WorldWideScience

Sample records for post-harvest processing agricontrol

  1. Physically based modelling and optimal operation for product drying during post-harvest processing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Lukasse, L.; Farkas, I.; Rendik, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The development of new procedures for crop production and post-harvest processing requires models. Models based on physical backgrounds are most useful for this purpose because of their extrapolation potential. An optimal procedure is developed for alfalfa drying using a physical model. The model

  2. Food Safety Impacts from Post-Harvest Processing Procedures of Molluscan Shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, George L

    2016-04-18

    Post-harvest Processing (PHP) methods are viable food processing methods employed to reduce human pathogens in molluscan shellfish that would normally be consumed raw, such as raw oysters on the half-shell. Efficacy of human pathogen reduction associated with PHP varies with respect to time, temperature, salinity, pressure, and process exposure. Regulatory requirements and PHP molluscan shellfish quality implications are major considerations for PHP usage. Food safety impacts associated with PHP of molluscan shellfish vary in their efficacy and may have synergistic outcomes when combined. Further research for many PHP methods are necessary and emerging PHP methods that result in minimal quality loss and effective human pathogen reduction should be explored.

  3. Radiation processing as a post-harvest quarantine control for raisins, dried figs and dried apricots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Ozyardimci, B.; Denli, E.; Ic, E.

    2006-01-01

    The commercially packed samples of raisins, dried figs and dried apricots were irradiated using doses in the range of 0.5-1.0 kGy for disinfestation and 0.5-5.0 kGy for sensory analysis with the dose rate ranging from 1.44 to 1.92 kGy/h. Pests on dried fruits were evaluated after 0, 1, 2 and 3 months of storage for irradiated dried figs and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage for raisins and dried apricots. Sensory analysis of dried figs, dried apricots and raisins were carried out after 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that radiation processing at low doses (∼1.0 kGy) is an effective post-harvest treatment and quarantine control for these products with no adverse effects on sensory (marketing) attributes

  4. Radiation processing as a post-harvest quarantine control for raisins, dried figs and dried apricots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetinkaya, N. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: nurcet@taek.gov.tr; Ozyardimci, B. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey); Denli, E. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey); Ic, E. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-03-15

    The commercially packed samples of raisins, dried figs and dried apricots were irradiated using doses in the range of 0.5-1.0 kGy for disinfestation and 0.5-5.0 kGy for sensory analysis with the dose rate ranging from 1.44 to 1.92 kGy/h. Pests on dried fruits were evaluated after 0, 1, 2 and 3 months of storage for irradiated dried figs and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage for raisins and dried apricots. Sensory analysis of dried figs, dried apricots and raisins were carried out after 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that radiation processing at low doses ({approx}1.0 kGy) is an effective post-harvest treatment and quarantine control for these products with no adverse effects on sensory (marketing) attributes.

  5. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Bugaud, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity.

  6. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Etienne

    Full Text Available Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity.

  7. Post harvest management of mango for export with a special reference to radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilip Babu, J.; Shankariah, V.; Chaturvedi, Anurag

    2006-01-01

    Mango cultivator Baneshan is grown in large area in Andhra Pradesh, India. The fruit is carefully harvested, disapped and fungicide treatment is given with beveryl 500 ppm in combination with hot water for 3 minutes. The fruits are then packed, palletized, precooled (11.5 deg C) and stored at 12.5 deg C for further onward transit. The radiation processing at 0.25 to 0.50 k.gy would be able to replace the fungicide treatment and further enhance the shelf life. This is also in line with the requirement of Quarantine treatment of mangoes for export to U.S

  8. High salinity relay as a post-harvest processing method for reducing Vibrio vulnificus levels in oysters (Crassostrea virginica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audemard, Corinne; Kator, Howard I; Reece, Kimberly S

    2018-08-20

    High salinity relay of Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) was evaluated as a post-harvest processing (PHP) method for reducing Vibrio vulnificus. This approach relies on the exposure of oysters to natural high salinity waters and preserves a live product compared to previously approved PHPs. Although results of prior studies evaluating high salinity relay as a means to decrease V. vulnificus levels were promising, validation of this method as a PHP following approved guidelines is required. This study was designed to provide data for validation of this method following Food and Drug Administration (FDA) PHP validation guidelines. During each of 3 relay experiments, oysters cultured from 3 different Chesapeake Bay sites of contrasting salinities (10-21 psu) were relayed without acclimation to high salinity waters (31-33 psu) for up to 28 days. Densities of V. vulnificus and densities of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus (as tdh positive strains) were measured using an MPN-quantitative PCR approach. Overall, 9 lots of oysters were relayed with 6 exhibiting initial V. vulnificus >10,000/g. As recommended by the FDA PHP validation guidelines, these lots reached both the 3.52 log reduction and the levels ranged from 2 to 61% after 28 days of relay. Although the identification of the factors implicated in oyster mortality will require further examination, this study strongly supports the validation of high salinity relay as an effective PHP method to reduce levels of V. vulnificus in oysters to endpoint levels approved for human consumption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture: effects of post-harvest tomato plants and biochar on radish growth, chlorophyll content and protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzetti Monterumici, Chiara; Rosso, Daniele; Montoneri, Enzo; Ginepro, Marco; Baglieri, Andrea; Novotny, Etelvino Henrique; Kwapinski, Witold; Negre, Michèle

    2015-04-21

    The aim of this work was to address the issue of processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture, by comparing materials widely differing for the amount of process energy consumption. Thus, residual post harvest tomato plants (TP), the TP hydrolysates obtained at pH 13 and 60 °C, and two known biochar products obtained by 650 °C pyrolysis were prepared. All products were characterized and used in a cultivation of radish plants. The chemical composition and molecular nature of the materials was investigated by solid state 13C NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The plants were analysed for growth and content of chlorophyll, carotenoids and soluble proteins. The results show that the TP and the alkaline hydrolysates contain lignin, hemicellulose, protein, peptide and/or amino acids moieties, and several mineral elements. The biochar samples contain also similar mineral elements, but the organic fraction is characterized mainly by fused aromatic rings. All materials had a positive effect on radish growth, mainly on the diameter of roots. The best performances in terms of plant growth were given by miscanthus originated biochar and TP. The most significant effect was the enhancement of soluble protein content in the plants treated with the lowest energy consumption non processed TP. The significance of these findings for agriculture and the environment is discussed.

  10. Post-harvest loss reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gogh, van Bart; Boerrigter, Henry; Noordam, Maryvon; Ruben, Ruerd; Timmermans, Toine

    2017-01-01

    This paper was written by experts from Wageningen University & Research (WUR), representing their combined expertise on food chains, post-harvest technology, sustainability, food security, economics, and food safety. The paper was drafted at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs

  11. Influence of pre- and post-harvest factors and processing on the levels of furocoumarins in grapefruits (Citrus paradisi Macfed.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girennavar, B; Jayaprakasha, G K; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2008-11-15

    The changes in the levels of three furocoumarins such as dihydroxybergamottin (DHB), paradisin A and bergamottin in Rio Red and Marsh White cultivars of grapefruits were monitored from November to May. The levels of DHB and bergamottin in both varieties of grapefruits decreased as the season progressed except for the bergamottin in Marsh White grapefruit. Influence of growing location, processing and storage on the levels of these compounds were also evaluated. Among the varieties the highest levels of DHB (2.266μg/ml) and bergamottin (2.411μg/ml) were found in Flame grapefruit grown in Florida. The highest level of paradisin A was found in Rio Red grapefruit grown in California and the lowest levels were observed in Rio Red grapefruit grown organically in Texas. Hand squeezed juice contained 1.98, 1.06 and 3.03-fold more DHB, paradisin A and bergamottin, respectively as compared to processed juice. The levels of furocoumarins showed a decreasing trend in all the juices with progress of storage. Levels of furocoumarins were more in cartons container than the cans and cardboard container juices. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Post-harvest Salmonella spp. prevalence in turkey carcasses in processing plant in the northeast part of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrodowska, B; Liedtke, K; Radkowski, M

    2014-01-01

    Turkeys carcasses at selected point after slaughter on dressing line in poultry were sampled and analyzed for Salmonella. These slaughter turkeys came from the northeast part of Poland. The examinations were carried out in each month of 2009. Three hundred turkeys were selected at random from a commercial slaughter line, immediately after completing the cooling process. The percentage of these 300 turkeys from which Salmonella spp. were isolated was relatively high (8.3%; Salmonella positive results were observed in 25 cases). The lowest Salmonella spp. rate (1.3 %) for slaughter birds was found in the fourth quarter, and the highest contamination rate at 18.6% was found, in the third quarter. The serological types of Salmonella spp. isolated from the whole turkey carcasses were S. Saintpaul, S. Senftenberg, S. Anatum, S. Heidelberg, S. Hadar, S. Typhimurium and S. Infantis.

  13. Ghana - Agriculture - Post-Harvest

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Development Authority (MiDA) financed the construction of 10 Agribusiness Centers (ABCs) to provide services for the initial processing, storage, and...

  14. Post-harvest Proteomics and Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.; Lurie, S.; Hertog, W.; Nicolai, B.; Mes, J.J.; Woltering, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    To guarantee sufficient food supply for a growing world population, efforts towards improving crop yield and plant resistance should be complemented with efforts to reduce postharvest losses. Post-harvest losses are substantial and occur at different stages of the food chain in developed and

  15. Irradiation as an alternative post harvest treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satin, M. [Agricultural Industries and Post-harvest Management Service, FAO, Rome (Italy); Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    This current world population has significantly added to the pressures placed upon our finite resources and our resulting ability to feed ourselves. In order to cope with current and future demands, the two established lines of action, that is, reduced population growth and expansion of agricultural production, must be supplemented with the parallel activity of reducing food losses during and after harvest. For developing countries in particular, enormous post-harvest losses result from spillage, contamination, pests and physiological deterioration during storage. Studies in these countries indicate that post-harvest losses are enormous and amount to tens of millions of tons per year valued at billions of dollars. Programs to reduce post-harvest losses, if applied properly, can result in realistic yield increases between 10 and 30%, which can be directly converted into increased consumption for humans. Post-harvest losses vary greatly and are a function of the crop variety, pest combinations in the environment, climate, the system of harvesting, storage, handling, marketing, and even the social and cultural environment. Pests are among the most criticals of these factors. Because of the disastrous potential consequences of such pests, quarantine regulations prohibit the entrance of plants or products which might hide the unwanted pest from countries where it is known to exist. Quarantine treatments are can be chemical, physical or ionizing radiation treatment. Numerous investigations on the use of ionizing radiation for the disinfestation of fresh plant materials indicate that rather low dosages will control fruit-fly problems, thus making it well suited for quarantine treatment. The effectiveness of the irradiation as a broad spectrum quarantine treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables was recognized by the several plant protection organizations around the world. Currently, some 40 countries have approved one or more irradiated food items or groups of food

  16. Irradiation as an alternative post harvest treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satin, M [Agricultural Industries and Post-harvest Management Service, FAO, Rome (Italy); Loaharanu, P [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    This current world population has significantly added to the pressures placed upon our finite resources and our resulting ability to feed ourselves. In order to cope with current and future demands, the two established lines of action, that is, reduced population growth and expansion of agricultural production, must be supplemented with the parallel activity of reducing food losses during and after harvest. For developing countries in particular, enormous post-harvest losses result from spillage, contamination, pests and physiological deterioration during storage. Studies in these countries indicate that post-harvest losses are enormous and amount to tens of millions of tons per year valued at billions of dollars. Programs to reduce post-harvest losses, if applied properly, can result in realistic yield increases between 10 and 30%, which can be directly converted into increased consumption for humans. Post-harvest losses vary greatly and are a function of the crop variety, pest combinations in the environment, climate, the system of harvesting, storage, handling, marketing, and even the social and cultural environment. Pests are among the most criticals of these factors. Because of the disastrous potential consequences of such pests, quarantine regulations prohibit the entrance of plants or products which might hide the unwanted pest from countries where it is known to exist. Quarantine treatments are can be chemical, physical or ionizing radiation treatment. Numerous investigations on the use of ionizing radiation for the disinfestation of fresh plant materials indicate that rather low dosages will control fruit-fly problems, thus making it well suited for quarantine treatment. The effectiveness of the irradiation as a broad spectrum quarantine treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables was recognized by the several plant protection organizations around the world. Currently, some 40 countries have approved one or more irradiated food items or groups of food

  17. Irradiation as an alternative post harvest treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satin, M.; Loaharanu, P.

    1997-01-01

    This current world population has significantly added to the pressures placed upon our finite resources and our resulting ability to feed ourselves. In order to cope with current and future demands, the two established lines of action, that is, reduced population growth and expansion of agricultural production, must be supplemented with the parallel activity of reducing food losses during and after harvest. For developing countries in particular, enormous post-harvest losses result from spillage, contamination, pests and physiological deterioration during storage. Studies in these countries indicate that post-harvest losses are enormous and amount to tens of millions of tons per year valued at billions of dollars. Programs to reduce post-harvest losses, if applied properly, can result in realistic yield increases between 10 and 30%, which can be directly converted into increased consumption for humans. Post-harvest losses vary greatly and are a function of the crop variety, pest combinations in the environment, climate, the system of harvesting, storage, handling, marketing, and even the social and cultural environment. Pests are among the most criticals of these factors. Because of the disastrous potential consequences of such pests, quarantine regulations prohibit the entrance of plants or products which might hide the unwanted pest from countries where it is known to exist. Quarantine treatments are can be chemical, physical or ionizing radiation treatment. Numerous investigations on the use of ionizing radiation for the disinfestation of fresh plant materials indicate that rather low dosages will control fruit-fly problems, thus making it well suited for quarantine treatment. The effectiveness of the irradiation as a broad spectrum quarantine treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables was recognized by the several plant protection organizations around the world. Currently, some 40 countries have approved one or more irradiated food items or groups of food

  18. Combining Post-Harvest Fish Value Chain and Social Change ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , they are not achieving their full potential in Africa. This project will examine interventions to reduce poverty and to improve food and nutrition security using post-harvest innovations in the fish value chain. Post-harvest handling in Zambia and ...

  19. Antagonistic properties of Trichoderma viride on post harvest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effective in vitro screening tests of Trichoderma viride for antagonism against post harvest pathogens of cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz) rot together with its competitive and mycoparasitic abilities informs its selection as the most promising candidate for the biocontrol of post harvest cassava root rot pathogens.

  20. Mechanical grading in PGI Tropea red onion post harvest operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bernardi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest expressed by consumers toward food products quality as well as toward their linkage to the territory, has led producers to fit to the continuous rising demand for “typical products”, and to look for new and more efficient production and marketing strategies. An emblematic case is represented by Tropea red onion that, as a typical product, plays an important role in economical and rural development of the territory to which it is linked. The organoleptic features offered by “Tropea Red Onion”, PGI certified (Calabria, have to be associated as well to the quality of services that accompanies its processing. Technology application in post-harvest operations, has certainly contributed to make faster and less tiring all processing tasks. The main problem related to the mechanization of Tropea red onion post-harvest operations lies in the removal of the various layers of the external tunic, making it impossible for optical or electronic grader to achieve this task in a satisfactory way since the sensors are not able yet to separate the “bulb” from its involucre. In this context, the current study aims to assess the productivity of three different machines used for round Tropea red onion grading, and determine their work efficiency. The carried out analysis highlighted the ability of the studied machines to ensure a high work capacity, while maintaining a high level of precision during calibration process. Such precision allows to decrease laborer employment and increase processing chain speed, rising as well the annual use of the machines, allowing consequently processing cost savings. For a more profitable employment of such graders, it is, however, necessary from one hand, to properly form the technicians responsible of processing plants management, and from the other hand, to be able to take advantage of a technical assistance network, able to serve users in a short time.

  1. Post-harvest technologies for various crops of pakistan: status quo, employment generation and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.

    2005-01-01

    The climatic conditions of Pakistan vary from tropical to temperate, allow 40 different kinds of vegetables, 21 type of fruit, and 5 major crops (wheat, cotton, rice, sugarcane, and maize) to grow. During the peak harvest-season, a great proportion of fresh agricultural/horticultural produce is lost, due to unavailability of suitable post-harvest technologies. An effort was made to present the status quo, constraints, Government policies and possible post-harvest technologies that can be developed/adopted in the country to generate employment in the rural areas. Secondary processing-industry (flour mills, sugar mills, oil mills etc.) is fairly developed in the country. However. primary processing of agricultural produce is poorly developed in the country. The higher cost of the processed products, consumers habits of eating fresh commodities, seasonability of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low quality of the processed products are the key-constraints for the slow growth of post-harvest processing industry. By removing these constraints, and by developing/adopting various technologies, identified in this paper, we may help to establish post-harvest processing industry on sound footings. Consequently, the employment-opportunities will increase in the rural areas of the country. (author)

  2. Recent Advances in Physical Post-Harvest Treatments for Shelf-Life Extension of Cereal Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marcus; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K.

    2018-01-01

    As a result of the rapidly growing global population and limited agricultural area, sufficient supply of cereals for food and animal feed has become increasingly challenging. Consequently, it is essential to reduce pre- and post-harvest crop losses. Extensive research, featuring several physical treatments, has been conducted to improve cereal post-harvest preservation, leading to increased food safety and sustainability. Various pests can lead to post-harvest losses and grain quality deterioration. Microbial spoilage due to filamentous fungi and bacteria is one of the main reasons for post-harvest crop losses and mycotoxins can induce additional consumer health hazards. In particular, physical treatments have gained popularity making chemical additives unnecessary. Therefore, this review focuses on recent advances in physical treatments with potential applications for microbial post-harvest decontamination of cereals. The treatments discussed in this article were evaluated for their ability to inhibit spoilage microorganisms and degrade mycotoxins without compromising the grain quality. All treatments evaluated in this review have the potential to inhibit grain spoilage microorganisms. However, each method has some drawbacks, making industrial application difficult. Even under optimal processing conditions, it is unlikely that cereals can be decontaminated of all naturally occurring spoilage organisms with a single treatment. Therefore, future research should aim for the development of a combination of treatments to harness their synergistic properties and avoid grain quality deterioration. For the degradation of mycotoxins the same conclusion can be drawn. In addition, future research must investigate the fate of degraded toxins, to assess the toxicity of their respective degradation products. PMID:29565832

  3. Fungi associated with post-harvest deterioration of dried Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungi associated with post-harvest deterioration of dried Clarias gariepinus vended in some ... Journal of Aquatic Sciences ... Results revealed that fish samples from okpokpo market contained highest number (10) of fungal isolates while samples from Afaha ... Key Words: Mycoflora, isolation, fungi, Fusarium, C. gariepinus ...

  4. POST-HARVEST FUNGAL DISEASES OF PAWPAW ( CARICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-harvest fungal diseases of pawpaw (Carica papaya L.) fruits sold in Mile 3 Market, Port Harcourt were investigated bi-weekly for sixteen weeks using the Standard Blotter Method. The following fungi were isolated from the tissues of diseased fruits: Fusarium solani, Phoma carica-papaya Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ...

  5. and post harvest treatments on changes in sugar content of tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... sms against pathogens, and biotical and abiotical stress. *Corresponding author. ... extend the useful post harvest life of fruit and vegetables only to the extent that ... reduce enzymatic activity and post harvest decay problems.

  6. Implication of Abscisic Acid on Ripening and Quality in Sweet Cherries: Differential Effects during Pre- and Post-harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijero, Verónica; Teribia, Natalia; Muñoz, Paula; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during post-harvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant) collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4°C and 23°C during 10 days of post-harvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during post-harvest at 23°C. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during pre-harvest, but not during post-harvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during pre-harvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed. PMID:27200070

  7. Post-harvest quality model of pineapple guava fruit according to storage and weather conditions of cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Parra-Coronado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The post-harvest quality of pineapple guava fruit is determined by the storage and prevailing weather conditions during growth and development. This study proposes a model for post-harvest fruit quality according to the storage and weather conditions in the pineapple guava growing region. Physiologically ripe fruit were collected during two harvests from two locations within the Department of Cundinamarca (Colombia: Tenjo and San Francisco de Sales. The fruits were stored at 18 ± 1 °C (76 ± 5% relative humidity (RH, over 11 days and at 5 ± 1 °C (87 ± 5% RH, over 31 days, and the quality attributes were evaluated every two days. Models of the most significant physio-chemical quality characteristics of the post-harvest fruit were developed by using the Excel® Solver tool for all data obtained in the two crop periods. The results showed that storage and prevailing weather conditions, which differed according to the altitude of the growing site, had considerable impacts on the physio-chemical characteristics of the fruit throughout the post-harvest ripening process.

  8. Teores do óleo essencial de cidrão [Aloysia triphylla (L'Hérit Britton (Verbenaceae] em diferentes horários de colheita e processamentos pós-colheita Lemon verbena's [Aloysia triphylla (L'Hérit Britton (Verbenaceae] essential oil content in different harvest periods and post-harvesting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Silva Brant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o teor do óleo essencial de cidrão [Aloysia triphylla (L´Hérit Britton] em diferentes horários de colheita e processamentos pós-colheita. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado. As colheitas foram realizadas em três horários distintos (8 h, 12 h e 16 h, com três repetições. Os processamentos pós-colheita foram cinco: T1- folhas frescas fragmentadas em 1cm; T2- folhas frescas processadas em liquidificador; T3- folhas frescas inteiras; T4- folhas secas inteiras; T5- folhas secas pulverizadas em moinho, com três repetições. O óleo essencial de cada tratamento foi extraído pela técnica de hidrodestilação, utilizando o aparelho modificado de Clevenger, por uma hora e trinta minutos. Os horários de colheita quando se detectou maior teor de óleo foram 8 h e 16 h. Os maiores teores de óleo essencial foram encontrados em folhas frescas fragmentadas em 1cm, folhas frescas processadas em liquidificador, folhas frescas inteiras e folhas secas inteiras.This study was carried out in order to evaluate the essential oil content of lemon verbena at different harvest times and post-harvest processings. The experimental design used was completely randomized. The harvested material was collected at three different hours (8:00, 12:00 and 16:00 pm, and it was taken three times. In post-harvest processings, three replications and five treatments were us do: 1 cm fresh leaf fragments, blended fresh leaves, whole fresh leaves, whole dry leaves and dry leaves ground in mill. The essential oil was determined in Clevenger's modified apparatus for 1 hour and 30 minutes. The periods of the day that detected high essential oil content were at 8:00 am and 16:00 pm. The high essential oil level was in 1 cm fresh leaf fragments, blender processed fresh leaves, whole fresh leaves and whole dry leaves.

  9. Hurdle technology to preserve the 'Golden' papaya post harvest quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, Andrea Cristina Fialho

    2007-01-01

    With the purpose of evaluating a combination of post harvest techniques on papaya Golden storage, the following treatments were investigated: carton boxes packaging (CP); CP + plastic bag of PEBD - low density polyethylene film, with 0.05mm of thickness (PE); CP + PEBD with 0.025mm of thickness impregnated with mineral ethylene scavenger (PEAbs); gamma-irradiation (0.4 kGy and 0.7 kGy); and refrigerated storage at 10 deg C e 90% of relative humidity for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days plus five days under environmental conditions to allow ripening and to simulate the product marketing. To evaluate the effects on fruit quality the following measurements were taken: - first experiment, disease incidence, skin color and loss of turgidity (as visual variables); skin and flesh color, weight loss, flesh firmness, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, pH, lycopene and beta-carotene composition; - second experiment, sensorial analysis on samples submitted to the treatments with better results from the first experiment. Post harvest diseases were the main factor responsible for discarding fruits. Percentage of weight loss was higher on papayas stored without plastic packaging. Time affected the flesh firmness (F = 95%). However, there wasn't influence of the treatments on that parameter. A significant effect on skin color was observed with interaction between irradiation (0.4 and 0.7 kGy) and storage period. Once reached the edible stage, irradiated papayas presented more uniformity on skin color. For beta-carotene and Lycopene, the mean values were 1.27 to 1.79 and 19.16 to 23.90 mug/ml of flesh, respectively. But those substances weren't affected by the combined methods or the time. The same behavior were observed for total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and pH (mean values of 11.53 to 12.20 deg Brix, 0.117 to 0.136 g of citric acid/100g of flesh and 4.91 to 5.04, respectively). On sensory evaluation, the judges didn't get to detect significant

  10. Value-adding post harvest processing of cooking bananas (Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-12-29

    Dec 29, 2010 ... It is estimated that more than 30% of the banana production are lost after harvest. The losses .... nutritional qualities are important factors in the production of banana flour and ..... Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria, VII, p. 166.

  11. Tryptanthrin content in Isatis tinctoria leaves--a comparative study of selected strains and post-harvest treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthür, Christine; Hamburger, Matthias

    2004-07-01

    Tryptanthrin is a pharmacologically active compound in the anti-inflammatory herb Isatis tinctoria, with potent inhibitory activity on prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis and on inducible NO synthase. The tryptanthrin content of five defined woad strains was analyzed in dependence of the time of harvest and post-harvest treatment. Tryptanthrin was determined by a validated ESI-LC-MS isotope dilution assay with d(8)-tryptanthrin as internal standard. The tryptanthrin concentration in freeze-dried leaf samples was low. Drying at ambient temperature led to a significant increase of tryptanthrin concentration, but the highest concentrations were found when leaves were dried at 40 degrees C. Tryptanthrin content in fermented woad leaves was below the limit of quantification. Tryptanthrin appears thus to be a product of post-harvest processes, but details of its formation remain to be elucidated.

  12. A METHOD TO SET-UP CALIBRATION CURVE FOR INSTRUMENTED SPHERE IS100 TO CONTROL MECHANICAL DAMAGE DURING POST-HARVESTING AND HANDLING OF ORANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Carlo Di Renzo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Oranges quality is strictly dependent on their variety, pre-harvest and post-harvest practices. Especially post harvest management is responsible for fruits damages, causing quality deterioration and commercial losses, as underlined by many authors, which studied the influence of individual post harvest operations on the fruit quality. In this article Authors, using an instrumented sphere (IS 100 similar for shape and size to a true orange, showed a method for the control of orange damages along the processing line. Results allow a fundamental knowledge about the critical damage curve, which defines the incidence of the damages during the oranges processing and packaging. Data show that the fruit discharge (bins or boxes discharge and the packaging step are the most critical operations in order to reduce or eliminate the fruits collisions and the consequent damages

  13. Post harvest changes gamma-irradiated banana Prata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilas Boas, E.V. de; Chitarra, A.B.; Chitarra, M.I.F.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the gamma-irradiation was evaluated at 0.25 and 0.50 kGy, on the development of peel coloration, CO 2 and ethylene evolution, conversion of starch to sugars, pulp-to-peel ratio, pectic solubilization and activities of enzymes of the cell wall, pectin methylesterase (PME), and polygalacturonase (PG), during maturation of 'Prata' bananas. The gamma-irradiation did not affect the normal colour development of the fruits. An increase in the ethylene peak and a decrease in the CO 2 peak was observed. The gamma-irradiation did not affect the degradation of starch, while a delay in soluble sugar accumulation was noted on the 6 and 7 colour grades. The fruits subjected to 0.25 kGy had the highest increase in the pulp-to-peel relation, beginning with colour grade 5, due to a possible stress effect of that dose. An increase of pectin solubilization was observed. Higher PME activities were exhibited by irradiated fruits, although the gamma-irradiation suppressed the PG activity throughout the maturation period. The gamma-irradiation did not extend the post-harvest life of 'Prata' bananas. (author) [pt

  14. Food irradiation - a viable technology for reducing post harvest losses of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, O.

    1985-01-01

    Research and development in the past 30 years have clearly demonstrated that food irradiation is a safe, effective and environmentally clean process of food preservation. Twenty-seven countries have approved over 40 irradiated foods or groups of related food items for human consumption, either on an unconditional or a restricted basis. The technology is beginning to play an important role in reducing post-harvest losses of food in facilitating wider distribution of food in the trade. Its wide application in solving microbial spoilage loss of food, insect disinfestation, improving hygenic qualities, slowing down physiological processes of foods is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on applications of direct relevance to countries in Asia and the Pacific region. (author)

  15. Impact of different packaging technologies on post harvest losses of stone fruits in swat pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, M.; Luqman, M.; Jehan, N.

    2015-01-01

    Soft texture of stone fruits makes them prone to post harvest losses. Effect of different packaging materials on the texture of fruits also varies for their post-harvest losses. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of wooden and cardboard box technologies on post-harvest losses of plum through its marketing channel. Primary data was collected through pre tested questionnaires by proportionate random sampling procedure. Quantitative losses were estimated through percentage method while partial losses were estimated at the wholesale and retail level by price differential method. Multiple regression analysis was employed to find relation between post-harvest losses and different factors at three different stages. Findings of the study revealed the channel of cardboard box technology accounted for post-harvest losses of 10.49% while at farm level, losses were 2.90%, at wholesale level 1.45% and retail level the losses were 6.14%. On the other hand post-harvest losses were 14.24% in wooden box channel; in which 6.10% occurred at farm level, 1.43% at the wholesale level and 6.71% at the retail level. Cardboard box technology has reduced post-harvest losses of plum by 27%. Post-harvest losses were moderate and positively correlated at farm level, weakly and positive related at whole sale level and weak and negatively correlated at retail level. Pre-harvest management, careful handling and harvesting in proper maturity can help in reducing post-harvest losses. (author)

  16. Effect of safe environmental pre and post harvest treatments and irradiation on handling of some fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawito, M.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out during two successive seasons of 2005 and 2006 seasons on M ontakhab El-Kanater g uavas and H achiya p ersimmons.two different experiments were studied, the first one for pre harvest and second post harvest. Regarding pre harvest experiment,hand or chemical flower thinning by urea or ethrel and date of fruit picking (maturity) were evaluated on both guavas and persimmons.All flower thinning treatments increased fruit set,total yield,average fruit weight and decreased fruit abscission.However,a great effect on fruit quality and chemical compositions were also found with flower thinning treatments. Chemical flower thinning was more effective than hand thinning in improving yield and quality in M ontakhab El-Kanater g uavas and H achiya p ersimmons. However,early maturation(120 and 150 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced poor fruit quality.Whereas, medium maturity(130 and 180 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced fruit with high quality.However,late picking(140 and 210 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced fruits with less marketability. On the other side, post harvest treatments including irradiation of fruits with or without pre-cooling process at 0.2,0.4,and 0.8 K.Gy for guavas and 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 K.Gy for persimmons. Also,hot water at 45 degree C, fungicide at 0.5 and 1.0 g/L.and ethanol vapor at 25 and 50% were evaluated on both fruits. The obtained data were evaluated on discarded fruits %, weight loss %, fruit firmness,fruit marketability, total soluble solids,acidity,L-ascorbic acid (guava), tannins (persimmon), total sugars and fruit respiration. All supplementary refrigeration treatments improved fruit quality during cold storage but ethanol vapor either 25 or 50 % were more effective than other treatments

  17. Effect of safe environmental pre and post harvest treatments and irradiation on handling of some fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawito, M A.A. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    The present study was carried out during two successive seasons of 2005 and 2006 seasons on{sup M}ontakhab El-Kanater{sup g}uavas and{sup H}achiya{sup p}ersimmons.two different experiments were studied, the first one for pre harvest and second post harvest. Regarding pre harvest experiment,hand or chemical flower thinning by urea or ethrel and date of fruit picking (maturity) were evaluated on both guavas and persimmons.All flower thinning treatments increased fruit set,total yield,average fruit weight and decreased fruit abscission.However,a great effect on fruit quality and chemical compositions were also found with flower thinning treatments. Chemical flower thinning was more effective than hand thinning in improving yield and quality in {sup M}ontakhab El-Kanater{sup g}uavas and {sup H}achiya{sup p}ersimmons. However,early maturation(120 and 150 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced poor fruit quality.Whereas, medium maturity(130 and 180 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced fruit with high quality.However,late picking(140 and 210 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced fruits with less marketability. On the other side, post harvest treatments including irradiation of fruits with or without pre-cooling process at 0.2,0.4,and 0.8 K.Gy for guavas and 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 K.Gy for persimmons. Also,hot water at 45 degree C, fungicide at 0.5 and 1.0 g/L.and ethanol vapor at 25 and 50% were evaluated on both fruits. The obtained data were evaluated on discarded fruits %, weight loss %, fruit firmness,fruit marketability, total soluble solids,acidity,L-ascorbic acid (guava), tannins (persimmon), total sugars and fruit respiration. All supplementary refrigeration treatments improved fruit quality during cold storage but ethanol vapor either 25 or 50 % were more effective than other treatments.

  18. Mineralogical Response of the Post harvest Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) to Different Levels of Bavistin DF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.K.; Absar, N.; Sarkar, M.A.R; Khan, M.Z.H.; Yeasmin, S.; Hakim, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out with the post harvest mangoes (viz., the Langra and the Khirshapat) treating with different levels of Bavistin DF solution (namely, 250, 500, and 750 PPM) for obtaining results on the mineral content changes as well as storability of post harvest mango. The results of the experiments exhibited that only the single effect of varieties was found to be significant in most of the parameters studied. The Langra enriched a greater quantity of magnesium, iron and manganese constituents over the Khirshapat. On the other hand, Khirshapat enriched higher quantities of calcium, copper and zinc content at all the storage duration. Different post harvest treatments subjected to the investigation demonstrated significant variation in most of the mineralogical properties of mango at different days of storage. The result explored that calcium, magnesium, iron, and manganese contents were rapidly increased. On the other hand copper and zinc content drastically decreased from untreated mangoes. (author)

  19. Strategy of Quality Improvement of Pond Shrimp Post Harvest Management (Penaeus monodon Fabricius in Mahakam Delta (Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Noor Asikin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mahakam Delta area, which is situated in Kutai Kartanegara Regency, has become a pond center that gives a significant contribution to shrimp export of East Kalimantan Province. Pond-produced shrimps, however, do not always accord to the intention of cold storage companies at expected price. The companies even sometimes reject the request due to poor quality of the product. The decreasing shrimp quality may be due to maintenance process by the pond farmers as well as the improper collectors. In the other hand, importing countries have decided more and more restricted requirements for the imported fishing products. This study was held in Muara Jawa, Anggana, and Muara Badak Districts using techniques of data collection of in-depth interview with twelve respondents. In order to improve shrimp quality, farmers or the producers have to formulate a strategy towards the improvement of the post harvest shrimps from the pond using an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Results of the AHP consist of as follows: (1 application of pond shrimp post harvest technology and improvement of facilities and accommodation that support the quality improvement of the pond shrimps, (2 human resource quality improvement of pond farmers, collectors, and field instructors, (3 development of pond culture by applying best practices principle and local policies in order to improve the quality of the pond shrimps, and (4 improvement of interagency coordination, monitoring, and evaluation to enhance the pond shrimp quality

  20. Post-Harvest Induced Production of Salvianolic Acids and Significant Promotion of Antioxidant Properties in Roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Jun Zhou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Danshen, the dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, is an extremely valued Traditional Chinese Medicine. Previously, we have demonstrated that salvianolic acid B (SaB, the important bioactive ingredient in this herb, was a post-harvest product. Here, we further reported that all salvianolic acids (SAs in the roots were post-harvest products of the drying process. In addition, the results of various radical scavenging activity assays, including lipid peroxidation (1, DPPH (2, hydroxyl (3 and superoxide (4, were significantly increased along with the accumulation of total salvianolic acids in the process. The contents of chemical targets and antioxidant activities both reached the highest value under thermal treatment at 130 °C for 80 min. In this dehydration period, contents of SaB, and sum of nine SAs increased from 0.01% to 5.51%, and 0.20% to 6.61%; and IC50 of antioxidant activity decreased from 4.85 to 2.69 (1; 7.75 to 0.43 (2; 2.57 to 1.13 (3 and 17.25 to 1.10 mg/mL. These results further supported the hypothesis that the newly harvested plant roots were still physiologically active and the secondary metabolites might be produced due to dehydration stress after harvest. Our findings supplied an important and useful theoretical basis for promoting the quality of Danshen and other medicinal plant materials.

  1. Public health implications of post-harvest fish handling practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wide range of handling practices for harvested fish exists and they have economic as well as public health implications. This paper is a review of the existing problems in fish handling technologies at post-harvest in Nigeria. The public health aspects with the associated implications are highlighted. Status of policy on fish ...

  2. Application of biofilms in the post-harvest conservation of pequi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess the post-harvest conservation of this fruit by using different sources of biofilms as a means to ensure the maintenance of fruit physical and chemical characteristics in order to increase its shelf life. Fruits were submitted to four treatments: control (no coating) (T1); 0.5% w/w carnauba wax ...

  3. Effects of post-harvest handling conditions on internalization and growth of Salmonella enterica in tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internalization during post-harvest handling is a significant route of tomato contamination by phytopathogens and foodborne human pathogens. This study was conducted to determine the effect of immersion time, immersion depth, and the temperature differential between bacterial suspension and tomato p...

  4. Resistance to post-harvest microbial rot in yam: Integration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-harvest microbial rot is an important disease that causes severe losses in yam (Dioscorea spp.) storage. Rot from microbial infection of healthy yam tubers reduces their table quality and renders them unappealing to consumers. A study was carried out at Bimbilla in the Nanumba North District of Ghana to evaluate ...

  5. Reducing post-harvest losses in mango in South Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    to poor processing and preservation facilities, can be as high as 30-35%. ... and 139 mango growers in Sri Lanka (over 20% women). Group members have been ... After. Before. Percentage. 0. 10. 20. 30. 40. 50. 60. 70. 80. Choice of crops.

  6. Simulating the environmental performance of post-harvest management measures to comply with the EU Nitrates Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, J; D'Haene, K; Salomez, J; Hofman, G; De Neve, S

    2017-02-01

    Nitrate (NO 3 - ) leaching from farmland remains the predominant source of nitrogen (N) loads to European ground- and surface water. As soil mineral N content at harvest is often high and may increase by mineralisation from crop residues and soil organic matter, it is critical to understand which post-harvest management measures can be taken to restrict the average NO 3 - concentration in ground- and surface waters below the norm of 50 mg l -1 . Nitrate leaching was simulated with the EU-rotate_N model on a silty and a sandy soil following the five main arable crops cultivated in Flanders: cut grassland, silage maize, potatoes, sugar beets and winter wheat, in scenarios of optimum fertilisation with and without post-harvest measures. We compared the average NO 3 - concentration in the leaching water at a depth of 90 cm in these scenarios after dividing it by a factor of 2.1 to include natural attenuation processes occurring during transport towards ground- and surface water. For cut grassland, the average attenuated NO 3 - concentration remained below the norm on both soils. In order to comply with the Nitrates Directive, post-harvest measures seemed to be necessary on sandy soils for the four other crops and on silty soils for silage maize and for potatoes. Successful measures appeared to be the early sowing of winter crops after harvesting winter wheat, the undersowing of grass in silage maize and the removal of sugar beet leaves. Potatoes remained a problematic crop as N uptake by winter crops was insufficient to prevent excessive NO 3 - leaching. For each crop, maximum levels of soil mineral N content at harvest were proposed, both with and without additional measures, which could be used in future nutrient legislation. The approach taken here could be upscaled from the field level to the subcatchment level to see how different crops could be arranged within a subcatchment to permit the cultivation of problem crops without adversely affecting the water

  7. Post-harvest conservation of organic strawberries coated with cassava starch and chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel P Campos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is as non-climacteric fruit, but has a high post-harvest respiration rate, which leads to a rapid deterioration at room temperature. This study aimed to evaluate the application of biodegradable coating on postharvest conservation of organic strawberries, cv. Camarosa, packed in plastic hinged boxes and stored at 10ºC. The treatments consisted of: a control; b 2% cassava starch; c 1% chitosan; and d 2% cassava starch + 1% chitosan. Physical and chemical characteristics of fruits were evaluated at 3, 6 and 9 days of storage, and microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out at the end of the storage period. The treatments influenced positively the post-harvest quality of organic strawberries. The coating cassava starch + chitosan provided the best results, with less than 6% of loss in fruit mass, lower counts of yeast and psychrophilic microorganisms and the best appearance according to the sensory analysis.

  8. Effect of Post-Harvest Treatments on Enzyme Activity and Quality of Cold Stored Ber Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhjit K. JAWANDHA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk fruits are perishable in nature and have poor shelf- life. To extend the storage life of ber fruits different post-harvest treatments, like CaCl2 (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%, Ca(NO32 (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%, gibberellic acid (GA3 (20, 40 and 60 ppm and Bavistin (0.1% were given to fruits and their effect was studied on the storage life and quality of Umran ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk fruits under cold storage conditions. Fruits of uniform size and colour were harvested, from healthy plants, and subjected to post harvest dip of different chemicals, before packing in CFB boxes and placed in cold storage (3-5C and 85-90% RH They have been evaluated after 10, 20 and 30 days of storage for physiological loss in weight (PLW, firmness, pectin methyl esterase (PME activity and palatability rating. The PLW increased and fruit firmness decreased during storage at each treatment. The sensory rating increased up to 10 days at all treatments, except control but subsequently it decreased during storage. The increase rate in PME activity was faster, up to 10 days, in untreated fruits, while treated fruits showed slower rise in PME activity, up to 20 days with a decline afterwards. It can be concluded that ber fruits can be stored up to 20 days by post-harvest treatment using GA3 at 60 ppm, with acceptable quality.

  9. Isolation and characterization of Enterobacteriaceae species infesting post-harvest strawberries and their biological control using bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtböke, D Ipek; Palk, A; Marker, A; Neuman, C; Moss, L; Streeter, K; Katouli, M

    2016-10-01

    Strawberry is a significantly consumed fruit worldwide, mostly without being subjected to disinfection processes. During the harvest and transfer from farm to consumers as well as where organic farming practises have been employed, the surface of the fruit may become contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. Post-harvest strawberry fruits in punnets available for public consumption were thus screened for the presence of enteric bacteria in the Sunshine Coast region of Queensland, Australia. Some of the tested samples (13 %) were found to carry such bacteria and even in greater numbers if organic amendments were used (69 %). The bacteria were found to belong in the genera of Escherichia, Enterobacter, Raoultella, Klebsiella, Pantoea, Shigella, Citrobacter and Cronobacter within the family Enterobacteriaceae. Some of the isolates were found to adhere to Caco-2 cells representing human gut epithelium as well as carrying virulence and toxin genes. Resistance mostly against sulphafurazole, cefoxitin, ampicillin and nitrofurantoin was found among 14 different antimicrobial agents tested including 100 % resistance to cefoxitin and ampicillin in the genus Pantoea. In the second phase of the study, bacteriophages were isolated against the isolates and were subsequently applied to post-harvest fruits. A significant (P ≤ 0.001) reduction in the number of enteric bacteria was observed when a high-titre polyvalent bacteriophage suspension (×10(12) PFU/mL) was applied to the fruit surface. Bacteriophages also decreased the adhesion of the Escherichia coli isolates to Caco-2 cells. Findings might indicate that biological control using bacteriophages might be of significant value for the industry targeting to reduce pathogenic loads of bacteria on the fruit.

  10. Genetic and biochemical analysis reveals linked QTLs determining natural variation for fruit post-harvest water loss in pepper (Capsicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovsky-Sarid, Sigal; Borovsky, Yelena; Faigenboim, Adi; Parsons, Eugene P; Lohrey, Gregory T; Alkalai-Tuvia, Sharon; Fallik, Elazar; Jenks, Matthew A; Paran, Ilan

    2017-02-01

    Molecular markers linked to QTLs controlling post-harvest fruit water loss in pepper may be utilized to accelerate breeding for improved shelf life and inhibit over-ripening before harvest. Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important vegetable crop world-wide. However, marketing is limited by the relatively short shelf life of the fruit due to water loss and decay that occur during prolonged storage. Towards breeding pepper with reduced fruit post-harvest water loss (PWL), we studied the genetic, physiological and biochemical basis for natural variation of PWL. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of fruit PWL in multiple generations of an interspecific cross of pepper, which resulted in the identification of two linked QTLs on chromosome 10 that control the trait. We further developed near-isogenic lines (NILs) for characterization of the QTL effects. Transcriptome analysis of the NILs allowed the identification of candidate genes associated with fruit PWL-associated traits such as cuticle biosynthesis, cell wall metabolism and fruit ripening. Significant differences in PWL between the NILs in the immature fruit stage, differentially expressed cuticle-associated genes and differences in the content of specific chemical constituents of the fruit cuticle, indicated a likely influence of cuticle composition on the trait. Reduced PWL in the NILs was associated with delayed over-ripening before harvest, low total soluble solids before storage, and reduced fruit softening after storage. Our study enabled a better understanding of the genetic and biological processes controlling natural variation in fruit PWL in pepper. Furthermore, the genetic materials and molecular markers developed in this study may be utilized to breed peppers with improved shelf life and inhibited over-ripening before harvest.

  11. Current strategies in the farm practices and post-harvest pesticidal defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Suss

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, people often talk about biologic agriculture and Integrated Production (IP, even if the real meaning of these terms is altered. In both cases, they deal with production methods characterized by a particular attention to the reduction of the environmental impact of all the farm practices used, especially for defence from adversities, being the element of major concern for environment and consumers’ health.Farm practice evolution, especially those about pest defence, is based on important conceptual change, accurate scientific analysis and organization of technical assistance, rationalization of agri-pharmaceutical product use is one of the main objective of Integrated Production Specifications (IPS. The quantitative reduction is the first objective, obtained by various means such as the use of efficient equipment and the qualitative selection based on the priority use of minor impact means, effectiveness being equal. At post-harvest, the anti-parasitary defence is undergoing deep changes in our country. Once, pesticides very toxic and persistent were used; however, in the last years the availability of active principles (a.p. usable on foodstuffs or in productive environments; for instance, methyl bromide use has been progressively reduced till its banishment because it is recognized to damage the ozone layer. Thus, on the whole we can talk about “integrated pest management” even for the post-harvest sector. However, substantial differences exist between agriculture and post-harvest, thus the integrated pest management in food production environment has to be designed in a different way. The fundamental element of this technique is to identify a tolerance threshold to pest attack but for the defence of food industries and stored foodstuffs is very difficult, if not impossible, to fix a limit to insect presence after which intervening is compulsory. Monitoring of pest attacks and the implementation of prevention practices is

  12. Role of chlorophyllase in chlorophyll homeostasis and post-harvest breakdown in Piper betle L. leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Supriya; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Kumar, Nikhil

    2011-10-01

    Piper betle L., a dioecious shade-loving perennial climber is one of the important Pan-Asiatic plants. More than hundred landraces having marked variation in leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content are in cultivation in India. In this study, role of chlorophyllase (Chlase) in Chl homeostasis and post-harvest breakdown was investigated in two contrasting P. betle landraces Kapoori Vellaikodi (KV) with light green and Khasi Shillong (KS) with dark green leaves. The two landraces showed negative correlation between Chl content and Chlase activity in fresh as well as stored leaves. Accumulation of chlorophyllide a (Chlid a) was correlated with the level of Chlase activity, which was higher in KV than KS. The overall response of abscisic acid (ABA) and benzylaminopurine (BAP) was similar in KV and KS, however, the time-course was different. ABA-induced Chl loss was accompanied by rise in Chlase activity in KV and KS and the delay in Chl loss by BAP was accompanied by reduction in Chlase activity. While there were significant differences in Chlase activity in KV and KS, only minor differences were observed in the enzyme properties like pH and temperature optima, Km and Vmax. No landrace-related differences were observed on the effect of metal ions and functional group reagents/amino acid effectors on Chlase activity. These results showed that despite significant differences in Chl content and Chlase activity between landraces KV and KS, the properties of Chlase were similar. The findings show that in P. betle Chlase is involved in Chl homeostasis and also in Chl degradation during post-harvest storage and responds to hormonal regulations. These findings might be useful in predicting the stability of Chl during post-harvest storage and also the shelf-life in other P. betle landraces.

  13. Effect of Post-Harvest Treatments on Enzyme Activity and Quality of Cold Stored Ber Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhjit K. JAWANDHA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk fruits are perishable in nature and have poor shelf- life. To extend the storage life of ber fruits different post-harvest treatments, like CaCl2 (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%, Ca(NO32 (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%, gibberellic acid (GA3 (20, 40 and 60 ppm and Bavistin (0.1% were given to fruits and their effect was studied on the storage life and quality of �Umran� ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk fruits under cold storage conditions. Fruits of uniform size and colour were harvested, from healthy plants, and subjected to post harvest dip of different chemicals, before packing in CFB boxes and placed in cold storage (3-5�C and 85-90% RH They have been evaluated after 10, 20 and 30 days of storage for physiological loss in weight (PLW, firmness, pectin methyl esterase (PME activity and palatability rating. The PLW increased and fruit firmness decreased during storage at each treatment. The sensory rating increased up to 10 days at all treatments, except control but subsequently it decreased during storage. The increase rate in PME activity was faster, up to 10 days, in untreated fruits, while treated fruits showed slower rise in PME activity, up to 20 days with a decline afterwards. It can be concluded that ber fruits can be stored up to 20 days by post-harvest treatment using GA3 at 60 ppm, with acceptable quality.

  14. Potentiality of botanical agents for the management of post harvest insects of maize: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soujanya, P Lakshmi; Sekhar, J C; Kumar, P; Sunil, N; Prasad, Ch Vara; Mallavadhani, U V

    2016-05-01

    Natural products derived from plants are emerging as potent biorational alternatives to synthetic insecticides for the integrated management of post harvest insects of maize. In this paper, effectiveness of botanicals including plant extracts, essential oils, their isolated pure compounds, plant based nano formulations and their mode of action against storage insects have been reviewed with special reference to maize. Plant based insecticides found to be the most promising means of controlling storage insects of maize in an eco friendly and sustainable manner. This article also throws light on the commercialization of botanicals, their limitations, challenges and future trends of storage insect management.

  15. The effect of growth regulators on post-harvest Alchemilla mollis (Bauser Rothm. leaf longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janowska Beata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Alchemilla mollis (Bauser Rothm. were the subject of the study. The leaves were harvested early in the morning from the department’s ornamental plant collection. Selected leaves were fully-developed and showed no signs of damage or discolouring. Gibberellic acid (GA3, benzyladenine (BA, meta-methoxytopolin (MemT and its riboside (MemTR at concentrations of 25, 50 and 75 mg dm−3 were applied in the form of solutions to four-hour leaf-conditioning in the room at a temperature of 18-20°C. After conditioning, the leaves were placed in distilled water. Leaves put into distilled water immediately after cutting served as the control. The post-harvest longevity of leaves of Alchemilla mollis was 7.2-11.8 days. The conditioning of leaves in gibberellic acid solutions at concentrations of 25-50 mg dm−3, benzyladenine at concentrations of 25 mg dm−3 and meta-methoxytopolin and its riboside at concentrations of 75 mg dm−3 extended the post-harvest longevity of leaves by 10.1-81.9%. The conditioning of leaves in gibberellic acid at a concentration of 50 mg dm−3 inhibited the degradation of chlorophyll, as indicated by the highest SPAD index values.

  16. Adoption of On-farm and Post-harvest Rice Quality Enhancing Technologies in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiamiyu, SA.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the rate and determinants of adoption of improved rice quality enhancing technologies among a randomly selected sample of 150 farmers and 18 rice processors from six rice producing areas of Niger State. Data were collected through interview schedule using questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and regression model were adopted to analyze data. Results show that adoption of quality enhancing technologies was low among the selected sample of these rice value chain actors. The adoption indices of on-farm and post-harvest quality enhancing practices were 0.46 and 0.37 respectively. Some socioeconomic attributes including: Age, level of education, contact with extension, access to credit and level of commercialization were statistically significant determining factors (P≤0.05 influencing adoption at farm level, while post-harvest technology adoption was determined by level of education, access to credit and membership of cooperatives. Promotion of quality enhanced technologies among these actors in the rice value chain is recommended.

  17. Bioactivity of essential oils in phytopathogenic and post-harvest fungi control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamarina, M P; Ibáñez, M D; Marqués, M; Roselló, J; Giménez, S; Blázquez, M A

    2017-11-01

    Commercial thyme and lavender essential oils were analysed by GC/MS. Sixty-six compounds accounting for 98.6-99.6% of total essential oil were identified. Thymol (52.14 ± 0.21%), followed by p-cymene (32.24 ± 0.16%), carvacrol (3.71 ± 0.01%) and γ-terpinene (3.34 ± 0.02%), were the main compounds in thyme essential oil, while large amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes linalool acetate (37.07 ± 0.24%) and linalool (30.16 ± 0.06%) were found in lavender one. In vitro antifungal activity of the essential oils was evaluated at 200 and 300 μg/mL against 10 phytopathogenic and post-harvest fungi, which significantly affect agriculture. Micelial growth inhibition was calculated for each tested fungus and dose. Thyme essential oil showed satisfactory results with 90-100% growth inhibition in almost all the assayed fungi at 300 μg/mL, while lavender essential oil showed no noteworthy inhibition data at either dose, and its growth was even enhanced. Thyme essential oil represents a natural alternative to control harvest and post-harvest fungi, and to extend the shelf-life of agriculture products.

  18. Variation in Carotenoid Content of Kale and Other Vegetables: A Review of Pre- and Post-harvest Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rachel P; Bartlett, Hannah; Eperjesi, Frank

    2015-11-11

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids that are selectively taken up into the macula of the eye, where they are thought to protect against the development of age-related macular degeneration. They are obtained from dietary sources, with the highest concentrations found in dark green leafy vegetables, such as kale and spinach. In this Review, compositional variations due to variety/cultivar, stage of maturity, climate or season, farming practice, storage, and processing effects are highlighted. Only data from studies which report on lutein and zeaxanthin content in foods are reported. The main focus is kale; however, other predominantly xanthophyll containing vegetables such as spinach and broccoli are included. A small amount of data about exotic fruits is also referenced for comparison. The qualitative and quantitative composition of carotenoids in fruits and vegetables is known to vary with multiple factors. In kale, lutein and zeaxanthin levels are affected by pre-harvest effects such as maturity, climate, and farming practice. Further research is needed to determine the post-harvest processing and storage effects of lutein and zeaxanthin in kale; this will enable precise suggestions for increasing retinal levels of these nutrients.

  19. Modeling the vacuolar storage of malate shed lights on pre- and post-harvest fruit acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Lobit, Philippe; Bugaud, Christophe

    2014-11-18

    Malate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. Several studies suggest that malate accumulation in fruit cells is controlled at the level of vacuolar storage. However, the regulation of vacuolar malate storage throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the malate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we adapted the mechanistic model of vacuolar storage proposed by Lobit et al. in order to study the accumulation of malate in pre and postharvest fruits. The main adaptation concerned the variation of the free energy of ATP hydrolysis during fruit development. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having separate growth and post-harvest ripening stages, during which malate concentration undergoes substantial changes. Moreover, the concentration of malate in banana pulp varies greatly among cultivars which make possible to use the model as a tool to analyze the genotypic variability. The model was calibrated and validated using data sets from three cultivars with contrasting malate accumulation, grown under different fruit loads and potassium supplies, and harvested at different stages. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of malate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars (mean RRMSE = 0.25-0.42). The sensitivity of the model to parameters and input variables was analyzed. According to the model, vacuolar composition, in particular potassium and organic acid concentrations, had an important effect on malate accumulation. The model suggested that rising temperatures depressed malate accumulation. The model also helped distinguish differences in malate concentration among the three cultivars and between the pre and post-harvest stages by highlighting the probable importance of proton pump activity and particularly of the free

  20. Influence of mist-chilling on post-harvest quality of fresh strawberries Cv. Mara des Bois and Gariguette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allais, Irene [Cemagref, UMR Genial, 24, avenue des Landais B.P. 50085, 63172 Aubiere Cedex (France); Letang, Guy [Cemagref, UMR Genial, Parc de Tourvoie, B.P. 44, 92163 Antony Cedex (France)

    2009-09-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of mist-chilling on high-grade strawberry post-harvest quality (Cultivars ''Gariguette'' and ''Mara des Bois''). Strawberries were chilled at 2 C using three processes: air blast chilling at 0.3 m s{sup -1} or 1 m s{sup -1} and mist-chilling at 1 m s{sup -1}. After chilling, fruits were submitted to different distribution chains characterised by different handling conditions and storage temperatures (2 C or 7 C) and by a 12 h retailing step at 20 C. Strawberry quality was assessed by measuring 7 parameters: weight loss, commercial loss, firmness, sugar content, acidity, colour and sensory quality. Compared to air-chilling, mist-chilling did not reduce chilling time but it reduced weight loss by 20-40%. Mist-chilling had no detrimental effect on commercial loss defined as the percentage of fruit more than 1/3 of surface affected. It did not induce any major changes on strawberry quality. Temperature fluctuations undergone during cold storage and retailing had a detrimental effect on weight loss. The beneficial effect of packaging on weight loss was confirmed. (author)

  1. Impacts of Frequent Burning on Live Tree Carbon Biomass and Demography in Post-Harvest Regrowth Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Collins

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The management of forest ecosystems to increase carbon storage is a global concern. Fire frequency has the potential to shift considerably in the future. These shifts may alter demographic processes and growth of tree species, and consequently carbon storage in forests. Examination of the sensitivity of forest carbon to the potential upper and lower extremes of fire frequency will provide crucial insight into the magnitude of possible change in carbon stocks associated with shifts in fire frequency. This study examines how tree biomass and demography of a eucalypt forest regenerating after harvest is affected by two experimentally manipulated extremes in fire frequency (i.e., ~3 year fire intervals vs. unburnt sustained over a 23 year period. The rate of post-harvest biomass recovery of overstorey tree species, which constituted ~90% of total living tree biomass, was lower within frequently burnt plots than unburnt plots, resulting in approximately 20% lower biomass in frequently burnt plots by the end of the study. Significant differences in carbon biomass between the two extremes in frequency were only evident after >15–20 years of sustained treatment. Reduced growth rates and survivorship of smaller trees on the frequently burnt plots compared to unburnt plots appeared to be driving these patterns. The biomass of understorey trees, which constituted ~10% of total living tree biomass, was not affected by frequent burning. These findings suggest that future shifts toward more frequent fire will potentially result in considerable reductions in carbon sequestration across temperate forest ecosystems in Australia.

