respectively, with a significant difference (P = 0.0205). A follow-up procedure after orthodontic treatment may be an effective tool to increase oral hygiene compliance also over a short period.

  2. Oral hygiene compliance in orthodontic patients: a randomized controlled study on the effects of a post-treatment communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cozzani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have recently demonstrated that a post-treatment communication to explain the importance of an oral hygiene can improve the orthodontic patients’ compliance over a period of 66 days. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of a structured follow-up communication after orthodontic appliance application on oral hygiene compliance after 30–40 days. Methods Eighty-four orthodontic participants enrolled from patients who were beginning fixed orthodontic treatment at the Orthodontic Department, Gaslini Hospital, Genova, between July and October 2014 were randomly assigned to one of three trial arms. Before the bonding, all patients underwent a session of oral hygiene aimed at obtaining an plaque index of “zero.” At the following orthodontic appointment, the plaque index was calculated for each patient in order to assess oral hygiene compliance. The first group served as control and did not receive any post-procedure communication, the second group received a structured text message giving reassurance, and the third group received a structured telephone call. Participants were blinded to group assignment and were not made aware that the text message or the telephone call was part of the study. (The research protocol was approved by the Italian Comitato Etico Regionale della Liguria-sezione 3^ c/o IRCCS-Istituto G. Gaslini 845/2014, and it is not registered in the trial’s register. Results Thirty patients were randomly assigned to the control group, 28 participants to the text message group, and 26 to the telephone group. Participants who received a post-treatment communication reported higher level of oral hygiene compliance than participants in the control group. The plaque index was 0.3 (interquartile range (Iqr, 0.60 and 0.75 (Iqr, 1.30, respectively, with a significant difference (P = 0.0205. Conclusions A follow-up procedure after orthodontic treatment may be an effective tool to

  3. The relationship between theory of mind and insight in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulacı, Rıza Gökçer; Cankurtaran, Eylem Şahin; Özdel, Kadir; Öztürk, Nefise; Kuru, Erkan; Özdemir, İlker

    2018-02-09

    It is known that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with poor insight display more severe neuropsychological impairments than other patients with OCD. There are limited studies of OCD and theory of mind (ToM). To investigate ToM skills in patients with OCD and the relationship between insight and ToM skills by comparing OCD patients with good and poor insight. Eighty patients with OCD and 80 healthy controls completed the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders, the Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Beck Anxiety and Beck Depression Inventories, and the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale. To assess ToM skills, first- and second-order false-belief tests, a hinting test, a faux pas test, a reading the mind in the eyes test, and a double-bluff test were administered. Patients with OCD had poorer ToM abilities than healthy controls. All ToM scores were significantly lower in the poor insight group than in the good insight group (p insight than in OCD with good insight may contribute to the idea of OCD with poor insight being a subtype with different clinical and neuropsychological characteristics.

  4. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of N-Acetylcysteine Augmentation for Treatment-Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Daniel L C; Diniz, Juliana B; Requena, Guaraci; Joaquim, Marinês A; Pittenger, Christopher; Bloch, Michael H; Miguel, Euripedes C; Shavitt, Roseli G

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) augmentation with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutamate modulator and antioxidant medication, for treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 16-week trial of NAC (3,000 mg daily) in adults (aged 18-65 years) with treatment-resistant OCD, established according to DSM-IV criteria. Forty subjects were recruited at an OCD-specialized outpatient clinic at a tertiary hospital (May 2012-October 2014). The primary outcome measure was the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores. To evaluate the variables group, time, and interaction effects for Y-BOCS scores at all time points, we used nonparametric analysis of variance with repeated measures. Secondary outcomes were the severity scores for anxiety, depression, specific OCD symptom dimensions, and insight. Both groups showed a significant reduction of baseline Y-BOCS scores at week 16: the NAC group had a reduction of 4.3 points (25.6 to 21.3), compared with 3.0 points (24.8 to 21.8) for the placebo group. However, there were no significant differences between groups (P = .92). Adding NAC was superior to placebo in reducing anxiety symptoms (P = .02), but not depression severity or specific OCD symptom dimensions. In general, NAC was well tolerated, despite abdominal pain being more frequently reported in the NAC group (n [%]: NAC = 9 [60.0], placebo = 2 [13.3]; P < .01). Our trial did not demonstrate a significant benefit of NAC in reducing OCD severity in treatment-resistant OCD adults. Secondary analysis suggested that NAC might have some benefit in reducing anxiety symptoms in treatment-resistant OCD patients. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01555970. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  5. Symptom Dimensions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Phenomenology and Treatment Outcomes with Exposure and Ritual Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Monnica T.; Mugno, Beth; Franklin, Martin; Faber, Sonya

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe condition with varied symptom presentations. The cognitive-behavioral treatment with the most empirical support is currently exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP); however, clinical impression and some empirical data suggest that certain OCD symptoms are more responsive to treatment than others. Prior work identifying symptom dimensions within OCD is discussed, including epidemiological findings, factor analytic studies, and biological findings...

  6. Phenotype Development in Adolescents With Tourette Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Camilla; Debes, Nanette Mol; Skov, Liselotte

    2017-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by frequent comorbidities and a wide spectrum of phenotype presentations. This study aimed to describe the development of phenotypes in TS and tic-related impairment in a large longitudinal study of 226 children and adolescents...... followed up after 6 years. The participants were clinically examined to assess tic severity and impairment, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The development in phenotypes changed toward less comorbidity with 40% TS-only (no OCD or ADHD) (TS without...... OCD or ADHD) at baseline and 55% at follow-up.Tic-related impairment was expected to improve with an age-related tic decline, but surprisingly the impairment score did not reflect the tic decline. Sex, vocal and motor tics, and OCD and ADHD severity were highly significantly correlated...

  7. The neuropsychology of the schizo-obsessive subtype of schizophrenia: a new analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, D D; Laws, K R; Padhi, A; Farrow, J M; Mukhopadhaya, K; Krishnaiah, R; Fineberg, N A

    2010-06-01

    Interest in the neuro-cognitive profile of patients with schizophrenia and co-morbid obsessive compulsive disorder (schizo-OCD) is rising in response to reports of high co-morbidity rates. Whereas schizophrenia has been associated with global impairment in a wide range of neuro-cognitive domains, OCD is associated with specific deficits featuring impaired performance on tasks of motor and cognitive inhibition involving frontostriatal neuro-circuitry. We compared cognitive function using the CANTAB battery in patients with schizo-OCD (n=12) and a schizophrenia group without OCD symptoms (n=16). The groups were matched for IQ, gender, age, medication, and duration of illness. The schizo-OCD patients made significantly more errors on a task of attentional set-shifting (ID-ED set-shift task). By contrast, no significant differences emerged on the Stockings of Cambridge task, the Cambridge Gamble Task or the Affective Go/NoGo tasks. No correlation emerged between ID-ED performance and severity of schizophrenia, OCD or depressive symptoms, consistent with neurocognitive impairment holding trait rather than state-marker status. Schizo-obsessives also exhibited a trend toward more motor tics emphasizing a neurological contribution to the disorder.ConclusionOur findings reveal a more severe attentional set-shifting deficit and neurological abnormality that may be fundamental to the neuro-cognitive profile of schizo-OCD. The clinical implications of these impairments merit further exploration in larger studies.

  8. The diagnostic value of endoscopy and Helicobacter pylori tests for peptic ulcer patients in late post-treatment setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kull Ingrid

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for management of peptic ulcer patients after the treatment are largely directed to detection of H. pylori infection using only non-invasive tests. We compared the diagnostic value of non-invasive and endoscopy based H. pylori tests in a late post-treatment setting. Methods Altogether 34 patients with dyspeptic complaints were referred for gastroscopy 5 years after the treatment of peptic ulcer using a one-week triple therapy scheme. The endoscopic and histologic findings were evaluated according to the Sydney classification. Bacteriological, PCR and cytological investigations and 13C-UBT tests were performed. Results Seventeen patients were defined H. pylori positive by 13C-UBT test, PCR and histological examination. On endoscopy, peptic ulcer persisted in 4 H. pylori positive cases. Among the 6 cases with erosions of the gastric mucosa, only two patients were H. pylori positive. Mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were revealed both in the H. pylori positive and H. pylori negative cases. Bacteriological examination revealed three clarithromycin resistant H. pylori strains. Cytology failed to prove validity for diagnosing H. pylori in a post-treatment setting. Conclusions In a late post-treatment setting, patients with dyspepsia should not be monitored only by non-invasive investigation methods; it is also justified to use the classical histological evaluation of H. pylori colonisation, PCR and bacteriology as they have shown good concordance with 13C-UBT. Moreover, endoscopy and histological investigation of a gastric biopsy have proved to be the methods with an additional diagnostic value, providing the physician with information about inflammatory, atrophic and metaplastic lesions of the stomach in dyspeptic H. pylori positive and negative patients. Bacteriological methods are suggested for detecting the putative antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori, aimed at successful eradication of infection in

  9. Controlled comparison of family cognitive behavioral therapy and psychoeducation/relaxation training for child obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, John; Bergman, R Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Peris, Tara; Wood, Jeffrey J; McCracken, James

    2011-11-01

    To examine the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus a structured family intervention (FCBT) versus psychoeducation plus relaxation training (PRT) for reducing symptom severity, functional impairment, and family accommodation in youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A total of 71 youngsters 8 to 17 years of age (mean 12.2 years; range, 8-17 years, 37% male, 78% Caucasian) with primary OCD were randomized (70:30) to 12 sessions over 14 weeks of FCBT or PRT. Blind raters assessed outcomes with responders followed for 6 months to assess treatment durability. FCBT led to significantly higher response rates than PRT in ITT (57.1% vs 27.3%) and completer analyses (68.3% vs. 35.3%). Using HLM, FCBT was associated with significantly greater change in OCD severity and child-reported functional impairment than PRT and marginally greater change in parent-reported accommodation of symptoms. These findings were confirmed in some, but not all, secondary analyses. Clinical remission rates were 42.5% for FCBT versus 17.6% for PRT. Reduction in family accommodation temporally preceded improvement in OCD for both groups and child functional status for FCBT only. Treatment gains were maintained at 6 months. FCBT is effective for reducing OCD severity and impairment. Importantly, treatment also reduced parent-reported involvement in symptoms with reduced accommodation preceding reduced symptom severity and functional impairment. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRY INFORMATION: Behavior Therapy for Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD); http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00000386. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of clinical characteristics of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections and childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A; Victor, Andrea M; Pipal, Allison J; Williams, Kyle A

