WorldWideScience

Sample records for possibly affect efficient

  1. Affective Assessment Is Necessary and Possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.; Anderson, Jo Craig

    1982-01-01

    Presents information that teachers need when undertaking affective assessment: why such assessment should be done, what should be assessed, what instruments are available, how to determine the quality of the instrument, and how to interpret scores. (Author/JM)

  2. Possibilities for Negotiated Agreements on Energy Efficiency in CEE Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanic, Z.

    1997-01-01

    This article summarises the results of the four month study of the possibilities for using Negotiated Agreements on Energy Efficiency between Government and Industry as a tool for improving energy efficiency in the CEE industrial sector. Negotiated Agreements are becoming increasingly popular in many countries as a potential means of addressing environmental problems (SO 2 , NO x and CO 2 ) and resource depletion (the use of fossil fuels), without adversely affecting economic development. In the report the use of these instrument in a number of countries is considered and described in view of developing a framework for assessing the possibilities for such agreements in CEE countries. The framework was applied through a case-study of Poland and a quick 'scan' of Belarus, Croatia and Latvia. (author)

  3. The quantum walk search algorithm: Factors affecting efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Lovett, Neil B.; Everitt, Matthew; Heath, Robert M.; Kendon, Viv

    2011-01-01

    We numerically study the quantum walk search algorithm of Shenvi, Kempe and Whaley [PRA \\textbf{67} 052307] and the factors which affect its efficiency in finding an individual state from an unsorted set. Previous work has focused purely on the effects of the dimensionality of the dataset to be searched. Here, we consider the effects of interpolating between dimensions, connectivity of the dataset, and the possibility of disorder in the underlying substrate: all these factors affect the effic...

  4. On the efficiency of decentralized exchange with resale possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Ebbe; Tranæs, Torben

    1999-01-01

    . If resale is possible and transaction costs are negligible, we would nevertheless expect an efficient allocation to result from decentralized exchange. This paper suggests that this depends on the nature of the commodity; while the allocation of a durable good will be efficient, the allocation...

  5. Phytoremediation: realistic estimation of modern efficiency and future possibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravets, A.; Pavlenko, Y.; Kusmenko, L.; Ermak, M.

    1996-01-01

    Kinetic peculiarities of the radionuclides migration in the system 'soil-plant' of the Chernobyl region have been investigated by means of numerical modelling. Quantitative estimation of half-time of natural cleaning of soil has been realised. Potential possibility and efficiency of the modem phytoremediation technology has been estimated. Outlines of the general demands and future possibility of biotechnology of the phytoremediation creation have been formulated. (author)

  6. Phytoremediation: realistic estimation of modern efficiency and future possibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravets, A; Pavlenko, Y [Institute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering NAS, Kiev (Ukraine); Kusmenko, L; Ermak, M [Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetic NAS, Vasilkovsky, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1996-11-01

    Kinetic peculiarities of the radionuclides migration in the system 'soil-plant' of the Chernobyl region have been investigated by means of numerical modelling. Quantitative estimation of half-time of natural cleaning of soil has been realised. Potential possibility and efficiency of the modem phytoremediation technologyhas been estimated. Outlines of the general demands and future possibility of biotechnology of the phytoremediation creation have been formulated. (author)

  7. Market conditions affecting energy efficiency investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabright, J.

    1996-01-01

    The global energy efficiency market is growing, due in part to energy sector and macroeconomic reforms and increased awareness of the environmental benefits of energy efficiency. Many countries have promoted open, competitive markets, thereby stimulating economic growth. They have reduced or removed subsidies on energy prices, and governments have initiated energy conservation programs that have spurred the wider adoption of energy efficiency technologies. The market outlook for energy efficiency is quite positive. The global market for end-use energy efficiency in the industrial, residential and commercial sectors is now estimated to total more than $34 billion per year. There is still enormous technical potential to implement energy conservation measures and to upgrade to the best available technologies for new investments. For many technologies, energy-efficient designs now represent less than 10--20% of new product sales. Thus, creating favorable market conditions should be a priority. There are a number of actions that can be taken to create favorable market conditions for investing in energy efficiency. Fostering a market-oriented energy sector will lead to energy prices that reflect the true cost of supply. Policy initiatives should address known market failures and should support energy efficiency initiatives. And market transformation for energy efficiency products and services can be facilitated by creating an institutional and legal structure that favors commercially-oriented entities

  8. Factors affecting commuter rail energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-17

    The objective of this study is to develop a planninglevel model of commuter rail energy efficiency. The : environmental benefits of commuter rail are often cited as one of the key benefits and motivators for its rapid development as a public trans...

  9. Economic Analysis of Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Analysis of Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency of Smallholders ... socio-economic characteristics which influence technical efficiency in maize production. ... Ministry of Agriculture and livestock, records, books, reports and internet.

  10. Possibilities for the efficient utilisation of spent geothermal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Barbara; Szczepański, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Waters located at greater depths usually exhibit high mineral content, which necessitates the use of closed systems, i.e. re-injecting them into the formation after recovering the heat. This significantly reduces investment efficiency owing to the need to drill absorption wells and to perform anti-corrosion and anti-clogging procedures. In this paper, possibilities for the efficient utilisation of cooled geothermal waters are considered, particularly with respect to open or mixed geothermal water installations. Where cooled water desalination technologies are used, this allows the water to be demineralised and used to meet local needs (as drinking water and for leisure purposes). The retentate left as a by-product of the process contains valuable ingredients that can be used for balneological and/or leisure purposes. Thus, the technology for desalinating spent geothermal waters with high mineral content allows improved water management on a local scale and makes it possible to minimise the environmental threat resulting from the need to dump these waters into waterways or surface water bodies and/or inject them into the formation. The paper is concerned with Polish geothermal system and provides information about the parameters of Polish geothermal waters.

  11. Temperature affects radiation use efficiency in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, F.H.; Uhart, S.A.; Cirilo, A.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study, under field conditions, the effect of temperature on radiation use efficiency (RUE) of maize. Field evidence of the negative effect of low temperature on this variable is lacking. Experiments with different sowing dates and five years of experimentation with October plantings provided a range of average temperatures during the vegetative period from 15.8 to 20.9°C. Delaying the sowing time from September to November produced a highly significant increase in RUE. There was a positive association between RUE and mean temperature from emergence to flowering. Efficiencies varied from 2.27 to 3.17 g of dry matter per MJ of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation for October plantings of five different years. With these data, a positive and significant association between RUE and mean temperature during the November–December vegetative period was found. Across years and planting dates, RUE and mean temperature during the vegetative period were closely correlated (r = 0.87). The regression equation was RUE = −1.8 + 0.07 T. Based on this evidence, it was concluded that low temperatures reduce RUE in maize. (author)

  12. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilijus Sakalauskas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  13. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Liutvinavičius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars. Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios. The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors. The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless. Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient  attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  14. Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Maize Marketing in Vandeikya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Maize Marketing in Vandeikya Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. ... Two hundred maize marketers were selected from Vandeikya Local Area (LGA) of ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  15. Energy efficiency development possibilities in public transport; Joukkoliikenteen energiatehokkuuden kehittaemismahdollisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korteniemi, J.; Pasanen, P.; Latvala, M.; Pohjola, T. (Bionova Consulting, Helsinki (Finland))

    2010-10-15

    Environmental values, energy efficiency and climate impact have taken an essential role in the public affairs in the past years, and their weight in decision making is constantly increasing. One of HSL strategic goals is to promote low emissions transport. Public transport energy efficiency is good when compared to passenger cars today. However, the car energy and climate efficiency is improving substantially and the development is set to continue at least until 2020, supported by the EU directive on new car sales emission limits. The rapid development of passenger car emissions poses an increasing challenge for the energy and climate efficiency of public transport services. There are national and international binding goals for energy and climate efficiency development until the year 2020, and non-binding goals until the year 2050. The goals which impact public transport sector are 9 % improvement in energy efficiency by 2016 when compared to 2005 level, and national binding goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20 % and using 20 % of renewables in transport sector by 2020. By 2050, the targeted greenhouse gas reduction goals are up to 80 % of all emissions when compared to the 1990 emission levels. The public transport services provided by HSL use 628 GWh energy annually, which produces about 314 million public transport trips. The diesel and natural gas used by the buses represents two thirds of the energy consumption, whereas their share of the produced trips is about one half. The rail rolling stock energy consumption is one seventh of the whole. Circa one fifth of the energy is used by the transport infrastructure, such as stations, rail switch heating and the depots. In energy efficiency terms metro and train are clear leaders. One kilowatt hour of energy takes a passenger 10 km in metro and 29,9 km in a train. Correspondingly the passenger could travel in a tramway 4,4 km, in a diesel bus 2,7 km and in a natural gas bus 2,1 km and in a passenger car

  16. POSSIBILITIES OF INCREASING EFFICIENCY WITHIN SERIAL PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUŢA DURA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the impact of transition to the new post-industrial society, massproduction recently faced the most numerous difficulties. They are caused by turbulences in theexternal environment in which companies operate, manifested in particular by enhancing thedynamism of markets and by deep changes in the structure of consumers’ demands. In thiscontext, specialized literature records the concerns for increasing the efficiency and flexibilityof products, elements involving radical changes of management and manufacturingtechnologies methods. Given these issues, the paper approaches two separate ways to improvethe management of serial production: increasing economic efficiency by optimizing the size ofbatches and flexible production systems by implementing techniques to reduce the change-overtime.

  17. Carbonic Anhydrase: An Efficient Enzyme with Possible Global Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Boone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As the global atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2 and other greenhouse gases continue to grow to record-setting levels, so do the demands for an efficient and inexpensive carbon sequestration system. Concurrently, the first-world dependence on crude oil and natural gas provokes concerns for long-term availability and emphasizes the need for alternative fuel sources. At the forefront of both of these research areas are a family of enzymes known as the carbonic anhydrases (CAs, which reversibly catalyze the hydration of CO2 into bicarbonate. CAs are among the fastest enzymes known, which have a maximum catalytic efficiency approaching the diffusion limit of 108 M−1s−1. As such, CAs are being utilized in various industrial and research settings to help lower CO2 atmospheric emissions and promote biofuel production. This review will highlight some of the recent accomplishments in these areas along with a discussion on their current limitations.

  18. CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES: THE POSSIBILITIES AND EFFICIENCY OF METABOLIC THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Ya. Umarova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic brain ischemia is accompanied by complex metabolic rearrangements in the neurons. The ability of the cells to survive is largely determined by the presence of energy substrates and oxygen, the synthesis of neurotransmitters, and some other factors. The increasedpersistence of nerve tissue in ischemia and chances of recovering the impaired function can be achieved by the use of neuroprotective and neurotrophic agents. The efficiency of neurometabolic therapy is considered using Ceraxon and Actovegin as an example. It is emphasized that theefficiency of their administration can be achieved by the mandatory concurrent use of a wide range of nondrug treatments.

  19. Political ideology affects energy-efficiency attitudes and choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromet, Dena M; Kunreuther, Howard; Larrick, Richard P

    2013-06-04

    This research demonstrates how promoting the environment can negatively affect adoption of energy efficiency in the United States because of the political polarization surrounding environmental issues. Study 1 demonstrated that more politically conservative individuals were less in favor of investment in energy-efficient technology than were those who were more politically liberal. This finding was driven primarily by the lessened psychological value that more conservative individuals placed on reducing carbon emissions. Study 2 showed that this difference has consequences: In a real-choice context, more conservative individuals were less likely to purchase a more expensive energy-efficient light bulb when it was labeled with an environmental message than when it was unlabeled. These results highlight the importance of taking into account psychological value-based considerations in the individual adoption of energy-efficient technology in the United States and beyond.

  20. Political ideology affects energy-efficiency attitudes and choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromet, Dena M.; Kunreuther, Howard; Larrick, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    This research demonstrates how promoting the environment can negatively affect adoption of energy efficiency in the United States because of the political polarization surrounding environmental issues. Study 1 demonstrated that more politically conservative individuals were less in favor of investment in energy-efficient technology than were those who were more politically liberal. This finding was driven primarily by the lessened psychological value that more conservative individuals placed on reducing carbon emissions. Study 2 showed that this difference has consequences: In a real-choice context, more conservative individuals were less likely to purchase a more expensive energy-efficient light bulb when it was labeled with an environmental message than when it was unlabeled. These results highlight the importance of taking into account psychological value-based considerations in the individual adoption of energy-efficient technology in the United States and beyond. PMID:23630266

  1. Factors affecting the efficient transformation of Colletotrichum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Regina S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    1994-01-01

    Factors affecting the efficient transformation of Colletotrichum species. Experimental Mycology, 18, 230-246. Twelve isolates representing four species of Colletotrichum were transformed either by enhanced protoplast, restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI), or electroporation-mediated protocols. The enhanced protoplast transformation protocol resulted in 100- and 50-fold increases in the transformation efficiencies of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and C. magna , respectively. REMI transformation involved the use of Hin dIII and vector DNA linearized with HindIII to increase the number of integration events and potential gene disruptions in the fungal genome. Combining the enhanced protoplast and the REMI protocols resulted in a 22-fold increase in the number of hygromycin/nystatin-resistant mutants in C. lindemuthianum . Electroporation-mediated transformation was performed on mycelial fragments and spores of four Colletotrichum species, resulting in efficiencies of up to 1000 transformants/μg DNA. The pHA1.3 vector which confers hygromycin resistance contains telomeric sequences from Fusarium oxysporum , transforms by autonomous replication and genomic integration, and was essential for elevated transformation efficiencies of 100 to 10,000 transformants/μg DNA. Modifications of pHA1.3 occurred during bacterial amplification and post fungal transformation resulting in plasmids capable of significantly elevated transformation efficiencies in C. lindemuthianum.

  2. The exogenous factors affecting the cost efficiency of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.-S.; Chen, Y.-T.; Chen, W.-D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper employs a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to examine cost efficiency and scale economies in Taiwan Power Company (TPC) by using the panel data covering the period of 1995-2006. In most previous studies, the efficiency estimated by the Panel Data without testing the endogeneity may bring about a biased estimator resulting from the correlation between input and individual effect. A Hausman test is conducted in this paper to examine the endogeneity of input variables and thus an appropriate model is selected based on the test result. This study finds that the power generation executes an increasing return to scale across all the power plants based on the pooled data. We also use installed capacity, service years of the power plant, and type of fuel as explanatory variable for accounting for the estimated cost efficiency of each plant by a logistic regression model to examine the factor affecting the individual efficiency estimates. The results demonstrate that the variable of installed capacity keeps a positive relationship with cost efficiency while the factor of working years has a negative relationship.

  3. Factors affecting the technical efficiency of dairy farms in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egzon BAJRAMI

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A possible accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO and an expected membership in the European Union raise significant opportunities and challenges for the agricultural sector in Kosovo. As a result of these changes, the sector will have to improve efficiency and competitiveness. This research is motivated by the need to understand better the forces that drive competitiveness in the Kosovo dairy sector. This study estimates the technical efficiency (TE of 243 dairy farms in Kosovo and relates TE variation to farm size and other primary determinants of TE. A stochastic frontier production function is estimated using a two-stage procedure. Results reveal that concentrate feed intake, land use per cow, and the number of days cows had been kept on pasture have statistically significant impacts on milk productivity per cow. The mean technical efficiency of dairy farms was estimated at 0.72. The major determinants that increase efficiency are breed improvement, intensification of corn production on the farm, improving concentrate feed intake, and using free-range production systems. Given the results from the technical efficiency analysis, it is crucial for the Government of Kosovo to redesign their dairy policy—specifically their grant investment schemes—and target assistance on improving national herd genetics, promoting free range systems and expanding area planted in corn.

  4. Identifying Nonprovider Factors Affecting Pediatric Emergency Medicine Provider Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Fareed; Breslin, Kristen; Mullan, Paul C; Tillett, Zachary; Chamberlain, James M

    2017-10-31

    The aim of this study was to create a multivariable model of standardized relative value units per hour by adjusting for nonprovider factors that influence efficiency. We obtained productivity data based on billing records measured in emergency relative value units for (1) both evaluation and management of visits and (2) procedures for 16 pediatric emergency medicine providers with more than 750 hours worked per year. Eligible shifts were in an urban, academic pediatric emergency department (ED) with 2 sites: a tertiary care main campus and a satellite community site. We used multivariable linear regression to adjust for the impact of shift and pediatric ED characteristics on individual-provider efficiency and then removed variables from the model with minimal effect on productivity. There were 2998 eligible shifts for the 16 providers during a 3-year period. The resulting model included 4 variables when looking at both ED sites combined. These variables include the following: (1) number of procedures billed by provider, (2) season of the year, (3) shift start time, and (4) day of week. Results were improved when we separately modeled each ED location. A 3-variable model using procedures billed by provider, shift start time, and season explained 23% of the variation in provider efficiency at the academic ED site. A 3-variable model using procedures billed by provider, patient arrivals per hour, and shift start time explained 45% of the variation in provider efficiency at the satellite ED site. Several nonprovider factors affect provider efficiency. These factors should be considered when designing productivity-based incentives.

  5. What factors affect the productivity and efficiency of physician practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunshine, Jonathan H; Hughes, Danny R; Meghea, Cristian; Bhargavan, Mythreyi

    2010-02-01

    Increasing the productivity and efficiency of physician practices could help relieve the rapid growth of US healthcare costs and the expected physician shortage. Radiology practices are an attractive specific focus for research on practices' productivity and efficiency because they are home to many purportedly productivity-enhancing operational technologies. This affords an opportunity to study the effect of production technology on physicians' output. As well, radiology is a leader in the general movement of physicians out of very small practices. And imaging is by the fastest-growing category of physician expenditure. Using data from 2003 to 2007 surveys of radiologists, we estimate a stochastic frontier model to study the effects of practice characteristics, such as work hours, practice size, and output mix, and technologies used in work production, on practices' productivity and efficiency. At the mean, the elasticities of output with respect to practice size and annual hours worked per full-time physician were 0.73 and 0.51, respectively. Some production technologies increase productivity by 15% to 20%; others generate no increase. Using "nighthawks"--ie, contracting out after-hours work to external firms that consolidate workflow--significantly increases practice efficiency. The general US trend toward larger practice size is unlikely to relieve cost or physician shortage pressures. The actual effect of purportedly productivity-enhancing operational technologies needs to be carefully evaluated before they are widely adopted. As the recently-developed innovations of nighthawks and hospitalists show, practices should give more attention to a possible choice to "buy," rather than "make," part of their output.

  6. Energy Choices. Efficient Energy Use - possibilities and barriers; Vaegval Energi. Energieffektivisering - moejligheter och hinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagemar, Lennart (CIT Energy Management AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Pettersson, Bertil (Chalmers EnergiCentrum, CEC, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    Sweden's total energy supply in 2006 amounted to a total of 624 TWh and was dominated by crude oil, nuclear fuels, biofuels and hydropower. Different types of losses in the system accounts for one third of the energy. The final energy consumption, i.e. delivery minus losses, was divided in the following way: industry 157 TWh, the habitat of 145 TWh (of which 19 TWh relates to Agriculture, Forestry, Fishery and other service and secondary homes) and transport of 101 TWh. For the transport sector, studies show that combinations of various efficiency measures ideally can achieve an reduction in energy use by between 60 and 75 percent. The Governmental Energy Efficiency Inquiry (EnEff - 2008) estimated that the domestic transport techno-economic efficiency potential up to 2016 is 13 TWh (mainly fuel) of the total delivered energy is 87 TWh under EnEff. The potential about 5 TWh is expected to be completed by current instruments. The study assesses that despite the increased need for transport in 2016 the sector's energy use can remain at the same level or even be reduced. Buildings have a large technical and economic energy efficiency potential. According to EnEff's assessment, the streamlining potential is 33 TWh of which 8 TWh can implemented in 2016 with today's instruments. This compares with the total delivered energy is 151 TWh under EnEff. The total energy efficiency potential for buildings by 2020 is considered to be substantially higher, about 41 TWh, and affect the use of district heating, fuel and electricity. New powerful tools must be implemented for the building sector in order to realize the potential energy efficiency measures. Industry's total energy potential is assessed to be around 13 TWh by 2016. Industry's total energy use is 155 TWh according to EnEff. Only 2 TWh can realistically be saved up to 2016 taking into account a reasonable acceptance factor. The beneficiaries of the carbon emissions trade account for about

  7. Possible self-complexity and affective reactions to goal-relevant evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedenthal, P M; Setterlund, M B; Wherry, M B

    1992-07-01

    The complexity of people's self-concept appears to be inversely related to the intensity of their reactions to evaluative feedback about present goals and abilities (Linville, 1985, 1987). The idea that the complexity of individuals' possible self-concept similarly mediates reactions to feedback regarding future goals was investigated. Two preliminary studies suggested that complexity of the actual self only explains 20% to 30% of the variance in possible self-complexity. Three studies were conducted. Support was found for the idea that possible self-complexity mediates affective reactions to evaluative feedback about future goals and actual self-complexity mediates affective reactions to evaluative feedback about present goals. The findings underscore the independent roles of the organization of actual and possible self-concepts in affective processes.

  8. Possible improvements of efficiency by the use of new coal conversion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieb, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    Following a comparison of the efficiencies of conventional steam power processes, the gas fuel cell and the combined gas steam turbine processes are introduced as new coal utilization technologies. Coal conversion processes which can be coupled to combined gas-steam turbine processes such as the fluidized-bed firing, the solid bed gasification, the dust part-gasification and the fluidized-bed gasification are more closely mentioned and their coupling efficiencies discussed. The decoupling of third energy, such as low-temperature heat, high-temperature heat and chemical energy are briefly dealt with as third possibility for the improvement of the efficiency. (GG/LH) [de

  9. Possibility of increasing the efficiency of laser-induced tattoo removal by optical skin clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Tuchin, V. V.; Altshuler, G. B.; Yaroslavskii, I. V.

    2008-06-01

    The possibility of selective laser photothermolysis improvement for the removal of tattoo pigments due to the optical clearing of human skin is investigated. It is shown experimentally that the optical skin clearing increases the tattoo image contrast. Computer Monte Carlo simulations show that by decreasing the laser beam scattering in upper skin layers, it is possible to reduce the radiation power required for tattoo removal by 30%—40% and, therefore, to increase the the photothermolysis efficiency.

  10. Analysis of factors affecting the technical efficiency of cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study estimated the technical efficiency of cocoa producers and the socioeconomic factors influencing technical efficiency and identified the constraints to cocoa production. A multi-stage random sampling method was used to select 180 cocoa farmers who were interviewed for the study. Data on the inputs used and ...

  11. Factors affecting the Faradaic efficiency of Fe(0) electrocoagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Genuchten, C.M.; Dalby, K.N.; Ceccato, M.; Stipp, S.L.S.; Dideriksen, K

    2017-01-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) using Fe(0) electrodes is a low cost water treatment technology that relies on efficient production of Fe(II) from the electrolytic dissolution of Fe(0) electrodes (i.e. a high Faradaic efficiency). However, the (electro)chemical factors that favor Fe(0) oxidation rather than

  12. Possibilities of increasing the efficiency of track-bound haulage in roadways, particularly diesel locomotive haulage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, H; Zubiller, H

    1977-12-15

    This paper discusses ways of increasing the efficiency of monorail transport systems by changes in the design of trains and tracks. It is important that the slope of roadways should be as even as possible, thus avoiding steep sections. The tracks should be kept clean, and critical parts should be covered to protect them from dirt. (In German)

  13. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmijster, M.J.; van Soest, A.J.; de Koning, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e

  14. A review on energy efficiency standards and labels: present status and implementation possibilities in malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M.I. Mahlia,

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review on energy efficiency standards  and labels for household electrical appliances around the world. Through the review of other country experiences on energy efficiency standards and labels, we attempt to identify savings possibilities in Malaysian households. The implementation possibilities of standards and labels for various household electrical appliances in Malaysia are also examined. It is found that various household appliances in Malaysia offer some potential in reducing electricity consumption. Finally, it is concluded that there are many advantages for Malaysia to implement the standards and labels for household electrical appliances as soon as possible in order to reduce electricity  bills  and energy  consumption  in Malaysian  households.

  15. Fenton-like reaction: a possible way to efficiently remove illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Mosný, Michal; Grabic, Roman; Golovko, Oksana; Koba, Olga; Birošová, Lucia

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed 13 psychoactive pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and their metabolites in wastewater treatment plant influent and effluent and the possibility of their degradation by biological and chemical processes. Tramadol (413-853 ng/L) and methamphetamine (460-682 ng/L) were the most concentrated compounds in the wastewater in winter and summer, respectively. A significant decrease in the concentration of tramadol in wastewater was measured during the summer. The lowest efficiency was observed for tramadol, venlafaxine, citalopram and oxazepam (∼ 10%) and the highest efficiency was observed for amphetamine and THC-COOH (∼ 80%). The efficiency of compound degradation via the Fenton reaction, a modified Fenton reaction and different degradation (by algae, wood-rotting fungi and enzymes at influent versus effluent) was determined. The Fenton reaction and its modification were efficient at eliminating these substances in comparison with the tested biological processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of elasticity during viscoelastic polymer flooding : a possible mechanism of increasing the sweep efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbissinova, T.S.; Trivedi, J.J.; Kuru, E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-12-15

    This paper discussed a laboratory experiment undertaken to study how the elasticity of polymer-based fluids affects microscopic sweep efficiency, which has implications for enhanced oil recovery processes. In a series of experiments, polymer solutions with the same shear viscosity but notably different elastic characteristics were injected through a mineral-oil-saturated sandpack. The experiments involved a special core holder that was designed to simulate radial flow. The solution was injected via a perforated injection line located in the centre of the cell, and fluids were produced by way of 2 production lines located at the periphery. The shear rate used in the experiments was within the range of field applications. Using polymer solutions with similar shear viscosity behaviour and different elasticity allowed the effect of elasticity on sweep efficiency to be singled out. It was concluded that adjusting the molecular weight distribution of the solution at a constant shear viscosity and polymer concentration could improve the sweep efficiency of a polymeric fluid. The higher-elasticity polymer solution had a higher resistance to flow through porous media, resulting in better sweep efficiency and lower residual oil saturation. The objective of the study was to isolate elasticity from the other parameters that affect displacement efficiency to show the individual effect of elasticity on oil recovery. 20 refs., 5 tabs., 14 figs.

  17. Possibility to Increase Biofuels Energy Efficiency used for Compression Ignition Engines Fueling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin D. Iclodean

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibilities of optimizing the use of biofuels in terms of energy efficiency in compression ignition (CI engines fueling. Based on the experimental results was determinate the law of variation of the rate of heat released by the combustion process for diesel fuel and different blends of biodiesel. Using this law, were changed parameters of the engine management system (fuel injection law and was obtain increased engine performance (in terms of energy efficiency for use of different biofuel blends.

  18. Possibility of increasing the efficiency of laser-induced tattoo removal by optical skin clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genina, E A; Bashkatov, A N; Tuchin, V V; Yaroslavskii, I V; Altshuler, G B

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of selective laser photothermolysis improvement for the removal of tattoo pigments due to the optical clearing of human skin is investigated. It is shown experimentally that the optical skin clearing increases the tattoo image contrast. Computer Monte Carlo simulations show that by decreasing the laser beam scattering in upper skin layers, it is possible to reduce the radiation power required for tattoo removal by 30%-40% and, therefore, to increase the the photothermolysis efficiency. (special issue devoted to application of laser technologies in biophotonics and biomedical studies)

  19. Does microbial biomass affect pelagic ecosystem efficiency? An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, J D; Le, J; Campbell, L

    1994-01-01

    Bacteria and other microorganisms in the pelagic zone participate in the recycling of organic matter and nutrients within the water column. The microbial loop is thought to enhance ecosystem efficiency through rapid recycling and reduced sinking rates, thus reducing the loss of nutrients contained in organisms remaining within the photic zone. We conducted experiments with lake communities in 5400-liter mesocosms, and measured the flux of materials and nutrients out of the water column. A factorial design manipulated 8 nutrient treatments: 4 phosphorus levels × 2 nitrogen levels. Total sedimentation rates were greatest in high-N mesocosms; within N-surplus communities, [Symbol: see text]1 µM P resulted in 50% increase in total particulate losses. P additions without added N had small effects on nutrient losses from the photic zone; +2 µM P tanks received 334 mg P per tank, yet after 14 days lost only 69 mg more particulate-P than did control communities. Nutrient treatments resulted in marked differences in phytoplankton biomass (twofold N effect, fivefold P effect in +N mesocosms only), bacterioplankton densities (twofold N-effect, twofold P effects in -N and +N mesocosms), and the relative importance of autotrophic picoplankton (maximum in high NY mesocosms). Multiple regression analysis found that of 8 plankton and water chemistry variables, the ratio of autotrophic picoplankton to total phytoplankton (measured as chlorophyll α) explained the largest portion of the total variation in sedimentation loss rates (65% of P-flux, 57% of N-flux, 26% of total flux). In each case, systems with greater relative importance of autotrophic picoplankton had significantly reduced loss rates. In contrast, greater numbers of planktonic bacteria were associated with increased sedimentation rates and lower system efficiency. We suggest that different microbial components may have contrasting effects on the presumed enhanced efficiency provided by the microbial loop.

  20. Radial Head Subluxation: Possible Effective Factors on Time to Re-use the Affected Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Heydari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radial head subluxation (RHS is a common disorder in children. Although it is not accompanied by any important short- or long-term sequel, it could make the parents worried about. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the possible effective factors that may influence time to use the affected limb. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted prospectively during the years 2014 to 2016. All children under the age of 6 years who visited the emergency department (ED and were diagnosed as having RHS were eligible. The patients’ baseline information was recorded. After the reduction, the time until the affected arm use returned was recorded. The possible relationship between the baseline data and time to re-use the affected limb was assessed. Results: During the study period, 112 children with a mean age of 30.18 ± 18.18 months were evaluated (53% male. Among the children who visited the ED during the first 4 hours and thereafter, 84% and 60%, respectively, re-used their limb in less than 10 minutes after reduction (p = 0.004. Also, 55% of children less than or equal to 24 months and 89% over the age of 24 months re-used the arm in 10 minutes (p < 0.001. The success rate of the first reduction maneuver was significantly lower in children with a recurrent dislocation (p = 0.001. Conclusion: It is likely that age less than or equal to 24 months and ED visit after 4 hours of the event lead to a longer duration for re-using the affected arm following reduction.

  1. Derivation of main drivers affecting the possibility of human errors during low power and shutdown operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Jae Whan

    2016-01-01

    In order to estimate the possibility of human error and identify its nature, human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been implemented. For this, various HRA methods have been developed so far: techniques for human error rate prediction (THERP), cause based decision tree (CBDT), the cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. Most HRA methods have been developed with a focus on full power operation of NPPs even though human performance may more largely affect the safety of the system during low power and shutdown (LPSD) operation than it would when the system is in full power operation. In this regard, it is necessary to conduct a research for developing HRA method to be used in LPSD operation. For the first step of the study, main drivers which affect the possibility of human error have been developed. Drivers which are commonly called as performance shaping factors (PSFs) are aspects of the human's individual characteristics, environment, organization, or task that specifically decrements or improves human performance, thus respectively increasing or decreasing the likelihood of human errors. In order to estimate the possibility of human error and identify its nature, human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been implemented. For this, various HRA methods have been developed so far: techniques for human error rate prediction (THERP), cause based decision tree (CBDT), the cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. Most HRA methods have been developed with a focus on full power operation of NPPs even though human performance may more largely affect the safety of the system during low power and shutdown (LPSD) operation than it would when the system is in full power operation. In this regard, it is necessary to conduct a research for developing HRA method to be used in LPSD operation. For the first step of the study, main drivers which affect the possibility of human error have been developed. Drivers which

  2. Derivation of main drivers affecting the possibility of human errors during low power and shutdown operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Jae Whan [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In order to estimate the possibility of human error and identify its nature, human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been implemented. For this, various HRA methods have been developed so far: techniques for human error rate prediction (THERP), cause based decision tree (CBDT), the cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. Most HRA methods have been developed with a focus on full power operation of NPPs even though human performance may more largely affect the safety of the system during low power and shutdown (LPSD) operation than it would when the system is in full power operation. In this regard, it is necessary to conduct a research for developing HRA method to be used in LPSD operation. For the first step of the study, main drivers which affect the possibility of human error have been developed. Drivers which are commonly called as performance shaping factors (PSFs) are aspects of the human's individual characteristics, environment, organization, or task that specifically decrements or improves human performance, thus respectively increasing or decreasing the likelihood of human errors. In order to estimate the possibility of human error and identify its nature, human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been implemented. For this, various HRA methods have been developed so far: techniques for human error rate prediction (THERP), cause based decision tree (CBDT), the cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. Most HRA methods have been developed with a focus on full power operation of NPPs even though human performance may more largely affect the safety of the system during low power and shutdown (LPSD) operation than it would when the system is in full power operation. In this regard, it is necessary to conduct a research for developing HRA method to be used in LPSD operation. For the first step of the study, main drivers which affect the possibility of human error have been developed. Drivers

  3. Possible affection of psychic health with regard to exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otten, W.; Vlek, C.A.J.

    1988-12-01

    This report makes part of a series of eight reports which have been drawn up in behalf of the dutch Policy Notition Radiation Standards (BNS). It presents the results of an investigation into the possible affection of psychic health with regard to exposure to ionizing radiation. First the concept 'psychic health' is circumscribed. Subsequently the possible effects of ionizing radiation upon psychic health are entered by outlining two cause-effect chains, in which various variables are distinguished. Thus the framework in which the remainder of the report has been written, is described (ch.2). Ch. 3 deals with the measurability of psychic health and of the various variables in two cause-effect chains. In ch. 4 the found empirical evidence of the effects of ionizing radiation upon psychic health is described. This chapter is especially based upon study of literature. In ch. 5 interviews with users of various radiation sources are reported. In ch. 6 the question of standardization of ionizing radiation with regard to possible (psychic) damage is entered. It is looked if one can speak in terms of 'standards' in case of psychic damage. As far as standardization does not seem to be possible practical alternatives are presented with which eventual psychic damage from ionizing (radiation) sources may be limited. Finally in ch. 7 a comparison is made between the theoretical framework of the (possible) effects of ionizing radiation upon psychic health and the measurability of the therein distinguishable variables on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the empirical materials obtained from the study of the literature and the interviews. (H.W.) 103 refs.; 8 figs

  4. Method of oocyte activation affects cloning efficiency in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Kristin M; Li, Rongfeng; Spate, Lee D; Wax, David M; Rieke, August; Whyte, Jeffrey J; Manandhar, Gaurishankar; Sutovsky, Miriam; Green, Jonathan A; Sutovsky, Peter; Prather, Randall S

    2009-05-01

    The following experiments compared the efficiency of three fusion/activation protocols following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with porcine somatic cells transfected with enhanced green fluorescent protein driven by the chicken beta-actin/rabbit beta-globin hybrid promoter (pCAGG-EGFP). The three protocols included electrical fusion/activation (NT1), electrical fusion/activation followed by treatment with a reversible proteasomal inhibitor MG132 (NT2) and electrical fusion in low Ca(2+) followed by chemical activation with thimerosal/dithiothreitol (NT3). Data were collected at Days 6, 12, 14, 30, and 114 of gestation. Fusion rates, blastocyst-stage mean cell numbers, recovery rates, and pregnancy rates were calculated and compared between protocols. Fusion rates were significantly higher for NT1 and NT2 compared to NT3 (P NT1 (71.4%, n = 28; P 0.05). All fusion/activation treatments produced live, pCAGG-EGFP positive piglets from SCNT. Treatment with MG132 after fusion/activation of reconstructed porcine embryos was the most effective method when comparing the overall pregnancy rates. The beneficial effect of NT2 protocol may be due to the stimulation of proteasomes that infiltrate donor cell nucleus shortly after nuclear transfer. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Environmentally assisted cracking of non-sensitized stainless steels - possible affecting phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrnsten, Ulla; Haenninen, Hannu

    2006-09-01

    Intergranular, environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) has been observed, not only in sensitized austenitic stainless steels, but also in non-sensitized stainless steels. This type of cracking has so far been connected to cold-worked stainless steels and it has been reported to occur in the oxidising environments, but it may also be a potential degradation mode in non-oxidising environments (i.e., both in BWR and PWR conditions). Localisation of plastic deformation and the interactions between oxidation and strain localisation are most probably playing the key role in cracking of cold-worked stainless steels. In this paper, the possible affecting phenomena are reviewed with the main emphasis on dynamic strain ageing. However, also environmentally enhanced creep, dynamic recovery, microstructures of the cold-worked austenitic stainless steels and relaxation are briefly discussed. Mechanistic understanding of the effects of these main factors affecting intergranular stress corrosion cracking of cold-worked, non-sensitized austenitic stainless steels is important, especially as the trend in the NDE inspection strategy is moving towards risk informed inspection. (authors)

  6. Possibilities for the Rehabilitation of Settlements Affected by Large Scale Radioactive Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zombori, P.; Roed, J.; Matveenko, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Rehabilitation of contaminated settlements is an important issue in planning nuclear emergency management. The decisions must be based on the calculation of the dose avertable by certain decontamination methods and on the optimisation of the reclamation strategy applying the best of these techniques, with the full consideration of all possible aspects. The optimisation procedure requires the knowledge of the efficiency of different techniques, in terms of avertable dose, costs, public acceptance, feasibility etc. With the support of the IAEA a decontamination study was conducted in the highly contaminated area of Masany, Belarus, an abandoned settlement in the exclusion zone, close to the Ukrainian border and only a few kilometres away from the Chernobyl NPP. The study was conducted in and around a village house, trying several traditional and new techniques to reduce the potential indoor and outdoor doses to the inhabitants who would live in such buildings. The following methods were tested on the surfaces of the house: cleaning the roof with a high pressure hot water jet and with the use of a special roof-cleaning trolley, cleaning the wooden outer walls with the hot water jet and with planning these walls, vacuum cleaning the inner walls. The decontamination factors obtained for the roof cleaning were up to 5, the effect of the inner wall decontamination was less pronounced. Several techniques of decontamination of the land around the house were tested: normal digging, triple digging and removal of topsoil. The latter two proved to be equally efficient with a dose reduction of about 3-5 fold. The details and results of the study will be given in the paper. (author)

  7. High yield CTMP fibres as a possibility of the more efficient yield of wood raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klašnja Bojana A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The evident shortage of wood as a raw material has become a limiting factor in the pulp and paper industry which is the greatest consumer of wood in Europe. The situation in our country is similar. During the few past years, the production of poplar and willow pulpwood was 220.000 m3 per year, which is insufficient for the planned increase in the production of sulphate pulp (175.000 tons till 2005. This paper deals with the aspects of the more efficient yield of raw material, based on the significantly higher yield of CTMP fibres, as well as with the significance of the lower adverse effect on the environment. It also analyses the conditions of production and the quality of the obtained fibres, as a possible substitute for chemical pulp and secondary fibres in papers of different quality. The main reasons for the production and use of CTMP fibres in our country are reported.