  2. A Post-Harvest Prediction Mass Loss Model for Tomato Fruit Using A Numerical Methodology Centered on Approximation Error Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Bucio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its nutritional and economic value, the tomato is considered one of the main vegetables in terms of production and consumption in the world. For this reason, an important case study is the fruit maturation parametrized by its mass loss in this study. This process develops in the fruit mainly after harvest. Since that parameter affects the economic value of the crop, the scientific community has been progressively approaching the issue. However, there is no a state-of-the-art practical model allowing the prediction of the tomato fruit mass loss yet. This study proposes a prediction model for tomato mass loss in a continuous and definite time-frame using regression methods. The model is based on a combination of adjustment methods such as least squares polynomial regression leading to error estimation, and cross validation techniques. Experimental results from a 50 fruit of tomato sample studied over a 54 days period were compared to results from the model using a second-order polynomial approach found to provide optimal data fit with a resulting efficiency of ~97%. The model also allows the design of precise logistic strategies centered on post-harvest tomato mass loss prediction usable by producers, distributors, and consumers.

  3. Effect of photo-selective nettings on post-harvest quality and bioactive compounds in selected tomato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selahle, Maphoko Kamogelo; Sivakumar, Dharini; Soundy, Puffy

    2014-08-01

    Photo-selective coloured netting is referred to as a 'new agro-technological' concept adopted to manipulate light quality changes that can induce favourable responses in plants. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars AlvaV, Irit and SCX 248 grown under the black net (commercial net, 25% shading) showed higher weight loss, loss of firmness, ascorbic acid content and decline in the ratio of soluble solids content/titrable acidity during post-harvest storage (low-temperature storage at 10°C and 90% relative humidity for 21 days followed by market shelf conditions at 25°C for 2 days). During post-harvest storage, lycopene, β-carotene, total phenolic content and antioxidant scavenging activity were higher in cvs AlfaV and Irit grown under the black or pearl nets. However, the β-carotene, total phenolic content and antioxidant scavenging activity were higher in SCX 248 grown under the red net during post-harvest storage. Cultivar AlfaV grown under the red and pearl nets had a higher number of odour active aroma compounds during post-harvest storage. Panellists preferred cv. AlfaV grown under the pearl nets after storage based on taste, overall appearance and firm textured fruits. Pearl photo-selective nets retained the overall fruit quality and bioactive components in cvs AlfaV and Irit during post-harvest storage. Red photo-selective nets, however, showed greater influence on retention of overall fruit quality and bioactive compounds in cv. SCX 248 during post-harvest storage. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Methyl Jasmonate and 1-Methylcyclopropene Treatment Effects on Quinone Reductase Inducing Activity and Post-Harvest Quality of Broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kang Mo; Choi, Jeong Hee; Kim, Hyoung Seok; Kushad, Mosbah M.; Jeffery, Elizabeth H.; Juvik, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Effect of pre-harvest methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and post-harvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatments on broccoli floret glucosinolate (GS) concentrations and quinone reductase (QR, an in vitro anti-cancer biomarker) inducing activity were evaluated two days prior to harvest, at harvest and at 10, 20, and 30 days of post-harvest storage at 4 °C. MeJA treatments four days prior to harvest of broccoli heads was observed to significantly increase floret ethylene biosynthesis resulting in chlorophyll catabolism during post-harvest storage and reduced product quality. Post-harvest treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), which competitively binds to protein ethylene receptors, maintained post-harvest floret chlorophyll concentrations and product visual quality in both control and MeJA-treated broccoli. Transcript abundance of BoPPH, a gene which is responsible for the synthesis of pheophytinase, the primary enzyme associated with chlorophyll catabolism in broccoli, was reduced by 1-MCP treatment and showed a significant, negative correlation with floret chlorophyll concentrations. The GS, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin were significantly increased by MeJA treatments. The products of some of the GS from endogenous myrosinase hydrolysis [sulforaphane (SF), neoascorbigen (NeoASG), N-methoxyindole-3-carbinol (NI3C), and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC)] were also quantified and found to be significantly correlated with QR. Sulforaphane, the isothiocyanate hydrolysis product of the GS glucoraphanin, was found to be the most potent QR induction agent. Increased sulforaphane formation from the hydrolysis of glucoraphanin was associated with up-regulated gene expression of myrosinase (BoMyo) and the myrosinase enzyme co-factor gene, epithiospecifier modifier1 (BoESM1). This study demonstrates the combined treatment of MeJA and 1-MCP increased QR activity without post-harvest quality loss. PMID:24146962

  5. Effect of post-harvest treatment on bioactive phytochemicals of Thai black rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkaew, Orranuch; Boontakham, Pittayaporn; Dumri, Kanchana; Noenplab, Acharaporn Na Lampang; Sookwong, Phumon; Mahatheeranont, Sugunya

    2017-02-15

    Because black rice is rich in antioxidants, appropriate methods of post-harvest treatment are necessary for maintaining these bioactive phytochemicals. Drying methods, storage temperatures, storage duration, and packaging methods affected the contents of some bioactive compounds in the two varieties of Thai black rice used in this research. Sun drying reduces the loss of anthocyanins and γ-oryzanols more than does hot air drying. Glutinous black rice stored as paddy at cool room temperature retains more anthocyanins, γ-oryzanols, and vitamin E than does paddy stored at room temperature. Nylon/LLDPE pouches containing N2 are the most suitable packaging for preserving the key aroma compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), total phenolic, and anthocyanin contents of unpolished aromatic black rice. These pouches also retard the formation of some common off-flavor compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction of post harvest disease control treatments and gamma irradiation on mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.I.; Cooke, A.W. (Department of Primary Industries, Indooroopilly (Australia)); Boag, T.S. (Riverina-Murray Inst. of Higher Education, Wagga Wagga (Australia). School of Agriculture); Izard, M. (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights (Australia)); Panitz, M. (Committee of Direction of Fruit Marketing, Brisbane Markets (Australia)); Sangchote, S. (Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand))

    1990-04-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation and disease control treatments on disease severity and post harvest quality of several mango cultivars were investigated. In mangoes cv. Kensington Pride, irradiation doses ranging from 300-1200 Gy reduced disease, but the level of control was not commercially acceptable. Hot benomyl immediately followed by irradiation provided effective control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) during short-term storage (15 days at 20degC). The effects of the two treatments were additive. Satisfactory disease control was achieved during long-term controlled atmosphere storage when mangoes were treated with hot benomyl followed by prochloraz and then irradiated. Effects of fungicide treatment and irradiation were additive. Fungicide, or irradiation treatments alone, were unsatisfactory. Irradiation of cv. Kensington Pride at doses in excess of 600 Gy caused unacceptable surface damage. (author).

  7. Interaction of post harvest disease control treatments and gamma irradiation on mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.I.; Cooke, A.W.; Boag, T.S.; Panitz, M.; Sangchote, S.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation and disease control treatments on disease severity and post harvest quality of several mango cultivars were investigated. In mangoes cv. Kensington Pride, irradiation doses ranging from 300-1200 Gy reduced disease, but the level of control was not commercially acceptable. Hot benomyl immediately followed by irradiation provided effective control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) during short-term storage (15 days at 20degC). The effects of the two treatments were additive. Satisfactory disease control was achieved during long-term controlled atmosphere storage when mangoes were treated with hot benomyl followed by prochloraz and then irradiated. Effects of fungicide treatment and irradiation were additive. Fungicide, or irradiation treatments alone, were unsatisfactory. Irradiation of cv. Kensington Pride at doses in excess of 600 Gy caused unacceptable surface damage. (author)

  8. Split double factorial with additional treatment and the post-harvest of Niagara grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pórtya Piscitelli Cavalcanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aims to discuss and explain how to deal with the analysis of experiments conducted in completely randomized design (CRD and subdivided into double factorial with additional treatment in the plot. In addition it was illustrate the discussion by analyzing data from an experiment on post-harvest of Niagara grapes. The sums of squares for each source of variation are presented, while discussing how the additional treatment affects the whole variation. Niagara grapes were treated in the pre-harvest with three preservatives (calcium chloride, calcium nitrate and calcium lactate at 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% and stored for 0, 10, 20 and 30 days.All the preservatives evaluated at 0% represented the control (additional treatment.

  9. Post harvest controlling of orchid thrips on cut flowers by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansiddhi, K.; Siriphontangmun, S.

    1999-01-01

    Post-harvest controlling of orchid thrips, Thrips palmi Karny on cut flowers by irradiation was conducted during October 1992 to September 1997 at the Thai Irradiation Centre (TIC) and Division of Entomology and Zoology, Department of Agriculture, Thailand. The studies were carried out by conducting experiments on irradiation of cut flowers for controlling thrips with doses ranging from 0.1 to 1 kGy. The vase-life of radiated cut flowers was evaluated. Colonies of thrips were established in the laboratory in order to determine radiation sensitivity of various development stages of thrips and also to assess the occurrence of natural infestations by examining commercial market quality flowers from growers where management practices can be identified. Results from five years of research on post harvest control of thrips on orchids and cut flowers by irradiation showed that despite intensive investigation, difficulty in permanent establishment of a laboratory colony of Thrips palmi Karny for bioassays continued. The snap bean rearing method for rearing large number of thrips has bean developed, although it is less satisfactory than desirable. It has given sufficient numbers for testing in the 6th experiment. The maximum dose tolerated by Dendrobium orchid flowers at ambient temperature (25-30 deg. C) was below 0.5 kGy, but at a pre- and post irradiation temperature 15-18 deg. C, the maximum dose tolerated approached 0.75-0.8 kGy. The effective dose for control Thrips palmi Karny, however, was higher than 0.75 kGy. (author)

  10. Variation in cassava germplasm for tolerance to post-harvest physiological deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, M T; Santos, L R; Vildoso, C I A; Santos, V S; Oliveira, E J

    2016-05-06

    Tolerant varieties can effectively control post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of cassava, although knowledge on the genetic variability and inheritance of this trait is needed. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters and identify sources of tolerance to PPD and their stability in cassava accessions. Roots from 418 cassava accessions, grown in four independent experiments, were evaluated for PPD tolerance 0, 2, 5, and 10 days post-harvest. Data were transformed into area under the PPD-progress curve (AUP-PPD) to quantify tolerance. Genetic parameters, stability (Si), adaptability (Ai), and the joint analysis of stability and adaptability (Zi) were obtained via residual maximum likelihood (REML) and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) methods. Variance in the genotype (G) x environment (E) interaction and genotypic variance were important for PPD tolerance. Individual broad-sense heritability (hg(2)= 0.38 ± 0.04) and average heritability in accessions (hmg(2)= 0.52) showed high genetic control of PPD tolerance. Genotypic correlation of AUP-PPD in different experiments was of medium magnitude (ȓgA = 0.42), indicating significant G x E interaction. The predicted genotypic values o f G x E free of interaction (û + ĝi) showed high variation. Of the 30 accessions with high Zi, 19 were common to û + ĝi, Si, and Ai parameters. The genetic gain with selection of these 19 cassava accessions was -55.94, -466.86, -397.72, and -444.03% for û + ĝi, Si, Ai, and Zi, respectively, compared with the overall mean for each parameter. These results demonstrate the variability and potential of cassava germplasm to introduce PPD tolerance in commercial varieties.

  11. Effect of gamma radiation on post harvest storage life of onion bulb under ordinary room condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, N.; Badshah, N.; Mahboob, F.; Ayub, G.

    2003-01-01

    Post harvest storage life of radiated onion bulbs harvested at different stages of maturity and stored at ordinary room temperature (30-39 degree C) was studied at the Department of Horticulture, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, during August 2002. Onion bulbs were harvested at two stages i.e. drooping and complete dried leaf. Four radiation doses of 2, 4, 6 and 8 kilo rad (Kr) were applied with normal (control). The data of experiment was collected from weight loss, rot attack, sprouting, firmness and taste pungency. The results revealed that various radiation doses significantly affected weight loss, rot attack, sprouting, firmness and taste pungency. Onion bulbs radiated with 8 Kr showed minimum percent weight loss (28.59%), decrease in firmness and taste pungency. Minimum percent rot attack (6.3%) was observed in 6 and 8 Kr. Radiation doses of 4, 6 and 8 Kr showed no sprouting at all. Maximum weight loss (43.20%), rot attack (16.2%), sprouting (40.78%), decrease in firmness and taste pungency were recorded for control. The results showed that harvesting stages are statistically non-significant. The interaction between radiation doses and harvesting stages are also non-significant. Harvesting stages significantly affected weight loss, rot attack, sprouting and taste pungency. Onion bulbs of complete dried leaf stage recorded maximum percent weight loss (35.42%), percent sprouting (11.7%) and taste pungency while minimum percent weight loss (31.62%), percent sprouting (5.01%) and taste pungency was observed in onion bulbs of drooping stage. Maximum percent rot attack (10.9%) was noted in onion bulbs of drooping stage while minimum (7.3%) in onion bulbs of complete dried leaf stage. Radiation dose of 8 Kr is recommended to reduce the post-harvest losses in onion bulbs. Drooping stage comparatively prolonged the shelf life of bulb

  12. Improving environmental performance of post-harvest supply chains of fruits and vegetables in Europe: Potential contribution from ultrasonic humidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabbri, Serena; Olsen, Stig Irving; Owsianiak, Mikołaj

    2018-01-01

    Post-harvest losses of fruits and vegetables during refrigerated storage, transportation and retail are an important contributor to total environmental impacts of food supply chains in Europe. Ultrasonic humidification can reduce these post-harvest losses, but it is currently unknown whether...... that humidification may be an attractive technology for making supply chain management more sustainable....... implementing the technology in practice improves the environmental performance of the supply chains. Here, using life cycle assessment we showed that ultrasonic humidification has the potential to reduce environmental impacts, including climate change impacts, of selected fruits and vegetables in Europe by up...

  13. Effect of tomato post-harvest fungicide treatment and storage conditions on the quality of fruits, and biological value of tomato pulp and concentrated pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Parynow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of storage conditions on the quality of tomato fruits was tested. The rate of ripening was established in normal air, where tomatoes ripen quickly, under controlled atmosphere where they ripen more slowly and under low pressure, where they ripen slowest. The influence of post-harvest benomyl or methylthiophanate treatment on tomato rot, ripening, and biological value were examined. Post-harvest tomato treatment did not reduce fruit rot. The color of fruits and the processed products depended on the fungicide treatment. Concentrated tomato pulp made of fruits treated with methylthiophanate was redder than the others. The fungicide treatment increased or decreased the level of some chemical substances in the fruits in dependence on the applied fungicide, storage conditions and the length of storage, e.g. tomatoes treated with benomyl and stored for 14 days contained the highest level of vitamin C under 0% CO2:3%O2 and tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the highest level of vitamin C under 38 mm Hg. Degradation of vitamin C in pulp was faster than in the concentrated pulp. Tomato pulp made of tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the lowest level of vitamin C.

  14. Follow-up of the fate of imazalil from post-harvest lemon surface treatment to a baking experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vass, Andrea; Korpics, Evelin; Dernovics, Mihály

    2015-01-01

    Imazalil is one of the most widespread fungicides used for the post-harvest treatment of citrus species. The separate use of peel during food preparation and processing may hitherto concentrate most of the imazalil into food products, where specific maximum residue limits hardly exist for this fungicide. In order to monitor comprehensively the path of imazalil, our study covered the monitoring of the efficiency of several washing treatments, the comparison of operative and related sample preparation methods for the lemon samples, the validation of a sample preparation technique for a fatty cake matrix, the preparation of a model cake sample made separately either with imazalil containing lemon peel or with imazalil spiking, the monitoring of imazalil degradation into α-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol because of the baking process, and finally the mass balance of imazalil throughout the washing experiments and the baking process. Quantification of imazalil was carried out with an LC-ESI-MS/MS set-up, while LC-QTOF was used for the monitoring of imazalil degradation. Concerning the washing, none of the addressed five washing protocols could remove more than 30% of imazalil from the surface of the lemon samples. The study revealed a significant difference between the extraction efficiency of imazalil by the EN 15662:2008 and AOAC 2007.1 methods, with the advantage of the former. The use of the model cake sample helped to validate a modified version of the EN 15662:2008 method that included a freeze-out step to efficiently recover imazalil (>90%) from the fatty cake matrix. The degradation of imazalil during the baking process was significantly higher when this analyte was spiked into the cake matrix than in the case of preparing the cake with imazalil-containing lemon peel (52% vs. 22%). This observation calls the attention to the careful evaluation of pesticide stability data that are based on solution spiking experiments.

  15. Opportunities and Best Practices to Support Sustainable Production for Small Growers and Post-Harvest Processors in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissore, Cinzia; Duran, Daniel F.; Russell, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This article describes current practices and needs associated with water and gas conservation among Southern California greenhouse growers, Post-Harvest Processors (PHPs), and agricultural associations. Two communication forums were held with the goal of educating the local gas company and small growers and PHPs on the most compelling needs and…

  16. Post-harvesting silvicultural treatments in logging gaps: A comparison between enrichment planting and tending of natural regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, G.; Lopes, J.C.A.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Peña-Claros, M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite greatly improved forest management in recent decades, long-term assessments show that if current harvesting volumes and cutting cycles are maintained, future volume yields of commercial species will decrease. A possible solution is to apply post-harvesting silvicultural treatments to

  17. In Vitro Control of Post-Harvest Fruit Rot Fungi by Some Plant Essential Oil Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luigi Rana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight substances that are main components of the essential oils from three Mediterranean aromatic plants (Verbena officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare, previously found active against some phytopathogenic Fungi and Stramenopila, have been tested in vitro against five etiological agents of post-harvest fruit decay, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, P. expansum, Phytophthora citrophthora and Rhizopus stolonifer. The tested compounds were β-fellandrene, β-pinene, camphene, carvacrol, citral, o-cymene, γ-terpinene and thymol. Citral exhibited a fungicidal action against P. citrophthora; carvacrol and thymol showed a fungistatic activity against P. citrophthora and R. stolonifer. Citral and carvacrol at 250 ppm, and thymol at 150 and 250 ppm stopped the growth of B. cinerea. Moreover, thymol showed fungistatic and fungicidal action against P. italicum. Finally, the mycelium growth of P. expansum was inhibited in the presence of 250 ppm of thymol and carvacrol. These results represent an important step toward the goal to use some essential oils or their components as natural preservatives for fruits and foodstuffs, due to their safety for consumer healthy and positive effect on shelf life extension of agricultural fresh products.

  18. Food and nutrition security: challenges of post-harvest handling in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiywe, J

    2015-11-01

    Presently, close to 1 billion people suffer from hunger and food insecurity. Statistics in Kenya indicates that over 10 million people suffer from chronic food insecurity and poor nutrition, 2-4 million people require emergency food assistance at any given time with nearly 30 % of Kenya's children being undernourished, 35 % stunted while micro-nutrient deficiency is wide spread. Key among the challenges contributing to inadequate foods include lack of certified seeds, seasonal production (rain-fed), high post-harvest losses and wastages, poor transportation, low value additions which reduce their market competitiveness. The present paper examines some of the underlying causes for high food wastage experience in Kenya and the associated challenges in addressing these problems. The paper also provides an overview of some of the basic solutions that have been recommended by various stakeholders. However, in spite of the recent efforts made to mitigate food wastage, there is still an urgent need to address these gaps through participatory, innovative community based interventions that will create resilience to climate change and enhance livelihoods of smallholder farmers in diverse ecosystems.

  19. Study of Post-Harvest Ambon Banana ( Musa acuminata ) Preservation Using X-Ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwijananti, P.; Handayani, L.; Marwoto, P.; Iswari, R.S.

    2016-01-01

    An exposure to Ambon banana ( Musa Acuminata ) samples has been done by using X-rays with current, voltage and exposure time are control parameters. This study aimed to determine storage ability of the post-harvest sample. Five samples were exposured by x-rays with the dose of (3-5) × 10 -14 Gy. The samples were stored at room temperature. Their mass and physical condition (color and smell) were evaluated every 3 days. It was found that the control sample which was not exposured by X-ray was ripe in the sixth day indicated by the yellow color and good smell of the banana. Meanwhile, the samples which were exposured by (3 - 5) × 10 -14 Gy doze of X-ray looked fresher and still had green color. These samples showed their ripening in the ninth day and their mass decrease was (12-13)% which is lower than the control sample. The preservation of banana can be done through low-dose X-ray exposure. (paper)

  20. An Overview of the Post-Harvest Grain Storage Practices of Smallholder Farmers in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Manandhar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Grain storage loss is a major contributor to post-harvest losses and is one of the main causes of food insecurity for smallholder farmers in developing countries. Thus, the objective of this review is to assess the conventional and emerging grain storage practices for smallholder farmers in developing countries and highlight their most promising features and drawbacks. Smallholder farmers in developing countries use conventional grain storage structures and handling systems such as woven bags or cribs to store grain. However, they are ineffective against mold and insects already present in the grain before storage. Different chemicals are also mixed with grain to improve grain storability. Hermetic storage systems are effective alternatives for grain storage as they have minimal storage losses without using any chemicals. However, hermetic bags are prone to damage and hermetic metal silos are cost-prohibitive to most smallholder farmers in developing countries. Thus, an ideal grain storage system for smallholder farmers should be hermetically sealable, mechanically durable, and cost-effective compared to the conventional storage options. Such a storage system will help reduce grain storage losses, maintain grain quality and contribute to reducing food insecurity for smallholder farmers in developing countries.

  1. Plant latex: a promising antifungal agent for post harvest disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, G; Wadhavan, Rashmi; Singh, Sneha; Shukla, Abhilasha; Dhananjaya, K; Ravikumar, K R; Mallesha, H

    2013-12-01

    Bioactive compounds from plant latex are potential source of antifungic against post harvest pathogens. Latex from a total of seven plant species was investigated for its phytochemical and antifungal properties. Six fungi namely Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. terreus, F. solani, P. digitatum and R. arrhizus were isolated from infected fruits and vegetables and tested against various solvent extracts of latex. Analysis of latex extracts with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Antifungal assay revealed the potential inhibitory activity of petroleum ether extracts against the postharvest fungal isolates. Various degree of sensitivity was observed irrespective of plant species studied with A. terreus and P. digitatum as the most susceptible ones. F. solani and A. fumigatus were moderately sensitive to the latex extracts tested. Among the plants, latex of Thevetia peruviana (75.2%) and Artocarpus heterophyllus (64.8%) were having potential antifungal activity against the isolates followed by Manilkara zapota (51.1%). In conclusion, use of plant latex makes interest to control postharvest fungal diseases and is fitting well with the concept of safety for human health and environment.

  2. Effect of different post harvest treatments on physical characteristics of custard apple fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Alpana; Chouksey, Swati; Deshmukh, Reena; Thakur, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted with the objective to see the effect of different post harvest treatments on physical characteristics of custard apple fruits. Fruits were treated with different doses of gamma radiation ranging from 0.25 to 1.75 kGy in combination with antioxidant i.e. Benzyl Adenine (BA) at the rate of 50 and 100 ppm and stored for 12 days at ambient temperature (25 ± 5 deg C, RH 90 ± 2 %) during winter season. Fruits treated with low doses of gamma radiation i.e. upto 1.00 kGy along with 50 ppm benzyl adenine extended the shelf life of fruits up to 6 days as compared to untreated fruits as well as fruits treated with higher doses of radiation. A decreasing trend in physiological weight loss (PLW) and percentage of marketable fruits was observed with increase in radiation doses. This promises to provide advantage to producers for transhipment of custard apple fruits in good and acceptable condition. (author)

  3. Pre and post harvest IPM for the mango fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verghese, Abraham; Sreedevi, K.; Nagaraju, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    The fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of mango in India. So, investigations were carried out to standardize an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for fruit fly-free and residue-free mango fruits. The study required orchard and laboratory studies, which were conducted on the commercial variety Banganapalli, at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore, India, during 2004 and 2005. Results showed that a pre harvest IPM combination of male annihilation technique (MAT) (using methyl eugenol as a lure) + sanitation brought down B. dorsalis infestation to 5.00% from an infestation ranging from 17 to 66% in control in both years. An additional cover spray of Decamethrin 2.8EC 0.5ml/l (which is half the recommended dose) + Azadirachtin (0.03 %) 2ml/l (neem based botanical) gave 100% control in both the years. Post harvest treatments with hot water at 48 degree C for 60 and 75 min resulted in 100% control at both the time regimes in 2004 and 2005. The untreated fruits, which were also exposed to gravid females (but not treated in hot water) showed 30% and 5.5% infestations, respectively, in 2004 and 2005. (author)

  4. Detection of Aflatoxin Producing Aspergillus flavus in Post-harvest Contaminated Vigna ungulculata Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Gautam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with a specific objective to study postharvest spoilage of Lobhiya (Vigna unguiculata seeds contaminated with Aspergillus flavus. Infected seeds were collected and cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA media, at 25±2 °C. Aspergillus flavus isolates were primarily characterized by its morphological and microscopic characteristics. Collected fungal isolates were also screened for their afaltoxigenic nature on preliminary basis and at molecular level. For preliminary screening, 5 mm disc of fungal culture was soaked with few drops of liquid ammonia. Color change from yellow pigment to plum-red with different intensities showed the mycotoxic nature of the fungus. DNA from fungal isolates was isolated and amplified using PCR with aflatoxin specific primers, apa-2, ver-1 and omt-1. Amplicons of 1032 bp, 895 bp and 596 bp were obtained in most of the isolates regardless of primer set used which was useful to differentiate between mycotoxic and nontoxic isolates of A. flavus. The isolation of aflatoxigenic strains of A. flavus during post-harvest period of lobhiya seeds raise a serious concern over the quality of seeds and a threat to heath of consumers. It was concluded that Aspergillus flavus is responsible for postharvest spolilage of Lobhiya (Vigna unguiculata.

  5. Enhancing post harvest storage life of peach fruits using calcium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.; Afridi, S.R.; Khan, R.U.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The present study was conducted to enhance the post harvest storage life of peach fruits using calcium chloride treatments. CaCl/sub 2/ solution at 1 % (T1 ), 2 % (T2 ) and 3 % (T3) were prepared and the fruits were dipped for five minutes, while (To) was left with out calcium chloride treatment as control. The fruits were packed in corrugated soft board cartons and stored at ambient temperature (35 degree C + 2) for a total period of 15 days. The physicochemical analysis such as weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), decay index, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content and overall sensory acceptability were determined at an interval of three days up to the successful completion of the study. A significant decrease was observed in fruit firmness (1.8-0.3 kg), % acidity (0.950- 0.538), ascorbic acid content (7.06-4.67 mg/100g) and overall sensory acceptability (8.4-2.3), while a significant increase was observed in TSS (8.2-11.9 degree brix), decay index (0-72.64 %) and % weight loss (0-11.3) during storage. Results showed that one and two percent calcium chloride treated fruits have little improvement while fruits treated with 3 % calcium chloride were found to be most acceptable as per physico-chemical analyses and over all sensory acceptability result. (author)

  6. Pre and post harvest IPM for the mango fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verghese, Abraham; Sreedevi, K.; Nagaraju, D.K., E-mail: avergis@iihr.ernet.i [Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2006-07-01

    The fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of mango in India. So, investigations were carried out to standardize an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for fruit fly-free and residue-free mango fruits. The study required orchard and laboratory studies, which were conducted on the commercial variety Banganapalli, at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore, India, during 2004 and 2005. Results showed that a pre harvest IPM combination of male annihilation technique (MAT) (using methyl eugenol as a lure) + sanitation brought down B. dorsalis infestation to 5.00% from an infestation ranging from 17 to 66% in control in both years. An additional cover spray of Decamethrin 2.8EC 0.5ml/l (which is half the recommended dose) + Azadirachtin (0.03 %) 2ml/l (neem based botanical) gave 100% control in both the years. Post harvest treatments with hot water at 48 degree C for 60 and 75 min resulted in 100% control at both the time regimes in 2004 and 2005. The untreated fruits, which were also exposed to gravid females (but not treated in hot water) showed 30% and 5.5% infestations, respectively, in 2004 and 2005. (author)

  7. POST-HARVEST QUALITY OF ONION 'ATACAMA' PRODUCED WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio Figueiredo Neto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The onion is an economically important crop for Brazil and its production is increasing in several regions of the country. The Northeast region uses onion seeds of lower quality than other regions of Brazil, and this causes lower production. The region of the São Francisco Valley is considered of great agricultural potential and many companies are investing in agriculture. So, researchers develop varieties of onions to suit the conditions of the semi-arid northeast. This study aimed to evaluate the physical and chemical conditions of the onion híbrida ‘Atacama’, produced at the experimental station of EMBRAPA in Mandacaru, Juazeiro-BA. The experiments were performed on the storage of agricultural products of the College of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering UNIVASF, where it was observed that the bulbs stored at refrigeration temperature have lower mass loss laboratory than fruits stored at room temperature. Onion color after 30 days storage darkens and the steadiness decreases as the fruit is stored. There were no variations in the quality of post- harvest onion by varying the dosage of 120 kg/ha and 70 kg/ha of nitrogen.

  8. Effect of irradiation on the post-harvest life of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahboob, F.; Badshah, N.; Jabeen, N.; Ayub, G.

    2004-01-01

    Research work was conducted to find out the effect of irradiation on the post-harvest life of potatoes. Cultivar Raja was obtained from Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab, and irradiated by Cobalt-60 source at different doses 0, 5, 7.5, 10 and 15 Krad at the Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Tarnab during the year 2002. The samples were then stored for three months at the Horticultural Research Farm, Malakandher, at a room temperature of 30-39 degree C and relative humidity of 29-63%. Various tests carried out at Food Science laboratory revealed that irradiation significantly affected the weight loss, sugars, starch, ascorbic acid, sprouting and specific gravity. It was observed that maximum sprouting has occurred in control (42.1%) followed by 5 Krad irradiated tubers (6.4%). While irradiation doses of 7.5, 10 and 15 Krad completely inhibited sprouting. Maximum percent decrease in weight (42.66%), reducing sugars (0.57%), non reducing sugars (0.87%), starch (12%), ascorbic acid (32%) and specific gravity (4%) were recorded for control while minimum percent decrease in weight (31.40%), reducing sugars (0.19%), non-reducing sugars (0.27%), starch (8.0%), ascorbic acid (12%) and specific gravity (1.7%) were noted for IS Krad irradiated tubers. Irradiation dose of 7.5 Krad seems to be better for the extension of shelf life of potatoes

  9. Post-harvest UVC irradiation effect on anthocyanin profile of grape berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas, I. de; Ponce, M.; Gargantini, R.; Martinez, L.

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a class of phenolic compounds that contribute to the color of red grapes and have shown nutraceutical properties for human health. UVC light irradiation has been proved to increase phenolic compounds such as stilbenes, but its effect on anthocyanins has not been reported. The aim of this work was to identify the best treatment conditions of UVC light irradiation on post-harvest berries of Malbec (M), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Tempranillo (T) for anthocyanin increments. Grape berries were irradiated with 240 W at 20 and 40 cm from the light source, for 30, 60 and 120 seconds. Both, irradiated and control grapes were stored on darkness at 20 C degree until anthocyanin extraction with methanol/ClH. HPLC analysis were performed and nine anthocyanins were quantified. UVC light irradiation modified the anthocyanin profile of the three cultivars. All the glucoside anthocyanins derivates and peonidin-acetyl-glucoside, as well as total anthocyanins were increased when CS berries were exposed to UVC for 120 s at 40 cm. This suggests that UVC stimulated the entire biosynthetic pathway. The anthocyanin content of the control berries was always higher than the treatments with UVC on M and T, making necessary to evaluate less rigorous conditions for these varieties. (authors)

  10. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Petropoulos, Spyridon; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-11-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is considered one of the twenty most important vegetables, with various uses throughout the world, either as a raw vegetable for culinary purposes, or as an ingredient of traditional and modern medicine. Furthermore, it has also been proposed as one of the richest sources of total phenolic compounds, among the usually consumed vegetables, and has been highly ranked regarding its contribution of phenolic compounds to human diet. This review aims to examine all the aspects related with garlic chemical composition and quality, focusing on its bioactive properties. A particular emphasis is given on the organosulfur compounds content, since they highly contribute to the effective bioactive properties of garlic, including its derived products. The important effects of pre-harvest (genotype and various cultivation practices) and post-harvest conditions (storage conditions and processing treatments) on chemical composition and, consequently, bioactive potency of garlic are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Feasibility of Radiation Processing for Post-Harvest Storage of Potatoes Under Tropical Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.; Srirangarajan, A. N.; Padwal-Desai, S. R.; Ghanekar, A. S.; Shirsat, S. G.; Pendharkar, M. B.; Nair, P. M.; Nadkarni, G. B. [Biochemistry and Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1978-04-15

    Storage changes after gamma irradiation (10 krad) of five commercial varieties of potatoes, Kufri Chandramukhi, K. Kuber, K. Alankar, K. Sheetman and K. Sinduri, grown in India were ascertained to arrive at optimal storage conditions. The radiation treatment could completely inhibit sprouting in all the varieties, irrespective of storage temperature, in addition to eliminating the tuber moth Pthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The temperature-dependent total losses could be attributed to microbial rotting and dehydration. The organisms causing soft rot at temperatures above 15 Degree-Sign C belonged to Erwinia spp., while the rot caused below 10 Degree-Sign C was essentially due to Micrococcus spp. Irradiation followed by storage at cool temperatures (10-15 Degree-Sign C) offers an alternative method, comparable with conventional refrigerated (2-4 Degree-Sign C) storage. The irradiated potatoes were not amenable to the attack of toxigenic fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus during storage. This could be attributed to phenolic compounds present in the tubers. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), involved in the metabolism of phenolic compounds, showed enhancement in the irradiated potatoes. The extent of radiation induced activation of PAL is suggested as a biochemical parameter for identifying irradiated tubers. (author)

  12. Post-harvest processing methods for reduction of silica and alkali metals in wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David N; Shaw, Peter G; Lacey, Jeffrey A

    2003-01-01

    Silica and alkali metals in wheat straw limit its use for bioenergy and gasification. Slag deposits occur via the eutectic melting of SiO2 with K2O, trapping chlorides at surfaces and causing corrosion. A minimum melting point of 950 degrees C is desirable, corresponding to an SiO2:K2O weight ratio of about 3:1. Mild chemical treatments were used to reduce Si, K, and Cl, while varying temperature, concentration, % solids, and time. Dilute acid was more effective at removing K and Cl, while dilute alkali was more effective for Si. Reduction of minerals in this manner may prove economical for increasing utilization of the straw for combustion or gasification.

  13. Feasibility of radiation processing for post-harvest storage of potatoes under tropical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Srirangarajan, A.N.; Padwal-Desai, S.R.; Ghanekar, A.S.; Shirsat, S.G.; Pendharkar, M.B.; Nair, P.M.; Nadkarni, G.B.

    1978-01-01

    Storage changes after gamma irradiation (10krad) of five commercial varieties of potatoes, Kufri Chandramukhi, K. Kuber, K. Alankar, K. Sheetman and K. Sinduri, grown in India were ascertained to arrive at optimal storage conditions. The radiation treatment could completely inhibit sprouting in all the varieties, irrespective of storage temperature, in addition to eliminating the tuber moth Pthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The temperature-dependent total losses could be attributed to microbial rotting and dehydration. The organisms causing soft rot at temperatures above 15 0 C belonged to Erwinia spp., while the rot caused below 10 0 C was essentially due to Micrococcus spp. Irradiation followed by storage at cool temperatures (10-15 0 C) offers an alternative method, comparable with conventional refrigerated (2-4 0 C) storage. The irradiated potatoes were not amenable to the attack of toxigenic fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus during storage. This could be attributed to phenolic compounds present in the tubers. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), involved in the metabolism of phenolic compounds, showed enhancement in the irradiated potatoes. The extent of radiation-induced activation of PAL is suggested as a biochemical parameter for identifying irradiated tubers. (author)

  14. Post-Harvest Processing Methods for Reduction of Silica and Alkali Metals in Wheat Straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David Neal; Lacey, Jeffrey Alan; Shaw, Peter Gordon

    2002-04-01

    Silica and alkali metals in wheat straw limit its use for bioenergy and gasification. Slag deposits occur via the eutectic melting of SiO2 with K2O, trapping chlorides at surfaces and causing corrosion. A minimum melting point of 950°C is desirable, corresponding to SiO2:K2O of about 3:1. Mild chemical treatments were used to reduce Si, K, and Cl, while varying temperature, concentration, %-solids, and time. Dilute acid was more effective at removing K and Cl, while dilute alkali was more effective for Si. Reduction of minerals in this manner may prove economical for increasing utilization of the straw for combustion or gasification.

  15. Gamma irradiation of Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit as a post-harvest technique and its subsequent effect on some phytochemicals, free scavenging activity and physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darfour, B.; Agbenyegah, S.; Ofosu, D.O.; Okyere, A.A.; Asare, I.K.

    2014-01-01

    Herbs, spices and medicinal plants have been cherished by many ancient cultures for their use in curing common ailments and promoting good health. The dry fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera has a pleasant aroma and hence used as a spice for seasoning in many parts of Ghana. Contamination of the fruit can occur at any stage during harvesting, drying, processing, transportation and storage. T. tetraptera is prone to microbial contamination and insect infestation resulting in quality deterioration and economic loss. The study aimed at establishing the effect of gamma irradiation as a post-harvest processing technique on T. tetraptera fruit and the subsequent effect of the gamma irradiation on some phytochemicals, free radical scavenging activity and physicochemical properties. The T. tetraptera powder was packed in polythene bags and gamma irradiated with Cobalt 60 source at 5 kGy and 10 kGy at room temperature at a dose rate of 2 kGy/h. The total phenolic content, total flavonoid and DPPH free radical scavenging activity, pH, lactic acid, vitamin C, moisture, carbohydrate, protein and trace element content of the samples were analysed. The antioxidant potential of the T. tetraptera extract was observed to be enhanced in the solvent used for the extraction after the irradiation but not the radiation dose used. Irradiation only had substantial impacts on carbohydrate and protein, Cu, Mg, and Mn. The T. tetraptera studied was safe for human consumption as far as trace metal levels are concerned. This study therefore suggest that gamma irradiation up to 10 kGy could be used as a post-harvest technique in T. tetraptera as a spice or herb. - Highlights: • The doses used did not affect the phytochemicals and radical scavenging activity. • The antioxidant potential were enhanced by the solvent used in extraction. • Irradiation had substantial impacts on carbohydrate and protein, Cu, Mg, and Mn. • Tetrapleura tetraptera is safe to consume as far as trace mental levels

  16. Gamma irradiation of Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit as a post-harvest technique and its subsequent effect on some phytochemicals, free scavenging activity and physicochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darfour, B.; Agbenyegah, S.; Ofosu, D. O.; Okyere, A. A.; Asare, I. K.

    2014-09-01

    Herbs, spices and medicinal plants have been cherished by many ancient cultures for their use in curing common ailments and promoting good health. The dry fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera has a pleasant aroma and hence used as a spice for seasoning in many parts of Ghana. Contamination of the fruit can occur at any stage during harvesting, drying, processing, transportation and storage. T. tetraptera is prone to microbial contamination and insect infestation resulting in quality deterioration and economic loss. The study aimed at establishing the effect of gamma irradiation as a post-harvest processing technique on T. tetraptera fruit and the subsequent effect of the gamma irradiation on some phytochemicals, free radical scavenging activity and physicochemical properties. The T. tetraptera powder was packed in polythene bags and gamma irradiated with Cobalt 60 source at 5 kGy and 10 kGy at room temperature at a dose rate of 2 kGy/h. The total phenolic content, total flavonoid and DPPH free radical scavenging activity, pH, lactic acid, vitamin C, moisture, carbohydrate, protein and trace element content of the samples were analysed. The antioxidant potential of the T. tetraptera extract was observed to be enhanced in the solvent used for the extraction after the irradiation but not the radiation dose used. Irradiation only had substantial impacts on carbohydrate and protein, Cu, Mg, and Mn. The T. tetraptera studied was safe for human consumption as far as trace metal levels are concerned. This study therefore suggest that gamma irradiation up to 10 kGy could be used as a post-harvest technique in T. tetraptera as a spice or herb.

  17. Post-harvest treatments in smooth-stalked meadow grass (Poa pratensis L.) - effect on carbohydrates and tiller development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte

    2007-01-01

    Temperate grass species require a period of short days/low temperature to respond to flower induction stimuli. The same environmental conditions stimulate the increase in carbohydrate concentration in aboveground biomass and the accumulation of reserve carbohydrates in the basal plant parts....... The present investigation was initiated to investigate the effect of post-harvest treatments on dry matter production in autumn, carbohydrate content, the number of reproductive tillers and seed yield in a turf-type cultivar ‘Conni' of smooth-stalked meadow grass. The results show that post-harvest treatments...... harvest and all residues removed. The results from plant samples in autumn indicate that decreasing aboveground biomass production leads to a higher carbohydrate concentration which may stimulate the reproductive development in smooth-stalked meadow grass....

  18. Post-Harvest Deterioration of Cassava and its Control Using Extracts of Azadirachta Indica and Aframomum Melegueta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Okigbo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvest deterioration is the most important cause of loss in cassava production and this is mainly as a result of microbial invasion of the tubers. This research was therefore carried out to identify and control the organisms responsible for post-harvest deterioration of cassava tubers. Ethanolic and water extractions of Azadirachta Indica (A. Juss leaves and Aframomum melegueta (Schumann seeds were used as antifungal agents and the susceptibility of four of the isolated pathogenic fungi to them was observed in culture. The tested organisms were Aspergillus niger Van Tiegh, Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat, Fusarium solani (Mart. Sacc and Penicillium oxalicum Currie and Thom. All tested organisms showed different degrees of inhibitions by the extracts with A. niger being the most inhibited by ethanolic extraction of A. melegueta. The overall result showed that A. indica was more active on the organisms though it’s effects and that of A. melegueta were not significantly different (P>0.05.

  19. Effect of pre-harvest fruit bagging on post-harvest quality of guava cv. Swarupkathi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mokter Hossain

    2018-04-01

    The investigation was carried out at Germplasm Centre (BAU-GPC, Bangladesh Agricultural University, during March to July 2016 in order to investigate the effect of pre-harvest fruit bagging on post-harvest quality of guava cv. Swarupkathi. Four different bagging materials viz. brown paper bag, white paper bag, white polythene bag, black polythene bag included for the study and uncovered fruits were used as control treatment. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Fruit bagging treatments showed significant effects on different parameters studied. It was observed that fruit size, fruit weight, vitamin C concentration, and moisture content increased due to fruit bagging. Fruits were gained maximum in size (6.59 cm length, 5.86 cm diameter and weight (164.26 g under white paper bag followed by white polythene bag (131.3g. The skin color of fruits was very attractive in case of white paper bag than that of other treatments. Total soluble solid concentration of the fruit was found maximum (12.33% Brix under brown paper bag while maximum vitamin C concentration (162.14 mg 100 g-1 was recorded under white paper bag. Uncovered fruits showed maximum total sugar, non-reducing sugar, reducing sugar concentrations (10.13%, 6.05%, 4.08%, respectively.The results revealed that fruit bagging in general, improved the growth and quality of guava fruits as compared to control. Among the various fruit covering materials, white paper bag was found to be the best for overall improvement of physical and chemical quality of guava cv. Swarupkathi. [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(1.000: 363-371

  20. Continuing Climate Warming Will Result in Failure of Post-Harvest Natural Regeneration across the Landscape in Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, M.; Juday, G. P.; Huettmann, F.

    2016-12-01

    Following forest disturbance, the stand initiation stage decisively influences future forest structure. Understanding post-harvest regeneration, especially under climate change, is essential to predicting future carbon stores in this extensive forest biome. We apply IPCC B1, A1B, and A2 climate scenarios to generate plausible future forest conditions under different management. We recorded presence of white spruce, birch, and aspen in 726 plots on 30 state forest white spruce harvest units. We built spatially explicit models and scenarios of species presence/absence using TreeNet (Stochastic Gradient Boosting). Post-harvest tree regeneration predictions in calibration data closely matched the validation set, indicating tree regeneration scenarios are reliable. Early stage post-harvest regeneration is similar to post-fire regeneration and matches the pattern of long-term natural vegetation distribution, confirming that site environmental factors are more important than management practices. Post-harvest natural regeneration of tree species increases under moderate warming scenarios, but fails under strong warming scenarios in landscape positions with high temperatures and low precipitation. Under all warming scenarios, the most successful regenerating species following white spruce harvest is white spruce. Birch experiences about 30% regeneration failure under A2 scenario by 2050. White spruce and aspen are projected to regenerate more successfully when site preparation is applied. Although white spruce has been the major managed species, birch may require more intensive management. Sites likely to experience regeneration failure of current tree species apparently will experience biome shift, although adaptive migration of existing or new species might be an option. Our scenario modeling tool allows resource managers to forecast tree regeneration on productive managed sites that have made a disproportionate contribution to carbon flux in a critical region.

  1. The use of gamma radiation aiming to post harvest conservation of Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. var. Cantaloupensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Alessandra Aparecida Zilio Cozzo de

    2007-01-01

    Although Brazilian fruit culture has been growing in the international market, the fruit quality and the post harvest technology have not been improved properly. In Brazil, fruit nutritional factors are very important because of their potential to provide suitable nutrients for a significant part of the Country population. Some post harvest technologies, such as ionizing radiation, can keep the physical, chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics of the natural fruit, improving the quality of the fruits in the market. This work evaluated the effects of Cobalt 60 irradiation in Cantaloupe melon, aiming the post harvest conservation during 7 days of storage, at a temperature ranging from 20 to 22 deg C. The doses of irradiation were set to 0, 150, 300, 450, 600, 750 and 900 Gy, based on the multiple of 150 Gy quarantine dose, aiming to establish the lowest, the highest and the ideal doses. Afterwards, physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics of irradiated fruit were checked and, finally, the sensorial characteristics through acceptability test. Results indicated that the doses higher than 450 Gy affected firmness, pulp yield and color (L and a * ) parameters. Nevertheless, analyzing physical, chemical and nutritional parameters, doses of 450 and 900 Gy kept pH, tetrable acidity, soluble solids, color (a * and b * ), chlorophyll and carotenoids, phenolic compounds, respiratory rate and ethylene level. The storage period was the most important factor that affected the quality of the fruit, despite of the radiation doses. Based on the acceptability test, the best evaluated fruits were from the treatments of 450 and 900 Gy. This work allowed to conclude that fruit radiation is an appropriate technology for Cantaloupe melon post harvest conservation, but it is necessary to be used in combination with other technologies, especially to fungi control. (author)

  2. Influence of gamma rays and some pre and post harvest treatments on behavior of some fruits during cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Apricot fruits usually harvested relatively mature but hard enough to withstand-post harvest handling through the marketing chain. These fruits have considerably lower edible quality than tree-ripened fruit. Fruit quality can be improved by delaying harvest least until physiological maturation is completed on the tree (Bonghi et al. 1999) Apricots containing 11% soluble solids concentration, or higher are in high demand by consumers, as fruit have developed considerable taste, aroma and handling for long distance markets. (Kader, 1999). These fruit will be highly perishable, so rapid cold storage to the lowest safe temperature and supplementary treatments (Mc Donald et al, 1999) such as irradiation with the recommend doses (Sillano et al, 1994) or pre-storage heat treatments will be necessary to retard ripening (mainly softening) during 1-2 weeks post harvest life necessary for distribution to distant markets (Mc Donald et al 1999). Therefore, one can conclude that spraying Canino apricot and Dessert Red peach trees with calcium chloride at 5% or Soya bean oil at 2% showed beneficial effects as pre harvest treatments where they increased fruit firmness and improved fruit quality and prolonged storage and marketing periods as well as decreasing weight loss and percentage of discarded fruits. In addition, spaying Manfaloti pomegrates trees with CaCl 2 solution at 7.5% or Soya bean oil at 4% gained the same results.As for the post harvest treatments, results indicated that subjecting Canino apricots and Dessert Red peaches to gamma radiation at 0.5 K.Gy and pomegrates to 1.0 K.Gy proved to be the best treatments where they reduced respiration rate and loss in fruit weight and improved fruit quality and prolonged both storage and marketing periods

  3. Study on freshness quality and post-harvest loss of Hilsa (Tenualosa Ilisha during marketing in Mymensingh town, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Chandra Ray

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to know the freshness quality and associated post-harvest loss of hilsa, if any, transported to Mymensingh from the major landing centers through Cox’s Bazar-Chittagong (route A and Barguna-Chandpur (route B routes for a period of July to October 2012. The average environmental temperature of the wholesale and retail markets was 30.7 °C and 30.6 °C where the body temperature of hilsa was 4.5 °C (route A and 4.7 °C (route B, respectively. The Freshness quality of hilsa was assessed using sensory defects points (DPs that eventually gave rise to numerical values ‘1’ being the freshest and ‘5’ being the worst quality. The DPs of hilsa were found 2.0, which reveal that the fishes were in excellent conditions, i.e., there was no significant post-harvest loss even during retail sale. DPs on arrival and at wholesale in July, September and October were significantly different after auction and during retail sale (p<0.05, and in August differed significantly only during retail sale (p<0.05. It was observed that hilsa transported to Mymensingh from Barguna-Chandpur were better in quality than those transported from Cox’s Bazar-Chittagong. The reason behind this finding was not studied and this needs to be elucidated through further research.

  4. Comparative proteomics of oxalate downregulated tomatoes points towards cross talk of signal components and metabolic consequences during post-harvest storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Narula

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of angiosperms evolved intricate regulatory machinery for sensorial attributes and storage quality after harvesting. Organic acid composition of storage organs forms the molecular and biochemical basis of organoleptic and nutritional qualities with metabolic specialization. Of these, oxalic acid (OA, determines the post-harvest quality in fruits. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum fruit have distinctive feature to undergo a shift from heterotrophic metabolism to carbon assimilation partitioning during storage. We have earlier shown that decarboxylative degradation of OA by FvOXDC leads to acid homeostasis besides increased fungal tolerance in E8.2-OXDC tomato. Here, we elucidate the metabolic consequences of oxalate down-regulation and molecular mechanisms that determine organoleptic features, signaling and hormonal regulation in E8.2-OXDC fruit during post-harvest storage. A comparative proteomics approach has been applied between wild-type and E8.2-OXDC tomato in temporal manner. The MS/MS analyses led to the identification of 32 and 39 differentially abundant proteins associated with primary and secondary metabolism, assimilation, biogenesis, and development in wild-type and E8.2-OXDC tomatoes, respectively. Next, we interrogated the proteome data using correlation network analysis that identified significant functional hubs pointing toward storage related coinciding processes through a common mechanism of function and modulation. Furthermore, physiochemical analyses exhibited reduced oxalic acid content with concomitant increase in citric acid, lycopene and marginal decrease in malic acid in E8.2-OXDC fruit. Nevertheless, E8.2-OXDC fruit maintained an optimal pH and a steady state acid pool. These might contribute to reorganization of pectin constituent, reduced membrane leakage and improved fruit firmness in E8.2-OXDC fruit with that of wild-type tomato during storage. Collectively, our study provides insights into kinetically controlled

  5. Producción y beneficio de semilla de cilantro Production and Post-harvest Handling of Coriander Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Enrique Puga Santos

    2008-10-01

    .42 kg hour-1, followed by threshing by beating with a stick (36.97 kg hour-1 and use of a threshing board (11.41 kg hour-1. Threshing by beating produced the cleanest material with the fewest fissures. The percentage of broken fruits was similar for the three threshing systems. Winnowing produced the lowest seed loss (92.3% recovery and the highest index of removal of inert material (78.1%. Plant population, harvest method, threshing system, and post-harvest handling did not affect the physical and physiological quality of coriander seed. Average germination was 92%, and plant vigor, measured as the speed of emergence index, was, on average, 8 seedlings day-1. Average seed moisture was 11.9%.

  6. iTRAQ-based analysis of changes in the cassava root proteome reveals pathways associated with post-harvest physiological deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owiti, Judith; Grossmann, Jonas; Gehrig, Peter; Dessimoz, Christophe; Laloi, Christophe; Hansen, Maria Benn; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2011-07-01

    The short storage life of harvested cassava roots is an important constraint that limits the full potential of cassava as a commercial food crop in developing countries. We investigated the molecular changes during physiological deterioration of cassava root after harvesting using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) of proteins in soluble and non-soluble fractions prepared during a 96 h post-harvest time course. Combining bioinformatic approaches to reduce information redundancy for unsequenced or partially sequenced plant species, we established a comprehensive proteome map of the cassava root and identified quantitatively regulated proteins. Up-regulation of several key proteins confirmed that physiological deterioration of cassava root after harvesting is an active process, with 67 and 170 proteins, respectively, being up-regulated early and later after harvesting. This included regulated proteins that had not previously been associated with physiological deterioration after harvesting, such as linamarase, glutamic acid-rich protein, hydroxycinnamoyl transferase, glycine-rich RNA binding protein, β-1,3-glucanase, pectin methylesterase, maturase K, dehydroascorbate reductase, allene oxide cyclase, and proteins involved in signal pathways. To confirm the regulation of these proteins, activity assays were performed for selected enzymes. Together, our results show that physiological deterioration after harvesting is a highly regulated complex process involving proteins that are potential candidates for biotechnology approaches to reduce such deterioration. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. 2-D zymographic analysis of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) florets proteases: follow up of cysteine protease isotypes in the course of post-harvest senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Riccio, Paolo

    2011-09-01

    Zymographic analysis of Broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) revealed the presence of acidic metallo-proteases, serine proteases and cysteine proteases. Under conditions which were denaturing for the other proteases, the study was restricted to cysteine proteases. 2-D zymography, a technique that combines IEF and zymography was used to show the presence of 11 different cysteine protease spots with molecular mass of 44 and 47-48kDa and pIs ranging between 4.1 and 4.7. pI differences could be ascribed to different degrees of phosphorylation that partly disappeared in the presence of alkaline phosphatase. Post-harvest senescence of Broccoli florets was characterized by decrease in protein and chlorophyll contents and increase of protease activity. In particular, as determined by 2-D zymography, the presence of cysteine protease clearly increased during senescence, a finding that may represent a useful tool for the control of the aging process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Genetic, Pre- and Post-Harvest Factors on Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of White Asparagus Spears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, Eleftherios; Siomos, Anastasios S.; Koukounaras, Athanasios; Gerasopoulos, Dimitrios; Kazakis, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    The effects of genetic, pre-harvest (season of harvest, spear diameter, spear portion and spear tip color) and post-harvest factors (storage and domestic preparation practices, e.g., peeling and cooking) on total phenolic, flavonoid and ascorbic acid content of white asparagus spears and their correlation with antioxidant capacity (DPPH and FRAP) were studied. Results showed that genetic material was important for the total phenolic content but not season of harvest, spear diameter or storage. Violet spear tips and apical spear portions showed the largest amount of total phenolics. Peeling did not affect total phenolics in fresh asparagus, whereas it reduced their content in stored asparagus, while cooking resulted in an increase in both fresh and stored asparagus. However, the soluble extract of total phenolics and flavonoids were minor and the missing significance of phenolics and flavonoids in antioxidant capacity of white asparagus spears depends on these small amounts. PMID:20054475

  9. Effects of Genetic, Pre- and Post-Harvest Factors on Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of White Asparagus Spears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Kazakis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of genetic, pre-harvest (season of harvest, spear diameter, spear portion and spear tip color and post-harvest factors (storage and domestic preparation practices, e.g., peeling and cooking on total phenolic, flavonoid and ascorbic acid content of white asparagus spears and their correlation with antioxidant capacity (DPPH and FRAP were studied. Results showed that genetic material was important for the total phenolic content but not season of harvest, spear diameter or storage. Violet spear tips and apical spear portions showed the largest amount of total phenolics. Peeling did not affect total phenolics in fresh asparagus, whereas it reduced their content in stored asparagus, while cooking resulted in an increase in both fresh and stored asparagus. However, the soluble extract of total phenolics and flavonoids were minor and the missing significance of phenolics and flavonoids in antioxidant capacity of white asparagus spears depends on these small amounts.