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify unique clinical characteristics of children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) compared with a control group of children with non-PANDAS obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with respect to ancillary symptoms, types of obsessions and compulsions, symptom severity, and co-morbid DSM-IV diagnoses. Classification of PANDAS was based on review of pediatric and psychiatric records using the criteria developed by Swedo and colleagues. Children aged 6-14 with PANDAS (n = 21) and non-PANDAS OCD (n = 18) were assessed by blind independent evaluators using the PANDAS Questionnaire, Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Yale Global Tic Severity Scale, and Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. PANDAS children were significantly more likely to present with separation anxiety, urinary urgency, hyperactivity, impulsivity, deterioration in handwriting, and decline in school performance during their initial episode of neuropsychiatric illness compared with children with OCD. Total tics and vocal tics were more severe in PANDAS children. Separation anxiety disorder and social phobia were more prevalent in non-PANDAS OCD children. Children with non-PANDAS OCD were significantly more likely to include others in their rituals. There were no significant differences between groups on demographics or severity of OCD. Distinguishing clinical characteristics in PANDAS, which included urinary urgency, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and deterioration in handwriting, are linked to basal ganglia functions. These clinical characteristics will aid in the differentiation of PANDAS children for research and clinical purposes and ultimately advance our understanding and treatment of this disorder.

  11. Effect of Prolonged Exposure Therapy Delivered Over 2 Weeks vs 8 Weeks vs Present-Centered Therapy on PTSD Symptom Severity in Military Personnel: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foa, Edna B; McLean, Carmen P; Zang, Yinyin; Rosenfield, David; Yadin, Elna; Yarvis, Jeffrey S; Mintz, Jim; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Borah, Elisa V; Dondanville, Katherine A; Fina, Brooke A; Hall-Clark, Brittany N; Lichner, Tracey; Litz, Brett T; Roache, John; Wright, Edward C; Peterson, Alan L

    2018-01-23

    Effective and efficient treatment is needed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in active duty military personnel. To examine the effects of massed prolonged exposure therapy (massed therapy), spaced prolonged exposure therapy (spaced therapy), present-centered therapy (PCT), and a minimal-contact control (MCC) on PTSD severity. Randomized clinical trial conducted at Fort Hood, Texas, from January 2011 through July 2016 and enrolling 370 military personnel with PTSD who had returned from Iraq, Afghanistan, or both. Final follow-up was July 11, 2016. Prolonged exposure therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy involving exposure to trauma memories/reminders, administered as massed therapy (n = 110; 10 sessions over 2 weeks) or spaced therapy (n = 109; 10 sessions over 8 weeks); PCT, a non-trauma-focused therapy involving identifying/discussing daily stressors (n = 107; 10 sessions over 8 weeks); or MCC, telephone calls from therapists (n = 40; once weekly for 4 weeks). Outcomes were assessed before and after treatment and at 2-week, 12-week, and 6-month follow-up. Primary outcome was interviewer-assessed PTSD symptom severity, measured by the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview (PSS-I; range, 0-51; higher scores indicate greater PTSD severity; MCID, 3.18), used to assess efficacy of massed therapy at 2 weeks posttreatment vs MCC at week 4; noninferiority of massed therapy vs spaced therapy at 2 weeks and 12 weeks posttreatment (noninferiority margin, 50% [2.3 points on PSS-I, with 1-sided α = .05]); and efficacy of spaced therapy vs PCT at posttreatment. Among 370 randomized participants, data were analyzed for 366 (mean age, 32.7 [SD, 7.3] years; 44 women [12.0%]; mean baseline PSS-I score, 25.49 [6.36]), and 216 (59.0%) completed the study. At 2 weeks posttreatment, mean PSS-I score was 17.62 (mean decrease from baseline, 7.13) for massed therapy and 21.41 (mean decrease, 3.43) for MCC (difference in decrease, 3.70 [95% CI,0.72 to 6.68]; P = .02

  12. Sleep in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Katharine C; Gradisar, Michael; Alfano, Candice A

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are not a core feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but emerging empirical data indicate some form of sleep disruption to be highly common. Available research in both adult and child patients is limited in several important ways, including the use of subjective reports (particularly in children), high rates of comorbid depression, and concurrent use of psychotropic medication. The presence of sleep disruption in OCD patients may compound severity and impairment of the disorder. More research is needed to fully understand the nature and consequences of sleep-wake disruption in children with OCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparing family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders, and nonanxious children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Eli R; Scharfstein, Lindsay A; Jones, Johnna

    2014-12-01

    Family accommodation describes ways in which parents modify their behavior to help a child avoid or alleviate distress caused by emotional disorders. Accommodation is associated with increased symptom severity, lower functioning, and poorer treatment outcomes. Accommodation is prevalent in childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) but no studies have compared accommodation in these groups or compared them to healthy controls to ascertain if accommodation is prevalent in the general population. This study addresses these gaps by comparing patterns of accommodation, factors that maintain accommodation, and its relation to symptom severity in OCD and AD, relative to healthy controls. We directly compared reports of accommodation to childhood OCD (N = 26) and AD (N = 31), and a comparison group of nonanxious (NA) children (N = 30). Mothers completed measures of accommodation (Family Accommodation Scale (FAS)/Family Accommodation Scale-Anxiety (FASA)), anxiety (Screen for Childhood Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Parent Report (SCARED-PR)), and OCD (Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS)). Family accommodation is prevalent among mothers of children with OCD and AD. Few differences were found between the two clinical groups who reported more accommodation (F[2,84] = 23.411, P anxiety in AD (r = .426, P = .017) and OCD (r = .465, P = .017), but not in the NA group. Findings highlight family accommodation as a phenomenon that applies broadly and in a similar manner to children with AD and OCD. Evaluating accommodation provides useful information for clinical care and is an important part of the assessment of children with AD and OCD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Surgical neuroanatomy and programming in deep brain stimulation for obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Takashi; Fayad, Sarah M; Goodman, Wayne K; Foote, Kelly D; Chen, Dennis; Peace, David A; Rhoton, Albert L; Okun, Michael S

    2014-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been established as a safe, effective therapy for movement disorders (Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, etc.), and its application is expanding to the treatment of other intractable neuropsychiatric disorders including depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Several published studies have supported the efficacy of DBS for severely debilitating OCD. However, questions remain regarding the optimal anatomic target and the lack of a bedside programming paradigm for OCD DBS. Management of OCD DBS can be highly variable and is typically guided by each center's individual expertise. In this paper, we review the various approaches to targeting and programming for OCD DBS. We also review the clinical experience for each proposed target and discuss the relevant neuroanatomy. A PubMed review was performed searching for literature on OCD DBS and included all articles published before March 2012. We included all available studies with a clear description of the anatomic targets, programming details, and the outcomes. Six different DBS approaches were identified. High-frequency stimulation with high voltage was applied in most cases, and predictive factors for favorable outcomes were discussed in the literature. DBS remains an experimental treatment for medication refractory OCD. Target selection and programming paradigms are not yet standardized, though an improved understanding of the relationship between the DBS lead and the surrounding neuroanatomic structures will aid in the selection of targets and the approach to programming. We propose to form a registry to track OCD DBS cases for future clinical study design. © 2013 International Neuromodulation Society.

  15. Parental age and the risk of obsessive compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome / chronic tic disorder in a nationwide population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudal, Roshan; Leivonen, Susanna; Rintala, Hanna; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Sourander, Andre

    2017-12-01

    Advancing paternal age has been associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders in children. However, there is limited understanding of this association with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome/chronic tic disorder (TS/CT) with inconsistent findings. We examined the association between parental age and offspring OCD and TS/CT. This nested case-control study used the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR) to identify 1358 individuals with OCD and 1195 with TS/CT, born from 1991 to 2009 and diagnosed by 2010. Each case was matched with four controls from the Finnish Population Register (FPR), without diagnoses of OCD, TS/CT or severe or profound mental retardation. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the association between parental age and OCD, TS/CT. A trend of increasing odds was seen with advancing maternal age. In the final model, offspring of mothers aged 35-39 years had a 1.3-fold increased odd (OR = 1,31, 95% confidence interval (95% CI:1.03-1.66)) of OCD compared with maternal aged 25-29 years. Offspring of fathers younger than 20 years had increased odds of TS/CT in the unadjusted analysis (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.27-4.56). The study limitations included using hospital diagnoses to identify cases, with limited diagnostic validity, and the possible over representation of moderate to severe cases. The lack of association between advancing paternal age and OCD is in contrast with schizophrenia, despite sharing demographic characteristics and possible shared neuropathology. Furthermore, these differences suggest different etiological pathways among TS/CT, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD), despite their frequently comorbid existence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Psilocybin and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, James Allen

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. This condition disables many individuals and is often refractory to treatment. Research suggests that serotonin plays a role in OCD symptom reduction. We present a case of an individual who successfully used psilocybin, a serotonergic agent, to reduce the core symptoms of OCD for several years. Although not endorsing this form of treatment, we feel that the successful use of this agent highlights the role of serotonergic factors in OCD and the need for further, legitimate research into the value of psilocybin in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  17. Recent advances in occupational dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holness, Dorothy Linn

    2013-04-01

    This review examined recent advances in occupational contact dermatitis (OCD). Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to OCD. There is continuing growth in our understanding of the genetic factors, particularly related to filaggrin mutations. In spite of increased understanding of irritant exposures, the prevalence of hand eczema in workers with wet work exposures remains high at approximately 20%. Patch test database surveillance systems have documented reductions in the occurrence of sensitivity to some allergens such as chromium wherein regulatory efforts have reduced workplace exposures. These surveillance data have also documented increases in sensitivity to several allergens in particular trades, serving as an effective system to identify new exposure situations or new allergens. The impact of OCD on quality of life and mental health conditions, employment and financial aspects is increasingly documented. Progress in understanding the underreporting of OCD and the underlying reasons continues. Several groups have developed robust multidisciplinary secondary and tertiary prevention programmes and the evaluations demonstrate promise. Although several recent systematic reviews have documented the evidence for various prevention strategies, there is increasing understanding of the gaps in prevention practices in actual workplaces. Understanding of the underlying genetic and environmental agents contributing to OCD is increasing. In spite of progress with reducing exposure to some allergens, the prevalence of OCD continues to be high, particularly related to wet work. New prevention programmes are being developed and evaluated and hold promise for improved outcomes.