  8. Factors affecting the labor efficiency of hospital-based blood bank laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, H C; Kominski, G F; Petz, L D; Sofaer, S

    1994-09-01

    A variety of financing mechanisms and managerial innovations have been developed in the past decade to control hospital costs. Some evidence suggests that those changes have not produced substantial improvements in labor efficiency among employees in the hospital's technical level, such as in the blood bank laboratories. This study measured labor efficiency in 40 hospital-based blood bank laboratories in Southern California during the year from July 1989 to June 1990 and explored the impact of financial, managerial, and operational factors on labor efficiency. With standardized output measures used in all blood bank laboratories, a wide variation of labor efficiency was found. Multivariate analyses indicate that the labor efficiency of blood bank employees was not influenced by organizational financial incentives, but was affected by the managerial styles of blood bank managers. Interpretation of the findings suggests that labor efficiency is affected by operational designs intended to improve responses to variable workloads and reduce slack time.

  9. An Evaluation of the Critical Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Some Sorting Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Olabiyisi S.O.; Adetunji A.B.; Oyeyinka F.I.

    2013-01-01

    Sorting allows information or data to be put into a meaningful order. As efficiency is a major concern of computing, data are sorted in order to gain the efficiency in retrieving or searching tasks. The factors affecting the efficiency of shell, Heap, Bubble, Quick and Merge sorting techniques in terms of running time, memory usage and the number of exchanges were investigated. Experiment was conducted for the decision variables generated from algorithms implemented in Java programming and fa...

  10. Negative Affectivity, Depression, and Resting Heart Rate Variability (HRV as Possible Moderators of Endogenous Pain Modulation in Functional Somatic Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Van Den Houte

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have shown that patients with functional somatic syndromes (FSS have, on average, deficient endogenous pain modulation (EPM, as well as elevated levels of negative affectivity (NA and high comorbidity with depression and reduced resting heart rate variability (HRV compared to healthy controls (HC. The goals of this study were (1 to replicate these findings and (2 to investigate the moderating role of NA, depression, and resting HRV in EPM efficiency within a patient group with fibromyalgia and/or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Resting HRV was quantified as the root mean square of successive differences between inter-beat intervals (RMSSD in rest, a vagally mediated time domain measure of HRV.Methods: Seventy-eight patients with fibromyalgia and/or CFS and 33 HC completed a counter-irritation paradigm as a measure of EPM efficiency. Participants rated the painfulness of electrocutaneous stimuli (of individually calibrated intensity on the ankle before (baseline phase, during (counter-irritation phase and after (recovery phase the application of a cold pain stimulus on the forearm. A larger reduction in pain in the counter-irritation phase compared to the baseline phase reflects a more efficient EPM.Results: In contrast to our expectations, there was no difference between pain ratings in the baseline compared to counter-irritation phase for both patients and HC. Therefore, reliable conclusions on the moderating effect of NA, depression, and RMSSD could not be made. Surprisingly, patients reported more pain in the recovery compared to the counter-irritation and baseline phase, while HC did not. This latter effect was more pronounced in patients with comorbid depression, patients who rated the painfulness of the counter-irritation stimulus as high and patients who rated the painfulness of the electrocutaneous stimuli as low. We did not manage to successfully replicate the counter-irritation effect in HC or FSS patients

  11. How did China's foreign exchange reform affect the efficiency of foreign exchange market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ye; Wang, Yiming; Su, Chi-wei

    2017-10-01

    This study compares the market efficiency of China's onshore and offshore foreign exchange markets before and after the foreign exchange reform on August 11, 2015. We use the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of the onshore and offshore RMB/USD spot exchange rate series as basis. We then find that the onshore foreign exchange market before the reform has the lowest market efficiency, which increased after the reform. The offshore foreign exchange market before the reform has the highest market efficiency, which dropped after the reform. This finding implies the increased efficiency of the onshore foreign exchange market and the loss of efficiency in the offshore foreign exchange market. We also find that the offshore foreign exchange market is more efficient than the onshore market and that the gap shrank after the reform. Changes in intervention of the People's Bank of China since the reform is a possible explanation for the changes in the efficiency of the foreign exchange market.

  12. The Possibility of Phase Change Materials (PCM Usage to Increase Efficiency of the Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klugmann-Radziemska Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is widely available, free and inexhaustible. Furthermore this source of energy is the most friendly to the environment. For direct conversion of solar energy into useful forms like of electricity and thermal energy, respectively photovoltaic cells and solar collectors are being used. Forecast indicate that the first one solution will soon have a significant part in meeting the global energy demand. Therefore it is highly important to increase their efficiency in the terms of providing better energy conversion conditions. It can be obtain by designing new devices or by modifications of existing ones. This article presents general issues of photovoltaic installations exposed to work in high temperatures and basic concepts about phase change materials (PCMs. The paper presents the possibility of PCM usage to receive heat from the photovoltaic module. Specially designed test stand, consisting of PV module covered with a layer of PCM has been build and tested. Current-voltage characteristics of the cell without PCM material and with a layer of PCM have been presented. Authors also describe the results of the electrical and thermal characteristic of a coupled PV-PCM system.

  13. In vivo dendritic cell depletion reduces breeding efficiency, affecting implantation and early placental development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Gesa; Frank, Pierre; Shaikly, Valerie; Barrientos, Gabriela; Cordo-Russo, Rosalia; Ringel, Frauke; Moschansky, Petra; Chernukhin, Igor V; Metodiev, Metodi; Fernández, Nelson; Klapp, Burghard F; Arck, Petra C; Blois, Sandra M

    2008-09-01

    Implantation of mammalian embryos into their mother's uterus ensures optimal nourishment and protection throughout development. Complex molecular interactions characterize the implantation process, and an optimal synchronization of the components of this embryo-maternal dialogue is crucial for a successful reproductive outcome. In the present study, we investigated the role of dendritic cells (DC) during implantation process using a transgenic mouse system (DTRtg) that allows transient depletion of CD11c+ cells in vivo through administration of diphtheria toxin. We observed that DC depletion impairs the implantation process, resulting in a reduced breeding efficiency. Furthermore, the maturity of uterine natural killer cells at dendritic cell knockout (DCKO) implantation sites was affected as well; as demonstrated by decreased perforin expression and reduced numbers of periodic-acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive cells. This was accompanied by disarrangements in decidual vascular development. In the present study, we were also able to identify a novel DC-dependent protein, phosphatidylinositol transfer protein beta (PITPbeta), involved in implantation and trophoblast development using a proteomic approach. Indeed, DCKO mice exhibited substantial anomalies in placental development, including hypocellularity of the spongiotrophoblast and labyrinthine layers and reduced numbers of trophoblast giant cells. Giant cells also down-regulated their expression of two characteristic markers of trophoblast differentiation, placental lactogen 1 and proliferin. In view of these findings, dendritic cells emerge as possible modulators in the orchestration of events leading to the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy.

  14. Do soil organic carbon levels affect potential yields and nitrogen use efficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Markussen, Bo; Knudsen, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is broadly recognised as an important parameter affecting soil quality, and can therefore contribute to improving a number of soil properties that influence crop yield. Previous research generally indicates that soil organic carbon has positive effects on crop yields......, the yield with no fertiliser N application and the N use efficiency would be positively affected by SOC level. A statistical model was developed to explore relationships between SOC and potential yield, yields at zero N application and N use efficiency (NUE). The model included a variety of variables...

  15. Studies of Some Parameters Affecting The Efficiency and Accuracy of The Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Zaghloul, R.A.; Sroor, A.; Abdel Sabour, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    The present studies deal with the optimum physical conditions which seriously affect the neutron activation analysis technique efficiency. An experimental work for the efficiency calibration of hyper pure germanium detectors especially for environmental studies is presented. This work showed that the tested parameters, under consideration, distance, mass and measured time, reveal a significant effect on the obtained data. These results, intern, affect the accuracy of the measurements. Further work on the test of other parameters is planned in our laboratory using special treatments and applying special computer programs

  16. Trauma-Related Dissociation as a Factor Affecting Musicians' Memory for Music: Some Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Inette; van Niekerk, Caroline; Hartman, Woltemade

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of the influence of trauma on musicians revealed concentration and memory problems as two of the most common symptoms hampering the performance of affected individuals. In many instances where the causes of these problems were related to trauma sequelae, these could clearly be linked to dissociative symptoms. The following…

  17. Study of Core Competency Elements and Factors Affecting Performance Efficiency of Government Teachers in Northeastern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansirisira, Pacharawit

    2012-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the core competency elements and the factors affecting the performance efficiency of the civil service teachers in the northeastern region, Thailand. The research procedure consisted of two steps. In the first step, the data were collected using a questionnaire with the reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) of 0.90. The…

  18. Implementing batteries in electrical grids. Possible operating modes for efficient business cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittlaus, Barnabas; Schreider, Achim; Pour, Adel Hassan [Lahmeyer International GmbH, Bad Vilbel (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    For almost two decades, there has been a global trend towards the deregulation and the liberalisation of electricity markets. Previously, national or regional monopolistic utility companies provided services along the entire supply chain of electricity supply: Beginning with the operation of power plants and thus the generation of electricity, continuing through the development and the operation of transmission and local distribution grids, to the connection points. Since all assets belonged to the utility company, they could easily access generation units in order to provide balancing power for the safe and reliable operation of the electricity networks. With the objective of a more efficient and cheaper electricity supply by enabling competition, European Directive 96/92/EC (repealed by 2003/53/EC) enacted so-called ''unbundling'' which meant the break-up of utility companies as full service suppliers into the three service oriented entities; for electricity generation, transmission and supply. Whereas previously a single utility company provided the balancing of the electricity grid with its own assets, as a consequence of the directive, markets developed for the provision of diverse technical services. As long as the utility companies provided these services on their own, technical rather than economic aspects prevailed in their investment decisions. With the establishment of open markets for primary, secondary and tertiary reserve power, commercial interfaces had been established which force the respective specialised market actor to investment decisions driven primarily by economic aspects. At nearly the same time - around two decades ago, the first renewable energy systems (RES) provided electricity to public grids. In the 1990's their share of the overall electricity mix was negligible, but since the beginning of the new millennium more and more countries recognised the ecological and economic advantages of RES and established incentive systems for their

  19. Highly efficient star formation in NGC 5253 possibly from stream-fed accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J L; Beck, S C; Benford, D J; Consiglio, S M; Ho, P T P; Kovács, A; Meier, D S; Zhao, J-H

    2015-03-19

    Gas clouds in present-day galaxies are inefficient at forming stars. Low star-formation efficiency is a critical parameter in galaxy evolution: it is why stars are still forming nearly 14 billion years after the Big Bang and why star clusters generally do not survive their births, instead dispersing to form galactic disks or bulges. Yet the existence of ancient massive bound star clusters (globular clusters) in the Milky Way suggests that efficiencies were higher when they formed ten billion years ago. A local dwarf galaxy, NGC 5253, has a young star cluster that provides an example of highly efficient star formation. Here we report the detection of the J = 3→2 rotational transition of CO at the location of the massive cluster. The gas cloud is hot, dense, quiescent and extremely dusty. Its gas-to-dust ratio is lower than the Galactic value, which we attribute to dust enrichment by the embedded star cluster. Its star-formation efficiency exceeds 50 per cent, tenfold that of clouds in the Milky Way. We suggest that high efficiency results from the force-feeding of star formation by a streamer of gas falling into the galaxy.

  20. A possible approach to estimating the operational efficiency of multiprocessor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, N.Y.; Gorlach, S.P.; Sumskaya, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    This article presents a mathematical model that constructs the upper and lower estimates evaluating the efficiency of solution of a large class of problems using a multiprocessor system with a specific architecture. Efficiency depends on a system's architecture (e.g., the number of processors, memory volume, the number of communication links, commutation speed) and the types of problems it is intended to solve. The behavior of the model is considered in a stationary mode. The model is used to evaluate the efficiency of a particular algorithm implemented in a multiprocessor system. It is concluded that the model is flexible and enables the investigation of a broad class of problems in computational mathematics, including linear algebra and boundary-value problems of mathematical physics

  1. Circumstellar envelopes of Cepheids: a possible bias affecting the distance scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervella, Pierre; Gallenne, Alexandre; Mérand, Antoine

    2013-02-01

    Circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) have been detected around many Cepheids, first based on long-baseline interferometry, and now also using other observing techniques. These envelopes are particularly interesting for two reasons: their presence could impact the Cepheid distance scale, and they may be valuable tracers of stellar mass loss. Here we focus on their potential impact on the calibration of the Cepheid distance scale. We consider the photometric contribution of the envelopes in the visible, near-, and thermal-infrared domains. We conclude that the impact of CSEs on the apparent luminosities of Cepheids is negligible at visible wavelengths and generally weak (case. Overall, the contribution of CSEs to the usual period-luminosity relations (from the visible to the K band) is mostly negligible. They could affect calibrations at longer wavelengths, although the presence of envelopes may have been partially taken into account in the existing empirical calibrations.

  2. Possibility of high efficient beam extraction from the CERN SPS with a bent crystal. Simulation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scandale, W. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Laboratoire de l' AccelerateurLineaire (LAL), Universite Paris SudOrsay, Orsay (France); INFN Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Kovalenko, A.D.; Taratin, A.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-11

    The extraction of the SPS beam of 270 GeV/c protons assisted by a bent crystal was studied by simulation. Two methods for delivering the SPS beam onto a crystal were considered: transverse diffusion and orbit bump of the beam. It was shown that the main condition for high efficient beam extraction with a bent crystal, which is a small divergence of the incident beam, can be fulfilled. Extraction efficiency up to 99% can be reached for both methods of the beam delivering. The irradiation of the electrostatic septum wires during the beam extraction can be considerably reduced.

  3. A discussion of possible mechanisms affecting fission product transport in irradiated and unirradiated nuclear grade graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firth, M.J.

    1977-09-01

    137 Cs, 85 Sr, and sup(110m)Ag adsorption experiments were conducted on three graphite powders with differing amounts of specific basal and edge surface areas. No direct proportionality was found between the specific amounts of the isotopes adsorbed and either of the surface characteristics. There appears to be some correlation with the specific basal surface area despite the fact that each isotope behaves differently. Factors that might influence the adsorption behaviour of Cs and Ag during reactor irradiation and heat treatment of nuclear grade graphites are discussed. These include the form of Cs with the graphite surface. A model based on Cs adsorption at vacancy clusters is used to analyse adsorption experiments. A possible explanation for the behaviour of Ag through the migration of graphite impurities from the bulk of the graphite to the pore surface is also discussed. (author)

  4. Factors affecting the efficiency of foal production by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grady ST

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equine embryo production by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI is currently effective enough to be used clinically. However, there are several factors that affect the efficiency of this procedure because, in addition to specialized equipment, skill in oocyte and embryo handling, and sperm preparation as well as knowledge of oocyte and embryo culture are required. To the best of our knowledge, there are currently only a couple of reports available on the expected efficiency of foal production by ICSI. Here we discuss the parameters that pertain to the Texas A&M Equine Embryo Laboratory only, as other laboratories may have different results.

  5. [The possibility of acute inflammatory reaction affects the development of pressure ulcers in bedridden elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, N; Takano, K; Mashiko, T; Jimbo, S; Shimetani, N; Ohtani, H

    1999-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that acute inflammatory reaction associates with the development of pressure ulcers in bedridden elderly patients, 40 hospitalized elderly patients suffering from bacterial pneumonia, cerebrovascular disease, and femoral bone fracture were enrolled in this study. All of them were divided into two groups with pressure ulcers (group P; 17 patients) and without one (group N; 23 patients). The blood samples were taken from them within 5 days after the patients being bedridden. Although no significant difference exist in pressure ulcer risk factors (age, gender, Braden scale, underlying diseases, blood pressure, and heart rate) between the two groups, white blood cell, plasma C-reactive protein and fibrinogen in group P increased significantly as compared with those in group N. Besides number of platelets and maximum platelet aggregation rate were significantly higher in group P than in group N. Serum albumin and hemoglobin of both groups decreased after being bedridden, especially hemoglobin in group P was significantly lower than that in group N. While the concentration of serum IL-6 did not indicate a significant difference between both the groups, serum IL-1 beta increased significantly in group P. In conclusion, we suggested that acute inflammatory reaction releasing proinflammatory cytokines affected the development of pressure ulcer in bedridden elderly patients.

  6. Sleep Efficiency Modulates Associations Between Family Stress and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jessica J; Kim, Joanna J; Almeida, David M; Bower, Julienne E; Dahl, Ronald E; Irwin, Michael R; McCreath, Heather; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2017-10-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether sleep moderates the associations between family-related stress and depressive symptoms and negative affect outcomes during adolescence. We combined traditional survey measures of stress and depressive symptoms with daily assessments of stress and negative affect to examine whether sleep differentially impacts the link between chronic and acute experiences of stress and affect. Participants were 316 adolescents from ethnically diverse backgrounds. Primary caregivers and adolescents reported on stressful family events during the past 12 and 3 months, respectively. Adolescents also reported on their daily experiences of family demands for 15 days and wore actigraph watches for the assessment of sleep during the first eight nights. Regression analyses revealed that more stressful family events were related to more depressive symptoms. This relation was stronger among adolescents with lower sleep efficiency. The same pattern emerged for the relation between daily family demands and negative affect aggregated across the 15 days. Daily-level analyses indicated that daily negative affect was related to daily family demands when sleep efficiency was higher than usual, but only among European American adolescents. These findings suggest that chronic experiences of lower sleep efficiency, but not sleep duration, may render adolescents more vulnerable to the negative effects of family stress on emotional adjustment. A more complex picture emerged for the role of prior night's sleep in the day-to-day variation in negative affect reactivity to family stress. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Possible factors affecting pregnancy rate of cows in the Amazon Ecuatorian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yánez D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess how the cow pregnancy depends on the type of service as, race and follicular development in cattle with dual purpose in the Ecuadorian Amazon. The 341 records of the individual services were evaluated from January 2015 to December 2015 that corresponds to cows of different genotypes and cross: Brown Swiss (BS n = 135, Charolais (Ch n = 24, Holstein Friesian (HF n = 104, Jersey (J n = 12, Normando (N n = 21, x Brown Swiss Holstein Friesian (HFxBS n = 35 and Holstein Friesian x Normando (HFxN n = 10. The work was conducted in the Cantons and Santa Clara which is located in the Pastaza Province (Ecuador. The Two insemination techniques were performed: a estrus detected (natural 136 cows and a Insemination Time (TAI. The independent variables are "Race" (BS, CH, HF, J, HFxBS and HFxN, the "Technical Service" (N and IATF and "Follicular Development" (DF. An additive model was adjusted and it was not significant for the interactions between independent variables and the result of the model. It was found that the variable DF is the only that contributes significantly to the model. That is, pregnancy is significantly affected by follicular development (p-value <0.0001, but is not related to the technical service and race. Maximum Credible estimates the coefficients model and calculated odds ratios. For every unit increase in the value of follicular development, the chance of "pregnant" is 14 times higher than "empty". Keeping fixed the categories for race and service. To conclude that there was no difference between races and insemination technique that was used, even if a relationship between follicular development in proestrus and pregnancy in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

  8. Variables affecting energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siitonen, Sari; Tuomaala, Mari; Ahtila, Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Specific energy consumption (SEC) is an energy efficiency indicator widely used in industry for measuring the energy efficiency of different processes. In this paper, the development of energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions of steelmaking is studied by analysing the energy data from a case mill. First, the specific energy consumption figures were calculated using different system boundaries, such as the process level, mill level and mill site level. Then, an energy efficiency index was developed to evaluate the development of the energy efficiency at the mill site. The effects of different production conditions on specific energy consumption and specific CO 2 emissions were studied by PLS analysis. As theory expects, the production rate of crude steel and the utilisation of recycled steel were shown to affect the development of energy efficiency at the mill site. This study shows that clearly defined system boundaries help to clarify the role of on-site energy conversion and make a difference between the final energy consumption and primary energy consumption of an industrial plant with its own energy production.

  9. A possible contribution of mRNA secondary structure to translation initiation efficiency in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guchte, Maarten van de; Lende, Ted van der; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerard

    1991-01-01

    Gene expression signals derived from Lactococcus lactis were linked to lacZ-fused genes with different 5'-nucleotide sequences. Computer predictions of mRNA secondary structure were combined with lacZ expression studies to direct base-substitutions that could possibly influence gene expression.

  10. Has the 2008 financial crisis affected stock market efficiency? The case of Eurozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostidis, P.; Varsakelis, C.; Emmanouilides, C. J.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the impact of the 2008 financial crisis on the weak-form efficiency of twelve Eurozone stock markets is investigated empirically. Efficiency is tested via the Generalized Hurst Exponent method, while dynamic Hurst exponents are estimated by means of the rolling window technique. To account for biases associated with the finite sample size and the leptokurtosis of the financial data, the statistical significance of the Hurst exponent estimates is assessed through a series of Monte-Carlo simulations drawn from the class of α-stable distributions. According to our results, the 2008 crisis has adversely affected stock price efficiency in most of the Eurozone capital markets, leading to the emergence of significant mean-reverting patterns in stock price movements.

  11. Security of supply in electricity markets: Improving cost efficiency of supplying security and possible welfare gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Grenaa Jensen, Stine

    2012-01-01

    In liberalised markets the ability to maintain security of electricity supply is questioned because security is characterised as a public good. We discuss if this property can be modified with changing technology. Furthermore, we examine if construction of markets for security can be justified...... by possible welfare gains. From a welfare perspective it is possible that security levels are too high and obtained with too high costs. Adjusting the effort so that marginal cost for securing supply is at similar levels in generation capacity and in network maintenance could increase welfare even without...... the need to construct markets. Secondarily, a consumer defined average level of security might improve welfare. Finally, different willingness to pay among customers and construction of advanced markets might increase welfare further. We argue that several cost and welfare improvements can be achieved...

  12. Spin-neurons: A possible path to energy-efficient neuromorphic computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharad, Mrigank; Fan, Deliang; Roy, Kaushik [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2013-12-21

    Recent years have witnessed growing interest in the field of brain-inspired computing based on neural-network architectures. In order to translate the related algorithmic models into powerful, yet energy-efficient cognitive-computing hardware, computing-devices beyond CMOS may need to be explored. The suitability of such devices to this field of computing would strongly depend upon how closely their physical characteristics match with the essential computing primitives employed in such models. In this work, we discuss the rationale of applying emerging spin-torque devices for bio-inspired computing. Recent spin-torque experiments have shown the path to low-current, low-voltage, and high-speed magnetization switching in nano-scale magnetic devices. Such magneto-metallic, current-mode spin-torque switches can mimic the analog summing and “thresholding” operation of an artificial neuron with high energy-efficiency. Comparison with CMOS-based analog circuit-model of a neuron shows that “spin-neurons” (spin based circuit model of neurons) can achieve more than two orders of magnitude lower energy and beyond three orders of magnitude reduction in energy-delay product. The application of spin-neurons can therefore be an attractive option for neuromorphic computers of future.

  13. Coal-fired boiler houses in Cracow present state and possibilities to improve their efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyklis, P. [Institute of Industrial Equipment and Power Engineering, Cracow (Poland); Butcher, T.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A significant amount of heat energy both for heating and process purposes is generated in Cracow, Poland in small-and medium size local boiler houses. The operating procedure of these boiler houses is most often economically and ecologically ineffective because of the bad condition of boilers and lack of funds to install automation, control and measurement equipment. Within the Polish-American Program of Elimination of Low Emission Sources financed by the US Department of Energy, the ENERGOEKSPERT Co., Ltd. investigated chosen boiler houses in Cracow, commissioned by the Cracow Development Office. The results of these investigations were subject of engineering analysis carried out at the Institute of Industrial Equipment and Power Engineering, Technical University, Cracow. The analysis proved that the low-cost improvement of economic efficiency and reduction of air pollutant emission is feasible for combustion of coal fuels.

  14. On the possibilities for efficient simulation of leak rates through SG tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorsek, I.; Cizelj, L.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of predicting excessive leak rates through the through wall cracks in tubes at the tube - tube support plate intersections is discussed in some detail. Basically, we are able to define the leak rate through an individual defect. On the steam generator level, which actually means the sum of all individual leak rates, a new approach is introduced. The main characteristic of the new approach is seeking for a probability of exceeding the allowable leak rate rather than estimating more or less conservative highest expected leak rate value. This however introduces extensive computational effort which practically prevents the use of direct Monte Carlo simulations. Some possibilities to reduce the computational effort are discussed and their preliminary results compared. Also, some exact solutions were found and compared with numerical solutions achieved with the first order reliability method. Directions for future work in this important topic are given. (author)

  15. Possibilities of an efficient noise damping in the large gas-fueled boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes a series of tests with the objective to develop a technique for active control, and suppression of unstable conditions of combustion in gas-fired boiler systems. The primary target group for this report are persons within the energy sector, including especially users of natural gas. Focus has been given more to the practical possibilities and limitations than to complicated acoustical theory. The technical background for this work is constituted by the latest innovations within active noise cancelling methods for low frequent noise in channel- and pipe shaped systems, such as heating-, air-and exhaust systems. The fundamental idea has been to implement already functioning and commercial available systems for active noise cancellation in an modified setup to a gasfired boiler system. A few examples of similar attempts are given. Latest a relatively successful example of actively controlling an unstable combustion in a channel shaped burner system (CNRS Paris 1993). The conclusion of the project is anyway, that unstable combustion in larger gasfired boilers can not be controlled by the active methods and systems known today. The reasons for this are: the flame and thus the noise source are distributed in space, the acoustical wave-propagation in the combustion chamber is complex and with low damping, several loops for unstable combustion are possible. Within this project special sensors for high temperatures are developed, e.g.: probe microphones, high temperature turbulence screens and a system for measuring of the variations in UV-light emission form the flame. These systems are applicable also for more 'traditional active noise cancellation' of low-frequent noise in exhaust pipes and chimneys. (au)

  16. Mindfulness, Resilience, and Burnout Subtypes in Primary Care Physicians: The Possible Mediating Role of Positive and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Marin, Jesús; Tops, Mattie; Manzanera, Rick; Piva Demarzo, Marcelo M; Álvarez de Mon, Melchor; García-Campayo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Primary care health professionals suffer from high levels of burnout. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations of mindfulness and resilience with the features of the burnout types (overload, lack of development, neglect) in primary care physicians, taking into account the potential mediating role of negative and positive affect. A cross-sectional design was used. Six hundred and twenty-two Spanish primary care physicians were recruited from an online survey. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire (BCSQ-12) questionnaires were administered. Polychoric correlation matrices were calculated. The unweighted least squares (ULS) method was used for developing structural equation modeling. Mindfulness and resilience presented moderately high associations (φ = 0.46). Links were found between mindfulness and overload (γ = -0.25); resilience and neglect (γ = -0.44); mindfulness and resilience, and negative affect (γ = -0.30 and γ = -0.35, respectively); resilience and positive affect (γ = 0.70); negative affect and overload (β = 0.36); positive affect and lack of development (β = -0.16). The links between the burnout types reached high and positive values between overload and lack of development (β = 0.64), and lack of development and neglect (β = 0.52). The model was a very good fit to the data (GFI = 0.96; AGFI = 0.96; RMSR = 0.06; NFI = 0.95; RFI = 0.95; PRATIO = 0.96). Interventions addressing both mindfulness and resilience can influence burnout subtypes, but their impact may occur in different ways, potentially mediated by positive and negative affect. Both sorts of trainings could constitute possible tools against burnout; however, while mindfulness seems a suitable intervention for preventing its initial stages, resilience may be more effective for treating its advanced stages.

  17. Mindfulness, resilience, and burnout subtypes in primary care physicians: the possible mediating role of positive and negative affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus eMontero-Marin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPurpose: Primary care health professionals suffer from high levels of burnout. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations of mindfulness and resilience with the features of the burnout types (overload, lack of development, neglect in primary care physicians, taking into account the potential mediating role of negative and positive affect.Methods: A cross-sectional design was used. 622 Spanish primary care physicians were recruited from an online survey. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS and Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire (BCSQ-12 questionnaires were administered. Polychoric correlation matrices were calculated. The unweighted least squares method was used for developing structural equation modelling. Results: Mindfulness and resilience presented moderately high associations (φ=0.46. Links were found between mindfulness and overload (γ=-0.25; resilience and neglect (γ=-0.44; mindfulness and resilience, and negative affect (γ=-0.30 and γ=-0.35 respectively; resilience and positive affect (γ=0.70; negative affect and overload (β=0.36; positive affect and lack of development (β=-0.16. The links between the burnout types reached high and positive values between overload and lack of development (β=0.64, and lack of development and neglect (β=0.52. The model was a very good fit to the data (GFI=0.96; AGFI=0.96; RMSR=0.06; NFI=0.95; RFI=0.95; PRATIO=0.96.Conclusions: Interventions addressing both mindfulness and resilience can influence burnout subtypes, but their impact may occur in different ways, potentially mediated by positive and negative affect. Both sorts of trainings could constitute possible tools against burnout; however, while mindfulness seems a suitable intervention for preventing its initial stages, resilience may be more effective for treating its advanced stages.

  18. Analyse of possibilities of increasing housing energy efficiency by application of phase-changing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučeljić-Vavan Sanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Refurbishment of existing building stock using energy-saving phase-changing smart materials and technologies, in addition to improved indoor climatic conditions, offer an opportunity for increasing housing energy efficiency and value. This fast developing technology becomes increasingly cost-effective with much shorter payback periods. However, it is undertaken only on a limited scale; because of lack of knowledge about their changeable properties and dynamism in that they behave in response to energy fields. Main characteristics, which make them different form others, are: immediacy transience, self-actuation, selectivity and directness. Phase change processes invariably involve the absorbing, storing or releasing of large amounts of energy in the form of latent heat. These processes are reversible and phase-changing materials can undergo an unlimited number of cycles without degradation. Since phase-changing materials can be designed to absorb or release energy at predictable temperatures, they have naturally been explored for use in architecture as a way of helping deal with the thermal environment in a building. Technologies based on sealing phase-changing materials into small pellets have achieved widespread use in connection with radiant floor heating systems, phase change wallboards, mortar or facade systems. Thermal characteristics of existing buildings can be improved on increasing their thermal-stored mass by implementation products of phase-changing smart materials. In addition to contributing to carbon reduction and energy security, using phase-changing materials in the building sector stimulates innovations.

  19. Feebates promoting energy-efficient cars: Design options to address more consumers and possible counteracting effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Anja; Mueller, Michel G.; Haan, Peter de; Scholz, Roland W.

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of countries have implemented or are evaluating feebate systems in order to reduce energy consumption of new vehicle registrations. We distinguish between absolute feebates based strictly on a vehicle's energy consumption and relative feebates normalizing energy consumption by a given car utility. This paper analyzes whether absolute or relative feebates encourage more consumers to change to vehicles with lower energy consumption. We combine an analysis of all car models on sale at the end of 2005 with survey data from 326 potential new car buyers. Analysis of the car fleet with regard to behavioral changes assumed as realistic shows that relative systems succeed better in offering more consumer groups cars that are eligible for incentives. Survey results suggest that consumers show some, but limited, willingness to change behavior to obtain an incentive. However, a relative system potentially allows people to switch to cars with higher relative efficiency without actually lowering absolute CO 2 emissions. We discuss this inherent dilemma of simultaneously addressing more consumers and limiting counteracting effects. In order to find the optimal trade-off, we suggest assessing different parameters operationalizing vehicle utility by means of micro-simulation with detailed car fleet and differentiated consumer segments

  20. Factors that affect the reproductive efficiency of the recipient within a bovine embryo transfer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Duica A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The embryo transfer is a biotechnological technique that allows increasing the descendant of animals with high genetic value. The positive results, represented in pregnancy after the application of this technique, are affected by some factors that are inherent to the donor, the embryo, the technique, and the recipients which receive a strange embryo in the uterus allowing pregnancy. This review describes some factors affecting the reproductive efficiency of the recipients of bovine embryos within a program of embryo transfer. Its important to evaluate the parameters in this kind of recipients, as race, age, physiological status, health status, weight, reproductive tract integrity and management, and also too monitoring the ovarian structures while the estrus synchronization, and within previous and posterior stages in embryo transfer procedure. Therefore an optimum follicular development will be determinant to corpus luteum formation which generates enough serum progesterone concentrations to offer a right uterine environment allowing the optimum embryo development. Controlling the factors that affect the efficiency of the embryo transfer, it will obtain an increasing of positive results represented in pregnancies and births of individuals come from animals with high genetic value.

  1. Selected factors affecting the efficiency of wheelchair mobility in individuals with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przysada Grzegorz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Locomotion efficiency levels in individuals with spinal cord injury deal cord injury depend upon the level of spinal cord injury. Rehabilitation of people with spinal cord injury aims to prepare them to function in society in the best possible manner. One of the significant tasks of rehabilitation is to develop the skill of moving in a wheelchair, which becomes the only means of locomotion for most people. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of selected factors such as age, sex, time from the occurrence of the injury, the level of spinal cord injury, participation in Active Rehabilitation camps and the level of physical activity on the efficiency of locomotion in a wheelchair in individuals with spinal cord injury.

  2. Autologous peripheral blood stem cell harvest: Collection efficiency and factors affecting it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem K Tiwari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Harvest of hematopoietic progenitor cells via leukapheresis is being used increasingly for transplants in India. Adequate yield of cells per kilogram body weight of recipient is required for successful engraftment. Collection efficiency (CE is an objective quality parameter used to assess the quality of leukapheresis program. In this study, we calculated the CE of the ComTec cell separator (Fresenius Kabi, Germany using two different formulae (CE1 and CE2 and analyzed various patient and procedural factors, which may affect it. Materials and Methods: One hundred and one consecutive procedures in 77 autologous donors carried out over 3 years period were retrospectively reviewed. Various characteristics like gender, age, weight, disease status, hematocrit, preprocedure total leukocyte count, preprocedure CD34 positive (CD34+ cells count, preprocedure absolute CD34+ cell count and processed apheresis volume effect on CE were compared. CE for each procedure was calculated using two different formulae, and results were compared using statistical correlation and regression analysis. Results: The mean CE1 and CE2 was 41.2 and 49.1, respectively. CE2 appeared to be more accurate indicator of overall CE as it considered the impact of continued mobilization of stem cells during apheresis procedure, itself. Of all the factors affecting CE, preprocedure absolute CD34+ was the only independent factor affecting CE. Conclusion: The only factor affecting CE was preprocedure absolute CD34+ cells. Though the mean CE2 was higher than CE1, it was not statistically significant.

  3. Environmental conditions affecting the efficiency and efficacy of piscicides for use in nonnative fish eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter James

    2010-01-01

    Conservation of native fish is a pressing issue for fisheries managers. Conservation efforts often require eliminating threats posed by nonnative fish by eradicating them with piscicides. The piscicides rotenone and antimycin are used for eradication but their application is often inefficient or ineffective. My goal was to increase the efficiency and efficacy of nonnative fish eradication using piscicides. I identified environmental conditions affecting piscicide application, researched methods to overcome these problems, and provided tools that piscicide applicators can use to make piscicide application more efficient and effective. Rotenone and antimycin were exposed to varying levels of sunlight, turbulence, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) to determine the effect these environmental conditions have on piscicides. Bioassay fish were used to determine the toxicity of the piscicides. Sunlight and turbulence affected rotenone and antimycin but DOM did not. Increasing the concentration of chemical can increase the resistance to the effects of these environmental conditions; however, the effects of these conditions are considerable in natural settings. Observations of bioassay fish in stream applications of rotenone were used to develop a statistical model to predict the persistence of the piscicide. The model can be used to predict rotenone persistence in small montane streams and to estimate where rotenone concentrations need to be fortified. I measured the mixing rate of a chemical plume in different channel morphologies and at center or edge applications. Center application had a significantly shorter mixing distance than edge application, but mixing distance was not different among meandering, straight, and riffle/pool morphologies. Application of my findings will increase the efficiency and efficacy of native fish conservation using piscicides.