  10. Delayed post-harvest ripening-associated changes in Manilkara zapota L. var. Kalipatti with composite edible coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwasrao, Chandrahas; Ananthanarayan, Laxmi

    2017-01-01

    There has been limited research on extending the shelf-life of sapota (Manilkara zapota L. var. Kalipatti) fruit. An edible coating made up of methyl cellulose (MC) and palm oil (PO) was applied to study the extension in shelf-life. Changes in physical and chemical properties of fruit were studied along with peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and pectin methylesterase (PME) activities during post-harvest ripening of sapota. The fruits coated with 15 g L -1 MC and 11.25 g L -1 PO showed significant (P edible coating made up of MC-PO has potential to maintain the quality of sapota fruit. The edible coating extended the shelf-life of sapota fruit by 3 days preserving fruit quality up to 7 days at 24 ± 1 °C and 65 ± 5 %RH. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Improving the Keeping Quality and Vase Life of Cut Alstroemeria Flowers by Pre and Post-harvest Salicylic Acid Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz SOLEIMANY-FARD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Keeping quality and length of vase life are important factors for evaluation of cut flowers quality, for both domestic and export markets. Studding the effect of pre- and post-harvest salicylic acid applications on keeping quality and vase life of cut alstroemeria flowers during vase period is the approach taken. Aqueous solutions of salicylic acid at 0.0 (with distilled water, 1, 2 and 3 mM were sprayed to run-off (approximately 500 mL per plant, about two weeks before flowers harvest. The cut flowers were harvested in the early morning and both of cut flowers treated (sprayed and untreated were kept in vase solutions containing salicylic acid at 0.0 (with distilled water, 1, 2 and 3 mM. Sucrose at 4% was added to all treatments as a base solution. The changes in relative fresh weight, water uptake, water loss, water balance, total chlorophyll content and vase life were estimated during vase period. The results showed that the relative fresh weight, water uptake, water balance, total chlorophyll content and vase life decreased significantly while the water loss increased significantly during experiment for all treatments. A significant difference between salicylic acid and control treatments in all measured parameters is observed. During vase period, the salicylic acid treatments maintained significantly a more favourable relative fresh weight, water uptake, water balance, total chlorophyll content and supressed significantly water loss, as compared to control treatment. Also, the results showed that the using salicylic acid increased significantly the vase life cut alstroemeria flowers, over control. The highest values of measured parameters were found when plants were treated by pre + post-harvest application of salicylic acid at 3 mM. The result revealed that the quality attributes and vase life of cut alstroemeria flowers were improved by the use of salicylic acid treatment.

  12. Post-harvest practices linked with ochratoxin A contamination of coffee in three provinces of Cordillera Administrative Region, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelo, Jonathan M; Barcelo, Racquel C

    2018-02-01

    One of the emerging concerns in the Cordillera Administrative Region, Philippines is ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in coffee. During 2015 to 2016, a total of 51 Arabica (Coffea arabica) coffee samples from Benguet province and 71 Robusta (Coffea canephora var. Robusta) coffee samples from the provinces of Ifugao and Kalinga were analysed for OTA contamination. The OTA-producing fungal contaminants during drying and storage of Arabica and Robusta coffee were Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus ochraceus. Ochratoxin A was more commonly detected in Robusta coffee (36.6%) than in Arabica coffee (21.6%). Among the contaminated samples, Robusta coffee cherries in the drying yard had the highest mean OTA level (120.2 μg kg -1 , n = 10) while roasted Robusta coffee beans had the lowest mean level (4.8 μg kg -1 , n = 9). The onset of contamination of Arabica coffee occurred during storage, with a mean OTA level of 46.7 μg kg -1 (n = 9). Roasted coffee had lower OTA content although five samples had levels >5.0 μg kg -1 . Pearson Chi-square analysis (χ 2 ) and Fisher's exact test revealed that several post-harvest practices involving non-removal of the husk or hull and mixing of defective coffee were significantly associated with the occurrence of OTA during drying and storage (p coffee in all stages of post-harvest and rapid reduction of moisture content particularly during drying.

  13. Scaling Up Small Millet Post-Harvest and Nutritious Food Products ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Technology solutions to improve processing Processing millets for modern food ... Small scale, large impact By the end of the project, two new business models will be ... The Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning/McGill University.

  14. Bioactive Compounds of Blueberries: Post-Harvest Factors Influencing the Nutritional Value of Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Michalska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries, besides having commonly-recognized taste properties, are also a valuable source of health-promoting bioactive compounds. For several decades, blueberries have gained in popularity all over the world, and recent years have seen not only an increase in fresh consumption, but also in the importance of blueberries for the processing industry. Blueberry processing mostly consists of freezing and juicing. Recently, more attention has been drawn to dewatering and drying, which are promising areas for developing novel blueberry products. Processing affects each biologically-active compound in a different way, and it is still unknown what changes those compounds undergo at the molecular level after the application of different processing technologies. This work presents the most recent state of knowledge about the pre-treatment and processing methods applied to blueberries and their influence on the content of biologically-active compounds. The presentation of methods is preceded by a brief overview of the characteristics of the blueberry species, a description of the chemical composition of the fruit and a short note about the main growing areas, production volumes and the management of fruit crops.

  15. Bioactive Compounds of Blueberries: Post-Harvest Factors Influencing the Nutritional Value of Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Łysiak, Grzegorz

    2015-08-10

    Blueberries, besides having commonly-recognized taste properties, are also a valuable source of health-promoting bioactive compounds. For several decades, blueberries have gained in popularity all over the world, and recent years have seen not only an increase in fresh consumption, but also in the importance of blueberries for the processing industry. Blueberry processing mostly consists of freezing and juicing. Recently, more attention has been drawn to dewatering and drying, which are promising areas for developing novel blueberry products. Processing affects each biologically-active compound in a different way, and it is still unknown what changes those compounds undergo at the molecular level after the application of different processing technologies. This work presents the most recent state of knowledge about the pre-treatment and processing methods applied to blueberries and their influence on the content of biologically-active compounds. The presentation of methods is preceded by a brief overview of the characteristics of the blueberry species, a description of the chemical composition of the fruit and a short note about the main growing areas, production volumes and the management of fruit crops.

  16. Bioactive Compounds of Blueberries: Post-Harvest Factors Influencing the Nutritional Value of Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Łysiak, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Blueberries, besides having commonly-recognized taste properties, are also a valuable source of health-promoting bioactive compounds. For several decades, blueberries have gained in popularity all over the world, and recent years have seen not only an increase in fresh consumption, but also in the importance of blueberries for the processing industry. Blueberry processing mostly consists of freezing and juicing. Recently, more attention has been drawn to dewatering and drying, which are promising areas for developing novel blueberry products. Processing affects each biologically-active compound in a different way, and it is still unknown what changes those compounds undergo at the molecular level after the application of different processing technologies. This work presents the most recent state of knowledge about the pre-treatment and processing methods applied to blueberries and their influence on the content of biologically-active compounds. The presentation of methods is preceded by a brief overview of the characteristics of the blueberry species, a description of the chemical composition of the fruit and a short note about the main growing areas, production volumes and the management of fruit crops. PMID:26266408

  17. Effects of Post-harvest Storage Duration and Variety on Nutrient Digestibility and Energy Content Wheat in Finishing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, P P; Li, P L; Li, Z C; Stein, H H; Liu, L; Xia, T; Yang, Y Y; Ma, Y X

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of post-harvest storage duration and wheat variety on the digestibility and energy content of new season wheat fed to finishing pigs. Two wheat varieties (Shi and Zhong) were harvested in 2013 and stored in the warehouse of the Fengning Pig Experimental Base at China Agricultural University for 3, 6, 9, or 12 mo. For each storage period, 12 barrows were placed in metabolism crates and allotted to diets containing 1 of the 2 wheat varieties in a randomized complete block design. The experimental diets contained 97.34% wheat and 2.66% of a vitamin and trace mineral premix. With an extension of storage duration from 3 mo to 12 mo, the gross energy (GE) and crude protein (CP) of the wheat decreased by 2.0% and 12.01%, respectively, while the concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and starch content increased by 30.26%, 19.08%, and 2.46%, respectively. Total non-starch polysaccharide, total arabinose, total xylose and total mannose contents decreased by 46.27%, 45.80%, 41.71%, and 75.66%, respectively. However, there were no significant differences in the chemical composition between the two wheat varieties with the exception of ADF which was approximately 13.37% lower in Shi. With an extension of storage duration from 3 mo to 12 mo, the digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) content and the apparent total tract digestibility of GE, CP, dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, ADF and metabolizability of energy in wheat decreased linearly (pdigestibility of NDF changed quadratically (pdigestibility (pdigestibility of variety Zhong was stable during 9 mo of storage, while the CP digestibility of variety Shi decreased (p<0.05). In conclusion, the GE, DE, and ME of wheat was stable during the first 3 to 6 mo of post-harvest storage, and decreased during the following 6 to 12 mo of storage under the conditions of this study.

  18. Development of biocontrol agents from food microbial isolates for controlling post-harvest peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Schneider, Karin E; Li, Xiu-Zhen

    2008-08-15

    An unconventional strategy of screening food microbes for biocontrol activity was used to develop biocontrol agents for controlling post-harvest peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola. Forty-four microbial isolates were first screened for their biocontrol activity on apple fruit. Compared with the pathogen-only check, seven of the 44 isolates reduced brown rot incidence by >50%, including four bacteria: Bacillus sp. C06, Lactobacillus sp. C03-b and Bacillus sp. T03-c, Lactobacillus sp. P02 and three yeasts: Saccharomyces delbrueckii A50, S. cerevisiae YE-5 and S. cerevisiae A41. Eight microbial isolates were selected for testing on peaches by wound co-inoculation with mixtures of individual microbial cultures and conidial suspension of M. fructicola. Only two of them showed significant biocontrol activity after five days of incubation at 22 degrees C. Bacillus sp. C06 suppressed brown rot incidence by 92% and reduced lesion diameter by 88% compared to the pathogen-only check. Bacillus sp.T03-c reduced incidence and lesion diameter by 40% and 62%, respectively. The two isolates were compared with Pseudomonas syringae MA-4, a biocontrol agent for post-harvest peach diseases, by immersing peaches in an aliquot containing individual microbial isolates and the pathogen conidia. Treatments with isolates MA-4, C06 and T03-c significantly controlled brown rot by 91, 100, and 100% respectively. However, only isolates MA-4 and C06 significantly reduced brown rot by 80% and 15%, respectively when bacterial cells alone were applied. On naturally infected peaches, both the bacterial culture and its cell-free filtrate of the isolate C06 significantly controlled peach decay resulting in 77 and 90% reduction, respectively, whereas the treatment using only the bacterial cells generally had no effect. Isolate C06 is a single colony isolate obtained from a mesophilic cheese starter, and has been identified belonging to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The results have clearly

  19. Effects of Post-harvest Storage Duration and Variety on Nutrient Digestibility and Energy Content Wheat in Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of post-harvest storage duration and wheat variety on the digestibility and energy content of new season wheat fed to finishing pigs. Two wheat varieties (Shi and Zhong were harvested in 2013 and stored in the warehouse of the Fengning Pig Experimental Base at China Agricultural University for 3, 6, 9, or 12 mo. For each storage period, 12 barrows were placed in metabolism crates and allotted to diets containing 1 of the 2 wheat varieties in a randomized complete block design. The experimental diets contained 97.34% wheat and 2.66% of a vitamin and trace mineral premix. With an extension of storage duration from 3 mo to 12 mo, the gross energy (GE and crude protein (CP of the wheat decreased by 2.0% and 12.01%, respectively, while the concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and starch content increased by 30.26%, 19.08%, and 2.46%, respectively. Total non-starch polysaccharide, total arabinose, total xylose and total mannose contents decreased by 46.27%, 45.80%, 41.71%, and 75.66%, respectively. However, there were no significant differences in the chemical composition between the two wheat varieties with the exception of ADF which was approximately 13.37% lower in Shi. With an extension of storage duration from 3 mo to 12 mo, the digestible energy (DE, metabolizable energy (ME content and the apparent total tract digestibility of GE, CP, dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, ADF and metabolizability of energy in wheat decreased linearly (p<0.01 by 5.74%, 7.60%, 3.75%, 3.88%, 3.50%, 2.47%, 26.22%, 27.62%, and 3.94%, respectively. But the digestibility of NDF changed quadratically (p<0.01. There was an interaction between wheat variety and storage time for CP digestibility (p<0.05, such that the CP digestibility of variety Zhong was stable during 9 mo of storage, while the CP digestibility of variety Shi decreased (p<0.05. In conclusion, the GE, DE, and ME

  20. The irradiation technology for post-harvest treatment of agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franceschi, L. de

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented, with emphasis on physical and engineering aspects, under the headings ionizing radiation, radioactive sources and apparatus, dosimetric quantities, irradiation facilities, food processing, radiation effects on food nutritional components, ionizing radiation against living organisms which make food dangerous, hygienic quality of food using radiation, laws and international activity

  1. Eficácia de limpeza durante o beneficiamento do tomate de mesa Effectiveness of cleaning fresh market tomatoes during post harvest handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria de Magalhães

    2009-12-01

    and fruit quality measured by weight loss (%, respiratory activity (CO2 and ethylene evolution. In the first case, the nylon and sisal fiber were more efficient at higher rotations. PET bristles at 40rpm rotation were inefficient, presenting a cleaning index (CI lower than 50%. The nylon brush treatment at 120rpm was the most efficient cleaning process (CI=91%. However, nylon brushes at 160rpm treatment showed the lowest CI (88%. These results were probably associated to the fact that, at higher speeds, fruits tended to jump, causing a poor contact between bristles and fruits. The lowest CI was observed on coconut fiber at 80 and 120rpm treatments. In general, cleaned fruits with nylon and sisal fiber at 120rpm demonstrated higher post-harvest quality alterations when compared to cleaned fruits in these brushes at 160rpm. More bristles flexibility provides better contact fruit/bristles increasing cleaning efficiency, however, it can cause changes on post-harvest fruit quality, but no significant.

  2. Post-harvest carbon emissions and sequestration in southern United States forest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, C.

    1997-12-31

    Whether the forest industries in the southern United States are net emitters or sequesters of carbon from the atmosphere depends on one`s viewpoint. In the short-term, the solid-wood industries-lumber, plywood, and panels--appear to sequester more carbon than is in the fossil fuels they use for processing. The paper industries, however, emit more carbon from fossil fuels than they sequester in the pulp and paper they manufacture. This viewpoint is quite limited. If one considers the life-cycles of solid-wood and paper products from seedlings to landfill, these industries sequester more carbon than they emit from burning fossil fuels. These industries also generate large amounts of energy by replacing fossil fuels with biofuels from processing residues, and wood-based products produce more energy from incineration and landfill gases. Use of the carbon in these biofuels in effect keeps fossil fuel carbon in the ground, considering that at least that amount of carbon would be emitted in producing alternative materials. Another way of looking the emission balances is that wood-based materials, pound for pound or use for use, are the most {open_quotes}carbon efficient{close_quotes} group of major industrial materials. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  3. Chemometric-assisted QuEChERS extraction method for post-harvest pesticide determination in fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minmin; Dai, Chao; Wang, Fengzhong; Kong, Zhiqiang; He, Yan; Huang, Ya Tao; Fan, Bei

    2017-02-01

    An effective analysis method was developed based on a chemometric tool for the simultaneous quantification of five different post-harvest pesticides (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), carbendazim, thiabendazole, iprodione, and prochloraz) in fruits and vegetables. In the modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method, the factors and responses for optimization of the extraction and cleanup analyses were compared using the Plackett-Burman (P-B) screening design. Furthermore, the significant factors (toluene percentage, hydrochloric acid (HCl) percentage, and graphitized carbon black (GCB) amount) were optimized using a central composite design (CCD) combined with Derringer’s desirability function (DF). The limits of quantification (LOQs) were estimated to be 1.0 μg/kg for 2,4-D, carbendazim, thiabendazole, and prochloraz, and 1.5 μg/kg for iprodione in food matrices. The mean recoveries were in the range of 70.4-113.9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 16.9% at three spiking levels. The measurement uncertainty of the analytical method was determined using the bottom-up approach, which yielded an average value of 7.6%. Carbendazim was most frequently found in real samples analyzed using the developed method. Consequently, the analytical method can serve as an advantageous and rapid tool for determination of five preservative pesticides in fruits and vegetables.

  4. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) contains polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and PPO substrates that can reduce post-harvest proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael L; Foster, Jamie L

    2013-08-15

    Studies of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) suggest its hay and haylage have greater levels of rumen undegraded protein (RUP) than other legume forages such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Greater RUP can result in more efficient nitrogen utilization by ruminant animals with positive economic and environmental effects. We sought to determine whether, like red clover (Trifolium pretense L.), perennial peanut contains polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and PPO substrates that might be responsible for increased RUP. Perennial peanut extracts contain immunologically detectible PPO protein and high levels of PPO activity (>100 nkatal mg(-1) protein). Addition of caffeic acid (PPO substrate) to perennial peanut extracts depleted of endogenous substrates reduced proteolysis by 90%. Addition of phenolics prepared from perennial peanut leaves to extracts of either transgenic PPO-expressing or control (non-expressing) alfalfa showed peanut phenolics could reduce proteolysis >70% in a PPO-dependent manner. Two abundant likely PPO substrates are present in perennial peanut leaves including caftaric acid. Perennial peanut contains PPO and PPO substrates that together are capable of inhibiting post-harvest proteolysis, suggesting a possible mechanism for increased RUP in this forage. Research related to optimizing the PPO system in other forage crops will likely be applicable to perennial peanut. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Parsons, Eugene P.; Popopvsky, Sigal; Lohrey, Gregory T.; Lu, Shiyou; Alkalai-Tuvia, Sharon; Perzelan, Yaacov; Paran, Ilan; Fallik, Elazar; Jenks, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC2F2, was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC2F2 fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C16 monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss. © 2012 Physiologia Plantarum.

  6. The importance of using the irradiation technology in the post-harvest Preservation of onions and garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias Enriquez, Isora

    1999-01-01

    In Cuba post-harvest preservation of onions and garlic for different uses have been performed by irradiation bulbs with a minimal dose range of 80 to 90 Gy of Gamma radiation (Co60 ) at commercial level in the Food Irradiation Plant (PIA) Producto 1 which in 1986 held a nominal activity of 110 000 ci. Results showed that the irradiated products could be preserved up to 8 and 11 months, respectively, resulting un total losses lower than 30 %. Products were stored in a warehouse with forced air distribution system of 22 0C to 32 0C and 70 to 100 % RH, resulting in 30 air changes /hour. An important economic benefit was obtained from this method as compared to other traditional storage methods using controlled temperature chambers ( 1 0C to 3 0C ) to preserve un-irradiated onions an garlic's. It is concluded that the irradiated products could be stored at atmospheric temperature and forced air distribution system resulting in lower losses and energy savings and non-imported product, which to reached more of the 5 dollars millions

  7. Post harvest Quality of Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) Fruit Affected by Different Levels of Gibberellic Acid During Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.K.; Khan, M.Z.H.; Sarkar, M.A.R; Yeasmin, S.; Ali, M.K.; Uddin, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    The experiment consisted of two popular mango varieties in Bangladesh (viz., Langra and Khirshapat) and four different levels of Gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) solution, namely, control, 100, 200 and 400 ppm. The two factors experiment was assigned in randomized complete block design with three replicates. Data obtained from various biochemical analyses in terms of physicochemical properties and shelf life of post harvest mango, were recorded and statistically analyzed for comparison among the mean values using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) and Least Significant Difference (LSD). The Khirshapat showed better performance in achieving higher quantity of moisture, progressively lost physiological weight, increased pulp pH, TSS after 6th day of storage, produced more quantity of sugar (total, reducing and non-reducing), as well as extended shelf life and delayed skin color changes than Langra at all the storage duration. Different levels of GA 3 solution subjected to the investigation demonstrated significant variation in most of the physicochemical properties and shelf life of mango at different days after storage. The results explored that some physicochemical properties viz., physiological weight loss, moisture content, pulp pH, TSS, sugar (total, reducing and non reducing), were rapidly increased from untreated mangoes. GA 3 at 400 ppm showed better performance in delaying the changes in physicochemical properties and extended shelf life. (author)

  8. Effect of Mowing Cotton Stalks and Preventing Plant Re-Growth on Post-Harvest Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard F.; Kemerait, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a major parasite of cotton in the U.S., and management tactics for this nematode attempt to minimize population levels. We compared three post-harvest practices for their ability to reduce nematode population levels in the field, thereby reducing initial nematode population for the next year's crop. The three practices tested were: 1) chemical defoliation before harvest plus cutting cotton stalks after harvest, 2) chemical defoliation plus applying a herbicide to kill plants prior to cutting the stalks, and 3) chemical defoliation without cutting stalks. Experiments were conducted in both the greenhouse and in the field. The greenhouse experiments demonstrated that M. incognita reproduction (measured as egg counts and root gall rating indices) was significantly greater when stalks were not cut. Cutting stalks plus applying herbicide to kill cotton roots did not significantly reduce nematode reproduction compared to cutting stalks alone. In field experiments, cutting stalks reduced egg populations and root galling compared to defoliation without stalk cutting. In a greenhouse bioassay which used soil from the field plots, plants grown in soil from the defoliation only treatment had greater root gall ratings and egg counts than in the stalk cutting plus herbicide treatment. Therefore, we conclude that cutting cotton stalks immediately after harvest effectively reduces M. incognita reproduction, and may lead to a lower initial population density of this nematode in the following year. PMID:22736845

  9. Effect of hydrocooling, packaging, and cold storage on the post-harvest quality of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.K.R. BARBOSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of hydrocooling and polyethylene terephthalate (PET perforated and non-perforated packaging on post-harvest quality of peppermint (Mentha piperita L. leaves stored at 5 and 25ºC. The experiments were conducted using a subdivided parcel layout in a completely randomized design with four replicates. Each parcel used a 2x3 layout (two hydrocooling treatments and three packaging treatments with subparcels for storage time. The shelf life, chlorophyll content, mass loss (ML, relative water content (RWC, total soluble sugars (TSS, reducing sugars (Red, non-reducing sugars (NRed and starch of the leaves were determined. Cold storage increased the shelf life of the peppermint by up to 64 times (>15 days. Hydrocooling increased the RWC of the leaves. Plastic packaging was effective in maintaining the RWC. Unperforated packages more effectively prevented ML in the peppermint leaves and prevented the leaves from wilting for a longer period of time. The chlorophyll content of the leaves varied according to the treatment. The soluble sugars and starch levels varied according to RWC. Hydrocooling with the use of non-perforated plastic packages was the most effective method for maintaining the postharvest quality of the peppermint.

  10. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Parsons, Eugene P.

    2012-03-05

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC2F2, was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC2F2 fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C16 monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss. © 2012 Physiologia Plantarum.

  11. Rosaceae Fruit Development, Ripening and Post-harvest: An Epigenetic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinati, Silvia; Rasori, Angela; Varotto, Serena; Bonghi, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Rosaceae is a family with an extraordinary spectrum of fruit types, including fleshy peach, apple, and strawberry that provide unique contributions to a healthy diet for consumers, and represent an excellent model for studying fruit patterning and development. In recent years, many efforts have been made to unravel regulatory mechanism underlying the hormonal, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic changes occurring during Rosaceae fruit development. More recently, several studies on fleshy (tomato) and dry (Arabidopsis) fruit model have contributed to a better understanding of epigenetic mechanisms underlying important heritable crop traits, such as ripening and stress response. In this context and summing up the results obtained so far, this review aims to collect the available information on epigenetic mechanisms that may provide an additional level in gene transcription regulation, thus influencing and driving the entire Rosaceae fruit developmental process. The whole body of information suggests that Rosaceae fruit could become also a model for studying the epigenetic basis of economically important phenotypes, allowing for their more efficient exploitation in plant breeding.

  12. Physical Interactions between Yeast Pichia guilliermondii and Post-Harvest Fruit Pathogen Penicillium expansum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI WIDYASTUTI

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Attachment of yeast cells or bacteria on fungal hyphae have been observed in various antagonisms between microorganisms. Physical interactions between yeast Pichia guilliermondii and postharvest fruit pathogen Penicillium expansum in culture were studied in detail using light and transmission electron microscope to give better understanding on their mode of antagonism. Both organisms were co-cultured for 24-hr on potato dextrose agar. Light microscopy observations on the co-culture showed that the yeast cells attached firmly on the fungal hyphae. This attachment was inhibited by several substances such as enzymes degrading protein (protease or trypsin, a respiration inhibitor (sodium azide, an acid (hydrochloric acid or an alkali (sodium hydroxide. Although autoclaved hyphae did not affect the attachment, but boiled enzymes and autoclaved yeast cells totally abolished the attachment. These evidences suggested that the attachment might be an active process mediated by certain protein from live yeast cells. Transmission electron micrographs on the ultrastructure of the co-culture revealed that the hyphae showed abnormalities in their structure and organelles, and a degree of obvious damage. Physical interactions observed in this study could be contributed to the mechanism of antagonism between P. guilliermondii and P. expansum.

  13. Post-harvest physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weather and management constraints, as well as the intended use of the harvested forage, all influence the forage harvest system selected by the producer. Generally, maximum retention of dry matter from harvested forage crops is achieved at moistures intermediate between the standing fresh crop and ...

  14. Gamma radiation effects on physico-chemical parameters of apple fruit during commercial post-harvest preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafavi, Hossein Ahari; Mirmajlessi, Seyed Mahyar; Mirjalili, Seyed Mohammad; Fathollahi, Hadi; Askari, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    The physico-chemical parameters (including moisture, total soluble solids, antioxidant activity, phenolic content and firmness) of cv. Red Delicious apple subjected to γ radiation were evaluated for their ability to avoid the post-harvest blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum during cold storage. Freshly harvested apples were inoculated with P. expansum. Treated fruits were irradiated at doses of 0, 300, 600, 900 and 1200 Gy and stored at 1 °C. Apples were evaluated at three month intervals. The results showed that there was a clear link between phenolic content and antioxidant activity, so that dose range of 900 Gy and higher significantly decreased phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The moisture percent of stored apples was more responsive to irradiation (at doses of 900–1200 Gy) than storage time and pathogen. Lesion diameter of pathogen-treated non-irradiated apples was significantly increased after three months. This means that storage at low temperature is not enough to avoid blue mold growth. As dose and storage time increased firmness decreased; also pathogen accelerated softening of stored apples. This study showed conclusively that low irradiation doses (300 and 600 Gy) combined with cold storage is a way to minimize apple quality losses during nine month storage period. - Highlights: ► A suitable method to reduce apple quality losses during nine month storage period. ► Effects of γ radiation and cold storage on physico-chemical parameters of the apple. ► Potential dual benefit of low irradiation dose combined with cold storage. ► Radiation dose determination for Penicillium expansum control.

  15. The Effect of Plant Cultivar, Growth Media, Harvest Method and Post Harvest Treatment on the Microbiology of Edible Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummerick, Mary P.; Gates, Justin R.; Nguyen, Bao-Thang; Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    Systems for the growth of crops in closed environments are being developed and tested for potential use in space applications to provide a source of fresh food. Plant growth conditions, growth media composition and harvest methods can have an effect on the microbial population of the plant, and therefore should be considered along with the optimization of plant growth and harvest yields to ensure a safe and palatable food crop. This work examines the effect of plant cultivar, growth media, and harvest method on plant microbial populations. Twelve varieties of leafy greens and herbs were grown on a mixture of Fafard #2 and Arcillite in the pillow root containment system currently being considered for the VEGGIE plant growth unit developed by Orbitec. In addition, ,Sierra and Outredgeous lettuce varieties were grown in three different mixtures (Fafard #2, Ardllite, and Perlite/Vermiculite). The plants were analyzed for microbial density. Two harvest methods, "cut and come again" (CACA) and terminal harvest were also compared. In one set ofexpe'riments red leaf lettuce and mizuna were grown in pots in a Biomass Production System for education. Plants were harvested every two weeks by either method. Another set of experiments was performed using the rooting pillows to grow 5 varieties of leafy greens and cut harvesting at different intervals. Radishes were harvested and replanted at two-week intervals. Results indicate up to a 3 IOglO difference in microbial counts between some varieties of plants. Rooting medium resulted in an approximately 2 IOglO lower count in the lettuce grown in arscillite then those grown in the other mixtures. Harvest method and frequency had less impact on microbial counts only showing a significant increase in one variety of plant. Post harvest methods to decrease the bacterial counts on edible crops were investigated in these and other experiments. The effectiveness of PRO-SAN and UV-C radiation is compared.

  16. Effects of levels of potassium and nitrogen on yields and post-harvest conservation of onions in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Milanez de Resende

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Potassium and nitrogen are the elements present in the highest percentage in the onion dry matter. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate yield and post-harvest conservation of Vale Ouro IPA-11 onion cultivar regarding to nitrogen and potassium levels. The experiment was carried out in Petrolina-PE, Brazil, from June to September 2009. The experimental design was a completely randomized block in a 4 x 3 factorial design, composed of four nitrogen levels (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 and three potassium levels (0, 90 and 180 kg ha-1 with three replications. The highest yield of commercial bulbs was achieved at an estimated N level of 172.6 kg ha-1. The lowest yield of noncommercial bulbs was estimated at N level of 147.0 kg ha-1. Lower percentage of smaller bulbs (class 2 were obtained by increasing levels of N x K, with a quadratic effect at the dose of 90 kg ha-1 K2O and minimum production point with 127.6 kg N ha-1 (20.3%. Regarding larger caliber bulbs (class 4, linear effects were found both in the absence and for the level of 90 kg ha-1 of K2O as levels of N were increased. When the highest level of 180 kg ha-1 K2O was applied, the level of 92.8 kg ha-1 of N was estimated as the one that would promote the highest bulb yield of this class (35.4%, and 5.3% was found in the lack of potassium fertilization.

  17. Application of zirconium dioxide nanoparticle sorbent for the clean-up step in post-harvest pesticide residue analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uclés, Ana; Herrera López, Sonia; Dolores Hernando, Maria; Rosal, Roberto; Ferrer, Carmen; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2015-11-01

    The use of yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide nanoparticles as d-SPE clean-up sorbent for a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the determination of post-harvest fungicides (carbaryl, carbendazim, chlorpropham, diphenylamine, ethoxyquin, flutriafol, imazalil, iprodione, methomyl, myclobutanil, pirimiphos-methyl, prochloraz, pyrimethanil, thiabendazole, thiophanate-methyl and tolclofos-methyl) in orange and pear samples has been evaluated and validated. The sample preparation was a modification of the QuEChERS extraction method using yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanoparticles as the solid phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up sorbents prior to injecting the ten-fold diluted extracts into the LC system. By using the yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide extraction method, more recoveries in the 70-120% range were obtained - thus this method was used for the validation. Quantification was carried out using a matrix-matched calibration curve which was linear in the 1-500 µg kg(-1) range for almost all the pesticides studied. The validated limit of quantification was 10 µg kg(-1) for most of the studied compounds, except chlorpropham, ethoxyquin and thiophanate-methyl. Pesticide recoveries at the 10 and 100 µg kg(-1) concentration levels were satisfactory, with values between 77% and 120% and relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 10% (n=5). The developed method was applied for the determination of selected fungicides in 20 real orange and pear samples. Four different pesticide residues were detected in 10 of these commodities; 20% of the samples contained pesticide residues at a quantifiable level (equal to or above the LOQs) for at least one pesticide residue. The most frequently-detected pesticide residues were: carbendazim, thiabendazole and imazalil-all were below the MRL. The highest concentration found was imazalil at 1175 µg kg

  18. Substantial Underestimation of Post-harvest Burning Emissions in East China as Seen by Multi-species Space Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakou, T.; Muller, J. F.; Bauwens, M.; De Smedt, I.; Lerot, C.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2015-12-01

    Crop residue burning is an important contributor to global biomass burning. In the North China Plain, one of the largest and densely populated world plains, post-harvest crop burning is a common agricultural management practice, allowing for land clearing from residual straw and preparation for the subsequent crop cultivation. The most extensive crop fires occur in the North China Plain in June after the winter wheat comes to maturity, and have been blamed for spikes in air pollution leading to serious health problems. Estimating harvest season burning emissions is therefore of primary importance to assess air quality and define best policies for its improvement in this sensitive region. Bottom-up approaches, either based on crop production and emission factors, or on satellite burned area and fire radiative power products, have been adopted so far, however, these methods crucially depend, among other assumptions, on the satellite skill to detect small fires, and could lead to underestimation of the actual emissions. The flux inversion of atmospheric observations is an alternative, independent approach for inferring the emissions from crop fires. Satellite column observations of formaldehyde (HCHO) exhibit a strong peak over the North China Plain in June, resulting from enhanced pyrogenic emissions of a large suite of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), precursors of HCHO. We use vertical columns of formaldehyde retrieved from the OMI instrument between 2005 and 2012 as constraints in an adjoint inversion scheme built on IMAGESv2 CTM, and perform the optimization of biogenic, pyrogenic, and anthropogenic emission parameters at the model resolution. We investigate the interannual variability of the top-down source, quantify its importance for the atmospheric composition on the regional scale, and explore its uncertainties. The OMI-based crop burning source is compared with the corresponding anthropogenic flux in the North China Plain, and is evaluated against HCHO

  19. Investigations into the shelf life and nutritional quality of fresh tomato fruit (solanum Lycopersicon) following two post-harvest treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyimah, L. A

    2013-07-01

    Tomato production in Ghana is characterized by a glut and high post - harvest losses during the major season followed by scarcity and high prices during the off season. This is the result of the absence of a standard method for preservation of fresh fruits. This research was conducted to determine an effective method for the post - harvest treatment of fresh tomato fruits to enhance shelf life while preserving its physiochemical and nutritional properties. Two experiments were conducted, each with a factorial design of 5x2. In experiment one, the fruits were subjected to 0,1,2,3,and 4 kGy gamma radiation and stored at 10±1°C and 28±1°C. In experiment two, CaCl 2 dissolved in distilled water at 0, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00 and 2.50% concerntrations were used to coat tomato fruits and stored at 10±1°C and 28±1°C. Gamma radiation at 4kGy extended the shelf life of tomato by 5 and 9 days above control when stored at 28±1°C and 10±1°C respectively. The use of CaCl 2 at 2.5% greatly extended the shelf life of tomato by 11days and 18 days above control when stored at 28±1°C and 10±1°C respectively. For both treatments, shelf life increased with increasing dose of radiation/ concentraionn of CaCl 2 . Weight loss was higher in control fruits as well as fruits treated with gamma radiation or CaCl 2 coating stored at 28±1°C temperature than treated fruits stored at 10±1°C. Tomato fruits treated with gamma radiation at 1 and 2 kGy and untreated fruits showed an increased in pH and Total Soluble Solids (TSS) which was paralleled by a decrease in Total Titratable Acidity (TTA) as storage period advance at both storage temperatures. However, fruits treated with CaCl 2 at 1.00% had little effect on pH and TTA of tomato during the storage period. Nutritionally, CaCl 2 coating significantly maintained the vitamin C and Iycopene concentrations in tomato fruit more than control and gamma irradiation which reduced vitamin C and Iycopene contents in the fruits significantly

  20. Characterization of edible films of Swartzia burchelli phosphated starches and development of coatings for post-harvest application to cherry tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millene Aparecida Gomes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The market demand for corn starch and cassava continues to increase because of their use in edible applications, their biodegradable nature, and other appealing properties. As a result, there is a need to identify alternative starch sources, for example, the seeds of S. burchelli, with the potential to be modified for use in post-harvest applications. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and characterize edible films based on the starch phosphates of the seeds of S. burchelli, with the specific aim to apply these starches to cherry tomatoes for post-harvest conservation. After extraction, the starch was phosphorylated with sodium tripolyphosphate (STP in different concentrations and times according to a 2 x 2 factorial design with additional treatment (native starch. After modification, the starch phosphates were selected for the preparation of edible films using glycerol as a plasticizer, in proportions of 5, 10, 15 and 20% for each selected starch. The films were measured for thickness, permeability to water vapor and solubility in water. According to their permeability values, 4 films were selected for application in the coverage of cherry tomatoes. The conservation of cherry tomatoes with and without coverage was studied over 8 evaluation times (up to 21 days at 10±2 °C and 80±5% relative humidity. The weight loss, soluble solids, titratable acidity, maturation index, and firmness were measured every 3 days during storage. The starch phosphates showed a phosphorus content within that established by standards, such that the resulting films are acceptable for use in food for human consumption. The edible films presented with an acceptable appearance and without the development of cracks. The concentration of glycerol and the type of starch influenced the characteristics of the films, increasing the permeability and reducing the water solubility of the various edible films. The best result obtained regarding the conservation of cherry

  1. Post-harvest of the Annurca apples in Campania region. Studies by the Istituto Sperimentale per la Frutticoltura [Malus pumila L.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petriccione, M.; Raffone, E.; Rega, P.

    2004-01-01

    The harvest and post-harvest of Annurca apples involves a high utilization of manpower and high production costs. The low yield and the need to also compete on the market, in terms of price, specially in the Spring period, with the fresh apples imported by foreign Countries, has induced the ISF of Caserta, in collaboration with the Istituto per la Valorizzazione dei Prodotti Agricoli of Milan, to promote studies to decrease the costs of production, to improve the quality, to eliminate the necessity of redness or to artificially induce it [it

  2. Identification of candidate genes involved in the sugar metabolism and accumulation during pear fruit post-harvest ripening of 'Red Clapp's Favorite' (Pyrus communis L.) by transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Chen, Yun; Wang, Suke; Xue, Huabai; Su, Yanli; Yang, Jian; Li, Xiugen

    2018-01-01

    Pear ( Pyrus spp.) is a popular fruit that is commercially cultivated in most temperate regions. In fruits, sugar metabolism and accumulation are important factors for fruit organoleptic quality. Post-harvest ripening is a special feature of 'Red Clapp's Favorite'. In this study, transcriptome sequencing based on the Illumina platform generated 23.8 - 35.8 million unigenes of nine cDNA libraries constructed using RNAs from the 'Red Clapp's Favorite' pear variety with different treatments, in which 2629 new genes were discovered, and 2121 of them were annotated. A total of 2146 DEGs, 3650 DEGs, 1830 DEGs from each comparison were assembled. Moreover, the gene expression patterns of 8 unigenes related to sugar metabolism revealed by qPCR. The main constituents of soluble sugars were fructose and glucose after pear fruit post-harvest ripening, and five unigenes involved in sugar metabolism were discovered. Our study not only provides a large-scale assessment of transcriptome resources of 'Red Clapp's Favorite' but also lays the foundation for further research into genes correlated with sugar metabolism.

  3. Effects of post-harvest treatment using chitosan from Mucor circinelloides on fungal pathogenicity and quality of table grapes during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; Magnani, Marciane; de Sales, Camila Veríssimo; Pontes, Alline Lima de Souza; Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to extract chitosan (CHI) from Mucor circinelloides UCP 050 grown in a corn steep liquor (CSL)-based medium under optimized conditions and to assess the efficacy of the obtained CHI to inhibit the post-harvest pathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger URM 5162 and Rhizopus stolonifer URM 3482 in laboratory media and as a coating on table grapes (Vitis labrusca L.). The effect of CHI coating on some physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the fruits during storage was assessed. The greatest amount of CHI was extracted from M. circinelloides UCP 050 grown in medium containing 7 g of CSL per 100 mL at pH 5.5 with rotation at 180 rpm. CHI from M. circinelloides UCP 050 caused morphological changes in the spores of the fungal strains tested and inhibited mycelial growth and spore germination. CHI coating delayed the growth of the assayed fungal strains in artificially infected grapes, as well as autochthonous mycoflora during storage. CHI coating preserved the quality of grapes during storage, as measured by their physical, physicochemical and sensory attributes. These results demonstrate that edible coatings derived from M. circinelloides CHI could be a useful alternative for controlling pathogenic fungi and maintaining the post-harvest quality of table grapes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Technology transfer for the handling post-harvest of grains at small farmer's level in three villages of the Municipality of La Vega Cundinamarca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Hernandez, Jose Eugenio

    1999-01-01

    The small agricultural producers of La Vega Municipality, in the Cundinamarca Department, the same as most of the rural producers of the country, they have been seeing seriously affected their crops of corn, bean and in general of basic grains, because of the attack of different agents biological considered plagues in the stored grains; as insects, microorganisms, birds and rodents, due to the ignorance of the appropriate techniques for the handling post-harvest of these products already the lack of sure systems of storage and conservation of the same ones. With the co-financing of the Technology National Program Transfer - PRONATTA. The present project developed a methodological model of technology transfer for the handling post-harvest of basic grains; the causes were determined that originated the problem and they thought about several technological alternatives of solution. Among the causes it was the lack of arrangement of the grains after the gathering and the use of systems and storage structures that didn't offer protection to the product, in front of the action of the destructive biological agents, in such a way that they were given training in the handling of the grains, appropriate silos were built, shops were developed with the farmers, to divulge notes, manuals and didactic videos, among others

  5. The Impact of Post Harvest Agricultural Crop Residue Fires on Volatile Organic Compounds and Formation of Secondary Air Pollutants in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, V.; Chandra, P.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.

    2015-12-01

    The N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) is an agriculturally and demographically important region of the world. Every year during the post harvest months of April-May and October-November, large scale open burning of wheat straw and paddy straw occurs in the region impairing the regional air quality and resulting in air pollution episodes. Here, using online in-situ measurements from the IISER Mohali Atmospheric Chemistry Facility (Sinha et al., Atmos Chem Phys, 2014), which is located at a regionally representative suburban site in the agricultural state of Punjab, India, we investigated the effects of this activity on gas phase chemistry. The online data pertaining to the pre harvest and post harvest paddy residue fires in 2012, 2013 and 2014 were analyzed to understand the effect of this anthropogenic activity on atmospheric chemistry and regional air quality with respect to health relevant VOCs such as benzenoids and isocyanic acid and trace gases such as ozone and carbon monoxide. These compounds showed marked increases (factor of 2-3 times higher) in their concentrations which correlated with the biomass combustion tracers such as acetonitrile. Emissions from the paddy residue fires did not result in significant enhancement of ambient ozone in 2012 but instead sustained hourly daytime ozone concentrations at ~ 50 ppb during the late post monsoon season, despite decreases in solar radiation and temperature. Results of such massive perturbations to ambient chemical composition, reactivity and formation of secondary pollutants and its implications for human health will be presented in this paper.

  6. Termoterapia para o controle de patógenos em pós-colheita em frutos da cajazeira = Thermotherapy for post harvest pathogens on Spondias fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique de Brito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento térmico, principalmente água quente, é método alternativo que tem sido utilizado para o controle de doenças e infestações de insetos em frutos póscolheita. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a combinação de tempo e temperatura adequada para o controle de fungos de pós-colheita em frutos de cajazeira em atmosfera ambiente. No primeiro tratamento, os frutos foram imersos em água quente e no segundo foram expostos ao vapor a 50°C por 0, 10, 20, 30 e 40 minutos para diferentes lotes de frutos. Foram retiradas de cada fruto/tratamento quatro secções, as quais foram incubadas em placas de Petri com BDA, sendo realizadas as avaliações da incidência de fitopatógenos após 7 dias de incubação. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram uma maior incidência de Rhizophus sp. nos tratamentos avaliados e redução de Aspergillus sp. e Fusariumsp., cujo comportamento foi influenciado pelo tratamento termoterápico, podendo ser indicado os tratamentos vapor e banho-maria a 50ºC a partir de 20 minutos como método alternativo no controle pós-colheita de Aspergillus sp. e Fusarium sp. em frutos da cajazeira.Thermal treatment, mainly hot water, is an alternative method that has been used for diseases and pests infestation in post harvest fruits. The present work aimed to determine a combination of correct time x temperature for post harvest fungus control on Spondias fruits. For the first treatment, fruits were dipped on hot water and, for the second, on hot air, both with 50°C for 0, 10, 20, 30 e 40 minutes for different fruit groups. Four pieces were sectioned from each fruit, per treatment, and incubated in Petri dishes with BDA,being evaluated for fungus incidence after seven days incubation. Obtained results showed higher incidence of Rhizopus sp. on the evaluated treatments, and a reduction of Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp., while behaviour was influenced by thermotherapy, indicating air and hot water at 50º

  7. Contribution of post-harvest agricultural paddy residue fires in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain to ambient carcinogenic benzenoids, toxic isocyanic acid and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praphulla Chandra, Boggarapu; Sinha, Vinayak

    2016-04-01

    In the North West Indo-Gangetic Plain (N.W.IGP), large scale post-harvest paddy residue fires occur every year during the months of October-November. This anthropogenic perturbation causes contamination of the atmospheric environment with adverse impacts on regional air quality posing health risks for the population exposed to high concentrations of carcinogens such as benzene and toxic VOCs such as isocyanic acid. These gases and carbon monoxide are known to be emitted from biomass fires along with acetonitrile. Yet no long-term in-situ measurements quantifying the impact of this activity have been carried out in the N.W. IGP. Using high quality continuous online in-situ measurements of these gases at a strategic downwind site over a three year period from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the strong impact of this anthropogenic emission activity on ambient concentrations of these gases. In contrast to the pre-paddy harvest period, excellent correlation of benzenoids, isocyanic acid and CO with acetonitrile (a biomass burning chemical tracer); (r ≥ 0.82) and distinct VOC/acetonitrile emission ratios were observed for the post-paddy harvest period which was also characterized by high ambient concentrations of these species. The average concentrations of acetonitrile (1.62 ± 0.18 ppb), benzene (2.51 ± 0.28 ppb), toluene (3.72 ± 0.41 ppb), C8-aromatics (2.88 ± 0.30 ppb), C9-aromatics (1.55 ± 0.19 ppb) and CO (552 ± 113 ppb) in the post-paddy harvest periods were about 1.5 times higher than the annual average concentrations. For isocyanic acid, a compound with both primary and secondary sources, the concentration in the post-paddy harvest period was 0.97 ± 0.17 ppb. The annual average concentrations of benzene, a class A carcinogen, exceeded the annual exposure limit of 1.6 ppb at NTP mandated by the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of India (NAAQS). We show that mitigating the post-harvest paddy residue fires can lower the annual average concentration of

  8. Radiation processing of food and allied products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  9. Organic aerosols and inorganic species from post-harvest agricultural-waste burning emissions over northern India: impact on mass absorption efficiency of elemental carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Prashant; Sarin, M M; Sharma, Deepti; Singh, Darshan

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm), collected from a source region [Patiala: 30.2 °N; 76.3 °E; 250 m above mean sea level] of emissions from post-harvest agricultural-waste (paddy-residue) burning in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), North India, has been studied for its chemical composition and impact on regional atmospheric radiative forcing. On average, organic aerosol mass accounts for 63% of PM2.5, whereas the contribution of elemental carbon (EC) is ∼3.5%. Sulphate, nitrate and ammonium contribute up to ∼85% of the total water-soluble inorganic species (WSIS), which constitutes ∼23% of PM2.5. The potassium-to-organic carbon ratio from paddy-residue burning emissions (KBB(+)/OC: 0.05 ± 0.01) is quite similar to that reported from Amazonian and Savanna forest-fires; whereas non-sea-salt-sulphate-to-OC ratio (nss-SO4(2-)/OC: 0.21) and nss-SO4(2-)/EC ratio of 2.6 are significantly higher (by factor of 5 to 8). The mass absorption efficiency of EC (3.8 ± 1.3 m(2) g(-1)) shows significant decrease with a parallel increase in the concentrations of organic aerosols and scattering species (sulphate and nitrate). A cross plot of OC/EC and nss-SO4(2-)/EC ratios show distinct differences for post-harvest burning emissions from paddy-residue as compared to those from fossil-fuel combustion sources in south-east Asia.

  10. Plant lesions promote the rapid multiplication of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on post-harvest lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) infections have been associated with minimally processed leafy vegetables in the U.S. Harvesting and processing cause plant tissue damage. In order to assess the role of plant tissue damage in the contamination of leafy greens with EcO157, the e...

  11. The influence of the fungal pathogen Mycocentrospora acerina on the proteome and polyacetylenes and 6-methoxymellein in organic and conventionally cultivated carrots (Daucus carota) during post harvest storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louarn, Sébastien; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz; Edelenbos, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Many carrots are discarded during post harvest cold storage due to development of fungal infections, caused by, e.g., Mycocentrospora acerina (liquorice rot). We compared the susceptibility of carrots grown under conventional and organic agricultural practices. In one year, organically cultivated...

  12. Contribution of post-harvest agricultural paddy residue fires in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain to ambient carcinogenic benzenoids, toxic isocyanic acid and carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, B P; Sinha, Vinayak

    2016-03-01

    In the north west Indo-Gangetic Plain (N.W.IGP), large scale post-harvest paddy residue fires occur every year during the months of October-November. This anthropogenic perturbation causes contamination of the atmospheric environment with adverse impacts on regional air quality posing health risks for the population exposed to high concentrations of carcinogens such as benzene and toxic VOCs such as isocyanic acid. These gases and carbon monoxide are known to be emitted from biomass fires along with acetonitrile. Yet no long-term in-situ measurements quantifying the impact of this activity have been carried out in the N.W. IGP. Using high quality continuous online in-situ measurements of these gases at a strategic downwind site over a three year period from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the strong impact of this anthropogenic emission activity on ambient concentrations of these gases. In contrast to the pre-paddy harvest period, excellent correlation of benzenoids, isocyanic acid and CO with acetonitrile (a biomass burning chemical tracer); (r≥0.82) and distinct VOC/acetonitrile emission ratios were observed for the post-paddy harvest period which was also characterized by high ambient concentrations of these species. The average concentrations of acetonitrile (1.62±0.18ppb), benzene (2.51±0.28ppb), toluene (3.72±0.41ppb), C8-aromatics (2.88±0.30ppb), C9-aromatics (1.55±0.19ppb) and CO (552±113ppb) in the post-paddy harvest periods were about 1.5 times higher than the annual average concentrations. For isocyanic acid, a compound with both primary and secondary sources, the concentration in the post-paddy harvest period was 0.97±0.17ppb. The annual average concentrations of benzene, a class A carcinogen, exceeded the annual exposure limit of 1.6ppb at NTP mandated by the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of India (NAAQS). We show that mitigating the post-harvest paddy residue fires can lower the annual average concentration of benzene and ensure

  13. Impacts of post-harvest slash and live-tree retention on biomass and nutrient stocks in Populus tremuloides Michx.-dominated forests, northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockow, Paul A.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Globally, there is widespread interest in using forest-derived biomass as a source of bioenergy. While conventional timber harvesting generally removes only merchantable tree boles, harvesting biomass feedstock can remove all forms of woody biomass (i.e., live and dead standing woody vegetation, downed woody debris, and stumps) resulting in a greater loss of biomass and nutrients as well as more severe habitat alteration. To investigate the potential impacts of this practice, this study examined the initial impacts (pre- and post-harvest) of various levels of slash and live-tree retention on biomass and nutrient stocks, including carbon (C), nitrogen (N), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and phosphorus (P), in Populus tremuloides Michx.-dominated forests of northern Minnesota, USA. Treatments examined included three levels of slash retention, whole-tree harvest (WTH), 20% slash retention (20SR), and stem-only harvest (SOH), factored with three levels of green-tree retention, no trees retained (NONE), dispersed retention (DISP), and aggregate retention (AGR). Slash retention was the primary factor affecting post-harvest biomass and nutrient stocks, including woody debris pools. Compared to the unharvested control, stocks of biomass, carbon, and nutrients, including N, Ca, K, and P, in woody debris were higher in all treatments. Stem-only harvests typically contained greater biomass and nutrient stocks than WTH, although biomass and nutrients within 20SR, a level recommended by biomass harvesting guidelines in the US and worldwide, generally did not differ from WTH or SOH. Biomass in smaller-diameter slash material (typically 2.5-22.5 cm in diameter) dominated the woody debris pool following harvest regardless of slash retention level. Trends among treatments in this diameter range were generally similar to those in the total woody debris pool. Specifically, SOH contained significantly greater amounts of biomass than WTH while 20SR was not different from either WTH or

  14. Identification and Functional Characterization of Sugarcane Invertase Inhibitor (ShINH1: A Potential Candidate for Reducing Pre- and Post-harvest Loss of Sucrose in Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresha G. Shivalingamurthy

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In sugarcane, invertase enzymes play a key role in sucrose accumulation and are also involved in futile reactions where sucrose is continuously degraded during the pre- and post-harvest period, thereby reducing sugar yield and recovery. Invertase inhibitor (INVINH proteins play a key role in post-translation regulation of plant invertases through which sucrose hydrolysis is controlled. INVINH proteins are small (18 kDa members of the pectin methylesterase inhibitor superfamily and they are moderately conserved across plants. In the present study, we identified two INVINH genes from sugarcane, ShINH1 and ShINH2. In silico characterization of the encoded proteins revealed 43% sequence identity at the amino acid level, confirming the non-allelic nature of the proteins. The presence of putative signal peptide and subcellular targeting sequences revealed that ShINH1 and ShINH2 likely have apoplasmic and vacuolar localization, respectively. Experimental visualization of ShINH1–GFP revealed that ShINHI is indeed exported to the apoplast. Differential tissue-specific and developmental expression of ShINH1 between leaf, stalk, flower and root suggest that it plays a role in controlling source-sink metabolic regulation during sucrose accumulation in sugarcane. ShINH1 is expressed at relatively high levels in leaves and stalk compared to flowers and roots, and expression decreases significantly toward internodal maturity during stalk development. ShINH1 is expressed at variable levels in flowers with no specific association to floral maturity. Production of recombinant ShINH1 enabled experimental validation of protein function under in vitro conditions. Recombinant ShINH1 potently inhibited acid invertase (IC50 22.5 nM, making it a candidate for controlling pre- and post-harvest deterioration of sucrose in sugarcane. Our results indicate that ShINH1 and ShINH2 are likely to play a regulatory role in sucrose accumulation and contribute to the improvement

  15. Radiation processing of food and agricultural commodities: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while eliminating post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy can play a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  16. Potato Sprout Inhibition and Tuber Quality after Post-Harvest Treatment with Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) Leaves and Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talei, Daryush; Bina, Fatemeh; Valdiani, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Storage of potatoes is one of the most important concerns in maintaining freshness and nutritional quality in the storage process. To achieve this, an experiment was carried out with five different storage conditions at various temperatures using fresh rosemary leaves and branches with three...... replicates. The results revealed that storage of potatoes at 25°C with rosemary leaves and branches resulted in the lowest sprout development and weight loss after 10 weeks. This was significantly different from either 4°C or 30°C. The findings indicated the potential of rosemary fresh leaves and branches...

  17. Study of visual, sensorial and physicochemical characteristics of tommy atkins mangoes submitted to ionizing radiation as a method of post-harvest conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Josenilda M.; Correia, Lidia C.S.A.; Maciel, Maria Ines S.; Villar, Heldio P.

    2007-01-01

    With the objective of evaluating the effect of ionising radiation on the main characteristics of post-harvest quality of mango, fruits of the variety Tommy Atkins have been irradiated with a Co-60 source at dose levels of 200, 400 and 600 Gy. The fruits were later stored in a refrigeration chamber at 11,5 deg C for fifteen days, to simulate transport conditions for an external market. Visual analysis of the fruits was carried out every five days. After that the fruits were kept stored under a temperature of 21 deg C for nine days, to simulate shelf-life conditions. During this period, visual, sensorial and physicochemical analyses were performed after three, six and nine days. Results of the visual analyses along the 24-day storage period have shown that irradiated fruits displayed greater firmness of the pulp and greener rind when compared with control. However, the presence of dark dots on the surface of the rind was detrimental to their overall appearance. Sensorial analyses have shown significant differences between the different applied doses, with a better index of acceptability for control fruits, certainly due to the dark dots on the irradiated mango. On the other hand, physicochemical analyses showed best results for irradiated fruits. (author)

  18. Potassium permanganate effects on the quality and post-harvest conservation of sapodilla (Manilkara zapota (L. P.Royen fruits under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Edelky de Souza Freitas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sapodilla (Manilkara zapota (L. P. Royen is a climacteric fruit, very perishable, with high metabolic activity, rapid ripening and reduced storage time at room temperature, thus making difficult its commercialization. However, this research aimed to evaluate the effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4 on the quality and post-harvest conservation of sapodilla fruit under modified atmosphere at room temperature. The sapodilla fruits were harvested when they reached physiological maturity and then accommodated in Styrofoam trays with PVC film coating. Within each package, KMnO4 were placed at different concentrations (0, 0.250, 0.375, and 0.500 g of KMnO4 per kg of fruit, respectively, impregnated in vermiculite. In addition, were kept in storage at room temperature (25 ± 1 °C and 54 ± 5% RU for fifteen days, with fruit quality analysis every five days. The potassium permanganate doses influenced the sapodilla fruit quality, wherein the concentration of 0.375 g of KMnO4 per kg of fruit was the most efficient, retarding the loss of firmness and vitamin C degradation of sapodilla fruits throughout five days storage under modified atmosphere at room temperature. The sapodilla fruit postharvest life stored under modified atmosphere with potassium permanganate 25 ± 1 °C and 54 ± 5% RU, is ten days.