  18. Abnormal white matter structural connectivity in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, J; Zhong, M; Fan, J; Liu, W; Niu, C; Cai, S; Zou, L; Wang, Ya; Wang, Yi; Tan, C; Chan, R C K; Zhu, X

    2017-03-14

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a complex and severe psychiatric disorder whose pathogenesis is not fully understood. Recent studies have shown white matter (WM) alterations in adults with OCD, but the results have been inconsistent. The present study investigated WM structure in OCD patients with the hypothesis that large-scale brain networks may be disrupted in OCD. A total of 24 patients with OCD and 23 healthy controls (HCs) were scanned with diffusion tensor imaging. A tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) approach was used to detect differences across the whole brain in patients with OCD vs HCs; post hoc fiber tractography was applied to characterize developmental differences between the two groups. Relative to HCs, patients with OCD had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the corpus callosum (CC), left anterior corona radiata (ACR), left superior corona radiata (SCR) and left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), and higher radial diffusivity in the genu and body of CC. Among the TBSS de-projected region of interest results, compared with HCs, patients with OCD showed lower of the mean FA values of fiber bundles passing though the SLF, and shorter lengths of ACR, SCR and CC. In conclusion, this study provides novel evidence of widespread microstructural alterations in OCD and suggests that OCD may involve abnormalities affecting a broader network of regions than commonly believed.

  19. Differences in fatigue severity in a sample of adult cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Velda J; Tofthagen, Cindy S; Chen, Xusheng; Pedro, Elsa; Saligan, Leorey N

    2017-04-05

    To describe differences in fatigue severity in a sample of adult Puerto Rican patients during and postcancer treatments. Hispanics, including Puerto Ricans, are an understudied population who are under-represented in clinical trials, especially in symptom research. Although symptom management is a clinical priority in oncology care, treatment-related differences in Puerto Rican cancer patients' report of fatigue severity have not been well described. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from data of self-report of 138 Puerto Rican patients during and postcancer treatments at two ambulatory facilities located in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Fatigue severity was assessed using the Fatigue subscale from the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue quality of life questionnaire Spanish version. Differences in fatigue severity across type of treatment (radiation therapy, chemotherapy, combined radiation chemotherapy and post-treatment) were evaluated using nonparametric (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test) statistical tests. The majority of the participants had prostate (33%) and breast (32%) cancers and were receiving radiation therapy (43%) or chemotherapy (28%). The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that there was a statistically significant difference in fatigue scores between the different four treatment conditions, χ 2 (3) = 39.1, p = .001 with patients on combined radiation chemotherapy or chemotherapy alone experiencing more severe fatigue. Findings from the current study suggest that type of treatment is a key component of the symptom burden of fatigue among the Puerto Rican oncology population. Specially, patients receiving combined therapy or chemotherapy alone were at increased risk for experiencing severe fatigue, compared to radiation therapy and post-treatment patients. With the worldwide increase in migration of Puerto Rican families, nurses need to recognise that type of treatment is a key component of the symptom burden of fatigue among the Puerto

  20. Impulsivity and decision-making in obsessive-compulsive disorder after effective deep brain stimulation or treatment as usual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Giacomo; Figee, Martijn; Ooms, Pieter; Righi, Lorenzo; Nakamae, Takashi; Pallanti, Stefano; Schuurman, Rick; Denys, Damiaan

    2018-06-04

    Impulsivity and impaired decision-making have been proposed as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) endophenotypes, running in OCD and their healthy relatives independently of symptom severity and medication status. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting the ventral limb of the internal capsule (vALIC) and the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) is an effective treatment strategy for treatment-refractory OCD. The effectiveness of vALIC-DBS for OCD has been linked to its effects on a frontostriatal network that is also implicated in reward, impulse control, and decision-making. While vALIC-DBS has been shown to restore reward dysfunction in OCD patients, little is known about the effects of vALIC-DBS on impulsivity and decision-making. The aim of the study was to compare cognitive impulsivity and decision-making between OCD patients undergoing effective vALIC-DBS or treatment as usual (TAU), and healthy controls. We used decision-making performances under ambiguity on the Iowa Gambling Task and reflection impulsivity on the Beads Task to compare 20 OCD patients effectively treated with vALIC-DBS, 40 matched OCD patients undergoing effective TAU (medication and/or cognitive behavioural therapy), and 40 healthy subjects. Effective treatment was defined as at least 35% improvement of OCD symptoms. OCD patients, irrespective of treatment modality (DBS or TAU), showed increased reflection impulsivity and impaired decision-making compared to healthy controls. No differences were observed between OCD patients treated with DBS or TAU. OCD patients effectively treated with vALIC-DBS or TAU display increased reflection impulsivity and impaired decision-making independent of the type of treatment.

  1. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms and obsessive-compulsive disorder in adolescents: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analise de Souza Vivan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS and disorder (OCD among adolescents and to describe OCD characteristics according to gender. Methods: Participants were selected by cluster sampling at seven high-schools in southern Brazil. In the first stage, 2,323 students were screened for OCS; in the second stage, adolescents scoring ≥ 21 on the OCI-R scale were individually interviewed. OCD diagnosis was established using a semi-structured interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children: Present and Lifetime Version - K-SADS-PL. Results: The past-month estimated prevalence of OCS was 18.3%, and the point estimated prevalence of OCD, 3.3%. Girls showed higher scores (OCS: 24.8 vs. 14.4%; OCD: 4.9 vs. 1.4%; p < 0.001. Only 9.3% of OCD adolescents had been diagnosed and 6.7% received treatment. The most frequent/severe DY-BOCS dimensions were miscellaneous (86.7%; mean score 6.3±3.8 and symmetry (85.3%; 5.9±3.8. Female OCD adolescents predominantly showed depression (p = 0.032, and male adolescents, tic disorders (p = 0.006. Conclusions: OCD is underdiagnosed in adolescents, and few are treated. Future studies should investigate the relationship between OCS and the onset of OCD.

  2. Tic-Related Versus Tic-Free Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Clinical Picture and 2-Year Natural Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Froukje E; Cath, Danielle C; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; van Oppen, Patricia; Glas, Gerrit; Veltman, Dick J; van den Heuvel, Odile A; van Balkom, Anton J L M

    2016-10-01

    The tic-related subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has a distinct clinical profile. The course of tic-related OCD has previously been investigated in treatment studies, with inconclusive results. This study aimed to compare clinical profiles between tic-related and tic-free OCD patients and to establish the influence of tics on the 2-year natural course in adult OCD patients. Within the Netherlands OCD Association cohort, 377 patients with a current DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD were divided into a tic-related group (28%) and a tic-free group and compared on clinical variables with t tests or χ² tests. Linear mixed-model analyses were used to compare the 2-year course between the groups, with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) as primary outcome measure. Data were collected from 2005 to 2007 and from 2007 to 2009. Compared to patients with tic-free OCD, those with tic-related OCD reported earlier disease onset (P = .009) and more symmetry/ordering symptoms (P = .002). Overall symptom severity was similar in both groups. Patients with tic-related OCD reported increased traits of attention-deficit hyperactivity (P tic-free OCD group. Clinical improvement at 2-year follow-up (mean = 5.3-point decrease on the Y-BOCS, P tic status (P = .24). This remained unchanged after correcting for baseline differences. Tics do not critically affect the 2-year course of adult OCD, but tic-related OCD shows differences from tic-free OCD, such as early onset and increased autism and ADHD traits, that may indicate a neurodevelopmental subtype. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  3. Determinants of obsessive compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sateesh Rangarao Koujalgi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The family has a significant role both in the genesis and prognosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Early identification, treatment and prevention of relapse in patients with OCD have important therapeutic and psychosocial implications. Hence, to study and determine family factors like high expressed emotion (EE and family dysfunction are essential. These two factors play a significant role in the relapse and course of OCD. Aim: The aim was to study the relationship between family function, EE and OCD. Materials and Methods: The sample included 30 patients who were diagnosed with OCD using International Classification of Diseases-10 Diagnostic Criteria for Research criteria. Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale was used to assess the severity of OCD. EE was assessed in cases using Family Emotional Involvement and Criticism Scale and family function was assessed in cases using the family interaction pattern scale (FIPS. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Packages for Social Science. Patient and caregivers of the patients were assessed on self-developed socio-demographic proforma. Pearson co-relation co-efficient test was used to study the correlation between OCD, high EE and family dysfunction. Results: The result showed that there are significant correlations between high EE, family dysfunction and OCD. The Pearson correlation co-efficient between OCD and EE shows a significant correlation between the high EE of the caregiver and OCD with P < 0.01. The Pearson correlation co-efficient between OCD and Family Interaction Pattern Scale shows a significant correlation between the family dysfunction of the caregiver and OCD. Conclusion: Impaired family function and high EE in caregivers associated with OCD. Thus clinical interventions may improve the functional abilities of the caregivers.