  4. Factor Analysis on Criteria Affecting Lean Retrofit for Energy Efficient Initiatives in Higher Learning Institution Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidin Nur IzieAdiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of Higher Learning Institution (HLI is a global concerns on energy demand due to campus act like a small city. Intensive mode of operation of a building is correlated to the energy utilization. Improvement in the current energy efficiency is crucial effort to minimize the environmental effect through minimisation of energy in operation by retrofitting and upgrade the existing building system or components to be more efficient. Basically, there are three recommended steps for the improvement known as lean initiatives, green technology and clean energy in response to becoming zero energy solutions for building. The deliberation of this paper is aimed to highlight the criteria affecting in retrofitting of existing building in HLI with lean initiatives in order to achieve energy efficiency and reduction of energy comsumption. Attention is devoted to reviewing the lean energy retrofitting initiatives criteria for daylighting (side lighting, daylighting (skylight and glazing. The questionnaire survey was employed and distributed to the architects who has an expertise in green building design. Factor analysis was adopted as a method of analysis by using Principal Component with Varimax Rotation. The result is presented through summarizing the sub-criteria according to its importance with a factor loading 0.50 and above. The result found that majority of the criteria developed achieved the significant factor loading value and in accordance with the protocal of analysis. In conclusion the results from analysis of this paper assists the stakeholders in assessing the significant criteria based on the desired lean energy retrofitting initiatives and also provides a huge contribution for future planning improvement in existing buildings to become an energy efficient building.

  5. Comparative analysis of possibilities for raising the efficiency in thermal power plant by utilisation of waste heat energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijakovski Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to use flue gases waste heat for increasing the efficiency of thermal power plant (TPP explained in this work refers to lignite fired TPP-Bitola in Macedonia (3x233 MW installed electric capacity. Possibility to utilize low-temperature heat energy at the plant’s cold end is also considered in the analysis. Specific fuel consumption is used as an analysis and comparison parameter. Its reduction, compared to the basic power unit ranges between 0.4% and 3.4%. An analysis presenting economic feasibility of the low-temperature heat energy utilization concept for two different refrigerants used in the heat pump is also presented.

  6. Acute physical exercise affected processing efficiency in an auditory attention task more than processing effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutke, Stephan; Jaitner, Thomas; Berse, Timo; Barenberg, Jonathan

    2014-02-01

    Research on effects of acute physical exercise on performance in a concurrent cognitive task has generated equivocal evidence. Processing efficiency theory predicts that concurrent physical exercise can increase resource requirements for sustaining cognitive performance even when the level of performance is unaffected. This hypothesis was tested in a dual-task experiment. Sixty young adults worked on a primary auditory attention task and a secondary interval production task while cycling on a bicycle ergometer. Physical load (cycling) and cognitive load of the primary task were manipulated. Neither physical nor cognitive load affected primary task performance, but both factors interacted on secondary task performance. Sustaining primary task performance under increased physical and/or cognitive load increased resource consumption as indicated by decreased secondary task performance. Results demonstrated that physical exercise effects on cognition might be underestimated when only single task performance is the focus.

  7. Cycle affects imidacloprid efficiency by mediating cytochrome P450 expression in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, K; Yang, P; Pang, R; Yue, L; Zhang, W

    2017-10-01

    Circadian clocks influence most behaviours and physiological activities in animals, including daily fluctuations in metabolism. However, how the clock gene cycle influences insects' responses to pesticides has rarely been reported. Here, we provide evidence that cycle affects imidacloprid efficacy by mediating the expression of cytochrome P450 genes in the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice. Survival bioassays showed that the susceptibility of BPH adults to imidacloprid differed significantly between the two time points tested [Zeitgeber Time 8 (ZT8) and ZT4]. After cloning the cycle gene in the BPH (Nlcycle), we found that Nlcycle was expressed at higher levels in the fat body and midgut, and its expression was rhythmic with two peaks. Knockdown of Nlcycle affected the expression levels and rhythms of cytochrome P450 genes as well as susceptibility to imidacloprid. The survival rates of BPH adults after treatment with imidacloprid did not significantly differ between ZT4 and ZT8 after double-stranded Nlcycle treatment. These findings can be used to improve pesticide use and increase pesticide efficiency in the field. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  8. Electrochemical extraction of chlorides from reinforced concrete: variables affecting treatment efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Climent, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of applying electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE to a series of chloride-contaminated concrete specimens. Experimental conditions were varied to study the efficiency of this technique under different circumstances. The survey covered the possible relationship between efficiency and the location of the sampling point, current density, type of concrete and treatment intermittence. Experiments were also conducted with different reinforcement configurations used in standard structural members such as columns and beams to ascertain the impact of rebar geometry.Este documento aporta los resultados de investigaciones realizadas en diferentes estudios en los que se aplicó la técnica de Extracción Electroquímica de Cloruros (EEC a diferentes estructuras de hormigón contaminado con cloruros. Se cambiaron las condiciones experimentales con el fin de estudiar la eficiencia de la misma en cada una de ellas. Se estudió la dependencia con la posición del punto de toma de las muestras, con la densidad de corriente aplicada, con el tipo de hormigón utilizado y con las paradas realizadas en etapas intermedias del tratamiento. Para ver la influencia de la disposición geométrica de las armaduras,se realizó una experiencia con tipos diferentes de disposiciones de las armaduras, correspondiente a componentes estructurales típicos como los pilares y las vigas.

  9. Possible efficiency improvement by application of various operating regimes for the cooling water pump station at thermal power plant - Bitola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijakovski Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plant (TPP - Bitola is the largest electricity producer in the Republic of Macedonia with installed capacity of 691 MW. It is a lignite fired power plant, in operation since 1982. Most of the installed equipment is of Russian origin. Power plant's cold end comprised of a condenser, pump station and cooling tower is depicted in the article. Possible way to raise the efficiency of the cold end by changing the operating characteristics of the pumps is presented in the article. Diagramic and tabular presentation of the working characteristics of the pumps (two pumps working in paralel for one block with the pipeline, as well as engaged power for their operation are also presented in this article.

  10. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  11. On the (un)controllability of affective priming: strategic manipulation is feasible but can possibly be prevented

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degner, J.

    2009-01-01

    Three studies are presented that explored if and to what extent affective priming effects in a standard affective priming paradigm are susceptible to voluntary control. Specifically, it was tested was whether participants were able to eliminate or amplify affective priming effects when instructed to

  12. A data envelope analysis to assess factors affecting technical and economic efficiency of individual broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Jeffrey, S R; Naeima, A; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feed allocation and energetic efficiency on technical and economic efficiency of broiler breeder hens using the data envelope analysis methodology and quantified the effect of variables affecting technical efficiency. A total of 288 Ross 708 pullets were placed in individual cages at 16 wk of age and assigned to 1 of 4 feed allocation groups. Three of them had feed allocated on a group basis with divergent BW targets: standard, high (standard x 1.1), and low (standard x 0.9). The fourth group had feed allocated on an individual bird basis following the standard BW target. Birds were classified in 3 energetic efficiency categories: low, average, and high, based on estimated maintenance requirements. Technical efficiency considered saleable chicks as output and cumulative ME intake and time as inputs. Economic efficiency of feed allocation treatments was analyzed under different cost scenarios. Birds with low feed allocation exhibited a lower technical efficiency (69.4%) than standard (72.1%), which reflected a reduced egg production rate. Feed allocation of the high treatment could have been reduced by 10% with the same chick production as the standard treatment. The low treatment exhibited reduced economic efficiency at greater capital costs, whereas high had reduced economic efficiency at greater feed costs. The average energetic efficiency hens had a lower technical efficiency in the low compared with the standard feed allocation. A 1% increment in estimated maintenance requirement changed technical efficiency by -0.23%, whereas a 1% increment in ME intake had a -0.47% effect. The negative relationship between technical efficiency and ME intake was counterbalanced by a positive correlation of ME intake and egg production. The negative relationship of technical efficiency and maintenance requirements was synergized by a negative correlation of hen maintenance and egg production. Economic efficiency methodologies are effective

  13. Flow cytometry for feline lymphoma: a retrospective study about pre-analytical factors possibly affecting the quality of samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Bernardi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Flow cytometry (FC is an increasingly required technique on which veterinary oncologists rely to have an accurate, fast, minimally invasive lymphoma or leukemia diagnosis. FC has been studied and applied with great results in canine oncology, whereas in feline oncology the use of this technique is still to be experienced. This is mainly due to a supposed discomfort in sampling, because of the high prevalence of intra-abdominal lymphomas. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether any pre-analytical factor might affect the quality of suspected feline lymphoma samples for FC analysis. Methods 97 consecutive samples of suspected feline lymphoma were retrospectively selected from the authors’ institution FC database. The referring veterinarians were recalled and interrogated about several different variables, including signalling, features of the lesion, features of the sampling procedure and the experience of veterinarians performing the sampling. Statistical analyses were performed to assess the possible influence of these variables on the cellularity of the samples and the likelihood of being finally processed for FC. Results None of the investigated variables significantly influenced the quality of the submitted samples, but the needle size, with 21G needles providing the highest cellularity (Table 1. Notably, the samples quality did not vary between peripheral and intra-abdominal lesions. Sample cellularity alone influenced the likelihood of being processed. About a half of the cats required pharmacological restraint. Side effects were reported in one case only (transient swelling after peripheral lymph node sampling. Conclusions FC can be safely applied to cases of suspected feline lymphomas, even for intra-abdominal lesions. 21G needle should be preferred for sampling. This study provides the bases for the spread of this minimally invasive, fast and cost-effective technique in feline medicine.

  14. Flow cytometry for feline lymphoma: a retrospective study regarding pre-analytical factors possibly affecting the quality of samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Valeria; Bernardi, Serena; Marelli, Priscilla; Cozzi, Marzia; Comazzi, Stefano

    2018-06-01

    Objectives Flow cytometry (FC) is becoming increasingly popular among veterinary oncologists for the diagnosis of lymphoma or leukaemia. It is accurate, fast and minimally invasive. Several studies of FC have been carried out in canine oncology and applied with great results, whereas there is limited knowledge and use of this technique in feline patients. This is mainly owing to the high prevalence of intra-abdominal lymphomas in this species and the difficulty associated with the diagnostic procedures needed to collect the sample. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether any pre-analytical factor might affect the quality of suspected feline lymphoma samples for FC analysis. Methods Ninety-seven consecutive samples of suspected feline lymphoma were retrospectively selected from the authors' institution's FC database. The referring veterinarians were contacted and interviewed about several different variables, including signalment, appearance of the lesion, features of the sampling procedure and the experience of veterinarians performing the sampling. Statistical analyses were performed to assess the possible influence of these variables on the cellularity of the samples and the likelihood of it being finally processed for FC. Results Sample cellularity is a major factor in the likelihood of the sample being processed. Moreover, sample cellularity was significantly influenced by the needle size, with 21 G needles providing the highest cellularity. Notably, the sample cellularity and the likelihood of being processed did not vary between peripheral and intra-abdominal lesions. Approximately half of the cats required pharmacological restraint. Side effects were reported in one case only (transient swelling after peripheral lymph node sampling). Conclusions and relevance FC can be safely applied to cases of suspected feline lymphomas, including intra-abdominal lesions. A 21 G needle should be preferred for sampling. This study provides the basis for

  15. Analysis of efficiency and factors affecting the production of cabbage farming (Brassica oleracea L. in Belung village, Poncokusumo, Malang, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Ningsih

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to analyze the efficiency and the factors that affect the production of cabbage farm in the village of Belung, Poncokusumo, Malang, Indonesia. Samples taken by census the number of respondents 36 farmers. The analysis used is descriptive qualitative and quantitative. Quantitative analysis include analysis of costs, revenues, income, efficiency and Cobb-Douglas. Based on the analysis, known that farmer acceptance is Rp. 43,767,361 and generated revenues of Rp. 30,124,372/ ha. Result relevaled that the Cabbage farm in the village of Belung, Poncokusumo, Malang was highly efficient and profitable with an efficiency of 3.2. Factors that effect significantly on cabbage farming production are labors, lands, pesticides and seeds. Input combinations are already efficient and optimal pesticides and seeds.

  16. The affect of erbium hydride on the conversion efficience to accelerated protons from ultra-shsort pulse laser irradiated foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offermann, Dustin Theodore [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This thesis work explores, experimentally, the potential gains in the conversion efficiency from ultra-intense laser light to proton beams using erbium hydride coatings. For years, it has been known that contaminants at the rear surface of an ultra-intense laser irradiated thin foil will be accelerated to multi-MeV. Inertial Confinement Fusion fast ignition using proton beams as the igniter source requires of about 1016 protons with an average energy of about 3MeV. This is far more than the 1012 protons available in the contaminant layer. Target designs must include some form of a hydrogen rich coating that can be made thick enough to support the beam requirements of fast ignition. Work with computer simulations of thin foils suggest the atomic mass of the non-hydrogen atoms in the surface layer has a strong affect on the conversion efficiency to protons. For example, the 167amu erbium atoms will take less energy away from the proton beam than a coating using carbon with a mass of 12amu. A pure hydrogen coating would be ideal, but technologically is not feasible at this time. In the experiments performed for my thesis, ErH3 coatings on 5 μm gold foils are compared with typical contaminants which are approximately equivalent to CH1.7. It will be shown that there was a factor of 1.25 ± 0.19 improvement in the conversion efficiency for protons above 3MeV using erbium hydride using the Callisto laser. Callisto is a 10J per pulse, 800nm wavelength laser with a pulse duration of 200fs and can be focused to a peak intensity of about 5 x 1019W/cm2. The total number of protons from either target type was on the order of 1010. Furthermore, the same experiment was performed on the Titan laser, which has a 500fs pulse duration, 150J of energy and can be focused to about 3 x 1020 W/cm2. In this experiment 1012 protons were seen from both erbium hydride and

  17. Factors affecting efficient in vitro micropropagation of Muscari muscarimi Medikus using twin bulb scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Cigdem Alev; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Unal, Fatma

    2015-03-01

    Endemic Muscari muscarimi Medikus is the most fragrant plant among Muscari species and has a high ornamental potential. The natural populations of M. muscarimi, are severely affected by increased environmental pollution and urbanization. There is a need to develop a micropropagation method that should serve effectively for commercial propagation and conservation. Therefore, the study targeted to set up a strategy for efficient in vitro bulblet regeneration system of M. muscarimi using twin scale bulb explants on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.44, 8.88, 17.76 μM BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) plus 2.685, 5.37, 10.74 μM NAA (α-Naphthalene acetic acid). Maximum number of 19 daughter axillary bulblets and 16 daughter adventitious bulblets per twin bulb scale explant was regenerated on 1.0 × MS medium containing 17.76 μM BAP plus 10.74 μM NAA and 17.76 μM BAP plus 2.685 μM NAA respectively. The daughter bulblets regenerated on twin bulb scales on 8 out of 9 regeneration treatment could be easily rooted on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.9 μM IBA (Indole-3-butyric acid). The daughter bulblets regenerated on 9th treatment (1.0 × MS medium containing 17.76 μM BAP plus 10.74 μM NAA) were transferred to 1.0 × MS medium containing 30 g/l sucrose to break negative carry over effect of this dose of BAP-NAA, where they grew 2-3 roots of variable length. Daughter bulblet diameter was increased by culturing them on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.44 μM BAP plus 5.37 μM NAA. The results verified that both age and the source of explants had significant effect on regeneration. In another set of experiments, twin scales were obtained from in vitro regenerated daughter bulblets, although they induced bulblets, yet their bulblet regeneration percentage, mean number of bulblets per explant and their diameter were significantly reduced. In vitro regenerated bulblets were acclimatized in growth chamber under ambient conditions of temperature and humidity on

  18. Regeneration in Jatropha curcas: Factors affecting the efficiency of in vitro regeneration

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Sweta K.; Kumar, Nitish Chandramohana; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2011-01-01

    Factors influencing in vitro regeneration through direct shoot bud induction from hypocotyl explants of Jatropha curcas were studied in the present investigation. Regeneration in J. curcas was found to be genotype dependent and out of four toxic and one non-toxic genotype studied, non-toxic was least responsive. The best results irrespective of genotype were obtained on the medium containing 0.5mgL-1 TDZ (Thidiazuron) and in vitro hypocotyl explants were observed to have higher regeneration efficiency as compared to ex vitro explant in both toxic and non-toxic genotypes. Adventitious shoot buds could be induced from the distal end of explants in all the genotypes. The number of shoot buds formed and not the number of explants responding to TDZ treatment were significantly affected by the position of the explant on the seedling axis. Explants from younger seedlings (≤15 days) were still juvenile and formed callus easily, whereas the regeneration response declined with increase in age of seedlings after 30 days. Transient reduction of Ca2+ concentrations to 0.22gL-1 in the germination medium increased the number of responding explants.Induced shoot buds, upon transfer to MS medium containing 2mgL-1 Kn (Kinetin) and 1mgL-1 BAP (6-benzylamino purine) elongated. These elongated shoots were further proliferated on MS medium supplemented with 1.5mgL-1 IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and 0.5mgL-1 BAP and 3.01-3.91cm elongation was achieved after 6 weeks. No genotype specific variance in shoot elongation was observed among the toxic genotypes except the CSMCRI-JC2, which showed reduced response. And for proliferation among the toxic genotypes, CSMCRI-JC4 showed highest number of shoots formed. Among the rest, no significant differences were observed. The elongated shoot could be rooted by pulse treatment on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 2% sucrose, 3mgL-1 IBA (indole-3-butyric acid), 1mgL-1 IAA, 1mgL-1 NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid) and subsequent transfer on 0

  19. Regeneration in Jatropha curcas: Factors affecting the efficiency of in vitro regeneration

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Sweta K.

    2011-07-01

    Factors influencing in vitro regeneration through direct shoot bud induction from hypocotyl explants of Jatropha curcas were studied in the present investigation. Regeneration in J. curcas was found to be genotype dependent and out of four toxic and one non-toxic genotype studied, non-toxic was least responsive. The best results irrespective of genotype were obtained on the medium containing 0.5mgL-1 TDZ (Thidiazuron) and in vitro hypocotyl explants were observed to have higher regeneration efficiency as compared to ex vitro explant in both toxic and non-toxic genotypes. Adventitious shoot buds could be induced from the distal end of explants in all the genotypes. The number of shoot buds formed and not the number of explants responding to TDZ treatment were significantly affected by the position of the explant on the seedling axis. Explants from younger seedlings (≤15 days) were still juvenile and formed callus easily, whereas the regeneration response declined with increase in age of seedlings after 30 days. Transient reduction of Ca2+ concentrations to 0.22gL-1 in the germination medium increased the number of responding explants.Induced shoot buds, upon transfer to MS medium containing 2mgL-1 Kn (Kinetin) and 1mgL-1 BAP (6-benzylamino purine) elongated. These elongated shoots were further proliferated on MS medium supplemented with 1.5mgL-1 IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and 0.5mgL-1 BAP and 3.01-3.91cm elongation was achieved after 6 weeks. No genotype specific variance in shoot elongation was observed among the toxic genotypes except the CSMCRI-JC2, which showed reduced response. And for proliferation among the toxic genotypes, CSMCRI-JC4 showed highest number of shoots formed. Among the rest, no significant differences were observed. The elongated shoot could be rooted by pulse treatment on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 2% sucrose, 3mgL-1 IBA (indole-3-butyric acid), 1mgL-1 IAA, 1mgL-1 NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid) and subsequent transfer on 0

  20. Factors affecting energy and nitrogen efficiency of dairy cows: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, H.N.; Friggens, N.C.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Schmidely, P.

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to explore the correlation between energy and nitrogen efficiency of dairy cows, and to study nutritional and animal factors that influence these efficiencies, as well as their relationship. Treatment mean values were extracted from 68 peer-reviewed studies, including

  1. Comparison of Soybean Transformation Efficiency and Plant Factors Affecting Transformation during the Agrobacterium Infection Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuying; Yao, Xingdong; Zhao, Mingzhe; Zhao, Qiang; Du, Yanli; Yu, Cuimei; Xie, Futi

    2015-08-07

    The susceptibility of soybean genotype to Agrobacterium infection is a key factor for the high level of genetic transformation efficiency. The objective of this study is to evaluate the plant factors related to transformation in cotyledonary nodes during the Agrobacterium infection process. This study selected three genotypes (Williams 82, Shennong 9 and Bert) with high transformation efficiency, which presented better susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection, and three low transformation efficiency genotypes (General, Liaodou 16 and Kottman), which showed a relatively weak susceptibility. Gibberellin (GA) levels and soybean GA20ox2 and CYP707A2 transcripts of high-efficiency genotypes increased and were higher than those of low-efficiency genotypes; however, the opposite performance was shown in abscisic acid (ABA). Higher zeatin riboside (ZR) content and DNA quantity, and relatively higher expression of soybean IPT5, CYCD3 and CYCA3 were obtained in high-efficiency genotypes. High-efficiency genotypes had low methyl jasmonate (MeJA) content, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity, and relatively lower expression of soybean OPR3, PPO1 and PRX71. GA and ZR were positive plant factors for Agrobacterium-mediated soybean transformation by facilitating germination and growth, and increasing the number of cells in DNA synthesis cycle, respectively; MeJA, PPO, POD and ABA were negative plant factors by inducing defence reactions and repressing germination and growth, respectively.

  2. Comparison of Soybean Transformation Efficiency and Plant Factors Affecting Transformation during the Agrobacterium Infection Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuying Jia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of soybean genotype to Agrobacterium infection is a key factor for the high level of genetic transformation efficiency. The objective of this study is to evaluate the plant factors related to transformation in cotyledonary nodes during the Agrobacterium infection process. This study selected three genotypes (Williams 82, Shennong 9 and Bert with high transformation efficiency, which presented better susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection, and three low transformation efficiency genotypes (General, Liaodou 16 and Kottman, which showed a relatively weak susceptibility. Gibberellin (GA levels and soybean GA20ox2 and CYP707A2 transcripts of high-efficiency genotypes increased and were higher than those of low-efficiency genotypes; however, the opposite performance was shown in abscisic acid (ABA. Higher zeatin riboside (ZR content and DNA quantity, and relatively higher expression of soybean IPT5, CYCD3 and CYCA3 were obtained in high-efficiency genotypes. High-efficiency genotypes had low methyl jasmonate (MeJA content, polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD activity, and relatively lower expression of soybean OPR3, PPO1 and PRX71. GA and ZR were positive plant factors for Agrobacterium-mediated soybean transformation by facilitating germination and growth, and increasing the number of cells in DNA synthesis cycle, respectively; MeJA, PPO, POD and ABA were negative plant factors by inducing defence reactions and repressing germination and growth, respectively.

  3. Technical evidence for assessing the performance of markets affecting energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomey, J.G.; Sanstad, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on the empirical basis for skepticism about the effectiveness of the market mechanism in promoting cost-effective energy efficiency improvements. It presents a framework for evaluating engineering economic evidence on the diffusion of energy-efficiency improvements, and then presents a series of examples within this framework that provide evidence for the existence of market imperfections related to energy efficiency. It concludes with a challenge to economists, policy analysts, and technologists to take this empirical evidence seriously and sponsor further collaborative research in this area. (author)

  4. How does crisis affect efficiency? An empirical study of East Asian markets

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Aun R. Rizvi; Shaista Arshad

    2016-01-01

    Much research has been undertaken in the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) over the preceding two decades. With Asian countries emerging as a global powerhouse in terms of regional economics, the interest in their stock markets has picked up recently. Asian markets traditionally comprised of many emerging markets are generally assumed to be more volatile and speculative in nature. Based on this crux, we focus specifically on the response of these markets efficiency to major crisis. In recent ...

  5. The Role of Clostridium Perfringens in the Syndrome of Intestinal Affection in Children and Possibilities of Drug Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Lezhenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article showed the features of clostridiosis course, caused by Clostridium perfringens, in children of different age groups taking into account the dose of pathogen in feces and pathogenetically grounded possibilities of etiological therapy.

  6. Succinate, iron chelation, and monovalent cations affect the transformation efficiency of Acinetobacter baylyi ATCC 33305 during growth in complex media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Colleen G; Boyd, Caroline M; Roush, Kaleb S; Tenente, Ricardo; Lang, Kristine M; Lostroh, C Phoebe

    2017-10-01

    Natural transformation is the acquisition of new genetic material via the uptake of exogenous DNA by competent bacteria. Acinetobacter baylyi is model for natural transformation. Here we focus on the natural transformation of A. baylyi ATCC 33305 grown in complex media and seek environmental conditions that appreciably affect transformation efficiency. We find that the transformation efficiency for A. baylyi is a resilient characteristic that remains high under most conditions tested. We do find several distinct conditions that alter natural transformation efficiency including addition of succinate, Fe 2+ (ferrous) iron chelation, and substitution of sodium ions with potassium ones. These distinct conditions could be useful to fine tune transformation efficiency for researchers using A. baylyi as a model organism to study natural transformation.

  7. New Source Review and coal plant efficiency gains: How new and forthcoming air regulations affect outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, Sarah K.; Hoppock, David C.; Monast, Jonas J.

    2014-01-01

    Forthcoming carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) regulations for existing power plants in the United States have heightened interest in thermal efficiency gains for coal-fired power plants. Plant modifications to improve thermal efficiency can trigger New Source Review (NSR), a Clean Air Act requirement to adopt of state-of-the-art pollution controls. This article explores whether existing coal plants would likely face additional pollution control requirements if they undertake modifications that trigger NSR. Despite emissions controls that are or will be installed under the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) and Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) or its replacement, 80% of coal units (76% of capacity) that are expected to remain in operation are not projected to meet the minimum NSR requirements for at least one pollutant: nitrogen oxides or sulfur dioxide. This is an important consideration for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and state policymakers as they determine the extent to which CO 2 regulation will rely on unit-by-unit thermal efficiency gains versus potential flexible compliance strategies such as averaging, trading, energy efficiency, and renewable energy. NSR would likely delay and add cost to thermal efficiency projects at a majority of coal units, including projects undertaken to comply with forthcoming CO 2 regulation. - Highlights: • We explore the status of the U.S. coal-fired fleet relative to New Source Review (NSR) requirements. • Modifications to improve thermal efficiency can trigger NSR. • Thermal efficiency gains may also be an important strategy for forthcoming CO 2 regulation. • 80% Of non-retiring coal-fired units are projected not to meet minimum NSR requirements. • NSR is an important consideration for the design of CO 2 regulations for existing plants

  8. How does crisis affect efficiency? An empirical study of East Asian markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Aun R. Rizvi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been undertaken in the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH over the preceding two decades. With Asian countries emerging as a global powerhouse in terms of regional economics, the interest in their stock markets has picked up recently. Asian markets traditionally comprised of many emerging markets are generally assumed to be more volatile and speculative in nature. Based on this crux, we focus specifically on the response of these markets efficiency to major crisis. In recent years, the Asian markets have experienced a phenomenal boom in attracting foreign capital inflow, with Singapore evolving into a global financial hub in terms of banking and financial services. Scepticism and cautious nature raises the question of whether these stock markets are efficient enough for further investment and development. Our study is unique in nature, as we focus on the efficiency of these market in response to crisis periods, comparing it with their pre-crisis period, both in shorter term of 1 year as well as longer term of 5 years post and pre crisis period. Taking Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and South Korea owing to their economic and financial development, we use MF-DFA to derive efficiency measure for comparative analysis with its own past. The findings put forth a notion of generally a deteriorating and negative impact of the Asian financial crisis, while the sub-prime crisis impact varies based on the economic structure of the economies. The findings concur with the mainstream literature and similar studies for other countries and region.

  9. Covariate analysis of QTc and T-wave morphology: new possibilities in the evaluation of drugs that affect cardiac repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Claus; Struijk, Johannes J.; Matz, J

    2010-01-01

    This study adds the dimension of a T-wave morphology composite score (MCS) to the QTc interval-based evaluation of drugs that affect cardiac repolarization. Electrocardiographic recordings from 62 subjects on placebo and 400 mg moxifloxacin were compared with those from 21 subjects on 160 and 320...

  10. Toward physical aspects affecting a possible leakage of geologically stored CO2 into the shallow subsurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok; Delfs, Jens Olaf; Görke, Uwe Jens

    2014-01-01

    In geological formations, migration of CO2 plume is very complex and irregular. To make CO2 capture and storage technology feasible, it is important to quantify CO2 amount associated with possible leakage through natural occurring faults and fractures in geologic medium. Present work examines the...

  11. Entrapment of ovalbumin into liposomes--factors affecting entrapment efficiency, liposome size, and zeta potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brgles, Marija; Jurasin, Darija; Sikirić, Maja Dutour; Frkanec, Ruza; Tomasić, Jelka

    2008-01-01

    Various amounts of Ovalbumin (OVA) were encapsulated into positively and negatively charged multilamellar liposomes, with the aim to investigate the entrapment efficiency in different buffers and to study their effects on the liposome size and zeta potential. Results showed that the entrapment efficiency of OVA in anionic liposomes was the same in 10 mM Phosphate Buffer (PB) as in Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS; PB + 0.15 M NaCl). Also, liposome size was approximately 1200 nm for all anionic liposomes incorporating OVA. The entrapment efficiency of OVA in cationic liposomes was highly dependent on ionic strength. The size of cationic liposomes was approximately 1200 nm in PBS, regardless of protein content, but increased with the amount of the incorporated protein in PB. Aggregation of cationic liposomes in PB was observed when the mass of the protein was 2.5 mg or greater. The zeta potential of anionic liposomes was negative and of cationic liposomes positive in the whole range of protein mass tested. These results show how different compositions of lipid and aqueous phases can be used to vary the entrapment efficiency, liposome size, and zeta potential--the factors that are of great importance for the use of liposomes as drug carriers.

  12. Fertilizer residence time affects nitrogen uptake efficiency and growth of sweet corn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zotarelli, L.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Dukes, M.D.; Munoz-Carpena, R.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding plant N uptake dynamics is critical for increasing fertilizer N uptake efficiency (FUE) and minimize the risk of N leaching. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of residence time of N fertilizer on N uptake and FUE of sweet corn. Plants were grown in 25 L columns

  13. Theory and practice. Possible ways of putting fossil fuels to more efficient use in thermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, F

    1986-02-01

    In the past decade, the development of fuel and investment costs as it occurred has not given any crucial incentive for a necessary change in thermal efficiency. This can be partly attributed to the high level of technology, but also to the fact that the money spent on efficiency-improving measures increases exponentially for the most part. In any case, it should always be borne in mind in planning a new power station plant that the economic efficiency not only of the plant as a whole must be optimized, but also each individual component and system involved. All efforts to improve economic efficiency in systems and components should be harmonised to fit in with one another.

  14. Soil macrofauna affect crop nitrogen and water use efficiencies in semi-arid West Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouédraogo, E.; Mando, A.; Brussaard, L.

    2006-01-01

    It is increasingly recognised that soil fauna have a significant role in soil processes affecting nutrient availability and crop performance. A field experiment was conducted in southern Burkina Faso (West Africa) to investigate the contribution of soil fauna to nutrient availability and crop

  15. Factors affecting the labeling efficiency and stability of technetium-99m-labeled glucoheptonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbrzeznj, D.J.; Khan, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Factors influencing the labeling efficiency and in vitro stability of 99 mTc-labeled glucoheptonate (Tc-GH) were investigated. Using commercially available glucoheptonate kits (New England Nuclear), the following factors were studied: (1) amount of activity added to each kit vial, (2) different brands of 0.9% sodium chloride injection, (3) evaluation of eluates from three commercially available generators, (4) different chromatography systems, (5) storage of the preparation at room temperature and under refrigeration, and (6) labeling with eluates obtained at various times (6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours) since previous elution of the generator. Results showed that Tc-GH prepared using 100 mCi of sodium pertechnetate from a Mallinckrodt generator, low-dissolved-oxygen 0.9% sodium chloride injection to make up a constant 5-ml volume, and chromatography with methyl ethyl ketone/sodium chloride on an ITLC-SG system gave the best labeling efficiency over a 24-hour period. Storage temperature and time since previous elution had no effect on labeling efficiency or stability

  16. POSSIBILITIES OF APPLYING THE DEA METHOD IN THE ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF COMPANIES IN THE ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY: REVIEW OF WIND ENERGY COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Maradin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental tasks of modern power system is finding ways to produce stable and continuous electricity from scarce energy resources. One of the possible solutions is introduction, implementation and improvement of alternative forms of energy such as renewable energy sources, particularly wind energy as an increasingly important energy source which is expected to further increase its share in total electricity production. Numerous methods can be used in assessing the efficiency of wind energy companies, and in the focus of this research is the Data Envelopment Analysis method (DEA, a widely accepted methodology given its interdisciplinary approach and flexibility. This method represents a step forward in the field of renewable energy management, because it provides the possibility to compare the selected companies with the best in the industry (the most efficient and the possibility of determining sources of inefficiency and, consequently, the possibilities of their elimination.

  17. Undergoing Diagnostic Evaluation for Possible Cancer Affects the Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients Presenting with Non-Specific Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ellen Frøsig Moseholm; Rydahl Hansen, Susan; Lindhardt, Bjarne Ørskov

    2016-01-01

    Aim Undergoing diagnostic evaluation for possible cancer can affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aims of this study were to examine the HRQoL in patients undergoing a diagnostic evaluation for possible cancer due to non-specific symptoms and further to investigate the impact of socio...... diagnosis had the greatest effect on HRQoL around the time of diagnosis. Conclusions Patients with non-specific symptoms reported an affected HRQoL while undergoing a diagnostic evaluation for possible cancer. Morbidity, being unemployed and receiving a cancer diagnosis had the greatest effect on HRQo...... in the study; 680 (81%) also completed follow-up. Twenty-two percent of the patients received a cancer diagnosis at the end of follow-up. Patients presented initially with a high burden of symptoms, less role and emotional functioning and a lower global health/QoL. Most domains improved after diagnosis...

  18. Magnetic nanowires and hyperthermia: How geometry and material affect heat production efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Contreras, Maria F.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic hyperthermia, which refers to the production of heat by magnetic nanostructures under an alternating magnetic field (AMF), has been previously investigated with superparamagnetic nanobeads as a cancer therapy method. Magnetic nanowires (NWs) used in hyperthermia can be very promising, as it has been shown that they have a larger magnetic moment per unit of volume compared to the nanobeads. Moreover, Fe NWs proved to have a higher heating efficiency compared to Fe nanobeads, when exposed to an AMF at the same concentration [1].

  19. Stomoxys calcitrans as possible vector of Trypanosoma evansi among camels in an affected area of the Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Francisco Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Trypanosoma evansi was first identified in the Canary Islands in 1997, and is still present in a small area of the Archipelago. To date, the disease has exclusively affected camel herds, and has not been detected in any other animal hosts. However potential vectors of Trypanosoma evansi must be identified. Methods One Nzi trap was placed on a camel farm located in the infected area for a period of one year. Results Two thousand five hundred and five insects were trapped, of which Stomoxys calcitrans was the sole hematophagous vector captured. Conclusions Stomoxys calcitrans could be exclusively responsible for the transmission of Trypanosoma evansi among camels in the surveyed area, as other species do not seem to be infected by S. calcitrans in the presence of camels.

  20. Neuroticism explains unwanted variance in Implicit Association Tests of personality: Possible evidence for an affective valence confound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eFleischhauer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analytic data highlight the value of the Implicit Association Test (IAT as an indirect measure of personality. Based on evidence suggesting that confounding factors such as cognitive abilities contribute to the IAT effect, this study provides a first investigation of whether basic personality traits explain unwanted variance in the IAT. In a gender-balanced sample of 204 volunteers, the Big-Five dimensions were assessed via self-report, peer-report, and IAT. By means of structural equation modeling, latent Big-Five personality factors (based on self- and peer-report were estimated and their predictive value for unwanted variance in the IAT was examined. In a first analysis, unwanted variance was defined in the sense of method-specific variance which may result from differences in task demands between the two IAT block conditions and which can be mirrored by the absolute size of the IAT effects. In a second analysis, unwanted variance was examined in a broader sense defined as those systematic variance components in the raw IAT scores that are not explained by the latent implicit personality factors. In contrast to the absolute IAT scores, this also considers biases associated with the direction of IAT effects (i.e., whether they are positive or negative in sign, biases that might result, for example, from the IAT’s stimulus or category features. None of the explicit Big-Five factors was predictive for method-specific variance in the IATs (first analysis. However, when considering unwanted variance that goes beyond pure method-specific variance (second analysis, a substantial effect of neuroticism occurred that may have been driven by the affective valence of IAT attribute categories and the facilitated processing of negative stimuli, typically associated with neuroticism. The findings thus point to the necessity of using attribute category labels and stimuli of similar affective valence in personality IATs to avoid confounding due to

  1. FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFICIENCY OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN CATTLE AND BUFFALO IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    M. Anzar*, U. Farooq**, M.A. Mirza*, M. Shahab** and N. Ahmad*

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify the factors that affect the success of artificial insemination (A.I) services under field conditions. The data from a total of 459 inseminations were analyzed. The effects of farm, animal, semen/bull and A.I. technician on conception rate were studied. Milk progesterone concentration was used as an indicator of conception. Milk samples were collected from animals at day 0, 11 and 22 post-insemination and analysed for progesterone (P4) concentr...