  19. Post-harvest loss of farm raised Indian and Chinese major carps in the distribution channel from Mymensingh to Rangpur of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M Motaleb; Rahman, Mahabubur; Hassan, M Nazmul; Nowsad, A A K M

    2013-06-15

    Post-harvest loss of catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and sarpunti (Puntius sarana) in a single distribution chain from harvest in Mymensingh to retail sale Rangpur town were determined, in order to obtain information on quality deterioration and existing handling and icing conditions so that suggestions for improving such practices can be made. Quality defect points of the fish at different steps of distribution channels were determined using a sensory based quality assessment tool. Percent quality loss of fish at each step of distribution was calculated from the number of cases that crossed sensory quality cut-off points. Neither of the fish lost their quality when they were in the farm gate, during transportation and in wholesale markets in Rangpur but most of the fishes lost their quality at the retail fish shops. The quality loss was 8, 12, 8, 6, 10 and 14% in case of C. catla, C. mrigala, L. rohita, H. molitrix, C. idella and P. sarana respectively in the retail markets. Fishes were not properly handled, bamboo baskets wrapped with polythene sheet were used as carrying container and inadequate ice was used during transportation. Retailers were found to be more proactive in the use of ice. However, most of the fishes were deteriorated during retail sale. The losses of farmed fishes could be minimized by adopting good handling practices like using insulated container and adequate icing.

  20. The content of indigo precursors in Isatis tinctoria leaves--a comparative study of selected accessions and post-harvest treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthür, Christine; Graf, Heidemarie; Hamburger, Matthias

    2004-12-01

    We recently clarified the nature of indigo precursors in woad (Isatis tinctoria L.), by identifying the major indoxyl glycoside as isatan A (indoxyl-3-O-(6'-O-malonyl-beta-D-ribohexo-3-ulopyranoside)), and by correcting the structure of the related isatan B (indoxyl-3-O-beta-D-ribohexo-3-ulopyranoside). A quantitative densitometric assay for isatans A and B, and indican, was established and validated. HPTLC separation on silica gel was followed by densitometric analysis of indigoid pigments formed after treatment with dilute acid or base. The seasonal variation of indoxyl glycosides in woad leaves was investigated with first-year plants (rosette stage) of five defined I. tinctoria L. and one I. indigotica L. accessions. Isatan A content reached up to 7.6% of dry weight in I. tinctoria, and up to 21.8% in I. indigotica. The influence of various post-harvest treatments was studied. High concentrations of isatans A and B were found in freeze-dried leaf samples, whereas the content of indican was lowest. Conventional drying at ambient or 40 degrees C led to complete disappearance of isatans A and B. The concentration of indican, in contrast, was 3- to 5-fold higher in leaf samples submitted to drying at ambient and 40 degrees C, respectively.

  1. Effects of post-harvest stigmasterol treatment on quality-related parameters and antioxidant enzymes of green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huanhuan; Wang, Xiangyang; Huang, Jianying; Xing, Jianrong

    2016-12-01

    The effects of immersion of green asparagus spears in stigmasterol solution (0, 0.5 and 1.0 g l -1 , 15 min, 25°C) on weight loss, surface colour, enzyme activities and content of malondialdehyde, total phenol, lignin and chlorophyll were investigated during 40 days of storage at 4 ± 0.5°C. Of the concentrations tested, 0.5 g l -1 treatment was most effective. Stigmasterol (0.5 g l -1 ) treatment significantly reduced colour changes and losses of fresh weight and chlorophyll content. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were maintained higher in stigmasterol-treated (0.5 g l -1 ) asparagus, whereas the activity of peroxidase (POD) was significantly reduced. Stigmasterol treatment (0.5 g l -1 ) also significantly decreased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased total phenol content. Accumulation of lignin was positively correlated to activity of guaiacol-POD (r = 0.960, p asparagus. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity decreased and showed a significant negative correlation with the chroma L* value (r = -0.899, p asparagus. It was concluded that stigmasterol treatment (0.5 g l -1 ) could inhibit the senescence of green asparagus, and therefore prolong its shelf-life, maintaining the quality of post-harvest green asparagus.

  2. Biocontrol ability and action mechanism of food-isolated yeast strains against Botrytis cinerea causing post-harvest bunch rot of table grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parafati, Lucia; Vitale, Alessandro; Restuccia, Cristina; Cirvilleri, Gabriella

    2015-05-01

    Strains belonging to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Aureobasidium pullulans, isolated from different food sources, were tested in vitro as biocontrol agents (BCAs) against the post-harvest pathogenic mold Botrytis cinerea. All yeast strains demonstrated antifungal activity at different levels depending on species and medium. Killer strains of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae showed the highest biocontrol in vitro activity, as demonstrated by largest inhibition halos. The competition for iron and the ability to form biofilm and to colonize fruit wounds were hypothesized as the main action mechanisms for M. pulcherrima. The production of hydrolytic enzymes and the ability to colonize the wounds were the most important mechanisms for biocontrol activity in A. pullulans and W. anomalus, which also showed high ability to form biofilm. The production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effect on pathogen growth was observed for the species W. anomalus, S. cerevisiae and M. pulcherrima. Our study clearly indicates that multiple modes of action may explain as M. pulcherrima provide excellent control of postharvest botrytis bunch rot of grape. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of physico-chemical treatments on ripening behavior and post-harvest quality of Amrapali mango (Mangifera indica L.) during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pankaj; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Kumar, Vipin; Kumar, Mukesh; Malik, Sunil

    2012-03-01

    An experiment was done to assess the effect of various physico-chemical treatments on ripening behavior and post harvest quality of mango cv. Amrapali. The experiment was planned under completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. The treatment units was five fruits per replication. Total 14 treatments were applied. Out of these, ethrel 750 ppm treated fruits showed better results in respect of specific gravity (0.88), moisture loss (8.45%), decay (2.5%), total soluble solids (TSS, 20.7 degrees brix), sugar content (14.39%) and acidity content (0.32) followed by ethrel 500 ppm; specific gravity (0.90), moisture loss (8.82%), decay (3.5%), TSS (20.7 degrees brix), sugar content (13.99%) and acidity content (0.36%). The pedicellate fruits and ethrel+bavistin (750+1000 ppm) were also found to be significantly superior over control in respect of specific gravity (0.88 and 0.86), moisture loss (9.10 and 9.33%), decay (4.0 and 5.33%), TSS (20.1 and 20.4 degrees brix), sugar content (12.70 and 12.80%) and acidity content (0.42 and 0.38%), respectively. Based on results of this study, it can be concluded that ethrel 750 ppm was found to be the most suitable treatment in improving physico-chemical traits i.e. ripening, storage, quality and shelf-life for commercial purpose in mango.

  4. Influence of post-harvest treatments with fludioxonil and soy lecithin co-application in controlling blue and grey mould and fludioxonil residues in Coscia pears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, M; D'Aquino, S; Migheli, Q; Pirisi, F M; Angioni, A

    2009-01-01

    The residue levels of fludioxonil (FLU) were determined in Coscia pear following a 1-, 2- or 4-min dip in an aqueous mixture of FLU containing 300 or 100 mg l(-1) (active ingredient, a.i.) at 20 and 50 degrees C, respectively, with or without 2% soy lecithin. The efficacy of heat treatment with water and FLU mixtures was investigated on artificially inoculated pears for the control of post-harvest decay caused by blue (Penicillium expansum Link) and grey (Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr.) mould. Treatment with 300 mg l(-1) FLU at 20 degrees C increased residues significantly when treatment time rose from 1 to 2 min; no further increase was recorded when dip time raised from 2 to 4 min. FLU residue rates were unaffected by treatment time when 300 mg l(-1) a.i. was applied in combination with lecithin at 20 degrees C. While treatment with 100 mg l(-1) a.i. at 50 degrees C for 1 and 2 min resulted in similar residue levels, significantly higher residues were detected when dip time increased from 1 to 4 min. Co-application of lecithin significantly decreased FLU residues with respect to fruit treated with FLU alone. Treatments with FLU at 20 or 50 degrees C effectively controlled decay over 10 days of incubation. While co-application of lecithin did not affect the efficacy of FLU at 300 mg l(-1)and 20 degrees C, treatment efficacy decreased when lecithin was applied in combination with 100 mg l(-1) FLU and 50 degrees C for 4 min and to a greater extent when dip time was 1-2 min.

  5. RNAi inhibition of feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase reduces scopoletin biosynthesis and post-harvest physiological deterioration in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi; Zainuddin, Ima M; Vanderschuren, Herve; Doughty, James; Beeching, John R

    2017-05-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major world crop, whose storage roots provide food for over 800 million throughout the humid tropics. Despite many advantages as a crop, the development of cassava is seriously constrained by the rapid post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of its roots that occurs within 24-72 h of harvest, rendering the roots unpalatable and unmarketable. PPD limits cassava's marketing possibilities in countries that are undergoing increased development and urbanisation due to growing distances between farms and consumers. The inevitable wounding of the roots caused by harvesting triggers an oxidative burst that spreads throughout the cassava root, together with the accumulation of secondary metabolites including phenolic compounds, of which the coumarin scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) is the most abundant. Scopoletin oxidation yields a blue-black colour, which suggests its involvement in the discoloration observed during PPD. Feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase is a controlling enzyme in the biosynthesis of scopoletin. The cassava genome contains a seven membered family of feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase genes, four of which are expressed in the storage root and, of these, three were capable of functionally complementing Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants in this gene. A RNA interference construct, designed to a highly conserved region of these genes, was used to transform cassava, where it significantly reduced feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase gene expression, scopoletin accumulation and PPD symptom development. Collectively, our results provide evidence that scopoletin plays a major functional role in the development of PPD symptoms, rather than merely paralleling symptom development in the cassava storage root.

  6. The use of gamma radiation aiming to post harvest conservation of Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. var. Cantaloupensis);Utilizacao de radiacao gama em meloes cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. var. Cantaloupensis) como tecnica de conservacao pos-colheita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Alessandra Aparecida Zilio Cozzo de

    2007-07-01

    Although Brazilian fruit culture has been growing in the international market, the fruit quality and the post harvest technology have not been improved properly. In Brazil, fruit nutritional factors are very important because of their potential to provide suitable nutrients for a significant part of the Country population. Some post harvest technologies, such as ionizing radiation, can keep the physical, chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics of the natural fruit, improving the quality of the fruits in the market. This work evaluated the effects of Cobalt 60 irradiation in Cantaloupe melon, aiming the post harvest conservation during 7 days of storage, at a temperature ranging from 20 to 22 deg C. The doses of irradiation were set to 0, 150, 300, 450, 600, 750 and 900 Gy, based on the multiple of 150 Gy quarantine dose, aiming to establish the lowest, the highest and the ideal doses. Afterwards, physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics of irradiated fruit were checked and, finally, the sensorial characteristics through acceptability test. Results indicated that the doses higher than 450 Gy affected firmness, pulp yield and color (L and a{sup *}) parameters. Nevertheless, analyzing physical, chemical and nutritional parameters, doses of 450 and 900 Gy kept pH, tetrable acidity, soluble solids, color (a{sup *} and b{sup *}), chlorophyll and carotenoids, phenolic compounds, respiratory rate and ethylene level. The storage period was the most important factor that affected the quality of the fruit, despite of the radiation doses. Based on the acceptability test, the best evaluated fruits were from the treatments of 450 and 900 Gy. This work allowed to conclude that fruit radiation is an appropriate technology for Cantaloupe melon post harvest conservation, but it is necessary to be used in combination with other technologies, especially to fungi control. (author)

  7. Tratamento térmico e prochloraz no controle da antracnose em pós-colheita de frutos de banana 'Prata Anã' Thermotherapy and prochloraz to control of anthracnose on 'Prata Anã' bananas in post harvest conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Barreto da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle químico, térmico e a refrigeração são os processos mais utilizados no tratamento pós-colheita das bananas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do tratamento térmico, químico e da combinação dos dois métodos e estes associados à baixa temperatura de conservação no controle da antracnose na pós-colheita da banana. Para tanto os experimentos foram realizados em três épocas quando, bananas (Musa sp da variedade 'Prata Anã' (AAB no estádio pré-climatérico eram coletadas e suas pencas individualizadas. As pencas foram submetidas a quatro tratamentos com cinco repetições cada: 1. Tratamento térmico (imersão em água a 56ºC por seis minutos, seguido de resfriamento em água à temperatura ambiente; 2. Tratamento químico por seis minutos (imersão em calda fungicida (prochloraz 2,5 mL.L-1; 3. Tratamento térmico seguido do químico; 4. Testemunha, imersão em água por seis minutos. Após os tratamentos, as pencas eram divididas em duas partes iguais, sendo que uma parte ficou em câmara fria (14ºC com variação de 2ºC e a outra permaneceu à temperatura ambiente. O tratamento térmico não foi eficiente no controle da doença. O fungicida prochloraz a 2,5 mL.L-1 foi eficiente no controle da podridão pós-colheita. A refrigeração retardou o surgimento da doença em até 12 dias. Os resultados indicam que a baixa temperatura, associada ou não ao controle químico, é capaz de controlar a podridão pós-colheita dos frutos por 12 dias.Chemical control and refrigeration are two processes usually adopted in the treatment of the banana post harvest rot. This work has for objective to evaluate the effect on the control of the anthracnose in banana post harvest of the chemotherapy, of the thermotherapy, of the combination of the two listed methods and these all associated to the low conservation temperature. The experiments were replicate three times where banana fruit (Musa sp of the variety 'Prata An

  8. Post harvest changes gamma-irradiated banana Prata; Modificações pós-colheita de banana 'prata' y-irradiada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilas Boas, E.V. de; Chitarra, A. B.; Chitarra, M. I.F.

    1996-09-15

    The effect of the gamma-irradiation was evaluated at 0.25 and 0.50 kGy, on the development of peel coloration, CO{sub 2} and ethylene evolution, conversion of starch to sugars, pulp-to-peel ratio, pectic solubilization and activities of enzymes of the cell wall, pectin methylesterase (PME), and polygalacturonase (PG), during maturation of 'Prata' bananas. The gamma-irradiation did not affect the normal colour development of the fruits. An increase in the ethylene peak and a decrease in the CO{sub 2} peak was observed. The gamma-irradiation did not affect the degradation of starch, while a delay in soluble sugar accumulation was noted on the 6 and 7 colour grades. The fruits subjected to 0.25 kGy had the highest increase in the pulp-to-peel relation, beginning with colour grade 5, due to a possible stress effect of that dose. An increase of pectin solubilization was observed. Higher PME activities were exhibited by irradiated fruits, although the gamma-irradiation suppressed the PG activity throughout the maturation period. The gamma-irradiation did not extend the post-harvest life of 'Prata' bananas. (author) [Portuguese] Avaliou-se o efeito da radiacao y a 0,25 e 0,50 kGy sobre o desenvolvimento da coloracao da casca da banana, a evolucao de etileno e CO{sub 2} a conversao de amido em acucares, a relacao polpa/casca, a solubilizacao pectica e as atividades das enzimas relacionadas a degradacao da parede celular, a pectinametilesterase (PMF) e poligalacturonase (PG), na polpa da banana 'prata' durante sua maturacao. A radiacao y nao afetou o desenvolvimento normal da coloracao da casca; entretanto, incrementou o pico de etileno e reduziu o pico de CO{sub 2}. A radiacao y nao afetou a degradacao do amido, mas determinou um efeito retardador sobre o acumulo de acucares soluveis totais na polpa, nos graus 6 e 7 de coloracao da casca. A dose 0,25 kGy determinou o maior incremento na relacao polpa/casca, a partir do grau 5 de coloracao, resultado de um possivel efeito

  9. Conservação pós-colheita de frutos de goiabeira, variedade Paluma Post-harvest conservation of fruit of guava, var. Paluma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Neto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando aumentar a vida útil de frutos da goiabeira (Psidium guajava L., variedade Paluma, nos primeiros dezesseis dias pós-colheita, foi realizado, no município de Petrolina, PE, região do Vale do São Francisco, um estudo para determinar o efeito da concentração de cálcio (Ca, do ambiente de armazenamento e do tipo de embalagem, na vida útil da goiaba. Foram estudados dois ambientes de armazenamento (condições naturais e ambiente refrigerado, três concentrações de Ca (0,5, 1,0 e 1,5% e dois tipos de embalagem do fruto (saco de polietileno transparente e saco de papel- manteiga. Doze tratamentos foram testados no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, num arranjo fatorial 3x2x2. Foram determinados os parâmetros: perda de peso e da cor verde da casca do fruto, e o teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Verificou-se que frutos da variedade Paluma colhidos "de vez" (frutos completamente desenvolvidos, mas com a casca verde mantiveram suas características comerciais por até dezesseis dias de armazenamento quando foram embalados em saco de polietileno transparente e sem furo, e armazenado em ambiente refrigerado a 10ºC, e 90% de umidade relativa.The study was undertaken to increase the shelf life of fruits of guava (Psidium guajava L. var. Paluma in the post-harvest period in the São Francisco River Valley (Petrolina, PE, Brazil. Effects of calcium (Ca concentration, storing condition and fruit wrapping material in the shelf life of fruit of guava were studied. Twelve treatments were tested in a randomized complete block design, in a 2 x 3 x2 factorial arrangement, comprising the following variables: two storing conditions (natural temperature and refrigerated, three Ca concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% and two fruit wrapping materials (transparent poliethylene bag and impervious paper bag. The following guava parameters were evaluated: weight and peel green color losses and total soluble solids. It was observed

  10. Post-harvest longevity of Oncidium varicosum (Orchidaceae flowers/ Longevidade pós-colheita de flores de Oncidium varicosum (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tadeu Faria

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Oncidium varicosum from the Orchidaceae family has been widely used as pot flower, and, most recently, as cut flower. The objective of this work was to evaluate the longevity of the Oncidium varicosum, due to its low post-harvest resistance, after being conditioned in preservation solutions with different concentrations of sucrose. Oncidium varicosum stems grown in Holambra (SP were transported to Londrina (PR in climatized trucks at 5-7oC. Pre-treatment with pulsing (15% sucrose for 24 hours followed by conditioning in maintenance solution (1, 2, 3, and 4% of sucrose as well as conditioning in maintenance solution without pre-treatment were evaluated. Flower stems were distributed in an entirely casualized design, with ten treatments and five replications. Flowers were evaluated daily, using a score system developed to compare and verify the conservation of visual aspects. No treatment was superior to the control in maintaining the longevity of the flowers.A orquídea Oncidium varicosum é bastante utilizada como flor de vaso e atualmente vem se destacando como flor de corte. Devido sua baixa resistência pós-colheita, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a longevidade de Oncidium varicosum após o acondicionamento em soluções conservantes com diferentes concentrações de sacarose. As hastes de Oncidium varicosum, produzidas em Holambra (SP, foram transportadas para Londrina (PR em caminhão climatizado a 5-7°C. Foram avaliadas a utilização de prétratamento com “pulsing” (15% de sacarose por 24 horas seguido de acondicionamento em solução de manutenção (1, 2, 3 e 4% de sacarose e o acondicionamento em solução de manutenção sem prétratamento. As hastes florais foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com dez tratamentos e cinco repetições. As avaliações das flores foram diárias, sob critério de notas definido para comparar e verificar a conservação dos aspectos visuais. Nenhum dos tratamentos

  11. A search for a systematic method to bridge between pre-harvest, post-harvest, and consumer research aimed at increasing fruit consumption: The "Vasco da Gama" process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertschinger, L.; Corelli-Grappadelli, L.; Derkx, M.P.M.; Hall, S.; Kockerols, K.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Steiner, S.; Lans, van der I.A.; Schaik, van A.C.R.; Zimmermann, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of ISAFRUIT to increase fruit consumption has strong foundations in the new knowledge created by a multidisciplinary team of natural and social scientists addressing critical aspects of the multi-faceted fruit chain. Bridging the gap between disciplines proved to be a substantial challenge,

  12. Efeito do cloreto de cálcio na pós-colheita de goiaba Cortibel Calcium chloride application in the post-harvest of guavas Cortibel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Terra Werner

    2009-01-01

    activity of pectinmethylesterase. The 1% of CaCl2 concentration resulted in less fresh weight loss, keeping the firmness and reduced pectinmethylesterase activity, showing that calcium is important for fruit conservation, since it act in regulating the ripening. This concentration delays the loss of coloration and maintains the higher ascorbic acid content in the rind. However, there were no statistical differences from other CaCl2 concentrations regarding total soluble solids and pH. Moreover, it was verified that higher calcium concentrations do not further improve the post-harvest characteristics in guava.

  13. Radiation processing of food and agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Reducing post-harvest food losses is becoming increasingly important for sustaining food supplies. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for improving food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Preservation of food by ionizing radiation involves controlled application of energy of ionizing radiation such as gamma rays, X-rays, and accelerated electrons to agricultural commodities, food products and ingredients, for improving their storage life, hygiene and safety. The process employs either gamma rays emitted by radioisotopes such as cobalt-60 or high-energy electrons or X-rays generated from machine sources

  14. Value-added and Supporting - Inhibiting Factors for the Wet Processing of Coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Hariyati, Yuli

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the annual crops which are widely favored by coffee enjoyers. SidomulyoVillage is one of the fourth largest coffee producing villages in District of Silo with a land area of 180 ha in 2009. Coffee experiences a process of harvest and post harvest; one of the activities of post-harvest is coffee processing. Coffee processing is divided into two; wet processing and dry processing. The majority of farmers in SidomulyoVillage do dry processing; about 75% of farmers do dry process...

  15. Hurdle technology to preserve the 'Golden' papaya post harvest quality;Metodos combinados para preservar a qualidade pos-colheita do mamao 'Golden' tipo exportacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinari, Andrea Cristina Fialho, E-mail: molinari_af@yahoo.co

    2007-07-01

    With the purpose of evaluating a combination of post harvest techniques on papaya Golden storage, the following treatments were investigated: carton boxes packaging (CP); CP + plastic bag of PEBD - low density polyethylene film, with 0.05mm of thickness (PE); CP + PEBD with 0.025mm of thickness impregnated with mineral ethylene scavenger (PEAbs); gamma-irradiation (0.4 kGy and 0.7 kGy); and refrigerated storage at 10 deg C e 90% of relative humidity for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days plus five days under environmental conditions to allow ripening and to simulate the product marketing. To evaluate the effects on fruit quality the following measurements were taken: - first experiment, disease incidence, skin color and loss of turgidity (as visual variables); skin and flesh color, weight loss, flesh firmness, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, pH, lycopene and beta-carotene composition; - second experiment, sensorial analysis on samples submitted to the treatments with better results from the first experiment. Post harvest diseases were the main factor responsible for discarding fruits. Percentage of weight loss was higher on papayas stored without plastic packaging. Time affected the flesh firmness (F = 95%). However, there wasn't influence of the treatments on that parameter. A significant effect on skin color was observed with interaction between irradiation (0.4 and 0.7 kGy) and storage period. Once reached the edible stage, irradiated papayas presented more uniformity on skin color. For beta-carotene and Lycopene, the mean values were 1.27 to 1.79 and 19.16 to 23.90 mug/ml of flesh, respectively. But those substances weren't affected by the combined methods or the time. The same behavior were observed for total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and pH (mean values of 11.53 to 12.20 deg Brix, 0.117 to 0.136 g of citric acid/100g of flesh and 4.91 to 5.04, respectively). On sensory evaluation, the judges didn't get to detect

  16. The availability of processed fruit products and their contents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fruit, poverty and post-harvest losses due to lack of skills for processing and storage. The objectives of this research were to survey household consumption of foods especially processed fruit products in Nairobi, and analyze nutritional quality of processed fruit products. Three estates representing different income groups ...

  17. Efeito da idade e do repouso pós-colheita de frutos de pepino na semente armazenada Effect of fruit age and post-harvest period of cucumber on stored seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio José Barbedo

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar os efeitos da idade e do repouso pós-colheita de frutos de pepino (Cucumis sativus L. de duas cultivares, Pérola (espinhos escuros e Rubi (espinhos claros, sobre as alterações na qualidade fisiológica das sementes durante o armazenamento, conduziu-se um experimento em Botucatu, SP e Bandeirantes, PR, durante quatro anos. Os frutos foram colhidos desde os 15 ('Rubi' ou 20 ('Pérola' dias até 45 dias após a antese, permanecendo em repouso pós-colheita por 0, 5, 10 e 15 dias, antes da extração das sementes. Antes e após dois e três anos de armazenamento (sacos de papel em ambiente de laboratório, foram retiradas amostras para avaliação do potencial germinativo e do vigor. Os resultados revelaram que sementes imaturas, retiradas de frutos colhidos precocemente (até 30 dias após a antese e sem repouso pós-colheita, perderam totalmente a capacidade germinativa no segundo ano de armazenamento. Sementes que apresentavam valores iniciais de germinação mais elevados, as colhidas de frutos maduros (com ou sem repouso pós-colheita ou de imaturos (30 e 35 dias de idade com 10 a 15 dias de repouso pós-colheita, mantiveram valores acima de 70% após três anos de armazenamento.Seeds from two cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cultivars, Pérola and Rubi, were evaluated in relation to physiological quality to verify the effects of age and postharvest period of fruits on seed storage potential. Fruits were harvested from 15 ('Rubi' or 20 ('Pérola' to 45 days after flowering and mantained in postharvest for 0, 5, 10, and 15 days before seeds extraction, at room conditions. Seeds were dried and stored in paper bags at room conditions for two and three years. Before and after the storage periods, samples were taken to germination and vigour tests. Results showed that immature seeds (extracted from immature fruits - 30 days after flowering without post-harvest period, did not germinate at second year. However, seeds with high

  18. Ultraviolet radiation (UV-C) on the post harvest control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in 'niagara rosada' grapes;Radiacao ultravioleta no controle pos-colheita de Colletotrichum gloeosporides em uva 'niagara rosada'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cia, Patricia; Sanches, Juliana, E-mail: pcia@iac.sp.gov.b [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), Jundiai, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia e Automacao; Benato, Eliane Aparecida; Valentini, Silvia Regina de Toledo; Anjos, Valeria Delgado de Almeida [Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Grupo de Engenharia e Pos-Colheita; Ponzo, Francine Scolfaro [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), SP (Brazil); Terra, Maurilo Monteiro [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), SP (Brazil). Centro de Ecofisiologia e Biofisica

    2009-07-01

    Most of the post harvest losses of 'Niagara Rosada' grapes are caused by rot and detached berries. Recently, many researches on alternative methods, such as physical treatments, have been carried out in order to control rots and extend the shelf life of fruits. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UV-C) on the control of C. gloeosporioides in 'Niagara Rosada' grapes stored at room condition and under refrigeration. Clusters of 'Niagara Rosada' grapes were inoculated with the pathogen and submitted 2 hours later to different doses of UV-C, 0, 1.05, 2.09, 4.18, and 8.35 kJ m{sup -}2, during the periods of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 min, respectively. Then, the clusters were stored under two conditions: 25 +- 1 deg C / 80 +- 5 % RH for 7 days, and at 1 +- 1 deg C / 90 +- 5 % RH for 16 days followed by storage at 25 +- 1 deg C / 80 +- 5 %RH for 5 more days. The grapes were evaluated for rot incidence, stem browning, color of the berries, percentage of detached berries, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, and ratio. It was observed that UV-C radiation was effective in reducing the incidence of C. gloeosporioides on inoculated 'Niagara Rosada' grapes and did not change the physicochemical characteristics of the grapes. (author)

  19. The Status of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of Emerging Trends and Post-Harvest Mitigation Strategies towards Food Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilaka, Cynthia Adaku; De Boevre, Marthe; Atanda, Olusegun Oladimeji; De Saeger, Sarah

    2017-01-05

    Fusarium fungi are common plant pathogens causing several plant diseases. The presence of these molds in plants exposes crops to toxic secondary metabolites called Fusarium mycotoxins. The most studied Fusarium mycotoxins include fumonisins, zearalenone, and trichothecenes. Studies have highlighted the economic impact of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium . These arrays of toxins have been implicated as the causal agents of wide varieties of toxic health effects in humans and animals ranging from acute to chronic. Global surveillance of Fusarium mycotoxins has recorded significant progress in its control; however, little attention has been paid to Fusarium mycotoxins in sub-Saharan Africa, thus translating to limited occurrence data. In addition, legislative regulation is virtually non-existent. The emergence of modified Fusarium mycotoxins, which may contribute to additional toxic effects, worsens an already precarious situation. This review highlights the status of Fusarium mycotoxins in sub-Saharan Africa, the possible food processing mitigation strategies, as well as future perspectives.

  20. Teor de nitrato em alface hidropônica em função de vazões e períodos de pós-colheita Nitrate content in hydroponic lettuce in function of flow rate and post-harvest periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Aprígio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o teor de nitrato (NO3- presente em plantas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. da cultivar Vera, conduzida por hidroponia, em função de vazões e períodos de pós-colheita. O experimento foi realizado no município de Cascavel, PR, em casa de vegetação da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE. As plantas foram nutridas mediante utilização de uma solução nutritiva caracterizada por possuir condutividade elétrica média de 1,2 dS m-1 e que, ao percorrer toda a bancada de cultivo, retornava ao tanque de irrigação e reiniciava o processo, constituindo, desta forma, um sistema fechado. No experimento, utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com oito repetições que foram representadas, individualmente, por duas plantas de alface, no esquema fatorial (3 x 4. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação entre três vazões (0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 L min-1 e quatro períodos de armazenamento pós-colheita (0; 24; 48 e 72 h. A determinação do teor de nitrato foi realizada por meio do método colorimétrico e os valores obtidos foram inferiores ao limite máximo exigido pela Comunidade Europeia. Os fatores investigados influenciaram significativamente os teores médios de nitrato.The objective of this study was to determine the nitrate (NO3- content present in lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L. of the Vera cultivar, produced under hydroponic system, in function of different flow rates and post-harvest periods. The experiment was conducted in the city of Cascavel-PR, in a greenhouse of the Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE. The plants were nourished by the use of a nutrient solution, characterized by mean electrical conductivity of 1.2 dS m-1 which after passing the entire growing bench, returned to the irrigation tank and restarted the process, forming a closed system. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with eight replications, which were represented

  1. Genotypic Regulation of Aflatoxin Accumulation but Not Aspergillus Fungal Growth upon Post-Harvest Infection of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Ahmed Korani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin contamination is a major economic and food safety concern for the peanut industry that largely could be mitigated by genetic resistance. To screen peanut for aflatoxin resistance, ten genotypes were infected with a green fluorescent protein (GFP—expressing Aspergillus flavus strain. Percentages of fungal infected area and fungal GFP signal intensity were documented by visual ratings every 8 h for 72 h after inoculation. Significant genotypic differences in fungal growth rates were documented by repeated measures and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC analyses. SICIA (Seed Infection Coverage and Intensity Analyzer, an image processing software, was developed to digitize fungal GFP signals. Data from SICIA image analysis confirmed visual rating results validating its utility for quantifying fungal growth. Among the tested peanut genotypes, NC 3033 and GT-C20 supported the lowest and highest fungal growth on the surface of peanut seeds, respectively. Although differential fungal growth was observed on the surface of peanut seeds, total fungal growth in the seeds was not significantly different across genotypes based on a fluorometric GFP assay. Significant differences in aflatoxin B levels were detected across peanut genotypes. ICG 1471 had the lowest aflatoxin level whereas Florida-07 had the highest. Two-year aflatoxin tests under simulated late-season drought also showed that ICG 1471 had reduced aflatoxin production under pre-harvest field conditions. These results suggest that all peanut genotypes support A. flavus fungal growth yet differentially influence aflatoxin production.

  2. Genotypic Regulation of Aflatoxin Accumulation but Not Aspergillus Fungal Growth upon Post-Harvest Infection of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korani, Walid Ahmed; Chu, Ye; Holbrook, Corley; Clevenger, Josh; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2017-07-12

    Aflatoxin contamination is a major economic and food safety concern for the peanut industry that largely could be mitigated by genetic resistance. To screen peanut for aflatoxin resistance, ten genotypes were infected with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Aspergillus flavus strain. Percentages of fungal infected area and fungal GFP signal intensity were documented by visual ratings every 8 h for 72 h after inoculation. Significant genotypic differences in fungal growth rates were documented by repeated measures and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) analyses. SICIA (Seed Infection Coverage and Intensity Analyzer), an image processing software, was developed to digitize fungal GFP signals. Data from SICIA image analysis confirmed visual rating results validating its utility for quantifying fungal growth. Among the tested peanut genotypes, NC 3033 and GT-C20 supported the lowest and highest fungal growth on the surface of peanut seeds, respectively. Although differential fungal growth was observed on the surface of peanut seeds, total fungal growth in the seeds was not significantly different across genotypes based on a fluorometric GFP assay. Significant differences in aflatoxin B levels were detected across peanut genotypes. ICG 1471 had the lowest aflatoxin level whereas Florida-07 had the highest. Two-year aflatoxin tests under simulated late-season drought also showed that ICG 1471 had reduced aflatoxin production under pre-harvest field conditions. These results suggest that all peanut genotypes support A. flavus fungal growth yet differentially influence aflatoxin production.

  3. Escherichia coli O157:H7 Converts Plant-Derived Choline to Glycine Betaine for Osmoprotection during Pre- and Post-harvest Colonization of Injured Lettuce Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell A. Scott

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant injury is inherent to the production and processing of fruit and vegetables. The opportunistic colonization of damaged plant tissue by human enteric pathogens may contribute to the occurrence of outbreaks of foodborne illness linked to produce. Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157 responds to physicochemical stresses in cut lettuce and lettuce lysates by upregulation of several stress response pathways. We investigated the tolerance of EcO157 to osmotic stress imposed by the leakage of osmolytes from injured lettuce leaf tissue. LC-MS analysis of bacterial osmoprotectants in lettuce leaf lysates and wound washes indicated an abundant natural pool of choline, but sparse quantities of glycine betaine and proline. Glycine betaine was a more effective osmoprotectant than choline in EcO157 under osmotic stress conditions in vitro. An EcO157 mutant with a deletion of the betTIBA genes, which are required for biosynthesis of glycine betaine from imported choline, achieved population sizes twofold lower than those of the parental strain (P < 0.05 over the first hour of colonization of cut lettuce in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP. The cell concentrations of the betTIBA mutant also were 12-fold lower than those of the parental strain (P < 0.01 when grown in hypertonic lettuce lysate, indicating that lettuce leaf cellular contents provide choline for osmoprotection of EcO157. To demonstrate the utilization of available choline by EcO157 for osmoadaptation in injured leaf tissue, deuterated (D-9 choline was introduced to wound sites in MAP lettuce; LC-MS analysis revealed the conversion of D9-choline to D-9 glycine betaine in the parental strain, but no significant amounts were observed in the betTIBA mutant. The EcO157 ΔbetTIBA-ΔotsBA double mutant, which is additionally deficient in de novo synthesis of the compatible solute trehalose, was significantly less fit than the parental strain after their co-inoculation onto injured lettuce leaves and

  4. Qualidade pós-colheita de banana Prata Anã armazenada sob diferentes condições Quality evaluation of post harvest banana 'Prata Anã'associated to packing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Viviani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O manuseio inadequado na pós-colheita tem sido responsável pela desvalorização da banana no mercado interno e pela perda de oportunidade de exportação. Outro aspecto observado é que o comércio de banana é fortemente afetado pela má apresentação dos frutos e embalagens. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade pós-colheita de frutos da bananeira Prata-Anã, por análises físico-químicas e sensoriais, comparando o armazenamento refrigerado (13ºC e o realizado em temperatura ambiente, empregando-se diferentes tipos de embalagens (caixa de madeira tipo torito, com capacidade para 18kg, com revestimento de papelão para os frutos, caixa de madeira tipo ½ caixa, com capacidade para 13kg, com revestimento de papelão para os frutos e caixa de papelão com capacidade para 18kg. Também, foram avaliados os danos físicos que ocorrem na banana durante transporte até o centro de distribuição e após a climatização. A conservação em ambiente refrigerado aumentou sua vida útil. Não houve diferença significativa entre as embalagens quanto à conservação das frutas, tanto nos atributos indicativos de maturação, quanto no aumento dos danos físicos. Sendo assim, essas embalagens podem ser utilizadas como alternativa de proteção ao fruto.The inadequate handling during the post-harvest has been responsible by the lost of value of the product in the internal market, and lost of opportunity of exportation of this Brazilian fruit. The other observed aspect is that the commerce of banana is highly affected by the bad visual aspects of the fruits and inadequate packing. Inside of this context, this research has, as major objective, the evaluation of post-harvest quality of banana fruits, variety Prata Anã. Experiments were realized to evaluate the quality variation, appearance, and colorin until the fruits were inappropriate for consumption, using physical-chemical and sensorial analysis, by comparing cold storage at 13º

  5. Comportamento pós-colheita de mamões Formosa 'Tainung 01' acondicionados em diferentes embalagens para o transporte Post harvest behavior of Papaya Formosa 'Tainung 01' conditioned in different packings for transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Magalhães dos Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a comportamento pós-colheita de mamões do grupo Formosa híbrido 'Tainung 01', submetidos a diferentes formas de acondicionamento para o transporte rodoviário, desde o local da produção até o mercado atacadista. Foram utilizados mamões colhidos nos estádios 1 (até 10% da área superficial da casca com cor amarela e 3 (25 a 40% da área superficial da casca com cor amarela, acondicionados sob diferentes formas: a granel, em caixas de madeira, em caixas de papelão ondulado e em caixas plásticas forradas com plástico-bolha (controle, e transportados a Viçosa-MG, distante 750 km da produção, onde os frutos foram avaliados. Após seleção e novo acondicionamento, os frutos foram armazenamento a 24,5 ± 2ºC por 8 dias, com amostragens a cada 2 dias, para avaliação de índice de cor da casca, perda de massa fresca, taxa respiratória, firmeza da polpa e o índice de injúrias mecânicas. Os resultados evidenciaram os efeitos depreciativos das injúrias mecânicas na qualidade final do mamão, sendo que o transporte de frutos a granel, em relação ao controle, promoveu alterações na qualidade pós-colheita dos frutos, com aumento do índice de cor da casca, redução na firmeza da polpa, elevada perda de massa fresca e taxa respiratória, e maiores percentagens de área da casca injuriada, nos dois estádios de coloração estudados (1,14 e 1,21%, respectivamente. As caixas de papelão ondulado e caixas plásticas forradas com plástico-bolha mantiveram baixa a percentagem de área injuriada em relação aos transportados a granel, constituindo-se em alternativas promissoras na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de mamão Formosa destinado ao mercado interno.The aim of this study was to evaluate the post harvest behavior of papaya from the hybrid group Formosa 'TAINUNG 01' stored in different packages for road transportation, from the farm to the wholesale market. It was used papaya picked

  6. Infrared pre-drying and dry-dehulling of walnuts for improved processing efficiency and product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The walnut industry is faced with an urgent need to improve post-harvest processing efficiency, particularly drying and dehulling operations. This research investigated the feasibility of dry-dehulling and infrared (IR) pre-drying of walnuts for improved processing efficiency and dried product quali...

  7. Diversity, users' perception and food processing of sorghum: implications for dietary iron and zinc supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the diversity of sorghum and its post-harvest processing into food. We studied the contribution that sorghum can make to Fe and Zn intake by poor people in Africa, using the situation in Benin as a study context. The culinary and sensory characteristics of sorghum crops and

  8. Efeito de produtos alternativos para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum em pós-colheita de citros Effect of the alternative products for control of green mold (Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest citrus fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL ANDRADE DE SIQUEIRA FRANCO

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de sinergismo entre misturas de produtos alternativos aos fungicidas, para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum em pós-colheita de citros. Foram testados dez produtos individualmente e trinta e cinco combinações destes produtos dois a dois, em comparação com tiabendazole e testemunha, com e sem inoculação. Os produtos testados não apresentaram efeito de sinergismo, exceto a mistura carbonato de Na + ácido bórico. Carbonato de Na e ácido bórico controlaram a doença em 78 e 87%, respectivamente, e, utilizando a mistura, o controle foi de 93%. Destacaram-se, ainda no controle da doença, o bicarbonato de Na, metabissulfito de Na e as misturas de bicarbonato de sódio + ácido bórico, carbonato de Na + carbonato de K, carbonato de Na + sorbato de K, bicarbonato de Na + carbonato de Na, controlando 92; 77; 81; 77; 75 e 71%, respectivamente. O tiabendazole utilizado como padrão controlou totalmente a doença.The objective of this work was verify the ocurrence of synergism of mixtures for alternative products to the fungicides for the control of the green mold (Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest citrus fruits. The efficiency of ten products, tested individually, and thirty five combinations among them, in pairs, were compared to thiabendazole and control, with and without inoculation. The products didn't present a synergism effect, except the mixture sodium carbonate + boric acid, that had a disease control of 93%. The products, sodium carbonate and boric acid controled 78 and 87%, respectively. The sodium bicarbonate, sodium methabisulphite and the mixtures of sodium bicarbonate + boric acid, sodium carbonate + potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate + potassium sorbate, sodium bicarbonate + sodium carbonate had a disease control of 92%, 77%, 81%, 77%, 75% and 71%, respectively. The fungicide treatment with thiabendazole used by standard had a whole disease control.

  9. Redução de perdas pós-colheita em tomate de mesa acondicionado em três tipos de caixas Reduction of tomato post-harvest losses stored in three different types of boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Fátima A. Luengo

    2001-07-01

    was significantly different and lower in the Embrapa box, reducing post-harvest losses in tomato fruits.

  10. Características pós-colheita de frutos de genótipos de bananeira (Musa spp. Post-harvest fruit characteristics of different banana (Musa spp. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Conceição Cerqueira

    2002-12-01

    íbridos da Prata São Tomé (ST42-08 e Pacovan (PV42-85, PV42-81, PV42-68, PV42-53, PV42-129 e PV42-143 podem substituir as cultivares Prata Comum e Pacovan nos sitemas produção.The knowledge of the post-harvest characteristics of new banana hybrids is an important information that helps the breeder in making his decision. This work has the objective to evaluate banana genotypes in relation to their post-harvest characteristics and resistance to fruit drop. Fruits of the second hand of 16 hybrids (Calipso, Bucaneiro, Ambrosia, YB42-21, PV42-53, PV42-68, PV42-81, PV42-85, PV42-129, PV42-142, PV42-143, ST12-31, ST42-08, PV03-44, FHIA-03 and SH 3640 and four cultivars (Pacovan, Prata Comum, Nam and Figue Pomme Naine were evaluated according to their weight, length, circumference, pulp/peel ratio, resistance to fruit drop, firmness, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, TSS/TTA ratio and maturation period. A completely randomized experimental design was used, with five replications, except fruit firmness with ten replications, each unit was constituted by one fruit. The data were submitted to the analysis of variance and the means were compared by the Scott & Knott test at 5% of probability. The cultivar Nam had the lowest TTA and the highest TSS/TTA ratio, while the highest fruit firmness was observed in PV42-81 and PV42-53. The SH 3640 produced the heaviest fruits, and Bucaneiro and PV42-81 produced the longest ones. PV42-85 and ST42-08 showed high resistance to fruit drop, with no statistical difference from 'Pacovan'. 'Prata Comum' showed the lowest resistance. The genotypes ' Nam', PV42-143 and PV42-129 showed longer shelf life when compared to 'Prata Comum'. 'Nam' genotype can be considered as alternative in banana production. SH3640 the Prata dwarf hybrid, might be considered as a new cultivar. Hybrids from Prata São Tomé (ST42-08 and from Pacovan (PV42-68, PV42-81, PV42-85, PV42-129 e PV42-143 can replace Prata Comum and Pacovan in the banana

  11. Escarificação de um Latossolo Vermelho na pós-colheita de soqueira de cana-de-açúcar Chisel plowing in an Oxisol in post harvest of ratoon cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Paulino

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A escarificação nas entrelinhas da soqueira da cana-de-açúcar, associada à adubação e à gradagem (tríplice cultivo, é adotada como um recurso para amenizar o problema da compactação do solo; entretanto, pouco se sabe de seus efeitos no enraizamento da soqueira. Objetivando estudar os efeitos da escarificação na pós-colheita de cana-de-açúcar nas propriedades físicas de um Latossolo Vermelho, na distribuição de raízes e na produtividade, realizou-se um ensaio na região do Arenito Caiuá, utilizando a terceira soca da variedade RB72454. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: E1: escarificação a 0,15 m de profundidade, adubação e gradagem; E2: escarificação a 0,30 m de profundidade, adubação e gradagem; GR: adubação e gradagem. Foram avaliados: densidade do solo, porosidade total e distribuição do tamanho de poros; distribuição do sistema radicular; produtividade, perfilhamento, diâmetro e comprimento médios dos colmos. A escarificação nas entrelinhas da soqueira de cana-de-açúcar alterou a densidade do solo, a macro e a microporosidade e, na profundidade de 0,15 m, proporcionou maior comprimento de raízes na camada de 0,25 a 0,50 m, porém não alterou a área e o comprimento totais de raízes para as outras condições estudadas, tampouco a produção da cultura.Chisel plowing in-between rows of sugar cane ratoon, associated with fertilizer and harrowing (triple cultivation is a common practice to reduce soil compaction, but little is known about its effects on ratoon rooting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of post-harvest chisel plowing on the physical properties of an Oxisol, root distribution, and yield. The experiment was set up in an Arenito Caiuá Soil and used the third ratoon of RB72454 sugar cane variety. The treatments were: E1: 0.15 m-deep chisel plowing, fertilization, and harrowing; E2: 0.30 m-deep chisel plowing, fertilization, and harrowing; GR: fertilization and harrowing

  12. Qualidade de cajus-de-mesa obtidos nos sistemas de produção integrada e convencional Post-harvest quality of the cashew apples gotten in the integrated fruit production and the conventional cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silva de Andrade

    2008-03-01

    systems will contribute to minimize this scenery. The objective of this work was to compare the integrated fruit production (IFP and conventional cropping production (CP systems in dwarf cashew orchard, as to apple quality. The experiment was installed in a commercial orchard, located in Beberibe Country, State of Ceará, Brazil, in an area of 1.0 hectare, where the IFP and CP systems had been developed. Each system had occupied 0.5 hectare, separated by five crop lines of plants. In the IFP system, cropping practices were applied according to the Legal Marks of Integrated Fruit Production in Brazil. In CP system, cropping practices were applied accordingly with common used by local growers. Apple color, firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, vitamin C content and pH were evaluated. For these variables, means were estimated from twelve samples obtained in both treatments, which were compared by test t (P<0.05. For the TA and vitamin C content variable, the IFP system was significantly superior to the CP ones. For the pH variable, a significant difference was observed between the averages of the systems, being the value gotten in the CP superior to the one of the IFP. The cashew apples obtained in the IFP system showed better quality. The post-harvest quality of the cashew apples had been influenced by the production systems.

  13. Evaluation of vegetable extracts for control of the pathogenic fungi in banana and strawberry in post harvest storage Evaluación de extractos vegetales para manejo de hongos patógenos en banano y fresa almacenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Correa Carmen Rosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This study was carried out get knowledge about fungicidal properties of vegetable extracts to the control of the pathogenyc fungi (Colletotrichum musae and Botrytis cinerea in banana (Musa sapientum and strawberry (Fragaria sp during the pos harvest storage, at the National University of Colombia headquarters in Palmira. Ethanolics extracts of the following vegetable species were evaluated: Plantago major L, Ruta graveolens L, Lippia alba (Mill NE BROS, Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf Maxon. The extracts were obtained by the percolation method starting from the macerated material (100 g and 1000 ml of solvent. The fungi was isolated from the strawberry (Fragaria sp affected by B. cinerea and banana Gross mitchel affected by C. musae. To evaluate the control of the fungi C. musae and B. cinerea sixteen treatments were used (four extracts of plants, two extraction media, two dilutions and three repetitions. Three control treatments were added: absolute (PDA; solvent (PDA + ethanol or water; and chemical (PDA + chemical fungicide. The dilutions were prepared with the solvent used to obtain the extract. The evaluation in vitro was maid with ethanolics extracts diluted at 25%, because these presented the best results in the previous tests. The results indicate that the ethanolic solvent decreased the development of the fungi in 68%. The fruits in which the etanolic extract of ruda and pronto alivio was applied presented bigger incidence and grade of severity.

    Keys words: Vegetable extract; patogenic fungi; Colletotrichum musae; Botrytis cinérea; post harvest

    En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia -Sede Palmira, se obtuvieron extractos etanólicos (1.000 ml, macerados (100 g de llantén (Plantago major L, ruda (Ruta graveolens L, pronto alivio [Lippia alba (Mill NE BROS] y helecho marranero [Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf Maxon]. Para la evaluación del control

  14. Alternativas de controle pós-colheita da podridão-parda e da podridão-mole em frutos de pessegueiro Alternatives for post-harvest control of brown rot and soft rot in peach fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Luiz de Carvalho

    2009-03-01

    of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of alternative products, used during the post-harvest, in order to control the brown rot (Monilinia fructicola and the soft rot (Rhizopus spp. in peaches. The experiment was carried out in the municipality of Nepomuceno-MG in peaches of cultivar Diamond, of 10 years of planting. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 7 treatments and 3 repetitions. For the study, it was selected fruits without injuries and symptoms of the diseases. The fruits were immersed for 30 seconds in a solution containing the following treatments: 1- clove oil 0.01%; 2-Chlorine dioxide 0.1%; 3-Chlorine dioxide 0.05%; 4-Benzalkonium chloride 0.25%; 5-Dichloran 0.12%, 6-Iprodione 0.15% and 7-control (water only. After the treatments, the fruits, in a number of 10, were placed in sterile trays, in three replicates. The experiment was carried out in uncontrolled environmental conditions, the development of the diseases were evaluated 3 and 5 days after the treatments in 2005 and 3, 6 and 9 days after treatment in 2006. The use of Iprodione controlled the incidence and severity of M. fructicola and Rhizopus spp. The Dichloran was the most effective treatment in the control of Rhizopus spp. and intermediate in the control of M. fructicola. The treatments with clove oil and chlorine dioxide, at the highest concentration, reduced the incidence of Rhizopus spp. and to severity they showed intermediate results.

  15. Avaliação de algumas características pós-colheita e índice de aceitação pelos consumidores de novas cultivares de banana Evaluation of some post-harvest characteristics and consumer acceptance index of new banana cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lair Victor Pereira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - As cultivares Nam, Pioneira, Caipira, SH 3640, FHIA 01, FHIA 18, Mysore, Nanicão, Grande Naine, Maçã, Prata e Prata Anã foram avaliadas quanto às características de pós-colheita (longevidade pós-colheita, período de comercialização e resistência ao despencamento dos frutos, aspectos visuais (tamanho do fruto e coloração da casca e da polpa, índice de aceitação pelos consumidores por meio da degustação da fruta madura (sabor, aroma, consistência da polpa e semelhança de sabor e aroma com as cultivares tradicionais Prata, Prata Anã, Maçã e Nanicão. O trabalho foi conduzido por meio de ensaios de laboratório usando 6 pencas de bananas de cada cultivar e entrevistas após os testes de degustação com 80 consumidores de Lavras e Maria da Fé-MG, no período de outubro de 2000 a abril de 2001. Pelos resultados, verifica-se que, quanto aos aspectos visuais, somente a cv. Caipira obteve baixo índice de aceitação pelos consumidores (ABSTRACT - The banana cultivars Nam, Pioneira, Caipira, SH 3640, FHIA 01, FHIA 18, Mysore, Nanicão, Grande Naine, Maçã, Prata and Prata Anã were evaluated as to their post-harvest characteristics (post-harvest longevity, marketing period and resistance to fruit dropping, visual aspects (fruit size and coloration of the peel and pulp and consumer acceptance index through tasting of the ripe fruit (flavor, pulp firmness and similarity of flavor with the traditional cultivars Prata, Prata Anã, Maçã and Nanicão. The work was conducted through laboratory trials by using six banana hands of each cultivar and interviews after the tasting tests with 80 consumers of Lavras and Maria da Fé-MG over the period of October 2000 to April 2001.The results pointed out that as to the visual aspects only the cultivar Caipira obtained a low consumer acceptance index (< 50%. As to the post-harvest characteristics the cultivars Prata Anã, Maçã, Prata and SH 3640 stood out with longer post-harvest

  16. Comportamento pós-colheita de frutos de morangueiro após a aplicação pré-colheita de quitosana e acibenzolar-S-metil Post harvest behavior of strawberry fruits after pre harvest treatment with chitosan and acibenzolar-S-methyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Miguel Mazaro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de indutores de resistência em plantas representa um método alternativo e promissor no controle de podridões pós-colheita de frutos. Assim sendo, foi conduzido um experimento na Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná - Câmpus Dois Vizinhos - PR, no ano de 2004, com objetivo de avaliar a aplicação pré-colheita de quitosana e acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM sobre o comportamento pós-colheita de frutos de morangueiro da cultivar Aromas. O efeito da aplicação de quitosana (0,5; 1,0 e 2,0% e de uma dose de ASM (0,0025% foi verificado em relação à testemunha (água destilada e ao tratamento-controle com aplicação de fungicidas. A aplicação na pré-colheita de quitosana, nas três doses avaliadas, retardou a maturação dos frutos, manteve maior firmeza de polpa e acidez titulável e diminuiu a perda de massa. Esses tratamentos também diminuíram a produção de etileno, o teor de açúcares redutores e mantiveram mais elevado os teores de polifenóis totais. A aplicação de quitosana, nas três doses avaliadas, induziu maior resistência das plantas a patógenos, resultando na diminuição de podridão dos frutos em pós-colheita. No entanto, a concentração de 2% de quitosana causou dano aos frutos na pós-colheita, elevando a taxa respiratória e o teor de açúcares redutores. O ASM teve efeito na retenção da acidez titulável e na redução de podridões, similar ao tratamento com fungicidas. A aplicação de quitosana e ASM na pré-colheita não interferiu na qualidade organoléptica dos frutos em pós-colheita.The use of inductors of resistance in plants represents an alternative and a promising method to control fruit rots at post harvest. The experiment was carried out at Federal Technological University of Paraná - Dois Vizinhos - Campus, during 2004 with the objective to evaluate the induction of chitosan resistance and acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM on strawberry plants. The treatments compared the effect of chitosan

  17. More energy wood from forestry operations through integrated harvesting and multi-products processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    Abundant supplies of forest biomass that could potentially be used for energy wood are not being accessed because of marginal economics, inadequate harvest methods, and restrictive land management practices. Future forestry objectives may impose even more restrictive conditions. Improvements in efficiency and effectiveness of harvest methods, marketing, and bureaucratic processes may, however, render more energy wood while meeting new post-harvest stand conditions. Some improvements have been achieved while others lie on the horizon

  18. Improving fish post-harvest management and marketing in Malawi ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gender training and behavior change communication activities will address the gender and social relations in the fisheries value chain. The team will work with policymakers to increase recognition of the importance of fish production and gender equality in national and regional policies. Men and women from the Malawian ...

  19. Reducing post-harvest losses in South Asia's mango orchards ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... Spraying a small concentration of hexanal in mango orchards has been found to delay the ripening of the fruit by an extra three weeks, enabling farmers to earn up to 15% more for their crop. Once the crop is harvested, hexanal-sprayed mangoes also have a much longer shelf life—up to 26 days in cold ...

  20. Agriculture and Gender Relations in Post Harvest Storage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... The major problems militating against agriculture and food security in .... Food security comes to depend not only on the market but also on the social ... Women are important as food producers, managers of natural resources ...

  1. Strategies to overcome post-harvest physiological deterioration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava is of global importance both as a food and energy source. Owing to the diversity of its utilization, adaptation and low input requirements, cassava not only provides a source of revenue for rural farmers, it also serve as an important source of raw material for many industries. Cassava roots are notorious for their short ...

  2. Post-harvest decay in fresh-cut lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelf-life of fresh-cut lettuce was assessed in two mapping population (Salinas 88 x La Brillante, and Pavane x Parade. The most significant QTL was detected in both populations on linkage group 4. This QTL was detected in seven experiments grown in different environments. Molecular markers are bein...

  3. Scaling Up Post-Harvest Management Innovations for Grain ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project will use business models that ensure long-term economic, ... between the public and private sectors, farmers' organizations, and other social entrepreneurs. ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018.

  4. Scaling Up Post-Harvest Management Innovations for Grain ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Services financiers et déploiement d'innovations agricoles au Sahel. Au cours des vingt dernières années, plusieurs innovations visant à améliorer les rendements des cultures vivrières ont été développées dans les centres de recherche agronomique d'Afrique de l... Voir davantageServices financiers et déploiement ...

  5. Antagonistic properties of Trichoderma viride on post harvest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-05

    Nov 5, 2007 ... cellular enzymes were isolated and characterized later, and the biocontrol mechanisms became clearer (Haran et al., 1996; Zhihe et al., 1998). Fresh cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz) are prone to biodeterioration. The first to appear, named. “Primary deterioration” consist of physiological changes.

  6. Combining Post-Harvest Fish Value Chain and Social Change ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will examine interventions to reduce poverty and to improve food and nutrition security using ... CultiAF supports research to achieve long-term food security in Eastern and Southern Africa. ... Council of the University of Zambia.

  7. Chemical composition changes of post-harvest coconut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... kinds of phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC. ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... The total phenolic contents of samples were quantified by the Folin- .... phenolic content might be caused by plant polyphenols.

  8. 4647 evaluating post harvest opportunities and constraints to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-02

    Mar 2, 2011 ... exotic vegetables, its production was still traditional, based on indigenous ... inputs. There were no commercial indigenous vegetable seed producers. ..... Leaves. 3%. Anchia. 1%. Huckleberry. 27%. Lettuce. 4%. Cabbage.