  4. Assembly and benign step-by-step post-treatment of oppositely charged reduced graphene oxides for transparent conductive thin films with multiple applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiayi; He, Junhui

    2012-05-01

    We report a new approach for the fabrication of flexible and transparent conducting thin films via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of oppositely charged reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and the benign step-by-step post-treatment on substrates with a low glass-transition temperature, such as glass and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The RGO dispersions and films were characterized by means of atomic force microscopy, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometery, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, contact angle/interface systems and a four-point probe. It was found that the graphene thin films exhibited a significant increase in electrical conductivity after the step-by-step post-treatments. The graphene thin film on the PET substrate had a good conductivity retainability after multiple cycles (30 cycles) of excessively bending (bending angle: 180°), while tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films on PET showed a significant decrease in electrical conductivity. In addition, the graphene thin film had a smooth surface with tunable wettability.We report a new approach for the fabrication of flexible and transparent conducting thin films via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of oppositely charged reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and the benign step-by-step post-treatment on substrates with a low glass-transition temperature, such as glass and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The RGO dispersions and films were characterized by means of atomic force microscopy, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometery, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, contact angle/interface systems and a four-point probe. It was found that the graphene thin films exhibited a significant increase in electrical conductivity after the step-by-step post-treatments. The graphene thin film on the PET substrate had a good conductivity retainability after multiple cycles (30 cycles) of excessively bending (bending angle: 180°), while tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films on

  5. Predictors in Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy and behavioral stress management for severe health anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Lekander, Mats; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2015-01-01

    Severe health anxiety can be effectively treated with exposure-based Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT), but information about which factors that predict outcome is scarce. Using data from a recently conducted RCT comparing ICBT (n = 79) with Internet-delivered behavioral stress management (IBSM) (n = 79) the presented study investigated predictors of treatment outcome. Analyses were conducted using a two-step linear regression approach and the dependent variable was operationalized both as end state health anxiety at post-treatment and as baseline-to post-treatment improvement. A hypothesis driven approach was used where predictors expected to influence outcome were based on a previous predictor study by our research group. As hypothesized, the results showed that baseline health anxiety and treatment adherence predicted both end state health anxiety and improvement. In addition, anxiety sensitivity, treatment credibility, and working alliance were significant predictors of health anxiety improvement. Demographic variables, i.e. age, gender, marital status, computer skills, educational level, and having children, had no significant predictive value. We conclude that it is possible to predict a substantial proportion of the outcome variance in ICBT and IBSM for severe health anxiety. The findings of the present study can be of high clinical value as they provide information about factors of importance for outcome in the treatment of severe health anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Culture in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder and Its Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Humberto; Salin-Pascual, Rafael; Cabrera, Brenda; Lanzagorta, Nuria

    2017-12-01

    The aspects of cultural identity and its impact on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been un-derstudied. There are different opinions, ranging from the idea that culture does not affect the symptoms of this condition to the idea that cultures with high religiosity may have more severity of OCD. Also, the concept of OCD has considerably var-ied across history and cultures, from being considered an issue related to lack of control of blasphemous ideas, and a part of anxious issues, to the description of complex neurobiological systems in its causation. The aim of this review was to address OCD as a well-characterized disorder with a proposed neurobiological ba-sis which may or may not have variations depending on cultural diversity. The question that was asked in this review is whether or not there are cultural differences in the manifestations of the OCD symptomatology and which factors of cultural diversity have a major influence on such manifestations along with the differences among some cultures regarding OCD is-sues, where the difference among countries has also been highlighted. A review of the literature was conducted that includes the following words: obsessive-compulsive disorder, cul-ture, cultural identity and religion in a period of 10 years. Cultural variations do not seem to differ from symptomatic clusters of OCD, which may be indicating that a se-ries of adaptive behaviors is evolutionarily evolving to be constantly altered, perhaps by well-determined pathophysiological mechanisms. Some aspects that have been related to some dimensions of OCD symptomatology are religion and religiosity, affecting the content of obsessions and the severity of manifestations. Properly evaluating the education background, access to health services, food, and the genetic structure of populations, using investigational instruments sensitive to these cultural elements, will increase our understanding of the importance of culture on OCD and its treatment.

  7. Treatment and posttreatment effects of mandibular cervical headgear followed by fixed appliances in Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Diego; Angel, David; Oberti, Giovanni; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2008-03-01

    In this cephalometric investigation, we compared the treatment and posttreatment effects on patients undergoing an initial phase of mandibular cervical headgear (MCH) therapy followed later by comprehensive edgewise therapy with untreated Class III controls. The treated sample consisted of 21 patients treated consecutively with MCH before the pubertal growth spurt (average age, 10 years 2 months at the beginning of treatment). At the final observation period (average age, 15 years 3 months), all patients were in decelerative growth phases as determined by the cervical vertebral maturation method. Active treatment and posttreatment effects were evaluated in the treated group with nonparametric statistical analysis for paired samples. The treated sample was compared with a nonparametric statistical test for independent samples with 20 untreated Class III subjects who were matched for malocclusion, sex, and stage of cervical vertebral maturation to the treatment group. MCH therapy followed by fixed appliances was shown to be an effective treatment for the correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion at postpubertal observation. The favorable skeletal effects consisted mainly of smaller increases in mandibular length and advancement with respect to the controls, with the final outcome of significant improvements in the sagittal skeletal (+4 mm for the Wits appraisal) and dental (+2.7 mm for overjet, -4.4 mm for molar relationship) parameters. This treatment protocol also induced significant downward rotation of the mandible (2.8 degrees ).

  8. Excluding the typical patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Weinhandl, Eric; Mancebo, Maria C

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, clinical trials have resulted in several successful pharmacotherapies for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet patients in clinical settings often report inadequate response. This study compares clinical characteristics of treatment-seeking OCD patients to the inclusion...

  9. Impact of depressive and anxiety disorder comorbidity on the clinical expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Biju; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Rajkumar, Ravi Philip; Cherian, Anish V; Kandavel, Thennarasu; Math, Suresh Bada; Reddy, Y C Janardhan

    2012-08-01

    The identification of distinct subtypes based on comorbidity offers potential utility in understanding variations in the clinical expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Hence, we examined the hypothesis whether patients with OCD with major depressive disorder (MDD) or anxiety disorder comorbidity would differ from those without in terms of phenomenology. A total of 545 consecutive patients who consulted a specialty OCD clinic during the period 2004 to 2009 at a psychiatric hospital in India formed the sample. They were evaluated with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and the Clinical Global Impression scale. Among 545 patients, 165 (30%) had current MDD, and 114 (21%) had current anxiety disorder comorbidity. Patients with OCD with MDD were mostly women who had a greater severity of OCD symptoms, more of obsessions (especially religious), greater occurrence of miscellaneous compulsions (need to confess or need to touch), higher suicidal risk, and past suicidal attempts. Patients with OCD with anxiety disorder had an earlier onset of illness that was associated with prior life events, less of compulsions, more of aggressive and hoarding obsessions, pathologic doubts, checking, and cognitive compulsions. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, when comorbid with MDD, is more severe and is associated with higher suicidal risk. On the other hand, anxiety disorder comorbidity seems to influence not so much the morbidity but the phenotypic expression of OCD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Post-treatment vascular leakage and inflammatory responses around brain cysts in porcine neurocysticercosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Mahanty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cysticidal treatment of neurocysticercosis, an infection of humans and pig brains with Taenia solium, results in an early inflammatory response directed to cysts causing seizures and focal neurological manifestations. Treatment-induced pericystic inflammation and its association with blood brain barrier (BBB dysfunction, as determined by Evans blue (EB extravasation, was studied in infected untreated and anthelmintic-treated pigs. We compared the magnitude and extent of the pericystic inflammation, presence of EB-stained capsules, the level of damage to the parasite, expression of genes for proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines, chemokines, and tissue remodeling by quantitative PCR assays between treated and untreated infected pigs and between EB-stained (blue and non stained (clear cysts. Inflammatory scores were higher in pericystic tissues from EB-stained cysts compared to clear cysts from untreated pigs and also from anthelmintic-treated pigs 48 hr and 120 hr after treatment. The degree of inflammation correlated with the severity of cyst wall damage and both increased significantly at 120 hours. Expression levels of the proinflammatory genes for IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α were higher in EB-stained cysts compared to clear cysts and unaffected brain tissues, and were generally highest at 120 hr. Additionally, expression of some markers of immunoregulatory activity (IL-10, IL-2Rα were decreased in EB-stained capsules. An increase in other markers for regulatory T cells (CTLA4, FoxP3 was found, as well as significant increases in expression of two metalloproteases, MMP1 and MMP2 at 48 hr and 120 hr post-treatment. We conclude that the increase in severity of the inflammation caused by treatment is accompanied by both a proinflammatory and a complex regulatory response, largely limited to pericystic tissues with compromised vascular integrity. Because treatment induced inflammation occurs in porcine NCC similar to that in human cases, this model

  11. Inductive reasoning and doubt in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kieron; Wilson, Samantha; Taillon, Annie; Pélissier, Marie-Claude; Audet, Jean-Sebastien

    2018-06-01

    Previous studies show that individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) accord more importance than healthy controls (HC) to alternative conclusions, resulting in increased doubt regarding an initial conclusion. The goal of the present study was to replicate and extend this finding. Eighteen participants diagnosed with OCD and 16 HC completed the Reasoning with Inductive Arguments Task (RIAT), which operationalizes doubt as change in confidence towards a conclusion after alternative conclusions are presented. To examine conditions that facilitate doubt, the impact of alternative conclusions that both supported and contradicted the initial conclusion was compared, as well as the effect of neutral and OCD-relevant item content. Both the OCD and HC groups decreased confidence after contradicting conclusions, but only the HC group increased confidence when presented with supporting conclusions. Furthermore, decrease in confidence in the OCD group correlated with OCD symptom severity. The RIAT could be adapted to better take into account of OCD subtypes. Doubt generation may contribute to obsessional doubting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Crosslinking of polybenzimidazolemembranes by divinylsulfone post-treatment for high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Li, Qingfeng; Christensen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) has been suggested as a promising electrolyte for proton exchangemembrane fuel cells operating at temperatures up to 200 ◦C. This paper describes the development of a crosslinking procedure for PBI membranes by post-treatment with divinylsulfone....... The crosslinking chemistry was studied and optimized on a low-molecularweight model system and the results were used to optimize the crosslinking conditions of PBI membranes. The crosslinked membraneswere characterized with respect to chemical and physiochemical properties, showing improved mechanical strength...