  2. Radiation interception and radiation use efficiency of potato affected by different N fertigation and irrigation regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Three years of field experiments were carried out to explore the response of potato dry matter production, accumulated intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (Aipar) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) to five N levels providing 0, 60, 100, 140 and 180 kg N ha−1 and three drip irrigation...... strategies, which were full, deficit and none irrigation. Results showed that, irrespective of years, dry matter production and Aipar were increased by prolonged N fertigation, even though N fertigation was carried out from middle to late growing season. The highest total and tuber dry matter and accumulated...... fertilization occurred when most N was applied early in the growing season and the latest N fertilization should be applied no later than 41–50 days after emergence. Deficit irrigation, which received ca.70% of irrigation applied to full irrigation, did not reduce radiation interception and radiation use...

  3. Microvesicle formulations used in topical drugs and cosmetics affect product efficiency, performance and allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Ejner Andersen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    transdermal delivery more efficient for a number of drugs. Vesicular systems may also allow a more precise drug delivery to the site of action (ie, the hair follicles) and thereby minimize the applied drug concentration, reducing potential side effects. On the other hand, this may increase the risk of other......Attempts to improve the formulations of topical products are continuing processes (ie, to increase cosmetic performance, enhance effects, and protect ingredients from degradation). The development of micro- and nanovesicular systems has led to the marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics that use...... these technologies. Several articles have reported improved clinical efficacy by the encapsulation of pharmaceuticals in vesicular systems, and the numbers of publications and patents are rising. Some vesicular systems may deliver the drug deeper in the skin as compared to conventional vehicles, or even make...

  4. Fetal jaw movement affects Ihh signaling in mandibular condylar cartilage development: the possible role of Ihh as mechanotransduction mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Esrat; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Rafiq, Ashiq Mahmood; Hashimoto, Ryuju; Inoue, Takayuki; Udagawa, Jun; Sekine, Joji; Otani, Hiroki

    2014-10-01

    Jaw movement is an important mechanical factor for prenatal development of the condylar cartilage of mandible. Fetal jaw movement restriction has been shown to cause deformity of the mandibular condyle. We hypothesized that this treatment affects the expression of mechanosensitive molecules, namely Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and Parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP) in the condyle. We restrained jaw movement by suturing the jaw of E15.5 mouse embryos and allowed them to develop until E18.5 using exo utero system, and analyzed them by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization methods. Morphological, histomorphometric and immunohistochemical study showed that the mandibular condylar cartilage was reduced and deformed, the volume and total cell numbers in the condylar cartilage were also reduced, and number and/or distribution of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-positive cells, Ihh-positive cells in the mesenchymal and pre-hypertrophic zones were significantly and correspondingly decreased in the sutured group. Using in situ hybridization, reduced expression of Ihh, PTHrP and their related receptors were observed in condylar cartilage of the sutured embryos. Our results revealed that the altered mechanical stress induced by prenatal jaw movement restriction decreased proliferating cells, the amount of cartilage, and altered expression of the Ihh and PTHrP, suggesting that Ihh act as mechanotransduction mediators in the development of mandibular condylar cartilage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Outcomes of patients with blunt chest trauma encountered at emergency department and possible risk factors affecting mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Ming Tsai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blunt chest trauma is associated with a high risk of mortality. Respiratory complications may necessitate prolonged ventilation and result in death. The present study aimed to investigate possible signs of trauma and the prognosis of trauma patients with thoracic injuries and identify risk factors for mortality. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study was performed to investigate the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of trauma patients with blunt chest injuries who underwent thoracic computed tomography on arrival in the emergency department (January 2010–December 2013. Patients with brain injuries were excluded from the study. The prognostic values of age, sex, trauma type, injury severity score, revised trauma score (RTS, ventilator requirement, days in Intensive Care Unit (ICU, associated thoracic injury, and laboratory examinations (including arterial blood gas [ABG] were evaluated. Results: Fifteen of 30 analyzed patients died during their ICU stays; accordingly, we classified patients as survivors and nonsurvivors. These groups differed significantly regarding the RTS (P = 0.002, mechanical ventilation requirement (P = 0.007, total stay length (P = 0.009, and the presence of hemothorax (P = 0.030. However, no significant differences in the pneumothorax, rib fractures, and blood tests (including ABG analysis were observed between the groups. Conclusion: Among hospitalized trauma patients with blunt thoracic injuries, RTS, mechanical ventilation requirement, and hemothorax were identified as risk factors for mortality. Patients with hemothorax should receive multidisciplinary care and be monitored closely to improve survival.

  6. Factors affecting the possibility to detect buccal bone condition around dental implants using cone beam computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liedke, Gabriela S; Spin-Neto, Rubens; da Silveira, Heloisa E D

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate factors with impact on the conspicuity (possibility to detect) of the buccal bone condition around dental implants in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Titanium (Ti) or zirconia (Zr) implants and abutments were inserted into 40 bone blocks...... in a way to obtain variable buccal bone thicknesses. Three combinations regarding the implant-abutment metal (TiTi, TiZr, or ZrZr) and the number of implants (one, two, or three) were assessed. Two CBCT units (Scanora 3D - Sc and Cranex 3D - Cr) and two voxel resolutions (0.2 and 0.13 mm) were used...... variable. Odds ratio (OR) were calculated separately for each CBCT unit. RESULTS: Implant-abutment combination (ZrZr) (OR Sc = 19.18, OR Cr = 11.89) and number of implants (3) (OR Sc = 12.10, OR Cr = 4.25) had major impact on buccal bone conspicuity. The thinner the buccal bone, the higher the risk...

  7. Possibilities for conservation and efficiency of irrigation systems in hydropower; Possibilidades de conservacao e eficientizacao hidroenergetica em sistemas de irrigacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Augusto Nelson Carvalho; Ricardo, Mateus [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Grupo de Energia], emails: augusto@unifei.edu.br, mateus@unifei.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a literature review on efficiency and conservation of electricity and water in irrigation systems, focusing on the pumping systems used for that purpose. It's made an introduction to the theory about pumping systems and irrigation, which provides the conceptual basis for the understanding of the technologies and best practices on conservation and rational use of water and electricity presented in the paper development. (author)

  8. Viscoelastic Properties of Extracellular Polymeric Substances Can Strongly Affect Their Washing Efficiency from Reverse Osmosis Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando Chavez, Diana Lila; Nejidat, Ali; Herzberg, Moshe

    2016-09-06

    The role of the viscoelastic properties of biofouling layers in their removal from the membrane was studied. Model fouling layers of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) originated from microbial biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 differentially expressing the Psl polysaccharide were used for controlled washing experiments of fouled RO membranes. In parallel, adsorption experiments and viscoelastic modeling of the EPS layers were conducted in a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). During the washing stage, as shear rate was elevated, significant differences in permeate flux recovery between the three different EPS layers were observed. According to the amount of organic carbon remained on the membrane after washing, the magnitude of Psl production provides elevated resistance of the EPS layer to shear stress. The highest flux recovery during the washing stage was observed for the EPS with no Psl. Psl was shown to elevate the layer's shear modulus and shear viscosity but had no effect on the EPS adhesion to the polyamide surface. We conclude that EPS retain on the membrane as a result of the layer viscoelastic properties. These results highlight an important relation between washing efficiency of fouling layers from membranes and their viscoelastic properties, in addition to their adhesion properties.

  9. Biochemical factors affecting the quantum efficiency of hydrogen production by membranes of green photosynthetic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, J.D.; Olson, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Photohydrogen production, 200-700 ..mu..mol H/sub 2/ h/sup -1/ (mg bacteriochlorophyll a)/sup -1/ has been obtained in a system containing unit membrane vesicles (Complex I) from the green photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobium limicola f. thiosulfatophilum, ascorbate, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, dithioerythritol, an oxygen scavenging mixture, either methyl viologen (MV) or clostridial ferredoxin (CPS Fd) as electron carrier, and either CPS hydrogenase or platinum asbestos as catalyst. All components are necessary for maximum activity, and spinach Fd cannot be substituted for CPS Fd. Higher rates of photohydrogen production are obtained using MV or CPS Fd with hydrogenase than with MV and Pt asbestos. The highest quantum efficiencies (7-10% at 0.2-0.9 mW absorbed light and over 20% at lower light) were obtained with CPS Fd, hydrogenase and non-saturating 812 nm light. With saturating white light, however, rates of photohydrogen production varied relatively little among the various combinations of electron carrier and catalyst tested. The reaction rate is unaffected by 0.03% Triton X-100, and is insensitive to treatment with antimycin a or m-chloro-carbonyl cyanide phenylhydrazone.This indicates that neither electron flow through an endogenous cyclic chain, nor maintenance of a proton gradient are involved in this process.

  10. Motivation as a factor affecting the efficiency of cognitive processes in elderly patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinchenko, Yury P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to assess the role of motivation in the effective cognitive activity of elderly hypertension (HTN patients provided with antihypertensive treatment; 25 patients with HTN took part in the study, stage 1-2; their mean age was 67.6±6.1. The psychological examination program embraced a quantitative measurement of intelligence quotient (IQ with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and an investigation into the qualitative features of their cognitive processes, applying a pathopsychological study procedure (Zeigarnik, 1962, 1972 and the principles of psychological syndrome analysis (Vygotsky-Luria-Zeigarnik school. The results showed that within the psychological syndrome structure of cognitive disorders in HTN patients, the leading part is played by two syndrome-generating factors: a neurodynamic factor and a motivational factor. The patients with reduced motivation would achieve poor general test results, if compared with the group of highly motivated participants. A correlation analysis of the data revealed the interconnection between frequency disturbances in motivation and the frequency in occurrence of various signs of cognitive decline, such as low efficiency in memorization and delayed recall, as well as lower IQ test results. The data provide a strong argument to support the hypothesis that motivation is of particular importance as a factor in the generation of cognitive disorders in HTN patients.

  11. Breed of cow and herd productivity affect milk nutrient recovery in curd, and cheese yield, efficiency and daily production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Gasparotto, V; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about cheese-making efficiency at the individual cow level, so our objective was to study the effects of herd productivity, individual herd within productivity class and breed of cow within herd by producing, then analyzing, 508 model cheeses from the milk of 508 cows of six different breeds reared in 41 multi-breed herds classified into two productivity classes (high v. low). For each cow we obtained six milk composition traits; four milk nutrient (fat, protein, solids and energy) recovery traits (REC) in curd; three actual % cheese yield traits (%CY); two theoretical %CYs (fresh cheese and cheese solids) calculated from milk composition; two overall cheese-making efficiencies (% ratio of actual to theoretical %CYs); daily milk yield (dMY); and three actual daily cheese yield traits (dCY). The aforementioned phenotypes were analyzed using a mixed model which included the fixed effects of herd productivity, parity, days in milk (DIM) and breed; the random effects were the water bath, vat, herd and residual. Cows reared in high-productivity herds yielded more milk with higher nutrient contents and more cheese per day, had greater theoretical %CY, and lower cheese-making efficiency than low-productivity herds, but there were no differences between them in terms of REC traits. Individual herd within productivity class was an intermediate source of total variation in REC, %CY and efficiency traits (10.0% to 17.2%), and a major source of variation in milk yield and dCY traits (43.1% to 46.3%). Parity of cows was an important source of variation for productivity traits, whereas DIM affected almost all traits. Breed within herd greatly affected all traits. Holsteins produced more milk, but Brown Swiss cows produced milk with higher actual and theoretical %CYs and cheese-making efficiency, so that the two large-framed breeds had the same dCY. Compared with the two large-framed breeds, the small Jersey cows produced much less milk, but with greater actual

  12. External Resistances Applied to MFC Affect Core Microbiome and Swine Manure Treatment Efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilajeliu-Pons, Anna; Bañeras, Lluis; Puig, Sebastià; Molognoni, Daniele; Vilà-Rovira, Albert; Hernández-del Amo, Elena; Balaguer, Maria D.; Colprim, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can be designed to combine water treatment with concomitant electricity production. Animal manure treatment has been poorly explored using MFCs, and its implementation at full-scale primarily relies on the bacterial distribution and activity within the treatment cell. This study reports the bacterial community changes at four positions within the anode of two almost identically operated MFCs fed swine manure. Changes in the microbiome structure are described according to the MFC fluid dynamics and the application of a maximum power point tracking system (MPPT) compared to a fixed resistance system (Ref-MFC). Both external resistance and cell hydrodynamics are thought to heavily influence MFC performance. The microbiome was characterised both quantitatively (qPCR) and qualitatively (454-pyrosequencing) by targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The diversity of the microbial community in the MFC biofilm was reduced and differed from the influent swine manure. The adopted electric condition (MPPT vs fixed resistance) was more relevant than the fluid dynamics in shaping the MFC microbiome. MPPT control positively affected bacterial abundance and promoted the selection of putatively exoelectrogenic bacteria in the MFC core microbiome (Sedimentibacter sp. and gammaproteobacteria). These differences in the microbiome may be responsible for the two-fold increase in power production achieved by the MPPT-MFC compared to the Ref-MFC. PMID:27701451

  13. A survey to study and compare factors affecting human resources efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHSEN KHADEMI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The human resources are considered the main asset of any society. If used properly and effectively, it will create other sources and above all the added value. The quality of the life is usually dependent on the quality of human professional life including factors such as job security, services and welfare pensions, health services, income, and job quality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role and priority of the above-mentioned factors on efficacy of the staff members of the Fars Office of Education. Methods: The research sample comprised the staff members of the Fars Office of Education across the state, including 61 districts. Based on the Cochran Formula, 25 districts were randomly selected. In order to measure the factors, the Likert-type instrument designed by Hossainpoor to compare the Ideal and current situation, was used. Results: The staff rated job security as the most important factor affecting their efficacy in both current and ideal situations followed by income. Discussion: Based on the previous research and review of literature, success of the educational organizations is fully dependent on their personnel. If executives of such organizations try to attract the qualified personnel and keep them motivated, their success will be guaranteed.

  14. Endogenous ovarian hormones affect mitochondrial efficiency in cerebral endothelium via distinct regulation of PGC-1 isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Martin F; Zhao, Yuanzi; Duckles, Sue P; Krause, Diana N

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria support the energy-intensive functions of brain endothelium but also produce damaging-free radicals that lead to disease. Previously, we found that estrogen treatment protects cerebrovascular mitochondria, increasing capacity for ATP production while decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS). To determine whether these effects occur specifically in endothelium in vivo and also explore underlying transcriptional mechanisms, we studied freshly isolated brain endothelial preparations from intact and ovariectomized female mice. This preparation reflects physiologic influences of circulating hormones, hemodynamic forces, and cell-cell interactions of the neurovascular unit. Loss of ovarian hormones affected endothelial expression of the key mitochondrial regulator family, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 (PGC-1), but in a unique way. Ovariectomy increased endothelial PGC-1α mRNA but decreased PGC-1β mRNA. The change in PGC-1β correlated with decreased mRNA for crucial downstream mitochondrial regulators, nuclear respiratory factor 1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A, as well as for ATP synthase and ROS protection enzymes, glutamate-cysteine ligase and manganese superoxide dismutase. Ovariectomy also decreased mitochondrial biogenesis (mitochondrial/nuclear DNA ratio). These results indicate ovarian hormones normally act through a distinctive regulatory pathway involving PGC-1β to support cerebral endothelial mitochondrial content and guide mitochondrial function to favor ATP coupling and ROS protection.

  15. Estimation of hospital efficiency--do different definitions and casemix measures for hospital output affect the results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitikainen, Kirsi; Street, Andrew; Linna, Miika

    2009-02-01

    Hospital efficiency has been the subject of numerous health economics studies, but there is little evidence on how the chosen output and casemix measures affect the efficiency results. The aim of this study is to examine the robustness of efficiency results due to these factors. Comparison is made between activities and episode output measures, and two different output grouping systems (Classic and FullDRG). Non-parametric data envelopment analysis is used as an analysis technique. The data consist of all public acute care hospitals in Finland in 2005 (n=40). Efficiency estimates were not found to be highly sensitive to the choice between episode and activity descriptions of output, but more so to the choice of DRG grouping system. Estimates are most sensitive to scale assumptions, with evidence of decreasing returns to scale in larger hospitals. Episode measures are generally to be preferred to activity measures because these better capture the patient pathway, while FullDRGs are preferred to Classic DRGs particularly because of the better description of outpatient output in the former grouping system. Attention should be paid to reducing the extent of scale inefficiency in Finland.

  16. Physicochemical Parameters Affecting the Electrospray Ionization Efficiency of Amino Acids after Acylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) is widely used in liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC–MS) for the analysis of biomolecules. However, the ESI process is still not completely understood, and it is often a matter of trial and error to enhance ESI efficiency and, hence, the response of a given set of compounds. In this work we performed a systematic study of the ESI response of 14 amino acids that were acylated with organic acid anhydrides of increasing chain length and with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) changing certain physicochemical properties in a predictable manner. By comparing the ESI response of 70 derivatives, we found that there was a strong correlation between the calculated molecular volume and the ESI response, while correlation with hydrophobicity (log P values), pKa, and the inverse calculated surface tension was significantly lower although still present, especially for individual derivatized amino acids with increasing acyl chain lengths. Acylation with PEG containing five ethylene glycol units led to the largest gain in ESI response. This response was maximal independent of the calculated physicochemical properties or the type of amino acid. Since no actual physicochemical data is available for most derivatized compounds, the responses were also used as input for a quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR) model to find the best physicochemical descriptors relating to the ESI response from molecular structures using the amino acids and their derivatives as a reference set. A topological descriptor related to molecular size (SPAN) was isolated next to a descriptor related to the atomic composition and structural groups (BIC0). The validity of the model was checked with a test set of 43 additional compounds that were unrelated to amino acids. While prediction was generally good (R2 > 0.9), compounds containing halogen atoms or nitro groups gave a lower predicted ESI response. PMID:28737384

  17. Residential energy efficiency retrofits: How program design affects participation and outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoicka, Christina E.; Parker, Paul; Andrey, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Better methods of characterizing and addressing heterogeneity in preferences and decision making are needed to stimulate reductions in household greenhouse gas emissions. Four residential energy efficiency programs were delivered consecutively in the Region of Waterloo, Canada, between 1999 and 2011, and each offered a unique combination of information, financial reward structure, and price. A natural quasi-experimental intervention design was employed to assess differences in outcomes across these program structures. Participation at the initial (evaluation by an energy advisor) and follow-up (verification of retrofit) stages, and the material characteristics (e.g., energy performance) were measured and compared between the groups of houses included in each program at each stage. The programs appealed to people with different types of material concerns; each phase of the program was associated with houses with a different mix of material characteristics and depths of recommended and achieved changes. While a performance-based reward attracted fewer houses at each stage than a larger list-based reward, older houses with poorer energy performance were included at each stage. The findings support experimentation with program designs to target sub-populations of housing stock; future program designs should experiment more carefully and with larger performance-based rewards and test parallels with potential carbon market structures. - Highlights: • Multi-program data over 12 years detailing residential energy retrofits. • Natural experimental intervention research design for program evaluation. • Number and attributes of participating households differed by program design. • Financial rewards attracted more participants to the verification stage. • Performance-based incentives have the largest potential for energy savings

  18. Factors affecting the efficiency of the sterile insect release method for tsetse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    Data are reviewed on the levels of sterility, survival and competitiveness of Glossina males after irradiation with various gamma-ray doses delivered in air or nitrogen. A simple population model helps in the choice of the optimum dose. Field studies of mating competitiveness require a measure of the ratio of sterile to fertile males and of sterile to fertile matings, and both ratio estimates will be subject to sampling error. Data on multiple mating of female Glossina are reviewed. There is some degree of precedence for sperm from the first mating but sterile sperm are fully competitive for fertilization and, following the early death of an embryo, the timing of the next ovulation is only advanced to a slight extent. Thus in an isolated population the occurrence or non-occurrence of female polygamy would be of almost no consequence. Where mated females were immigrating into the release area female polygamy would be advantageous. The low recovery potential of tsetse populations is the main reason for thinking them suitable for control by the introduction of sterility. In trying to measure this recovery potential it is important to distinguish it from natural seasonal increase. If natural population fluctuations are studied to detect density dependent effects it is important not to confuse cause with effect. Non-isolation of the 'target' population is almost certainly the most serious obstacle to practical application of the sterile insect release method, and a steady 'rolling forward' of the release area may be a possible solution. (author)

  19. Plant Products Affect Growth and Digestive Efficiency of Cultured Florida Pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) Fed Compounded Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Gregory P.; Reigh, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Costs of compounded diets containing fish meal as a primary protein source can be expected to rise as fish meal prices increase in response to static supply and growing demand. Alternatives to fish meal are needed to reduce production costs in many aquaculture enterprises. Some plant proteins are potential replacements for fish meal because of their amino acid composition, lower cost and wide availability. In this study, we measured utilization of soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) by Florida pompano fed compounded diets, to determine the efficacy of these products as fish meal replacements. We also calculated apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for canola meal (CM), corn gluten meal (CGM), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), following typical methods for digestibility trials. Juvenile Florida pompano were fed fish-meal-free diets containing graded levels of SBM and SPC, and weight gain was compared to a control diet that contained SBM, SPC, and fish meal. Fish fed diets that contained 25–30 percent SBM in combination with 43–39 percent SPC had weight gain equivalent to fish fed the control diet with fish meal, while weight gain of fish fed other soy combinations was significantly less than that of the control group. Apparent crude protein digestibility of CGM was significantly higher than that of DDGS but not significantly different from CM. Apparent energy digestibility of DDGS was significantly lower than CGM but significantly higher than CM. Findings suggested that composition of the reference diet used in a digestibility trial affects the values of calculated ADCs, in addition to the chemical and physical attributes of the test ingredient. PMID:22536344

  20. Does environmental regulation affect energy efficiency in China's thermal power generation? Empirical evidence from a slacks-based DEA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Gong-Bing; Song, Wen; Zhou, P.; Liang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has gained much popularity in performance measurement of power industry. This paper presents a slack-based measure approach to investigating the relationship between fossil fuel consumption and the environmental regulation of China's thermal power generation. We first calculate the total-factor energy efficiency without considering environmental constraints. An environmental performance indicator is proposed through decomposing the total-factor energy efficiency. The proposed approach is then employed to examine whether environmental regulation affects the energy efficiency of China's thermal power generation. We find that the environmental efficiency plays a significant role in affecting energy performance of China's thermal generation sector. Decreasing the discharge of major pollutants can improve both energy performance and environmental efficiency. Besides, we also have three main findings: (1) The energy efficiency and environmental efficiency were relatively low. (2) The energy and environmental efficiency scores show great variations among provinces. (3) Both energy efficiency and environmental efficiency are of obvious geographical characteristics. According to our findings, we suggest some policy implications. - Highlights: • We assess the energy efficiency and the environmental efficiency of China's thermal power generation simultaneously. • The energy efficiency and the environmental efficiency were relatively low during 2007–2009. • The energy efficiency and environmental efficiency show obvious geographic characters. • The environmental performance of a DMU plays a decisive role in the energy performance

  1. ECOCURE BLUE – NEW COLD BOX SYSTEM WITH ULTRA-HIGH EFFICIENCY AND AS LOW AS POSSIBLE EMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Vacelet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By omitting materials subject to the labeling requirement in part 1 cold-box resin, Düker GmbH from Laufach can achieve an impressive reduction in emissions.Emission and workplace exposure limit values represent major challenges for foundries, and are becoming increasingly important due to every stricter statutory regulations. In particular, compliance with emission guidelines is essential in safeguarding company sites, and is now of equal significance as technical and economic issues. Modern foundries such as Düker GmbH from Laufachpursue a sustainable corporate policy in which the three pillars of cost-effectiveness, social responsibility and environmental protection are accorded equal importance. Düker’s example shows how the use of the new ECOCURE BLUE technology supports environmental protection and occupational health and safety, while also facilitating efficient, highly productive core production. 

  2. FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFICIENCY OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN CATTLE AND BUFFALO IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anzar*, U. Farooq**, M.A. Mirza*, M. Shahab** and N. Ahmad*

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to identify the factors that affect the success of artificial insemination (A.I services under field conditions. The data from a total of 459 inseminations were analyzed. The effects of farm, animal, semen/bull and A.I. technician on conception rate were studied. Milk progesterone concentration was used as an indicator of conception. Milk samples were collected from animals at day 0, 11 and 22 post-insemination and analysed for progesterone (P4 concentrations using radioimmunoassay (RIA kits. Results indicated that the overall conception rate through A.I. under field condition was 29%. Among the farm-related factors, only region had a significant effect on conception rate (P0.05. Animals inseminated within 24 hours after the onset of estrus had a higher, though statistically insignificant, conception rate than those inseminated after 24 hours. Among the animal-related factors, species, milk production, body condition score (BCS, lactation state, heat signs and uterine tone had a significant effect on conception rate. The conception rate in buffaloes was higher than in cattle (P<0.05. Animals with the higher BCS had a better conception rate than those having lower condition. Conception rate in the milking animals was more than the dry ones (P<0.05. Animals showing the passage of mucus from external genitalia (P<0.05 and marked uterine tone (P<0.01 showed better conception rate. Among the semen/bull related factors, bull breed, semen type, quality and source had a marked effect on conception rate. The conception rate was higher with the semen of cross bred and buffalo bulls (P<0.05. The conception rate with liquid semen was high and low with frozen semen (P<0.01. Good quality semen yielded higher conception rate than poor quality semen (P<0.01. The conception rate varied significantly due to A.I. technician (P<0.01. In conclusion, there is a tremendous scope to improve the existing A.I. technology in field

  3. Factors affecting study efficiency and item non-response in health surveys in developing countries: the Jamaica national healthy lifestyle survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Franklyn

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health surveys provide important information on the burden and secular trends of risk factors and disease. Several factors including survey and item non-response can affect data quality. There are few reports on efficiency, validity and the impact of item non-response, from developing countries. This report examines factors associated with item non-response and study efficiency in a national health survey in a developing Caribbean island. Methods A national sample of participants aged 15–74 years was selected in a multi-stage sampling design accounting for 4 health regions and 14 parishes using enumeration districts as primary sampling units. Means and proportions of the variables of interest were compared between various categories. Non-response was defined as failure to provide an analyzable response. Linear and logistic regression models accounting for sample design and post-stratification weighting were used to identify independent correlates of recruitment efficiency and item non-response. Results We recruited 2012 15–74 year-olds (66.2% females at a response rate of 87.6% with significant variation between regions (80.9% to 97.6%; p Conclusion Informative health surveys are possible in developing countries. While survey response rates may be satisfactory, item non-response was high in respect of income and sexual practice. In contrast to developed countries, non-response to questions on income is higher and has different correlates. These findings can inform future surveys.

  4. Identification and quantification of principal–agent problems affecting energy efficiency investments and use decisions in the trucking industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, David; Meier, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Energy related Principal–Agent (PA) problems cause inefficient combinations of investment, operating costs, and usage behavior. The complex market structure of the trucking industry contributes to split incentives because entities responsible for investments in energy efficiency do not always pay fuel costs and drivers are often not rewarded for fuel-efficient operation. Some contractual relationships exist in the trucking industry that hinder responses to fuel price signals. Up to 91% of total trucking fuel consumption in the U.S. is affected by “usage” PA problems, where the driver does not pay fuel costs and lacks incentive for fuel saving operation. Approximately 23% of trailers are exposed to an “efficiency problem” when owners of rented trailers do not pay fuel costs and therefore have little incentive to invest in efficiency upgrades such as improved trailer aerodynamics and reduced tire rolling resistance. This study shows that PA problems have the potential to significantly increase fuel consumption through avoided investments, insufficient maintenance, and fuel-wasting practices. Further research into the causes and effects of PA problems can shape policies to promote better alignment of costs and benefits, leading to reduced fuel use and carbon emissions. - Highlights: ► We identify and quantify principal agent market failures in the trucking industry. ► Up to 91% of truck fuel consumption is exposed to a usage principal–agent market failure. ► Twenty-three percent of trailers are exposed to an efficiency principal–agent market failure. ► These market failures at least partially insulate key decision makers from fuel price signals.

  5. Reversible mode of binding of serum proteins to DOTAP/cholesterol Lipoplexes: a possible explanation for intravenous lipofection efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simberg, Dmitri; Weiss, Aryeh; Barenholz, Yechezkel

    2005-09-01

    There are many indications that interaction of serum proteins with intravenously injected cationic lipoplexes disturbs lipofection in vitro and in vivo. However, transfection with certain lipid compositions such as N-[1- (2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (DOTAP)/cholesterol appears to be more resistant to serum and more efficacious. We investigated the mechanism of interaction between fluorescently labeled lipoplexes of the above composition and fluorescently labeled serum proteins. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements in vitro indicate that serum proteins interact instantly and closely with the DOTAP/cholesterol lipoplexes. In accord with this, preinjection of fluorescently labeled serum into mice before injection of lipoplexes showed an immediate association of proteins with lipoplexes. Serum proteins colocalized with the lipoplexes in the lung vasculature; however, they dissociated from the cationic lipid as soon as 1 hr postinjection, probably because of displacement of serum proteins from lipoplexes by extracellular proteoglycans. Indeed, this displacement was imitated by heparin, a typical glycosaminoglycan, and could be explained by the inability of weakly acidic serum proteins to neutralize the DOTAP/cholesterol electrical surface potential psi0. The stability of the cationic lipid psi0 in serum could be a key reason for the high lung association and transfection efficiency with this formulation.

  6. How Does Electronic Health Information Exchange Affect Hospital Performance Efficiency? The Effects of Breadth and Depth of Information Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Na-Eun; Ke, Weiling; Atems, Bebonchu; Chang, Jongwha

    2018-01-01

    This research was motivated by the large investment in health information technology (IT) by hospitals and the inconsistent findings related to the effects of health IT adoption on hospital performance. Building on resource orchestration theory and the information systems literature, the authors developed a research model to investigate how the configuration strategies for sharing information under health IT systems affect hospital efficiency. The hypotheses were tested using data from the 2010 annual and IT surveys of the American Hospital Association, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services case mix index, and U.S. Census Bureau's small-area income and poverty estimates. The study revealed that in health IT systems, the breadth (extent) and depth (level of detail) of digital information sharing among stakeholders each has a curvilinear relationship with hospital efficiency. In addition, breadth and depth reinforce each other's positive effects and attenuate each other's negative effects, and their balance has a positive effect on hospital efficiency. The results of this research have the potential to enrich the literature on the value of adopting health IT systems as well as in providing practitioner guidelines for meaningful use.

  7. Factors that affect the quality and efficiency of artificial insemination in oestrus synchronization programmes in dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroso, R.; Roller, F.; Gonzalez, N.; Felipe, N.; Bravo, M.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments were performed during a three-year period in order to identify the factors affecting quality and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) when it is used in cattle subjected to oestrus induction and synchronization (OIS) programmes. The study took place in the Western part of the country and 3 herds with a total of 6357 animals were used. The first study was a survey to evaluate the factors affecting the efficiency of AI in OIS. The second study examined the effects of body condition score (BCS) and three different regimes of OIS on the results of AI. Progesterone levels were measured in blood and milk using radioimmunoassay to determine the incidence of acyclic animals in the herds. Data were recorded and analysed using the artificial insemination database application (AIDA) and further statistical analyses were done using Systat. The results found in the survey showed a low conception rate (18%) and a great variability in the period from calving to conception (154 ± 98.11 days). The latter parameter was significantly different between herds (P<0.001). A high percentage of animals selected for OIS programmes (37%) showed a poor BCS (<2.5 on a scale of 1-5). Motility of semen used for AI was low (<30%) in 47% of the samples evaluated. The results from progesterone measurements demonstrated that the reasons for poor fertility were low accuracy in oestrus detection, poor response to treatment for OIS, non-fertilization, embryo mortality and functional disturbances present after treatment. Under our field conditions during the dry season, acyclicity (anoestrus) is a frequent problem in primiparous cows and in those with poor BCS. The BCS in heifers and the quality of different treatments had a significant effect on the conception rate. These results confirm that the use of progesterone measurement together with data management using AIDA is a very appropriate way to evaluate and improve the quality and efficiency of AI in OIS programmes. (author)

  8. The many factors that affect the success of regulatory mechanisms designed to foster investments in energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarnikau [LBJ School of Public Affairs and Division of Statistics of the College of Natural Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78713 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    A utility's profit-maximizing level of investment in energy efficiency or demand-side management (DSM) programs and mix of programs is affected by natural load growth, the frequency of rate cases, program costs, and the structure of any mechanism designed to either compensate the utility for foregone profits or sever the link between sales and profits. Under a range of reasonable assumptions, decoupling can incent a utility to invest in DSM. However, a utility experiencing high natural load growth and little inflation is likely to resist the imposition of a decoupling mechanism, as it would tend to lower profits. A utility with low growth in per-customer sales will tend to favor decoupling, as it will tend to lead to higher profits than under traditional regulation. The results presented here are quite sensitive to the assumptions made regarding natural load growth, regulatory lag, the frequency of price changes, price elasticity of demand, and other factors. This suggests that there is not a single approach to promoting energy efficiency without penalizing utility profits that will work in all situations for all utilities.

  9. Prioritization of the Factors Affecting Bank Efficiency Using Combined Data Envelopment Analysis and Analytical Hierarchy Process Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Fallah Jelodar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bank branches have a vital role in the economy of all countries. They collect assets from various sources and put them in the hand of those sectors that need liquidity. Due to the limited financial and human resources and capitals and also because of the unlimited and new customers’ needs and strong competition between banks and financial and credit institutions, the purpose of this study is to provide an answer to the question of which of the factors affecting performance, creating value, and increasing shareholder dividends are superior to others and consequently managers should pay more attention to them. Therefore, in this study, the factors affecting performance (efficiency in the areas of management, personnel, finance, and customers were segmented and obtained results were ranked using both methods of Data Envelopment Analysis and hierarchical analysis. In both of these methods, the leadership style in the area of management; the recruitment and resource allocation in the area of financing; the employees’ satisfaction, dignity, and self-actualization in the area of employees; and meeting the new needs of customers got more weights.

  10. Plant water use efficiency over geological time--evolution of leaf stomata configurations affecting plant gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Or, Dani

    2013-01-01

    Plant gas exchange is a key process shaping global hydrological and carbon cycles and is often characterized by plant water use efficiency (WUE - the ratio of CO2 gain to water vapor loss). Plant fossil record suggests that plant adaptation to changing atmospheric CO2 involved correlated evolution of stomata density (d) and size (s), and related maximal aperture, amax . We interpreted the fossil record of s and d correlated evolution during the Phanerozoic to quantify impacts on gas conductance affecting plant transpiration, E, and CO2 uptake, A, independently, and consequently, on plant WUE. A shift in stomata configuration from large s-low d to small s-high d in response to decreasing atmospheric CO2 resulted in large changes in plant gas exchange characteristics. The relationships between gas conductance, gws , A and E and maximal relative transpiring leaf area, (amax ⋅d), exhibited hysteretic-like behavior. The new WUE trend derived from independent estimates of A and E differs from established WUE-CO2 trends for atmospheric CO2 concentrations exceeding 1,200 ppm. In contrast with a nearly-linear decrease in WUE with decreasing CO2 obtained by standard methods, the newly estimated WUE trend exhibits remarkably stable values for an extended geologic period during which atmospheric CO2 dropped from 3,500 to 1,200 ppm. Pending additional tests, the findings may affect projected impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 on components of the global hydrological cycle.

  11. An Attempt at Quantifying Factors that Affect Efficiency in the Management of Solid Waste Produced by Commercial Businesses in the City of Tshwane, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Worku, Yohannes; Muchie, Mammo

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The objective was to investigate factors that affect the efficient management of solid waste produced by commercial businesses operating in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. Methods. Data was gathered from 1,034 businesses. Efficiency in solid waste management was assessed by using a structural time-based model designed for evaluating efficiency as a function of the length of time required to manage waste. Data analysis was performed using statistical procedures such as frequency...