  9. RESISTANCE TO POST-HARVEST MICROBIAL ROT IN YAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    for resistance to internal rot, with Olordor and Kplondzo recording the lowest internal microbial rot, suggesting their potential in .... material. Dried maize stocks were then used to cover the pile of tubers. There were four .... effort in breeding for host plant resistance. Also, ... rot in Dioscorea species under all storage methods.

  10. Reducing post-harvest losses in South Asia's mango orchards ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 avr. 2016 ... Solar dryers are improving livelihoods in Bhutan. Des séchoirs à fruits et à légumes fonctionnant à l'énergie solaire aident les résidents de villages reculés du sud‑est du Bhoutan à accroître leur. Voir davantageSolar dryers are improving livelihoods in Bhutan ...

  11. post harvest production efficiency and output elasticity in cassava

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    d

    Cassava starch has numerous food application roles owing to its thickening and ... Malaysia, the Far East and Latin America, with limited exploitation in Africa, which ... observed that education brings about choice of better input combinations ...

  12. Biological control of post harvest disease caused by Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antagonistic activity of 24 selected bacterial strains detected by previous microbiological studies to Aspergillus flavus was tested in vitro and in vivo conditions. Within 24 strains, only ten strains showed remarkable inhibition zone (6-34 mm) against the pathogen in assays carried out in Petri plates. Both cell suspension and ...

  13. Reducing post-harvest physiological deterioration in cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in cassava breeding by National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike. ... The short shelf-life severely limits marketing options by increasing losses, marketing ... locations is necessary due to high influence of G x E interaction on the trait.

  14. Indução de resistência à podridão-parda em pêssegos pelo uso de eliciadores em pós-colheita Induction of resistance to brown-rot on peaches by elicitors use in post-harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeses Andrigo Danner

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos eliciadores acibenzolar-S-metil e proteína harpina, aplicados em pós-colheita, na indução de resistência sistêmica à podridão-parda em pêssegos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, em parcelas subdivididas - com e sem ferimentos provocados aos frutos -, e os tratamentos foram constituídos por: acibenzolar-S-metil (50 mg do i.a. L-1, dois produtos comerciais com proteína harpina (80 mg do i.a. L-1 e uma testemunha (água destilada. Os frutos foram pulverizados, individualmente, com 1 mL de solução aquosa com os tratamentos e, após 12 horas, efetuou-se a inoculação com Monilinia fructicola (0,2 mL da suspensão com concentração de 10(5 esporos mL-1, em cada lado do fruto. Após 60 horas da inoculação, avaliaram-se: a área lesionada, a esporulação e o percentual de controle. Determinaram-se os teores de proteínas totais, açúcares redutores e totais, fenóis, além da atividade da enzima fenilalanina amônia-liase (FAL. Os eliciadores induziram resistência dos frutos a M. fructicola, com redução do desenvolvimento do fungo. O uso dos eliciadores aumentou os teores dos parâmetros bioquímicos avaliados e a atividade da FAL, que esteve relacionada à redução da área lesionada em pêssegos. Os indutores podem contribuir para o manejo integrado da podridão-parda em pêssegos, em pós-colheita.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of acibenzolar-S-methyl and harpin protein elicitors, applied in post-harvest, in systemic resistance induction to brown-rot, on peaches. A completely randomized design was utilized, with four replicates, in a split plot scheme - injured or noninjured peaches -, and treatments were constituted of : acibenzolar-S-methyl (50 mg of a.i. L-1, two commercial products with harpin protein (80 mg of a.i. L-1; and control (distilled water. Peaches were sprayed individually with 1 mL of

  15. Influência da adubação potássica na produção e na atividade de enzimas pós-colheita em escarola (Cichorium endivia L. / Influence of potassium fertilization in endive (Cichorium endiviaL. production and enzyme post-harvest activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Pavinato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO potássio é um dos nutrientes mais abundantes no citoplasma das células vegetais, e sua alta contribuição no metabolismo das plantas está relacionada ao controle osmótico das células e à ativação de inúmeras enzimas. Sendo de conhecimento que a produção e manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de sementes, frutos e hortaliças depende da boa nutrição potássica, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de doses de potássio na produção e qualidade pós-colheita de escarola. A escarola, variedade Malan, foi cultivada em vasos com capacidade de 10 kg de solo, em casa de vegetação, na Fazenda Experimental Lajeado, Departamento de Produção Vegetal/Horticultura da FCA-UNESP, Botucatu-SP. Os tratamentos consistiram em cinco doses de potássio, correspondentes a 0, 75, 150, 300 e 600 kg ha-1 de K2O, aplicadas 1/3 no plantio e o restante em três coberturas (8, 16 e 28 dias após o transplante. Por ocasião do transplante, aplicou-se a adubação nitrogenada e fosfatada recomendadas para a cultura. Aos 35 dias após o transplante, as plantas foram colhidas e se efetuaram as avaliações de diâmetro de cabeça, massa fresca e área foliar. Ainda utilizando plantas frescas, determinou-se a atividade das enzimas polifenol oxidase e peroxidase. Em plantas secas, em estufa a 60°C por 72 h, foram determinadas a massa seca, o teor de K no tecido e o acúmulo total de proteínas. De maneira geral, a aplicação de 150 kg ha-1 de K2O, correspondente à dose recomendada pelos boletins de adubação para a escarola, resultou em máxima produção e qualidade pós-colheita, não respondendo a doses mais elevadas.AbstractPotassium is one of the nutrients that is present in higher levels in the cytoplasm of plant cells, and its contribution in plant metabolism is related to cell osmotic regulation and the activation of many enzymes. Given the knowledge that production and post-harvest quality maintenance of seeds, fruit

  16. Utilização de Ecolife® e Acibenzolar-s-metil (ASM no controle da antracnose da banana em pós-colheita Use of Ecolife® and Acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM on the control of antracnosis in banana post-harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Marinho Furtado

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ação dos produtos ASM e Ecolife no controle da antracnose pós-colheita em frutos de banana. Frutos sadios de banana, variedades maçã, prata, pacovan e cacau , em fase intermediária de maturação, foram imersos previamente em soluções de ASM e Ecolife e inoculados com Colletotrichum musae. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial com quatro repetições. Os resultados apresentados demonstraram a eficácia dos produtos nas concentrações de 5 ml/ L (Ecolife e 0,50g/ L (ASM no controle da antracnose nas variedades analisa das. A variedade cacau apresentou menor lesão quando tratada com o Ecolife (5,79 mm. Com relação ao efeito do ASM, a bana na prata demonstrou um melhor resultado, com tamanho médio de lesão de 5,62 mm. Com o decorrer do processo de maturação dos frutos houve um decréscimo na severidade da doença nas quatro variedades estudadas, exceto no tratamento testemunha, que continuou apresentando aumento no tamanho das lesões nos frutos e atingir a polpa ao final da maturação.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of ASM and Ecolife on the control of post-harvest antracnosis in banana. Banana fruits of Maçã, Prata, Pacovan and Figo varieties, at intermediate stage of maturation, were immersed in solutions of ASM and Ecolife and inoculated with Colletotrichum musae A completely randomized design was used, at a factorial scheme 4x2 (four varieties x two products with four replicates. The presented results demonstrated the susceptibility of the fruits to the disease, mainly Maça variety with lesion of 17,99 mm. It was demosntrated the effectiveness of products at concentrations of 5ml. L-1 (Ecolife and 0.50g. L-1 (ASM on antracnosis control. The Figo variety presented the smallest injuries when treated with Ecolife (5.79 mm. Regarding ASM effects, Prata variety demonstrated the best performance, with 5.62 mm of injuries diameter

  17. Influência do manejo do solo na conservação, qualidade sensorial, teor de nutrientes e incidência de fitopatias e fisiopatias pós-colheita de pêssegos cv. Cerrito Soil management effects in respect to conservation and sensorial quality, nutrients levels and incidence of rot and physiological disorders of peaches in post harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ROBERTO MARTINS

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do manejo do solo mantido com cobertura vegetal, na linha de plantio, na qualidade pós-colheita de pêssegos cv. Cerrito durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Os tratamentos constaram de frutas colhidas em pomares com solo com cobertura vegetal (aveia e com cultivo tradicional (sem cobertura, em três estádios de maturação. O armazenamento foi feito em câmara fria a 0ºC e umidade relativa do ar acima de 90%. As avaliações da presença de fisiopatias e fitopatias, análise sensorial e análise de nutrientes foram feitas na colheita e após 6; 12 e 18 dias de armazenamento, mais três dias de simulação de comercialização. A análise sensorial demonstrou que as frutas colhidas em pomares com manejo do solo com cobertura vegetal apresentaram aparência, aroma, qualidade e sabor ao final do período de armazenamento superior às frutas de cultivo tradicional. Os atributos aceitação comercial e desidratação não apresentaram diferenças significativas. A coloração demonstrou ser superior em pêssegos provenientes de pomar com manejo do solo tradicional. A análise de nutrientes demonstrou maior conteúdo de N, Ca e B em frutas provenientes de pomar com manejo do solo com cobertura vegetal.The effect of soil management, with mulching on the planting line on the quality of post harvest of peaches, cv. Cerrito, during cold storage was studied. The treatments were consisted by fruits harvested on orchards with mulching (oat and without mulching (traditional cultivation on three stages of maturation. The storage was performed at temperature 0º C and above 90% of air humidity. The presence of physiological disorders and rot evaluations, sensorial analysis and analysis of nutrients were performed at harvest and after 6, 12 and 18 days of storage, plus three days of commercialization simulation. The sensorial analysis showed that the fruits harvested on orchard management soil with mulching presented, on the final of

  18. Influência do manejo do solo na conservação e na qualidade pós-colheita de pêssegos cv. Cerrito Soil management effects in respect to conservation and to quality post harvest of peaches variety Cerrito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ROBERTO MARTINS

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do manejo do solo, mantido com cobertura vegetal, na linha de plantio, na qualidade pós-colheita de pêssegos cv. Cerrito durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Os tratamentos constaram de frutas colhidas em pomares com solo com cobertura vegetal (aveia e com cultivo tradicional (sem cobertura em três estádios de maturação. O armazenamento foi a 0ºC e umidade relativa do ar acima de 90%. As avaliações de firmeza, acidez (ATT, sólido solúvel total (SST e coloração foram feitas na colheita e após 6; 12 e 18 dias de armazenamento, mais 3 dias de simulação de comercialização. As frutas colhidas em pomares com solo com cobertura vegetal apresentaram maiores firmezas que as do cultivo tradicional. O teor de SST foi maior em pêssegos produzidos em pomares com manejo do solo tradicional. Já a acidez e a relação SST/ATT não foi influenciada pelo manejo do solo. Os pêssegos produzidos em pomar com aveia apresentaram predomínio da coloração mais esverdeada no início do armazenamento.The effect of soil management, with mulching on the planting line, on the quality of post-harvest of peaches cv. Cerrito during cold storage was studied. The treatments were consisted by fruits harvested on orchards with mulching (oats and without mulching (traditional cultivation on three stages of maturation. The storage was performed at temperature 0º C and above 90% of air humidity. Evaluations of firmness, acidity (TTA, total soluble solid (TSS and coloration, were performed at harvest and after 6, 12 and 18 days of storage, plus 3 days of commercialization simulation. The fruits harvested on orchards with mulching presented a larger firmness than the others. The percentage of TSS was larger in peaches produced in the orchards with traditional cultivation. The management of the soil didn't influenced the relation TSS/TTA and acidity. The peaches produced in the orchard with mulching of oat presented prevalence of the greenish

  19. Radioinhibition process in Argentinian garlic and onion bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzio, O. A.; Croci, C. A.

    Technological aspects of garlic and onion bulbs subjected to the radioinhibition process and extended storage under warehouse conditions were studied. Garlic and onion of the "Colorado" and "Valenciana sintética 14" varieties respectively, were irradiated in dormancy period with an average dose of 50.0 Gy of 60Co gamma rays and kept in storage up to ten months post-harvest. Throughout the control period (180-300 days post-harvest) obvious benefits were attained as to reducing the weight loss and increasing the percentage of marketable bulbs. In general, the irradiated bulbs were superior to the non-irradiated ones with regard to the external aspect, firmness and internal aspect, while the odor of the bulbs was not affected by the process. The radioinhibition process does not seem to affect adversely the levels of dry matter, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid as well as the acidity in onion bulbs. In two marketing trials a very favourable reception was perceived in the consumer public regarding the quality of the products. These studies have promoted the construction of a multipurpose irradiation facility in the Universidad Nacional del Sur for the development of the radiation processing technology.

  20. Efeito do óleo de soja no controle da antracnose e na conservação da manga cv. Palmer em pós-colheita Effect of soybean oil in the control of anthracnose and on post-harvest conservation of mango, cv. Palmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Tadeu Vilela Junqueira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Na fase de pós-colheita da manga, a antracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. é a doença mais importante em termos de expressão econômica. Seu controle vem sendo feito pela imersão dos frutos por 5 minutos, em água a 55 ºC, acrescida de thiabendazo1 a 0,2%. Embora seja eficaz no controle dessa doença, esse fungicida pode deixar resíduo, o que não satisfaz os consumidores que vêm, a cada ano, aumentando as suas exigências por frutos livres de resíduos de agroquímicos e ambientalmente corretos. Dessa forma, esses experimentos foram conduzidos visando à seleção de produtos biológicos que tenham potencial para o controle da antracnose e para a conservação da manga na pós-colheita. Os frutos, colhidos no estádio de maturação 3 e 4, foram imersos por 5 minutos em thiabendazol a 0,24% e benomil a 0,1 % a 22 ºC, 40 ºC ou 45 ºC e em diferentes concentrações de óleo de soja isolado ou em mistura com benomil, thiabendazol e com extrato etanólico de sucupira (Pterodon pubescens Benth.. Após os tratamentos, os frutos foram mantidos em câmaras a 27 ± 1 ºC, 72 % a 85 % de UR (Experimento nº 1 e a 17ºC a 85% a 100% de UR (experimento nº 2. As avaliações foram efetuadas aos 15 dias (experimento nº 1 e aos 30 dias (experimento nº 2 após os tratamentos, determinando-se as porcentagens da superfície dos frutos cobertas com lesões, de frutos verdes, maduros e de vez, ºBrix e textura. O óleo de soja, isolado ou misturado com benomil ou thiabendazol, a 22 ºC ou a 40 ºC, aumentou o tempo de prateleira da manga Palmer e foi eficaz no controle da antracnose.The anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. is the most important post-harvest disease of mango fruit. Its control has been done by immersion of fruits for 5 minutes in hot water at 55ºC containing the fungicide thiabendazole at 200 g/100 liters. Although efficient in the control of mango anthracnose, this fungicide can leave residues. This fact does

  1. Performance during post-harvest storage of banana cv. 'prata', 'maçã' and 'nanica' exposed to physical and chemical treatments Comportamento pós-colheita durante armazenamento de bananas 'prata', 'maçã' e 'nanica' submetidas a tratamentos físicos e químicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia R. M. Coelho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana is the most consumed fruit in the world and Brazil is the second largest producer. Despite its global position, Brazil has an average of 40% losses during the post-harvest period. So, this experiment aimed at evaluating the efficiency of post-harvest treatments to improve the storage of banana cultivars cv. 'Prata', 'Maçã' and 'Nanica'. The fruits were acquired at CEASA with green peel, and were submitted to six different treatments: T- immersion in drinking water for 3 minutes (control, H3 - hot water (50 °C for 3 minutes, H8 - hot water (50 °C for 8 minutes, HP - immersion in hypochlorite 0.2% for 3 minutes, OS - immersion in soybean oil 10% for 3 minutes, and OM - immersion in mineral oil 10% for 3 minutes. The fruits were stored at room temperature at about 21 °C for 14 days and evaluated in three periods (1, 7 and 14 days comparing peel color, flesh/peel ratio, titratable acidity (TA, soluble solids (SS, SS/TA ratio, and pH. The fruits of cv. 'Prata' and 'Maçã' submitted to the treatments H3, H8 and HP ripened at the same time as the control for peel color, which showed increased soluble solids, flesh/peel ratio, acidity and a decrease in pH. On the other hand, the cv. 'Nanica' did not respond significantly different when compared to the applied treatments and the control. The fruits treated with OM and OS were kept green for a longer time for the cultivars 'Prata' and 'Nanica', but there were some changes on peel color due dark spots in 'Prata' banana and a softening aspect in 'Nanica', indicating some level of toxicity of these treatments. Fruits of the 'Maçã' cultivar continued green with the application of mineral oil, without toxicity symptoms. In conclusion, the treatments applied did not show any advantage for storage of these fruits.A banana é a fruta mais consumida no mundo, e o Brasil é o segundo maior produtor mundial. Apesar de seu ranking mundial, apresenta níveis de até 40% de perdas no período p

  2. VALIDACIÓN DE TRES SUPLEMENTOS ALIMENTICIOS ELABORADOS A PARTIR DE SUBPRODUCTOS AGROINDUSTRIALES DE POSCOSECHA EN FUNCIÓN DEL INCREMENTO EN SÓLIDOS TOTALES DE LA LECHE VALIDAÇÃO DE TRÊS SUPLEMENTOS ALIMENTARES FEITOS A PARTIR DA PÓS-COLHEITA DE SUBPRODUTOS AGROINDUSTIAIS EM FUNÇÃO DO AUMENTO DE SÓLIDOS TOTAIS DO LEITE VALIDATION OF THREE FOOD SUPPLEMENTS MADE FROM POST-HARVEST AGRO-INDUSTRIAL IN TERMS OF INCREASED MILK TOTAL SOLID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA ANDREA HENAO C

    2011-12-01

    dietéticos que foram desenvolvidos a partir de produtos pós-colheita, gerados durante o processamento de polpas e néctares de frutos, não mostraram patógenos e quantificação de aflatoxinas, além de teor de fibras, proteínas e representante suplementação de gordura na alimentação animal. Posteriormente validada em suplementos lácteos, com o objetivo de identificar aqueles que expressaram um melhor desempenho em sólidos totais. Estes suplementos foram avaliadas pelo teste estatístico, procurando determinar se a sua utilização, aumenta o teor de sólidos totais do leite, em comparação com um alimento tradicional. Os resultados mostraram que, em particular o uso de suplementos B gera um aumento significativo de sólidos totais no leite.This is a project to accompany a processing plant that takes advantage of post-harvest products in the region, in the production of a food supplement for cattle. The process involved the evaluation of three supplements on their chemical composition for substance and microbiological analysis to determine its safety. Finally, the validation of these three leading dietary supplements to determine if your intake increased the percentage of total solids of milk from the lot of animals that consumed it. Dietary supplements that were developed from post-harvest products, generated during the processing of pulps and nectars, showed no pathogens, and quantification of aflatoxins, moreover showed in addition to fiber content, protein and fat supplementation representative for animal feed. Subsequently validated in dairy supplements, with the aim of identifying those who expressed a better performance in total solids. These supplements were tested by statistical testing, seeking to determine whether the use of the same, increase the total solids of milk, compared with a traditional food. The results showed that in particular the use of supplemental B generates significant increases in total solids in milk.

  3. Caracterização pós-colheita de frutos de bananeira 'BRS Platina' de primeiro ciclo, sob regulação do déficit de irrigação Post harvest characterization of bananas 'BRS Platina' first cycle under regulation of irrigation deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Castricini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo a caracterização pós-colheita de bananas cv BRS Platina (PA42-44, que é um híbrido tetraploide (AAAB desenvolvido pela Embrapa. As mesmas foram produzidas no norte de Minas Gerais, com redução das lâminas (L de água utilizadas na irrigação,a partir dos cinco meses após o plantio. Foram sete os tratamentos avaliados, com combinações de redução da lâmina (55%, 70% e 85% nas fases II e III de desenvolvimento da planta (5 a 7 meses, e 7 a 12 meses após o plantio, caracterizados quanto a: teor de sólidos solúveis totais (sst, despencamento, firmeza da polpa, comprimento e diâmetro do fruto, relação polpa/casca e coloração da casca, definida pelos parâmetros L*, C* e ºh, avaliados quando os frutos estavam totalmente amarelos. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais foi maior nos frutos do tratamento T3, onde houve redução da lâmina de irrigação na fase II (floração para 70% da ETc. A maior relação polpa/casca foi obtida quando a ETc foi reduzida em 25% na fase III, resistência ao despencamento. Os frutos mais firmes foram produzidos quando a ETc na fase II foi reduzida em 45%; já o menor despencamento foi obtido quando esta redução foi de 45% e 30% na fase II, e de 30% na fase III. Os maiores (comprimento e diâmetro e mais pesados frutos foram produzidos na ausência de déficit hídrico durante todo o ciclo da cultura.The study had as objective the post harvest characterization of bananas cultivar BRS Platina that is a tetraployd hybrid AAAB developed by Embrapa. The crop was grown at North of Minas Gerais with reduction of irrigation water depths (L from five months after planting. Seven treatments were evaluated with different combinations of water depth reductions (55%, 70% and 85% during two phases of crop development (5 to 7 months and 7 to 12 months after planting where fruits were characterized when completely yellow by: total soluble solids (tss, dropping, pulp strength

  4. Use of digital images for color evaluation in ‘banana prata’ submitted to different post-harvest treatments / Utilização de imagens digitais para avaliação da coloração de banana prata submetida a diferentes tratamentos pós-colheita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Ferreira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This trial aimed at analyzing the changes of banana “Prata” peel color through digital images, submitted to post harvest treatments in order to increase storage time. The fruits, whose peels color were totally green, were submitted to six different treatments: T –immersion in chlorine water for three minutes (control, H3 – hydrothermal (50°C for three minutes; H8 hydrothermal (50°C for eight minutes; HP – immersion in hypochlorite 0.2% for three minutes; OS – immersion in soybean oil at 10% for three minutes and OM – immersion in mineral oil at 10% for three minutes. The fruits were stored at room temperature and analyzed at 1, 7, 14 days after using digital images and also daily visual evaluation. The treatments OS and OM preserved the banana green color for a longer time, but there were some changes in the normal peel color due the formation of dark stain spots, indicating probable inadequate OS and OM treatments. The fruits submitted to H3, H8 and HP treatments ripenned faster, considering the observed color. Both visual and digital images confrmed the values obtained. Suggesting a method relationship.O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar mudança da coloração durante o armazenamento de banana prata submetida a diferentes tratamentos pós-colheita utilizando imagens digitais. Os frutos, com coloração da casca totalmente verde, foram submetidos a seis tratamentos: T – imersão em água destilada por 3 minutos (testemunha, H3 – hidrotérmico (50°C por 3 minutos, H8 – hidrotérmico (50°C por 8 minutos, HP – imersão em hipoclorito 0,2% por 3 minutos, OS – imersão em óleo de soja 10% por 3 minutos e OM – imersão em óleo mineral 10% por três minutos, sendo em seguida armazenados em condições ambientais durante 14 dias, avaliados nos períodos 1, 7 e 14 dias utilizando imagens digitais, e diariamente utilizando escala visual. Os frutos submetidos aos tratamentos OS e OM preservaram a coloração verde da

  5. Qualidade pós-colheita dos genótipos de banana PA42-44 e Prata-Anã cultivados no norte de Minas Gerais Post-harvest quality of banana genotypes PA42-44 and Prata-Anã cultivated in teh north of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo Pimentel

    2010-06-01

    control these diseases, economically and environmentally, is the utilization of resistant materials. However, these must have more than good characteristics of production; they should have attractive flavor and easiness in handling and transportation as requisites for market acceptance. Therefore, the objective of this work was the evaluation of post harvest characteristics of the disease resistant genotype PA 42-44 comparing with the 'Prata-Anã' variety commercially accepted, but susceptible to diseases. For that matter, bananas of each genotype were harvested and stored at 22 ± 1°C temperature and 75 ± 5% relative humidity, until they reached the pre-determined color index for evaluation. The bananas were evaluated at the color indexes of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 according to the Von Loesecke scale. The variables analyzed were: firmness, pH, titratable acidity (TA, soluble solids (SS, relation SS/TA and finger detachment. It was also studied maturation period through analysis of color alteration of the bananas for 12 days. Finally, a panel test was done for appearance, acceptability, firmness and sweetness for both genotypes. PA42-44 bananas when compared with 'Prata-Anã' bananas in the same coloration index was more ripe. However, when analyzed in relation to storage period 'Prata-Anã' ripened more rapidly. The PA42-44 bananas are less firm and more susceptible to finger detachment than 'Prata-Anã' bananas. The panel test between the genotypes showed similar taste appreciation.

  6. Operational experience of gamma radiation processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Nilesh

    2014-01-01

    Universal lSO-MED is now proud to announce an extension of its irradiation service for low-dose applications specifically in agriculture commodities, food and healthcare applications with the start of Gujarat Agro Radiation Processing Facility at Village: Bavla, Ahmedabad (A Government Enterprise) Operated, Maintained and Managed by Universal Medicap Ltd. Availability of hygienic, safe and nutritious food commodities is essential for any sustainable human development. Food stability is an important element of economic stability and self-reliance of a nation. Though the need to preserve food has been felt by the mankind since the time immemorial, it is even stronger in today's context. The rising population and increasing gap between demand and supply, agro-climatic conditions, in adequate post-harvest practices, seasonal nature of produce and long distances between production and consumption centers underscore the need to device improved conservation and preservation strategies

  7. Evaluation of aflatoxin B1 in different parts of pistachio fruit and effects of processing stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dargahi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio nut as the most important agricultural export products is facing challenges trough production and conception. Toxigenic Aspergillus species are able to grow and produce dangerous mycotoxins on pistachio nut. Distribution of aflatoxin in different pistachio samples collected pre- (early splitting and healthy pistachios in orchards and post-harvest (steps in processing plants was evaluated. Aflatoxin B1 content of samples was quantified using ELISA.  Overall, high content of aflatoxin B1 in pre-harvest was observed in early splitting pistachios which were 5 times higher than healthy ones. The mean value of aflatoxin B1 content in early splitting and healthy pistachio was 10.2 and 1.8 ng/g, respectively. In processing plant, the content of aflatoxin B1 in stained, small, floater and open shell pistachios was 21, 4, 15 and 2 times higher than unstained, large, sinker and closed shell pistachios, respectively. The presence of aflatoxin B1 in samples taken from orchards and processing plants indicates pre-harvest contamination by aflatoxin-producing fungi, which may exacerbate by inadequate post-harvest conditions. Physical properties of contaminated pistachios may be used to reduce aflatoxin levels in pistachio bulks during or after processing. ELISA, as practical, sensitive and cheap method, may apply to determine the aflatoxin content of pistachios.

  8. Quality of mussels cultivated and commercialized in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil: monitoration Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus growth after post-harvest processing Tratamento térmico de mexilhões Perna perna como forma de assegurar a qualidade: avaliação do crescimento de Bacillus cereus e de Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Oliveira Salán

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at improving the quality of Perna perna mussels cultivated and commercialized in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil, the growth and elimination of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus artificially inoculated in mussels were studied. The inoculation was carried out in "in natura" and pre-cooked mussels for 30 min, and after that the mussels were kept for 10 hours at room temperature (25 ± 1 °C and under refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C. Six thermal treatments were evaluated: three using steam (5, 10 and 15 minutes and three in boiling water (5, 10 and 15 minutes, in order to find the best time/temperature binomial to provide pathogenic control. Yield and physical-chemical and sensory characteristics were evaluated. All thermal treatments were efficient to eliminate microorganisms in 2 logarithmic cycles. However, the boiling water treatments presented better results than the steam treatments. The physical-chemical and sensory analyses did not show statistical differences among the thermal treatments studied. The best performances were reached in the shortest times of heat exposure. Overall, the treatments in boiling water presented better results than the steam treatments.Buscando a qualidade do mexilhão Perna perna cultivado e comercializado no município de Ubatuba, SP, foram estudados o crescimento e o controle de Staphylococcus aureus e Bacillus cereus inoculados artificialmente em mexilhões in natura e pré-cozidos, mantidos por 10 horas à temperatura ambiente (25 ± 1 °C e sob refrigeração (7 ± 1 °C. Foram estabelecidos seis tipos de tratamentos térmicos, sendo três sob vapor (5, 10 e 15 minutos e três por imersão em água (5, 10 e 15 minutos, buscando estabelecer o binômio que proporcionasse a diminuição da contagem microbiana. Posteriormente, foram avaliados o rendimento, os aspectos físico-químicos e sensoriais. Todos os tratamentos térmicos foram eficientes, pois reduziram a contagem microbiana em pelo menos 2 ciclos logarítmicos. Porém, o tratamento térmico por imersão em água com ebulição apresentou resultados melhores que os tratamentos a vapor. As análises físico-químicas e sensoriais não mostraram diferença estatística entre os tratamentos térmicos estudados. Os melhores desempenhos foram alcançados nos menores tempos de exposição ao calor, e os tratamentos em água com ebulição apresentaram resultados mais satisfatórios que os tratamentos a vapor.

  9. Digital processing methodology applied to exploring of radiological images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cristiane de Queiroz

    2004-01-01

    In this work, digital image processing is applied as a automatic computational method, aimed for exploring of radiological images. It was developed an automatic routine, from the segmentation and post-processing techniques to the radiology images acquired from an arrangement, consisting of a X-ray tube, target and filter of molybdenum, of 0.4 mm and 0.03 mm, respectively, and CCD detector. The efficiency of the methodology developed is showed in this work, through a case study, where internal injuries in mangoes are automatically detected and monitored. This methodology is a possible tool to be introduced in the post-harvest process in packing houses. A dichotomic test was applied to evaluate a efficiency of the method. The results show a success of 87.7% to correct diagnosis and 12.3% to failures to correct diagnosis with a sensibility of 93% and specificity of 80%. (author)

  10. Radiation processing for value addition in fish and fishery products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandekar, J.R.; Karani, M.; Kakatkar, A.S.; Sharma, A.

    2009-01-01

    Fish is highly nutritious as it contains easily digestible proteins and nutritionally important vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, due to high ambient temperature in tropical countries, fish is spoiled rapidly. Spoilage of fish during transportation and storage amounting to about 30% of the catch results in heavy economic losses. The microbiological hazard related to the presence of food-borne pathogens is also common in both marine and aqua-cultured fish and shellfish. In dried products (moisture content, < 20%) insects are mainly responsible for the loss of quality during storage. Radiation processing can play a major role in ensuring security and safety of fish and fishery products by reducing post-harvest losses and eliminating pathogenic microorganisms. Being a 'cold process' the technology helps in retaining the quality of fishery products in 'as is' condition. (author)

  11. Transformações químicas, físicas e enzimáticas de goiabas 'PEDRO SATO' tratadas na pós-colheita com cloreto de cálcio e 1-metilciclopropeno e armazenadas sob refrigeração Chemical, physical and enzymatic transformations of guavas 'PEDRO SATO' treated at post-harvest with calcium chlorite and 1-methylciclopropone and stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilia Alves Linhares

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito dos tratamentos com cloreto de cálcio e com 1-MCP associando-se a refrigeração, na conservação e qualidade de goiabas 'Pedro Sato', conduziu-se o experimento em que frutos dessa cultivar foram tratados com solução de CaCl2 a 2% por 5 minutos e com 1-MCP na concentração de 150 nL/L por 12 horas em câmara hermeticamente fechada. Após os tratamentos, os frutos foram armazenados em câmara refrigerada a 10ºC e 90 ± 2% de umidade relativa, por um período de 25 dias. Os resultados indicaram que os tratamentos foram efetivos em manter a qualidade da fruta, salientando-se os frutos tratados com 1-MCP, que mantiveram uma melhor aparência interna e externa, apresentaram menor perda de massa, maior firmeza, menor síntese de vitamina C, menor solubilização de pectinas e menor atividade enzimática, aumentando desta forma a vida pós-colheita das goiabas.With the purpose of investigating the effect of the treatments with calcium chlorite and with 1-methylcyclopropene, associated with refrigeration, on the conservation and quality of guavas 'Pedro Sato', the experiment was carried out in which the fruit of thiscultivar was treated with a solution of 2% CaCl2 for 5 minutes and with 1-MCP at the concentration of 150 nL/L for 12 hours in a tightly sealed chamber. After the treatments, the fruit was stored in a refrigerated chamber at 10ºC and 90 ± 2% of relative humidity for a 25-days period. The results pointed out that the treatments were effective in maintaining fruit quality, stressing the 1-MCP-treated fruit, which kept a better internal and external appearance, presented less loss of mass, greater firmness, less synthesis of vitamin C, less pectin and less activity enzymatic activity, increasing in this way the post-harvest life of guavas.

  12. Conservação pós-colheita de figos verdes (Ficus carica L. cv. roxo de Valinhos tratados com hipoclorito de sódio e armazenados sob refrigeração em atmosfera modificada passiva Post-harvest conservation of unripe figs (Ficus carica L. cv. "roxo de Valinhos" treated with sodium hypochlorite and stored under refrigeration in passive modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Costa Lima

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Os principais causadores de perdas da qualidade de figos são: colheita e embalagens inadequadas, falta de padronização do produto na classificação e péssimas condições de transporte e armazenamento. Com este trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da imersão em hipoclorito, tipo de embalagem e refrigeração na conservação pós-colheita de figos verdes, cv. Roxo de Valinhos, mediante as características físicas, físico-químicas e químicas, durante o armazenamento. Após seleção, os figos foram imersos ou não em solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 40 ppm conforme os tratamentos, secos ao ar e embalados em filme de PVC de 50 m ou sacos plásticos. Após os tratamentos, os frutos foram submetidos a armazenamento refrigerado (1ºC e 70% de UR em BOD, por um período de 35 dias, sendo avaliados a cada 7 dias. O uso da embalagem reduziu drasticamente a perda de massa dos figos. Frutos não embalados apresentaram-se mais ácidos e com menores teores de açúcares. Com o uso da embalagem, os figos podem ser comercializados até os 35 dias de armazenamento desde que armazenados a 1ºC e 70% de UR em BOD. Já os figos não embalados, estes podem ser comercializados somente até os 2 dias de armazenamento sob refrigeração.The chief causesof quality loss in figs are inadequate harvest and packaging, lack of standardization of the product in the classification and very bad transportation and storage conditions. This work aimed to evaluate the effects of soaking in hypochlorite, and the type of packaging and refrigeration on the post-harvest conservation of unripe figs cv. "Roxo de Valinhos", through physico-chemical analyses, during storage. After selection, the figs were soaked, or not, in a 40ppm sodium hypochlorite solution, air-dried and wrapped in 50µ PVC film or plastic bags. After the treatments, the fruits were submitted to refrigerated storage (1ºC and 70% of RH for a 35-day period, being evaluated every 7 days. Use of the

  13. Contribution à l'identification des champignons de post-récolte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diseases not yet identified which are responsible of high post-harvest losses. ... Keywords: Kernels, Ricinodendron heudelotii, Garcinia kola, post-harvest, fungi, isolation frequency .... coloration rose. ..... Processing and Packaging Materials on.

  14. Changes of vitamin C content in celery and parsley herb after processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Valšíková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans and other primates have lost the ability to synthesize vitamin C and therefore the only source is diet. Vitamin C or ascorbic acid has labile nature, it is removed or destroyed in specific degree immediately after harvest, but storage and post - harvest processing also contribute to its degradation. The aim of work was to determine the vitamin C content in the herb of selected celery and parsley varieties in dependence on chosen postharvest processing and to compare it with fresh herb. There were chosen five bulb forms varieties of celery (Apium graveolens - Makara, Ilonaa, Hegy Köi, Talar and Diamant. In case of parsley (Petroselinum crispum there were evaluated one variety of curly parsley, one variety of herb parsley - Petra, and five varieties of root parsley - Lenka, Eagle, Ginate D´Italia, Titana and Arat. Every variety was harvested in three terms, followed by vitamin C content estimation in fresh herb, after drying and after freezing. The content of vitamin C was estimated by HPLC method by the help of liquid chromatograph with UV detector. There was found the significant difference in content of vitamin C in parsley as well as in celery when comparing the fresh herb with herbs after post - harvest processes - drying (by air circulation in laboratory hall and freezing. After processing of herbs in both observed species the vitamin C content decreased, in case of freezing it was about 65% (celery and 61% (parsley, after drying about 86% (celery and 82% (parsley in comparison with fresh herb. The effect of processing played more important role in influencing of vitamin C content than variety in case of both selected species. For using of celery and parsley not only as culinary herb, but as a notable source of ascorbic acid it is the most important fresh herb intake.  Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  15. Digital processing methodology applied to exploring of radiological images; Metodologia de processamento digital aplicada a exploracao de imagens radiologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cristiane de Queiroz

    2004-07-01

    In this work, digital image processing is applied as a automatic computational method, aimed for exploring of radiological images. It was developed an automatic routine, from the segmentation and post-processing techniques to the radiology images acquired from an arrangement, consisting of a X-ray tube, target and filter of molybdenum, of 0.4 mm and 0.03 mm, respectively, and CCD detector. The efficiency of the methodology developed is showed in this work, through a case study, where internal injuries in mangoes are automatically detected and monitored. This methodology is a possible tool to be introduced in the post-harvest process in packing houses. A dichotomic test was applied to evaluate a efficiency of the method. The results show a success of 87.7% to correct diagnosis and 12.3% to failures to correct diagnosis with a sensibility of 93% and specificity of 80%. (author)

  16. Process and Kinetic Mechanism of Elimination of Chlorine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and bleached shellac was prepared after the resin was consecutively .... as the temperature rose and exceeded 50 oC. It also could be .... Kunming University of Science & Technology. (no. ... control citrus post harvest green and blue molds. J.

  17. Análisis económico de las perdidas presentadas por manejo postcosecha en fincas productoras de rosas en la sabana de Bogotá. Estudio de cinco casos Economical analysis of post harvest handling in rose farms at Bogotá. Study of five cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duque Oscar

    2001-12-01

    investigación han comenzado a tomar medidas para disminuir el porcentaje de pérdida por daño mecánico, con base a los resultados y recomendaciones de este trabajo. Tal porcentaje no es muy alto, pero si representa altas pérdidas económicas para las empresas. En ningún momento se debe olvidar que este estudio tomó en cuenta única y exclusivamente las pérdidas por daño mecánico. No se tuvo en cuenta las pérdidas por daño agronómico ni otros tipos de pérdida en el proceso postcosecha realizado en la finca, dado que no era objetivo en el marco de esta investigación.
    Due to the economical and social importance of production and export of flowers for Colombia, it is necessary a better advantage of the total production of these flowers. It has be en found, that during the postharvest process there is a big quantity loss of stems due to a deficient mechanical handling, decreasing, in fact the capacity of the enterprises to supply intemational markets. The six varieties studied were: Tineke, Madamme Delbard, Charlotte, Aalsrneer s Gold, Classy y First Red. To do this research, a tracking was kept on six predetermined operations that are part of the production postharvest system, those are: cut in the field, reception at the postharvest area, classification, take off petals, take off leafs and thorns, and bunching. In this operations the number ofstems handled were analyzed, and from them, the number of losses, which would obtain the following indicators: unrecoverable losses (totalloss of the stem and losses due to sale of the stem in the national market. When the percentage of losses due to mechanical handling during postharvest and the economical equivalent are known, there are judging elements that will determine whether to invest in the improvement of the process. The study attempted to determine, due to mechanical mishandling, which phases of the process resulted in the larger amount of losses. In fact, was found that the six varieties have diffcrent levels

  18. Effect of gamma radiation in the conservation of minimally processed cassava-parsley (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft) packed under vacuous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iemma, Juliana

    2001-01-01

    In the third millennium, when the main words are globalization, world net of computers, genetic code and efficiency, deep transformations have been incorporated to human behavior. Among such transformations it may be pointed out, matching with the objectives of this study, the modem consumer's profile. The consumers have quickly become more and more conscious and demanding regarding to the quality of the available products in the market. In that sense, the consumer's concern about the natural and healthy appearance, as well as the preservation of the nutritious content of the foods, have been a constant sign of alert for producers and suppliers. Besides, the timeless for domestic preparation of foods have imposed the use of minimally processed as an incontestable reality. A barrier for the production of minimally processed foods is imposed by the degree of perishability of certain products, such as the cassava-parsley. This vegetable is a source of energy, calcium, phosphorus and niacin, and important in the alimentary diet of children, seniors and convalescents. Post harvest treatments try to turn foods less perishable and also conserve as much as possible their original appearance. Among these post harvest treatments for food conservation it may be stood out the irradiation, which is the focus of this study. The objective of this study was to examine the viability of including the cassava parsley in the list of the minimally processed foods. Fresh cassavas were minimally processed and packed under vacuous. Samples were divided for three treatments: control and irradiation with the doses 2.0 and 4.0 kGy. After irradiation the samples were stored under refrigeration temperature (8 deg C) during 28 days. Physical-chemical and microbiological analyzes were carried out at each 7 days of the period of storage, and sensorial analysis were carried out in the 1st, 7th and 14th days of storage. The experimental design was in factorial scheme with two factors: dose of

  19. Effect of commercial processing procedures on 14C-LINDANE residues in corn oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    At blooming, maize plants were sprayed twice, 23 days apart, at a dose of 22 mg equivalent to 5 μCi/ plant. At post harvest, maize seeds had a radioactivity corresponding to 0.36% of the applied dose. The insecticide residues in crude oil, cake and methanolic extract were amounted to 8 % and 60 % 5 % , respectively, of original residues inside the seeds.The 14 C-activity in the crude oil could be reduced by commercial processes locally used for refining. The refined oil had a residue level of about 0.7 ppm mainly in the form of unchanged lindane in addition to a number of chloro phenols as main metabolites. Refining of corn oil fortified with 14 C-lindane led to a high reduction of 14 C-lindane (88%). The refined oil contained a residue consisting lindane and its chloro phenols

  20. Aloe vera extract as a promising treatment for the quality maintenance of minimally-processed table grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Rosaria Antonella Alberio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an edible film obtained from a commercial Aloe vera extract, on the quality maintenance of minimally processed grapes belonging to three different cultivars (Sugar One, Victoria and Black Magic was evaluated by enzymatic (PPO, PME, β-GAL, physicochemical (pH, acidity, °Brix, and sensorial methods. All the analyzed parameters were measured in extracts obtained from minimally processed grapes packaged in ordinary atmosphere and stored at 4 °C for 15 days. Samples dipped into Aloe vera showed significant differences (p≤0.05 compared to untreated ones. The determination of such parameters and the evaluation of consumer acceptability were helpful to determine the effectiveness of the post-harvest treatment with Aloe vera for a storage period of 15 days.

  1. Establishment of post-harvest early-developmental categories for viability maintenance of Araucaria angustifolia seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhyane Garcia Araldi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia seeds are recalcitrant, and their metabolism remains high during storage. This research aimed to describe the initiation of germination in A. angustifolia seeds during storage in order to standardize the assessment of physiological quality and to promote seed conservation. Seeds were collected from two populations and stored for 270 days in the natural laboratory environment and cold chamber. Seeds were classified according to four early developmental stages: I - mature seeds; II - seeds with elongation along the embryonic axis; III - beginning of root protrusion; IV - advanced germination stage, with seedling shoots. After categorization, physical and physiological quality was assessed. In freshly collected seeds, only category I was observed. At 270 days, approximately 40% of seeds were in category III in laboratory conditions, while the maintenance in a cold chamber delayed germinative metabolism. Viability tests showed that seeds in categories III and IV were more susceptible to damage caused by storage. In conclusion, the percentage of viable A. angustifolia seeds depends on the development stage after collection. Seeds that have reached early developmental category III should be prioritized for propagation, while those remaining in categories I and II should be longer stored with periodic assessment for reduction in physiological quality.

  2. Effects of post-harvest handling techniques on the retention of phytochemicals in wild blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild blueberries (WBB) are known to have a unique phytochemical profile that boasts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. Polyphenolic compounds in WBB conclusively demonstrate human health benefits ranging from decreases in cardiovascular risk factors and improving insulin sensitivity to bat...

  3. Effect of some botanical extracts on post-harvest losses of yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR EZE

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... losses of yam (Dioscorea rotundata) in improved yam ... two locations followed by A. indica while mean rot incidence was highest with no treatment control. In ... dissolved in 24 L of deionized water in a plastic bowl giving a.

  4. Solar Power for Post Harvest Losses - A Sensible Solution for Developing Countries!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheshwar, C.; Chilukuri, Snigdha

    2010-09-15

    About 30% of horticultural crops grown in developing countries like India (38.77 million tonnes amounting to US $13 billion), get wasted annually due to gaps in Cold Chain like insufficient cold storage capacity, unavailability of cold storages in close proximity to farms, poor transportation infrastructure etc. With solar energy availability (Insolation) averaging 5.0 KWh/sq. m/day with 3000 hours of sunshine every year, about 30-35% of these losses can be reduced by transporting the freshly harvested produce to the cold storages in 40,000 TEUs of refrigerated containers with 5 million sq. ft. of solar PV panels fixed on their rooftops and sides.

  5. Application of bacteriophages in post-harvest control of human pathogenic and food spoiling bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas López, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    Bacteriophages have attracted great attention for application in food biopreservation. Lytic bacteriophages specific for human pathogenic bacteria can be isolated from natural sources such as animal feces or industrial wastes where the target bacteria inhabit. Lytic bacteriophages have been tested in different food systems for inactivation of main food-borne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni and Cronobacter sakazkii, and also for control of spoilage bacteria. Application of lytic bacteriophages could selectively control host populations of concern without interfering with the remaining food microbiota. Bacteriophages could also be applied for inactivation of bacteria attached to food contact surfaces or grown as biofilms. Bacteriophages may receive a generally recognized as safe status based on their lack of toxicity and other detrimental effects to human health. Phage preparations specific for L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica serotypes have been commercialized and approved for application in foods or as part of surface decontamination protocols. Phage endolysins have a broader host specificity compared to lytic bacteriophages. Cloned endolysins could be used as natural preservatives, singly or in combination with other antimicrobials such as bacteriocins.

  6. Ozonated water in the post-harvest treatment of coffee fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J. B. Brandão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ozone is used in many countries for the treatment of effluents, becoming a viable alternative in sanitation of coffee wastewater. However, the strong ozone oxidation, responsible for its germicidal effect, can also compromise grain and beverage quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of Arabica coffee in different periods of treatment with ozonated water and its effect after drying. Coffee fruits were subjected to ozonation at regular intervals of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min, with continuous stirring promoted by a recirculating water system at constant rate of 1 ppm of solubilized ozone. The design was completely randomized with five treatments and four replicates. After obtaining the data, the analysis of variance was performed and means were compared by Tukey test (p ≤ 0.05. The results showed a partial reduction of fungi after washing with ozonated water, but the same effect was not observed after drying. For coffee quality analysis, the longest times of exposure to the solubilized gas in the water produced some negative results in electrical conductivity and total and reducing sugars. However, the sensory quality of the beverage was maintained.

  7. Post harvest fertility status of some cotton based leguminous and non-leguminous intercropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.B.; Khaliq, A.

    2003-01-01

    Residual effect of different leguminous and non-leguminous intercropping systems on cotton planted in two planting patterns was studied at Agronomic Research Area, Univ. of Agriculture, Faisalabad under irrigated conditions of Central Punjab. Soil samples were collected from 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths before planting and after harvesting of each crop, each year to evaluate the impact of leguminous and non-leguminous crops included in this study. Experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D.) with split arrangement and four replications. Patterns were randomized in main plots and intercrops in sub plots. Plot size was 4.8 m x 7 m. All the intercrops produced substantially smaller yields when grown in association with cotton in either planting pattern compared to their sole crop yields. Residual nitrogen was improved in leguminous intercropping systems as compared to cotton alone as well non-legume intercropping systems. Similarly organic matter was also improved in all intercropping treatments, and maximum increase was recorded due to cowpeas. Phosphorus was depleted in all intercropping systems during both years under study as well as in relation to cotton alone. The same trend (depletion) was also observed in case of residual soil Potassium.(author)

  8. Effects of pre-harvest methyl jasmonate treatment on post-harvest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... quality and bioactive compounds of three different Japanese plums under storage conditions. Materials and Methods: The effects of pre-harvest methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA) on weight loss, color characteristics (L*, C* and h°), firmness, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), total phenolics (TP) and total ...

  9. Potential of Cerbera odollam as a bio-fungicide for post-harvest pathogen Penicilium digitatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harbant; Yin-Chu, Sue; Al-Samarrai, Ghassan; Syarhabil, Muhammad

    2015-05-01

    Postharvest diseases due to fungal infection contribute to economic losses in agriculture industry during storage, transportation or in the market. Penicillium digitatum is one of the common pathogen responsible for the postharvest rot in fruits. This disease is currently being controlled by synthetic fungicides such as Guazatine and Imazalil. However, heavy use of fungicides has resulted in environmental pollution, such as residue in fruit that expose a significant risk to human health. Therefore, there is a strong need to develop alternatives to synthetic fungicide to raise customer confidence. In the current research, different concentrations (500 to 3000 ppm) of ethanol extract of Cerbera odollam or commonly known as Pong-pong were compared with Neem and the controls (Positive control/Guazatine; Negative control/DMSO) for the anti-fungicide activity in PDA media contained in 10 cm diameter Petri dishes, using a modification of Ruch and Worf's method. The toxicity (Lc50) of the C.odollam extract was determined by Brine-shrimp test (BST). The results of the research indicated that crude extraction from C.odollam showed the highest inhibition rate (93%) and smallest colony diameter (0.63 cm) at 3000 ppm in vitro compared with Neem (inhibition rate: 88%; colony diameter: 1.33 cm) and control (Positive control/Guazatine inhibition rate: 79%, colony diameter: 1.9 cm; Negative control/DMSO inhibition rate: 0%, colony diameter: 9.2 cm). C.odollam recorded Lc50 value of 5 µg/ml which is safe but to be used with caution (unsafe level: below 2 µg/ml). The above anti-microbial activity and toxicity value results indicate that C.odollam has a potential of being a future bio-fungicide that could be employed as an alternative to synthetic fungicide.

  10. Heated water and UV-C radiation to post harvest control of Cryptosporiopsis perennans on apples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartnicki, Vinicius Adao; Amarante, Cassandro Vidal Talamini do; Castro, Luis Antonio Suita de; Rizzatti, Mara Regina; Souza, Joao Antonio Vargas de

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the colonization of Cryptosporiopsis perennans in the epidermis of apples and the efficiency of heated water and UV-C radiation application to control this pathogen. In apples inoculated with C. perennans, the colonization of lenticels and adjacent areas by the pathogen was observed by electronic scanning microscopy. The sensitivity of C. perennans conidia was evaluated in aqueous suspension, at temperatures of 28, 45, 50 and 55 deg C for 15 and 30 s, and at UV.C radiation doses of 0.018, 0.037, 0.075, 0.150, 0.375, 0.750, 1.500 and 3.000 kJ m.2. The effects of UV.C radiation doses at 0.375, 0.750 and 1.500 kJ m.2 and heated water at 50 deg C, sprayed during 15 and 30 s were evaluated for controlling C. perennans in apples inoculated with the pathogen. The fungus produced abundant mycelium and conidia in lenticels and adjacent areas on the epidermis of the apples. The heated water at 50 deg C during 15 s and a 0.750 kJ m.2 UV.C radiation dose reduced conidia survival in more than 99%. Heated water sprayed at 50 deg C during 15 s and a UV.C radiation dose of 0.375 kJ m.2 control C. perennans in apples. (author)

  11. Effect of Calcium Chloride and Cooling on Post-Harvest Brussels Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Rincón Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the demand of crucifers has increased and particularly of Brussels sprouts (Brassica genus, species Brassica oleracea L.; mainly due to their functional properties; however, this vegetable is perishable and with inadequate techniques in postharvest handling, considerable losses are generated. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of calcium chloride and cooling on postharvest behavior of Brussels sprouts. A completely randomized design was performed, treatments corresponded to three storage temperatures (4°C, 8°C and temperature (18°C and three concentrations of calcium chloride (0%, 2% and 4% were used. Sprouts were harvested at commercial maturity on a farm irrigation district in Usochicamocha, Boyacá Department; of uniform size, excellent plant health and free from mechanical damage conditions. For 19 days of storage, weight loss, respiratory rate and total chlorophyll were measured. Sprouts stored at room temperature lasted 11days postharvest, while cooled lasted for 19 days. A significant effect in reducing weight loss between those sprouts which were stored at 4°C and 8°C and treated with calcium chloride solution at 4% was observed. For the respiratory rate was observed a significant reduction insprouts stored at 4°C. Therefore the most favorable temperature for the storage of Brussels sprouts is 4°C and calcium chloride solution 4%,useful information for producers and marketers.

  12. Decrease of Pirimiphos-Methyl and Deltamethrin Residues in Stored Rice with Post-Harvest Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanshan Yu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged (QuEChERS method with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs as reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction (r-DSPE material was applied to the analysis of pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin residues in stored rice. Two dustable powder (DP formulations (2% pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin DP; 5% pirimiphos-methyl DP were applied in simulated storehouse trials in the lab. The residues and dissipation of the two pesticides in stored rice were investigated. Slow dissipation of both pesticides was observed in stored rice. The half-lives of pirimiphos-methyl were 23.9–28.9 days, and those of deltamethrin were 23.9–24.8 days. Residues of pirimiphos-methyl from application rates of 4.5–6.75 a.i. mg/kg (active ingredient milligram per kilogram and 10–15 a.i. mg/kg were 1.6–3.8 mg/kg and 3.0–4.5 mg/kg at 60 days Pre-harvest Interval (PHI. Residues of deltamethrin from an application rate of 0.5–0.75 a.i. mg/kg were 0.13–0.14 mg/kg at 60 days PHI. Both pesticides residues were below the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC. Therefore, at the recommended dosages they are safe for use on stored rice.

  13. Analysis of pre- and post-harvest practices of cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... Practices such as farming and storage conditions may influence the production ... Cowpea infestation by insects on farm and in storage was a major problem mentioned by farmers.

  14. Irradiation in the control of post harvest losses- a NRL contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.K.; Prasad, H.H.

    1994-01-01

    In-vitro growth of Phytophthora parasitica is completely prevented by a dose of 1.5kGy of gamma radiation and that of Phomopsis vexans by a dose of 4.0kGy. These doses, however cannot prevent the growth of other three studied fungi viz. Fusarium ceoruleum, Geotrichum candidum and Alternaria alternata and exerted only a reversible effect on their growth. Irradiation as a method for the control of harvest losses in fruits, tomato, rice etc. were studied at Nuclear Research Laboratory (NRL) and the results are given. 2 figs., 8 tabs

  15. Post-harvest diseases control of plums and nectarines with radurisation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thord-Gray, R.S; Broderick, H.T.; Strydom, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of heat and radurisation on Rhizopus stolonifer, Monillia fructicola and Botrytis cinerea were examined in inoculated plums and nectarines. Although the pathogens could be controlled by severe hot water treatment, unacceptable fruit damage occured. Similarly, irradiation doses of 2 kGy and above could control fungal development, but this treatment resulted in an unmarketable product. Combination treatment showed great promise. Mild heat treatment of 42 o C for 10 minutes followed by irradiation at doses of 0,75 kGy to 1,5 kGy effectively controlled fungal development with insignificant fruit damage

  16. Post harvest changes in physico-chemical properties and levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit varieties, Navel and Valencia, from Muheza in Tanga, were analyzed for their proximate composition (ash, acidity, crude fat, crude fibre, sugars and moisture content), ascorbic acid, sugars, concentrations of four macro elements (Ca, Mg, K, Na) and seven heavy metals (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, ...

  17. Influence of Post-Harvest Ripening on the Levels of Selected Compounds in Various Cherry Cultivars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goliáš, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Kožíšková, J.; Kotas, Petr; Tříska, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 36 (2018) ISSN 1212-1800 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : neochlorogenic acid * organic acids * p-coumaroylquinic acid * rutin * storage * sugars * sweet cherries Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 0.787, year: 2016

  18. Estimation of loss due to post harvest diseases of potato in markets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... percentage loss of potatoes due to important diseases occurring in the ... Survey of diseased potato and Collection of disease sample ... alcohol swab. A piece of ..... temperature of 17 to 25°C over 70% relative humidity and.

  19. Impact of post-harvest radiation treatment timing on shelf life and quality characteristics of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaee, Mehdi; Paknejad, Farzad; Almassi, Morteza; Minaei, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation treatment (50 and 100 Gy) on potato tubers irradiated at different days (10th, 30th and 50th) after harvest were studied during 5 months of storage at 10°C using Agria and Marfona varieties. A factorial experiment was done, based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. The 100 Gy radiation treatments on 10th and 30th days after harvest completely prevented sprouting at both varieties studied but on 50th day only Agria tubers did not sprout. This study indicated that early irradiation and absorbed radiation doses significantly decreased sprouting, percent weight loss and specific gravity of tubers. Reducing sugar content significantly increased by delay in irradiation and lower dose of radiation while non-reducing sugars did not decrease significantly by delay in irradiation and higher dose of radiation. The least increase in reducing sugars (10.2%) and most decrease in non-reducing sugar (-12.75%) were observed in tubers that irradiated on 10th day after harvest. The content of ascorbic acid was decreased by irradiation with higher dose. Although delay in irradiation caused less loss of ascorbic acid (8.5%) but showed greater metabolic changes as sprouting, weight loss, firmness, and sugars contents. Also, more increased delay in irradiation needed higher radiation doses for sprout inhibition. (author)

  20. Effect of growth conditions on post harvest rehydration ability of cut chrysanthemum flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Gelder, van H.; Ieperen, van W.