  13. Lyme disease and post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome: the neglected disease in our own backyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, L A; Yedlin, V A; Weinstein, E R; Kortte, K B; Aucott, J N

    2014-09-01

    A survey was developed to assess experience and opinions about Lyme disease and post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS) among faculties in public health. No previous surveys of public health faculties have been found in the literature. This is a cross sectional study of public health school faculty members designed to measure knowledge and experience with Lyme disease and PTLDS using an internet survey instrument. Participants were recruited using all the publicly available e-mail addresses of faculty members in all the 50 accredited Schools of Public Health in the United States. A 15% response rate was seen for the survey. 50% of respondents were from Lyme endemic states. Less than 5% of faculty members consider themselves expert in Lyme or PTLDS. Many faculty members had known someone with Lyme disease or PTLDS, but few had been diagnosed themselves. Most believe that PTLDS can be severe and chronic, is not easy to treat, and does not resolve on its own, but were uncertain about its aetiology. Most respondents also felt that the incidence of Lyme disease will increase and that more education is needed. The need for further understanding and communication presents an opportunity for public health research and education in Lyme disease and the sequelae of PTLDS. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo: possíveis subtipos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Hounie

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that OCD is probably a heterogeneous disorder with several putative subtypes. Differences in treatment response, disease course, and clinical features are suggestive of the existence of subtypes with specific underlying pathophysiological substrates. Whether studying OCD from a phenomenological or genetic standpoint phenotypic characterization becomes crucial. This manuscript summarizes data that support the existence of a subgroup of OCD related to tics, a group with an early age onset; a possible subgroup related to rheumatic fever; and a group with poor insight. Validation of these putative subtypes may be possible with genetic family studies and will contribute to the development of more specific treatments.

  15. Motivation and value influences in the relative balance of goal-directed and habitual behaviours in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, V; Baek, K; Enander, J; Worbe, Y; Morris, L S; Harrison, N A; Robbins, T W; Rück, C; Daw, N

    2015-11-03

    Our decisions are based on parallel and competing systems of goal-directed and habitual learning, systems which can be impaired in pathological behaviours. Here we focus on the influence of motivation and compare reward and loss outcomes in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) on model-based goal-directed and model-free habitual behaviours using the two-step task. We further investigate the relationship with acquisition learning using a one-step probabilistic learning task. Forty-eight OCD subjects and 96 healthy volunteers were tested on a reward and 30 OCD subjects and 53 healthy volunteers on the loss version of the two-step task. Thirty-six OCD subjects and 72 healthy volunteers were also tested on a one-step reversal task. OCD subjects compared with healthy volunteers were less goal oriented (model-based) and more habitual (model-free) to reward outcomes with a shift towards greater model-based and lower habitual choices to loss outcomes. OCD subjects also had enhanced acquisition learning to loss outcomes on the one-step task, which correlated with goal-directed learning in the two-step task. OCD subjects had greater stay behaviours or perseveration in the one-step task irrespective of outcome. Compulsion severity was correlated with habitual learning in the reward condition. Obsession severity was correlated with greater switching after loss outcomes. In healthy volunteers, we further show that greater reward magnitudes are associated with a shift towards greater goal-directed learning further emphasizing the role of outcome salience. Our results highlight an important influence of motivation on learning processes in OCD and suggest that distinct clinical strategies based on valence may be warranted.

  16. Brain anatomy and chemistry may predict treatment response in paediatric obsessive--compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D R; MacMillan, S N; Moore, G J

    2001-06-01

    Obsessive--compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe, highly prevalent and often chronically disabling illness with frequent onset in childhood and adolescence. This underscores the importance of studying the illness during childhood near the onset of illness to minimize potential confounds of long-term illness duration and treatment intervention as well as to examine the developmental underpinnings of the illness. In this review, the authors focus on an integrated series of brain-imaging studies in paediatric OCD suggesting a reversible glutamatergically mediated thalamo-cortical--striatal dysfunction in OCD and their relevance for improved diagnosis and treatment of the condition. Developmental neurobiological models for OCD are presented and particular attention is devoted to evaluating neuroimaging studies designed to test these models and how they may help predict treatment response in paediatric OCD.

  17. Aspectos neuropsicológicos do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo

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    Leonardo Fontenelle

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychology is contributing to elucidate the nature of brain dysfunction associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Neuropsychological studies of individuals with subclinical and clinical obsessive-compulsive symptoms are reviewed here. It was observed that OCD patients may display impaired "reality monitoring", memory for actions, non-verbal memory, visuo-spatial abilities, and executive functions. Some specific neuropsychological findings are associated with different clinical characteristics such as gender, duration of disease, severity of symptoms, and response to drug treatment. Comparative studies suggest that the neuropsychological dysfunction associated with OCD is significantly different from that seen in major depressive disorder or schizophrenia. However, many similarities were observed between patients with OCD and patients with social phobia, body dysmorphic disorder, and trichotillomania. Furthermore, studies suggest that certain neurochemical abnormalities may underlie particular neuropsychological dysfunctions found in OCD. Despite many heterogeneous results, the reviewed data seems to support the pathophysiological theory centered in the dysfunction of the fronto-striatal circuits in OCD.

  18. Relationship between social-cognitive and social-perceptual aspects of theory of mind and neurocognitive deficits, insight level and schizotypal traits in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mısır, Emre; Bora, Emre; Akdede, Berna Binnur

    2018-05-01

    The primary aim of the current study was to investigate different aspects of theory of mind (ToM), including social-cognitive (ToM-reasoning) and social-perceptual (ToM-decoding) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We also aimed to investigate the relationship between ToM, neurocognition and a number of clinical variables including overvalued ideas, schizotypal personality traits, level of insight, and disease severity. Thirty-four patients who have been diagnosed with OCD according to DSM-IV and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. All participants were given a neuropsychological battery including tasks measuring ToM-reasoning, ToM-decoding and other neurocognitive functions. Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), Yale Brown Obsession and Compulsion Scale (YBOC-S) and Overvalued Ideas Scale (OVIS) were also administered to the participants. Patients with OCD showed significant deficits in both aspects of ToM. ToM performances of patients showed a significant positive correlation with neurocognitive functions. When controlled for general cognition factor, patient-control difference for ToM-reasoning (F = 3,917; p = 0,05), but not ToM-decoding, remained statistically significant. ToM-reasoning impairment of patients was significantly related to the severity of OCD symptoms and poor insight (p = 0,026 and p = 0,045, respectively). On the other hand, general cognitive factor (β = 0,778; t = 3,146; p = 0,04) was found to be the only significant predictor of ToM-reasoning in OCD patients in the multiple linear regression model. OCD is associated with ToM impairment, which is related to schizotypal traits, disease severity and poor insight, yet neurocognitive deficits also significantly contribute to this finding. However, ToM-reasoning impairment could be considered as a relatively distinct feature of OCD, which is partly separate from general cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Projected 24-hour post-dose ocular itching scores post-treatment with olopatadine 0.7% versus 0.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Matthew L; Ogundele, Abayomi; Covert, David; Sarangapani, Ramesh

    2018-04-21

    Olopatadine is an antihistamine and mast cell stabilizer used for treating allergic conjunctivitis. Olopatadine 0.7% has been recently approved for daily dosing in the US, which supersedes the previously approved 0.2% strength. The objective of this analysis was to characterize patients who have better itching relief at 24 h when taking olopatadine 0.7% treatment instead of olopatadine 0.2% (in terms of proportions of responses) and relate this to the severity of baseline itching as an indirect metric of a patient's sensitivity to antihistamines. A differential odds model was developed using data from two conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) studies to characterize individual-level and population-level response to ocular itching following olopatadine treatment and the data was analyzed retrospectively. This modeling analysis was designed to predict 24 h ocular itching scores and to quantify the differences in 24 h itching relief following treatment with olopatadine 0.2% versus 0.7% in patients with moderate-to-high baseline itching. A one-compartment kinetic-pharmacodynamic E max model was used to determine the effect of olopatadine. Impact of baseline itching severity, vehicle effect and the drug effect on the overall itching scores post-treatment were explicitly incorporated in the model. The model quantified trends observed in the clinical data with regards to both mean scores and the proportions of patients responding to olopatadine treatment. The model predicts a higher proportion of patients in the olopatadine 0.7% versus 0.2% group will experience relief within 24 h. This prediction was confirmed with retrospective clinical data analysis. The number of allergy patients relieved with olopatadine 0.7% increased with higher baseline itching severity scores, when compared to olopatadine 0.2%.

  20. Neuropsychological dysfunction in adults with early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder: the search for a cognitive endophenotype

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    Jie Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Evidence suggests that early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is an etiologically distinct subtype of OCD. The objective of the present work was to search for neurocognitive endophenotypes of early-onset OCD based on assessments of attention, memory, and executive function in patients with the disorder and their unaffected siblings.Methods:We compared the performance of 40 adult patients with early-onset OCD, 40 of their unaffected siblings, and 40 unrelated healthy controls on a neuropsychological battery designed for this study. We searched for associations among test performance, demographic variables (age, sex and years of education and clinical symptoms of early-onset OCD.Results:Patients performed significantly worse than healthy controls on the Tower of Hanoi, and the Stroop and Wisconsin tests, indicating impairments in planning, mental flexibility and inhibitory control. The performance of the unaffected first-degree siblings of patients with early-onset OCD on the Stroop and Wisconsin tests also differed from that of healthy controls. Symptom severity in early-onset OCD was strongly correlated with performance on the Tower of Hanoi.Conclusions:Our findings support the existence of specific executive function deficits in patients with early-onset OCD. Relatives presented an intermediate phenotype between patients and controls, suggesting that executive functions such as mental flexibility and response inhibition may be considered candidate endophenotypes of early-onset OCD.