  12. Human, donkey and cow milk differently affects energy efficiency and inflammatory state by modulating mitochondrial function and gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchese, Giovanna; Cavaliere, Gina; Canani, Roberto Berni; Matamoros, Sebastien; Bergamo, Paolo; De Filippo, Chiara; Aceto, Serena; Gaita, Marcello; Cerino, Pellegrino; Negri, Rossella; Greco, Luigi; Cani, Patrice D; Mollica, Maria Pina

    2015-11-01

    Different nutritional components are able, by modulating mitochondrial function and gut microbiota composition, to influence body composition, metabolic homeostasis and inflammatory state. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects produced by the supplementation of different milks on energy balance, inflammatory state, oxidative stress and antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme activities and to investigate the role of the mitochondrial efficiency and the gut microbiota in the regulation of metabolic functions in an animal model. We compared the intake of human milk, gold standard for infant nutrition, with equicaloric supplementation of donkey milk, the best substitute for newborns due to its nutritional properties, and cow milk, the primary marketed product. The results showed a hypolipidemic effect produced by donkey and human milk intake in parallel with enhanced mitochondrial activity/proton leakage. Reduced mitochondrial energy efficiency and proinflammatory signals (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 and lipopolysaccharide levels) were associated with a significant increase of antioxidants (total thiols) and detoxifying enzyme activities (glutathione-S-transferase, NADH quinone oxidoreductase) in donkey- and human milk-treated animals. The beneficial effects were attributable, at least in part, to the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 pathway. Moreover, the metabolic benefits induced by human and donkey milk may be related to the modulation of gut microbiota. In fact, milk treatments uniquely affected the proportions of bacterial phyla and genera, and we hypothesized that the increased concentration of fecal butyrate in human and donkey milk-treated rats was related to the improved lipid and glucose metabolism and detoxifying activities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. More efficient resource utilization of geothermal plants. Technical possibilities and their assessment; Effizientere Ressourcenausnutzung geothermischer Anlagen. Technische Moeglichkeiten und deren Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kock, Nils; Kaltschmitt, Martin [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Energiewirtschaft

    2011-12-15

    The geological conditions in Germany allow maximum temperatures between 160 to 170 C free well head taking techno-economic constraint into consideration. This makes an electricity production for purely technical reasons possible, but only with low efficiencies due to physical constraints. That's why it assault big amounts of waste heat. For example, the existing geothermal power plants in Germany provide in average 18% of electricity and 82% of heat. This heat is use so far only to a very small degree. Even is a district heating system is operated to supply private households, this heat is used with less than 2.500 h per year. That's why the still hot thermal water is press back into the underground without any further utilization. For these reasons to achieve a technical and economic optimization it should be the aim to find different reasonable options to use this waste heat. One possibility is the coupling with a drying process at the location of the geothermal plant. Such options will be analyzed from a technical and economic point of view and some conclusions will be drawn. (orig.)

  14. Cross-scale interactions affect tree growth and intrinsic water use efficiency and highlight the importance of spatial context in managing forests under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth J. Ruzicka; Klaus J. Puettmann; J. Renée Brooks

    2017-01-01

    Summary1. We investigated the potential of cross-scale interactions to affect the outcome of density reduction in a large-scale silvicultural experiment to better understand options for managing forests under climate change. 2. We measured tree growth and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) based on stable carbon isotopes (δ...

  15. Commentary on "Finance, Management, and Costs of Public and Private Schools in Indonesia" and "Do Local Contributions Affect the Efficiency of Public Primary Schools?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Mark C.

    1996-01-01

    Studies on Indonesia and the Philippines in this special issue examine how local financial control affects costs of providing primary schooling. In both countries, schools with greater financial decentralization operated more efficiently. These results have important implications for U.S. schools, where decentralization reforms in Kentucky and…

  16. An Attempt at Quantifying Factors that Affect Efficiency in the Management of Solid Waste Produced by Commercial Businesses in the City of Tshwane, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Worku

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective was to investigate factors that affect the efficient management of solid waste produced by commercial businesses operating in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. Methods. Data was gathered from 1,034 businesses. Efficiency in solid waste management was assessed by using a structural time-based model designed for evaluating efficiency as a function of the length of time required to manage waste. Data analysis was performed using statistical procedures such as frequency tables, Pearson’s chi-square tests of association, and binary logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios estimated from logistic regression analysis were used for identifying key factors that affect efficiency in the proper disposal of waste. Results. The study showed that 857 of the 1,034 businesses selected for the study (83% were found to be efficient enough with regards to the proper collection and disposal of solid waste. Based on odds ratios estimated from binary logistic regression analysis, efficiency in the proper management of solid waste was significantly influenced by 4 predictor variables. These 4 influential predictor variables are lack of adherence to waste management regulations, wrong perception, failure to provide customers with enough trash cans, and operation of businesses by employed managers, in a decreasing order of importance.

  17. An Attempt at Quantifying Factors that Affect Efficiency in the Management of Solid Waste Produced by Commercial Businesses in the City of Tshwane, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Yohannes; Muchie, Mammo

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The objective was to investigate factors that affect the efficient management of solid waste produced by commercial businesses operating in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. Methods. Data was gathered from 1,034 businesses. Efficiency in solid waste management was assessed by using a structural time-based model designed for evaluating efficiency as a function of the length of time required to manage waste. Data analysis was performed using statistical procedures such as frequency tables, Pearson's chi-square tests of association, and binary logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios estimated from logistic regression analysis were used for identifying key factors that affect efficiency in the proper disposal of waste. Results. The study showed that 857 of the 1,034 businesses selected for the study (83%) were found to be efficient enough with regards to the proper collection and disposal of solid waste. Based on odds ratios estimated from binary logistic regression analysis, efficiency in the proper management of solid waste was significantly influenced by 4 predictor variables. These 4 influential predictor variables are lack of adherence to waste management regulations, wrong perception, failure to provide customers with enough trash cans, and operation of businesses by employed managers, in a decreasing order of importance. PMID:23209483

  18. Analysis of the energy efficiency of short rotation woody crops biomass as affected by different methods of soil enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolarski, Mariusz J.; Krzyżaniak, Michał; Tworkowski, Józef; Szczukowski, Stefan; Niksa, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the energy input and energy efficiency of the production of willow, poplar and black locust chips in four-year harvest rotation. The highest energy input was made in poplar production when soil was enriched with lignin and by mineral fertilisation (33.02 GJ ha −1 ). For willow production it was 30.76 GJ ha −1 when lignin, mycorrhiza and mineral fertilisation were used. The energy input in the production of black locust was much lower. The largest energy gain was obtained in the production of poplar when soil was enriched with lignin and mineral fertilisation (673.7 GJ ha −1 ). A similar level of this parameter (669.7 GJ ha −1 ) was achieved in the production of willow when lignin, mycorrhiza and mineral fertilisation was used. In general, a higher energy gain was obtained in the production of willow and poplar than in the production of black locust. On the other hand, the best energy efficiency ratio was achieved for willow (28.9) in the option with lignin. The ratio for poplar production ranged from 19.7 to 25.9. On the other hand, the energy efficiency ratio for black locust ranged from 10.6 to 21.7. - Highlights: • The energy input ranged from 6.69 GJ ha −1 to 33.02 GJ ha −1 . • The largest energy gain was obtained for poplar (673.7 GJ ha −1 ). • The best energy efficiency ratio was achieved for willow (28.9). • The energy efficiency ratio for poplar ranged from 19.7 to 25.9. • The energy efficiency ratio for black locust ranged from 10.6 to 21.7.

  19. Do Shifts in Renewable Energy Operation Policy Affect Efficiency: Korea’s Shift from FIT to RPS and Its Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungguen Park

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available South Korea’s new and renewable energy (NRE policy experienced a drastic shift from the Feed-in Tariff (FIT to the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS in 2012. This study looks at the changes in the efficiency of NRE policy in this transition through DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and MI (Malmquist Index methods, using investment for NRE technology development and for NRE dissemination as input factors and the number of firms, the number of employees, and the volume of NRE power generation as output factors. The results show a temporary drop in efficiency in 2012 during the transition period for the NRE industry as a whole. However, apart from those energy types with ulterior factors, the implementation of RPS increased the technical change (TC of most NRE types. Furthermore, the findings highlight that, among South Korea’s three focal NRE industries—photovoltaic, wind power, and fuel cell energies—only fuel cell energies showed an increase in efficiency over time. South Korea’s policy shifts from FIT to RPS and the resulting effects on NRE policy’s efficiency provide a useful reference and guideline for government decision-making on NRE policy changes.

  20. Dual-function radiation sensitizers and bioreductive drugs: factors affecting cellular uptake and sensitizing efficiency in analogues of RSU 1069

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, J.; Stratford, I.J.; Adams, G.E.; Stephens, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Alkyl aziridine analogues of the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer RSU 1069 have been synthesized and one, RB 7040, containing tetramethyl substituted aziridine, is a more efficient sensitizer in vitro than RSU 1069 (Ahmed et al., 1986). The extent to which variation in drug uptake can influence the sensitizing efficiency of RSU 1069 and its analogues has been investigated by determining cellular uptake as a function of pH of extracellular medium (pHsub(e)) over the range 5.4-8.4. Following exposure of V79 cells for 1 h at room temperature, the ratio of intra-to extracellular concentration (Ci/Ce) was near unity at pH 5.4. Increasing pHsub(e) to 8.4 resulted in no change in the ratio Ci/Ce for RSU 1069 (pKsub(a) = 6.04). Values of Ci/Ce increased three-fold for RSU 1165 (pKsub(a) 7.38) and eleven-fold for RB 7040 (pKsub(a) = 8.45). Radiosensitization by RSU 1069 showed little dependence on pHsub(e) whereas increasing pH caused an apparent increase in sensitizing efficiency of both RSU 1165 and RB 7040. When enhancement ratios for sensitization were normalized to take account of the effect of extracellular pH on drug uptake, efficiency of sensitization was independent of pHsub(e). (author)

  1. Energetic retrofitting of industrial heat supply systems. Possibilities of enhancing the efficiency and energy conservation at large combustion engineering plants; Energetische Modernisierung industrieller Waermeversorgungssysteme. Moeglichkeiten der Effizienzsteigerung und der Energieeinsparung an grossen feuerungstechnischen Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    In the contribution under consideration, the Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on an energetic modernization of industrial heat supply systems. Possibilities of an enhancement of the energetic efficiency and energy conservation at large combustion engineering plants are described. After an introduction to this theme, the author of this contribution provides an overview of the optimization of heat supply systems, and reports on the following aspects: Optimisation of the heat demand; energy efficient heat generation; heat recovery; energy efficient conversion technology and generation technology; associate partners for more energy efficiency in industry and commerce; best practice examples.

  2. Fat content affects bioaccessibility and efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of lutein esters added to milk and yogurt

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier, Ana Augusta Odorissi; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Garrido-Fernández, Juan; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Addition of lutein to dairy products is an alternative that widens the range of foods which could be lutein sources. However, bioaccessibility is an essential aspect to be considered during the development of products with added bioactive substances. We evaluated the in vitro bioaccessibility of lutein esters added to milk and yogurt with different fat contents, and determined the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the esters during digestion. Bioaccessibility of lutei...

  3. Do Water Rights Affect Technical Efficiency and Social Disparities of Crop Production in the Mediterranean? The Spanish Ebro Basin Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Quiroga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The coming agenda for the European Common Agricultural Policy includes more incentives for the environmental compliance of farmer’s activities. This will be particularly important in the case of water risk management in Mediterranean countries. Among the new challenges is the need to evaluate some of the instruments necessary to comply with the Water Framework Directive requirements that emphasize the management of water demand to achieve the environmental targets. Here we analyze the implications of changing water rights as a policy response to these challenges. We analyze two important aspects of the decision: (i the effects on the crop productivity and efficiency and (ii the effects on the rural income distribution. We provide the empirical estimations for the marginal effects on the two considered aspects. First, we calculate a stochastic frontier production function for five representative crops using historical data to estimate technical efficiency. Second, we use a decomposition of the Gini coefficient to estimate the impact of irrigation rights changes on yield disparity. In our estimates, we consider both bio-physical and socio-economic aspects to conclude that there are long term implications on both efficiency and social disparities. We find disparities in the adaptation strategies depending on the crop and the region analyzed.

  4. A study of the volatilization-excitation phenomena affecting to the efficiency of spectrochemical buffers applied to uranium ore analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Guerra Gonzalez, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    A direct-current arc emission spectroscopy method allowing the determination of Alm Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Si and Ti in uranium ores and geological materials has been developed by studying the efficiency of Ag 2 O, BaCO 3 , Bi 2 O 3 , CuF 2 , CuO, Ga 2 O 3 , GeO 2 , graphite, K 2 CO 3 , Li 2 B 4 O 7 , Li 2 CO 3 , Ni, PbS, Sb 2 O 4 , SrCO 3 , Tl 2 O 3 and ZnO as spectrochemical buffers. Volatilization-excitation mechanisms of Li 2 CO 3 : graphite, GeO 2 : graphite and SrCO 3 : graphite buffer mixtures have been specially considered. Procedures to investigate phenomena taking place in the electrode, anodic load and arc plasma have been selected. Intensity-time curves; voltage variation between electrodes; vapour diffussion through the electrode walls; load depletion; reaction products formation and temperature, electron pressure and ionization degree in the arc plasma have been studied. Measurements of plasma parameters are performed by introducing thermometric and manometric species in both the anode and the cathode electrodes. The effects of different alkalin matrices on transportation phenomena are also considered. Emission efficiency of some analytical lines has been investigated by the application of a mathematical model enclosing fundamental parameters of the arc plasma. Efficiency of scattered primary X-rays of various wavelengths has been studied as a correction of matrix effects in the uranium determination. Results illustrate that the incoherently-scattered MoKβsub(1,3) radiation is the optimum reference line. (author)

  5. Yield and resource use efficiency of Plukenetia volubilis plants at two distinct growth stages as affected by irrigation and fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, He-De; Geng, Yan-Jing; Yang, Chun; Jiao, Dong-Ying; Chen, Liang; Cai, Zhi-Quan

    2018-01-08

    This study is to test how seedlings (vegetative) and large plants (reproductive) of an oilseed crop (Plukenetia volubilis) responded to regulated deficit irrigation techniques (conventional deficit irrigation, DI; alternative partial root-zone irrigation, APRI) in a tropical humid monsoon area. Seedlings were more sensitive to water deficit than large plants. Although APRI did better than DI in saving water for both seedlings and large plants at the same amount of irrigation, full irrigation (FI) is optimal for faster seedling growth at the expense of water-use efficiency (WUE). The seed number per unit area was responsible for the total seed oil yield, largely depending on the active process of carbon and nitrogen storages at the whole-plant level. The magnitude of the increase in total seed and seed oil yield by fertilization was similar under different irrigation regimes. Compared with FI, DI can save water, but reduced the total seed yield and had lower agronomic nutrient-use efficiency (NUE agr ); whereas APRI had similar total seed yield and NUE agr , but reduced water use greatly. Although the dual goal of increasing the yield and saving water was not compatible, maintaining a high yield and NUEagr at the cost of WUE is recommended for P. volubilis plantation in t he water-rich areas.

  6. Factors affecting the efficiency of aerosolized salbutamol delivery via a metered dose inhaler and equine spacer device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, R S; McGorum, B C; Owen, C; Carr, O; Oakley, H; McLachlan, G

    2017-06-01

    Despite frequent use of metered dose inhalers (MDIs) and spacers in equine practice, limited information exists on the efficiency of aerosol delivery using such devices. We determined the particle size distribution within an MDI-generated salbutamol aerosol delivered via an equine spacer using 'best practice' delivery technique and assessed the effect of variations in MDI use technique (shaking prior to each actuation, rapid repetitive actuations, and MDI angulation) on aerosol delivery efficiency. Under optimal conditions, only 53(±18) μg salbutamol per 100 μg actuation was delivered beyond the spacer. Although this aerosol had a high [89.6% (±2.4)] fine particle (aerodynamic diameter [2.52 (±0.29) μm], and particle size variability [geometric SD - 1.66 (±0.16) μm], within all particle size fractions, there was a high coefficient of variance (31-79%) of the percentage salbutamol delivered between experimental runs, thus impeding any effort to predict drug delivery to the patient during equine inhalation therapy. Despite observable trends and with the exception of minor statistically significant changes in the least abundant particle sizes, none of the deviations from a 'best practice' delivery technique significantly altered the relative salbutamol delivery beyond the spacer, a finding which has potential relevance with regard to maintaining user compliance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Does transitioning from computed radiography (CR) to direct radiography (DR) with portable imaging systems affect workflow efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gali, Raja L.; Roth, Christopher G.; Smith, Elizabeth; Dave, Jaydev K.

    2018-03-01

    In digital radiography, computed radiography (CR) technology is based on latent image capture by storage phosphors whereas direct radiography (DR) technology is based either on indirect conversion using a scintillator or direct conversion using a photoconductor. DR-based portable imaging systems may enhance workflow efficiency. The purpose of this work was to investigate changes in workflow efficiency at a tertiary healthcare center after transitioning from CR to DR technology for imaging with portable x-ray units. An IRB exemption was obtained. Data for all inpatient-radiographs acquired with portable x-ray units from July-2014 till June-2015 (period 1) with CR technology (AMX4 or AMX4+ portable unit from GE Healthcare, NX workstation from Agfa Healthcare for digitization), from July-2015 till June-2016 (period 2) with DR technology (Carestream DRX-Revolution x-ray units and DRX-1C image receptors) and from July-2016 till January-2017 (period 3; same DR technology) were extracted using Centricity RIS-IC (GE Healthcare). Duration between the imaging-examination scheduled time and completed time (timesch-com) was calculated and compared using non-parametric tests (between the three time periods with corrections for multiple comparisons; three time periods were used to identify if there were any other potential temporal trends not related to transitioning from CR to DR). IBM's SPSS package was used for statistical analysis. Overall data was obtained from 33131, 32194, and 18015 cases in periods 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Independent-Samples Kruskal-Wallis test revealed a statistically significant difference in timesch-com across the three time periods (χ2(2, n= 83,340) = 2053, p < 0.001). The timesch-com was highest for period 1 i.e., radiographs acquired with CR technology (median: 64 minutes) and it decreased significantly for radiographs acquired with DR technology in periods 2 (median: 49 minutes; p < 0.001) and 3 (median∶ 44 minutes; p < 0.001). Overall

  8. Altering histone acetylation status in donor cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid does not affect dog cloning efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Geon A; Suh, Han Na; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Yoo Bin; Kim, Dong Hoon; Han, Ho Jae; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2015-10-15

    Although dog cloning technology has been applied to conservation of endangered canids, propagation of elite dogs, and production of transgenic dogs, the efficiency of cloning is still very low. To help overcome this problem, we evaluated the effect of treating donor cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on dog cloning efficiency. Relative messenger RNA expressions of the bax1/bcl2 ratio and Dnmt1 in fibroblasts treated with different concentrations (0, 1, 10, 50 μM) of SAHA and durations (0, 20, 44 hours) were compared. Treatment with 1 μM for 20 hours showed significantly lower bax1/bcl2 and Dnmt1 transcript abundance. Acetylation of H3K9 was significantly increased after SAHA treatment, but H4K5, H4K8 and H4K16 were not changed. After SCNT using control or donor cells treated with SAHA, a total of 76 and 64 cloned embryos were transferred to seven and five recipients, respectively. Three fetuses were diagnosed in both control and SAHA-treated groups by ultrasonography 29 days after the embryo transfer, but there was no significant difference in the pregnancy rate (4.2% vs. 4.3%). In conclusion, although SAHA treatment as used in this study significantly decreased bax1/bcl2 and Dnmt1 transcripts of donor nuclei, as well as increased H3 acetylation, it was not enough to increase in vivo developmental competence of cloned dog embryos. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Podoplanin increases the migration of human fibroblasts and affects the endothelial cell network formation: A possible role for cancer-associated fibroblasts in breast cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Suchanski

    Full Text Available In our previous studies we showed that in breast cancer podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts correlated positively with tumor size, grade of malignancy, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular invasion and poor patients' outcome. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess if podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts can affect malignancy-associated properties of breast cancer cells. Human fibroblastic cell lines (MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst overexpressing podoplanin and control fibroblasts were co-cultured with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells and the impact of podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts on migration and invasiveness of breast cancer cells were studied in vitro. Migratory and invasive properties of breast cancer cells were not affected by the presence of podoplanin on the surface of fibroblasts. However, ectopic expression of podoplanin highly increases the migration of MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst fibroblasts. The present study also revealed for the first time, that podoplanin expression affects the formation of pseudo tubes by endothelial cells. When human HSkMEC cells were co-cultured with podoplanin-rich fibroblasts the endothelial cell capillary-like network was characterized by significantly lower numbers of nodes and meshes than in co-cultures of endothelial cells with podoplanin-negative fibroblasts. The question remains as to how our experimental data can be correlated with previous clinical data showing an association between the presence of podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts and progression of breast cancer. Therefore, we propose that expression of podoplanin by fibroblasts facilitates their movement into the tumor stroma, which creates a favorable microenvironment for tumor progression by increasing the number of cancer-associated fibroblasts, which produce numerous factors affecting proliferation, survival and invasion of cancer cells. In accordance with this, the present study revealed for the first

  10. Podoplanin increases the migration of human fibroblasts and affects the endothelial cell network formation: A possible role for cancer-associated fibroblasts in breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchanski, Jaroslaw; Tejchman, Anna; Zacharski, Maciej; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Grzegrzolka, Jedrzej; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Nowinska, Katarzyna; Rys, Janusz; Dziegiel, Piotr; Kieda, Claudine; Ugorski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    In our previous studies we showed that in breast cancer podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts correlated positively with tumor size, grade of malignancy, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular invasion and poor patients' outcome. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess if podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts can affect malignancy-associated properties of breast cancer cells. Human fibroblastic cell lines (MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst) overexpressing podoplanin and control fibroblasts were co-cultured with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells and the impact of podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts on migration and invasiveness of breast cancer cells were studied in vitro. Migratory and invasive properties of breast cancer cells were not affected by the presence of podoplanin on the surface of fibroblasts. However, ectopic expression of podoplanin highly increases the migration of MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst fibroblasts. The present study also revealed for the first time, that podoplanin expression affects the formation of pseudo tubes by endothelial cells. When human HSkMEC cells were co-cultured with podoplanin-rich fibroblasts the endothelial cell capillary-like network was characterized by significantly lower numbers of nodes and meshes than in co-cultures of endothelial cells with podoplanin-negative fibroblasts. The question remains as to how our experimental data can be correlated with previous clinical data showing an association between the presence of podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts and progression of breast cancer. Therefore, we propose that expression of podoplanin by fibroblasts facilitates their movement into the tumor stroma, which creates a favorable microenvironment for tumor progression by increasing the number of cancer-associated fibroblasts, which produce numerous factors affecting proliferation, survival and invasion of cancer cells. In accordance with this, the present study revealed for the first time, that such

  11. Only "efficient" emotional stimuli affect the content of working memory during free-recollection from natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttafuoco, Arianna; Pedale, Tiziana; Buchanan, Tony W; Santangelo, Valerio

    2018-02-01

    Emotional events are thought to have privileged access to attention and memory, consuming resources needed to encode competing emotionally neutral stimuli. However, it is not clear whether this detrimental effect is automatic or depends on the successful maintenance of the specific emotional object within working memory. Here, participants viewed everyday scenes including an emotional object among other neutral objects followed by a free-recollection task. Results showed that emotional objects-irrespective of their perceptual saliency-were recollected more often than neutral objects. The probability of being recollected increased as a function of the arousal of the emotional objects, specifically for negative objects. Successful recollection of emotional objects (positive or negative) from a scene reduced the overall number of recollected neutral objects from the same scene. This indicates that only emotional stimuli that are efficient in grabbing (and then consuming) available attentional resources play a crucial role during the encoding of competing information, with a subsequent bias in the recollection of neutral representations.

  12. Dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and the hierarchy of energy metabolic pathways in growing pigs differing in feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondret, F; Louveau, I; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Lagarrigue, S; Gilbert, H; van Milgen, J

    2014-11-01

    The use and partition of feed energy are key elements in productive efficiency of pigs. This study aimed to determine whether dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and tissue biochemical pathways of energy use between pigs differing in feed efficiency. Forty-eight barrows (pure Large White) from two divergent lines selected for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, were compared. From 74 d to 132 ± 0.5 d of age, pigs (n = 12 by line and by diet) were offered diets with equal protein and ME contents. A low fat, low fiber diet (LF) based on cereals and a high fat, high fiber diet (HF) where vegetal oils and wheat straw were used to partially substitute cereals, were compared. Irrespective of diet, gain to feed was 10% better (P energy sources modified the partition of energy between liver, adipose tissue, and muscle in a way that was partly dependent of the genetics for feed efficiency, and changed the activity levels of biochemical pathways involved in lipid and glucose storage in tissues.

  13. Nanoparticle size and production efficiency are affected by the presence of fatty acids during albumin nanoparticle fabrication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian C Luebbert

    Full Text Available We have previously identified extensive glycation, bound fatty acids and increased quantities of protein aggregates in commercially available recombinant HSA (rHSA expressed in Oryza sativa (Asian rice (OsrHSA when compared to rHSA from other expression systems. We propose these differences may alter some attributes of nanoparticles fabricated with OsrHSA, as studies have associated greater quantities of aggregates with increased nanoparticle diameters. To determine if this is the case, nanoparticles were fabricated with OsrHSA from various suppliers using ethanol desolvation and subsequent glutaraldehyde cross-linking. All nanoparticles fabricated with OsrHSA showed larger diameters of approximately 20 to 90nm than particles fabricated with either defatted bovine serum albumin (DF-BSA (100.9 ± 2.8nm or human plasma albumin (pHSA (112.0 ± 4.0nm. It was hypothesized that the larger nanoparticle diameters were due to the presence of bound fatty acids and this was confirmed through defatting OsrHSA prior to particle fabrication which yielded particles with diameters similar to those fabricated with pHSA. For additional conformation, DF-BSA was incubated with dodecanoic acid prior to desolvation yielding particles with significantly larger diameters. Further studies showed the increased nanoparticle diameters were due to the bound fatty acids modulating electrostatic interactions between albumin nanoparticles during the desolvation and not changes in protein structure, stability or generation of additional albumin oligomers. Finally the presence of dodecanoic acid was shown to improve doxorubicin loading efficiency onto preformed albumin nanoparticles.

  14. Tradeoff between Stem Hydraulic Efficiency and Mechanical Strength Affects Leaf–Stem Allometry in 28 Ficus Tree Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Xin Fan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf–stem allometry is an important spectrum that linked to biomass allocation and life history strategy in plants, although the determinants and evolutionary significance of leaf–stem allometry remain poorly understood. Leaf and stem architectures – including stem area/mass, petiole area/mass, lamina area/mass, leaf number, specific leaf area (LA, and mass-based leafing intensity (LI – were measured on the current-year branches for 28 Ficus species growing in a common garden in SW China. The leaf anatomical traits, stem wood density (WD, and stem anatomical and mechanical properties of these species were also measured. We analyzed leaf–stem allometric relationships and their associations with stem hydraulic ad mechanical properties using species-level data and phylogenetically independent contrasts. We found isometric relationship between leaf lamina area/mass and stem area/mass, suggesting that the biomass allocation to leaf was independent to stem size. However, allometric relationship between LA/mass and petiole mass was found, indicating large leaves invest a higher fractional of biomass in petiole than small ones. LI, i.e., leaf numbers per unit of stem mass, was negatively related with leaf and stem size. Species with larger terminal branches tend to have larger vessels and theoretical hydraulic conductivity, but lower WD and mechanical strength. The size of leaf lamina, petiole, and stem was correlated positively with stem theoretical hydraulic conductivity, but negatively with stem WD and mechanical strength. Our results suggest that leaf–stem allometry in Ficus species was shaped by the trade-off between stem hydraulic efficiency and mechanical stability, supporting a functional interpretation of the relationship between leaf and stem dimensions.

  15. Investigations into factors affecting the reproductive efficiency of dairy cattle in peri-urban areas of Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, O.F.; Barri, M.E.; Ahmed, M.; El-Khedir, O.; Elbasheir, H.A.; Elsadig, A.A.; Abdel Mageed, T.O.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of the productivity, feeding and fertility of 63 cows from 6 farms and a second survey of 49 cows from 5 farms, including in both surveys one with pure bred Holstein Friesians and the rest with cross breeds, showed that those calving in thinner body condition had significantly poorer subsequent fertility. This implied that nutrition in late pregnancy may be an important determining factor in fertility in dairy cows in the peri-urban areas of Khartoum. Cows calving during the dry season were more at risk. No clear advantages or disadvantages were identified for pure-bred cows. Laboratory analysis of feeds, some assessment of intakes and some blood metabolite measurements suggested that neither dietary protein nor phosphate were constraints. The number of days to first progesterone rise on all farms was not extended and many cows conceived in less than 83 days after calving. Many others did not conceive at all but the number showing no evidence of oestrous cycles was small. Failure to conceive seemed to have been a greater problem than failure to cycle. With 27% of blood samples showing evidence of chronic inflammation through high globulin values, investigations into possible disease causes of poor fertility are needed. (author)

  16. Investigations into factors affecting the reproductive efficiency of dairy cattle in peri-urban areas of Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idris, O F; Barri, M E; Ahmed, M; El-Khedir, O; Elbasheir, H A; Elsadig, A A; Abdel Mageed, T O [Veterinary Research Administration, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1999-07-01

    A survey of the productivity, feeding and fertility of 63 cows from 6 farms and a second survey of 49 cows from 5 farms, including in both surveys one with pure bred Holstein Friesians and the rest with cross breeds, showed that those calving in thinner body condition had significantly poorer subsequent fertility. This implied that nutrition in late pregnancy may be an important determining factor in fertility in dairy cows in the peri-urban areas of Khartoum. Cows calving during the dry season were more at risk. No clear advantages or disadvantages were identified for pure-bred cows. Laboratory analysis of feeds, some assessment of intakes and some blood metabolite measurements suggested that neither dietary protein nor phosphate were constraints. The number of days to first progesterone rise on all farms was not extended and many cows conceived in less than 83 days after calving. Many others did not conceive at all but the number showing no evidence of oestrous cycles was small. Failure to conceive seemed to have been a greater problem than failure to cycle. With 27% of blood samples showing evidence of chronic inflammation through high globulin values, investigations into possible disease causes of poor fertility are needed. (author) 6 refs, 6 tabs

  17. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels as a possible predictor of psychopathology in healthy twins at high and low risk for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    and low risk twins, respectively). Participants were followed up longitudinally with questionnaires at 6-month intervals for mean seven years and then reassessed with a personal interview to obtain information about whether they had developed psychiatric illness. At follow-up 36 participants (15.4%) had...... developed psychiatric disorder. Cox regression analysis revealed that BDNF levels at baseline were not associated with onset of illness in this explorative study. Further, two-way interactions between BDNF levels and the Val66Met polymorphism or between familial risk and the Val66Met polymorphism did......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a potential biomarker of affective disorder. However, longitudinal studies evaluating a potential predictive role of BDNF on subsequent psychopathology are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF alone or in interaction...

  18. On conditions of negativity of friction resistance for nonstationary modes of blood flow and possible mechanism of affecting of environmental factors on energy effectiveness of cardiovascular system function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Chefranov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that initiated by action of molecular viscosity impulse flow, directed usually from the moving fluid to limiting it solid surface, can, under certain conditions, turn to zero and get negative values in the case of non-stationary flow caused by alternating in time longitudinal (along the pipe axis pressure gradient. It is noted that this non-equilibrium mechanism of negative friction resistance in the similar case of pulsating blood flow in the blood vessels, in addition to the stable to turbulent disturbances swirled blood flow structure providing, can also constitute hydro-mechanical basis of the observed but not explained yet paradoxically high energy effectiveness of the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system (CVS. We consider respective mechanism of affecting on the stability of the normal work of CVS by environmental variable factors using shifting of hydro-dynamic mode with negative resistance realization range boundaries and variation of linear hydrodynamic instability leading to the structurally stable swirled blood flow organization.

  19. Molecular analysis of HEXA gene in Argentinean patients affected with Tay-Sachs disease: possible common origin of the prevalent c.459+5A>G mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, Stefania; Montalvo, Annalisa; Blanco, Mariana; Zanin, Irene; Amartino, Hernan; Vlahovicek, Kristian; Szlago, Marina; Schenone, Andrea; Pittis, Gabriela; Bembi, Bruno; Dardis, Andrea

    2012-05-15

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a recessively inherited disorder caused by the deficient activity of hexosaminidase A due to mutations in the HEXA gene. Up to date there is no information regarding the molecular genetics of TSD in Argentinean patients. In the present study we have studied 17 Argentinean families affected by TSD, including 20 patients with the acute infantile form and 3 with the sub-acute form. Overall, we identified 14 different mutations accounting for 100% of the studied alleles. Eight mutations were novel: 5 were single base changes leading to drastic residue changes or truncated proteins, 2 were small deletions and one was an intronic mutation that may cause a splicing defect. Although the spectrum of mutations was highly heterogeneous, a high frequency of the c.459+5G>A mutation, previously described in different populations was found among the studied cohort. Haplotype analysis suggested that in these families the c.459+5G>A mutation might have arisen by a single mutational event. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Titmouse calling and foraging are affected by head and body orientation of cat predator models and possible experience with real cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, D L; Freeberg, Todd M

    2015-09-01

    Although anti-predator behavior systems have been studied in diverse taxa, less is known about how prey species detect and assess the immediate threat posed by a predator based on its behavior. In this study, we evaluated a potential cue that some species may utilize when assessing predation threat-the predator's body and head orientation. We tested the effect of this orientation cue on signaling and predation-risk-sensitive foraging of a prey species, tufted titmice (Baeolophus bicolor). Earlier work revealed sensitivity of titmice and related species to the presence of predator stimuli. Here, we manipulated cat models to face either toward or away from a food source preferred by titmice and then measured titmouse calling and seed-taking behavior. Titmice showed greater feeder avoidance when the cat predator models faced the feeder, compared to when the models faced away from the feeder or when titmice were exposed to control stimuli. Titmouse calling was also sensitive to predator head/body orientation, depending upon whether titmice were from sites where real cats had been observed or not. This study experimentally demonstrated that both calling and foraging of prey species can be affected by the head and body orientation of an important terrestrial predator. Prey species may therefore signal in strategic ways to conspecifics not just about predator presence, but also urgency of threat related to the more subtle cue of the head and body orientation of the predator. These findings hold potential implications for understanding animal cognition and learning processes.

  1. On the possibility to affect the course of glycaemia, insulinaemia, and perceived hunger/satiety to bread meals in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Linda M N K; Björck, Inger M E; Ostman, Elin M

    2013-04-25

    Frequent hyperglycaemia is associated with oxidative stress and subclinical inflammation, and thus increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Possibilities of modulating glycaemia, insulinaemia and perceived satiety for bread products were investigated, with emphasis on the course of glycaemia expressed as a glycaemic profile (defined as the duration of the glucose curve above the fasting concentration divided by the incremental glucose peak). For this purpose white wheat bread was supplemented with whole grain corn flour with an elevated amylose content and different types and levels of guar gum. The bread products were characterised in vitro for release of starch degradation products and content of resistant starch. Fibre related fluidity following enzyme hydrolysis was also studied. By combining medium weight guar gum and whole grain corn flour with an elevated amylose content, the course of glycaemia, insulinaemia and subjective appetite ratings were improved compared to the reference white wheat bread. In addition, the combination beneficially influenced the content of resistant starch. Fluidity measurements showed potential to predict the glycaemic profile.

  2. How Hinge Positioning in Cross-Country Ski Bindings Affect Exercise Efficiency, Cycle Characteristics and Muscle Coordination during Submaximal Roller Skiing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Conor M.; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Ettema, Gertjan; Federolf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the current study were to 1) test if the hinge position in the binding of skating skis has an effect on gross efficiency or cycle characteristics and 2) investigate whether hinge positioning affects synergistic components of the muscle activation in six lower leg muscles. Eleven male skiers performed three 4-min sessions at moderate intensity while cross-country ski-skating and using a klapskate binding. Three different positions were tested for the binding’s hinge, ranging from the front of the first distal phalange to the metatarsal-phalangeal joint. Gross efficiency and cycle characteristics were determined, and the electromyographic (EMG) signals of six lower limb muscles were collected. EMG signals were wavelet transformed, normalized, joined into a multi-dimensional vector, and submitted to a principle component analysis (PCA). Our results did not reveal any changes to gross efficiency or cycle characteristics when altering the hinge position. However, our EMG analysis found small but significant effects of hinge positioning on muscle coordinative patterns (P skating klapskates. Finally, the within-subject results of the EMG analysis suggested that in addition to the between-subject effects, further forms of muscle coordination patterns appear to be employed by some, but not all participants. PMID:27203597

  3. How Hinge Positioning in Cross-Country Ski Bindings Affect Exercise Efficiency, Cycle Characteristics and Muscle Coordination during Submaximal Roller Skiing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor M Bolger

    Full Text Available The purposes of the current study were to 1 test if the hinge position in the binding of skating skis has an effect on gross efficiency or cycle characteristics and 2 investigate whether hinge positioning affects synergistic components of the muscle activation in six lower leg muscles. Eleven male skiers performed three 4-min sessions at moderate intensity while cross-country ski-skating and using a klapskate binding. Three different positions were tested for the binding's hinge, ranging from the front of the first distal phalange to the metatarsal-phalangeal joint. Gross efficiency and cycle characteristics were determined, and the electromyographic (EMG signals of six lower limb muscles were collected. EMG signals were wavelet transformed, normalized, joined into a multi-dimensional vector, and submitted to a principle component analysis (PCA. Our results did not reveal any changes to gross efficiency or cycle characteristics when altering the hinge position. However, our EMG analysis found small but significant effects of hinge positioning on muscle coordinative patterns (P < 0.05. The changed patterns in muscle activation are in alignment with previously described mechanisms that explain the effects of hinge positioning in speed-skating klapskates. Finally, the within-subject results of the EMG analysis suggested that in addition to the between-subject effects, further forms of muscle coordination patterns appear to be employed by some, but not all participants.

  4. Screening of diverse local germplasm of guar (cyamposis tetragonoloba (l.) taub.) for salt tolerance: A possible approach to utilize salt - affected soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheed, M. J. Z.; Ahmad, K.; Qurainy, F. A.; Khan, S.; Athar, H. U. R.