    2005-01-01

    Different batches of cut chrysanthemum flowers showed substantial variability in restoring their fresh weight after a moderate water loss. Cutting height strongly affected the rehydration ability of cut flowers, and the hydraulic conductance of the stem and its restoration after air aspiration.

  1. Development of post-harvest protocol of okra for export marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, R K; Sharma, S R; Mahajan, B V C

    2014-08-01

    The study was carried out on the harvesting and handling methods of okra with the objective to maintain the best quality of pods from harvesting to end consumer especially for export marketing. For that purpose okra cv. 'Punjab-8' pods were harvested with minimum handling (least injuries to the pubescence on the ridges of pod) and normal handling (no safety taken to prevent injuries on pods). Pods were precooled at 15 ± 1ºC, 90-95% RH; jumble packed in the CFB boxes of 2.0 Kg capacity and than stored at 8 ± 1ºC, 90-95% RH. The quality parameters of okra namely texture, chlorophyll content, physiological loss in weight, rotting percentage and general appearance were studied. The pods harvested with minimum handling and field packaging can retain their green colour, crisp texture (maximum force to puncture pod = 500.2 g) with minimum rotting (3.0%) and physiological loss in weight (15.8%) and good appearance upto 13 days of cold storage whereas normal handled pods can be stored upto 5 days at 8 ± 1ºC, 90-95% RH and thereafter lost their general appearance on the 7th day of storage and were discarded. Therefore, in order to maintain high quality of okra from harvesting to the final destination (consumer), the okra pods should be harvested with minimum handling followed by field packaging in CFB boxes.

  2. Effect of time of harvest, stage of fruit ripening, and post-harvest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds were extracted from half of the fruits harvested from each stage immediately after harvest while the other halves were stored at room temperature to ripen to the soft-red stage before seed extraction. Fruit weight in both cultivars decreased with plant age. Fruits harvested at the yellow-ripe stage produced the highest ...

  3. Optimisation of the post-harvest conditions to produce chocolate aroma from jackfruit seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Papa Spada, Fernanda; Masson Zerbeto, Lais; Cabreira Ragazi, Gabriel; Roel Gutierrez, Erika; Coelho Souza, Miriam; Parker, Jane K.; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange

    2017-01-01

    Jackfruit seeds are an under-utilized waste in many tropical countries. In this work, we demonstrate the potential of roasted jackfruit seeds to develop chocolate aroma. Twenty-seven different roasted jackfruit seed flours were produced from local jackfruit by acidifying or fermenting the seeds prior to drying, and roasting under different time/temperature combinations. The chocolate aroma of groups of four flours were ranked by a sensory panel (n=162) and response surface methodology was use...

  4. High relative humidity pre-harvest reduces post-harvest proliferation of Salmonella in tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Marvasi, Massimiliano; Giurcanu, Mihai C.; Hochmuth, George J.; Speybroeck, Niko; Havelaar, Arie H.; Teplitski, Max

    2017-01-01

    Outbreaks of human illness caused by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella are increasingly linked to the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Knowledge on the factors affecting Salmonella proliferation on fresh produce therefore becomes increasingly important to safeguard public health. Previous

  5. Post-harvest Quality Evaluation of Grapes using Non-destructive Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJIN S. M. Ataul Karim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, electronic nose has opened a variety of possibilities and is becoming one of the most important non-destructive odour inspection technologies in the food industry. The objective of this study is to determine the quality degradation of the fruit by monitoring the change in the volatile compound while kept in storage using a lab manufactured electronic nose. Here, grapes are chosen as the fruit sample for experiment. Principal component analysis (PCA is used to determine the ability of the electronic nose to distinguish the different quality of the fruit stored over an interval of time. The result shows that using PCA analysis, the electronic nose is able to identify a clear distinction between the aromas of grapes stored for different time intervals.

  6. Early harvest increases post-harvest physiological quality of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Marília; Medeiros Coelho, Cileide Maria

    2016-06-01

    Araucaria angustifolia is a conifer native to Brazil and is an endangered species. Since this species seeds have a short period of viability, its vulnerability is higher. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of A. angustifolia seeds during the development and post-storage periods. For this, cones of A. angustifolia were collected from a natural population in Curitibanos, Santa Catarina, Brazil, in March, April, May and June 2012. The collected seeds were classified into developmental stages of cotyledonary, I, II and III according to the month of collection; a total of 10 cones were collected for each stage. Seeds were stored in a refrigerator for 60 and 120 days, and were submitted to a chamber germination test (25 °C-photoperiod 12 h). Additionally, seeds were tested for moisture content (105 °C for 24 hours), tetrazolium (0.1 % for 1 hour) and vigor (electric conductivity [75 mL distilled water at 25 °C], germination speed index, and shoot and root length). Our results showed that during seed development, moisture content decreased from the cotyledonary stage (66.54 %) to stage III (49.69 %), and vigor increased in the last stage. During storage, moisture content at cotyledonary stage and stage I was stable. On the other hand, stored seeds exhibited a decrease in moisture content after 120 days at stages II and III. Physiological quality at the cotyledonary stage resulted in an increased germination rate of 86 % and 93 % after 60 and 120 days of storage, respectively; unlike stages II and III exhibited a decrease in seed viability and vigor after storage. Electrical conductivity was higher for fresh seeds at the cotyledonary stage, than for those stored for 60 and 120 days. However, in other stages, released leachate content after 120 days of storage, increased with the advance of the collection period. Germination speed index and shoot and root lengths after storage were highest for seeds at the cotyledonary stage and stage I; unlike stages II and III which had short root and shoot lengths during storage. Thus, the maintenance of seed moisture content during storage was variable and dependent on the period of collection. Furthermore, the physiological quality differed among earlier and later stages. Early collection favored seed physiological quality, and may be a strategy for better conservation of A. angustifolia seeds.

  7. A molecular approach to pre-harvest impact on post-harvest quality of trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Hyldig, Grethe; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    damage in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Needle disrupted muscle tissue was sampled at different time points and subject to real-time RT-PCR for measuring the expression of the genes IL-1ß, IL-8, IL-10, TGF-ß, Myostatin-1ab, MMP-2, CTGF, Collagen-1alfa, VEGF, iNOS, Arg-2 and FGF. The results showed...

  8. Influence of the use of acids and films in post-harvest lychee conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. has a high commercial value; however, it has a short shelf-life because of its rapid pericarp browning. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf-life of 'Bengal' lychee fruits stored after treatment with hydrochloric acid and citric acid, associated with cassava starch and plastic packaging. Uniformly red pericarp fruits were submitted to treatments: 1-(immersion in citric acid 100 mM for 5 minutes + cassava starch 30 g L-1 for 5 minutes, 2-(immersion in hydrochloric acid 1 M for 2 minutes + starch cassava 30 g L-1 for 5 minutes, 3-(immersion in citric acid 100 mM for 5 minutes + polyvinyl chloride film (PVC, 14 µm thick and 4-(immersion in hydrochloric acid 1 M for 2 minutes + PVC film. During 20 days, the fruits were evaluated for mass loss, pericarp color, pH, soluble solids and titratable acidity, vitamin C of the pulp and pericarp and activities of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase of the pericarp. The treatment with hydrochloric acid associated with PVC was the most effective in maintaining the red color of the pericarp for a period of 20 days and best preservation of the fruit. The cassava starch associated with citric acid, and hydrochloric acid did not reduce the mass loss and did not prevent the browning of lychee fruit pericarp.

  9. Effect of electron beam irradiation on post harvest quality of Agaricus bisporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Juanpin; Xing Zengtao; Bai Bing; Song Weiguo

    2011-01-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on fresh-keeping of Agaricus bisporus was studied after sporecarp samples were irradiated at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 kGy and then stored at 4 degree C for 14d. The contents of water-soluble vitamins, amino acids and sugars were measured. Results showed that the contents of water-soluble sugars, amino acids, and aneurin, lactochrome, nicotinic acid in sporecarp did not significantly change after irradiation. However, asoribic acid was sensitive to irradiation, and the content was significantly reduced 31.1% at the dose of 4.0 kGy. It is concluded that 2 kGy irradiation can effectively prolong the shelf life, and almost no significant effect on the nutrient components of Agaricus bisporus. (authors)

  10. Influence of Organic Manuring on the Post Harvest Soil Quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/star.v4i1.6 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  11. Expanding Post-Harvest Finance Through Warehouse Receipts and Related Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, Marisa; Bryla, Erin; Langenbucher, Anja

    2006-01-01

    Warehouse receipt financing and similar types of collateralized lending provide an alternative to traditional lending requirements of banks and other financiers and could provide opportunities to expand this lending in emerging economies for agricultural trade. The main contents include: what is warehouse receipt financing; what is the value of warehouse receipt financing; other collater...

  12. Invest in women to reduce post-harvest losses | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-05-25

    May 25, 2017 ... Take the case of fish drying -- a method to help preserve the fish for the ... A lot of the beans get mixed up in the soil and can only be recovered ... For example, in Malawi, researchers have developed an improved solar tent ...

  13. Post harvest changes of banana prata (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana group AAB) γ-irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros Villas Boas, Eduardo Valerio de.

    1995-01-01

    Pre-climateric bananas (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana [AAB group] cv. Prata) were stored without treatment (no radiation) or were exposed at 0.25 and 0.50 kGy of γ -irradiation, with a dose rate of 1 kGy.h -1 before storage. The fruits were analysed for CO 2 and ethylene production during maturation and pulp-to-peel ratio, starch, total soluble sugars, pectins, pectin methyl esterase and poly galacturonase activities on 6 colour score of peel. The radiation dose/peel-colour interaction affected the pulp-to-peel ratio significantly, while the fruits subjected at 0.25 Gy had the highest increase on the colour scores 5, 6, and 7. A predictable increase in the conversion of starch to sugar took place during maturation and a delaying on the soluble sugar accumulation was noted on the fruits submitted to 0.50 kGy, in the 6 and 7 colour scores only. A decrease on the total pectin content and a trend of a higher solubilization of pectins was observed in the fruits γ-irradiated at 0.50 kGy. Higher pectin methyl esterase activities were exhibited by irradiated fruits, although the γ-irradiation has suppressed the poly galacturonase activity throughout the maturation period. (author). 110 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Effect of some botanical extracts on post-harvest losses of yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two storage experiments in an improved yam barn were carried out simultaneously at two locations in southern Nigeria to determine the influence of cultivar, botanical storage treatments and storage environments on the shelf life of yam (Dioscorea rotundata). The experiments were conducted from January to July.

  15. High relative humidity pre-harvest reduces post-harvest proliferation of Salmonella in tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Marvasi, Massimiliano; Giurcanu, Mihai C; Hochmuth, George J; Speybroeck, Niko; Havelaar, Arie H; Teplitski, Max

    2017-09-01

    Outbreaks of human illness caused by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella are increasingly linked to the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Knowledge on the factors affecting Salmonella proliferation on fresh produce therefore becomes increasingly important to safeguard public health. Previous experiments showed a limited impact of pre-harvest production practices on Salmonella proliferation on tomatoes, but suggested a significant effect of harvest time. We explored the data from two previously published and one unpublished experiment using regression trees, which allowed overcoming the interpretational difficulties of classical statistical models with higher order interactions. We assessed the effect of harvest time by explicitly modeling the climatic conditions at harvest time and by performing confirmatory laboratory experiments. Across all datasets, regression trees confirmed the dominant effect of harvest time on Salmonella proliferation, with humidity-related factors emerging as the most important underlying climatic factors. High relative humidity the week prior to harvest was consistently associated with lower Salmonella proliferation. A controlled lab experiment confirmed that tomatoes containing their native epimicrobiota supported significantly lower Salmonella proliferation when incubated at higher humidity prior to inoculation. The complex interactions between environmental conditions and the native microbiota of the tomato crop remain to be fully understood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. FREQUENCY OF QUIESCENT FUNGI AND POST-HARVEST ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT OF STEM END ROT IN PAPAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA DAMBROS AMARAL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of quiescent fungi and the effect of phosphites under modified atmosphere on Lasiodiplodia theobromae in papaya. The fruits were treated with a range of doses of phosphites and their actions evaluated under conditions of ambient and modified atmosphere. Of the eight fungal genera found, Lasiodiplodia was the most common. No interaction was observed between the evaluated factors and only atmosphere and dose were independently significant. The usage of phosphites and modified atmosphere reduced the severity of the disease, and did not affect the chemical properties of the fruits.

  17. FREQUENCY OF QUIESCENT FUNGI AND POST-HARVEST ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT OF STEM END ROT IN PAPAYA

    OpenAIRE

    DANIELA DAMBROS AMARAL; ANA LETICIA ROCHA MONTEIRO; ELIAS INÁCIO DA SILVA; SEVERINA RODRIGUES DE OLIVEIRA LINS; SONIA MARIA ALVES DE OLIVEIRA

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of quiescent fungi and the effect of phosphites under modified atmosphere on Lasiodiplodia theobromae in papaya. The fruits were treated with a range of doses of phosphites and their actions evaluated under conditions of ambient and modified atmosphere. Of the eight fungal genera found, Lasiodiplodia was the most common. No interaction was observed between the evaluated factors and only atmosphere and dose were independently significant. The...

  18. FREQUENCY OF QUIESCENT FUNGI AND POST-HARVEST ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT OF STEM END ROT IN PAPAYA

    OpenAIRE

    AMARAL, DANIELA DAMBROS; MONTEIRO, ANA LETICIA ROCHA; SILVA, ELIAS INÁCIO DA; LINS, SEVERINA RODRIGUES DE OLIVEIRA; OLIVEIRA, SONIA MARIA ALVES DE

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of quiescent fungi and the effect of phosphites under modified atmosphere on Lasiodiplodia theobromae in papaya. The fruits were treated with a range of doses of phosphites and their actions evaluated under conditions of ambient and modified atmosphere. Of the eight fungal genera found, Lasiodiplodia was the most common. No interaction was observed between the evaluated factors and only atmosphere and dose were independently signifi...

  19. Solar energy in food processing-a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswara, Amruta R; Ramakrishnarao, M

    2013-04-01

    Increasing population and high cost of fuels have created opportunities for using alternate energies for post-harvest processing of foods. Solar food processing is an emerging technology that provides good quality foods at low or no additional fuel costs. A number of solar dryers, collectors and concentrators are currently being used for various steps in food processing and value addition. Society for Energy, Environment and Development (SEED) developed Solar Cabinet Dryer with forced circulation which has been used for dehydration and development of value added products from locally grown fruits, vegetables, leafy greens and forest produce. Drying under simulated shade conditions using UV-reducing Blue filter helps retain nutrients better. Its simple design and ease of handling makes SEED Solar Dryer an ideal choice for application of food processing in rural settings, closer to where the harvest is produced, eliminating the need for expensive transportation or storage of fresh produce. It also creates employment opportunities among the rural population, especially women. Other gadgets based on solar collectors and concentrators currently being used at various steps of food processing are reviewed.

  20. Impact of food processing and detoxification treatments on mycotoxin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlovsky, Petr; Suman, Michele; Berthiller, Franz; De Meester, Johan; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Perrin, Irène; Oswald, Isabelle P; Speijers, Gerrit; Chiodini, Alessandro; Recker, Tobias; Dussort, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites commonly occurring in food, which pose a health risk to the consumer. Maximum levels for major mycotoxins allowed in food have been established worldwide. Good agricultural practices, plant disease management, and adequate storage conditions limit mycotoxin levels in the food chain yet do not eliminate mycotoxins completely. Food processing can further reduce mycotoxin levels by physical removal and decontamination by chemical or enzymatic transformation of mycotoxins into less toxic products. Physical removal of mycotoxins is very efficient: manual sorting of grains, nuts, and fruits by farmers as well as automatic sorting by the industry significantly lowers the mean mycotoxin content. Further processing such as milling, steeping, and extrusion can also reduce mycotoxin content. Mycotoxins can be detoxified chemically by reacting with food components and technical aids; these reactions are facilitated by high temperature and alkaline or acidic conditions. Detoxification of mycotoxins can also be achieved enzymatically. Some enzymes able to transform mycotoxins naturally occur in food commodities or are produced during fermentation but more efficient detoxification can be achieved by deliberate introduction of purified enzymes. We recommend integrating evaluation of processing technologies for their impact on mycotoxins into risk management. Processing steps proven to mitigate mycotoxin contamination should be used whenever necessary. Development of detoxification technologies for high-risk commodities should be a priority for research. While physical techniques currently offer the most efficient post-harvest reduction of mycotoxin content in food, biotechnology possesses the largest potential for future developments.

  1. Design, Development and Performance Evaluation of a Small Scale Solar Assisted Paddy Dryer for on Farm Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidrah Ashfaq

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the continued escalation in population growth and the expansion of international food trade and demand of high quality product for food security at low cost has created considerable interest in the development of new post-harvest technologies. This is particularly important for developing countries where post-harvest losses of cereals are between 10-20% and of fruits and vegetables as high as 20- 100% A new solar assisted paddy dryer with central air distribution model (along the length of drying chamber has been developed. Due to this distinct feature of the dryer high drying rate was achieved during the drying processes .Other components of the dryer are perforated drying chamber, blower and flat plat solar air collector. Dryer was evaluated using 100kg of freshly harvested paddy at 23.78% moisture content (wb. Performance evaluation results showed that the mean drying rate of the solar assisted paddy dryer was 0.87kg/hr per for every 100kg, whereas 0.46kg/hr was the sun drying rate comparatively. The faster drying rate of the dryer reveals its suability to dry the paddy for its safe storage moisture content rapidly. By using the solar assisted paddy dryer, approximately 50% saving in time was also achieved as compared with the traditional sun drying method. Solar assisted paddy dryer took 10hr for drying the 100kg paddy up to 14%, while sun drying method dried paddy up to 13.89% in 19 hours. Cost analysis also showed that, by using solar assisted paddy dryer we candry good quality paddy at low cost as compared with the open sun drying method. For development of agriculture in the rural areas, commercial size of the solar assisted paddy dryer can be amplified and produced at community level.

  2. Effect of gamma radiation in the conservation of minimally processed cassava-parsley (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft) packed under vacuous;Efeito da radiacao gama na conservacao da mandioquinha-salsa (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft) minimamente processada e embalada a vacuo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iemma, Juliana

    2001-07-01

    In the third millennium, when the main words are globalization, world net of computers, genetic code and efficiency, deep transformations have been incorporated to human behavior. Among such transformations it may be pointed out, matching with the objectives of this study, the modem consumer's profile. The consumers have quickly become more and more conscious and demanding regarding to the quality of the available products in the market. In that sense, the consumer's concern about the natural and healthy appearance, as well as the preservation of the nutritious content of the foods, have been a constant sign of alert for producers and suppliers. Besides, the timeless for domestic preparation of foods have imposed the use of minimally processed as an incontestable reality. A barrier for the production of minimally processed foods is imposed by the degree of perishability of certain products, such as the cassava-parsley. This vegetable is a source of energy, calcium, phosphorus and niacin, and important in the alimentary diet of children, seniors and convalescents. Post harvest treatments try to turn foods less perishable and also conserve as much as possible their original appearance. Among these post harvest treatments for food conservation it may be stood out the irradiation, which is the focus of this study. The objective of this study was to examine the viability of including the cassava parsley in the list of the minimally processed foods. Fresh cassavas were minimally processed and packed under vacuous. Samples were divided for three treatments: control and irradiation with the doses 2.0 and 4.0 kGy. After irradiation the samples were stored under refrigeration temperature (8 deg C) during 28 days. Physical-chemical and microbiological analyzes were carried out at each 7 days of the period of storage, and sensorial analysis were carried out in the 1st, 7th and 14th days of storage. The experimental design was in factorial scheme with two factors

  3. Radiation processing of foods: fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Post-harvest irradiation of fruits and vegetables improves their shelf-life by: (1) delaying ripening and senescence of fruits, (2) controlling fungal diseases, (3) inhibiting sprouting, and (4) disinfestation. Nutritional and quality aspects of irradiated fruits and vegetables are discussed. Commercial prospects are briefly described. (M.G.B.)

  4. Allyl isothiocyanate enhances shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Penna, Suprasanna; Variyar, Prasad S

    2015-09-15

    The effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), in combination with low temperature (10°C) storage on post harvest quality of minimally processed shredded cabbage was investigated. An optimum concentration of 0.05μL/mL AITC was found to be effective in maintaining the microbial and sensory quality of the product for a period of 12days. Inhibition of browning was shown to result from a down-regulation (1.4-fold) of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene expression and a consequent decrease in PAL enzyme activity and o-quinone content. In the untreated control samples, PAL activity increased following up-regulation in PAL gene expression that could be linearly correlated with enhanced o-quinone formation and browning. The efficacy of AITC in extending the shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage and its role in down-regulation of PAL gene expression resulting in browning inhibition in the product is reported here for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gamma Radiation Processing on Temulawak (Curcuma Xanthorrhiza Roxb) and other Zingiberaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahayuningsih Chosdu

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia, as tropical country has high ambient temperature and humidity which make raw materials and herbal medicines vulnerable to damage. Gamma irradiation processing offers a wide range of application to reduce post harvest losses of medicinal plants and it can also be used to improve the hygienic of raw materials as well as herbal medicine products. The research activities on radiation processing of zingiberaceae in Indonesia in 1980s were intended for: sprouting inhibition of fresh rhizome, microbiological reduction and elimination of pathogenic microbes in raw materials and herbal medicines. The samples used in this experiments were temu-lawak (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb), temu-hitam (Curcuma aeruginosa), turmeric (Curcuma domestica) and galanga (Kaemferia galanga). Physico-chemicals characteristics of samples were studied to support the application of radiation processing as a preservation technique of medicinal plants as raw material or its products. The results indicated that gamma irradiation at dose of 10 kGy was sufficient to reduce microbes by 2 - 4 log cycles which contaminated the dried rhizome. Sprouting of fresh rhizome of 4 samples in the study could be retarded at dose range of 0.06-0.08 kGy. The effect of gamma irradiation at the maximum dose of 0.25 kGy (sprouting inhibition dose) and maximum dose of 10 kGy (pasteurization dose) on physico-chemical characteristics of four samples were studied and reported in this paper. (author)

  6. Analytical study of friction coefficients of pomegranate seed as essential parameters in design of post-harvest equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Shafaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Friction coefficients (static friction coefficient (SFC and dynamic friction coefficient (DFC of pomegranate seed on different structural surfaces (glass, aluminum, plywood, galvanized steel and rubber as affected by moisture content (4–21.9% (d. b. and sliding velocity (1.4–16 (cm/s were investigated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to determine the effect of main treatments and their interactions on SFC and DFC. Significance of single or multiple effect of the main treatments with five levels was assessed using Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT. To predict SFC and DFC, multiple linear regression (MLR modeling technique was applied for each type of structural surface. The goodness of fit of each MLR model was evaluated using statistical parameters: coefficient of determination, root mean square error and mean relative deviation modulus. Results showed that the minimum and maximum SFC or DFC were in minimum and maximum moisture content on glass and rubber surface, respectively. ANOVA table indicated the significant effect of main treatments and their interactions on SFC and DFC at significance level of 1% (P < 0.01. According to DMRT results, SFC linearly increased as moisture content increased and DFC increased also linearly as individual or simultaneous increment of moisture content and sliding velocity occurred, for all experimental conditions. According to the obtained statistical parameters, both SFC and DFC were properly predicted by means of MLR modeling technique.

  7. Biological control agents for suppression of post-harvest diseases of potatoes: strategies on discovery and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    As used in plant pathology, the term "biological control" or its short form “biocontrol” commonly refers to the decrease in the inoculum or the disease-producing activity of a pathogen accomplished through one or more organisms, including the host plant but excluding man. Biological control of plant...

  8. Influence of gamma irradiation, cold storage and pulsing on post harvest life and respiration rate of 'golden gate' cut roses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanikumar, S.; Vinod Kumar; Bhattacharjee, S.K.; Pal, Madan

    2003-01-01

    Gamma irradiation at 0.025 kGy increased the respiration rate of 'Golden Gate' cut roses. The irradiation followed by cold storage (at 4 deg C) brought down the respiration rate after storage duration of 3 days. The respiration rate was found maximum in the sucrose (3% ) pulsed flowers immediately after pulsing. However, the rate of respiration is decreased in all the treatments. The irradiated flowers recorded lowest amount of respiration at senescence and the vase life was maximum in these flowers. (author)

  9. Harvest time and post-harvest quality of Fuyu persimmon treated before harvest with gibberellic acid and aminoetoxyvinilglycine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Ayub

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of gibberellic acid (GA3 and aminoetoxyvinilglycine (AVG applied in preharvest spraying, on the retardation of the harvest and on the quality of persimmon fruits cv. Fuyu. The experiment was carried in randomized complete block design. The treatments were: control, 136mgL-1 of AVG, 272 mgL-1 of AVG, 36mgL-1 of GA3, 72mgL-1 of GA3 and 136mgL-1 of AVG + 36mgL-1 of GA3, spraying 30 days before the first harvest. The fruits were harvested twice and stored at 4ºC. The chemical and physical evaluations of the fruits were carried out the date of the harvest and at intervals of 15 days followed by four days at 20ºC. In conclusion, the application of AVG (136mgL-1 or GA3 (72mgL-1 maintained the firmness of the fruits and delayed harvest by twenty days. However, fruits harvested in the initial state of ripening were more sensitive to chilling injury and were unable to support 15 days of storage at 4ºC. The plant growth regulators were not efficient in prolonged storage due to the fact that the concentration of sugars was lower in the treatments than in the control.

  10. High-temperature controlled atmosphere for post-harvest control of Indian meal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on preserved flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Jodi A; Shelton, Mark D

    2002-10-01

    High carbon dioxide atmospheres combined with high temperature were effective for controlling Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) pupae. Pupae were exposed to atmospheres of 60, 80, or 98% carbon dioxide (CO2) in nitrogen (N2), or 60 or 80% CO2 in air at temperatures of 26.7 degrees C or 32.2 degrees C and 60% RH. Controlled atmosphere treatments at 32.2 degrees C controlled pupae faster than the same treatments at the lower temperature. At both temperatures high CO2 concentration treatments combined with nitrogen killed pupae faster than high CO2 concentration treatments combined with air. Exposure to 80% carbon dioxide mixed with nitrogen was the most effective treatment causing 100% mortality in 12 h at 32.2 degrees C and 93.3% mortality in 18 h at 26.6 degrees C. High-temperature controlled atmosphere treatments had no adverse effects on quality of two preserved floral products, Limonium sinuatum (L.) and Gypsophila elegans (Bieb.), tested for 12, 18, and 24 h according to industry standards.

  11. USE OF ZEIN AND ETHYLCELLULOSE AS BIODEGRADABLE FILM ON EVALUATION OF POST-HARVEST CHANGES IN TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Chávez-Murillo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide pollution index registered in the last decades has conducted to develop methods for biodegradation and reutilization of contaminant materials. From here rises the necessity to elaborate biodegradable packaging materials. In this study, a biodegradable zein and ethylcellulose based film was developed and used as a covering material to evaluate its effect on the enzymatic activity of pectinmethylesterase and polygalacturonase, texture, respiration rate and weight loss of tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum. Biodegradable film decreased the weight loss rate and softening of the fruits. However, enzymatic activity and respiration rate were not affected by the film application. The results showed that the changes in tomato are due to physical effects of water loss more than a metabolic change. By using this material, it was possible to lower tomato’s respiration rate in comparison with controls causing a lesser loss of weight. Biodegradable film delayed change in color as well as texture compared with controls. There was a significant difference in pectin methyl esterase activity in the covered tomato, but there was no difference in polygalacturonase activity.

  12. Development and validation of a predictive model for the growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in post-harvest shellstock oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Salina; DaSilva, Ligia; DePaola, Angelo; Bowers, John; White, Chanelle; Munasinghe, Kumudini Apsara; Brohawn, Kathy; Mudoh, Meshack; Tamplin, Mark

    2013-01-15

    Information is limited about the growth and survival of naturally-occurring Vibrio parahaemolyticus in live oysters under commercially relevant storage conditions harvested from different regions and in different oyster species. This study produced a predictive model for the growth of naturally-occurring V. parahaemolyticus in live Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) harvested from the Chesapeake Bay, MD, USA and stored at 5-30 °C until oysters gapped. The model was validated with model-independent data collected from Eastern oysters harvested from the Chesapeake Bay and Mobile Bay, AL, USA and Asian (C. ariakensis) oysters from the Chesapeake Bay, VA, USA. The effect of harvest season, region and water condition on growth rate (GR) was also tested. At each time interval, two samples consisting of six oysters each were analyzed by a direct-plating method for total V. parahaemolyticus. The Baranyi D-model was fitted to the total V. parahaemolyticus growth and survival data. A secondary model was produced using the square root model. V. parahaemolyticus slowly inactivated at 5 and 10 °C with average rates of -0.002 and -0.001 log cfu/h, respectively. The average GRs at 15, 20, 25, and 30 °C were 0.038, 0.082, 0.228, and 0.219 log cfu/h, respectively. The bias and accuracy factors of the secondary model for model-independent data were 1.36 and 1.46 for Eastern oysters from Mobile Bay and the Chesapeake Bay, respectively. V. parahaemolyticus GRs were markedly lower in Asian oysters. Harvest temperature, salinity, region and season had no effect on GRs. The observed GRs were less than those predicted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's V. parahaemolyticus quantitative risk assessment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression of the urease gene of Agaricus bisporus: a tool for studying fruit body formation and post-harvest development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemaker, M.J.M.; Eastwood, D.C.; Drift, van der C.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Burton, K.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Camp, op den H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Fruit body initials of Agaricus bisporus contain high levels of urea, which decrease in the following developmental stages until stage 4 (harvest) when urea levels increase again. At storage, the high urea content may affect the quality of the mushroom, i.e. by the formation of ammonia from urea

  14. NMR fingerprinting as a tool to evaluate post-harvest time-related changes of peaches, tomatoes and plums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo; Luchinat, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    The time-related changes of three agricultural products, coming from two distribution routes, have been followed using NMR fingerprinting to monitor metabolic variations occurring during several days of cold storage. An NMR profiling approach was employed to evaluate the variations in metabolic profile and metabolite content in three different agricultural products highly consumed in Italy (peaches, tomatoes and plums) coming from Tuscanian farms and how they change with time after collection. For each product, we followed the time-related changes during cold storage along three different collection periods. We monitored the variations in metabolic fingerprint and the trend of a set of metabolites, focusing our attention on nutritive and health-promoting metabolites (mainly, essential amino acids and antioxidants) as well as metabolites that contribute to the taste. Concurrently, for comparison, the time-dependent changes of the same kind of products coming from large-scale distribution have been also analyzed under the same conditions. In this second category, only slight variations in the metabolic fingerprint and metabolite levels were seen during cold storage. Unsupervised and supervised multivariate statistics was also employed to enlighten the differences between the three collections. In particular it seems that the metabolic fingerprint of large-scale distribution products is quite similar in the early, middle and late collection, while peaches and plums locally collected are markedly different among the three periods. The metabolic profiles of the agricultural products belonging to these two different distribution routes are intrinsically different, and they show different changes during the time of cold storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of microwave radiation on the post harvest decay and quality of peach fruits in cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarpajoun, E.; Nikkhah, SH.

    2009-01-01

    This research has been carried out in Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resources research center to study the effect of microwave radiation on storage time and control of peach fruit rot. Peach cultivars (Alberta, Red, White and Green of Mashad) were harvested in the first and second decades of June, July and September, sorted and stored at 4°C for 12 hours. Then fruits were treated with a Microwave with the Frequency at 2450 MHZ and two intensities, low (200 w) and high (800 w) for 30, 60 and 120 seconds, the treated and control fruits were laid on in plastic trays, packed in perforated polyethylene bags and stored in cold storage (0°C and 90-95% relative humidity) for 2 months. The qualitative tests including fruit rot, total soluble solids, titrable acidity, weight loss, firmness and color were assayed after 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Sensory attributes were measured after 60 days storage. The experimental design was factorial in frame of completely randomized design. Multiple range test (Duncan) were used to compare the means. The results showed that treating the fruit with microwave decreased the fruit rot and increased pH, flesh firmness and total soluble solids of treated peach. Microwave radiation with the 800w for 60 seconds maintained the qualitative characteristics of fruits. Panel test confirmed these results. (author)

  16. Molecular markers reliably predict post-harvest decay of fresh-cut lettuce in modified atmosphere packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-cut lettuce is popular, but highly perishable product. Genetic studies of two bi-parental populations derived from crossing parents with rapid and slow rates of decay showed that the decay rate is heritable (broad spectrum heritability H2 of 0.56 – 0.87). The major genetic determinant of the d...

  17. External nitrogen input affects pre- and post-harvest cell wall composition but not the enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldwin, Laetitia Andrée; Glazowska, Sylwia Emilia; Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important crops for food and feed and its straw is a potential feedstock for biorefinery purposes. Nitrogen (N) is an essential input factor in wheat agriculture but no information is available on how it affects straw composition during maturation and at harvest....... To investigate this, we conducted a large scale field experiment in which wheat plants were cultivated at three levels of externally applied N. The plants were harvested at different stages of maturation, spanning green straw at heading (ear emergence) to fully yellow straw at final maturity. Defined parts...

  18. 40 CFR 180.910 - Inert ingredients used pre- and post-harvest; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surfactants Sucrose octaacetate Adhesive Sulfite liquors and cooking liquors, spent, oxidized (CAS Reg. No... (hydrated alkali aluminum silicate) Solid diluent, carrier Zinc oxide Coating agent Zinc sulfate (basic and monohydrate) Do. Zinc sulfate (basic and monohydrate) Solid diluent, carrier [69 FR 23117, Apr. 28, 2004...

  19. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Spore Germination and Mycelial Growth of Penicillium Expansum, Post harvest Disease of Apple Fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafavi, H. A.; Mirmajlessi, S. M.; Mirjalili, S. M.; Fathollahi, H.; Mansouripour, S. M.; Babaei, M.

    2012-01-01

    Blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum causes most of the losses during the storage period in the world. In this study, the inhibition effect of different doses of gamma radiation on spore germination and mycelial growth of Penicillium expansum was investigated. As a result, the Penicillium expansum was recovered from infected apple fruits. In order to evaluate the gamma radiation effect on the spore germination, spore suspension (10 4 spore/ml) exposed to 0, 100, 300 and 600 grey, using Co-60 gamma cell with a dose rate of 0.2 Gy/Sec. Also, a disk of mycelium (0.5 cm 2 ) was removed from the edge of a three-days colony and transferred to PDA plates and irradiated to 0, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000 and 3500 Gy. The results showed that, the irradiation has completely inhibited the spore germination at 600 Gy. While, a dose of 3000 Gy completely inhibited the mycelial growth of Penicillium expansum.

  20. PERFORMANCE OF SELECTED PRE-HARVEST AND POST-HARVEST CORN AND SOYBEAN MARKETING STRATEGIES VS. ALTERNATIVE MARKET BENCHMARKS

    OpenAIRE

    Blue, E. Neal; Wisner, Robert N.; Baldwin, E. Dean

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to update earlier work by the authors that analyzed selected preharvest pricing strategies utilizing options markets to establish a price floor for part of the crop in the spring, with additional pricing done by use of short hedges in early summer. The timing of implementing these strategies was moved back to late February if the previous year's U.S. crop was a weather-induced short crop. A weather-induced short crop as opposed to a government program induced short c...

  1. Effect of different coatings on post-harvest quality and bioactive compounds of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meighani, Hossein; Ghasemnezhad, Mahmood; Bakhshi, Davood

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three different coatings; resin wax (Britex Ti), carnauba wax (Xedasol M14), and chitosan (1 and 2 % w/v) on postharvest quality of pomegranate fruits were investigated. Fruits quality characteristics and bioactive compounds were evaluated during 40, 80 and 120 days storage at 4.5 °C and 3 additional days at 20 °C. The results showed that uncoated fruits showed higher respiration rate, weight loss, L* and b* values of arils, total soluble solids (TSS)/titratable acidity (TA), and pH than coated fruits during storage. Coating treatments could delay declining TSS and TA percent, a* value of arils, as well as bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins content and antioxidant activity. The coated fruits with commercial resin and carnauba waxes showed significantly lower respiration rate and weight loss than other treatments, however carnauba wax could maintain considerably higher fruits quality and bioactive compounds than other coating treatments. The results suggested that postharvest application of carnauba wax have a potential to extend storage life of pomegranate fruits by reducing respiration rate, water loss and maintaining fruit quality.

  2. Genetic modification and its impact on industry structure and performance: post-harvest deterioration of cassava in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaar, P.W.L.; Beek, van P.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic modification has led to fierce debates around the world. Nevertheless, scientific evidence for its potential effects on the structure and performance of industries has hitherto remained rather meagre. In this article, we take some preliminary steps towards closing this gap by exploring the

  3. Occurrence and infection of Cladosporium, Fusarium, Epicoccum and Aureobasidium in withered rotten grapes during post-harvest dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Zapparoli, Giacomo

    2015-11-01

    Fungi like Cladosporium, Fusarium, Epicoccum and Aureobasidium can occur on withered grapes causing spoilage of passito wine. There is little or no information on the pathogenic role of these fungi. This study describes the isolation, incidence and identification of several isolates from different withered rotten grapes. Representative isolates grouped in several phenotypes were identified by phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer, actin or elongation factor gene sequences. Isolates of Cladosporium and Fusarium were ascribed to different species, of these C. ramotenellum, C. halotolerans and F. graminearum were isolated from Vitis vinifera for the first time. All Epicoccum and Aureobasidium isolates belonged to E. nigrum and A. pullulans, respectively. Random amplified DNA polymorphism analysis showed high level of heterogenicity among Epicoccum and Fusarium isolates. Infection assays were carried out to evaluate infectivity in some strains under different withering conditions. Fusarium spp. strains had similar infectivity, while significant variability was observed among Cladosporium spp. and E. nigrum strains. A. pullulans resulted particularly infective. This study provided insights into the occurrence and infection of these fungi in fruit-drying rooms with important implications towards control management during the withering.

  4. A conductive polymer based electronic nose for early detection of Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest oranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Jonas; Nascimento, Henry M.; Yamauchi, Elaine Y.; Li, Rosamaria W.C.; Esteves, Carlos H.A.; Rehder, Gustavo P.; Gaylarde, Christine C.; Shirakawa, Márcia A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the construction of an electronic nose, comprising four chemiresistive sensors formed by the deposition of thin conductive polymer films onto interdigitated electrodes, attached to a personal computer via a data acquisition board. This e-nose was used to detect biodeterioration of oranges colonized by Penicillium digitatum. Significant responses were obtained after only 24 h of incubation i.e. at an early stage of biodeterioration, enabling remedial measures to be taken in storage facilities and efficiently distinguishing between good and poor quality fruits. The instrument has a very low analysis time of 40 s. - Highlights: • Early detection of Penicillium digitatum in oranges • Low cost electronic nose based on conductive polymers • Efficient distinction between good and poor quality fruits

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Synthetic Compounds on Fungi Associated with Post Harvest Rot of Red Pepper (Capsicum annum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew O. KOLAWOLE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhizopus sp, Mucor sp, Collectotrichum capsici and Geotrichum candidum were isolated but pathogenic test revealed that Collectotrichum capsici and Geotrichum candidum were the most pathogenic of all the isolates. Ni2+ + Azo has the highest inhibitory effect, closely followed by Ni2+ + PAN while Copper (II complex of Thiourea has the lowest inhibitory effect. However, 10mg/ml concentration proved to be the most effective when radial mycelial growth of the test fungi was measured. The inhibitory effects of each complex on the isolates increases with increase in incubation period. There is the feasibility of using synthetic associated with the symptoms. The three synthetic compounds, Copper (II complex of Thiourea, Ni2+ + compounds as preservatives for harvested red pepper.

  6. Determination of gamma radiation dose as a post-harvest treatment in mangos infested with the South American fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alama, D.

    1999-01-01

    Efforts are being made to determine a gamma radiation dose for mortality of third-instar larvae of Anastrepha fraterculus which infest mangos of the Haden variety of 400 g weight. Four radiation treatments were tested: 0.4 kGy, 0.6 kGy, 0.8 kGy and 1.0 kGy. Using as a criterium for mortality the interruption of the biological cycle between larva and pupa, the following results were achieved: 49.61%, 63.33%, 74.86% and 90.72%. The percentages obtained have been corrected using the Abbot formula. When the criterium was based on no adult emergence, 100% mortality was achieved for the four treatments. (author)

  7. A vertical compartmented hive design effective to reduce post-harvest colony loss in Afrotropical stingless bee species (Apidae: Meliponinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiatoko, Nkoba; Raina, Suresh Kumar; Langevelde, van F.

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of Meliponinae in log hive or simple box has often been used in Africa. However, colonyloss in these two hive types due to pest infestation after honey harvesting still occurs. We hypothesized that the two hive types were the probable causes for the infestations.We designed and

  8. Risk Assessment on Dietary Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 in Post-Harvest Peanuts in the Yangtze River Ecological Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoxia; Wu, Linxia; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Zhaowei; Zhou, Haiyan; Bai, Yizhen; Chen, Xiaomei; Jiang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Based on the 2983 peanut samples from 122 counties in six provinces of China’s Yangtze River ecological region collected between 2009–2014, along with the dietary consumption data in Chinese resident nutrition and health survey reports from 2002 and 2004, dietary aflatoxin exposure and percentiles in the corresponding statistics were calculated by non-parametric probability assessment, Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrap sampling methods. Average climatic conditions in the Yangtze River ecological region were calculated based on the data from 118 weather stations via the Thiessen polygon method. The survey results found that the aflatoxin contamination of peanuts was significantly high in 2013. The determination coefficient (R2) of multiple regression reflected by the aflatoxin B1 content with average precipitation and mean temperature in different periods showed that climatic conditions one month before harvest had the strongest impact on aflatoxin B1 contamination, and that Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were greatly influenced. The simulated mean aflatoxin B1 intake from peanuts at the mean peanut consumption level was 0.777–0.790 and 0.343–0.349 ng/(kg·d) for children aged 2–6 and standard adults respectively. Moreover, the evaluated cancer risks were 0.024 and 0.011/(100,000 persons·year) respectively, generally less than China’s current liver cancer incidence of 24.6 cases/(100,000 persons·year). In general, the dietary risk caused by peanut production and harvest was low. Further studies would focus on the impacts of peanut circulation and storage on aflatoxin B1 contamination risk assessment in order to protect peanut consumers’ safety and boost international trade. PMID:26501322

  9. Survey on maize post-harvest losses and its management practices in the western hills of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanashyam Bhandari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in order to assess the losses of maize under farmers’ storage conditions in the Western hills of Nepal in 2014. The survey area included Thanapati Village Development Committee (VDC of Gulmi, Aalamdebi VDC of Syangja, Khasauli VDC of Palpa and Baglung municipality-12, Baglung district. Primary information was collected through semi-structured questionnaires among the heterogenous groups of the farming communities. Survey revealed that about 61% respondents reported the storage pest as the major pests and about 12% respondents reported that field pests as the major pests in the western hills. Maize weevil (Sitophylus zeamais Mostsch. and Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella Oliv. were found to be major storage insect pests in surveyed areas. Majority of respondents (39% presumed on 10-20% losses during storage. Among the other biotic factors, farmers ranked insect (42%, weeds (32% and diseases (17% respectively. Maize storage methods had distinct among the surveyed areas compared with Baglung district to other surveyed areas. In Baglung, about (73% farmers had stored maize in the form of grain whereas in Palpa, Gulmi and Syangja, about (77% farmers had practice of storing maize with husk for 5-7 months. Approximately, 40% respondents were using open floor in upper stair “Aanti”as a major maize storage place in Palpa, Gulmi and Syangja whereas almost (79% of respondents were using sacks to store shelled grains in Baglung. Hence, there is ample opportunity to reduce the storage losses of maize depending upon the existing situation.

  10. The use of sodium alginate-based coating and cellulose acetate in papaya post-harvest preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Andrade Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the ripening of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. at room temperature (±25°C and10°C with 80% relative humidity, coated with edible film based on sodium alginate (1% and cellulose acetate film (3% by dipping the fruit in the suspensions for 1 min. On the application of the treatment and every three days during 12 days of storage, fruit were evaluated for weight loss, firmness, total carotenoid content, lycopene content and vitamin C content of the pulp. The cellulose acetate film extended the shelf-life of papayas, without affecting their quality. This treatment delayed fruit ripening, whose changes in all the parameters analyzed were significantly slower than fruit treated with sodium alginate-based coating. The coating with cellulose acetate at 3% was more effective in the preservation of papaya stored for 12 days under both temperatures.

  11. Switching control for a class of nonlinear SISO systems with an application to post-harvest food storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, S.; Zwart, Heiko J.; Keesman, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    For a class of scalar nonlinear systems with switching input a controller is designed using design theory for linear systems. A stability criterion is derived that contains all the physical system parameters, allowing a stability analysis without the need for numerical simulation. The results are

  12. Treatment post harvest of Citrus sinensis infested with Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albergaria, Nuno M.M. Soares de; Bortoli, Sergio A. de; Doria, Hayda O.S.; Arthur, Valter

    2009-01-01

    This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of irradiation on fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) eggs and larvae (first, second, third instars), in 'Valencia' oranges; and evaluate the effect of the irradiation on the chemical composition of the fruits. Fruits were artificially infested with the immature stages of the fruit fly and treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy Cobalt-60 doses. By the results obtained it is possible to conclude that: third instar larvae are more tolerant to irradiation treatments; the dose of 50 Gy causes sterility to the adults emerged from all immature stages irradiated. (author)

  13. Effect of Post-Harvest Acetic Acid and Plant Essential Oils on Shelf-Life Extension of Tomato Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.A.; Naweto, M.; Mostafa, M.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro effect of different concentrations of acetic acid on linear growth of Alternaria alternate was studied. The causal agent of tomato black rots in contact and fumigation showed that acetic acid inhibit A. alternata growth at 2 ml/L and on 0.8 ml/L in contact and fumigation, respectively. In vivo effect showed that acetic acid at 6 ml/L reduced severity of infection of tomato fruits from 53.5% to 4.8% after 3 weeks of storage in dipping method but at the strongest fumigation methods, acetic acid inhibit tomato fruits rot at 0.4 ml/L after 3 weeks of storage. In vitro effect of camphore (Eucalyptus globulus Labill), caraway (Carium carvum L.) and peppermint oil (Mentha piperita L.) at different concentrations were tested against Alternaria alternata, since caraway oil is the strongest oil effect on fungal growth followed by peppermint and camphore respectively. Similarly in in vivo caraway oil inhibit tomato fruits rots at 6 ml/L followed by peppermint that inhibited tomato rots at 8 ml / L but camphore reduced tomato rots at 8 ml/L from 40% to 8.1%. Accepted April 2013

  14. Mesocarp RNASeq analysis of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) identify quarantine post-harvest treatment effects on gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States is the world’s largest importer of mangos. Before mangos can enter the US, they must be hot water treated to eliminate the eggs of an insect pest. The National Mango Board, a USDA supported commodity group, as well as mango exporters, importers and wholesale and retail distributo...

  15. Effect of 'oxygen and carbon-dioxide' on the post-harvest management in tree-ripe mango storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, H.; Ahmad, S.; Anwar, R.; Noor-un-Nisa; Nafees, M.; Thompson, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing niche market demand for tree-ripe mango fruit due to their pleasant level of sweetness and flavour than artificially ripened fruits. However, tree-ripe mango fruits normally have a short storage life therefore, some time these fruits can not be reached to the ultimate consumers and heavy losses occurred. To avoid this problem growers try to harvest the mangoes at early stage of maturity which directly affect the physico-chemical constituents of fruit. Research was carried out to investigate the Controlled atmosphere (CA) storage feasibility and optimum storage conditions for tree-ripe cv. Chaunsa mangoes in order to extend their shelf life without compromising their quality. Tree ripe mangoes were stored in 1, 3, or 5% O/sub 2/ combined with 3, 6, and 9 % CO/sub 2/ at 10 deg. C for two weeks and compared with those stored in 21% O/sub 2/ and 0% CO/sub 2/ as control. It was found that the rate of fruit weight loss decreased with an increase of CO/sub 2/ in the storage atmosphere. Higher acidity was found in the fruit which were stored at lower concentration of O/sub 2/ and higher concentration of CO/sub 2/ which might be due to the accumulation of higher concentration of CO/sub 2/ in the fruit tissues. CA storage showed better retention of Ascorbic acid but did not show any systematic trend regarding citric acid, tartaric acid and malic acid. Fruits stored under controlled atmosphere showed better retention of freshness, colour, firmness, total soluble solids and flavour in comparison with the fruit stored in air (control). Mangoes stored in 3% O/sub 2/ with 6% CO/sub 2/ were highly acceptable by the panellists due to their better sweetness, flavour as compared to others. (author

  16. A conductive polymer based electronic nose for early detection of Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest oranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Jonas, E-mail: jogruber@iq.usp.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 748, CEP 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Henry M. [Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Yamauchi, Elaine Y. [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 748, CEP 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Li, Rosamaria W.C. [Centro Universitário Estácio Radial São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Esteves, Carlos H.A. [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 748, CEP 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rehder, Gustavo P. [Escola Politécnica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gaylarde, Christine C. [University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Shirakawa, Márcia A. [Escola Politécnica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    We describe the construction of an electronic nose, comprising four chemiresistive sensors formed by the deposition of thin conductive polymer films onto interdigitated electrodes, attached to a personal computer via a data acquisition board. This e-nose was used to detect biodeterioration of oranges colonized by Penicillium digitatum. Significant responses were obtained after only 24 h of incubation i.e. at an early stage of biodeterioration, enabling remedial measures to be taken in storage facilities and efficiently distinguishing between good and poor quality fruits. The instrument has a very low analysis time of 40 s. - Highlights: • Early detection of Penicillium digitatum in oranges • Low cost electronic nose based on conductive polymers • Efficient distinction between good and poor quality fruits.

  17. Maximizing the Nutritional Value of Produce Post-Harvest: Consumer Knowledge Gaps, Interests, and Opinions Regarding Nutrition Education Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remley, Dan; Goard, Linnette Mizer; Taylor, Christopher A.; Ralston, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Although many consumers perceive locally produced, fresh fruits and vegetables to be healthier, they might not have the knowledge and skills to retain optimal nutritional quality following harvest or purchase. We surveyed Ohio farmers market consumers' and managers' knowledge and interests related to maximizing nutritional value of produce.…

  18. Post-harvest conservation of camu–camu fruits (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh using different temperatures and packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza GRIGIO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The camu-camu tree (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh is fruit-bearing tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae. This work was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the type of storage temperature and package which allow better conservation of the quality attributes of camu-camu. The experimental design utilized was the completely randomized with three replications in a factorial arrangement (3x3x8, constituted of three different storage temperatures (laboratory ambiente or 25 ± 2 °C, 15 °C and 20 °C, three types of packages (no package, PET and PVC and fourteen days’ storage, the fruits being analyzed every two days. The fruits were evaluated as to fresh mass loss, pH, soluble solids contents, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, anthocyanins, chlorophylls A and B and maturation index (SS/AT. According to the results obtained, the quality attributes and ascorbic acid content were conserved for longer time in the fruits stored on PVC-film covered expanded polystyrene trays at 15 °C. It follows that the best temperature for the storage of camu-camu is 15 °C and the package that best keeps its quality attributes is the PVC-film covered expanded polystyrene tray.

  19. The Impact of Harvesting, Storage and Processing Factors on Health-Promoting Phytochemicals in Berries and Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kårlund

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing epidemiological and experimental data now emphasize that a diet rich in vegetables and fruits confers many health benefits. Functional products containing elevated levels of bioactive compounds are attracting considerable attention due to their potential to lower the risk of chronic diseases and their associated huge healthcare costs. On a global scale, there is an increasing demand for berries and fruits, since they are natural polyphenol-rich raw material to be incorporated into functional foods, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. This is a major challenge for both industry and horticultural experts, because the content of health-promoting compounds in plants varies widely not only in different plant species, but also between cultivars. The content is also significantly affected by harvesting, storage and processing factors. This review summarizes the recent data and clarifies the main contributors of harvesting time, various storage conditions and post-harvest procedures, such as temperature management, controlled atmosphere, 1-MCP, calcium and plant activators, as ways to influence health-promoting compounds in fruits. Furthermore, the ways processing factors, e.g., enzymatic treatment, pressing, clarification, temperature, pressure and fermentation, can influence the levels of polyphenols and vitamins in berries and soft fruits will be discussed. Finally, strategies for preventing the decline of health-promoting compounds in fruits during long-term storage will be assessed in light of recent scientific progress and modern methods, which preserve the levels of polyphenols, will be highlighted.

  20. The influence of sun drying process and prolonged storage on composition of essential oil from clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, L. T.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Murni, V. W.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is native to Indonesia and used as a spice in virtually all of the world's cuisine. Clove bud oil, a yellow liquid, is obtained from distillation of buds. The quality of oil is influenced by origin, post-harvest processing, pre-treatment before distillation, the distillation method, and post-distillation treatment. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of drying process and prolonged storage on essential oil composition of clove bud from the Tolitoli, Indonesia. To determine the effect of drying, fresh clove bud was dried under sunlight until it reached moisture content 13±1 %. The effect of storage was studied in the oil extracted from clove bud that was stored in laboratory at 25 °C for 4 months. The essential oil of each treatment was obtained by steam distillation and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The major components found in fresh and dried clove are as follows: eugenol, eugenyl acetate, and caryophyllene. Percentage of caryophyllene was slightly increase after drying but decrease during storage. While the content of eugenyl acetate decreased during drying and storage, the content of eugenol increased. The drying and storage also affect to the change on minor compounds of essential oil of clove.

  1. Radiography and digital image processing for detection of internal breakdown in fruits of mango tree (Mangifera indica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rubemar de Souza

    2004-01-01

    This work proposes a methodology aimed to be an adviser system for detection of internal breakdown in mangoes during the post-harvest phase to packinghouses. It was arranged a set-up to product digital images from X-ray spectrum in the range of 18 and 20 keV, where the primary images acquired were tested by a digital image processing routine for differentiation of seed, pulp, peel and injured zones. The analysis ROC applied to a only cut on a sample of 114 primary images generated, showed that digital image processing routine was able to identify 88% of true-positive injuries and 7% of false-negatives. When tested against the absence of injuries, the DIP routine had identified 22 % of false-positives and 88% of true-negatives. Besides, a cognitive analysis was applied to a sample of 76 digital images of mangoes. Results showed that the images offer enough information for dichotomic interpretation about the main injuries in the fruit, including those of difficult diagnosis under destructive assay. Measurements of observer agreement, performed on the same group of readers showed themselves in the range of fair and substantial strength of agreement. (author)

  2. Functional properties and dietary fiber characterization of mango processing by-products (Mangifera indica L., cv Ataulfo and Tommy Atkins).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Magaña, María de Lourdes; García, Hugo S; Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; de Oca, Miguel Mata-Montes

    2013-09-01

    Several reports have focused on utilization of post-harvest residues of crops, while neglecting those residues produced by mango processing. These residues represent a waste of nutrients and a source of environmental contaminants. Such by-products could be valuable sources of dietary fiber (DF), antioxidant compounds, and single carbohydrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate some functional properties (FP), and the content of DF and polyphenols (PP) of the peel and coarse material obtained from residues during the industrial processing of Ataulfo and Tommy Atkins mangoes. The total dietary fiber (TDF) content was about 225 mg/g and 387 mg/g (dry weight) for the coarse material and the peel, respectively, from which soluble dietary fiber represented 23 and 42%, respectively. The main neutral sugar identified was rhamnose, especially in peels; the klason lignin (KL) content was 92 mg/g, which highlights the Ataulfo peel (Ataulfo-P) and the Tommy Atkins peel (Tommy Atkins-P). The extractable PP content in Ataulfo-P was higher than in Tommy-Atkins-P, and interesting data for non-extractable PP were obtained in the residues. FP as swelling, water holding, oil holding, and glucose absorption in the residues was studied, obtaining better functional properties when compared to cellulose fiber. The results show that mango industrial by-products, mainly from the Ataulfo-P variety, could be used as ingredients in food products because of their functional properties as well as their DF and PP content.

  3. Targeted and untargeted-metabolite profiling to track the compositional integrity of ginger during processing using digitally-enhanced HPTLC pattern recognition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Reham S; Fathy, Hoda

    2018-03-30

    Tracking the impact of commonly applied post-harvesting and industrial processing practices on the compositional integrity of ginger rhizome was implemented in this work. Untargeted metabolite profiling was performed using digitally-enhanced HPTLC method where the chromatographic fingerprints were extracted using ImageJ software then analysed with multivariate Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for pattern recognition. A targeted approach was applied using a new, validated, simple and fast HPTLC image analysis method for simultaneous quantification of the officially recognized markers 6-, 8-, 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol in conjunction with chemometric Hierarchical Clustering Analysis (HCA). The results of both targeted and untargeted metabolite profiling revealed that peeling, drying in addition to storage employed during processing have a great influence on ginger chemo-profile, the different forms of processed ginger shouldn't be used interchangeably. Moreover, it deemed necessary to consider the holistic metabolic profile for comprehensive evaluation of ginger during processing. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Development of a scheffler fixed focus concentrator for the processing of medicinal plants and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, A.; Hensel, O.