  1. Effects of intravenous ketamine in a patient with post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome

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    Hanna AF

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ashraf F Hanna, Bishoy Abraham, Andrew Hanna, Adam J Smith Department of Pain Management, Florida Spine Institute, Clearwater, FL, USA Abstract: Post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS is a pain disorder for which there remains no gold standard treatment option. Here, we report a case of PTLDS in a female patient whose pain was refractory to treatment options such as radiofrequency ablation, vitamin infusion therapy, opioid analgesics, and other pharmacotherapies. The patient commenced an experimental intravenous ketamine infusion therapy at the Florida Spine Institute (Clearwater, FL, USA and achieved relief from her chronic pain, an improved quality of life, reduced depression and suicidal ideation, and reduced opioid consumption. Keywords: chronic Lyme, late Lyme, pain, analgesic, suicidality, depression

  2. The Role of Metacognitive Processes and Emotional Schemas in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

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    Sevinc ULUSOY

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: It can be suggested that treatment objectives at psychotherapy approaches for OCD should involve ruminative response style and TAF ‘Moral’ dimension when all the results evaluated together. While emotional schemas don’t predict OCD severity directly, emotional schemas can have indirect effects on severity of disorder when the correlation between other scales considered. [JCBPR 2015; 4(3.000: 173-183

  3. Family functioning in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder: A case - control study

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    Sateesh R Koujalgi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychological disorders can have a direct impact on family functioning. Family dysfunction is an indirect factor leading to the relapse of psychological disorders. Literature on family dysfunction in anxiety disorder is limited. Role of family and its functioning in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD may help in better understanding of the role of social factors in OCD. Aim: The aim was to compare family functions in patients with OCD and compare with controls. Materials and Methods: The sample included 30 cases and 30 age and sex-matched controls. The patients were diagnosed as having OCD using ICD-10 DCR criteria. Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was used to assess the severity of OCD among patients. General Health Questionnaire was used as screening instruments for psychiatric disorder among the control population. Family function was assessed in cases and control using the Family Interaction Patterns Schedule (FIPS. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results: Obsessive compulsive disorder patients in comparison controls had significantly increased total FIPS score (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Families with OCD are more significantly impaired in multiple domains of family dynamics than families without member suffering from OCD. It is, therefore, essential that family-based structure effective assessment be sought in the psychosocial management of OCD.

  4. Cluster analysis of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: clinical and genetic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Christine; Hemmings, Sian M J; Kinnear, Craig J; Niehaus, Dana J H; Nel, Daniel G; Corfield, Valerie A; Moolman-Smook, Johanna C; Seedat, Soraya; Stein, Dan J

    2005-01-01

    Comorbidity of certain obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs; such as Tourette's disorder) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may serve to define important OCD subtypes characterized by differing phenomenology and neurobiological mechanisms. Comorbidity of the putative OCSDs in OCD has, however, not often been systematically investigated. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition , Axis I Disorders-Patient Version as well as a Structured Clinical Interview for Putative OCSDs (SCID-OCSD) were administered to 210 adult patients with OCD (N = 210, 102 men and 108 women; mean age, 35.7 +/- 13.3). A subset of Caucasian subjects (with OCD, n = 171; control subjects, n = 168), including subjects from the genetically homogeneous Afrikaner population (with OCD, n = 77; control subjects, n = 144), was genotyped for polymorphisms in genes involved in monoamine function. Because the items of the SCID-OCSD are binary (present/absent), a cluster analysis (Ward's method) using the items of SCID-OCSD was conducted. The association of identified clusters with demographic variables (age, gender), clinical variables (age of onset, obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and dimensions, level of insight, temperament/character, treatment response), and monoaminergic genotypes was examined. Cluster analysis of the OCSDs in our sample of patients with OCD identified 3 separate clusters at a 1.1 linkage distance level. The 3 clusters were named as follows: (1) "reward deficiency" (including trichotillomania, Tourette's disorder, pathological gambling, and hypersexual disorder), (2) "impulsivity" (including compulsive shopping, kleptomania, eating disorders, self-injury, and intermittent explosive disorder), and (3) "somatic" (including body dysmorphic disorder and hypochondriasis). Several significant associations were found between cluster scores and other variables; for example, cluster I scores were associated

  5. Cortisol and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels Prior to Treatment in Children With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Şeref; Gençoğlan, Salih; Yüksel, Tuğba; Kaplan, İbrahim; Alaca, Rümeysa

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol levels between children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) prior to treatment and healthy controls. In addition, the study aimed to assess any correlations between OCD symptom severity and BDNF, ACTH, and cortisol levels. Twenty-nine children, aged from 7 to 17 years (male/female: 21/8) and diagnosed with OCD according to DSM-IV prior to treatment, were compared with 25 healthy control subjects (male/female: 16/9). The study was conducted between December 2012 and December 2013. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL), Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) were administered to the children. BDNF, ACTH, and cortisol levels were detected using a prepared kit with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. BDNF, ACTH, and cortisol levels in the OCD group were significantly higher when compared with the control group (P = .02, P = .03, and P = .046, respectively). No association was detected between the severity and duration of OCD symptoms and BDNF, ACTH, and cortisol levels. CDI scores in both groups were similar. The mean (SD) duration of OCD symptoms was 17.9 (18.5) months. Our findings suggest that BDNF levels adaptively increase as a result of the damaging effects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity on brain tissue in the early stages of OCD. HPA axis abnormalities and BDNF may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  6. Assessment of the Incidence of Posttreatment Endodontic Flare-ups in Patients undergoing Single-sitting Root Canal Therapies: A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyank, Harsh; Devi, T M Chaitra; Goel, Pallavi; Sahu, Nivedita; Nihalani, Shweta; Shandilya, Ashutosh

    2016-10-01

    Endodontic therapy is one of the commonly used procedures for treating the teeth affected by various pathologies. One of the major problems for endodontists despite the advancements in the root canal procedures is the posttreatment endodontic flare-ups. Much debate exists regarding the completion of endodontic therapy in a single sitting or multiple sittings. Hence, we assessed the incidence of endodontic flare-ups in patients undergoing single-sitting root canal therapies. The present study included 200 patients who underwent single-sitting endodontic therapy. Clinical details and conditions of each and every tooth of every patient were recorded before and after the completion of endodontic therapy. Irrigation during the root canal procedures was done by 2.5% NaOCl solution in most of the cases while others were irrigated with various combinations of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and cycloheximide (CHX) solutions. Follow-up records and readings of the patents were noted and were subjected to statistical analysis. Four groups were formed which divided the patients equally on the basis of their age. Out of 50 patients in the age group of 21 to 30 years, only 4 showed posttreatment endodontic flare-ups, while no endodontic flare-up was recorded in patients with age group of 31 to 50 years. Only two male and four females showed flare-ups postoperatively. A nonsignificant correlation was obtained when flare-up cases were compared on the basis of type of irrigation solution used during canal preparation. Single-sitting endodontic therapy appears to be a successful procedure with good prognosis and minimal posttreatment flare-up results, even in patients with periapical pathologies. Single-sitting root canal procedures can be successfully carried in patients with vital or nonvital pulp tissues and also in patients with periapical lesions.

  7. Effects of O2 plasma post-treatment on ZnO: Ga thin films grown by H2O-thermal ALD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Chuang, Jia-Hao; Huang, Tzu-Hsuan; Ho, Chong-Long; Wu, Meng-Chyi

    2013-03-01

    Transparent conducting oxides have been widely employed in optoelectronic devices using the various deposition methods such as sputtering, thermal evaporator, and e-gun evaporator technologies.1-3 In this work, gallium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Ga) thin films were grown on glass substrates via H2O-thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) at different deposition temperatures. ALD-GZO thin films were constituted as a layer-by-layer structure by stacking zinc oxides and gallium oxides. Diethylzinc (DEZ), triethylgallium (TEG) and H2O were used as zinc, gallium precursors and oxygen source, respectively. Furthermore, we investigated the influences of O2 plasma post-treatment power on the surface morphology, electrical and optical property of ZnO:Ga films. As the result of O2 plasma post-treatment, the characteristics of ZnO:Ga films exhibit a smooth surface, low resistivity, high carrier concentration, and high optical transmittance in the visible spectrum. However, the transmittance decreases with O2 plasma power in the near- and mid-infrared regions.

  8. Effect of post-treatment on photocatalytic oxidation activity of (111 oriented NaNbO3 film

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    Feng Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of post-treatment on photocatalytic oxidation activity of (111 oriented NaNbO3 film prepared by pulse laser deposition. Some impurities such as Na2Nb4O11 and bigger particles appear in the treated samples. The activity of rhodamine B degradation with N2 purge increases with the amount of ⋅OH, the sample treated under H2/Ar(7% being the highest activity, followed by under air and untreated one; the opposite trend is observed when the system was without N2 purge.

  9. Treatment and post-treatment effects of facemask therapy on the sagittal pharyngeal dimensions in Class III subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Mucedero, Manuela; Cozza, Paola

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this cephalometric study was to analyse the treatment and post-treatment craniofacial effects of a facemask (FM) combined with a bite block (BB) with specific regard to the sagittal pharyngeal dimensions in subjects with a Class III malocclusion when compared with an untreated Class III control group. The FM/BB group (22 subjects, 12 females and 10 males) had a mean age pre-treatment (T1) of 8.9 +/- 1.5 years, at the end of active treatment (T2) of 10.5 +/- 1.3 years, and post-treatment (T3) of 12.6 +/- 1.9 years. The treated group was compared with a control group of 14 subjects (6 females and 8 males) with untreated Class III malocclusions that matched the FM/BB group as to age at T1, T2, and T3, observation periods and skeletal maturation. Comparisons of the T2-T1 and T3-T1 changes between the two groups were analysed with the Mann-Whitney test. Significant favourable skeletal changes in the maxilla and mandible were observed in the treated group both after Ts2 and T3. No significant short- or long-term changes in the sagittal oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal airway dimensions were induced by maxillary protraction in subjects with a Class III malocclusion when compared with untreated controls.

  10. Pre- and post-treatment effect of physostigmine on soman-inhibited human erythrocyte and muscle acetylcholinesterase in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herkert, N.M.; Schulz, S.; Wille, T.; Thiermann, H.; Hatz, R.A.; Worek, F.