    2015-01-01

    genotypic variability in the germplasm suggested that further crop improvement for salt tolerance is possible in this potential leguminous forage crop. (author)

  5. Primate Cerebellar Granule Cells Exhibit a Tonic GABAAR Conductance that is not Affected by Alcohol: A Possible Cellular Substrate of the Low Level of Response Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eMohr

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In many rodent brain regions, alcohol increases vesicular release of GABA, resulting in an increase in the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs and the magnitude of tonic GABAA receptor (GABAAR currents. A neglected issue in translating the rodent literature to humans is the possibility that phylogenetic differences alter the actions of alcohol. To address this issue we made voltage-clamp recordings from granule cells (GCs in cerebellar slices from the non-human primate, Macaca fascicularis. We found that similar to Sprague Dawley rats (SDRs, non-human primate (NHP GCs exhibit a tonic conductance generated by 6 subunit containing GABAARs, as evidenced by its blockade by the broad spectrum GABAAR antagonist, GABAzine (10M, inhibition by 6 selective antagonist, furosemide (100M, and enhancement by THDOC (10-20nM and THIP (500nM. In contrast to SDR GCs, in most NHP GCs (~60%, application of EtOH (25-105mM did not increase sIPSC frequency or the tonic GABAAR current. In a minority of cells (~40%, EtOH did increase sIPSC frequency and the tonic current. The relative lack of response to EtOH was associated with reduced expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, which we recently reported mediates EtOH-induced enhancement of vesicular GABA release in rats. The EtOH-induced increase in tonic GABAAR current was significantly smaller in NHPs than in SDRs, presumably due to less GABA release, because there were no obvious differences in the density of GABAARs or GABA transporters between SDR and NHP GCs. Thus, EtOH does not directly modulate 6 subunit GABAARs in NHPs. Instead, EtOH enhanced GABAergic transmission is mediated by enhanced GABA release. Further, SDR GC responses to alcohol are only representative of a subpopulation of NHP GCs. This suggests that the impact of EtOH on NHP cerebellar physiology will be reduced compared to SDRs, and will likely have different computational and behavioral

  6. Efficient and versatile light. LEDs save energy and open up manifold possibilities of design; Effizientes und vielseitiges Licht. LEDs sparen Energie und eroeffnen zahlreiche Designmoeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebig, Michael [OSRAM Opto Semicondutors GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Marketing und Business Development

    2010-07-01

    Light bulbs leave the European market step by step. These conventional light sources are too inefficient in the private and conventional sector. There are a lot of alternatives to light bulbs. But no technology will be able to save as much energy as light emitting diodes (LED) in the future. Today, these LEDs meet us in most different applications. Continuously new areas of application are opened up in order to reduce the power requirement clearly for the production of artificial light. Apart from energy conservation diodes also enable untold possibilities. In the future, light can be still more flexibly used owing to LED. LEDs are ideal light sources for planners and designers.

  7. Substitution of efficient electro-technologies for thermal end-uses to traditional processes. Screening of possibilities and applications under study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menga, P.; Grattieri, W.; Korn, G.; Malinverni, R.

    1996-01-01

    ENEL's long-lasting commitment in rationalizing the energy end-uses, has lead to the assessment of the potential for the substitution, in the field of thermal uses, of traditional processes with efficient electro-technologies. The evaluation has been performed by taking in account the advantages for the user, in terms of the reduction in operating costs (energy included), for the electricity industry (increase in kWh sales), and for the Society (savings in primary energy consumption). The analysis allowed to identify many applications for which the primary energy saving is jointly obtained with significant extra-energy advantages for the end user. In order to validate the effectiveness of innovative electro-technologies, a demonstration activity, by means of pilot plants, is in progress. (author)

  8. Sulfated polysaccharide, curdlan sulfate, efficiently prevents entry/fusion and restricts antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection in vitro: a possible candidate for clinical application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Ichiyama

    Full Text Available Curdlan sulfate (CRDS, a sulfated 1→3-β-D glucan, previously shown to be a potent HIV entry inhibitor, is characterized in this study as a potent inhibitor of the Dengue virus (DENV. CRDS was identified by in silico blind docking studies to exhibit binding potential to the envelope (E protein of the DENV. CRDS was shown to inhibit the DENV replication very efficiently in different cells in vitro. Minimal effective concentration of CRDS was as low as 0.1 µg/mL in LLC-MK2 cells, and toxicity was observed only at concentrations over 10 mg/mL. CRDS can also inhibit DENV-1, 3, and 4 efficiently. CRDS did not inhibit the replication of DENV subgenomic replicon. Time of addition experiments demonstrated that the compound not only inhibited viral infection at the host cell binding step, but also at an early post-attachment step of entry (membrane fusion. The direct binding of CRDS to DENV was suggested by an evident reduction in the viral titers after interaction of the virus with CRDS following an ultrafiltration device separation, as well as after virus adsorption to an alkyl CRDS-coated membrane filter. The electron microscopic features also showed that CRDS interacted directly with the viral envelope, and caused changes to the viral surface. CRDS also potently inhibited DENV infection in DC-SIGN expressing cells as well as the antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV-2 infection. Based on these data, a probable binding model of CRDS to DENV E protein was constructed by a flexible receptor and ligand docking study. The binding site of CRDS was predicted to be at the interface between domains II and III of E protein dimer, which is unique to this compound, and is apparently different from the β-OG binding site. Since CRDS has already been tested in humans without serious side effects, its clinical application can be considered.

  9. Possible Overestimation of Surface Disinfection Efficiency by Assessment Methods Based on Liquid Sampling Procedures as Demonstrated by In Situ Quantification of Spore Viability ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, I.; Bellon-Fontaine, M.-N.; Herry, J.-M.; Hilaire, D.; Moriconi, F.-X.; Naïtali, M.

    2011-01-01

    The standard test methods used to assess the efficiency of a disinfectant applied to surfaces are often based on counting the microbial survivors sampled in a liquid, but total cell removal from surfaces is seldom achieved. One might therefore wonder whether evaluations of microbial survivors in liquid-sampled cells are representative of the levels of survivors in whole populations. The present study was thus designed to determine the “damaged/undamaged” status induced by a peracetic acid disinfection for Bacillus atrophaeus spores deposited on glass coupons directly on this substrate and to compare it to the status of spores collected in liquid by a sampling procedure. The method utilized to assess the viability of both surface-associated and liquid-sampled spores included fluorescence labeling with a combination of Syto 61 and Chemchrome V6 dyes and quantifications by analyzing the images acquired by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The principal result of the study was that the viability of spores sampled in the liquid was found to be poorer than that of surface-associated spores. For example, after 2 min of peracetic acid disinfection, less than 17% ± 5% of viable cells were detected among liquid-sampled cells compared to 79% ± 5% or 47% ± 4%, respectively, when the viability was evaluated on the surface after or without the sampling procedure. Moreover, assessments of the survivors collected in the liquid phase, evaluated using the microscopic method and standard plate counts, were well correlated. Evaluations based on the determination of survivors among the liquid-sampled cells can thus overestimate the efficiency of surface disinfection procedures. PMID:21742922

  10. Possible overestimation of surface disinfection efficiency by assessment methods based on liquid sampling procedures as demonstrated by in situ quantification of spore viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, I; Bellon-Fontaine, M-N; Herry, J-M; Hilaire, D; Moriconi, F-X; Naïtali, M

    2011-09-01

    The standard test methods used to assess the efficiency of a disinfectant applied to surfaces are often based on counting the microbial survivors sampled in a liquid, but total cell removal from surfaces is seldom achieved. One might therefore wonder whether evaluations of microbial survivors in liquid-sampled cells are representative of the levels of survivors in whole populations. The present study was thus designed to determine the "damaged/undamaged" status induced by a peracetic acid disinfection for Bacillus atrophaeus spores deposited on glass coupons directly on this substrate and to compare it to the status of spores collected in liquid by a sampling procedure. The method utilized to assess the viability of both surface-associated and liquid-sampled spores included fluorescence labeling with a combination of Syto 61 and Chemchrome V6 dyes and quantifications by analyzing the images acquired by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The principal result of the study was that the viability of spores sampled in the liquid was found to be poorer than that of surface-associated spores. For example, after 2 min of peracetic acid disinfection, less than 17% ± 5% of viable cells were detected among liquid-sampled cells compared to 79% ± 5% or 47% ± 4%, respectively, when the viability was evaluated on the surface after or without the sampling procedure. Moreover, assessments of the survivors collected in the liquid phase, evaluated using the microscopic method and standard plate counts, were well correlated. Evaluations based on the determination of survivors among the liquid-sampled cells can thus overestimate the efficiency of surface disinfection procedures.

  11. The possibility of increasing the efficiency of accessible coal deposits by optimizing dimensions of protective pillars or the scope of exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bańka, Piotr; Badura, Henryk; Wesołowski, Marek

    2017-11-01

    One of the ways to protect objects exposed to the influences of mining exploitation is establishing protective pillars for them. Properly determined pillar provides effective protection of the object for which it was established. Determining correct dimensions of a pillar requires taking into account contradictory requirements. Protection measures against the excessive influences of mining exploitation require designing the largest possible pillars, whereas economic requirements suggest a maximum reduction of the size of resources left in the pillar. This paper presents algorithms and programs developed for determining optimal dimensions of protective pillars for surface objects and shafts. The issue of designing a protective pillar was treated as a nonlinear programming task. The objective function are the resources left in a pillar while nonlinear limitations are the deformation values evoked by the mining exploitation. Resources in the pillar may be weighted e.g. by calorific value or by the inverse of output costs. The possibility of designing pillars of any polygon shape was taken into account. Because of the applied exploitation technologies the rectangular pillar shape should be considered more advantageous than the oval one, though it does not ensure the minimization of resources left in a pillar. In this article there is also presented a different approach to the design of protective pillars, which instead of fixing the pillar boundaries in subsequent seams, the length of longwall panels of the designed mining exploitation is limited in a way that ensures the effective protection of an object while maximizing the extraction ratio of the deposit.

  12. Anti-EGFR Antibody Efficiently and Specifically Inhibits Human TSC2−/− Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation. Possible Treatment Options for TSC and LAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesma, Elena; Grande, Vera; Ancona, Silvia; Carelli, Stephana; Di Giulio, Anna Maria; Gorio, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    Background Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a tumor syndrome caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 genes, is characterized by the development of hamartomas. We previously isolated, from an angiomyolipoma of a TSC2 patient, a homogenous population of smooth muscle-like cells (TSC2−/− ASM cells) that have a mutation in the TSC2 gene as well as TSC2 loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and consequently, do not produce the TSC2 gene product, tuberin. TSC2−/− ASM cell proliferation is EGF-dependent. Methods and Findings Effects of EGF on proliferation of TSC2−/− ASM cells and TSC2−/− ASM cells transfected with TSC2 gene were determined. In contrast to TSC2−/− ASM cells, growth of TSC2-transfected cells was not dependent on EGF. Moreover, phosphorylation of Akt, PTEN, Erk and S6 was significantly decreased. EGF is a proliferative factor of TSC2−/− ASM cells. Exposure of TSC2−/− ASM cells to anti-EGFR antibodies significantly inhibited their proliferation, reverted reactivity to HMB45 antibody, a marker of TSC2−/− cell phenotype, and inhibited constitutive phosphorylation of S6 and ERK. Exposure of TSC2−/− ASM cells to rapamycin reduced the proliferation rate, but only when added at plating time. Although rapamycin efficiently inhibited S6 phosphorylation, it was less efficient than anti-EGFR antibody in reverting HMB45 reactivity and blocking ERK phosphorylation. In TSC2−/− ASM cells specific PI3K inhibitors (e.g. LY294002, wortmannin) and Akt1 siRNA had little effect on S6 and ERK phosphorylation. Following TSC2-gene transfection, Akt inhibitor sensitivity was observed. Conclusion Our results show that an EGF independent pathway is more important than that involving IGF-I for growth and survival of TSC−/− ASM cells, and such EGF-dependency is the result of the lack of tuberin. PMID:18958173

  13. PB2 amino acid at position 627 affects replicative efficiency, but not cell tropism, of Hong Kong H5N1 influenza A viruses in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinya, Kyoko; Hamm, Stefan; Hatta, Masato; Ito, Hiroshi; Ito, Toshihiro; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2004-01-01

    A single amino acid substitution, from glutamic acid to lysine at position 627 of the PB2 protein, converts a nonlethal H5N1 influenza A virus isolated from a human to a lethal virus in mice. In contrast to the nonlethal virus, which replicates only in respiratory organs, the lethal isolate replicates in a variety of organs, producing systemic infection. Despite a clear difference in virulence and organ tropism between the two viruses, it remains unknown whether the dissimilarity is a result of differences in cell tropism or the reduced replicative ability of the nonlethal virus in mouse cells in general. To determine how this single amino acid change affects virulence and organ tropism in mice, we investigated the growth kinetics of the two H5N1 viruses both in vitro and in vivo. The identity of the PB2 amino acid at position 627 did not appreciably affect viral replicative efficiency in chicken embryo fibroblasts and a quail cell line; however, viruses with lysine at this position instead of glutamic acid grew better in the different mouse cells tested. When the effect of this substitution was investigated in mice, all of the test viruses showed the same cell tropism, but infection by viruses containing lysine at position 627 spread more rapidly than those viruses containing glutamic acid at this position. Further analysis showed a difference in local immune responses: neutrophil infiltration in lungs infected with viruses containing lysine at position 627 persisted longer than that associated with viruses lacking a glutamic acid substitution. Our data indicate that the amino acid at position 627 of the PB2 protein determines the efficiency of viral replication in mouse (not avian) cells, but not tropism among cells in different mouse organs. The presence of lysine leads to more aggressive viral replication, overwhelming the host's defense mechanisms and resulting in high mortality rates in mice

  14. Effect of Mycorrhiza Symbiosis on Yield, Yield Components and Water Use Efficiency of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. Affected by Different Irrigation Regimes in Mashhad Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2016-02-01

    4000 m3 ha-1, inoculation with two species of mycorrhiza fungi (Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices and control allocated to the main and sub plots, respectively. Results and Discussion Results showed that the effect of irrigation regimes were significant (p≤0.05 on yield components except 1000-seed weight, biological yield, seed yield, harvest index (HI and WUE based on biological yield and seed yield. By increasing the irrigation level from 2000 to 4000 m3 ha-1 biological and seed yield enhanced up to 52% and 118%, respectively. Increasing the irrigation level from 2000 to 4000 m3 ha-1 also improved WUE based on seed yield up to 22%. Inoculation with mycorrhiza species had significant effect on yield components, biological yield, seed yield, HI and WUE based on biological yield and seed yield P ≤ 0.05. Inoculation with G. mosseae improved seed yield compared to G. intraradices and control with 7 and 12%, respectively. These improvement of WUE based on seed yield were 7% and 24%, respectively. In general, mycorrhiza inoculation enhanced WUE through root system development and nutrient availability as this effect for G. mosseae was higher than G. intraradices. Conclusions Yield and yield components of sesame were generally more responsive to irrigation level under mycorhiza inoculation. Sesame yield and its components were significantly affected by irrigation treatments. Increase the irrigation level enhanced biological and seed yield- and also improved WUE. The water was used more efficiently in the deficit irrigation treatments where WUE increased with lower amounts of water. Inoculation with G. mosseae improved seed yield compared to G. intraradices and control. Mycorrhiza inoculation enhanced WUE due to root system development and nutrient availability. These results highlight the importance of determining the interaction effects between water level and mycorrhiza inoculation on yield of sesame to formulate proper management practices for sustainable production.

  15. Foliar antitranspirant and soil superabsorbent hydrogel affects photosynthetic gas exchange and water use efficiency of maize grown under low rainfall conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Guo, Shi-Wen; Li, Pin-Fang; Song, Ri-Quan; Yu, Jian

    2018-06-08

    Two lysimeter experiments with maize plants were conducted to inquiry the effect of combined superabsorbent polymer (SAP) and fulvic acid (FA) application on photosynthetic gas exchange and water use efficiency (WUE) under deficit irrigation conditions. Soil SAP (45 kg ha -1 ) was applied while sowing, and FA solution (2 g L -1 ) was sprayed onto crop canopy three times at later plant growth periods. Combining SAP and FA application significantly improved plant photosynthesis, chlorophyll contents, and instantaneous WUE, while maintaining the optimal leaf stomatal transpiration. The effect of combined two chemicals use on photosynthesis and leaf instantaneous WUE was superior compared with the effects of their individual applications. As compared with plots not treated with chemicals, soil SAP significantly improved the yield by 12% and grain WUE by 10% when averaged across the two experiments, whereas foliar FA application did not affect yield and grain WUE. In contrast, the combined use of two chemicals significantly increased the yield by 20% and grain WUE by 26%, largely attributed to the increase in grain number. Soil SAP and foliar FA use, under low rainfall conditions, had little influence on crop water consumption but improved plant WUE by enhancing photosynthesis and increasing kernel number. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. The economic opportunity of energy efficiency. An overview of the legal and regulatory framework, programs and energy services evaluation in Europe and in Portugal and of the possible implementation of the present proposal on the energy services directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, F

    2004-11-01

    The economic development requires a bigger access to energy sources, which amplifies energy demand. In Portugal, the increase energy demand allied to an economic development and scarce endogenous energy sources allows us to conclude that this will be a critical issue in a near future. While effective market forces and good information can accelerate energy efficiency improvements, market failures and barriers can inhibit efficiency gains. In such cases, certain government interventions may be useful in focusing market interest on energy efficiency. These include codes, standards, voluntary agreements, special financing arrangements and clustering small projects into investment portfolios. Although much attention has been given to the potential strategic role of renewable energy, increased end-use efficiency offers comparable if not greater near-term potential. Furthermore, it also generally less expensive per unit of energy saved than is an incremental unit of new energy supply (whether it is renewable or fossil-based). Thus, increased end-use efficiency investment is consistent with sound business practices. The implementation of the IEM and IGM was the way found to reduce efficiency barriers in the supply side but the demand side remained forgotten. However, full economic and environmental efficiency can only be achieved by including the demand-side into the competition and developing an Internal Market for energy services and programmes. The analysis of the energy policy, a strategy and economics of DSM activities is one of the actual subjects in the sector and that interest to all actors at the market. In this report we analyse the evolution and the consumption energy trends in some European countries, establishing when possible the link with Portugal. We also describe 'driving forces' of the energy consumption in the Europe and identify the legal and regulatory frame of this problem. Furthermore, we also identify policies that have improved the

  17. The economic opportunity of energy efficiency. An overview of the legal and regulatory framework, programs and energy services evaluation in Europe and in Portugal and of the possible implementation of the present proposal on the energy services directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, F.

    2004-11-01

    The economic development requires a bigger access to energy sources, which amplifies energy demand. In Portugal, the increase energy demand allied to an economic development and scarce endogenous energy sources allows us to conclude that this will be a critical issue in a near future. While effective market forces and good information can accelerate energy efficiency improvements, market failures and barriers can inhibit efficiency gains. In such cases, certain government interventions may be useful in focusing market interest on energy efficiency. These include codes, standards, voluntary agreements, special financing arrangements and clustering small projects into investment portfolios. Although much attention has been given to the potential strategic role of renewable energy, increased end-use efficiency offers comparable if not greater near-term potential. Furthermore, it also generally less expensive per unit of energy saved than is an incremental unit of new energy supply (whether it is renewable or fossil-based). Thus, increased end-use efficiency investment is consistent with sound business practices. The implementation of the IEM and IGM was the way found to reduce efficiency barriers in the supply side but the demand side remained forgotten. However, full economic and environmental efficiency can only be achieved by including the demand-side into the competition and developing an Internal Market for energy services and programmes. The analysis of the energy policy, a strategy and economics of DSM activities is one of the actual subjects in the sector and that interest to all actors at the market. In this report we analyse the evolution and the consumption energy trends in some European countries, establishing when possible the link with Portugal. We also describe 'driving forces' of the energy consumption in the Europe and identify the legal and regulatory frame of this problem. Furthermore, we also identify policies that have improved the management of

  18. Digestive efficiency, free amino acid pools and quality of growth performance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) affected by light regimes and vaccine types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungruangsak-Torrissen, Krisna; Sunde, Jan; Berg, Arne Erik; Nordgarden, Ulla; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Oppedal, Frode

    2009-06-01

    This study comprised the results of three different seawater trials using unique combination of techniques to study protease digestive efficiency and growth performance quality to illustrate the effects of light regimes and vaccine types in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Fish with higher growth had higher trypsin (T) and chymotrypsin (C) specific activities with higher T/C ratio or slope T/C ratio [calculated from the regression between trypsin (y) and chymotrypsin (x) specific activities] in the pyloric caeca. The T/C ratios indicated fish growth rates over a period of 1-2 months, while the slope T/C ratios indicated fish growth rates at sampling. Adaptation period for adjustment to the new environment of continuous light was 70 days, indicated by the differences in trypsin specific activities and the crossing of slope T/C ratio regressions following with the changes in growth rate directions between the control and the treated group. Vaccine types affected fish vertebral growth, and additional continuous light enhanced the impact of vaccines on fish growth during springtime, indicated by differences in slope T/C ratios. Continuous light stimulated fish growth during winter to spring, when the natural day length was short, without significantly changing white muscle and oocyte qualities in the fish of about 500 g, except for significantly increased white muscle RNA concentration. Continuous light also reduced fish growth rate later during summer, when the natural day length was long, by precedently decreasing the T/C ratio in late spring. Interestingly, plasma levels of free lysine related to tryptic digestion were correlated with trypsin specific activity levels. Continuous light caused higher levels of most free amino acids (FAA) involved in nitrogen metabolism, higher incorporation of essential FAA for protein synthesis, and higher protein turnover rate (free hydroxyproline levels) in both plasma and white muscle. However, continuous light did not affect

  19. Cotton responses to simulated insect damage: radiation-use efficiency, canopy architecture and leaf nitrogen content as affected by loss of reproductive organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadras, V.O.

    1996-01-01

    Key cotton pests feed preferentially on reproductive organs which are normally shed after injury. Loss of reproductive organs in cotton may decrease the rate of leaf nitrogen depletion associated with fruit growth and increase nitrogen uptake and reduction by extending the period of root and leaf growth compared with undamaged plants. Higher levels of leaf nitrogen resulting from more assimilation and less depletion could increase the photosynthetic capacity of damaged crops in relation to undamaged controls. To test this hypothesis, radiation-use efficiency (RUE = g dry matter per MJ of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by the canopy) of crops in which flowerbuds and young fruits were manually removed was compared with that of undamaged controls. Removal of fruiting structures did not affect RUE when cotton was grown at low nitrogen supply and high plant density. In contrast, under high nitrogen supply and low plant density, fruit removal increased seasonal RUE by 20–27% compared to controls. Whole canopy measurements, however, failed to detect the expected variations in foliar nitrogen due to damage. Differences in RUE between damaged and undamaged canopies were in part associated with changes in plant and canopy structure (viz. internode number and length, canopy height, branch angle) that modified light distribution within the canopy. These structural responses and their influence on canopy light penetration and photosynthesis are synthetised in coefficients of light extinction (k) that were 10 to 30% smaller in damaged crops than in controls and in a positive correlation between RUE−1 and k for crops grown under favourable conditions (i.e. high nitrogen, low density). Changes in plant structure and their effects on canopy architecture and RUE should be considered in the analysis of cotton growth after damage by insects that induce abscission of reproductive organs. (author)

  20. Use of a standardized protocol to identify factors affecting the efficiency of artificial insemination services for cattle through progesterone measurement in fourteen countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.; Goodger, W.J.; Bennett, T.; Perera, B.M.A.O.

    2001-01-01

    -cyclic cows; within this group 10.4% of cows were anoestrous or anovulatory, 2.2% were non-pregnant but bearing an active corpus luteum, and 4.7% were already pregnant. The highest incidence of problems was observed in farms of Cuba, Costa Rica, Indonesia and Venezuela. Progesterone data also showed that 27.4% of inseminated cows did not conceive but subsequent heats were unobserved, resulting in their non-pregnancy status being identified only at manual pregnancy diagnosis, usually 80-120 days after service. A further 10.1% of inseminated cows most probably conceived but lost their embryos between 16 and 50-60 days after service. These results show that nearly half of the inseminations were associated with factors of management deficiency or human error in the farms or in the AI service, thus adversely affecting the reproductive performance of the herds and leading to low efficiency of AI services. (author)

  1. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change. Volume II, Part 8. Impacts of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on agricultural growing seasons and crop water use efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, J. E.

    1982-09-01

    The researchable areas addressed relate to the possible impacts of climate change on agricultural growing seasons and crop adaptation responses on a global basis. The research activities proposed are divided into the following two main areas of investigation: anticipated climate change impacts on the physical environmental characteristics of the agricultural growing seasons and, the most probable food crop responses to the possible changes in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels in plant environments. The main physical environmental impacts considered are the changes in temperature, or more directly, thermal energy levels and the growing season evapotranspiration-precipitation balances. The resulting food crop, commercial forest and rangeland species response impacts addressed relate to potential geographical shifts in agricultural growing seasons as determined by the length in days of the frost free period, thermal energy changes and water balance changes. In addition, the interaction of possible changes in plant water use efficiencies during the growing season in relationship to changing atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations, is also considered under the scenario of global warming due to increases in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration. These proposed research investigations are followed by adaptive response evaluations.

  2. Has airline efficiency affected by the inclusion of aviation into European Union Emission Trading Scheme? Evidences from 22 airlines during 2008–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ye; Wang, Yan-zhang; Cui, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the impacts of including aviation into European Union Emission Trading Scheme on airline efficiency since 2008. Airline efficiency is divided into three stages: Operations Stage, Services Stage and Sales Stage, and Greenhouse Gases Emission is treated as an undesirable output of Services Stage. Two models, Network Slacks-Based Measure with weak disposability and Network Slacks-Based Measure with strong disposability, are established to evaluate the efficiencies of 22 international airlines from 2008 to 2012. The results show that: (1) Most airlines' efficiencies have increased in the period. (2) The average efficiency of European airlines is much higher than that of non-European airlines. (3) The model with weak disposability is more reasonable in distinguishing the airline efficiency while strong disposability is a more reasonable way in treating undesirable outputs. - Highlights: • A new theoretical model of airlines efficiency is built. • Network Slacks-Based Measure models with weak disposability and strong disposability are proposed. • The efficiencies of 22 airlines from 2008 to 2012 are evaluated. • The impacts of including airlines into European Union Emission Trading Scheme are analyzed.

  3. Culture time of vitrified/warmed zygotes before microinjection affects the production efficiency of CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knock-in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshiko; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Nishimichi, Norihisa; Yokosaki, Yasuyuki; Takeo, Toru; Nakagata, Naomi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2017-05-15

    Robust reproductive engineering techniques are required for the efficient and rapid production of genetically modified mice. We have reported the efficient production of genome-edited mice using reproductive engineering techniques, such as ultra-superovulation, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and vitrification/warming of zygotes. We usually use vitrified/warmed fertilized oocytes created by IVF for microinjection because of work efficiency and flexible scheduling. Here, we investigated whether the culture time of zygotes before microinjection influences the efficiency of producing knock-in mice. Knock-in mice were generated using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system and single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN) or PITCh (Precise Integration into Target Chromosome) system, a method of integrating a donor vector assisted by microhomology-mediated end-joining. The cryopreserved fertilized oocytes were warmed, cultured for several hours and microinjected at different timings. Microinjection was performed with Cas9 protein, guide RNA(s), and an ssODN or PITCh donor plasmid for the ssODN knock-in and the PITCh knock-in, respectively. Different production efficiencies of knock-in mice were observed by changing the timing of microinjection. Our study provides useful information for the CRISPR-Cas9-based generation of knock-in mice. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Cereal starch, protein, and fatty acid pre-caecal disappearance is affected by both feed technological treatment and efficiency of the chewing action in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Dickow, Mia Schødt; Brøkner, Christine

    2012-01-01

    determined by feedtechnologicaltreatment. Efficient chewing of the feed is essential for herbivores ability to meet their relatively high energy demands from high fibre containing diets and the efficiency of the chewingaction can also influence the physical structure of kernels and influence their digestion....... To study the impact of chewing on the pre-caecaldisappearance of dietary constituents, feed samples were subjected to either milling through a 1 mm screen or blending for 2 s. on a sample mill, to model the chewingaction of grain fed horses with healthy teeth or neglected teeth, respectively. Correlations...

  5. The efficiency of dyslipidemia control in real clinical practice and the possibilities of its correction in patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus in the long -term use of simvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yu. Valikulova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To show the efficiency of dyslipidemia control in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD and diabetes mellitus (DM in real outpatient clinical practice and the possibilities of its correction in the long-term use of simvastatin (simvastatin forte 40 mg in one of theNizhny Novgorod polyclinics.Subjects and methods. The efficiency of lipid profile control was analyzed in a sample from the entire dispensary group of patients with DM (n = 713. Patients at highest cardiovascular risk were selected from the dispensary group and included into a group of CHD and DM. There were a total of 461 (64.7 % such patients. Forty-three patients were identified in this group, who were matched for baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressures, age, gender, and DM duration and were found to have significant hypercholesterolemia. Simvastatin forte 40 mg wasprescribed to these patients at their outpatient visit. During a year, the patient made 6 visits to his/her physician (5 visits at 6-werk intervals and the sixth visit by the end of the follow-up year. The dose of simvastatin was unchanged throughout the study.Results.In the entire dispensary group, 64.7 % of the patients had a concurrence of CHD and DM. This group of patients was at high risk for dyslipidemia. In this group, 2.8 % had a total cholesterol (TC level of ≤ 3.5 mmol/l; 4.7 % had a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C level of < 1.8 mmol/l. The total lipid profile was analyzed in only 6.3% of the patients from the entire dispensary group. 28.6 % of the patients with type 1 DM and 21.3% of those with CHD and type 2 DM took statins. Fifty-two week therapy with simvastatin forte 40 mg showed its high efficiency in real practice in decreasing the levels of atherogenic lipids and lipoproteins: TC by 27.6 % (p < 0.001, LDL-C by 36.9 % (p < 0.001, and triglycerides by 34.3 % (p < 0.001 with antiatherogenic high-density lipoprotein cholesterol elevation by 15.2 % (p < 0

  6. Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Excited-States Interactions of Complexes between Some Visible Light-Emitting Lanthanide Ions and Cyclophanes Containing Spirobiindanol Phosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Attia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of excited-states interactions between lanthanide ions Tb3+ and Eu3+ and some new cyclophanes (I, II, and III has been studied in different media. High luminescence quantum yield values for terbium and europium complexes in DMSO and PMMA were obtained. The photophysical properties of the green and red emissive Tb3+ and Eu3+ complexes have been elucidated, respectively.

  7. How much do incentives affect car purchase? Agent-based microsimulation of consumer choice of new cars. Part 2. Forecasting effects of feebates based on energy-efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haan, Peter de; Mueller, Michel G.; Scholz, Roland W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we simulate the car market in order to forecast the effects of feebate systems based on an energy-labeling scheme using categories A to G. Very fuel-efficient (A) cars receive a cash incentive, highly inefficient (G) cars pay additional fees. Consumers have different price elasticities and behavioral options to react to feebates. They can switch to a smaller sized car, but as energy-efficiency varies widely within size segments, they can also stick to the preferred size class and choose a more efficient (smaller) engine. In addition, previously owned cars influence the next car to be chosen. We use an agent-based microsimulation approach particularly suited to predict environmental and market effects of feebates. Heteorogeneous agents choose from a choice set drawn from a detailed fleet of new cars. Incentives of EUR2000 for A-labeled cars induce an additional rated CO 2 emission decrease of new car registrations between 3.4% and 4.3%, with CO 2 abatement costs between EUR6 and EUR13 per ton, and otherwise little undesired market disturbance. The risk of rebound effects is estimated to be low. After adopting the frequencies of consumer segments to a given country, the model presented is applicable to all European car markets. (author)

  8. The influence pattern of key factors affecting the purpose of organizational excellence consulting on the efficiency of businesses consulting services (A case study of small and medium-size food enterprises in Tehran province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ezati Jivan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Consulting helps managers or other people find appropriate solutions for challenges they face in their businesses. Most of the losses incurred by the people and the society could be prevented using appropriate consultation. Consultation, also, refers to people's participation in decision making. Despite dramatic development in management consulting industry in the world during the last three decades, consulting industry in Iran has faced numerous challenges. This study aims to examine the factors affecting the efficiency of management consulting services in small and medium-sized businesses and it focuses on food industries in Tehran as a real-world case study. The necessary suggestions regarding the hiring of a consultant and increasing the efficiency of management consulting services in business have been offered in this study. Some recommendations deal with the way that management consultants should respond to the managers' needs, act as a reliable and efficient adviser in public or private businesses and find their position in the Iranian market. The conceptual model of this study shows the influence of key factors affecting the purpose of consulting on the efficiency of management consulting services. To do the research, 90 people are selected as the sample size in a descriptive study with random sampling of the managers of aforementioned companies using a questionnaire. Cronbach’s alpha method was used to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. For assessing the validity of the questionnaire, we use standard questionnaire, which has already been used.

  9. Physiological factors affecting intrinsic water use efficiency of potato clones within a dihaploid mapping population under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topbjerg, Henrik Bak; Kaminski, Kacper Piotr; Markussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    ) within a dihaploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) mapping population under well-watered (WW) and drought-stress (DS) conditions. The factorial dependency of WUEi on several plant bio-physiological traits was analyzed, and clonal difference of WUEi was compared. Significant differences in WUEi were found......Optimizing crops water use is essential for ensuring food production under future climate scenarios. Therefore, new cultivars that are capable of maintaining production under limited water resource are needed. This study screened for clonal differences in intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi...

  10. Rumen microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen efficiency as affected by tanniferous and non-tanniferous forage legumes incubated individually or together in Rumen Simulation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse Brinkhaus, Anja; Bee, Giuseppe; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Dohme-Meier, Frigga; Zeitz, Johanna O

    2018-03-01

    A limited availability of microbial protein can impair productivity in ruminants. Ruminal nitrogen efficiency might be optimised by combining high-quality forage legumes such as red clover (RC), which has unfavourably high ruminal protein degradability, with tanniferous legumes like sainfoin (SF) and birdsfoot trefoil (BT). Silages from SF and from BT cultivars [Bull (BB) and Polom (BP)] were incubated singly or in combination with RC using the Rumen Simulation Technique (n = 6). The tanniferous legumes, when compared to RC, changed the total short-chain fatty acid profile by increasing propionate proportions at the expense of butyrate. Silage from SF contained the most condensed tannins (CTs) (136 g CT kg -1 dry matter) and clearly differed in various traits from the BT and RC silages. The apparent nutrient degradability (small with SF), microbial protein synthesis, and calculated content of potentially utilisable crude protein (large with SF) indicated that SF had the greatest efficiency in ruminal protein synthesis. The effects of combining SF with RC were mostly linear. The potential of sainfoin to improve protein supply, demonstrated either individually or in combination with a high-performance forage legume, indicates its potential usefulness in complementing protein-deficient ruminant diets and high-quality forages rich in rumen-degradable protein. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Productivity, total and utilized nitrogen and water use efficiency of soybean grown in reclaimed sandy soil as affected by water regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, A.A.G.; Thabet, E.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Field experiment was performed at the experimental farm, Inshas, atomic energy authority, Egypt, in tafla and sand mixture soil (1:7). The experiment was laid out using sprinkler irrigation system with a line source which allows a gradual variation of irrigation from high to low irrigation, whereas the calculated amount of irrigation water levels were 1565, 1050 and 766.5 (m 3 / feddan). Two soybean varieties (crawford and giza 35) were planted. The obtained results indicated that: a) irrigation with high (1562 m 3 /fed.) and medium (1050 m 3 /fed.) water levels increased total seed wield of the two soybean varieties. b) the highest value of water use efficiency was observed when both soybean varieties irrigated with water level of 1050 m 3 /fed. c) seed protein content in crawford variety was higher in giza 35 variety at the irrigation level of 1562 m 3 /fed. d) seeds of both two soybean varieties showed increase of its atom excess percentage at high and medium water levels, and reflecting increase of nitrogen use efficiency. e) significant increment in seed yield kg/plot. Has been indicated by irrigation with water level of 1050 m 3 /fed. As compared to higher and lower water levels

  12. The Efficiency and Safety of Tension-Free Vaginal Tape (TVT) Abbrevo Procedure Versus TVT Exact in the Normal Weight and Overweight Patients Affected by Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Luo, Deyi; Yang, Lu; Wei, Xin; Tang, Cai; Chen, Mei; Shen, Hong; Wei, Qiang

    2017-12-01

    To compare the efficacy between 2 different slings in normal weight and overweight women. Of 426 women, 220 (119 normal weight and 101 overweight) accepted the tension-free vaginal tape Abbrevo (TVT-A) and 206 (114 normal weight and 92 overweight) accepted the TVT Exact (TVT-E) procedure. Data collected contained the subjective efficiency, objective efficiency International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF), Incontinence Quality of Life Questionnaire (I-QOL), Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-Short Form (PFIQ-7), Urogenital Distress Inventory-Short Form (UDI-6), and Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire-Short Form (PISQ)-12 at 36 months after surgery. In the normal weight patients, the subjectively and objectively cured rates were all high in both TVT-A and TVE-E (94.12% and 95.61% in objective result; 92.44% and 94.74% in subjective result). In addition, the score of I-QOL, PFIQ-7, and UDI-6 have significantly changed (P TVT-E than TVT-A. Moreover, the score of I-QOL, PFIQ-7, and UDI-6 of overweight women have significantly changed only in the TVT-E (P TVT-A and TVT-E, respectively). The TVT-E might be a better choice for the overweight patient than TVT-A. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Affects and Affect Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONSEN, JON T.; EILERTSEN, DAG ERIK; MELGÅRD, TROND; ØDEGÅRD, PÅL

    1996-01-01

    Affect consciousness (AC) was operationalized as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine specific affects. A semistructured interview (ACI) and separate scales were developed to assess these aspects of affect integration. Their psychometric properties were preliminarily explored by having 20 former psychiatric outpatients complete the interview. Concurrent validity was assessed by using DSM-III-R Axis I and II diagnoses, the Health-Sickness Rating Scale, SCL-90-R, and several indexes from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Satisfactory interrater reliability and high levels of internal consistency supported the construct validity of the measure. Results suggest the most meaningful use of this instrument is in measuring specific affect and overall AC. Clinically, the ACI has provided highly specific and relevant qualitative data for use in planning psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:22700292

  14. Soil water storage, yield, water productivity and transpiration efficiency of soybeans (Glyxine max L.Merr as affected by soil surface management in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo B. Adeboye

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rainfed agriculture has a high yield potential if rainfall and land resources are effectively used. In this study, conventional (NC and six in-situ water conservation practices were used to cultivate Soybean in 2011 and 2012 in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The conservation practices are: Tied ridge (TR, Soil bund (BD, Mulch (ML, Mulch plus Soil bund (MLBD, Tied ridge plus Mulch (TRML, Tied ridge plus Soil bund (TRBD. The practices were arranged in Randomised Complete Block Design with four replicates. Seasonal rainfall was 539 and 761 mm in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Seasonal soil water storage (SWS ranged from 485 mm for NC to 517 mm for TRML in the two seasons. ML increased the SWS in the upper 30 cm of the soil by 17% while TR increased the soil water content in the lower 30–60 cm by 22% compared with NC. ML reduced soil temperature in the upper 30 cm between 2.2 and 2.9 oC compared with NC, TR and TRML. Seasonal crop evapotranspiration ranged between 432 mm for NC and 481 mm for BD in the seasons. Grain yield increased by 41.7% and 44.3% for BD and MLBD, respectively compared with NC. Water conservation practices increased water productivity for grain yield by 14.0–41.8% compared with NC. Similarly, it increased average seasonal transpiration efficiency by 15.3–32.5% compared with NC. These findings demonstrate that when there are fluctuations in rainfall, in-situ water conservation practices improve SWS, land, and water productivity and transpiration efficiency of Soybeans.