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing population and industrialization, there is need to cut down the load of fossil fuels and to reduce environmental pollution. A large part of industrial process heat lies from low to medium temperature range which can be supplied by solar energy. Scheffler fixed focus concentrators are successfully used for medium temperature applications in different parts of the world. These concentrators are taken as lateral sections of paraboloids and provide fixed focus away from the path of incident beam radiations throughout the year. The paper presents description and experimental results of medicinal and fruit processing using an 8 m/sup 2/ surface area Scheffler solar concentrator installed at solar campus, university of Kassel, Witzenhausen Germany. The research was focused to promote solar renewable energy in rural and remote locations. The solar system was equipped with Pyranometer and thermocouples to evaluate real time data which was used for performance evaluation of the solar system during processing of different products. In the first phase of the research, several trials were made to evaluate the performance of the system. Within the solar radiations range of 700- 800 W m-2, the receiver temperatures were recorded between 300 - 400 deg. C. The average power was found to be 1.55 kW and system efficiency was found to be 32.34%. Different medicinal plants like Melissa, Peppermint, Rosemary, Cumin, and Cloves buds were successfully processed by using solar energy. Different fruit and vegetables like Apples, Plums, cherries, tomatoes were also processed by using solar energy. Research results have showed that solar energy can be successfully used for the post harvest and fruit processing at rural location. (author)

  5. NAC-NOR mutations in tomato Penjar accessions attenuate multiple metabolic processes and prolong the fruit shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Tamboli, Vajir; Sharma, Rameshwar; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju

    2018-09-01

    Several Penjar accessions of tomato grown in the Mediterranean exhibit prolonged shelf life and harbor alcobaca mutation. To uncover the metabolic basis underlying shelf life, we compared four Penjar accessions to Ailsa Craig. Three accessions bore alcobaca mutation, whereas the fourth was a novel NAC-NOR allele. Cuticle composition of Penjars varied widely during fruit ripening. All Penjars exhibited delayed ripening, prolonged on-vine and off-vine shelf life, low ethylene emission, and carotenoid levels. Metabolic profiling revealed shifts in Krebs cycle intermediates, amino acids, and γ-aminobutyric acid levels indicating the attenuation of respiration in Penjars during post-harvest storage. Penjar fruits also showed concerted downregulation of several cell-wall modifying genes and related metabolites. The high ABA and sucrose levels at the onset of senescence in Penjar fruits likely contribute to reduced water loss. Our analyses reveal that the attenuation of various metabolic processes by NAC-NOR mutation likely prolongs the shelf life of Penjar fruits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Proceedings of the FNCA 2007 workshop on application of electron accelerator. Radiation processing of natural polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamada, Masao; Kume, Tamikazu

    2008-12-01

    This workshop was co-sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Vietnam. The Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) jointly executed the workshop in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The main objectives of the workshop were the following: - to discuss for the promotion of the commercial applications of radiation processing of natural polymer. - to prepare the work plan for the FNCA activities for 2007-2008. The workshop was attended by experts on radiation processing from Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam. The radiation processing of natural polymer is divided into crosslinking, degradation and graft polymerization. The radiation crosslinked polysaccharides are mainly used to prepare hydrogel for healthcare and environment. Hydrogels were commercialized in India, Korea, and Malaysia and are going to be commercialized in Philippines and Vietnam as wound dressings. Radiation degraded polysaccharides (alginate and chitosan) are commercialized in China and Vietnam in aquaculture and agriculture, respectively. Indonesia successfully carried out field test of radiation degraded chitosan as plant growth promoter. Also the radiation degraded chitosan was demonstrated to preserve post harvest fruit and to extend the shelf life of papaya in Pakistan and Sri Lanka, respectively. Radiation graft polymerization onto polysaccharide is applied for production of soil conditioner in Vietnam. Several applications of grafting technique were also reported. Manuscripts submitted by presenters were compiled in the proceedings. The 31 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  7. Combined Effects of Irrigation Regime, Genotype, and Harvest Stage Determine Tomato Fruit Quality and Aptitude for Processing into Puree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated. Field and glasshouse experiments were conducted near Avignon, France, from May to August 2016. Two irrigation regimes were applied: control plants were irrigated in order to match 100% of evapotranspiration (ETP; water deficit (WD plants were irrigated as control plants until anthesis of the first flowers, then irrigation was reduced to 60 and 50% ETP in field, and glasshouse respectively. Fruits were collected at three stages during ripening. Their color, fresh weight, dry matter content, and metabolite contents were determined before processing. Pericarp cell size was evaluated in glasshouse only. Two laboratory-scaled processing methods were applied before structural and biochemical analyses of the purees. Results outlined interactive effects between crop and process management. WD hardly reduced yield, but increased dry matter content in the field, in contrast to the glasshouse. The puree viscosity strongly depended on the genotype and the maturity stage, but it was disconnected from fruit dry matter content or Brix. The process impact on puree viscosity strongly depended on water supply during fruit production. Moreover, the lycopene content of fresh fruit may influence puree viscosity. This work opens new perspectives for managing puree quality in the field showing that it was possible to reduce water supply without affecting yield and to improve puree quality.

  8. Combined Effects of Irrigation Regime, Genotype, and Harvest Stage Determine Tomato Fruit Quality and Aptitude for Processing into Puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas, Alexandre; Page, David; Giovinazzo, Robert; Bertin, Nadia; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated. Field and glasshouse experiments were conducted near Avignon, France, from May to August 2016. Two irrigation regimes were applied: control plants were irrigated in order to match 100% of evapotranspiration (ETP); water deficit (WD) plants were irrigated as control plants until anthesis of the first flowers, then irrigation was reduced to 60 and 50% ETP in field, and glasshouse respectively. Fruits were collected at three stages during ripening. Their color, fresh weight, dry matter content, and metabolite contents were determined before processing. Pericarp cell size was evaluated in glasshouse only. Two laboratory-scaled processing methods were applied before structural and biochemical analyses of the purees. Results outlined interactive effects between crop and process management. WD hardly reduced yield, but increased dry matter content in the field, in contrast to the glasshouse. The puree viscosity strongly depended on the genotype and the maturity stage, but it was disconnected from fruit dry matter content or Brix. The process impact on puree viscosity strongly depended on water supply during fruit production. Moreover, the lycopene content of fresh fruit may influence puree viscosity. This work opens new perspectives for managing puree quality in the field showing that it was possible to reduce water supply without affecting yield and to improve puree quality.

  9. Combined Effects of Irrigation Regime, Genotype, and Harvest Stage Determine Tomato Fruit Quality and Aptitude for Processing into Puree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas, Alexandre; Page, David; Giovinazzo, Robert; Bertin, Nadia; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated. Field and glasshouse experiments were conducted near Avignon, France, from May to August 2016. Two irrigation regimes were applied: control plants were irrigated in order to match 100% of evapotranspiration (ETP); water deficit (WD) plants were irrigated as control plants until anthesis of the first flowers, then irrigation was reduced to 60 and 50% ETP in field, and glasshouse respectively. Fruits were collected at three stages during ripening. Their color, fresh weight, dry matter content, and metabolite contents were determined before processing. Pericarp cell size was evaluated in glasshouse only. Two laboratory-scaled processing methods were applied before structural and biochemical analyses of the purees. Results outlined interactive effects between crop and process management. WD hardly reduced yield, but increased dry matter content in the field, in contrast to the glasshouse. The puree viscosity strongly depended on the genotype and the maturity stage, but it was disconnected from fruit dry matter content or Brix. The process impact on puree viscosity strongly depended on water supply during fruit production. Moreover, the lycopene content of fresh fruit may influence puree viscosity. This work opens new perspectives for managing puree quality in the field showing that it was possible to reduce water supply without affecting yield and to improve puree quality. PMID:29051767

  10. ENTHALPY EU PROJECT: ENABLING THE DRYING PROCESS TO SAVE ENERGY AND WATER, REALISING PROCESS EFFICIENCY IN THE DAIRY CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta ALVAREZ PENEDO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The EU funded ENTHALPY project aims to significantly reduce the consumption of water and energy in milk powder production to increase efficiency in the dairy production chain. Using a systematic approach, ENTHALPY project focusses on innovations within the post-harvest chain representing the highest energy and water consumption such as RF heating, solar thermal energy, mono-disperse atomising, dryer modelling, inline monitoring, enzymatic cleaning and membrane technology,

  11. ENTHALPY EU PROJECT: ENABLING THE DRYING PROCESS TO SAVE ENERGY AND WATER, REALISING PROCESS EFFICIENCY IN THE DAIRY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Berta ALVAREZ PENEDO; Sandra FORSTNER; Alexandru RUSU

    2016-01-01

    The EU funded ENTHALPY project aims to significantly reduce the consumption of water and energy in milk powder production to increase efficiency in the dairy production chain. Using a systematic approach, ENTHALPY project focusses on innovations within the post-harvest chain representing the highest energy and water consumption such as RF heating, solar thermal energy, mono-disperse atomising, dryer modelling, inline monitoring, enzymatic cleaning and membrane technology,

  12. Characterisation of olive fruit for the milling process by using visible/near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Beghi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing consumption of olive oil and table olives has recently determined an expansion of olive tree cultivation in the world. This trend is supported by the documented nutritional value of the Mediterranean diet. The aim of this work was to test a portable visible/ near infrared (vis/NIR system (400-1000 nm for the analysis of physical-chemical parameters, such as olive soluble solid content (SSC and texture before the olive oil extraction process. The final goal is to provide the sector with post-harvest methods and sorting systems for a quick evaluation of important properties of olive fruit. In the present study, a total of 109 olives for oil production were analysed. Olive spectra registered with the optical device and values obtained with destructive analysis in the laboratory were analysed. Specific statistical models were elaborated to study correlations between optical and laboratory analysis, and to evaluate predictions of reference parameters obtained through the analysis of the visible-near infrared range. Statistical models were processed using chemometric techniques to extract maximum data information. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed on vis/NIR spectra to examine sample groupings and identify outliers, while partial least square (PLS regression algorithm was used to correlate samples spectra and physical- chemical properties. Results are encouraging. PCA showed a significant sample grouping among different ranges of SSC and texture. PLS models gave fairly good predictive capabilities in validation for SSC (R2=0.67 and RMSECV%=7.5% and texture (R2=0.68 and RMSECV%=8.2%.

  13. Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Usha; Sandhu, Kulwant Singh

    2014-02-01

    Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. The pesticide residues, left to variable extent in the food materials after harvesting, are beyond the control of consumer and have deleterious effect on human health. The presence of pesticide residues is a major bottleneck in the international trade of food commodities. The localization of pesticides in foods varies with the nature of pesticide molecule, type and portion of food material and environmental factors. The food crops treated with pesticides invariably contain unpredictable amount of these chemicals, therefore, it becomes imperative to find out some alternatives for decontamination of foods. The washing with water or soaking in solutions of salt and some chemicals e.g. chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, acetic acid, hydroxy peracetic acid, iprodione and detergents are reported to be highly effective in reducing the level of pesticides. Preparatory steps like peeling, trimming etc. remove the residues from outer portions. Various thermal processing treatments like pasteurization, blanching, boiling, cooking, steaming, canning, scrambling etc. have been found valuable in degradation of various pesticides depending upon the type of pesticide and length of treatment. Preservation techniques like drying or dehydration and concentration increase the pesticide content many folds due to concentration effect. Many other techniques like refining, fermentation and curing have been reported to affect the pesticide level in foods to varied extent. Milling, baking, wine making, malting and brewing resulted in lowering of pesticide residue level in the end products. Post harvest treatments and cold storage have also been found effective. Many of the decontamination techniques bring down the concentration of pesticides below MRL. However, the diminution effect depends upon the initial concentration at the time of harvest, substrate/food and type of

  14. Vacuolar invertase gene silencing in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. improves processing quality by decreasing the frequency of sugar-end defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobiao Zhu

    Full Text Available Sugar-end defect is a tuber quality disorder and persistent problem for the French fry processing industry that causes unacceptable darkening of one end of French fries. This defect appears when environmental stress during tuber growth increases post-harvest vacuolar acid invertase activity at one end of the tuber. Reducing sugars produced by invertase form dark-colored Maillard reaction products during frying. Acrylamide is another Maillard reaction product formed from reducing sugars and acrylamide consumption has raised health concerns worldwide. Vacuolar invertase gene (VInv expression was suppressed in cultivars Russet Burbank and Ranger Russet using RNA interference to determine if this approach could control sugar-end defect formation. Acid invertase activity and reducing sugar content decreased at both ends of tubers. Sugar-end defects and acrylamide in fried potato strips were strongly reduced in multiple transgenic potato lines. Thus vacuolar invertase silencing can minimize a long-standing French fry quality problem while providing consumers with attractive products that reduce health concerns related to dietary acrylamide.

  15. Effect of the food production chain from farm practices to vegetable processing on outbreak incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yangjin; Jang, Hyein; Matthews, Karl R

    2014-11-01

    The popularity in the consumption of fresh and fresh-cut vegetables continues to increase globally. Fresh vegetables are an integral part of a healthy diet, providing vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and other health-promoting compounds. The diversity of fresh vegetables and packaging formats (spring mix in clamshell container, bagged heads of lettuce) support increased consumption. Unfortunately, vegetable production and processing practices are not sufficient to ensure complete microbial safety. This review highlights a few specific areas that require greater attention and research. Selected outbreaks are presented to emphasize the need for science-based 'best practices'. Laboratory and field studies have focused on inactivation of pathogens associated with manure in liquid, slurry or solid forms. As production practices change, other forms and types of soil amendments are being used more prevalently. Information regarding the microbial safety of fish emulsion and pellet form of manure is limited. The topic of global climate change is controversial, but the potential effect on agriculture cannot be ignored. Changes in temperature, precipitation, humidity and wind can impact crops and the microorganisms that are associated with production environments. Climate change could potentially enhance the ability of pathogens to survive and persist in soil, water and crops, increasing human health risks. Limited research has focused on the prevalence and behaviour of viruses in pre and post-harvest environments and on vegetable commodities. Globally, viruses are a major cause of foodborne illnesses, but are seldom tested for in soil, soil amendments, manure and crops. Greater attention must also be given to the improvement in the microbial quality of seeds used in sprout production. Human pathogens associated with seeds can result in contamination of sprouts intended for human consumption, even when all appropriate 'best practices' are used by sprout growers. © 2014 The

  16. Radiography and digital image processing for detection of internal breakdown in fruits of mango tree (Mangifera indica L.); Radiografia e processamento de imagens na deteccao de disturbios fisiologicos internos em frutos da mangueira (Mangifera indica L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rubemar de Souza

    2004-01-15

    This work proposes a methodology aimed to be an adviser system for detection of internal breakdown in mangoes during the post-harvest phase to packinghouses. It was arranged a set-up to product digital images from X-ray spectrum in the range of 18 and 20 keV, where the primary images acquired were tested by a digital image processing routine for differentiation of seed, pulp, peel and injured zones. The analysis ROC applied to a only cut on a sample of 114 primary images generated, showed that digital image processing routine was able to identify 88% of true-positive injuries and 7% of false-negatives. When tested against the absence of injuries, the DIP routine had identified 22 % of false-positives and 88% of true-negatives. Besides, a cognitive analysis was applied to a sample of 76 digital images of mangoes. Results showed that the images offer enough information for dichotomic interpretation about the main injuries in the fruit, including those of difficult diagnosis under destructive assay. Measurements of observer agreement, performed on the same group of readers showed themselves in the range of fair and substantial strength of agreement. (author)

  17. BIOPHYSICAL AND MECH ATTRIBUTES TO LOSSES CAL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    m respectively. Therefore, losses during rice processing operations ar ... riety specific. mechanical properties, rice varieties, processing, post-harvest losse ..... stress (compressive load) at .... activities with available finance/ logistic so that they ...

  18. Degradation alternatives for a commercial fungicide in water: biological, photo-Fenton, and coupled biological photo-Fenton processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Loveira, Elsa; Ariganello, Federico; Medina, María Sara; Centrón, Daniela; Candal, Roberto; Curutchet, Gustavo

    2017-11-01

    Imazalil (IMZ) is a widely used fungicide for the post-harvest treatment of citrus, classified as "likely to be carcinogenic in humans" for EPA, that can be only partially removed by conventional biological treatment. Consequently, specific or combined processes should be applied to prevent its release to the environment. Biological treatment with adapted microorganism consortium, photo-Fenton, and coupled biological photo-Fenton processes were tested as alternatives for the purification of water containing high concentration of the fungicide and the coadjutants present in the commercial formulation. IMZ-resistant consortium with the capacity to degrade IMZ in the presence of a C-rich co-substrate was isolated from sludge coming from a fruit packaging company wastewater treatment plant. This consortium was adapted to resist and degrade the organics present in photo-Fenton-oxidized IMZ water solution. Bacteria colonies from the consortia were isolated and identified. The effect of H 2 O 2 initial concentration and dosage on IMZ degradation rate, average oxidation state (AOS), organic acid concentration, oxidation, and mineralization percentage after photo-Fenton process was determined. The application of biological treatment to the oxidized solutions notably decreased the total organic carbon (TOC) in solution. The effect of the oxidation degree, limited by H 2 O 2 concentration and dosage, on the percentage of mineralization obtained after the biological treatment was determined and explained in terms of changes in AOS. The concentration of H 2 O 2 necessary to eliminate IMZ by photo-Fenton and to reduce TOC and chemical oxygen demand (COD) by biological treatment, in order to allow the release of the effluents to rivers with different flows, was estimated.

  19. Food irradiation process control and acceptance. Regional UNDP project for Asia and the Pacific, mission undertaken in the Philippines. Food irradiation process control, regulation and acceptance RPFI-Phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the Government of the Philippines, the FAO/IAEA expert undertook a one-week mission between 3 and 9 May 1991, to the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI). This mission included the following: The expert advised and assisted on matters related to food irradiation relevant to the Philippines and its on-going programmes. A meeting was held with the Chairman and several members of the National Committee on Food Irradiation, at which the expert briefed the group on regulatory and implementation developments in other countries of the region, and the globe, and advised on near-term steps to be taken in the Philippines. A related visit and tour of the Food Development Center of Food Terminal Inc., which is pursuing an FAO/IAEA food irradiation research project was also made. Regarding radiation disinfestation of agricultural commodities for quarantine control purposes, visits and discussions were held at the facilities of Philippine - Far East Agro Products Inc., a major exporter, plus to the offices of the Government, Plant Quarantine Service, and the Post Harvest Technology Research Center at the University of the Philippines, Los Banos. In connection with fishery product applications, the expert toured the processing plant of Mindanao Food Corporation and met with its key executives. The firm has a growing export business in frozen raw and processed seafoods, and has been cooperating in an FAO/IAEA supported study of the irradiation of same to improve hygiene and post-defrosting market life. In connection with the promulgation of a first Philippine irradiated foods law and/or regulation, the expert had a meeting with key staff of the Government Bureau of Food and Drugs, again in the company of PNRI staff counterparts. The experts also provided a seminar to PNRI staff and invited guests before leaving for Indonesia, followed by Vietnam for similar UNDP-supported FAO/IAEA missions. (author)

  20. PERKEMBANGAN DAN PROSPEK PROSES RADIASI PANGAN DI INDONESIA [Development and Prospect of Food Radiation Processing in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubaidah Irawati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Several factors such as insufficient harvesting and handling methods as well as inadequate methods of storage and distribution, poor processing techniques and poor quality of raw materials used in making ready to eat foods may lead to the cumulative causes of food borne illness particularly in developing countries. Public trend in the world nowadays are demanding access to more and more fresh eating products practical but nutritious, safe and preferably processed under non thermal treatments. The new and emerging post harvest technologies in controlling pathogen and maintaining quality of food products is ionizing radiation, because it is applicable for almost all type of foods without impairing the overall quality as well as sensory attributes. The foods either fresh, dried, or ready to eat meals in the packages can be exposed to ionizing radiation for different purposes such as quarantine measures, control of sprouting and germination, shelf-life extension of perishable foods, delaying ripening and aging of fruits and vegetables, destruction of parasites and harmful pathogenic microorganisms. International trade of agricultural commodities opens the possibility of the movement of pests such as insects from country to country. The countries involve in this business have established laws and regulations, including international trade regulation of irradiated foods, in order to minimize the risk and trade barrier. The future of food irradiation is filled with promise although the needs for this technique relates to consumer acceptance. Consumers will grow to appreciate the technology for the lifesaving and good food availability. It should be kept in mind that irradiation is controlling contamination and it does not prevent it.

  1. Combination Processes in Food Irradiation. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Combination Processes in Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-09-15

    Statistics show that over forty per cent of the human population, a large portion of which come from the Third World, are suffering from hunger and malnutrition. While the solution to these problems depends to a great extent on the food production strategies of the various governments, equally important is the need to preserve existing food supply by reducing food and crop spoilage. It has been reported that estimated losses due to bacterial spoilage are heavy; those of highly perishable commodities such as fish and fishery products have been reported as amounting to thirty per cent of the total catch. An additional loss of five to ten per cent due to insects and microbes during lengthy periods of drying and/or storage has also been reported. After about thirty years of research, treatment with ionizing radiations has been proved to be a valuable potential tool for reducing post-harvest storage losses and for preserving quickly perishable food from deterioration. Since irradiation is a purely physical method of food conservation, it may for many purposes become the preferred method, for it is an environmentally clean process not tainted with the chemical residue problem, it is energy saving, and it can, in many cases, produce effects that cannot be achieved by conventional techniques (e.g. decontamination of frozen food without significant temperature changes, disinfestation and decontamination of food in bulk and packaged). The preservative effects of ionizing radiations can often be advantageously combined with effects of other physical or chemical agents. The resulting ''combination treatments'' may involve synergistic or cumulative action of the combination partners, leading to a decreased treatment requirement for one or both agents. This in turn may result in cost and/or energy savings and may bring about improvements in the sensory properties and bacteriological quality of the food thus treated. To review progress in this field a Symposium on Combination

  2. Combination Processes in Food Irradiation. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Combination Processes in Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Statistics show that over forty per cent of the human population, a large portion of which come from the Third World, are suffering from hunger and malnutrition. While the solution to these problems depends to a great extent on the food production strategies of the various governments, equally important is the need to preserve existing food supply by reducing food and crop spoilage. It has been reported that estimated losses due to bacterial spoilage are heavy; those of highly perishable commodities such as fish and fishery products have been reported as amounting to thirty per cent of the total catch. An additional loss of five to ten per cent due to insects and microbes during lengthy periods of drying and/or storage has also been reported. After about thirty years of research, treatment with ionizing radiations has been proved to be a valuable potential tool for reducing post-harvest storage losses and for preserving quickly perishable food from deterioration. Since irradiation is a purely physical method of food conservation, it may for many purposes become the preferred method, for it is an environmentally clean process not tainted with the chemical residue problem, it is energy saving, and it can, in many cases, produce effects that cannot be achieved by conventional techniques (e.g. decontamination of frozen food without significant temperature changes, disinfestation and decontamination of food in bulk and packaged). The preservative effects of ionizing radiations can often be advantageously combined with effects of other physical or chemical agents. The resulting ''combination treatments'' may involve synergistic or cumulative action of the combination partners, leading to a decreased treatment requirement for one or both agents. This in turn may result in cost and/or energy savings and may bring about improvements in the sensory properties and bacteriological quality of the food thus treated. To review progress in this field a Symposium on Combination

  3. A systems approach to the South African dairy industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elsabe Gagiano

    As the average productive life of dairy cows is 2.3 ... Keywords: Dairy cow, South Africa, dairy industry, milk production, milk price ..... optimize the entire production chain of the primary production systems, post harvest processes, transport,.

  4. Biocontrol interventions for inactivation of foodborne pathogens on produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post-harvest interventions for control of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed foods are crucial for food safety. Biocontrol interventions have the primary objective of developing novel antagonists in combinations with physical and chemical interventions to inactivate pathogenic microbes. Ther...

  5. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1- MCP) treatment on antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl2

    2013-02-13

    Feb 13, 2013 ... antioxidant enzymes of postharvest Japanese apricot. Ting Shi1, Zhiqiang Li2 ... ethylene in plants, increased the post-harvest life of fruits ... raw material processing. .... period. Interestingly, the activity of the treated group rose.

  6. Effects of food processing on the thermodynamic and nutritive value of foods: literature and database survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, L J; Nguyen, X T; Donat, N; Piekutowski, W V

    2000-02-01

    One of the goals of our society is to provide adequate nourishment for the general population of humans. In the strictness sense, the foodstuffs which we ingest are bundles of thermodynamic energy. In our post-industrial society, food producers provide society with the bioenergetic content of foods, while stabilizing the food in a non-perishable form that enables the consumer to access foods that are convenient and nutritious. As our modern society developed, the processing of foodstuffs increased to allow consumers flexibility in their choice in which foods to eat (based on nutritional content and amount of post-harvest processing). The thermodynamic energy content of foodstuffs is well documented in the literature by the use of bomb calorimetry measurements. Here, we determine the effects of processing (in most cases by the application of heat) on the thermodynamic energy content of foods in order to investigate the role of processing in daily nutritional needs. We also examine which processing procedures affect the nutritive quality (vitamin and mineral content) and critically assess the rational, advantages and disadvantages of additives to food. Finally, we discuss the role of endogenous enzymes in foods not only on the nutritive quality of the food but also on the freshness and flavor of the food. Our results show that a significant decrease in thermodynamic energy content occurs in fruits, vegetables, and meat products upon processing that is independent of water content. No significant change in energy content was observed in cereals, sugars, grains, fats and oils, and nuts. The vitamin content of most foods was most dramatically decreased by canning while smaller effects were observed upon blanching and freezing. We found that most food additives had very little effect on thermodynamic energy content due to their presence in minute quantities and that most were added to preserve the foodstuff or supplement its vitamin content. The endogenous food enzymes

  7. Food carotenoids: analysis, composition and alterations during storage and processing of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2003-01-01

    Substantial progress has been achieved in recent years in refining the analytical methods and evaluating the accuracy of carotenoid data. Although carotenoid analysis is inherently difficult and continues to be error prone, more complete and reliable data are now available. Rather than expressing the analytical results as retinol equivalents, there is a tendency to present the concentrations of individual carotenoids, particularly beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, carotenoids found in the human plasma and considered to be important to human health in terms of the provitamin A activity and/or reduction of the risk for developing degenerative diseases. With the considerable effort directed to carotenoid analysis, many food sources have now been analyzed in different countries. The carotenoid composition of foods vary qualitatively and quantitatively. Even in a given food, compositional variability occurs because of factors such as stage of maturity, variety or cultivar, climate or season, part of the plant consumed, production practices, post-harvest handling, processing and storage of food. During processing, isomerization of trans-carotenoids, the usual configuration in nature, to the cis-forms occurs, with consequent alteration of the carotenoids' bioavailability and biological activity. Isomerization is promoted by light, heat and acids. The principal cause of carotenoid loss during processing and storage of food is enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of the highly unsaturated carotenoid molecules. The occurrence and extent of oxidation depends on the presence of oxygen, metals, enzymes, unsaturated lipids, prooxidants, antioxidants; exposure to light; type and physical state of the carotenoids present; severity and duration of processing; packaging material; storage conditions. Thus, retention of carotenoids has been the major concern in the preparation, processing and storage of foods. However, in recent years

  8. Fuel processing. Wastes processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, M.

    2000-01-01

    The gaseous, liquid and solid radioactive effluents generated by the fuel reprocessing, can't be release in the environment. They have to be treated in order to respect the limits of the pollution regulations. These processing are detailed and discussed in this technical paper. A second part is devoted to the SPIN research program relative to the separation of the long life radionuclides in order to reduce the radioactive wastes storage volume. (A.L.B.)

  9. Use of glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride for minimizing post-harvest physio-chemical and microbial changes responsible for sucrose losses in sugar cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pushpa; Arya, Namita; Tiwari, Priyanka; Suman, Archna; Rai, R K; Shrivastava, A K; Solomon, S

    2008-08-27

    Sugar cane is sensitive to enormous sucrose losses induced by physio-chemical and microbial changes, the severity being increased during the time lag between harvest and crushing in the mills. Minimization of the sucrose losses in the field is essential for better sugar recovery and prevention of sucrose losses. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride for their effects on the microbial counts and physio-chemical changes responsible for sucrose losses. Glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride (1000 + 250 ppm) reduced the losses in sucrose content to 7.1% as compared to the 30.8% loss in the control, thus improving the performance by 76.9%. The application of chemicals reduced the acid invertase activity (by 60%), lowered weight loss, titrable acidity, reducing sugars content, dextran, ethanol, and ethylene production and respiration rates. The application led to the reduction in the total bacterial, fungal, Leuconostoc, and yeast counts by 67.92, 51.3%, 26.08, and 51.2%, respectively.

  10. Cell water balance of white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) during its post-harvest lifetime studied by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donker, H C; Van As, H

    1999-04-19

    A combination of quantitative water density and T2 MRI and changes therein observed after infiltration with 'invisible' Gd-DTPA solution was used to study cell water balances, cell water potentials and cell integrity. This method was applied to reveal the evolution and mechanism of redistribution of water in harvested mushrooms. Even when mushrooms did not lose water during the storage period, a redistribution of water was observed from stipe to cap and gills. When the storage condition resulted in a net loss of water, the stipe lost more water than the cap. The water density in the gill increased, probably due to development of spores. Deterioration effects (i.e. leakage of cells, decrease in osmotic water potential) were found in the outer stipe. They were not found in the cap, even at prolonged storage at 293 K and R.H.=70%. The changes in osmotic potential were partly accounted for by changes in the mannitol concentration. Changes in membrane permeability were also indicated. Cells in the cap had a constant low membrane (water) permeability. They developed a decreasing osmotic potential (more negative), whereas the osmotic potential in the outer stipe increased, together with the permeability of cells.

  11. Escherichia coli O157:H7 converts plant-derived choline to glycine betaine for osmoprotection during pre- and post-harvest colonization of injured lettuce leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The opportunistic colonization of damaged plant tissue by human enteric pathogens may contribute to the occurrence of outbreaks of foodborne illness linked to produce. E. coli O157:H7 (EcO157) responds to physicochemical stresses in cut lettuce and lettuce lysates by upregulation of several stress r...

  12. Moisture content, insect pests and mycotoxin levels of maize at harvest and post-harvest in the Middle Belt of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture content, insect pest infestation and mycotoxin contamination of maize are challenges to food safety and security, especially in the tropics where maize is a staple grain. However, very little documentation is available on the impact of these factors on maize in Ghana. This study focused on ...

  13. Pre-harvest treatments with fungicides and post-harvest dips in sodium bicarbonate to control postharvest decay in stone fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aquino, S; Barberis, A; Satta, D; De Pau, L; Schirra, M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different commercial formulations of fungicides containing one or more active ingredients in controlling postharvest decay of Thyrinthos and Boccuccia apricots, Red top peaches and Caldesi nectarines. Field treatments consisted of two sprays with cupric compounds, at the end of leaf fall and before bud swelling, one with sulfur compound, at fruit about half final size stage, and one with one of the following commercial formulations at the label suggested rates, one week before harvest: Teldor (fenexamid 50%; Bayer Crop Protection), Folicur (Tebuconazole 4.35%; Bayer Crop Protection), Signum (boscalid 26.7%, pyraclostrobin 6.7%; Basf Crop Protection), Score (difenoconazole 23.23%, Syngenta Crop Protection) and Switch (cyprodinil 37.5%, fludioxonil 25%, Syngenta Crop Protection). After harvest the fruit were stored for 1 week at 6 degrees C and 90% RH followed by 1 week at 20 degrees C and 60% RH to simulate retail conditions, or placed directly at 20 degrees C. All formulations significantly reduced decay in all cultivars. Switch, Signum and Folicur were the most active, while Score was slightly less effective. Teldor activity was low, especially in Thyrintos apricots, where the percentage of rotten fruit was slightly lower than in control fruit. Brown rot was the most representative disease, but in apricots a high percentage of fruit was affected by blue mold and grey mold. Rhizopus rot generally developed as a secondary disease on fruit previously affected by other pathogens and was more frequent in control and Teldor treated fruit. Preharvest sprays with Signum 3 days before harvest reduced postharvest decay after 1 week storage at 20 degrees C in Glo haven peaches and Venus nectarine harvested at advanced stage of maturity. Combining pre-harvest sprays with Signum and a 2-min postharvest dip in 2% sodium bicarbonate at 20 degrees C further reduced decay. In Sothern regions of Italy, the use of synthetic fungicides only immediately before harvest in years when the weather conditions are not favorable to brown rot and other pathogens inducing postharvest decay, combined with a postharvest treatment with sodium bicarbonate could be a feasible integrated approach to reduce the risk of selection of resistant strains of fungi to synthetic fungicides while controlling effectively postharvest decay.

  14. The Screening and the Use of Antagonists for Biological Control of Anthracnose of Chilli at Pre-and Post-Harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piadiang, Nattaya

    2006-09-01

    A total of 301 of isolates of microorganism were isolated from pepper leaves and fruit skin, including fungi bacteria and yeast. They were tested inhibition of mycelia l growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, a causal agent of anthracnose, on potato dextrose agar (PDA). The result showed that 145 isolate inhibited the growth of mycelia l by 45-70 %. The selected high efficiency antagonists were tested for potential reduce anthracnose lesion development on detected pepper fruit. The selected four isolate antagonists including Y18, YFm1, YFm2 and AC2-1 were finding suitable method test for control of anthracnose disease. The results show that application of antagonistic microorganism before inoculation of C. gloeosporiodes was superior in disease controlling than inoculation regardless the use of pathogen inoculation procedures. Antagonist Y18, YFm1 and YFm2 were test ability in greenhouse, in was found that three isolates have high efficiency for control anthracnose disease. Under field condition, spraying cell suspension of Y18, YFm2 and Yfm1 on pepper fruit before inoculation C. gloeosporioides and cover with plastic bag. 14 day after treatment it was found that Y18, YFm2, YFm1 and control had percentage of fruit disease by 33.33, 40.7, 73.4 and 100 % respectively. When study ability of three isolate in field at found anthracnose disease revealed that Y18 and YFm2 could control of C. gloesporiodides within 12 day after treatment. Addition, YFm2 could control of C. gloeosporidide in field at not found anthracnose high efficiency. The efficiency test of YFm2 for anthracnose controlling on chilli fruit for export were kept at 13 degree C for 18 days. YFm2 showed 100 % control of anthracnose with satisfactory firmness of chilli friut.

  15. POST-HARVEST QUALITY OF PEQUI (Caryocar brasiliense CAMB. COLLECTED FROM THE PLANT OR AFTER NATURALLY FALLING OFF AND SUBJECTED TO SLOW AND QUICK FREEZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA NEUDES SOUSA OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/TA ratio, pH, moisture, soluble sugars (SSU, total reducing sugars (RSU, and non-reducing sugars (NRS were assessed in the pulp of pequi fruits collected at three ripening stages: from the plant, from the ground after naturally falling off, and collected from the ground three days after naturally falling off. The evaluation was performed after six months of freezer storage both for fruits subjected to quick freezing (liquid nitrogen followed by freezer and slow freezing (straight into the freezer. The variables assessed were not influenced by the freezing method. The SS, TA, and RSU contents increased with the ripening stage, suggesting that the fruits collected from the plant are still immature and have lower quality than those collected after naturally falling off. Although considered mature when they fall off, fruits consumed three days after naturally falling off have better quality.

  16. The effect of Bt-corn on soil invertebrates, soil microbial community and decomposition rates of corn post-harvest residues under field and laboratory conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Elhottová, Dana; Helingerová, M.; Kocourek, F.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2008), s. 645-655 ISSN 1044-0046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Bt corn * soil biology * decomposition Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.274, year: 2008

  17. Indigenous knowledge for sustainable livelihoods: Lessons from ecological pest control and post-harvest techniques of Baduy (West Java) and Nguni (Southern Africa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korina, Leeja C.; Habiyaremye, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    With the impending threat of global climate change, the last decades have witnessed an increasing recognition of the potential contribution of indigenous knowledge to tackling global challenges of environmental sustainability. The sources and wisdom of indigenous knowledge have however much more to

  18. The effect of ionizing radiation and storage temperature on the post-harvest growth and some quality properties of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryspina Śmierzchalska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a dose of 2.0 kGy (Co-60 and three ranges of storage temperature (0-4°C, 9-11°C, 18-19°C on increasing the shelf-life and some quality properties of the mushrooms were investigated. The retardation of mushroom growth and ageing by ionizing radiation was estimated by measurements of the cap diameter, stem elongation, cap opening and discoloration of cap surface. The control of fungal and bacterial diseases was also evaluated. The effect of lower doses, 0.5 and 1.0 kGy, was compared at the storage temperature of 10°C. The irradiation of mushrooms soon after harvest and storage at temperatures of 10 and 16°C allowed the retention of quality and increased the shelf-life to 8 days; at 18-19°C to 6 days.

  19. Pre-Harvest Application of a New Biocontrol Formulation Induces Resistance to Post-Harvest Anthracnose and Enhances Fruit Yield in Mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vivekananthan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Pre-harvest application of biocontrol formulations consisting of 1. the two plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains FP7 and Pf1 of Pseudomonas fluorescens; 2. a strain of Bacillus subtilis Bs-1; and 3. a strain (Sc-1 of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, given at fortnightly or monthly intervals and with or without a chitin amendment, were evaluated in two trials for their ability to reduce anthracnose in mango caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Growth of C. gloeosporioides in vitro was significantly reduced by strain FP7 and in both field trials the bacterial strain in combination with chitin significantly reduced infection. Pre-harvest application of these formulations at fortnightly intervals also significantly improved flower initiation, yield parameters (mean number of fruits and fruit yield and fruit quality (total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, free acidity, total, reducing and non- reducing sugar content. The delay in latent symptom expression increased by 15 days under stored conditions. The highest levels of phenolic content, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase on mango leaves, flowers and fruits were achieved with FP7 +chitin.

  20. Effect of pre-harvest foliar application of citric acid and malic acid on chlorophyll content and post-harvest vase life of Lilium cv. Brunello

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh eDarandeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preharvest use of citric acid is a novel method in vase life extension of cut flowers, which is reported on tuberose earlier and confirmed here on lilium. In this research citric acid (0, 0.075, 0.15 percent v/v and malic acid (0, 0.075, 0.15 percent v/v were used together two times during growth period of lilium plants in a randomized factorial design with three replications. The results point out that 0.15% citric acid had increased vase life from 13.1 to 14 days (α=0.05. The interesting finding was the effect of citric acid on bulbil weight, which was decreased from 8.6 gr to 2.9 gr in 0.15% citric acid per cut flower. Malic acid while having no effect on pre-mentioned traits surprisingly increased the chlorophyll content significantly. The interaction effect between citric acid and malic acid on vase life and chlorophyll content proved significant and was evident in results both as antagonistic and synergistic in various traits. In mean comparison of factor-levels, the effect of citric acid on vase-life extension was more prominent increasing it from 11.8 to 14.3 days in treatment with 0.15% citric acid and without malic acid compared to control treatment.

  1. Genotypic regulation of aflatoxin accumulation but not Aspergillus fungal growth upon post-harvest infection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin contamination is a major economic and food safety concern for the peanut industry that largely could be mitigated by genetic resistance. To screen peanut for aflatoxin resistance, Ten genotypes were infected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) - expression Aspergillus flavus strain. Per...

  2. Post-harvest seedling recruitment following mountain pine beetle infestation of Colorado lodgepole pine stands: A comparison using historic survey records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron J. Collins; Charles C. Rhoades; Jeffrey Underhill; Robert M. Hubbard

    2010-01-01

    The extent and severity of overstory lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm. ex Wats.) mortality from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has created management concerns associated with forest regeneration, wildfire risk, human safety, and scenic, wildlife, and watershed resources in western North America. Owing to the unprecedented...

  3. Learning networks matter: challenges to developing learning-based competence in mango production and post-harvest in Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, L.P.; Odame, H.H.; Hall, A.; Sulaiman, R.V.

    2008-01-01

    This discussion paper explores aspects of innovation systems ideas in the analysis of mango production and export by smallscale farmers in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The paper shows how despite favourable agro-ecological conditions and being the largest international mango producer, India still struggles to build momentum in rapidly emerging export markets. An analysis of the sector's recent history combined with an empirical account of inter-sectoral and intra-sectoral linkage...

  4. Process Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbertson, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Standard utilities can help you collect and interpret your Linux system's process accounting data. Describes the uses of process accounting, standard process accounting commands, and example code that makes use of process accounting utilities.

  5. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jidi; Xu, Haidan; Liu, Yuanlong; Wang, Xia; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification genes), including 47 CsHMTs (histone methyltransferase genes), 23 CsHDMs (histone demethylase genes), 50 CsHATs (histone acetyltransferase genes), and 16 CsHDACs (histone deacetylase genes) were identified. These genes were categorized to 11 gene families. A comprehensive analysis of these 11 gene families was performed with chromosome locations, phylogenetic comparison, gene structures, and conserved domain compositions of proteins. In order to gain an insight into the potential roles of these genes in citrus fruit development, 42 CsHMs with high mRNA abundance in fruit tissues were selected to further analyze their expression profiles at six stages of fruit development. Interestingly, a numbers of genes were expressed highly in flesh of ripening fruit and some of them showed the increasing expression levels along with the fruit development. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression patterns of all 136 CsHMs response to the infection of blue mold (Penicillium digitatum), which is the most devastating pathogen in citrus post-harvest process. The results indicated that 20 of them showed the strong alterations of their expression levels during the fruit-pathogen infection. In conclusion, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the histone modification gene families in sweet orange and further elucidates their behaviors during the fruit development and the blue mold infection responses.

  6. The N-glycan processing enzymes α-mannosidase and β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase are involved in ripening-associated softening in the non-climacteric fruits of capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sumit; Meli, Vijaykumar S.; Kumar, Anil; Thakur, Archana; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2011-01-01

    Excessive softening of fruits during the ripening process leads to deterioration. This is of significant global importance as softening-mediated deterioration leads to huge postharvest losses. N-glycan processing enzymes are reported to play an important role during climacteric fruit softening: however, to date these enzymes have not been characterized in non-climacteric fruit. Two ripening-specific N-glycan processing enzymes, α-mannosidase (α-Man) and β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase (β-Hex), have been identified and targeted to enhance the shelf life in non-climacteric fruits such as capsicum (Capsicum annuum). The purification, cloning, and functional characterization of α-Man and β-Hex from capsicum, which belong to glycosyl hydrolase (GH) families 38 and 20, respectively, are described here. α-Man and β-Hex are cell wall glycoproteins that are able to cleave terminal α-mannose and β-D-N-acetylglucosamine residues of N-glycans, respectively. α-Man and β-Hex transcripts as well as enzyme activity increase with the ripening and/or softening of capsicum. The function of α-Man and β-Hex in capsicum softening is investigated through RNA interference (RNAi) in fruits. α-Man and β-Hex RNAi fruits were approximately two times firmer compared with the control and fruit deterioration was delayed by approximately 7 d. It is shown that silencing of α-Man and β-Hex enhances fruit shelf life due to the reduced degradation of N-glycoproteins which resulted in delayed softening. Altogether, the results provide evidence for the involvement of N-glycan processing in non-climacteric fruit softening. In conclusion, genetic engineering of N-glycan processing can be a common strategy in both climacteric and non-climacteric species to reduce the post-harvest crop losses. PMID:21030387

  7. Radiation technology for value addition to food and agro commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2012-01-01

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  8. Microbial dynamics during industrial rearing, processing, and storage of the tropical house cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus) for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweyer, Dries; Wynants, Enya; Crauwels, Sam; Verreth, Christel; Viaene, Nikolaas; Claes, Johan; Lievens, Bart; Van Campenhout, Leen

    2018-04-06

    In this study, the microbiota during industrial rearing, processing, and storage of the edible tropical house cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus , was investigated. To this end, samples were analyzed of the cricket feed, before feeding as well as taken from the cages, and the crickets during rearing, after harvest, and after processing into frozen, oven-dried, and smoked and subsequently oven-dried end products. Although the feed contained lower microbial numbers than the crickets, both were dominated by the same species-level operational taxonomic units as determined by Illumina Miseq sequencing. They corresponded, among others, to members of Porphyromonadaceae, Fusobacterium , Parabacteroides and Erwinia The harvested crickets contained high microbial numbers, but none of the investigated food pathogens Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes , Bacillus cereus , and coagulase-positive staphylococci. However, some possible mycotoxin-producing fungi were isolated from the crickets. A post-harvest heat treatment, shortly boiling the crickets, reduced microbial numbers, but an endospore load of 2.4 log cfu/g remained. After processing, an increase in microbial counts was observed for dried and smoked plus dried crickets. Additionally, in the smoked plus dried crickets, a high abundance of a Bacillus sp. was observed. Considering the possible occurrence of food-pathogenic species from this genus, it is advised to apply a heat treatment which is sufficient to eliminate spores. Nevertheless, the microbial numbers remained constant over a six-month storage period, frozen (frozen end product) or at ambient temperature (oven-dried and smoked plus dried end products). Importance. The need for sustainable protein sources has led to the emergence of a new food sector, producing and processing edible insects into foods. However, insight into the microbial quality of this new food and into the microbial dynamics during rearing, processing and storage of edible insects is still

  9. Scalability and process transfer of mesenchymal stromal cell production from monolayer to microcarrier culture using human platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathman, Thomas R J; Stolzing, Alexandra; Fabian, Claire; Rafiq, Qasim A; Coopman, Karen; Nienow, Alvin W; Kara, Bo; Hewitt, Christopher J

    2016-04-01

    The selection of medium and associated reagents for human mesenchymal stromal cell (hMSC) culture forms an integral part of manufacturing process development and must be suitable for multiple process scales and expansion technologies. In this work, we have expanded BM-hMSCs in fetal bovine serum (FBS)- and human platelet lysate (HPL)-containing media in both a monolayer and a suspension-based microcarrier process. The introduction of HPL into the monolayer process increased the BM-hMSC growth rate at the first experimental passage by 0.049 day and 0.127/day for the two BM-hMSC donors compared with the FBS-based monolayer process. This increase in growth rate in HPL-containing medium was associated with an increase in the inter-donor consistency, with an inter-donor range of 0.406 cumulative population doublings after 18 days compared with 2.013 in FBS-containing medium. Identity and quality characteristics of the BM-hMSCs are also comparable between conditions in terms of colony-forming potential, osteogenic potential and expression of key genes during monolayer and post-harvest from microcarrier expansion. BM-hMSCs cultured on microcarriers in HPL-containing medium demonstrated a reduction in the initial lag phase for both BM-hMSC donors and an increased BM-hMSC yield after 6 days of culture to 1.20 ± 0.17 × 10(5) and 1.02 ± 0.005 × 10(5) cells/mL compared with 0.79 ± 0.05 × 10(5) and 0.36 ± 0.04 × 10(5) cells/mL in FBS-containing medium. This study has demonstrated that HPL, compared with FBS-containing medium, delivers increased growth and comparability across two BM-hMSC donors between monolayer and microcarrier culture, which will have key implications for process transfer during scale-up. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Meat Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…

  11. Process development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuegerl, K

    1984-01-01

    The item 'process development' comprises the production of acetonic/butonal with C. acetobylicum and the yeasting of potato waste. The target is to increase productivity by taking the following measures - optimation of media, on-line process analysis, analysis of reaction, mathematic modelling and identification of parameters, process simulation, development of a state estimator with the help of the on-line process analysis and the model, optimization and adaptive control.

  12. Poisson processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Yechiali, U.; Ruggeri, F.; Kenett, R.S.; Faltin, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Poisson process is a stochastic counting process that arises naturally in a large variety of daily life situations. We present a few definitions of the Poisson process and discuss several properties as well as relations to some well-known probability distributions. We further briefly discuss the

  13. Data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, T F

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing discusses the principles, practices, and associated tools in data processing. The book is comprised of 17 chapters that are organized into three parts. The first part covers the characteristics, systems, and methods of data processing. Part 2 deals with the data processing practice; this part discusses the data input, output, and storage. The last part discusses topics related to systems and software in data processing, which include checks and controls, computer language and programs, and program elements and structures. The text will be useful to practitioners of computer-rel

  14. Stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Parzen, Emanuel

    1962-01-01

    Well-written and accessible, this classic introduction to stochastic processes and related mathematics is appropriate for advanced undergraduate students of mathematics with a knowledge of calculus and continuous probability theory. The treatment offers examples of the wide variety of empirical phenomena for which stochastic processes provide mathematical models, and it develops the methods of probability model-building.Chapter 1 presents precise definitions of the notions of a random variable and a stochastic process and introduces the Wiener and Poisson processes. Subsequent chapters examine

  15. Magnetics Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetics Processing Lab equipped to perform testing of magnetometers, integrate them into aircraft systems, and perform data analysis, including noise reduction...

  16. Data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousot, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Data Processing laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The laboratory research fields are: the semantics, the tests and the semantic analysis of the codes, the formal calculus, the software applications, the algorithms, the neuron networks and VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration). The investigations concerning the polynomial rings are performed by means of the standard basis approach. Among the research topics, the Pascal codes, the parallel processing, the combinatorial, statistical and asymptotic properties of the fundamental data processing tools, the signal processing and the pattern recognition. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are also included [fr

  17. Suppurative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinner, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    Suppurative process in the case of bronchiectatic disease, abscess and gang rene of lungs, has been described. Characteristic signs of roentgenologic pictu re of the above-mentioned diseases are considered. It is shown,that in most cas es roentgenologic studies give a possibility to make a high-quality diagnosis of suppurative processes

  18. Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis

    2009-01-01

    Inspiration for most research and optimisations on design processes still seem to focus within the narrow field of the traditional design practise. The focus in this study turns to associated businesses of the design professions in order to learn from their development processes. Through interviews...... and emerging production methods....

  19. Process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata G, G.

    1989-01-01

    Process development: The paper describes the organization and laboratory facilities of the group working on radioactive ore processing studies. Contains a review of the carried research and the plans for the next future. A list of the published reports is also presented

  20. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  1. Food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teodorowicz, Malgorzata; Neerven, Van Joost; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-01-01

    The majority of foods that are consumed in our developed society have been processed. Processing promotes a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugars, the Maillard reaction (MR). Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contribute to the taste, smell and color of many food products, and thus

  2. Membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  3. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...... support for it). None of the existing techniques enables the user to control the balance between “overfitting” and “underfitting”. To address this, we propose a two-step approach. First, using a configurable approach, a transition system is constructed. Then, using the “theory of regions”, the model...

  4. Partial processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This discussion paper considers the possibility of applying to the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors a particular method of partial processing based on the PUREX process but named CIVEX to emphasise the differences. The CIVEX process is based primarily on the retention of short-lived fission products. The paper suggests: (1) the recycle of fission products with uranium and plutonium in thermal reactor fuel would be technically feasible; (2) it would, however, take ten years or more to develop the CIVEX process to the point where it could be launched on a commercial scale; (3) since the majority of spent fuel to be reprocessed this century will have been in storage for ten years or more, the recycling of short-lived fission products with the U-Pu would not provide an effective means of making refabrication fuel ''inaccessible'' because the radioactivity associated with the fission products would have decayed. There would therefore be no advantage in partial processing

  5. Process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Many of the measurements and observations made in a nuclear processing facility to monitor processes and product quality can also be used to monitor the location and movements of nuclear materials. In this session information is presented on how to use process monitoring data to enhance nuclear material control and accounting (MC and A). It will be seen that SNM losses can generally be detected with greater sensitivity and timeliness and point of loss localized more closely than by conventional MC and A systems if process monitoring data are applied. The purpose of this session is to enable the participants to: (1) identify process unit operations that could improve control units for monitoring SNM losses; (2) choose key measurement points and formulate a loss indicator for each control unit; and (3) describe how the sensitivities and timeliness of loss detection could be determined for each loss indicator

  6. Process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs

  7. Perceptual Processing Affects Conceptual Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dantzig, Saskia; Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, Rene; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2008-01-01

    According to the Perceptual Symbols Theory of cognition (Barsalou, 1999), modality-specific simulations underlie the representation of concepts. A strong prediction of this view is that perceptual processing affects conceptual processing. In this study, participants performed a perceptual detection task and a conceptual property-verification task…

  8. Sewer Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    Since the first edition was published over a decade ago, advancements have been made in the design, operation, and maintenance of sewer systems, and new problems have emerged. For example, sewer processes are now integrated in computer models, and simultaneously, odor and corrosion problems caused...... by hydrogen sulfide and other volatile organic compounds, as well as other potential health issues, have caused environmental concerns to rise. Reflecting the most current developments, Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition, offers the reader updated...... and valuable information on the sewer as a chemical and biological reactor. It focuses on how to predict critical impacts and control adverse effects. It also provides an integrated description of sewer processes in modeling terms. This second edition is full of illustrative examples and figures, includes...

  9. Electrochemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1997-01-01

    The notes describe in detail primary and secondary galvanic cells, fuel cells, electrochemical synthesis and electroplating processes, corrosion: measurments, inhibitors, cathodic and anodic protection, details of metal dissolution reactions, Pourbaix diagrams and purification of waste water from...

  10. Dissolution processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    This review contains more than 100 observations and 224 references on the dissolution phenomenon. The dissolution processes are grouped into three categories: methods of aqueous attack, fusion methods, and miscellaneous observations on phenomena related to dissolution problems

  11. Renewal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitov, Kosto V

    2014-01-01

    This monograph serves as an introductory text to classical renewal theory and some of its applications for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and probability theory. Renewal processes play an important part in modeling many phenomena in insurance, finance, queuing systems, inventory control and other areas. In this book, an overview of univariate renewal theory is given and renewal processes in the non-lattice and lattice case are discussed. A pre-requisite is a basic knowledge of probability theory.

  12. Fuel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The technical and economic viability of the fast breeder reactor as an electricity generating system depends not only upon the reactor performance but also on a capability to recycle plutonium efficiently, reliably and economically through the reactor and fuel cycle facilities. Thus the fuel cycle is an integral and essential part of the system. Fuel cycle research and development has focused on demonstrating that the challenging technical requirements of processing plutonium fuel could be met and that the sometimes conflicting requirements of the fuel developer, fuel fabricator and fuel reprocessor could be reconciled. Pilot plant operation and development and design studies have established both the technical and economic feasibility of the fuel cycle but scope for further improvement exists through process intensification and flowsheet optimization. These objectives and the increasing processing demands made by the continuing improvement to fuel design and irradiation performance provide an incentive for continuing fuel cycle development work. (author)

  13. Organizing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Bojesen, Anders

    This paper invites to discuss the processes of individualization and organizing being carried out under what we might see as an emerging regime of change. The underlying argumentation is that in certain processes of change, competence becomes questionable at all times. The hazy characteristics...... of this regime of change are pursued through a discussion of competencies as opposed to qualifications illustrated by distinct cases from the Danish public sector in the search for repetitive mechanisms. The cases are put into a general perspective by drawing upon experiences from similar change processes...... in MNCs. The paper concludes by asking whether we can escape from a regime of competence in a world defined by a rhetoric of change and create a more promising world in which doubt and search serve as a strategy for gaining knowledge and professionalism that improve on our capability for mutualism....

  14. Welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    For the final chapter of this book, there is basic introduction on welding process. The good radiography must know somehow on welding process so that they can know what kind of welding that must rejected or not. All of the exposure technique that mention in earlier chapter almost applicable in this field because welding process is critical problem if there is no inspection will be done. So, for this chapter, all the discontinuity that usually appeared will be discussed and there is another discontinuity maybe not to important and do not give big impact if found it, do not described here. On top of that, the decision to accept or reject based on code, standard and specification that agreed by both to make sure that decision that agreed is corrected and more meaningful.

  15. Markov Processes in Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, E. P.; Kharina, N. L.

    2018-05-01

    Digital images are used as an information carrier in different sciences and technologies. The aspiration to increase the number of bits in the image pixels for the purpose of obtaining more information is observed. In the paper, some methods of compression and contour detection on the basis of two-dimensional Markov chain are offered. Increasing the number of bits on the image pixels will allow one to allocate fine object details more precisely, but it significantly complicates image processing. The methods of image processing do not concede by the efficiency to well-known analogues, but surpass them in processing speed. An image is separated into binary images, and processing is carried out in parallel with each without an increase in speed, when increasing the number of bits on the image pixels. One more advantage of methods is the low consumption of energy resources. Only logical procedures are used and there are no computing operations. The methods can be useful in processing images of any class and assignment in processing systems with a limited time and energy resources.

  16. Film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The processing was made not only to show what are in the film but also to produce radiograph with high quality where the information gathered really presented level of the quality of the object inspected. Besides that, good procedure will make the film with good quality can keep the film in long time for reference. Here, more detailed on how the dark room functioned and its design. So, the good procedure while processed the film will be discussed detailed in this chapter from entering the dark room to exit from there.