    2011-01-01

    Standard treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning includes administration of an antimuscarinic (e.g., atropine) and of an oxime-based reactivator. However, successful oxime treatment in soman poisoning is limited due to rapid aging of phosphylated acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Hence, the inability of standard treatment procedures to counteract the effects of soman poisoning resulted in the search for alternative strategies. Recently, results of an in vivo guinea pig study indicated a therapeutic effect of physostigmine given after soman. The present study was performed to investigate a possible pre- and post-treatment effect of physostigmine on soman-inhibited human AChE given at different time intervals before or after perfusion with soman by using a well-established dynamically working in vitro model for real-time analysis of erythrocyte and muscle AChE. The major findings were that prophylactic physostigmine prevented complete inhibition of AChE by soman and resulted in partial spontaneous recovery of the enzyme by decarbamylation. Physostigmine given as post-treatment resulted in a time-dependent reduction of the protection from soman inhibition and recovery of AChE. Hence, these date indicate that physostigmine given after soman does not protect AChE from irreversible inhibition by the OP and that the observed therapeutic effect of physostigmine in nerve agent poisoning in vivo is probably due to other factors.

  11. The Role of Prophylactic Ibuprofen and N-Acetylcysteine on the Level of Cytokines in Periapical Exudates and the Post-Treatment Pain

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    Seyyed Mohsen Aghajanpour Mir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Periapical lesions are inflammatory diseases that result in periapical bone destruction because of host defensive-microbial disturbances. Objective:To evaluate the role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine (NAC on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- alpha, interleukin- 6(IL-6 and IL-17 and post-treatment pain level in chronic periapical lesions. Materials and methods Eighty patients with chronic apical lesions less than 1 cm were randomly assigned to receive NAC tablets (400 mg, ibuprofen tablets (400 mg, NAC (400 mg/ibuprofen (200 mg combination and placebo 90 minutes prior to sampling. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals. TNF- alpha, IL-6 and IL-17 levels were determined by ELISA and posttreatment pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS. Results:There was a significant difference in IL-6 level between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.019. Significant difference in IL-17 level was observed between NAC/ibuprofen combination group and placebo (p = 0.043. Four hours after treatment, a significant difference was observed in VAS pain score between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.017. Eight hours post-treatment, VAS pain score for NAC group was statistically lower than placebo group (p = 0.033. After 12 hours VAS pain score showed a significant decrease in NAC group compared to placebo (p = 0.049. Conclusion:The prophylactic ibuprofen and NAC failed to clearly reflect their effect on cytokines levels in exudates of chronic periapical lesions. On the other hand it seems that NAC can be a substitute for ibuprofen in the management of post endodontic pain

  12. The role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine on the level of cytokines in periapical exudates and the post-treatment pain

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    Ehsani Maryam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periapical lesions are inflammatory diseases that result in periapical bone destruction because of host defensive–microbial disturbances. Objective To evaluate the role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine (NAC on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α, interleukin- 6(IL-6 and IL-17 and post-treatment pain level in chronic periapical lesions. Materials and methods Eighty patients with chronic apical lesions less than 1 cm were randomly assigned to receive NAC tablets (400 mg, ibuprofen tablets (400 mg, NAC (400 mg/ibuprofen (200 mg combination and placebo 90 minutes prior to sampling. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals. TNF- α, IL-6 and IL-17 levels were determined by ELISA and post-treatment pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS. Results There was a significant difference in IL-6 level between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.019. Significant difference in IL-17 level was observed between NAC/ibuprofen combination group and placebo (p = 0.043. Four hours after treatment, a significant difference was observed in VAS pain score between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.017. Eight hours post-treatment, VAS pain score for NAC group was statistically lower than placebo group (p = 0.033. After 12 hours VAS pain score showed a significant decrease in NAC group compared to placebo (p = 0.049. Conclusion The prophylactic ibuprofen and NAC failed to clearly reflect their effect on cytokines levels in exudates of chronic periapical lesions. On the other hand it seems that NAC can be a substitute for ibuprofen in the management of post endodontic pain.

  13. A retrospective study of the clinical characteristics and post-treatment hearing outcome in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss

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    Purushothaman Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and document hearing recovery in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL. 122 patients diagnosed with unilateral ISSNHL, from March 2009 to December 2014, were treated with oral steroids and pentoxifylline. Hearing change was evaluated by comparing pre-treatment and post-treatment pure-tone average (PTA (500, 1K, and 2K Hz, and categorized into complete, partial, and no recovery of hearing. T-test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test and Regression analysis were employed to analyze the statistical significance. Of the 122 patients, seventy-one (58% had complete recovery and 34 (28% had partial recovery. The average pre-treatment PTA was 78.3 ± 16.9 dB whereas post-treatment average was 47.0 ± 20.8 dB, showing statistically significant improvement (t=24.89, P≤0.001. The factors such as presence of tinnitus (P=0.005 and initial milder hearing loss (P=0.005 were found to be significant predictors for hearing recovery. Conventional steroid regimes produced a recovery rate in ISSNHL, which exceeds the spontaneous recovery rate. The current study results highlight the importance of medical treatment in the management of ISSNHL.

  14. Optimization of Bicomponent Electrospun Fibers for Therapeutic Use: Post-Treatments to Improve Chemical and Biological Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Antonio; Guarino, Vincenzo; Cirillo, Valentina; Oliviero, Olimpia; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2017-10-16

    Bicomponent electrospun nanofibers based on the combination of synthetic (i.e., aliphatic polyesters such as polycaprolactone (PCL)) and natural proteins (i.e., gelatin) have been extensively investigated as temporary platforms to instruct cells by the release of molecular/pharmaceutical signals for the regeneration of several tissues. Here, water soluble proteins (i.e., gelatin), strictly embedded to PCL, act as carriers of bioactive molecules, thus improving bioavailability and supporting cell activities during in vitro regeneration. However, these proteins are rapidly digested by enzymes, locally produced by many different cell types, both in vitro and in vivo, with significant drawbacks in the control of molecular release. Hence, we have investigated three post-processing strategies based on the use of different crosslinking agents-(1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride) (EDC), glyceraldehyde (GC), and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE)-to delay the dissolution time of gelatin macromolecules from bicomponent fibers. All of the qualitative (i.e., SEM, TGA) and quantitative (i.e., Trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS) and bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assays) morphological/chemical analyses as well as biocompatibility assays indicate that EDC crosslinking improves the chemical stability of bicomponent fibers at 37 °C and provides a more efficient encapsulation and controlled sustained release of drug, thus resulting in the best post-treatment to design bio-inspired fibrous platforms for the extended in vitro release of drugs.

  15. Optimization of Bicomponent Electrospun Fibers for Therapeutic Use: Post-Treatments to Improve Chemical and Biological Stability

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    Antonio Papa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bicomponent electrospun nanofibers based on the combination of synthetic (i.e., aliphatic polyesters such as polycaprolactone (PCL and natural proteins (i.e., gelatin have been extensively investigated as temporary platforms to instruct cells by the release of molecular/pharmaceutical signals for the regeneration of several tissues. Here, water soluble proteins (i.e., gelatin, strictly embedded to PCL, act as carriers of bioactive molecules, thus improving bioavailability and supporting cell activities during in vitro regeneration. However, these proteins are rapidly digested by enzymes, locally produced by many different cell types, both in vitro and in vivo, with significant drawbacks in the control of molecular release. Hence, we have investigated three post-processing strategies based on the use of different crosslinking agents—(1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC, glyceraldehyde (GC, and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE—to delay the dissolution time of gelatin macromolecules from bicomponent fibers. All of the qualitative (i.e., SEM, TGA and quantitative (i.e., Trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS and bicinchoninic acid (BCA assays morphological/chemical analyses as well as biocompatibility assays indicate that EDC crosslinking improves the chemical stability of bicomponent fibers at 37 °C and provides a more efficient encapsulation and controlled sustained release of drug, thus resulting in the best post-treatment to design bio-inspired fibrous platforms for the extended in vitro release of drugs.

  16. Clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder with hoarding symptoms: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Albina R; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Ferrão, Ygor A; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Torresan, Ricardo C; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Shavitt, Roseli G

    2012-06-01

    Factor analyses indicate that hoarding symptoms constitute a distinctive dimension of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), usually associated with higher severity and limited insight. The aim was to compare demographic and clinical features of OCD patients with and without hoarding symptoms. A cross sectional study was conducted with 1001 DSM-IV OCD patients from the Brazilian Research Consortium of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (CTOC), using several instruments. The presence and severity of hoarding symptoms were determined using the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Statistical univariate analyses comparing factors possibly associated with hoarding symptoms were conducted, followed by logistic regression to adjust the results for possible confounders. Approximately half of the sample (52.7%, n = 528) presented hoarding symptoms, but only four patients presented solely the hoarding dimension. Hoarding was the least severe dimension in the total sample (mean score: 3.89). The most common lifetime hoarding symptom was the obsessive thought of needing to collect and keep things for the future (44.0%, n = 440). After logistic regression, the following variables remained independently associated with hoarding symptoms: being older, living alone, earlier age of symptoms onset, insidious onset of obsessions, higher anxiety scores, poorer insight and higher frequency of the symmetry-ordering symptom dimension. Concerning comorbidities, major depressive, posttraumatic stress and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders, compulsive buying and tic disorders remained associated with the hoarding dimension. OCD hoarding patients are more likely to present certain clinical features, but further studies are needed to determine whether OCD patients with hoarding symptoms constitute an etiologically discrete subgroup. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A case-control association study between Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and the MCP-1 -2518G/A polymorphism in a Chinese sample Estudo de associação de casos-controle entre Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo (TOC e polimorfismo MCP-1 -2518G/A em uma coorte chinesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and a functional polymorphism of MCP-1 in the Chinese Han population. METHOD: We genotyped and performed a case-control association analysis of the MCP-1 -2518G/A polymorphism in 200 OCD patients and 294 healthy control subjects. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in MCP-1 -2518G/A genotypic and allelic frequencies between OCD cases and controls (x² = 1.123, df = 2, P = 0.57 by genotype; x² = 0.802, df = 1, P = 0.37 by allele. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that MCP-1 -2518G/A may not play a major role in the genetic predisposition of the Chinese Han population to OCD. However, further studies using a larger number of subjects are required to obtain a clear conclusion.OBJETIVO: Investigar a relação entre Transtorno Obsessivo-Compusilvo (TOC e um polimorfismo funcional de MCP-1 na população chinesa de etnia Han. MÉTODOS: Determinamos os genótipos e realizamos uma análise de associações de casos-controle de polimorfismo MCP-1 -2518G/A em 200 indivíduos com TOC e 294 indivíduos saudáveis (controle. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa no genótipo MCP-1 -2518G/A e nas frequências alélicas entre casos de TOC e controles (x² = 1,123, df = 2, P = 0,57 por genotipo; x² = 0,802, df = 1, P = 0,37 por alelo. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados indicaram que MCP-1 -2518G/A pode não ter grande participação na predisposição genética da etnia Han no que diz respeito ao TOC. Contudo, novos estudos com um maior número de indivíduos são necessários para uma conclusão mais clara.