  15. Yield and water use efficiencies of maize and cowpea as affected by tillage and cropping systems in semi-arid Eastern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miriti, M.J; Kironchi, G; Gachene, K.K.C; Esilaba, O.A.; Mwangi, M.D; Heng, K.L

    2012-01-01

    Soil water conservation through tillage is widely accepted as one of the ways of improving crop yields in rainfed agriculture. Field experiments were conducted between 2007 and 2009 to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage on the yields and crop water use efficiency of maize (Zea mays L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in eastern Kenya. Experimental treatments were a combination of three tillage practices and four cropping systems. Tillage practices were tied-ridges, subsoiling-ripping and ox-ploughing. The cropping systems were single crop maize, single crop cowpea, intercropped maize.cowpea and single crop maize with manure. The treatments were arranged in split plots with tillage practices as the main plots and cropping systems as the sub-plots in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The results showed that tied-ridge tillage had the greatest plant available water content while subsoiling-ripping tillage had the least in all seasons. Averaged across seasons and cropping season, tillage did not have a significant effects on maize grain yield but it did have a significant effect on crop grain and dry matter water use efficiency (WUE). Nevertheless, maize grain yields and WUE values were generally greater under tied-ridge tillage than under subsoiling-ripping and ox-plough tillages. The yields and WUE of cowpea under subsoiling-ripping tillage were less than those of ox-plough tillage. When averaged across the seasons and tillage systems, the cropping system with the manure treatment increased (P.0.05) maize grain yield, grain WUE and dry matter WUE by 36%, 30%, 26% respectively, compared to treatments without manure. Maize and cowpea when intercropped under ox-plough and ripping tillage systems did not have any yield advantage over the single crop

  16. The antiestrogen endoxifen protects rat liver mitochondria from permeability transition pore opening and oxidative stress at concentrations that do not affect the phosphorylation efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Mariana P.C.; Silva, Filomena S.G.; Santos, Armanda E.; Santos, Maria S.; Custódio, José B.A.

    2013-01-01

    Endoxifen (EDX) is a key active metabolite of tamoxifen (TAM) with higher affinity and specificity to estrogen receptors that also inhibits aromatase activity. It is safe and well tolerated by healthy humans, but its use requires toxicological characterization. In this study, the effects of EDX on mitochondria, the primary targets for xenobiotic-induced toxicity, were monitored to clarify its potential side effects. EDX up to 30 nmol/mg protein did not affect the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. At 50 nmol EDX/mg protein, EDX decreased the ADP phosphorylation rate and a partial collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ), that parallels a state 4 stimulation, was observed. As the stimulation of state 4 was not inhibited by oligomycin and 50 nmol EDX/mg protein caused a slight decrease in the light scattering of mitochondria, these data suggest that EDX promotes membrane permeabilization to protons, whereas TAM at the same concentration induced mitochondrial membrane disruption. Moreover, EDX at 10 nmol/mg protein prevented and reversed the Ca 2+ -induced depolarization of ΔΨ and the release of mitochondrial Ca 2+ , similarly to cyclosporine A, indicating that EDX did not affect Ca 2+ uptake, but directly interfered with the proteins of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) megacomplex, inhibiting MPT induction. At this concentration, EDX exhibited antioxidant activity that may account for the protective effect against MPT pore opening. In conclusion, EDX within the range of concentrations reached in tissues did not significantly damage the bioenergetic functions of mitochondria, contrarily to the prodrug TAM, and prevented the MPT pore opening and the oxidative stress in mitochondria, supporting that EDX may be a less toxic drug for women with breast carcinoma. - Highlights: ► Mitochondria are important targets of Endoxifen. ► Endoxifen prevents mitochondrial permeability transition. ► Endoxifen prevents oxidative stress in

  17. The antiestrogen endoxifen protects rat liver mitochondria from permeability transition pore opening and oxidative stress at concentrations that do not affect the phosphorylation efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Mariana P.C.; Silva, Filomena S.G.; Santos, Armanda E. [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3000-354 Coimbra (Portugal); Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal); Santos, Maria S. [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3000-354 Coimbra (Portugal); Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Custódio, José B.A., E-mail: custodio@ci.uc.pt [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3000-354 Coimbra (Portugal); Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2013-02-15

    Endoxifen (EDX) is a key active metabolite of tamoxifen (TAM) with higher affinity and specificity to estrogen receptors that also inhibits aromatase activity. It is safe and well tolerated by healthy humans, but its use requires toxicological characterization. In this study, the effects of EDX on mitochondria, the primary targets for xenobiotic-induced toxicity, were monitored to clarify its potential side effects. EDX up to 30 nmol/mg protein did not affect the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. At 50 nmol EDX/mg protein, EDX decreased the ADP phosphorylation rate and a partial collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ), that parallels a state 4 stimulation, was observed. As the stimulation of state 4 was not inhibited by oligomycin and 50 nmol EDX/mg protein caused a slight decrease in the light scattering of mitochondria, these data suggest that EDX promotes membrane permeabilization to protons, whereas TAM at the same concentration induced mitochondrial membrane disruption. Moreover, EDX at 10 nmol/mg protein prevented and reversed the Ca{sup 2+}-induced depolarization of ΔΨ and the release of mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+}, similarly to cyclosporine A, indicating that EDX did not affect Ca{sup 2+} uptake, but directly interfered with the proteins of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) megacomplex, inhibiting MPT induction. At this concentration, EDX exhibited antioxidant activity that may account for the protective effect against MPT pore opening. In conclusion, EDX within the range of concentrations reached in tissues did not significantly damage the bioenergetic functions of mitochondria, contrarily to the prodrug TAM, and prevented the MPT pore opening and the oxidative stress in mitochondria, supporting that EDX may be a less toxic drug for women with breast carcinoma. - Highlights: ► Mitochondria are important targets of Endoxifen. ► Endoxifen prevents mitochondrial permeability transition. ► Endoxifen prevents oxidative

  18. Depth dependent microbial carbon use efficiency in the capillary fringe as affected by water table fluctuations in a column incubation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, G. J.; Mellage, A.; Milojevic, T.; Smeaton, C. M.; Rezanezhad, F.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial growth and turnover of soil organic carbon (SOC) depend on the availability of electron donors and acceptors. The steep geochemical gradients in the capillary fringe between the saturated and unsaturated zones provide hotspots of soil microbial activity. Water table fluctuations and the associated drying and wetting cycles within these zones have been observed to lead to enhanced turnover of SOC and adaptation of the local microbial communities. To improve our understanding of SOC degradation under changing moisture conditions, we carried out an automated soil column experiment with integrated of hydro-bio-geophysical monitoring under both constant and oscillating water table conditions. An artificial soil mixture composed of quartz sand, montmorillonite, goethite and humus was used to provide a well-defined system. This material was inoculated with a microbial community extracted from a forested riparian zone. The soils were packed into 6 columns (60 cm length and 7.5 cm inner diameter) to a height of 45 cm; and three replicate columns were incubated under constant water table while another three were saturated and drained monthly. The initial soil development, carbon cycling and microbial community development were then characterized during 10 months of incubation. This system provides an ideal artificial gradient from the saturated to the unsaturated zone to study soil development from initially homogeneous materials and the same microbial community composition under controlled conditions. Depth profiles of SOC and microbial biomass after 329 days of incubation showed a depletion of carbon in the transition drying and wetting zone that was not associated with higher accumulation of microbial biomass, indicating a lower carbon use efficiency of the microbial community established within the water table fluctuation zone. This was supported by a higher ATP to microbial biomass carbon ratio within the same zone. The findings from this study highlight the

  19. Change of floral orientation within an inflorescence affects pollinator behavior and pollination efficiency in a bee-pollinated plant, Corydalis sheareri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    Full Text Available Vertical raceme or spike inflorescences that are bee-pollinated tend to present their flowers horizontally. Horizontal presentation of flowers is hypothesized to enhance pollinator recognition and pollination precision, and it may also ensure greater consistency of pollinator movement on inflorescences. We tested the hypotheses using bee-pollinated Corydalis sheareri which has erect inflorescences consisting of flowers with horizontal orientation. We altered the orientation of individual flowers and prepared three types of inflorescences: (i unmanipulated inflorescences with horizontal-facing flowers, (ii inflorescences with flowers turned upward, and (iii inflorescences with flowers turned downward. We compared number of inflorescences approached and visited, number of successive probes within an inflorescence, the direction percentage of vertical movement on inflorescences, efficiency of pollen removal and seed production per inflorescence. Deviation from horizontal orientation decreased both approaches and visits by leafcutter bees and bumble bees to inflorescences. Changes in floral orientation increased the proportion of downward movements by leafcutter bees and decreased the consistency of pollinator movement on inflorescences. In addition, pollen removal per visit and seed production per inflorescence also declined with changes of floral orientation. In conclusion, floral orientation seems more or less optimal as regards bee behavior and pollen transfer for Corydalis sheareri. A horizontal orientation may be under selection of pollinators and co-adapt with other aspects of the inflorescence and floral traits.

  20. Factors affecting nucleolytic efficiency of some ternary metal complexes with DNA binding and recognition domains. Crystal and molecular structure of Zn(phen)(edda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Hoi-Ling; Ong, Han-Kiat Alan; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Yamin, Bohari M; Tiekink, Edward R T; Tan, Kong Wai; Maah, Mohd Jamil; Caracelli, Ignez; Ng, Chew Hee

    2008-11-01

    The binding selectivity of the M(phen)(edda) (M=Cu, Co, Ni, Zn; phen=1,10-phenanthroline, edda=ethylenediaminediacetic acid) complexes towards ds(CG)(6), ds(AT)(6) and ds(CGCGAATTCGCG) B-form oligonucleotide duplexes were studied by CD spectroscopy and molecular modeling. The binding mode is intercalation and there is selectivity towards AT-sequence and stacking preference for A/A parallel or diagonal adjacent base steps in their intercalation. The nucleolytic properties of these complexes were investigated and the factors affecting the extent of cleavage were determined to be: concentration of complex, the nature of metal(II) ion, type of buffer, pH of buffer, incubation time, incubation temperature, and the presence of hydrogen peroxide or ascorbic acid as exogenous reagents. The fluorescence property of these complexes and its origin were also investigated. The crystal structure of the Zn(phen)(edda) complex is reported in which the zinc atom displays a distorted trans-N(4)O(2) octahedral geometry; the crystal packing features double layers of complex molecules held together by extensive hydrogen bonding that inter-digitate with adjacent double layers via pi...pi interactions between 1,10-phenanthroline residues. The structure is compared with that of the recently described copper(II) analogue and, with the latter, included in molecular modeling.

  1. Disruption of the ndhF1 gene affects Chl fluorescence through state transition in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, resulting in apparent high efficiency of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Takako; Harada, Tetsuyuki; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Sonoike, Kintake

    2013-07-01

    In Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, the disruption of the ndhF1 gene (slr0844), which encodes a subunit of one of the NDH-1 complexes (NDH-1L complex) serving for respiratory electron transfer, causes the largest change in Chl fluorescence induction kinetics among the kinetics of 750 disruptants searched in the Fluorome, the cyanobacterial Chl fluorescence database. The cause of the explicit phenotype of the ndhF1 disruptant was examined by measurements of the photosynthetic rate, Chl fluorescence and state transition. The results demonstrate that the defects in respiratory electron transfer obviously have great impact on Chl fluorescence in cyanobacteria. The inactivation of NDH-1L complexes involving electron transfer from NDH-1 to plastoquinone (PQ) would result in the oxidation of the PQ pool, leading to the transition to State 1, where the yield of Chl fluorescence is high. Apparently, respiration, although its rate is far lower than that of photosynthesis, could affect Chl fluorescence through the state transition as leverage. The disruption of the ndhF1 gene caused lower oxygen-evolving activity but the estimated electron transport rate from Chl fluorescence measurements was faster in the mutant than in the wild-type cells. The discrepancy could be ascribed to the decreased level of non-photochemical quenching due to state transition. One must be cautious when using the Chl fluorescence parameter to estimate photosynthesis in mutants defective in state transition.

  2. You'd better walk alone: Changes in forest composition affect pollination efficiency and pre-dispersal cone damage in Iberian Juniperus thurifera forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, E; Mezquida, E T; Olano, J M

    2017-11-01

    Changes in land-use patterns are a major driver of global environmental change. Cessation of traditional land-use practices has led to forest expansion and shifts in forest composition. Consequently, former monospecific forests maintained by traditional management are progressing towards mixed forests. However, knowledge is scarce on how the presence of other tree species will affect reproduction of formerly dominant species. We explored this question in the wind-pollinated tree Juniperus thurifera. We hypothesised that the presence of heterospecific trees would have a negative effect on cone production and on the proportion of cones attacked by specialised predators. We assessed the relative importance of forest composition on cone production, seed development and pre-dispersal cone damage on nine paired pure and mixed J. thurifera forests in three regions across the Iberian Peninsula. The effects of forest composition on crop size, cone and seed characteristics, as well as damage by pre-dispersal arthropods were tested using mixed models. Cone production was lower and seed abortion higher in mixed forests, suggesting higher pollination failure. In contrast, cone damage by arthropods was higher in pure forests, supporting the hypothesis that presence of non-host plants reduces damage rates. However, the response of each arthropod to forest composition was species-specific and the relative rates of cone damage varied depending on individual tree crops. Larger crop sizes in pure forests compensated for the higher cone damage rates, leading to a higher net production of sound seeds compared to mixed forests. This study indicates that ongoing changes in forest composition after land abandonment may impact tree reproduction. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Validation of the use of exogenous gonadotropins (PG600) to increase the efficiency of gilt development programs without affecting lifetime productivity in the breeding herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, J; Triemert, E; Gustafson, B; Werner, T; Holden, N; Pinilla, J C; Foxcroft, G

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the use of exogenous gonadotropin (PG600) treatment for stimulating estrus in noncyclic gilts and to compare lifetime productivity of gilts recorded as having natural (NAT) versus PG600-induced (PG600) first estrus in a commercial setting. Prepubertal Camborough gilts ( = 4,489) were delivered to a gilt development unit (GDU) with the goal of delivering known cyclic breeding-eligible females to the sow farm (SF). A boar exposure area (BEAR) was designed to facilitate stimulation and detection of puberty by providing fence line and direct contact (15 min daily) with mature boars over an intensive 28-d period, starting at approximately d 160 (d 0). At d 14, nonpubertal gilts were mixed in new pen groups. At d 23, noncyclic "opportunity" gilts with no record of vulval development and required to meet breeding targets, were eligible for treatment with PG600 to induce puberty. Overall, 77.6% ( = 3,475) of gilts exhibited standing estrus (NAT = 2,654; PG600 = 821) and were eligible for shipping to the SF at approximately 35 d, and 76.6% of gilts that were administered PG600 exhibited the standing reflex within 13 d of treatment. Ultimately, 72.0% of gilts entering the GDU were delivered to the SF as breeding-eligible females. Considering the gilts delivered, a greater proportion of NAT than PG600 gilts were successfully bred ( 0.05) in the proportion of NAT and PG600 gilts farrowing a third litter, but a greater proportion of NAT than PG600 gilts farrowed their fourth litter ( 0.05). A negative correlation ( productivity to parity 4 were not affected by growth rate classification at puberty.

  4. Carbon use efficiency (CUE) and biomass turnover of soil microbial communities as affected by bedrock, land management and soil temperature and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qing; Hu, Yuntao; Richter, Andreas; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Soil microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE), defined as the proportion of organic C taken up that is allocated to microbial growth, represents an important synthetic representation of microbial community C metabolism that describes the flux partitioning between microbial respiration and growth. Therefore, studying microbial CUE is critical for the understanding of soil C cycling. Microbial CUE is thought to vary with environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and soil moisture). Microbial CUE is thought to decrease with increasing temperature and declining soil moisture, as the latter may trigger stress responses (e.g. the synthesis of stress metabolites), which may consequently lower microbial community CUE. However, these effects on microbial CUE have not been adequately measured so far due to methodological restrictions. The most widely used methods for microbial CUE estimation are based on tracing 13C-labeled substrates into microbial biomass and respiratory CO2, approaches that are known to overestimate microbial CUE of native organic matter in soil. Recently, a novel substrate-independent approach based on the measurement of (i) respiration rates and (ii) the incorporation rates of 18O from labelled water into newly formed microbial DNA has been developed in our laboratory for measuring microbial CUE. This approach overcomes the shortcomings of previously used methods and has already been shown to yield realistic estimations of soil microbial CUE. This approach can also be applied to concurrently measure microbial biomass turnover rates, which also influence the sequestration of soil organic C. Microbial turnover rates are also thought to be impacted by environmental factors, but rarely have been directly measured so far. Here, we aimed at determining the short-term effects of environmental factors (soil temperature and soil moisture) on microbial CUE and microbial biomass turnover rates based on the novel 18O approach. Soils from three land-use types (arable

  5. Evaluation of factors affecting collection efficiency estimates of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts at McNary Dam, 1989. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuehrenberg, L.; Smith, D.; Johnson, O.W.

    1995-10-01

    Populations of salmonid smolts migrating through the hydropower system on the Columbia River incur some rate of mortality at each dam. To set priorities on options to minimize losses and provide safe passage of the smolts at dams, estimates of smolt survival at each dam are necessary. Two methods have been developed to obtain these survival estimates: the direct and the indirect method. With the indirect method, a test group of fish is released upstream and a-control group is released downstream from the area of interest. With the direct method, a single release of fish above the area of interest is used, with subsequent recovery below the area of interest. In 1988, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) began a 2-year study at McNary Dam to address possible sources of variation associated with the direct method of obtaining survival estimates. Five study objectives were established to determine whether (1) fish from the Columbia and Snake Rivers mixed as they migrated to McNary Dam (release-location tests); (2) collection rates for Columbia and Snake River stocks were the same (river-of-origin tests); (3) test-group release timing influenced recovery rates (time-of-release tests); (4) a collection-rate bias existed from use of test fish previously guided and collected at the recovery site (tests of previously guided fish); and (5) recovery rates obtained with PIT-tagged fish were comparable to those previously obtained with freeze-branded fish (PIT-tag vs. freeze-brand technology)

  6. Monitoring drought affected crop yields based on ERS-scatterometer data : exploration of possibilities to integrate ERS-scatterometer derived soil moisture into the CGMS crop model for a Russian-Ukrainian study area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, H.L.; Diepen, van C.A.; Savin, I.

    2000-01-01

    In this study the possibilities of integrating ERS scatterometer-derived soil moisture into CGMS are explored. This remote sensed soil moisture is used to calculate drought stress in grains of barley for a Russian-Ukrainian study area. The results arecompared with drought stress based on the

  7. High efficient removal of molybdenum from water by Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}: Effects of pH and affecting factors in the presence of co-existing background constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiang; Ma, Jun, E-mail: majunhit@126.com; Lu, Xixin; Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Zou, Jing

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Proposed high efficient Mo (VI) removal with Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} coagulation-filtration. • Studied different effects of Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and FeCl{sub 3} due to different anionic portions. • Reported the adverse effect of calcium on the removal of Mo (VI). • Proposed factors affecting Mo (VI) removal: intercepted Fe and adsorption affinity. - Abstract: Comparatively investigated the different effects of Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} coagulation-filtration and FeCl{sub 3} coagulation-filtration on the removal of Mo (VI). And the influence of calcium, sulfate, silicate, phosphate and humic acid (HA) were also studied. The following conclusions can be obtained: (1) compared with the case of FeCl{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} showed a higher Mo (VI) removal efficiency at pH 4.00–5.00, but an equal removal efficiency at pH 6.00–9.00. (2) The optimum Mo (VI) removal by Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} was achieved at pH 5.00–6.00; (3) The presence of calcium can reduce the removal of Mo (VI) over the entire pH range in the present study; (4) The effect of co-existing background anions (including HA) was dominated by three factors: Firstly the influence of co-existing background anions on the content of Fe intercepted from water (intercepted Fe). Secondly the competition of co-existing anions with Mo (VI) for adsorption sites. Thirdly the influence of co-existing background anions on the Zeta potential of the iron flocs.

  8. Violence Affected Family – Possibilities and Forms of Assistance Based on the Research of Specialist Centers of Support for Victims of Domestic Violence in the Region of Lower Silesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATA ŚWIĄTEK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Family has always created an indispensable environment for a man to fulfill his needs and for his development. Family makes our lives meaningful, helps to put plans into practice and to assign goals. The need for belonging to a family constitutes a value dear to all communities. In the literature of the subject there exists a general division into functional and non-functional families. One of the factors determining a family's capability is violence. It influences the quality of the offspring upbringing, family relationships and bonds. In its air social competence of parents declines and their attitude to family-related responsibilities deteriorates. The issue of domestic violence is tackles by specialists of the area of law, psychology, sociology, pedagogy and medicine, who are studying sources and methods of fighting with this phenomenon. Its social damage is so devastating that its unambiguous definition is almost impossible. In the face of a serious threat generated by domestic violence in recent years, there have been held campaigns, workshops, local and nationwide conferences to promote assistance to violence-stricken victims. Preventive schemes have also been developed to restrain violence in schools and local community. Violence affected individuals can seek help in centers founded especially for this purpose and maintained by local councils (MOPS or county councils (PCPR, as well as non-government organizations and associations. A comprehensive support for families suffering from domestic violence is provided by Emergency Intervention Centers and Specialist Centers of Support for Victims of domestic Violence. In the region of Lower Silesia there exist two institutions of such a character, one inWroclaw and the other one in Walbrzych. Their activity involves therapeutic tasks, aid and provision for victims of domestic violence

  9. Affect asymmetry and comfort food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Laurette; LeBel, Jordan L; Lu, Ji

    2005-11-15

    It is proposed that the emotional triggers of comfort food consumption can reliably be predicted by factors tied to affect asymmetry whereby negative affects dominate one's experience, decision making and behaviors in some instances while positive emotions prevail in others. Specifically, we relate three of these factors (age, gender, and culture) to differences in the emotional triggers of comfort food consumption and we further explore the possibility that the type of food eaten during comfort-seeking episodes can also be tied to affect asymmetry. Two hundred and seventy-seven participants completed a web-based survey conducted to assess the emotional antecedents and consequences of comfort food consumption. Consistent with expectations, results indicate that men's comfort food consumption was motivated by positive emotions whereas women's consumption was triggered by negative affects. Consumption of comfort foods alleviated women's negative emotions but also produced guilt. Positive affect was a particularly powerful trigger of comfort food consumption for older participants and for participants with French cultural background. Younger participants and participants with English background reported more intense negative emotions prior to consuming comfort foods. Foods high in sugar and fat content were more efficient in alleviating negative affects whereas low-calorie foods were more efficient in increasing positive emotions.

  10. Possible Factors that Affect Testis Volume in Varicocele Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozay Demiray

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Left varicocele degree is associated with decrease in testis volume. There was no relationship between testis volume and body mass index or smoking habit. Early varicocele diagnosis is important to protect testis volume. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 233-238

  11. [NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND POSSIBLE PREVENTABLE FACTORS AFFECTING THIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puharić, Z; Rafaj, G; Kenjerić, D Čačič

    2015-01-01

    Eating habits and attitudes are formed in early childhood, and acquired knowledge and skills are transferred to the next generation. The aim of this study was to examine nutritional status and dietary habits of elementary school fifth-graders in Bjelovar-Bilogora County and connect them with certain socioeconomic and demographic family factors (residence, parental education, and activity). The survey was conducted during the obligatory systematic examination. The students filled out an anonymous questionnaire specially designed for this purpose and then they had their body weight and height measured. The survey included 466 students, which made 40.5% of the population. The results showed, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 15.0% of study subjects to be underweight, 56.0% had normal weight and 29.0% were overweight and obese children. Furthermore, 54.5% of the children had three meals per day, two of these cooked. About 4.7% of study subjects reported taking fast food daily and 11.6% drank soda. Daily consumption of meat was reported by 24.7%, fruit and vegetables by 55.8%, sweets by 21.9% and milk by 56.9% of the subjects. Organized activities outside the school were reported by 57.6% of students, whereas 11.8% of subjects spent 4 or more hours watching TV and 7.8% playing for 3 hours and more, 77.3% of these of sedentary types. The research identified a significant proportion of overweight and obese children in the county, who had poor eating habits and low physical activity, with an increased proportion of sedentary lifestyle.

  12. Fiscal 1998 research report. Study on the possibility of international cooperation for high- efficiency urban heat use systems for CO{sub 2} reduction; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. CO{sub 2} sakugen no tame no toshi netsu riyo system kokoritsuka ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This research aims at study on the possibility of international cooperation such as technology transfer and technical cooperation between developed countries for introduction of high-efficiency urban heat use systems into developing countries from the viewpoint of global warming control. On the case of a city in the south-eastern district in China, this research studies the principle of international cooperation such as technology transfer and research cooperation through survey on social and economical restrictions to their introduction into developing countries and study on a CO{sub 2} reduction effect by the introduction. This report describes the current technology for high-efficiency urban heat use systems in developed countries, the current energy use in Chinese cities and some issues, current heat use technologies, the case study on the potential and constraint of high- efficiency urban heat use systems, and the case study on the CO{sub 2} reduction effect of the high-efficiency urban heat use system. Expectation for Japanese technical cooperation as such international cooperation is described. (NEDO)

  13. Another possible energy landscape; Un autre paysage energetique possible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    This analysis presents the national energy balances from the national energy accounting. The first part presents the accounting analysis on the electric power consumption and production in France. The second part deals with the global energy accounting, for the energy sources and utilization, together. From these analysis the authors show how the global energy efficiency of production and utilization is possible. Solutions allowing the reduction of the non renewable energies consumption and solution for the nuclear power phaseout are also proposed. (A.L.B.)

  14. Efficient STFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamir, K.M.; Maud, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Small perturbations in signals (or any time series), at some particular instant, affect the whole frequency spectrum due to the global function e/sup j omega t/ in Fourier Transform formulation. However, the Fourier spectrum does not convey the time instant at which the perturbation occurred. Consequently the information on the particular time instance of occurrence of that perturbation is lost when spectrum is observed. Apparently Fourier analysis seems to be inadequate in such situations. This inadequacy is overcome by the use of Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT), which keeps track of time as well as frequency information. In STFT analysis, a fixed length window, say of length N, is moved sample by sample as the data arrives. The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of this fixed window of length N is calculated using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. If the total number of points is M > N, the computational complexity of this scheme works out to be at least ((M-N) N log/sub 2/N). On the other hand, STFT is shown to be of computational complexity 6NM and 8NM in the literature. In this paper, two algorithms are presented which compute the same STFT more efficiently. The computational complexity of the proposed algorithms works out to be MN of one algorithm and even lesser in the other algorithm. This reduction in complexity becomes significant for large data sets. This algorithm also remains valid if a stationary part of signal is skipped. (author)

  15. Possibilities of more efficient usage of genetic potential of broilers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... broiler (meat-type line strains) and production of hatching eggs and day old chickens (incubation) as well as other issues ..... with the importation of medications and additives for food. All this ...... processing yield. Journal of ...

  16. Possibilities of more efficient usage of genetic potential of broilers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and particularly, EU has been specific due to new trends, whereby special attention is focused on regulations and procedures that are adopted by European Union (EU), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the World Trade Organization.

  17. Abrasives and possibilities of increase in efficiency of abrasive waterjets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sitek, Libor; Martinec, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, March 2016 (2016), s. 877-881 ISSN 1805-0476 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : high-speed waterjets * abrasive waterjets * abrasives * garnet * zirconia Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools http://www.mmscience.eu/content/file/archives/MM_Science_201603.pdf

  18. Possibility Fuzzy Soft Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the concept of possibility fuzzy soft set and its operation and study some of its properties. We give applications of this theory in solving a decision-making problem. We also introduce a similarity measure of two possibility fuzzy soft sets and discuss their application in a medical diagnosis problem.

  19. Energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a speech of the CEA's (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) general administrator about energy efficiency as a first rank challenge for the planet and for France, this publications proposes several contributions: a discussion of the efficiency of nuclear energy, an economic analysis of R and D's value in the field of fourth generation fast reactors, discussions about biofuels and the relationship between energy efficiency and economic competitiveness, and a discussion about solar photovoltaic efficiency

  20. Early appearance and possible roles of non-neuromuscular cholinesterases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eFalugi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The biological function of the cholinesterase (ChE enzymes is well known and has been studied since the beginning of the XXth century; in particular, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, E.C. 3.1.1.7 is an enzyme playing a key role in the modulation of neuromuscular impulse transmission. However, in the past decades, there has been increasing interest concerning its role in regulating non-neuromuscular cell-to-cell interactions mediated by intracellular ion concentration changes, like the ones occurring during gamete interaction and embryonic development. An understanding of the mechanisms of the cholinergic regulation of these events can help us foresee the possible impact on environmental and human health, including gamete efficiency and possible teratogenic effects on different models, and help elucidate the extent to which exposure to ChE inhibitors may affect human health.

  1. Factors affecting nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Girouard, P.

    1995-01-01

    Among the factors affecting nuclear development, some depend more or less on public authorities, but many are out of public authorities control (foreign policies, market and deregulation, socials and environmental impacts, public opinion). As far as possible, the following study tries to identify those factors. (D.L.). 2 photos

  2. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play......, experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces....... Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...

  3. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  4. Power Plant Retirements: Trends and Possible Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-11-29

    This paper synthesizes available data on historical and planned power plant retirements. Specifically, we present data on historical generation capacity additions and retirements over time, and the types of plants recently retired and planned for retirement. We then present data on the age of plants that have recently retired or that have plans to retire. We also review the characteristics of plants that recently retired or plan to retire vs. those that continue to operate, focusing on plant size, age, heat rate, and SO2 emissions. Finally, we show the level of recent thermal plant retirements on a regional basis and correlate those data with a subset of possible factors that may be contributing to retirement decisions. This basic data synthesis cannot be used to precisely estimate the relative magnitude of retirement drivers. Nor do we explore every possible driver for retirement decisions. Moreover, future retirement decisions may be influenced by different factors than those that have affected past decisions. Nonetheless, it is clear that recently retired plants are relatively old, and that plants with stated planned retirement dates are—on average—no younger. We observe that retired plants are smaller, older, less efficient, and more polluting than operating plants. Based on simple correlation graphics, the strongest predictors of regional retirement differences appear to include SO2 emissions rates (for coal), planning reserve margins (for all thermal units), variations in load growth or contraction (for all thermal units), and the age of older thermal plans (for all thermal units). Additional apparent predictors of regional retirements include the ratio of coal to gas prices and delivered natural gas prices. Other factors appear to have played lesser roles, including the penetration variable renewable energy (VRE), recent non-VRE capacity additions, and whether the region hosts an ISO/RTO.

  5. Transition towards energy efficient machine tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zein, Andre [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Fertigungstechnik

    2012-07-01

    Provides unique data about industrial trends affecting the energy demand of machine tools. Presents a comprehensive methodology to assess the energy efficiency of machining processes. Contains an integrated management concept to implement energy performance measures into existing industrial systems. Includes an industrial case study with two exemplary applications. Energy efficiency represents a cost-effective and immediate strategy of a sustainable development. Due to substantial environmental and economic implications, a strong emphasis is put on the electrical energy requirements of machine tools for metalworking processes. The improvement of energy efficiency is however confronted with diverse barriers, which sustain an energy efficiency gap of unexploited potential. The deficiencies lie in the lack of information about the actual energy requirements of machine tools, a minimum energy reference to quantify improvement potential and the possible actions to improve the energy demand. Therefore, a comprehensive concept for energy performance management of machine tools is developed which guides the transition towards energy efficient machine tools. It is structured in four innovative concept modules, which are embedded into step-by-step workflow models. The capability of the performance management concept is demonstrated in an automotive manufacturing environment. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and practitioners challenged to enhance energy efficiency in manufacturing. The book may also be beneficial for graduate students who want to specialize in this field.

  6. Efficiency of emergency exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, N.; Sogalla, M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to cope with accidents beyond the design basis within German nuclear power plants which possibly lead to relevant radiological consequences, the utilities as well as the competent authorities exist emergency organisations. The efficiency, capacity for teamwork and preparedness of such organisations should be tested by regular, efficient exercise activities. Such activities can suitably be based on scenarios which provide challenging tasks for all units of the respective emergency organisation. Thus, the demonstration and further development of the efficiency of the respective organisational structures, including their ability to collaborate, is promoted. (orig.)

  7. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....

  8. Another Theory is Possible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2016-01-01

    The article argues that dissident voices which attempt to theorise Europe differently and advocate another European trajectory have been largely excluded and left unheard in mainstream discussions over the past decade of scholarship and analysis. Dissident voices in European Union studies are tho...... theory, is possible – indeed, probable....

  9. Possibilities of roentgenological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivash, Eh.S.; Sal'man, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Literary and experimental data on estimating possibilities of roentgenologic investigations using an electron optical amplifier, X-ray television and roentgen cinematography are generalized. Different methods of studying gastro-intestinal tract are compared. The advantage of the roentgenologic method over the endoscopic method after stomach resection is shown [ru

  10. INFLUENCE OF RISKS ON THE IPO EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilshod M. Marupov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the global IPO market and the key risks of the procedure during the IPO. Exogenous and endogenous risks affecting the efficiency of entering the public market are considered. Also the general stepwise policy of risk management has been suggested. It was identified that in addition to the proceeds from the sale of shares of funds, public status provides to the company the following benefits: increased goodwill and reputation in the market, the market value of the acquisition, which is crucial for entry into foreign markets, it is possible to obtain loans, issue bonds at lower interest, etc.

  11. Is there an efficient trap or collection method for sampling Anopheles darlingi and other malaria vectors that can describe the essential parameters affecting transmission dynamics as effectively as human landing catches? - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bento Pereira Lima

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution, abundance, feeding behaviour, host preference, parity status and human-biting and infection rates are among the medical entomological parameters evaluated when determining the vector capacity of mosquito species. To evaluate these parameters, mosquitoes must be collected using an appropriate method. Malaria is primarily transmitted by anthropophilic and synanthropic anophelines. Thus, collection methods must result in the identification of the anthropophilic species and efficiently evaluate the parameters involved in malaria transmission dynamics. Consequently, human landing catches would be the most appropriate method if not for their inherent risk. The choice of alternative anopheline collection methods, such as traps, must consider their effectiveness in reproducing the efficiency of human attraction. Collection methods lure mosquitoes by using a mixture of olfactory, visual and thermal cues. Here, we reviewed, classified and compared the efficiency of anopheline collection methods, with an emphasis on Neotropical anthropophilic species, especially Anopheles darlingi, in distinct malaria epidemiological conditions in Brazil.

  12. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  13. Juggling Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sand; Vedsted, Peter

    2015-01-01

    on institutional logics, we illustrate how a logic of efficiency organise and give shape to healthcare seeking practices as they manifest in local clinical settings. Overall, patient concerns are reconfigured to fit the local clinical setting and healthcare professionals and patients are required to juggle...... efficiency in order to deal with uncertainties and meet more complex or unpredictable needs. Lastly, building on the empirical case of cancer diagnostics, we discuss the implications of the pervasiveness of the logic of efficiency in the clinical setting and argue that provision of medical care in today......'s primary care settings requires careful balancing of increasing demands of efficiency, greater complexity of biomedical knowledge and consideration for individual patient needs....