  17. Extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendall, J.S.; Cahalan, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  18. Process simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, E.G.; Suarez, P.S.; Pantaleon, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The search for an optimal design of a heavy water plant is done by means of a simulation model for the mass and enthalpy balances of the SH 2 -H 2 O exchange process. A symplified model for the simulation diagram where the entire plant is represented by a sole tray tower with recicles, and heat and mass feeds/extractions was used. The tower is simulated by the method developed by Tomich with the convergence part given by the algorithm of Broyden. The concluding part of the work is centered in setting the design parameters (flowrates, heat exchange rates, number of plates) wich give the desired process operating conditions. (author) [es

  19. Processing Proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Anders Sebastian Rosenkrans

    -terminal of the scissile bond, leaving C-terminal fusions to have non-native C-termini after processing. A solution yielding native C-termini would allow novel expression and purification systems for therapeutic proteins and peptides.The peptidyl-Lys metallopeptidase (LysN) of the fungus Armillaria mellea (Am) is one...... of few known proteases to have substrate specificity for the C-terminal side of the scissile bond. LysN exhibits specificity for lysine, and has primarily been used to complement trypsin in to proteomic studies. A working hypothesis during this study was the potential of LysN as a processing protease...

  20. Processing Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Christoph; Tamke, Martin; Tabatabai, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Angled and forked wood – a desired material until 19th century, was swept away by industrialization and its standardization of processes and materials. Contemporary information technology has the potential for the capturing and recognition of individual geometries through laser scanning...

  1. BENTONITE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Kutlić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite has vide variety of uses. Special use of bentonite, where its absorbing properties are employed to provide water-tight sealing is for an underground repository in granites In this paper, bentonite processing and beneficiation are described.

  2. Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starks, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    The following aspects of the Purex Process are discussed: head end dissolution, first solvent extraction cycle, second plutonium solvent extraction cycle, second uranium solvent extraction cycle, solvent recovery systems, primary recovery column for high activity waste, low activity waste, laboratory waste evaporation, vessel vent system, airflow and filtration, acid recovery unit, fume recovery, and discharges to seepage basin

  3. Innovation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolodovski, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose of this report: This report was prepared for RISO team involved in design of the innovation system Report provides innovation methodology to establish common understanding of the process concepts and related terminology The report does not includeRISO- or Denmark-specific cultural, econom...

  4. Processing Determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William

    2015-01-01

    I propose that the course of development in first and second language acquisition is shaped by two types of processing pressures--internal efficiency-related factors relevant to easing the burden on working memory and external input-related factors such as frequency of occurrence. In an attempt to document the role of internal factors, I consider…

  5. Shale processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampton, W H

    1928-05-29

    The process of treating bituminiferous solid materials such as shale or the like to obtain valuable products therefrom, which comprises digesting a mixture of such material in comminuted condition with a suitable digestion liquid, such as an oil, recovering products vaporized in the digestion, and separating residual solid matter from the digestion liquid by centrifuging.

  6. Radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Mod Ali

    2005-01-01

    This chapter covers the basic principle and application of radiation technology. The topic titled specific application discussed briefly the following subtopics: 1) Polymer modification - crosslinking, polymerisation, degradation, grafting; 2) Medical sterilisation; 3) Food irradiation; 4) Environmental protection - waste processing, pollutants treatment

  7. Leaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinen, H.J.; McClelland, G.E.; Lindstrom, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A gold and uranium ore is heap leached in accordance with the process comprising initial agglomeration of fines in the feed by means of a binding agent and cyanide solution. The lixiviant comprises a compatible mixture of sodium cyanide and sodium bicarbonate

  8. Leaching process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinen, H J; McClelland, G E; Lindstrom, R E

    1982-10-18

    A gold and uranium ore is heap leached in accordance with the process comprising initial agglomeration of fines in the feed by means of a binding agent and cyanide solution. The lixiviant comprises a compatible mixture of sodium cyanide and sodium bicarbonate.

  9. Signal Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Signal processing techniques, extensively used nowadays to maximize the performance of audio and video equipment, have been a key part in the design of hardware and software for high energy physics detectors since pioneering applications in the UA1 experiment at CERN in 1979

  10. Process validation for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    1999-01-01

    Process validation concerns the establishment of the irradiation conditions that will lead to the desired changes of the irradiated product. Process validation therefore establishes the link between absorbed dose and the characteristics of the product, such as degree of crosslinking in a polyethylene tube, prolongation of shelf life of a food product, or degree of sterility of the medical device. Detailed international standards are written for the documentation of radiation sterilization, such as EN 552 and ISO 11137, and the steps of process validation that are described in these standards are discussed in this paper. They include material testing for the documentation of the correct functioning of the product, microbiological testing for selection of the minimum required dose and dose mapping for documentation of attainment of the required dose in all parts of the product. The process validation must be maintained by reviews and repeated measurements as necessary. This paper presents recommendations and guidance for the execution of these components of process validation. (author)

  11. Action of gamma radiation in the physico-chemical and sensorial characteristics of minimally processed cassava (Manihot esculenta CRANTZ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simioni, Karime Raya

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays irradiation has been the most studied method of food conservation. The publication of thousand of papers, not just scientific but also technological, economical and social, have proved the technical validity of the irradiation method and showed the ways of how to introduce it in commercial facilities in ali countries of the modem world. Cassava is cultivated almost ali over the world and it is considered one of the most important nutritious sources of calories in human diet. Cassava is a viable food against starving in several poor areas of the world because it is an extremely resistant culture and may reach satisfactory economical yield. Cassava is a quite perishable root, characterized by fast post harvest deterioration. Because of the lack of researches about the effects of radiations in this root, the objective of the present work was to examine the gamma radiation coming from 60 Cobalt as a treatment to prolong the shelflife of the root after harvesting, aiming to increase its period of commercialization and to conserve its sensorial characteristics for a longer period. Samples were washed, peeled, cleaned and diced cassava roots packed in polyethylene bags. The treatments were: control; freezing and storage at 18 deg C for 21 days; and irradiation with the doses of 8 and 10 kGy. The control and the irradiated samples were stored under ambient temperature during 21 days. All samples were analyzed at each 7 days for alterations in the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. The samples were analyzed for pH, acidity, weight, humidity, texture and color. The irradiation did not affect the chemical characteristics of the cassava. Neither the pH nor the acidity, the most relevant variables to verify deterioration in cassava, presented significant alterations during the period of storage. Comparing the irradiated treatments, the dose of 8 kGy was that less affected the physic-chemical characteristics of the cassava and scored the highest notes in the

  12. Physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarharum, W. B.; Yuwono, S. S.; Pangestu, N. B. S. W.; Nadhiroh, H.

    2018-03-01

    Demand on high quality coffee for consumption is continually increasing not only in the consuming countries (importers) but also in the producing countries (exporters). Coffee quality could be affected by several factors from farm to cup including the post-harvest processing methods. This research aimed to investigate the influence of different post-harvest processing methods on physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans. The two factors being evaluated were three different post-harvest processing methods to produce green coffee beans (natural/dry, semi-washed and fully-washed processing) under sun drying. Physical quality evaluation was based on The Indonesian National Standard (SNI 01-2907-2008) while sensory quality was evaluated by five expert judges. The result shows that less defects observed in wet processed coffee as compared to the dry processing. The mechanical drying was also proven to yield a higher quality green coffee beans and minimise losses.

  13. Stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Andrei N

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a rigorous yet accessible introduction to the theory of stochastic processes. A significant part of the book is devoted to the classic theory of stochastic processes. In turn, it also presents proofs of well-known results, sometimes together with new approaches. Moreover, the book explores topics not previously covered elsewhere, such as distributions of functionals of diffusions stopped at different random times, the Brownian local time, diffusions with jumps, and an invariance principle for random walks and local times. Supported by carefully selected material, the book showcases a wealth of examples that demonstrate how to solve concrete problems by applying theoretical results. It addresses a broad range of applications, focusing on concrete computational techniques rather than on abstract theory. The content presented here is largely self-contained, making it suitable for researchers and graduate students alike.

  14. Offshoring Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Katayama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the knowledge on how production offshoring and international operations management vary across cultural contexts. The chapter attempts to shed light on how companies approach the process of offshoring in different cultural contexts. In order...... of globalisation. Yet there are clear differences in how offshoring is conducted in Denmark and Japan. The main differences are outlined in a framework and explained employing cultural variables. The findings lead to a number of propositions suggesting that the process of offshoring is not simply a uniform...... technical-rational calculation of the most efficient organisation of activities across national borders, but it is rather specific to the parent companies’ national contexts....

  15. Photobiomodulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Yi Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photobiomodulation (PBM is a modulation of laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LI on biosystems. There is little research on PBM dynamics although its phenomena and mechanism have been widely studied. The PBM was discussed from dynamic viewpoint in this paper. It was found that the primary process of cellular PBM might be the key process of cellular PBM so that the transition rate of cellular molecules can be extended to discuss the dose relationship of PBM. There may be a dose zone in which low intensity LI (LIL at different doses has biological effects similar to each other, so that biological information model of PBM might hold. LIL may self-adaptively modulate a chronic stress until it becomes successful.

  16. Multiphoton processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manus, C.; Mainfray, G.

    1980-01-01

    The main features of multiphoton processes are described on a somewhat elementary basis. The emphasis is put on multiphoton ionization of atoms where the influence of resonance effects is given through typical examples. The important role played by the coherence of light is shown to produce a very dramatic influence on multiphoton absorption. Different observations concerning molecules, electrons, as well as solid surfaces illustrate the generality of these very non linear interaction between light and matter

  17. Process heat. Triggering the processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augsten, Eva

    2012-07-01

    If solar process heat is to find a market, then the decision makers in industrial companies need to be aware that it actually exists. This was one of the main goals of the So-Pro project, which officially drew to a close in April 2012. (orig.)

  18. Minimal processing of iceberg lettuce has no substantial influence on the survival, attachment and internalization of E. coli O157 and Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Linden, Inge; Avalos Llano, Karina R; Eriksson, Markus; De Vos, Winnok H; Van Damme, Els J M; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Devlieghere, Frank

    2016-12-05

    The influence of a selection of minimal processing techniques (sanitizing wash prior to packaging, modified atmosphere, storage conditions under light or in the dark) was investigated in relation to the survival of, attachment to and internalization of enteric pathogens in fresh produce. Cut Iceberg lettuce was chosen as a model for fresh produce, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157) and Salmonella enterica were chosen as pathogen models. Care was taken to simulate industrial post-harvest processing. A total of 50±0.1g of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce was packed in bags under near ambient atmospheric air with approximately 21% O 2 (NAA) conditions or equilibrium modified atmosphere with 3% O 2 (EMAP). Two lettuce pieces inoculated with E. coli O157 BRMSID 188 or Salmonella Typhimurium labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were added to each package. The bags with cut lettuce were stored under either dark or light conditions for 2days at 7°C. The pathogens' capacity to attach to the lettuce surface and cut edge was evaluated 2days after inoculation using conventional plating technique and the internalization of the bacteria was investigated and quantified using confocal microscopy. The effect of a sanitizing wash step (40mg/L NaClO or 40mg/L peracetic acid+1143mg/L lactic acid) of the cut lettuce prior to packaging was evaluated as well. Our results indicate that both pathogens behaved similarly under the investigated conditions. Pathogen growth was not observed, nor was there any substantial influence of the investigated atmospheric conditions or light/dark storage conditions on their attachment/internalization. The pathogens attached to and internalized via cut edges and wounds, from which they were able to penetrate into the parenchyma. Internalization through the stomata into the parenchyma was not observed, although some bacteria were found in the substomatal cavity. Washing the cut edges with sanitizing agents to reduce enteric pathogen numbers was not

  19. Food irradiation - A new way to process food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The film shows how irradiation of food by ionizing energy (gamma rays or beams of electrons) can help cut down post-harvest losses of food such as cereals, meat, fish and shellfish and fresh or dried fruits and vegetables. One quarter to one third of the total world food production is lost due to sprouting, destruction by insects and parasites, spoilage by micro-organisms such as bacteria and funghi, and premature ripening. Food contamination not only leads to economic problems but can also cause diseases such as trichinosis, toxoplasmosis, etc. The new technique of food irradiation has been studied by independent groups of experts whose evaluations without exception have been favourable. One of the main advantages is that there are no chemical residues. On the long run, food irradiation will help to assure world-wide food security

  20. Speech Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    The VDE system developed had the capability of recognizing up to 248 separate words in syntactic structures. 4 The two systems described are isolated...AND SPEAKER RECOGNITION by M.J.Hunt 5 ASSESSMENT OF SPEECH SYSTEMS ’ ..- * . by R.K.Moore 6 A SURVEY OF CURRENT EQUIPMENT AND RESEARCH’ by J.S.Bridle...TECHNOLOGY IN NAVY TRAINING SYSTEMS by R.Breaux, M.Blind and R.Lynchard 10 9 I-I GENERAL REVIEW OF MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF VOICE PROCESSING DR. BRUNO

  1. Markov processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkwood, James R

    2015-01-01

    Review of ProbabilityShort HistoryReview of Basic Probability DefinitionsSome Common Probability DistributionsProperties of a Probability DistributionProperties of the Expected ValueExpected Value of a Random Variable with Common DistributionsGenerating FunctionsMoment Generating FunctionsExercisesDiscrete-Time, Finite-State Markov ChainsIntroductionNotationTransition MatricesDirected Graphs: Examples of Markov ChainsRandom Walk with Reflecting BoundariesGambler’s RuinEhrenfest ModelCentral Problem of Markov ChainsCondition to Ensure a Unique Equilibrium StateFinding the Equilibrium StateTransient and Recurrent StatesIndicator FunctionsPerron-Frobenius TheoremAbsorbing Markov ChainsMean First Passage TimeMean Recurrence Time and the Equilibrium StateFundamental Matrix for Regular Markov ChainsDividing a Markov Chain into Equivalence ClassesPeriodic Markov ChainsReducible Markov ChainsSummaryExercisesDiscrete-Time, Infinite-State Markov ChainsRenewal ProcessesDelayed Renewal ProcessesEquilibrium State f...

  2. Coking processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, H K

    1917-11-20

    A gas suitable for use in containers or motor-vehicles, etc., and consisting mainly of methane, is obtained by distilling at a temperature not exceeding 500/sup 0/C bastard cannel coal, lignite, wood, peat, shale, etc., in an horizontal or vertical retort, through which the material is continuously fed in a thin layer or column by means of a screw conveyor or the like. Cracking or dissociation of the gaseous products is prevented by introducing into the retort part of the gas which is the result of the process and which is compressed to a pressure of at least 15 atmospheres and allowed to expand into the retort to cool and carry away the gaseous products produced. These are then passed through condensers for extracting liquid hydrocarbons, and other hydrocarbons are extracted by passage through washing-oils. The gas is then compressed by a water-cooled pump to a pressure of 15 atmospheres, whereby a spirit similar to petrol is formed, and a stable gas left which is mainly methane, part of the gas being used to carry out the process described above.

  3. Etherification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1990-08-21

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figs.

  4. Oligomerization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1991-03-26

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figures.

  5. Lithospheric processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldridge, W. [and others

    2000-12-01

    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy.

  6. Lithospheric processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldridge, W.S.

    2000-01-01

    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy

  7. Carbonizing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1923-11-22

    In the downward distillation of coal, shale, lignite, or the like, the heat is generated by the combustion of liquid or gaseous fuel above the charge the zone of carbonization thus initiated travelling downwards through the charge. The combustible gases employed are preferably those resulting from the process but gases such as natural gas may be employed. The charge is in a moistened and pervious state the lower parts being maintained at a temperature not above 212/sup 0/F until influenced by contact with the carbonization zone and steam may be admitted to increase the yield of ammonia. The combustible gases may be supplied with insufficient air so as to impart to them a reducing effect.

  8. WELDING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrow, J.; Hausner, H.

    1957-09-24

    A method of joining metal parts for the preparation of relatively long, thin fuel element cores of uranium or alloys thereof for nuclear reactors is described. The process includes the steps of cleaning the surfaces to be jointed, placing the sunfaces together, and providing between and in contact with them, a layer of a compound in finely divided form that is decomposable to metal by heat. The fuel element members are then heated at the contact zone and maintained under pressure during the heating to decompose the compound to metal and sinter the members and reduced metal together producing a weld. The preferred class of decomposable compounds are the metal hydrides such as uranium hydride, which release hydrogen thus providing a reducing atmosphere in the vicinity of the welding operation.

  9. Processing Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    This Article argues that the practice of holding so many adjudicative proceedings related to disability in private settings (e.g., guardianship, special education due process, civil commitment, and social security) relative to our strong normative presumption of public access to adjudication may cultivate and perpetuate stigma in contravention of the goals of inclusion and enhanced agency set forth in antidiscrimination laws. Descriptively, the law has a complicated history with disability--initially rendering disability invisible; later, underwriting particular narratives of disability synonymous with incapacity; and, in recent history, promoting the full socio-economic visibility of people with disabilities. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the marquee civil rights legislation for people with disabilities (about to enter its twenty-fifth year), expresses a national approach to disability that recognizes the role of society in its construction, maintenance, and potential remedy. However, the ADA’s mission is incomplete. It has not generated the types of interactions between people with disabilities and nondisabled people empirically shown to deconstruct deeply entrenched social stigma. Prescriptively, procedural design can act as an "ntistigma agent"to resist and mitigate disability stigma. This Article focuses on one element of institutional design--public access to adjudication--as a potential tool to construct and disseminate counter-narratives of disability. The unique substantive focus in disability adjudication on questions of agency provides a potential public space for the negotiation of nuanced definitions of disability and capacity more reflective of the human condition.

  10. [In process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasch, Michael; Kaasch, Joachim

    -increasing competitiveness which came to a head as an embroiled dispute resulting from differences in scientific and scientific policy views. In the process a battle was fought over research resources so that, what was at first an apparently personal quarrel, affected the course of research promotion at an institutional level in the area of life sciences in the GDR. Despite several attempts at mediation, old age finally forced the adversaries to put aside their differences.

  11. Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeat, P.

    A new area of biology has been opened up by nanoscale exploration of the living world. This has been made possible by technological progress, which has provided the tools needed to make devices that can measure things on such length and time scales. In a sense, this is a new window upon the living world, so rich and so diverse. Many of the investigative methods described in this book seek to obtain complementary physical, chemical, and biological data to understand the way it works and the way it is organised. At these length and time scales, only dedicated instrumentation could apprehend the relevant phenomena. There is no way for our senses to observe these things directly. One important field of application is molecular medicine, which aims to explain the mechanisms of life and disease by the presence and quantification of specific molecular entities. This involves combining information about genes, proteins, cells, and organs. This in turn requires the association of instruments for molecular diagnosis, either in vitro, e.g., the microarray or the lab-on-a-chip, or in vivo, e.g., probes for molecular biopsy, and tools for molecular imaging, used to localise molecular information in living organisms in a non-invasive way. These considerations concern both preclinical research for drug design and human medical applications. With the development of DNA and RNA chips [1], genomics has revolutionised investigative methods for cells and cell processes [2,3]. By sequencing the human genome, new ways have been found for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of life [4]. A revolution is currently under way with the analysis of the proteome [5-8], i.e., the complete set of proteins that can be found in some given biological medium, such as the blood plasma. The goal is to characterise certain diseases by recognisable signatures in the proteomic profile, as determined from a blood sample or a biopsy, for example [9-13]. What is at stake is the early detection of

  12. Hydrothermal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C. R.; von Damm, K. L.

    2003-12-01

    What is Hydrothermal Circulation?Hydrothermal circulation occurs when seawater percolates downward through fractured ocean crust along the volcanic mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. The seawater is first heated and then undergoes chemical modification through reaction with the host rock as it continues downward, reaching maximum temperatures that can exceed 400 °C. At these temperatures the fluids become extremely buoyant and rise rapidly back to the seafloor where they are expelled into the overlying water column. Seafloor hydrothermal circulation plays a significant role in the cycling of energy and mass between the solid earth and the oceans; the first identification of submarine hydrothermal venting and their accompanying chemosynthetically based communities in the late 1970s remains one of the most exciting discoveries in modern science. The existence of some form of hydrothermal circulation had been predicted almost as soon as the significance of ridges themselves was first recognized, with the emergence of plate tectonic theory. Magma wells up from the Earth's interior along "spreading centers" or "MORs" to produce fresh ocean crust at a rate of ˜20 km3 yr-1, forming new seafloor at a rate of ˜3.3 km2 yr-1 (Parsons, 1981; White et al., 1992). The young oceanic lithosphere formed in this way cools as it moves away from the ridge crest. Although much of this cooling occurs by upward conduction of heat through the lithosphere, early heat-flow studies quickly established that a significant proportion of the total heat flux must also occur via some additional convective process (Figure 1), i.e., through circulation of cold seawater within the upper ocean crust (Anderson and Silbeck, 1981). (2K)Figure 1. Oceanic heat flow versus age of ocean crust. Data from the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans, averaged over 2 Ma intervals (circles) depart from the theoretical cooling curve (solid line) indicating convective cooling of young ocean crust by circulating seawater

  13. Effects of pre- or post-processing storage conditions on high-hydrostatic pressure inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mu; Huang, Yaoxin; Gurtler, Joshua B; Niemira, Brendan A; Sites, Joseph E; Chen, Haiqiang

    2013-05-15

    (e.g., 250 MPa) followed by short-term frozen storage (7 days) could potentially be applied by the shellfish industry as a post-harvest process to eliminate V. parahaemolyticus in oysters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Multidimensional process discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, J.T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Typically represented in event logs, business process data describe the execution of process events over time. Business process intelligence (BPI) techniques such as process mining can be applied to get strategic insight into business processes. Process discovery, conformance checking and

  15. PC image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, Mok Jin Il; Am, Ha Jeng Ung

    1995-04-01

    This book starts summary of digital image processing and personal computer, and classification of personal computer image processing system, digital image processing, development of personal computer and image processing, image processing system, basic method of image processing such as color image processing and video processing, software and interface, computer graphics, video image and video processing application cases on image processing like satellite image processing, color transformation of image processing in high speed and portrait work system.

  16. Food irradiation: Applications, public acceptance and global trade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The process involves exposing the packed or bulked food to the rays of the sun. Food irradiation processing that entails combating post-harvest losses, curtailing food-borne disease and overcoming quarantine barriers has been pursued since the mid-50s. The scientific basis and technological adaptation of the process ...

  17. AN ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS : FENTON PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin GÜRTEKİN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastewater treatment is not effective treatment method if raw wastewater contains toxic and refractory organics. Advanced oxidation processes are applied before or after biological treatment for the detoxification and reclamation of this kind of wastewaters. The advanced oxidation processes are based on the formation of powerful hydroxyl radicals. Among advanced oxidation processes Fenton process is one of the most promising methods. Because application of Fenton process is simple and cost effective and also reaction occurs in a short time period. Fenton process is applied for many different proposes. In this study, Fenton process was evaluated as an advanced oxidation process in wastewater treatment.

  18. Irradiation and passive modified atmosphere on the post-harvest quality of guavas ‘Pedro Sato’. = Irradiação e atmosfera modificada passiva na qualidade pós-colheita de goiabas ‘Pedro Sato’ .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André José de Campos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation associated with modified atmosphere on postharvest quality of guavas ‘Pedro Sato’. It was used guavas from the region of Vista Alegre do Alto/São Paulo/Brazil. After harvest, the fruits were immediately transported to the Fruit and Vegetables Laboratory from the Agroindustrial Management and Technology Department, Agronomic Sciences College - UNESP - Botucatu / SP, where they were kept at 10 ° C and 90-95% RH in cold storage, for 28 days. It was used the randomized design, with factorial scheme 5 x 5, three repetitions. The first factor consisted of the following effects: control 1 (without package or irradiation, control 2 (polystyrene package/PS + package low density polyethylene/LDPE and without irradiation, treatment 1 (PS + LDPE and 0.2 kGy , treatment 2 (PS + LDPE and 0.6 kGy and treatment 3 (PS + LDPE and 1.0 kGy. The second factor consisted of the evaluation periods: 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The analyses were: firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, maturity index, pH, respiration rate. Concluded that high doses of irradiation promoted a negative effect on physical-chemical characteristics of guava ‘Pedro Sato’, verifying that only the lowest dose associated with modified atmosphere provided fruits with higher quality and acceptability, due to higher maturation rate and soluble solids obtained. Regarding the days of analysis, there were no positive effect of the treatments during storage, where only the early days promoted better values for the variables studied.

  19. Post harvest changes of banana prata (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana group AAB) {gamma}-irradiated; Modificacoes pos-colheita de banana prata (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana grupo AAB) {gamma}-irradiada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros Villas Boas, Eduardo Valerio de

    1995-12-31

    Pre-climateric bananas (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana [AAB group] cv. Prata) were stored without treatment (no radiation) or were exposed at 0.25 and 0.50 kGy of {gamma} -irradiation, with a dose rate of 1 kGy.h {sup -1} before storage. The fruits were analysed for CO{sub 2} and ethylene production during maturation and pulp-to-peel ratio, starch, total soluble sugars, pectins, pectin methyl esterase and poly galacturonase activities on 6 colour score of peel. The radiation dose/peel-colour interaction affected the pulp-to-peel ratio significantly, while the fruits subjected at 0.25 Gy had the highest increase on the colour scores 5, 6, and 7. A predictable increase in the conversion of starch to sugar took place during maturation and a delaying on the soluble sugar accumulation was noted on the fruits submitted to 0.50 kGy, in the 6 and 7 colour scores only. A decrease on the total pectin content and a trend of a higher solubilization of pectins was observed in the fruits {gamma}-irradiated at 0.50 kGy. Higher pectin methyl esterase activities were exhibited by irradiated fruits, although the {gamma}-irradiation has suppressed the poly galacturonase activity throughout the maturation period. (author). 110 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Conservação pós-colheita de espigas de milho verde minimamente processado sob diferentes temperaturas Post-harvest conservation of fresh-cut corn on the cob (Zea maiz L. under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Mara Goulart Nunes Mamede

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito de três temperaturas (5ºC, 8ºC e 11ºC, na qualidade de híbridos de milho verde (Zea maiz L. com endosperma normal, minimamente processado, durante oito dias de armazenamento, com avaliações a cada dois dias. Foram utilizadas espigas de dois híbridos, sendo um comercial da Sementes Agroceres (Ag 1051 e outro do programa de melhoramento da Embrapa Milho e Sorgo (Embrapa HT1. A temperatura de 5ºC foi a que melhor preservou a qualidade das espigas dos híbridos de milho verde estudados, por proporcionar perda de massa reduzida e manutenção dos teores de sólidos solúveis, frutose e glicose. O híbrido Ag 1051 apresentou menor perda de massa, maiores valores de umidade e maior teor de frutose. O Embrapa HT1 apresentou maiores valores iniciais e finais para os teores de sólidos solúveis e maior valor para a coloração b*. O valor L*, que indica quãoclaro e escuro é produto, também diminuiu ao longo do armazenamento, indicando escurecimento das espigas ao longo do armazenamento.This work had the aim of evaluating the effect of three temperatures (5ºC, 8ºC and 11ºC on the quality of fresh-cut corn on the cob (Zea maiz L. with normal endosperm, for 8 days, with analyses taken every two days. Corn on the cob of two hybrids was used, a commercial common type from Sementes Agroceres (Ag 1051 and the other from the breeding program Embrapa Milho e Sorgo (Embrapa HT1. The temperature of 5ºC was more efficient to preserve the quality of normal corn by promoting reduced mass loss and higher contents of soluble solids, fructose and glucose. The hybrid Ag 1051 presented lower mass loss, higher contents of moisture and higher content of fructose. The hybrid Embrapa HT1 presented higher initial and final values for soluble solids and higher b* value. The L* value also decreased along storage, indicating browning of the corns along the storage.

  1. Efeito do retardamento da colheita, na qualidade e na vida útil do melão Orange Flesh Effect of the harvest delay on the quality and post-harvest shelf-life of Orange Flesh melons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Vinícius de S. Mendonça

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O efeito do retardamento da colheita na qualidade e na vida útil dos frutos do meloeiro foi avaliado. Os frutos, tipo Honey Dew Orange Flesh, foram colhidos no dia adotado pelos produtores como maturidade comercial, um, dois, três e quatro dias após e, foram armazenados a 7 ± 1ºC e UR de 90 ± 5%. O experimento foi conduzido obedecendo delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, com cinco repetições, cinco tempos de retardamento (0; 1; 2; 3 e 4 dias após o adotado para a colheita e cinco tempos de armazenamento (0; 7; 14; 21 e 28 dias após a colheita. Foram avaliado a aparência externa e interna, firmeza de polpa, conteúdo de sólidos solúveis e incidência de rachadura no pedúnculo. Foi observada perda gradativa de firmeza da polpa para todos os retardamentos durante o armazenamento. Ao final do experimento os frutos ainda apresentavam aparência própria à comercialização. O conteúdo de sólidos solúveis ficou entre 9 e 12% e a incidência de rachaduras foi menor para os frutos colhidos aos 59; 60 e 61 dias após o plantio.The effect of harvesting delay on quality and postharvest shelf-life of Honey Dew Orange Flesh melons was examined. Fruits were harvested at the stage of commercial maturity and, one, two, three and four days after this period. Fruits were kept at 7 ± 1ºC and 90 ± 5% relative humidity. A 5 x 5 factorial scheme in a completely randomized design with five replications was used, with five harvesting dates (0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 days after the stage of commercial harvest and five storage periods (0; 7; 14; 21 and 28 days. During this period we evaluated the external and internal appearances, flesh firmness, soluble solid content and crack incidence of the peduncle. There occurred reduction of the flesh firmness for all harvest delaying dates. Fruits presented appropriate marketing appearance until the end of the experiment. The soluble solids content varied from 9 to 12%, and the cracking incidence was smaller on fruits harvested at 59; 60 and 61 days after planting date.

  2. Heated water and UV-C radiation to post harvest control of Cryptosporiopsis perennans on apples; Agua aquecida e radiacao UV-C no controle pos-colheita de Cryptosporiopsis perennans em macas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartnicki, Vinicius Adao; Amarante, Cassandro Vidal Talamini do, E-mail: vinibart@hotmail.co, E-mail: amarante@cav.udesc.b [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Lages, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agroveterinarias. Dept. de Agronomia; Valdebenito-Sanhueza, Rosa Maria, E-mail: rosamaria@m2net.com.b [Proterra Engenharia Agronomica, Vacaria, RS (Brazil); Castro, Luis Antonio Suita de, E-mail: suita@cpact.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Rizzatti, Mara Regina; Souza, Joao Antonio Vargas de, E-mail: marar@pucrs.b [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro em Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Fisica. Grupo de Fisica das Radiacoes

    2010-02-15

    The objective of this work was to assess the colonization of Cryptosporiopsis perennans in the epidermis of apples and the efficiency of heated water and UV-C radiation application to control this pathogen. In apples inoculated with C. perennans, the colonization of lenticels and adjacent areas by the pathogen was observed by electronic scanning microscopy. The sensitivity of C. perennans conidia was evaluated in aqueous suspension, at temperatures of 28, 45, 50 and 55 deg C for 15 and 30 s, and at UV.C radiation doses of 0.018, 0.037, 0.075, 0.150, 0.375, 0.750, 1.500 and 3.000 kJ m.2. The effects of UV.C radiation doses at 0.375, 0.750 and 1.500 kJ m.2 and heated water at 50 deg C, sprayed during 15 and 30 s were evaluated for controlling C. perennans in apples inoculated with the pathogen. The fungus produced abundant mycelium and conidia in lenticels and adjacent areas on the epidermis of the apples. The heated water at 50 deg C during 15 s and a 0.750 kJ m.2 UV.C radiation dose reduced conidia survival in more than 99%. Heated water sprayed at 50 deg C during 15 s and a UV.C radiation dose of 0.375 kJ m.2 control C. perennans in apples. (author)

  3. Qualidade pós-colheita de cerejas cv. Ambrunés utilizando coberturas comestíveis Post harvest quality of cherry cv. Ambrunés using edible coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Duarte Carvalho Filho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, avaliar a qualidade de cerejas cv. Ambrunés ("picotas", cobertas com películas comestíveis à base de zeína e cera de carnaúba, aplicadas na forma de imersão e pulverização, e armazenadas em ambiente controlado a 5 ºC ± 0,5 ºC e umidade relativa de 90 - 95 %. Os parâmetros usados para avaliar a qualidade dos frutos foram: sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, perda de peso, relação SST/ATT e deterioração fúngica. Os frutos foram avaliados até o 52º dia de conservação. A emulsão de cera de carnaúba mostrou-se superior em todos os parâmetros, quando comparados com os frutos-testemunha e os cobertos com zeína. A cobertura à base de zeína provocou a aceleração da maturação dos frutos e apresentou deterioração fúngica a partir do 24º dia de armazenamento. Foi observado que a forma de comercialização das cerejas sem o pedúnculo ("picotas" representa maior possibilidade de contaminação fúngica através da área lesionada. A emulsão de cera de carnaúba aplicada na forma de imersão retardou a podridão até o 45º dia de conservação, apresentando-se como o melhor tratamento.The objective of this study was evaluate the quality of cherries cv Ambrunés (cherries perforated covered with edible coatings based on zeina and carnaúba wax emulsion, appliied in the form of immersion and pulverization and storage in controlled environment with temperature 5 ºC ± 0,5 ºC and humidity 90 - 95 %. The parameters used to evaluate the quality of the fruits were: soluble solid, titratable acidity, loss of weight, soluble solid relation / titratable total acidity and fungal deterioration. The fruits were evaluated until the 52nd day of conservation. The treatment that used the emulsion carnaúba wax was superior in all of the parameters when compared with the control fruits and the fruits coatings with zeina. The coating based on zeína provoked an acceleration in the ripening of the fruits and presented fungal deterioration since the 24th day storage. It was also noticed that this form of cherries without the peduncle (cherries perforated commercialization, represents a bigger possibility of fungal contamination trought the injured area. The emulsion of carnaúba wax retarded the deterioration until the 45th day of conservation, showed while the better treatment.

  4. Post harvest of pink ginger floral stems treated with silver thiosulphate, sucrose, and calcium Pós-colheita de hastes de alpínia tratadas com tiossulfato de prata, sacarose e cálcio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Tarciso C da Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian market of tropical flowers has been growing broadly with a strong participation of the Northeast Region, where the State of Alagoas stands out. Among the exporting tropical cut flowers, pink ginger (Alpinia purpurata (Vieill K. Schum has been one of the most promising species. Aiming at delaying senescence in floral stems of pink ginger, two laboratory experiments were carried out at the Agricultural Science Center of the Federal University of Alagoas. In the first experiment, three different exposure periods (30; 60, and 120 minutes to silver thiosulphate 1 mM were tested, followed or not by pulsing in a 20% sucrose solution, for 12 hours. In the second experiment, we evaluated the effect of adding calcium sulphate 50 and 100 mM, sodium silicate 1.25 and 2.5 mM, and the combination of calcium sulphate 50mM + sodium silicate 1.25mM on the hydric status and longevity of floral stems. In both experiments, the control treatment consisted of keeping stems in distilled water. Fresh biomass and quality of floral stems were determined every other day. Silver thiosulphate applied in pulsing for 60 minutes or more led to stem dehydration, whereas calcium sulphate improved both stem hydration and commercial durability.O mercado brasileiro de flores tropicais encontra-se em franco crescimento, com uma importante participação da região Nordeste, destacando-se o estado de Alagoas. Dentre as flores tropicais de corte para exportação, a alpínia (Alpiniapurpurata (Vieill K. Schum ocupa posição de destaque. Visando retardar a senescência das hastes florais de alpínia, cultivar Pink Ginger, foram conduzidos dois experimentos em laboratório no CCA da Universidade Federal de Alagoas. No primeiro, foram testados três tempos (30; 60 e 120 minutos de exposição ao tiossulfato de prata 1 mM, seguido ou não de pulsing em sacarose a 20%, por 12 horas. No segundo experimento foram verificados os efeitos nas relações hídricas e longevidade das hastes da adição de sulfato de cálcio a 50 e 100 mM, silicato de sódio a 1,25 e 2,50 mM, além da interação sulfato de cálcio a 50 mM + silicato de sódio a 1,25 mM, em solução de manutenção. Nos dois experimentos, a testemunha consistiu da manutenção das hastes em água destilada. A massa fresca e a qualidade das hastes foram determinadas a cada dois dias. O tiossulfato de prata, aplicado na forma de pulsing por 60 minutos ou mais, promoveu desidratação das hastes. O uso de sulfato de cálcio promoveu aumento da durabilidade comercial e melhoria da hidratação das hastes.

  5. Resistência induzida em frutos de videira 'Isabel' (Vitis Labrusca e seus efeitos sobre a qualidade pós-colheita Induced resistance in fruits of 'Isabel' vine (Vitis labrusca and its effects on post-harvest quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedma Maria Silva Pinto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A indução de resistência tem sido apontada como alternativa sustentável para o manejo de doenças, mas pouco se sabe sobre a interferência de tais produtos na qualidade pós-colheita dos frutos. Assim, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar a produção e a maturação de frutos de videira 'Isabel' (Vitis labrusca, oriundos de plantas tratadas com elicitores de resistência, em Natuba-PB. Os experimentos foram realizados nos períodos de setembro de 2009 a janeiro de 2010 (safra 1 e de fevereiro a junho de 2010 (safra 2. Foram utilizados oito tratamentos (Testemunha; Fungicida (Metiram + Piraclostrobina; Fosfito de potássio; Agro-Mós®; Fungicida + Fosfito de potássio; Fungicida + Agro-Mós®; Fosfito de potássio + Agro-Mós® e Fungicida + Fosfito de potássio + Agro-Mós® e quatro repetições de 5 plantas. As aplicações foram realizadas a cada 10 dias, iniciando-se 20 dias após a poda, totalizando 12 aplicações. As coletas de frutos foram realizadas aos 45; 60;90 e 120 dias após a poda. As variáveis analisadas foram: massa dos cachos, comprimento e diâmetro dos cachos, rendimento de polpa, sólidos solúveis (SS, pH, acidez titulável (AT e relação SS/AT. O tratamento com fosfito de potássio promoveu o aumento de 24% no comprimento dos cachos, em relação à testemunha, na primeira safra. O rendimento de polpa e a relação SS/AT não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos, e o teor de sólidos solúveis foi influenciado positivamente pela aplicação de fosfito de potássio, com incrementos superiores a 60%, em ambas as safras avaliadas.Induction of resistance has been identified as a sustainable alternative for disease management, but little information is known about the interference of such products in the postharvest fruit. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the production and ripening of grapes 'Isabel' (Vitis labrusca from plants treated with resistance elicitors in Natuba-PB, Brazil. The experiments were carried in two seasons, between September 2009 and January 2010 (season 1 and February to June 2010 (season 2. It was used eight treatments (Control; Fungicide (Metiram + Pyraclostrobin; Potassium phosphite; Agro-Mos®, Fungicide + Potassium phosphite; Fungicide + Agro-Mos®, Potassium phosphite + Agro-Mos® and Fungicide + Potassium phosphite + Agro-Mos® with four replications of five plants. The pulverizations were made every 10 days, beginning 20 days after pruning in total of 12 applications. The collected fruits were held at 45, 60, 90 and 120 days after pruning. The variables evaluated were: bunch weight, length and diameter of the clusters, and pulp yield, soluble solids (SS, pH, total acidity (TA and SS/TA ratio. The treatment with Potassium phosphite promoted a 24% increase on bunches length, compared to control at season 1. The pulp yield and harvest index were not affected by treatments and soluble solids content was positively influenced by the application of potassium phosphite, with increases exceeding 60% in both seasons.

  6. The effects of smoking on the nutritional qualities and shelf-life of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... Page 1 ... distances of landing ports to points of utilization and poor as well as inadequate infrastructure for post-harvest processing and landing. A number of processing techniques are in operation in. Nigeria. These include chilling, freezing, salting, canning, drying and smoking. However, smoking is the ...

  7. Enhancement of agronomical values: upstream and downstream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the starch crops harvested in the tropical African countries are wasted to post-harvest losses, while minority are consumed locally with insignificant quantity being processed for down stream applications, with no evidence for up stream process applications. Consequently, the natural resources are under utilized ...

  8. Management of processes of electrochemical dimensional processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetov, I. D.; Zakirova, A. R.; Sadykov, Z. B.

    2017-09-01

    In different industries a lot high-precision parts are produced from hard-processed scarce materials. Forming such details can only be acting during non-contact processing, or a minimum of effort, and doable by the use, for example, of electro-chemical processing. At the present stage of development of metal working processes are important management issues electrochemical machining and its automation. This article provides some indicators and factors of electrochemical machining process.

  9. Extensible packet processing architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.

    2013-08-20

    A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

  10. BPMN process views construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yongchareon, S.; Liu, Chengfei; Zhao, X.; Kowalkiewicz, M.; Kitagawa, H.; Ishikawa, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Process view technology is catching more attentions in modern business process management, as it enables the customisation of business process representation. This capability helps improve the privacy protection, authority control, flexible display, etc., in business process modelling. One of

  11. Silicon integrated circuit process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Duck

    1985-12-01

    This book introduces the process of silicon integrated circuit. It is composed of seven parts, which are oxidation process, diffusion process, ion implantation process such as ion implantation equipment, damage, annealing and influence on manufacture of integrated circuit and device, chemical vapor deposition process like silicon Epitaxy LPCVD and PECVD, photolithography process, including a sensitizer, spin, harden bake, reflection of light and problems related process, infrared light bake, wet-etch, dry etch, special etch and problems of etching, metal process like metal process like metal-silicon connection, aluminum process, credibility of aluminum and test process.

  12. Silicon integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Duck

    1985-12-15

    This book introduces the process of silicon integrated circuit. It is composed of seven parts, which are oxidation process, diffusion process, ion implantation process such as ion implantation equipment, damage, annealing and influence on manufacture of integrated circuit and device, chemical vapor deposition process like silicon Epitaxy LPCVD and PECVD, photolithography process, including a sensitizer, spin, harden bake, reflection of light and problems related process, infrared light bake, wet-etch, dry etch, special etch and problems of etching, metal process like metal process like metal-silicon connection, aluminum process, credibility of aluminum and test process.

  13. The Newest Laser Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Baek Yeon

    2007-01-01

    This book mentions laser processing with laser principle, laser history, laser beam property, laser kinds, foundation of laser processing such as laser oscillation, characteristic of laser processing, laser for processing and its characteristic, processing of laser hole including conception of processing of laser hole and each material, and hole processing of metal material, cut of laser, reality of cut, laser welding, laser surface hardening, application case of special processing and safety measurement of laser.

  14. Minimal and careful processing

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Thorkild

    2004-01-01

    In several standards, guidelines and publications, organic food processing is strongly associated with "minimal processing" and "careful processing". The term "minimal processing" is nowadays often used in the general food processing industry and described in literature. The term "careful processing" is used more specifically within organic food processing but is not yet clearly defined. The concept of carefulness seems to fit very well with the processing of organic foods, especially if it i...

  15. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik

    2010-01-01

    are identified, and where we simulate backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and......In this paper we describe methods for randomly thinning certain classes of spatial point processes. In the case of a Markov point process, the proposed method involves a dependent thinning of a spatial birth-and-death process, where clans of ancestors associated with the original points......, thus, can be used as a graphical exploratory tool for inspecting the goodness-of-fit of a spatial point process model. Several examples, including clustered and inhibitive point processes, are considered....

  16. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik

    , and where one simulates backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and thus can......This paper describes methods for randomly thinning certain classes of spatial point processes. In the case of a Markov point process, the proposed method involves a dependent thinning of a spatial birth-and-death process, where clans of ancestors associated with the original points are identified...... be used as a diagnostic for assessing the goodness-of-fit of a spatial point process model. Several examples, including clustered and inhibitive point processes, are considered....

  17. A process insight repository supporting process optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Vetlugin, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    Existing solutions for analysis and optimization of manufacturing processes, such as online analysis processing or statistical calculations, have shortcomings that limit continuous process improvements. In particular, they lack means of storing and integrating the results of analysis. This makes the valuable information that can be used for process optimizations used only once and then disposed. The goal of the Advanced Manufacturing Analytics (AdMA) research project is to design an integrate...

  18. Process mining: making knowledge discovery process centric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the Task Force on Process Mining released the Process Mining Manifesto. The manifesto is supported by 53 organizations and 77 process mining experts contributed to it. The active contributions from end-users, tool vendors, consultants, analysts, and researchers illustrate the growing

  19. Business process model repositories : efficient process retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Z.

    2012-01-01

    As organizations increasingly work in process-oriented manner, the number of business process models that they develop and have to maintain increases. As a consequence, it has become common for organizations to have collections of hundreds or even thousands of business process models. When a

  20. Uranium enrichment. Enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, M.; Quaegebeur, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the remarkable progresses made in the diversity and the efficiency of the different uranium enrichment processes, only two industrial processes remain today which satisfy all of enriched uranium needs: the gaseous diffusion and the centrifugation. This article describes both processes and some others still at the demonstration or at the laboratory stage of development: 1 - general considerations; 2 - gaseous diffusion: physical principles, implementation, utilisation in the world; 3 - centrifugation: principles, elementary separation factor, flows inside a centrifuge, modeling of separation efficiencies, mechanical design, types of industrial centrifuges, realisation of cascades, main characteristics of the centrifugation process; 4 - aerodynamic processes: vortex process, nozzle process; 5 - chemical exchange separation processes: Japanese ASAHI process, French CHEMEX process; 6 - laser-based processes: SILVA process, SILMO process; 7 - electromagnetic and ionic processes: mass spectrometer and calutron, ion cyclotron resonance, rotating plasmas; 8 - thermal diffusion; 9 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  1. The permanental process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCullagh, Peter; Møller, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    We extend the boson process first to a large class of Cox processes and second to an even larger class of infinitely divisible point processes. Density and moment results are studied in detail. These results are obtained in closed form as weighted permanents, so the extension i called a permanental...... process. Temporal extensions and a particularly tractable case of the permanental process are also studied. Extensions of the fermion process along similar lines, leading to so-called determinantal processes, are discussed....

  2. Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India | Page 2 | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will also introduce simple, labour-reducing technologies to increase the efficiency of post-harvest millet processing. Doing so will create local employment and help women farmers produce nutritious products with greater market opportunities. This approach will improve the quality of life for farmers, and is part ...

  3. Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will also introduce simple, labour-reducing technologies to increase the efficiency of post-harvest millet processing. Doing so will create local employment and help women farmers produce nutritious products with greater market opportunities. This approach will improve the quality of life for farmers, and is part ...

  4. Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India | Page 5 | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will also introduce simple, labour-reducing technologies to increase the efficiency of post-harvest millet processing. Doing so will create local employment and help women farmers produce nutritious products with greater market opportunities. This approach will improve the quality of life for farmers, and is part ...

  5. Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India | Page 3 | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will also introduce simple, labour-reducing technologies to increase the efficiency of post-harvest millet processing. Doing so will create local employment and help women farmers produce nutritious products with greater market opportunities. This approach will improve the quality of life for farmers, and is part ...

  6. Search Results | Page 123 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Climate Change (820) Apply Climate Change filter · Networked Economies (786) Apply ... After a decade of laboratory and pilot plant work in Canada and India, ... Improved Processing and Marketing of Healthy Fish Products in Inland ... Combining Post-Harvest Fish Value Chain and Social Change Interventions in Zambia ...

  7. Agricultural Innovations for Climate Change Adaptation and Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural Innovations for Climate Change Adaptation and Food Security in Western and Central Africa. ... Results show that the most prominent adaptation measures in Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Liberia were; processing of crops to reduce post-harvest losses; increased weeding; mulching; increased manure application; ...

  8. Untitled

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will also introduce simple, labour-reducing technologies to increase the efficiency of post-harvest millet processing. Doing so will create local employment and help women farmers produce nutritious products with greater market opportunities. This approach will improve the quality of life for farmers, and is part ...

  9. Sources And Use Of Extension Information Among Maize Farmers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... plant spacing, fertilizer application, post-harvest processing, and storage. Recommendations on herbicides and pesticides were however, not utilized to a great extent by the respondents. Key words: Extension information, improved maize, utilization, sources of information. Journal Of Agriculture And Social Research Vol.

  10. Radiation disinfestation of stored cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseau, P.

    1988-01-01

    Post-harvest grain losses range world-wide between 5 and 10 percent and even 40 percent in some tropical areas where environmental conditions are favourable to cereal degradation. The grain losses during storage are of various origins: insects, microorganisms, rodents, birds. Their consequences on human health and cereal processing are of quantitative and qualitative nature [fr

  11. Theobroma cacao L., "The food of the gods": Quality determinants of commercial cocoa beans, with particular reference to the impact of fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Líma, L.J.R.; Almeida, M.H.; Nout, M.J.R.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of commercial cocoa beans, the principal raw material for chocolate production, relies on the combination of factors that include the type of planting material, the agricultural practices, and the post-harvest processing. Among these, the fermentation of the cocoa beans is still the most

  12. fruit juice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olorunniji

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... The soursop juice without treatment (T1) was used as the control while others in .... The fruits were washed carefully under flowing tap water, peeled, cut .... hygiene, pre and post harvest wounds on processed fruits, and the ...

  13. 7 CFR 760.802 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... acre, computed in accordance with FCIC's Actual Production History (APH) Program at part 400, subpart G..., processing, packing, marketing, or other post-harvesting expenses. Average market prices are generally... Insurance Act (7 U.S.C. 1501-1524). Marketing contract means a legally binding written contract between a...

  14. Improving potato production for increased food security of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    collecting new potato clones but these have to be tested for nutritional and processing qualities, as well as yield and resistance to late blight and other diseases. There is also a need among farmers to adopt more environmentally sound agricultural and post-harvest practices, such as applying compost to reduce chemical ...

  15. "Fishing na everybody business": women's work and gender relations in Sierra Leone's fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorpe, A.; Pouw, N.; Baio, A.; Sandi, R.; Ndomahina, E.T.; Lebbie, T.

    2014-01-01

    While small-scale marine fisheries in many developing countries is "everybody’s business", a strong gendered division of labour sees production concentrated in the hands of male fishermen - while women - ‘fish mammies’ - invariably dominate the post-harvest processing and retailing sector.

  16. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and Food Systems (IJOTAFS) publishes high-quality peer reviewed articles, in English, in all areas of agriculture and food production and processing including tree production, pesticide science, post harvest biology and technology, seed science, irrigation, agricultural engineering, water resources management, marine ...

  17. Gene disruption technologies have the potential to transform stored product insect pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, ...

  18. Potential of predatory bacteria as biocontrol agents for foodborne and plant pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella are responsible for frequent occurrences of illnesses and mortality in humans and produce losses. Pre-harvest yield losses and post-harvest decay on minimally processed produce (fruits, vegetables...

  19. Kolanut (Cola Nitida Vent Schott of Endlicher)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kolanut (Cola Nitida Vent Schott of Endlicher). S.O. Agbeniyi, Otuonye, H.A. andAR. Adedeji Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria. Abstract. The mycoflora associated with processing stages of kolanut post-harvest were evaluated at the Cocoa. Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan Nigeria. Several samples of healthy and ...

  20. Human enteric pathogen internalization by root uptake into food crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    With an increasing number of outbreaks and illnesses associated with pre-harvest contaminated produce, understanding the potential and mechanisms of produce contamination by enteric pathogens can aid in the development of preventative measures and post-harvest processing to reduce microbial populati...

  1. 29 CFR 1952.234 - Final approval determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production, or the post-harvest processing of agricultural or horticultural commodities. (c) Kentucky is... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... agricultural establishment where employees are engaged in “agricultural employment” within the meaning of the...

  2. 29 CFR 1952.207 - Changes to approved plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1910.142) in agriculture (except for agricultural temporary labor camps associated with egg, poultry or red meat production, or the post-harvest processing of agricultural or horticultural commodities). The... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  3. 29 CFR 1952.237 - Changes to approved plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1910.142) in agriculture (except for agricultural temporary labor camps associated with egg, poultry or red meat production, or the post-harvest processing of agricultural or horticultural commodities.) The... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  4. 29 CFR 1952.167 - Changes to approved plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1910.142) in agriculture (except for agricultural temporary labor camps associated with egg, poultry or red meat production, or the post-harvest processing of agricultural or horticultural commodities). The... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  5. 29 CFR 1952.204 - Final approval determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production, or the post-harvest processing of agricultural or horticultural commodities. (c) Minnesota is... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... agricultural establishment where employees are engaged in “agricultural employment” within the meaning of the...

  6. 29 CFR 1952.344 - Final approval determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., poultry, or red meat production, or the post-harvest processing of agricultural or horticultural... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... respect to any agricultural establishment where employees are engaged in “agricultural employment” within...

  7. 29 CFR 1952.327 - Changes to approved plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1910.142) in agriculture (except for agricultural temporary labor camps associated with egg, poultry or red meat production, or the post-harvest processing of agricultural or horticultural commodities.) The... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  8. 29 CFR 1952.97 - Changes to approved plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1910.142) in agriculture (except for agricultural temporary labor camps associated with egg, poultry or red meat production, or the post-harvest processing of agricultural or horticultural commodities.) The... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  9. 29 CFR 1952.117 - Changes to approved plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) in agriculture (except for agricultural temporary labor camps associated with egg, poultry or red meat production, or the post-harvest processing of agricultural or horticultural commodities.) The... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  10. 29 CFR 1952.94 - Final approval determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... red meat production, or the post-harvest processing of agricultural or horticultural commodities. (c... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... agricultural establishment where employees are engaged in “agricultural employment” within the meaning of the...

  11. 29 CFR 1952.324 - Final approval determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., poultry, or red meat production, or the post-harvest processing of agricultural or horticultural... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... to any agricultural establishment where employees are engaged in “agricultural employment” within the...

  12. 29 CFR 1952.246 - Changes to approved plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agricultural temporary labor camps associated with egg, poultry or red meat production, or the post-harvest processing of agricultural or horticultural commodities.) The Employment Standards Administration, U.S... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  13. 29 CFR 1952.164 - Final approval determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engaged in egg, poultry, or red meat production, or the post-harvest processing of agricultural or... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION....142, with respect to any agricultural establishment where employees are engaged in “agricultural...

  14. Influence of technological treatments on bacterial communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. Maïworé

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... marinade, drying, smoking and deep-freezing. When the 16S rDNA ... process or sanitary or hygienic conditions during post harvest operations ... different melting behaviour and will stop migrating at different position in the gel ...

  15. Developmental response of tropi cal warehouse moth, Ephestia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developing larvae of major insect pests like Ephestia cautella rapidly degrade stored cocoa beans through feeding and other biological activities on the beans. Completion of developmental stages of insects may be influenced by a number of biochemical factors triggered by the primary post-harvest processing of cocoa ...

  16. marcadores moleculares de dna e suas aplicações na ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geraldo Cançado

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... 1Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG),. Caldas, MG, Zip Code 37.780-000, Brazil. 2Embrapa Pecuária Sul. Bagé .... control, and post-harvest and fruit/oil processing, is also an obstacle for the cultivation of this crop. Cost is another consideration in ...

  17. 77 FR 22663 - Importation of Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Internet and other information technologies, to provide increased opportunities for citizen access to... in coordination with the NPPO of Chile following any post- harvest processing. A biometric sample... is released for entry into the United States. (2) A biometric sample of the boxes, crates, or other...

  18. 76 FR 65933 - Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... information technologies, to provide increased opportunities for citizen access to Government information and... post- harvest processing. A biometric sample must be drawn and examined from each consignment. Baby...) A biometric sample of the boxes, crates, or other APHIS- approved packing containers from each...

  19. Effect of Traditional smoking Method on Nutritive Values and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    smoking method is an important preservation method which could enhance the nutritive values of fishes and possibly reduce post-harvest losses. Keywords: ... Fishery Laboratory of College of. Agricultural Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo .... colour helps to determine quality, degree of processing or spoilage level (Clifford et al.,.

  20. Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae in the peanut supply chain: From farm to table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, M S; Carminati, J A; Silva, I C R N; Silva, D L; Bernardi, A O; Copetti, M V

    2018-03-01

    Due to recent foodborne outbreaks, peanuts have been considered a potential risk for Salmonella transmission. For this reason, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and contamination load of Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae throughout the peanut supply chain in Brazil. Samples of peanuts and peanut-containing processed products from post-harvest (n=129), secondary processing (n=185) and retail market (n=100) were analyzed. The results showed high Enterobacteriaceae counts in the post-harvest samples. At the end of the secondary processing, 16% of the samples remained contaminated by this group of microorganisms. Six peanut samples from primary production and one sample of peanut butter were tested positive for E. coli while Salmonella was detected in nine samples (2.2%): six from post-harvest, two from the initial stage of the secondary processing and one from retail. The Salmonella counts ranged between 0.004 and 0.092MPN/g and five serotypes were identified (Muenster, Miami, Javiana, Oranienburg, Glostrup). The results demonstrated a high prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and low prevalence of E. coli throughout the peanut supply chain. Furthermore, it was verified that peanuts may become contaminated by Salmonella during different stages of the supply chain, especially at post-harvest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.