  18. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder: Gray Matter Differences Associated with Poor Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyagaito, Aki; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Asano, Kenichi; Oshima, Fumiyo; Nagaoka, Sawako; Takebayashi, Yoshitake; Matsumoto, Koji; Masuda, Yoshitada; Iyo, Masaomi; Shimizu, Eiji; Nakagawa, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and is also applicable to patients with both OCD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, previous studies have reported that CBT for patients with both OCD and ASD might be less effective than for patients with OCD alone. In addition, there is no evidence as to why autistic traits might be risk factors. Therefore, we investigated whether comorbidity between ASD and OCD may significantly affect treatment outcome and discovered predictors of CBT outcomes using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. A total of 39 patients, who were diagnosed with OCD, were enrolled in this study. Of these, except for 2 dropout cases, 15 patients were diagnosed with ASD, and 22 patients were diagnosed with OCD without ASD. Both groups took CBT for 11–20 sessions. First, to examine the effectiveness of CBT for OCD patients with and without ASD, we compared CBT outcomes between the two groups. Second, to investigate how the structural abnormality profile of the brain at pretreatment influenced CBT outcomes, we performed a structural MRI comparison focusing on the gray matter volume of the whole brain in both patients with only OCD, and those with both OCD and ASD. In order to discover neurostructural predictors of CBT outcomes besides autistic traits, we divided our samples again into two groups of those who did and those who did not remit after CBT, and repeated the analysis taking autistic traits into account. The results showed that OCD patients with ASD responded significantly less well to CBT. The OCD patients with ASD had much less gray matter volume in the left occipital lobe than OCD patients without ASD. The non-remission group had a significantly smaller volume of gray matter in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) compared with the remission group, after having partialed out autistic traits. These results indicate that the abnormalities in DLPFC

  19. Definición de los sectores económicos intensivos en conocimiento a partir de la clasificación que hace la OCDE y el análisis del nivel de cualificación de los trabajadores: análisis para Catalunya

    OpenAIRE

    Chica Mejía, Juan Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Definición de los sectores económicos intensivos en conocimiento a partir de la clasificación que hace la OCDE y el análisis del nivel de cualificación de los trabajadores. Análisis para Catalunya

  20. Differentiating among singular and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and social phobia symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Brittany M; May, Anna C; Whiting, Sara E; Davis, Thompson E; Jenkins, Whitney S; Reuther, Erin T

    2014-01-01

    Social phobia is a frequent co-occurring diagnosis with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); however, co-occurring OCD in those with social phobia is less common. Genetic, environmental, and cognitive traits are common risk factors for anxiety disorders broadly. It is plausible that shared variables related to OCD and/or social phobia could provide insight into the co-occurrence of these two disorders. The current study explored differences in fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and perfectionism among four groups: those with (1) elevated social phobia symptoms, (2) elevated OCD symptoms, (3) elevated symptoms of OCD and social phobia, and those who were (4) asymptomatic as a control group. A non-clinical sample of 196 participants completed several online questionnaires about social phobia and OCD symptomology. Results identified three cognitive variables (i.e., FNE, total perfectionism, and concern over mistakes) as differential variables in comorbid symptom presentation of OCD and social phobia. A fourth variable (i.e., doubts about actions) was identified as a potential dual risk factor, and four subsequent variables (i.e., parental criticism, personal standards, parental expectations, and organization) were not implicated in differential symptom presentation. Given the different rates of OCD and social phobia co-occurrence, identification of differentiating variables could aid in better understanding of potential risk factors, which may enhance preventative and therapeutic techniques. Study implications, limitations, and future recommendations are discussed.

  1. Governança corporativa na América Latina: a relevância dos princípios da OCDE na integridade dos conselhos e autonomia dos conselheiros

    OpenAIRE

    Kitagawa,Carlos Henrique; Ribeiro,Maísa de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Os conselhos de administração são caracterizados como um importante elemento da boa governança corporativa. Nesse sentido, este trabalho busca identificar as práticas de governança das empresas latino-americanas aos princípios recomendados pela Organização para Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico, OCDE, para essa região (Brasil, Argentina, México e Chile). Dentre os sete princípios por ela recomendados para a América Latina, este trabalho tem como foco apenas o quinto princípio, que trata ...

  2. SERT Ileu425Val in autism, Asperger syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, Jens R; DeGuzman, Theresa B; McMahon, Francis; Rudnick, Gary; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D; Murphy, Dennis L

    2008-02-01

    SERT I425V, an uncommon missense single nucleotide polymorphism producing a gain-of-function of the serotonin transporter (SERT), was originally found to segregate with a primarily obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but complexly comorbid phenotype in two unrelated families. As two individuals with SERT I425V and OCD also had Asperger syndrome (AS), an autism spectrum disorder, and as other rare SERT variants have recently shown significant associations with autism, we set out to extend our original OCD study by genotyping additional autism/AS and OCD samples. Case-control association study of SERT I425V in 210 AS/autism probands and 215 controls, plus 335 OCD probands and their family members. SERT I425V was not found in any of the individuals with AS/autism, OCD alone or OCD comorbid with AS and other disorders, or in controls. This results in new estimates of SERT I425V having a 1.5% prevalence in 530 individuals with OCD from five unrelated families genotyped by us and by one other group and a 0.23% frequency in four control populations totaling 1300 individuals, yielding a continuing significant OCD-control difference (Fisher's exact test corrected for family coefficient of identity P=0.004, odds ratio=6.54). As several other uncommon, less well quantitated genetic variations occur with an OCD phenotype, including chromosomal anomalies and some other rare gene variants (SGCE, GCH1 and SLITRK1), a tentative conclusion is that OCD resembles other complex disorders in being etiologically heterogeneous and in having both highly penetrant familial subtypes associated with rare alleles or chromosomal anomalies, as well as having a more common, polygenetic form that may involve polymorphisms in such genes as BDNF, COMT, GRIN2beta, TPH2, HTR2A and SLC1A1.

  3. Effect of caffeine posttreatment on X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations in human blood lymphocytes in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, A T [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Genetics and Chemical Mutagenesis; Cohen (J.A.) Inst. voor Radiopathologie en Stralenbescherming, Leiden (Netherlands)); Obe, G [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Genetics and Chemical Mutagenesis; Cohen (J.A.) Inst. voor Radiopathologie en Stralenbescherming, Leiden (Netherlands); Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Genetik); Dulout, F N [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Genetics and Chemical Mutagenesis; Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Celular, La Plata (Argentinia))

    1980-01-01

    The potentiating effect of caffeine on X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations in human blood lymphocytes has been investigated, with special reference to cell cycle stages (G0 and G2). Both quantitative and qualitative differences in the yield of chromosomal aberrations were detected in caffeine-posttreated cells, depending on the cell stage irradiated. The studies on caffeine potentiating effects on X-irradiated G0 lymphocytes from normal adults, newborns, Down syndrome patients, and an ataxia telangiectasia patient pointed to interindividual variations in the response to caffeine potentiation among normal probands and a very profound effect in ataxia cells.

  4. Analysis of covariance with pre-treatment measurements in randomized trials under the cases that covariances and post-treatment variances differ between groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funatogawa, Takashi; Funatogawa, Ikuko; Shyr, Yu

    2011-05-01

    When primary endpoints of randomized trials are continuous variables, the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with pre-treatment measurements as a covariate is often used to compare two treatment groups. In the ANCOVA, equal slopes (coefficients of pre-treatment measurements) and equal residual variances are commonly assumed. However, random allocation guarantees only equal variances of pre-treatment measurements. Unequal covariances and variances of post-treatment measurements indicate unequal slopes and, usually, unequal residual variances. For non-normal data with unequal covariances and variances of post-treatment measurements, it is known that the ANCOVA with equal slopes and equal variances using an ordinary least-squares method provides an asymptotically normal estimator for the treatment effect. However, the asymptotic variance of the estimator differs from the variance estimated from a standard formula, and its property is unclear. Furthermore, the asymptotic properties of the ANCOVA with equal slopes and unequal variances using a generalized least-squares method are unclear. In this paper, we consider non-normal data with unequal covariances and variances of post-treatment measurements, and examine the asymptotic properties of the ANCOVA with equal slopes using the variance estimated from a standard formula. Analytically, we show that the actual type I error rate, thus the coverage, of the ANCOVA with equal variances is asymptotically at a nominal level under equal sample sizes. That of the ANCOVA with unequal variances using a generalized least-squares method is asymptotically at a nominal level, even under unequal sample sizes. In conclusion, the ANCOVA with equal slopes can be asymptotically justified under random allocation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Clinical Profile and Comorbidity of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder among Children and Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Observation in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hafizur Rahman Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD is a common disorder characterised by persistent and unwanted intrusive thoughts, images, and urges and repetitive behaviours or mental acts and can cause pervasive impairments. In Bangladesh, the prevalence of OCD among children is 2% which is higher than in previous reporting. This study was aimed at looking into the type, frequency, and severity of symptoms of OCD and comorbidity among children and adolescents. A consecutive 60 OCD cases from a child mental health service with age range of 5–18 years were recruited and divided into below and above 12 years of age group. The assessment was carried out using standardized Bangla version of Development and Wellbeing Assessment and Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was administered. Of the obsession, contamination was the highest