  14. Towards the Possible Film

    OpenAIRE

    Dawood, S.

    2014-01-01

    Towards the Possible Film is a study in parallel universes – and the sparks that fly when worlds collide. As much of a projection into a far-off future as a flashback to a long-forgotten past, Dawood’s vivid 20-minute tableau combines the resonance of a mythic fable with the hallucinatory haziness of a waking dream. Emerging from the waves, as if transported from another dimension, two blue-skinned astronauts materialise on a red-rocked shoreline (Sidi Ifni in Southern Morocco). Blinking into...

  15. Future possibilities at ISOLDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, H.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of the ISOLDE facility at CERN is summarized and recently achieved target/ion-source and separator improvements are presented. New ion source principles being tested include multistep laser ionization, bunched surface ionization, and ECR ion source. The prospects for the high-resolution separator ISOLDE-3 are described. The possibilities of a new ISOLDE installation at the PS Booster at CERN are presented together with the planned features of the new facility. Add-on devices to improve the performance that are presently being discussed are an electrostatic sector field, an electron beam ion stripper, and a high voltage platform for energy boosting. (author) 7 refs.; 5 figs

  16. Possible future HERA analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiser, Achim

    2015-12-01

    A variety of possible future analyses of HERA data in the context of the HERA data preservation programme is collected, motivated, and commented. The focus is placed on possible future analyses of the existing ep collider data and their physics scope. Comparisons to the original scope of the HERA pro- gramme are made, and cross references to topics also covered by other participants of the workshop are given. This includes topics on QCD, proton structure, diffraction, jets, hadronic final states, heavy flavours, electroweak physics, and the application of related theory and phenomenology topics like NNLO QCD calculations, low-x related models, nonperturbative QCD aspects, and electroweak radiative corrections. Synergies with other collider programmes are also addressed. In summary, the range of physics topics which can still be uniquely covered using the existing data is very broad and of considerable physics interest, often matching the interest of results from colliders currently in operation. Due to well-established data and MC sets, calibrations, and analysis procedures the manpower and expertise needed for a particular analysis is often very much smaller than that needed for an ongoing experiment. Since centrally funded manpower to carry out such analyses is not available any longer, this contribution not only targets experienced self-funded experimentalists, but also theorists and master-level students who might wish to carry out such an analysis.

  17. A Garden of Possibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Carolyn Lee

    2010-01-01

    Renowned landscape architect and designer Charles Jencks recently visited CERN along with the architect of the Globe, Hervé Dessimoz, to investigate the possibility of creating a cosmic-inspired garden at the entrance to the Laboratory.   Left to right: Charles Jencks, Peter Higgs, Rolf Heuer in the garden of cosmic speculation. Photo credit: University of Edinburgh/Maverick photo agency Charles Jencks is a master at designing whimsical, intriguing outdoor spaces that hold a much deeper meaning than just an interesting view. His Garden of Cosmic Speculation at his home in Scotland uses designs recalling cosmic forces, DNA, organic cells, spirals of time, black holes and the Universe, made with landform, plants, sculpture and water to re-shape the natural landscape. One of the possible symbols for CERN that came to his mind was the cosmic uroborus, an ancient Egyptian symbol of a snake eating its own tail dating back to 1600 BC. “Many scientists have discussed this as a poss...

  18. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  19. The fuel cell; development and possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rijnsoever, J.W.M.

    Activities on fuel cells and fuel cell development in the USA and Japan are surveyed. Possibilities for large scale application are mentioned. Attention is given to efficiency and environmental aspects. There are no problems about hazardous emissions. Besides electric power some heat is generated, which is not always a disadvantage. In many cases both are useful products. (A.V.)

  20. Possible limits of plasma linear colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, F.

    2017-07-01

    Plasma linear colliders have been proposed as next or next-next generation energy-frontier machines for high-energy physics. I investigate possible fundamental limits on energy and luminosity of such type of colliders, considering acceleration, multiple scattering off plasma ions, intrabeam scattering, bremsstrahlung, and betatron radiation. The question of energy efficiency is also addressed.

  1. Market possibilities for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hektor, B.

    1992-01-01

    The market for biofuels in Sweden after introduction of a proposed CO 2 -tax on fossil fuels is forecast. The competition between biofuels, fossil fuels and electricity is described for important market segments such as: Paper industry, Sawmills, Other energy-intensive industry, Power and heat producers, small Heat producers, and for Space heating of one-family houses. A market increase of the use of biofuels is probable for the segment small (district) heating centrals, 10 TWh in the next ten year period and even more during a longer period. Other market segments will not be much affected. An increased use of biofuels in paper and pulp industry will not influence the fuel market, since the increase will happen in the industry's normal lumber purchase. (2 figs., 18 tabs.)

  2. Efficient shortcut techniques in evanescently coupled waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Koushik; Sarma, Amarendra K.

    2016-10-01

    Shortcut to Adiabatic Passage (SHAPE) technique, in the context of coherent control of atomic systems has gained considerable attention in last few years. It is primarily because of its ability to manipulate population among the quantum states infinitely fast compared to the adiabatic processes. Two methods in this regard have been explored rigorously, namely the transitionless quantum driving and the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant approach. We have applied these two methods to realize SHAPE in adiabatic waveguide coupler. Waveguide couplers are integral components of photonic circuits, primarily used as switching devices. Our study shows that with appropriate engineering of the coupling coefficient and propagation constants of the coupler it is possible to achieve efficient and complete power switching. We also observed that the coupler length could be reduced significantly without affecting the coupling efficiency of the system.

  3. Renewable resources - future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Martin H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Renewable Energy and Related Greenhouse Gas Abatement Technologies (ACRE), its technologies, commercial relationships and markets. The relevance of ACRE to developing country communities which lack reliable, adequate power supplies, is discussed. The opportunities for mutual collaboration between Australia and the developing countries in the application of renewable energy have never been stronger. Renewable energy promises real advantages to those who deploy it wisely, as well as significant job creation. Education at all level together with operational training, public awareness of what is possible and increased system reliability, are also vital ingredients for acceptance of these new technologies. They underpin successful commercialisation. The author concludes with the hope for a united international cooperative approach to the development of the renewable energy industry. (author)

  4. Batch efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwickerath, Ulrich; Silva, Ricardo; Uria, Christian, E-mail: Ulrich.Schwickerath@cern.c, E-mail: Ricardo.Silva@cern.c [CERN IT, 1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-04-01

    A frequent source of concern for resource providers is the efficient use of computing resources in their centers. This has a direct impact on requests for new resources. There are two different but strongly correlated aspects to be considered: while users are mostly interested in a good turn-around time for their jobs, resource providers are mostly interested in a high and efficient usage of their available resources. Both things, the box usage and the efficiency of individual user jobs, need to be closely monitored so that the sources of the inefficiencies can be identified. At CERN, the Lemon monitoring system is used for both purposes. Examples of such sources are poorly written user code, inefficient access to mass storage systems, and dedication of resources to specific user groups. As a first step for improvements CERN has launched a project to develop a scheduler add-on that allows careful overloading of worker nodes that run idle jobs.

  5. ep possibility for ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of adding an electron ring to ISABELLE is discussed in terms of cost, physics goals, count rate estimates, the detector requirements, and the possibility of producing intermediate bosons. The purpose of adding an electron ring to ISABELLE must be considered to be the study of e + p → e + x, e - p → νx, and e + p → anti νx. Other processes, such as W production, are less interesting for an ep ring than for a pp ring. However, there may be other new particles--such as leptonic quarks--that only turn up here. These processes are, however, exciting. In a 30 day run at L = 10 32 cm -2 sec -1 300 neutrino events are expected at q 2 > 5000 GeV 2 where the propagator is expected to be less than 1 / 4 . Thus the value of the mass in the propagator can be measured to 5%. The ep cross section would be measured over the momentum transfer range 1 2 2 ). This range is large enough that a logarithmic deviation from scaling can be distinguished easily from a power law approach to scaling

  6. Dimensions of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, K.V.

    1992-01-01

    In this address the author describes three dimensions of energy efficiency in order of increasing costs: conservation, resource and technology substitution, and changes in economic structure. He emphasizes the importance of economic rather than environmental rationales for energy efficiency improvements in developing countries. These countries do not place high priority on the problems of global climate change. Opportunities for new technologies may exist in resource transfer, new fuels and, possibly, small reactors. More research on economic and social impacts of technologies with greater sensitivity to user preferences is needed

  7. Measuring efficiency in logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Milovan Andrejić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic market and environmental changes greatly affect operating of logistics systems. Logistics systems have to realize their activities and processes in an efficient way. The main objective of this paper is to analyze different aspects of efficiency measurement in logistics and to propose appropriate models of measurement. Measuring efficiency in logistics is a complex process that requires consideration of all subsystems, processes and activities as well as the impact of various financial, operational, environmental, quality and other factors. The proposed models have a basis in the Data Envelopment Analysis method. They could help managers in decision making and corrective actions processes. The tests and results of the model show the importance of input and output variables selection.

  8. Bandwidth efficient coding

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, John B

    2017-01-01

    Bandwidth Efficient Coding addresses the major challenge in communication engineering today: how to communicate more bits of information in the same radio spectrum. Energy and bandwidth are needed to transmit bits, and bandwidth affects capacity the most. Methods have been developed that are ten times as energy efficient at a given bandwidth consumption as simple methods. These employ signals with very complex patterns and are called "coding" solutions. The book begins with classical theory before introducing new techniques that combine older methods of error correction coding and radio transmission in order to create narrowband methods that are as efficient in both spectrum and energy as nature allows. Other topics covered include modulation techniques such as CPM, coded QAM and pulse design.

  9. Possible climates on terrestrial exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, F; Leconte, J

    2014-04-28

    What kind of environment may exist on terrestrial planets around other stars? In spite of the lack of direct observations, it may not be premature to speculate on exoplanetary climates, for instance, to optimize future telescopic observations or to assess the probability of habitable worlds. To begin with, climate primarily depends on (i) the atmospheric composition and the volatile inventory; (ii) the incident stellar flux; and (iii) the tidal evolution of the planetary spin, which can notably lock a planet with a permanent night side. The atmospheric composition and mass depends on complex processes, which are difficult to model: origins of volatiles, atmospheric escape, geochemistry, photochemistry, etc. We discuss physical constraints, which can help us to speculate on the possible type of atmosphere, depending on the planet size, its final distance for its star and the star type. Assuming that the atmosphere is known, the possible climates can be explored using global climate models analogous to the ones developed to simulate the Earth as well as the other telluric atmospheres in the solar system. Our experience with Mars, Titan and Venus suggests that realistic climate simulators can be developed by combining components, such as a 'dynamical core', a radiative transfer solver, a parametrization of subgrid-scale turbulence and convection, a thermal ground model and a volatile phase change code. On this basis, we can aspire to build reliable climate predictors for exoplanets. However, whatever the accuracy of the models, predicting the actual climate regime on a specific planet will remain challenging because climate systems are affected by strong positive feedbacks. They can drive planets with very similar forcing and volatile inventory to completely different states. For instance, the coupling among temperature, volatile phase changes and radiative properties results in instabilities, such as runaway glaciations and runaway greenhouse effect.

  10. Efficient HVAC. New products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Jung is responding to the challenge of energy efficiency, ease of operation and economic profitability in all of its solutions for the tertiary sector, whether for newly constructed buildings or refurbishments, for full management of the electrical system or the partial control of lighting, HVAC, mood settings, access control, etc., for the bedrooms or specific areas of the building. In the specific case of hotels, Jung offers each a custom-made solution in line with its possibilities and objectives. (Author)

  11. Efficiency of scanning automatons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkundenkov, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    Investigated are the methods for improving the efficiency of the picture processing system based on an automatic scanner. Discussed are two types of such a system. In the first case the system contains both automatic and semi-automatic scanners. In the second case the system includes only the automatic scanners with the man-to-computer dialog facilities. For analyzing the role of the automatic scanner and the role of the operator in the processing system use is made of the processing system balance equation. It is proved that the picture processing system should be designed in two steps. The first step should, by all means, insure high efficiency in processing but the high capacity is not obligatory. The second step is aimed at higher capacity along with high efficiency. So, such a two-step designing makes it possible to solve the problem of higher capacity and lesser cost of picture processing

  12. Energy efficiency; Energieffektivisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-15

    The Low Energy Panel will halve the consumption in buildings. The Panel has proposed a halving of consumption in the construction within 2040 and 20 percent reduction in the consumption in the industry within 2020. The Panel consider it as possible to gradually reduce consumption in buildings from the current level of 80 TWh with 10 TWh in 2020, 25 TWh in 2030 and 40 TWh in 2040. According the committee one such halving can be reached by significant efforts relating to energy efficiency, by greater rehabilitations, energy efficiency in consisting building stock and stricter requirements for new construction. For the industry field the Panel recommend a political goal to be set at least 20 percent reduction in specific energy consumption in the industry and primary industry beyond general technological development by the end of 2020. This is equivalent to approximately 17 TWh based on current level of activity. The Panel believes that a 5 percent reduction should be achieved by the end of 2012 by carrying out simple measures. The Low Energy Panel has since March 2009 considered possibilities to strengthen the authorities' work with energy efficiency in Norway. The wide complex panel adds up proposals for a comprehensive approach for increased energy efficiency in particular in the building- and industry field. The Panel has looked into the potential for energy efficiency, barriers for energy efficiency, assessment of strengths and weaknesses in the existing policy instruments and members of the Panel's recommendations. In addition the report contains a review of theoretical principles for effects of instruments together with an extensive background. One of the committee members have chosen to take special notes on the main recommendations in the report. (AG)

  13. Phentermine, sibutramine and affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hoyoung; Sohn, Hyunjoo; Chung, Seockhoon

    2013-04-01

    A safe and effective way to control weight in patients with affective disorders is needed, and phentermine is a possible candidate. We performed a PubMed search of articles pertaining to phentermine, sibutramine, and affective disorders. We compared the studies of phentermine with those of sibutramine. The search yielded a small number of reports. Reports concerning phentermine and affective disorders reported that i) its potency in the central nervous system may be comparatively low, and ii) it may induce depression in some patients. We were unable to find more studies on the subject; thus, it is unclear presently whether phentermine use is safe in affective disorder patients. Reports regarding the association of sibutramine and affective disorders were slightly more abundant. A recent study that suggested that sibutramine may have deleterious effects in patients with a psychiatric history may provide a clue for future phentermine research. Three explanations are possible concerning the association between phentermine and affective disorders: i) phentermine, like sibutramine, may have a depression-inducing effect that affects a specific subgroup of patients, ii) phentermine may have a dose-dependent depression-inducing effect, or iii) phentermine may simply not be associated with depression. Large-scale studies with affective disorder patients focusing on these questions are needed to clarify this matter before investigation of its efficacy may be carried out and it can be used in patients with affective disorders.

  14. Radiation Absorption and Use Efficiency of Common Mallow (Malva sylvestris L. Affected by Different Sources of Organic, Biological and Chemical Fertilizers and Intercropping with Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. R Razavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Over one billion people, mostly in developing countries, use medicinal plants for the whole life or some part of it or at least prefer them to the synthetic drugs. According to a study of World Bank, trade in medicinal plants will have a share of over 5$ trillion in global trade in 2050. Growing population during last century and the demand for harvesting medicinal plants from natural areas, particularly those which commonly used, endangered these species with the risk of extinction. Common Mallow (Malva sylvestris L. is a medicinal plant commonly used as a natural remedy and other industries e.g. cosmetic industry. On the other hand, negative impacts of synthetic agricultural inputs on human health, the need for producing healthy commodities, replacing chemical agricultural inputs with some environmental friendly ones, and paying attention to new concepts like sustainability, lead agroecologists to introduce ecologically alternatives to farmers, in order to be replaced with chemical fertilizers. Using Plant growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR and fungi symbiotic with many vascular plants, is one of these alternatives. Mechanistic crop growth analysis including radiation absorption and use efficiency was compiled in agricultural researches from 1950, farther than classical analysis. Thus, the goal of this experiment is to evaluate radiation absorption and use efficiency of Common Mallow under the effect of different sources of biological, chemical and organic fertilizers and intercropping with Fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum-graecum. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted as a split plot design based on RCBD with three replications at the research farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during the growing season of 2013. The main plot factor had two levels: 1-application of cattle manure and 2-no application of cattle manure, and the sub plot factor had seven levels as: 1- Nitroxin®, 2-Sulphur solubilizing bacteria (SSB 3

  15. Energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marvillet, Ch.; Tochon, P.; Mercier, P.

    2004-01-01

    World energy demand is constantly rising. This is a legitimate trend, insofar as access to energy enables enhanced quality of life and sanitation levels for populations. On the other hand, such increased consumption generates effects that may be catastrophic for the future of the planet (climate change, environmental imbalance), should this growth conform to the patterns followed, up to recent times, by most industrialized countries. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, development of new energy sources and energy efficiency are seen as the major challenges to be taken up for the world of tomorrow. In France, the National Energy Debate indeed emphasized, in 2003, the requirement to control both demand for, and offer of, energy, through a strategic orientation law for energy. The French position corresponds to a slightly singular situation - and a privileged one, compared to other countries - owing to massive use of nuclear power for electricity generation. This option allows France to be responsible for a mere 2% of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. Real advances can nonetheless still be achieved as regards improved energy efficiency, particularly in the transportation and residential-tertiary sectors, following the lead, in this respect, shown by industry. These two sectors indeed account for over half of the country CO 2 emissions (26% and 25% respectively). With respect to transportation, the work carried out by CEA on the hydrogen pathway, energy converters, and electricity storage has been covered by the preceding chapters. As regards housing, a topic addressed by one of the papers in this chapter, investigations at CEA concern integration of the various devices enabling value-added use of renewable energies. At the same time, the organization is carrying through its activity in the extensive area of heat exchangers, allowing industry to benefit from improved understanding in the modeling of flows. An activity evidenced by advances in energy efficiency for

  16. Spatial working memory load affects counting but not subitizing in enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Tomonari; Kumada, Takatsune

    2011-08-01

    The present study investigated whether subitizing reflects capacity limitations associated with two types of working memory tasks. Under a dual-task situation, participants performed an enumeration task in conjunction with either a spatial (Experiment 1) or a nonspatial visual (Experiment 2) working memory task. Experiment 1 showed that spatial working memory load affected the slope of a counting function but did not affect subitizing performance or subitizing range. Experiment 2 showed that nonspatial visual working memory load affected neither enumeration efficiency nor subitizing range. Furthermore, in both spatial and nonspatial memory tasks, neither subitizing efficiency nor subitizing range was affected by amount of imposed memory load. In all the experiments, working memory load failed to influence slope, subitizing range, or overall reaction time. These findings suggest that subitizing is performed without either spatial or nonspatial working memory. A possible mechanism of subitizing with independent capacity of working memory is discussed.

  17. Supernovae Discovery Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Colin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract:We present supernovae (SN) search efficiency measurements for recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) surveys. Efficiency is a key component to any search, and is important parameter as a correction factor for SN rates. To achieve an accurate value for efficiency, many supernovae need to be discoverable in surveys. This cannot be achieved from real SN only, due to their scarcity, so fake SN are planted. These fake supernovae—with a goal of realism in mind—yield an understanding of efficiency based on position related to other celestial objects, and brightness. To improve realism, we built a more accurate model of supernovae using a point-spread function. The next improvement to realism is planting these objects close to galaxies and of various parameters of brightness, magnitude, local galactic brightness and redshift. Once these are planted, a very accurate SN is visible and discoverable by the searcher. It is very important to find factors that affect this discovery efficiency. Exploring the factors that effect detection yields a more accurate correction factor. Further inquires into efficiency give us a better understanding of image processing, searching techniques and survey strategies, and result in an overall higher likelihood to find these events in future surveys with Hubble, James Webb, and WFIRST telescopes. After efficiency is discovered and refined with many unique surveys, it factors into measurements of SN rates versus redshift. By comparing SN rates vs redshift against the star formation rate we can test models to determine how long star systems take from the point of inception to explosion (delay time distribution). This delay time distribution is compared to SN progenitors models to get an accurate idea of what these stars were like before their deaths.

  18. Offsetting efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.

    1995-01-01

    Whichever way the local distribution company (LDC) tries to convert residential customers to gas or expand their use of it, the process itself has become essential for the natural gas industry. The amount of gas used by each residential customer has been decreasing for 25 years -- since the energy crisis of the early 1970s. It's a direct result of better-insulated homes and more-efficient gas appliances, and that trend is continuing. So, LDCs have a choice of either finding new users and uses for gas, or recognizing that their throughput per customer is going to continue declining. The paper discusses strategies that several gas utilities are using to increase the number of gas appliances in the customer's homes. These and other strategies keep the gas industry optimistic about the future of the residential market: A.G.A. has projected that by 2010 demand will expand, from 1994's 5.1 quadrillion Btu (quads) to 5.7 quads, even with continued improvements in appliance efficiency. That estimate, however, will depend on the industry-s utilities and whether they keep converting, proselytizing, persuading and influencing customers to use more natural gas

  19. Productivity and energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovins, H. [Rocky Mountain Inst., Snowmass, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Energy efficient building and office design offers the possibility of significantly increased worker productivity. By improving lighting, heating and cooling, workers can be made more comfortable and productive. An increase of 1 percent in productivity can provide savings to a company that exceed its entire energy bill. Efficient design practices are cost effective just from their energy savings. The resulting productivity gains make them indispensable. This paper documents eight cases in which efficient lighting, heating, and cooling have measurably increased worker productivity, decreased absenteeism, and/or improved the quality of work performed. They also show that efficient lighting can measurably increase work quality by removing errors and manufacturing defects. The case studies presented include retrofit of existing buildings and the design of new facilities, and cover a variety of commercial and industrial settings. Each case study identifies the design changes that were most responsible for increased productivity. As the eight case studies illustrate, energy efficient design may be one of the least expensive ways for a business to improve the productivity of its workers and the quality of its product. (author). 15 refs.

  20. 影响反刍动物氮素利用效率和排放的营养实践%Nutrition Practices for Affecting Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency and Emission of Ruminants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王笑笑; 李若玺; 梅洋; 高腾云

    2016-01-01

    涉及奶牛生产系统和粪肥应用的总氨氮排放参数是影响农业源氨氮排放的最敏感的参数,如何通过精细饲养来提高奶牛的氮素泌乳转化效率,降低奶牛生产系统的氮素排放,对于缓解奶牛生产系统面临的经济与环保双重压力具有重要意义。本文从饲粮的氮素水平、碳水化合物类型、氨基酸补饲、饲料添加剂、饲粮精粗比以及新型饲料原料等方面对影响反刍动物氮素排放的研究进行了综述,同时介绍了康奈尔净碳水化合物-蛋白质体系( CNCPS)模型及其改进对奶牛场氮排放估测的影响以及尿素转运蛋白对反刍动物氮素代谢的影响。%The parameters related to the excretion of total ammonia nitrogen from dairy cows and manure appli-cations are the most sensitive technical ones influencing agricultural ammonia emission. How to improve the ni-trogen conversion efficiency to lactation of dairy cows through reasonable precision feeding and decrease the ni-trogen emission of dairy production system are significant for the dairy production to alleviate the economic and environmental pressures. This review summarized the nutrition practices for reducing nitrogen emission of rumi-nants from the aspect of dietary nitrogen levels, carbohydrate types, amino acid supplementation, feed addi-tives, dietary concentrate to forage ratio, new feed raw materials and so on. Simultaneously, the effects of Cornell net carbohydrate and protein system ( CNCPS) model and its improvement on dairy farm nitrogen esti-mation as well as the effects of urea transporter on nitrogen metabolism of ruminants were also reviewed.

  1. Resíduos vegetais na superfície do solo afetam a acidez do solo e a eficiência do herbicida flumetsulam Soil surface residues affect soil acidity and flumetsulam herbicid efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sergio do Amaral

    2000-10-01

    being greater. The decrease of the exchangeable aluminum was related to both mechanisms: organic complexation and soil pH increase. Soil surface crop residues increased the herbicide efficiency, specially when this was applied over vicia residues, wich had greater increased in the soil pH.

  2. Analysis of energy end-use efficiency policy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collado, Rocío Román; Díaz, María Teresa Sanz

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of saving measures and energy efficiency entails the need to evaluate achievements in terms of energy saving and spending. This paper aims at analysing the effectiveness and economic efficiency of energy saving measures implemented in the Energy Savings and Efficiency Action Plan (2008–2012) (EAP4+) in Spain for 2010. The lack of assessment related to energy savings achieved and public spending allocated by the EAP4+ justifies the need of this analysis. The results show that the transport and building sectors seem to be the most important, from the energy efficiency perspective. Although they did not reach the direct energy savings that were expected, there is scope for reduction with the appropriate energy measures. For the effectiveness indicator, the best performance are achieved by public service, agricultural and fisheries and building sectors, while in terms of energy efficiency per monetary unit, the best results are achieved by transport, industry and agriculture sectors. Authors conclude that it is necessary that central, regional and local administrations will get involved, in order to get better estimates of the energy savings achieved and thus to affect the design of future energy efficiency measures at the lowest possible cost to the citizens. - Highlights: • Energy end-use efficiency policy is analysed in terms of energy savings and spending. • The energy savings achieved by some measures are not always provided. • The total energy savings achieved by transport and building sectors are large. • Different levels of administration should get involved in estimating energy savings.

  3. Parallel Plate Chambers and their possible use in LHC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arefiev, A.; Bencze, Gy.L.; Bizzeti, A.; Choumilov, E.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Dajko, G.; Fenyvesi, A.; Ferrando, A.; Fouz, M.C.; Iglesias, A.; Ivochkin, V.; Maggi, F.; Malinin, A.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Meschini, M.; Molnar, J.; Pojidaev, V.; Szoncso, F.; Wulz, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Present status of Parallel Plate Chambers (PPC) is reviewed. After a description of this detector, results from tests concerning PPC efficiency uniformity, radiation hardness, and behaviour in electromagnetic calorimetry are presented. Some possible utilizations in LHC experiments are mentioned. (orig.)

  4. Energy efficiency in Swedish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Lundgren, Tommy; Zhou, Wenchao

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses energy efficiency in Swedish industry. Using unique firm-level panel data covering the years 2001–2008, the efficiency estimates are obtained for firms in 14 industrial sectors by using data envelopment analysis (DEA). The analysis accounts for multi-output technologies where undesirable outputs are produced alongside with the desirable output. The results show that there was potential to improve energy efficiency in all the sectors and relatively large energy inefficiencies existed in small energy-use industries in the sample period. Also, we assess how the EU ETS, the carbon dioxide (CO_2) tax and the energy tax affect energy efficiency by conducting a second-stage regression analysis. To obtain consistent estimates for the regression model, we apply a modified, input-oriented version of the double bootstrap procedure of Simar and Wilson (2007). The results of the regression analysis reveal that the EU ETS and the CO_2 tax did not have significant influences on energy efficiency in the sample period. However, the energy tax had a positive relation with the energy efficiency. - Highlights: • We use DEA to estimate firm-level energy efficiency in Swedish industry. • We examine impacts of climate and energy policies on energy efficiency. • The analyzed policies are Swedish carbon and energy taxes and the EU ETS. • Carbon tax and EU ETS did not have significant influences on energy efficiency. • The energy tax had a positive relation with energy efficiency.

  5. Analyses of Blood Bank Efficiency, Cost-Effectiveness and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hwai-Tai Chen

    In view of the increasing costs of hospital care, it is essential to investigate methods to improve the labor efficiency and the cost-effectiveness of the hospital technical core in order to control costs while maintaining the quality of care. This study was conducted to develop indices to measure efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and the quality of blood banks; to identify factors associated with efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and quality; and to generate strategies to improve blood bank labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Indices developed in this study for labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness were not affected by patient case mix and illness severity. Factors that were associated with labor efficiency were identified as managerial styles, and organizational designs that balance workload and labor resources. Medical directors' managerial involvement was not associated with labor efficiency, but their continuing education and specialty in blood bank were found to reduce the performance of unnecessary tests. Surprisingly, performing unnecessary tests had no association with labor efficiency. This suggested the existence of labor slack in blood banks. Cost -effectiveness was associated with workers' benefits, wages, and the production of high-end transfusion products by hospital-based donor rooms. Quality indices used in this study included autologous transfusion rates, platelet transfusion rates, and the check points available in an error-control system. Because the autologous transfusion rate was related to patient case mix, severity of illness, and possible inappropriate transfusion, it was not recommended to be used for quality index. Platelet-pheresis transfusion rates were associated with the transfusion preferences of the blood bank medical directors. The total number of check points in an error -control system was negatively associated with government ownership and workers' experience. Recommendations for improving labor efficiency and cost

  6. Technical- and environmental-efficiency analysis of irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab, Pakistan using data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Asmat; Perret, Sylvain R

    2014-08-01

    Cotton cropping in Pakistan uses substantial quantities of resources and adversely affects the environment with pollutants from the inputs, particularly pesticides. A question remains regarding to what extent the reduction of such environmental impact is possible without compromising the farmers' income. This paper investigates the environmental, technical, and economic performances of selected irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab to quantify the sustainability of cotton farming and reveal options for improvement. Using mostly primary data, our study quantifies the technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies of different farm sizes. A set of indicators has been computed to reflect these three domains of efficiency using the data envelopment analysis technique. The results indicate that farmers are broadly environmentally inefficient; which primarily results from poor technical inefficiency. Based on an improved input mix, the average potential environmental impact reduction for small, medium, and large farms is 9, 13, and 11 %, respectively, without compromising the economic return. Moreover, the differences in technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies between small and medium and small and large farm sizes were statistically significant. The second-stage regression analysis identifies that the entire farm size significantly affects the efficiencies, whereas exposure to extension and training has positive effects, and the sowing methods significantly affect the technical and environmental efficiencies. Paradoxically, the formal education level is determined to affect the efficiencies negatively. This paper discusses policy interventions that can improve the technical efficiency to ultimately increase the environmental efficiency and reduce the farmers' operating costs.

  7. Energy efficiency: utopia or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    In its 2006 allocution the world council on the energy WEC, analyzes the role of the energy efficiency in the energy life cycle. In spite of different objectives followed by the developing and developed countries, implement a world energy efficiency economy is a challenge possible by the cooperation.The WEC is an ideal forum for the information and experience exchange. (A.L.B.)

  8. Rad52 SUMOylation affects the efficiency of the DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmannova, Veronika; Eckert-Boulet, Nadine; Arneric, Milica

    2010-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) plays a vital role in DNA metabolic processes including meiosis, DNA repair, DNA replication and rDNA homeostasis. HR defects can lead to pathological outcomes, including genetic diseases and cancer. Recent studies suggest that the post-translational modification by ...

  9. Enzymatic biodiesel synthesis. Key factors affecting efficiency of the process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczesna Antczak, Miroslawa; Kubiak, Aneta; Antczak, Tadeusz; Bielecki, Stanislaw [Institute of Technical Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 4/10, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    Chemical processes of biodiesel production are energy-consuming and generate undesirable by-products such as soaps and polymeric pigments that retard separation of pure methyl or ethyl esters of fatty acids from glycerol and di- and monoacylglycerols. Enzymatic, lipase-catalyzed biodiesel synthesis has no such drawbacks. Comprehension of the latter process and an appreciable progress in production of robust preparations of lipases may soon result in the replacement of chemical catalysts with enzymes in biodiesel synthesis. Engineering of enzymatic biodiesel synthesis processes requires optimization of such factors as: molar ratio of substrates (triacylglycerols: alcohol), temperature, type of organic solvent (if any) and water activity. All of them are correlated with properties of lipase preparation. This paper reports on the interplay between the crucial parameters of the lipase-catalyzed reactions carried out in non-aqueous systems and the yield of biodiesel synthesis. (author)

  10. Organisation development possibilities of Croatian electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toljan, I.

    1999-01-01

    Organisational development of the European Union members' power sector is defined by the obligatory legislative document D irectives 92/96 EC, 19.12.1996 . The development goal is a natural monopoly decrease and introduction of competition, having in mind environmental protection which will enable sustainable development of each member. This would provide the European economy to become globally more competitive and to protect macro economic stability more efficiently. The EU members are allowed to make their own decisions regarding the mode of implementation they will use to establish the organisation of electricity market. Non-members of EU are also involved in defining future changes. Developed non-members are more efficient in that process and promptly follow all changes. Transition countries, among them also Croatia, are trying to adjust to such demands, with different success. The aim of this paper is analyse the current Croatian power system and the possibilities if its modernisation. (author)

  11. Oxidative stress negatively affects human sperm mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Pinto Provenzano, Sara; Montagna, Daniela Domenica; Coppola, Lamberto; Zara, Vincenzo

    2013-07-01

    To correlate the level of oxidative stress in serum and seminal fluid and the level of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation with sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was evaluated with a polarographic assay of oxygen consumption carried out in hypotonically treated sperm cells. A possible relationship between sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, the level of oxidative stress, and the level of sperm DNA fragmentation was investigated. Sperm motility was positively correlated with mitochondrial respiration but negatively correlated with oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was negatively affected by oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Our data indicate that sperm mitochondrial respiration is decreased in patients with high levels of reactive oxygen species by an uncoupling between electron transport and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. This reduction in mitochondrial functionality might be 1 of the reasons responsible for the decrease in spermatozoa motility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal desalination in GCC and possible development

    KAUST Repository

    Darwish, Mohamed Ali

    2013-01-01

    The Water Desalination and Reuse Center in King Abdulla University of Science and Technology, in Saudi Arabia, held a workshop on thermal desalination on the 11th and 12th of March, 2013. This paper was presented as part of a lecture at the workshop. It presents the status and possible developments of the two main thermal desalination systems processing large quantities of seawater in the Gulf Cooperation Council, multi-stage flash, and thermal vapor compression systems. Developments of these systems were presented to show how these systems are competing with the more energy-efficient seawater reverse osmosis desalting. © 2013 © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermal desalination in GCC and possible development

    KAUST Repository

    Darwish, Mohamed Ali

    2013-06-28

    The Water Desalination and Reuse Center in King Abdulla University of Science and Technology, in Saudi Arabia, held a workshop on thermal desalination on the 11th and 12th of March, 2013. This paper was presented as part of a lecture at the workshop. It presents the status and possible developments of the two main thermal desalination systems processing large quantities of seawater in the Gulf Cooperation Council, multi-stage flash, and thermal vapor compression systems. Developments of these systems were presented to show how these systems are competing with the more energy-efficient seawater reverse osmosis desalting. © 2013 © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  14. Economics of appliance efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiedemann, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    Several significant developments occurred in 2001 that affect the impact of market transformation programs. This paper presented and applied an econometric approach to the identification and estimation of market models for refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers and room air conditioners. The purpose of the paper was to understand the impact of energy conservation policy developments on sales of energy efficient appliances. The paper discussed the approach with particular reference to building a database of sales and drivers of sales using publicly available information; estimation of the determinants of sales using econometric models; and estimation of the individual impacts of prices, gross domestic product (GDP) and energy conservation policies on sales using regression results. Market and policy developments were also presented, such as change a light, save the world promotion; the California energy crisis; and the Pacific Northwest drought induced hydro power shortage. It was concluded that an increase in GDP increased the sales of both more efficient and less efficient refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers, and room air conditioners. An increase in electricity price increased sales of Energy Star refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers, and room air conditioners. 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  15. A Possible Twin: The 1960s Twin Study Revisited/Twin Research: Twin-to-Twin Heart Transplantation; Distinguishing Monozygotic Twins; Twin Conceptions via Oocyte Donation; Factors Affecting Craniofacial Traits/In the Media: Triplet Delivery in the UK; Conjoined Twins and the Concept of Self; Colombian Twin Trainers; Skin Grafting to Save an Identical Co-Twin; Lack of Physical Flaws in Dolly the Cloned Sheep; Possible Conjoined Twins of Opposite-Sex; Passing of the Remaining Twin From the World's Longest Separated Pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2018-04-01

    This article begins with the story of a 51-year-old Los Angeles, California man, Justin Goldberg, whose daughter caught a glimpse of his striking look-alike at a popular market. Many people have so-called doppelgängers, but this occurrence is especially intriguing - the individual in question, born in New York City in the mid-1960s to an unwed mother, was an adoptee placed by the Louise Wise Adoption Agency. This agency, under the guidance of a prominent psychiatrist, decided to place twins in separate homes. Some of these twin children were part of a controversial child development study that was hidden from them and their parents. Next, recent and current twin research on heart transplantation, distinguishing monozygotic co-twins, twin conceptions via oocyte donation and factors affecting craniofacial traits are summarized. The article concludes with highlights on twins in the media, specifically, a triplet delivery in the United Kingdom, self-concept and consciousness in conjoined twins, Colombian twin trainers, skin grafting to save an identical co-twin, lack of physical flaws in Dolly the cloned sheep, possible opposite-sex conjoined twins, and the passing of the remaining twin from the world's longest separated pair.

  16. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The automatic analysis of affect is a relatively new and challenging multidisciplinary research area that has gained a lot of interest over the past few years. The research and development of affect recognition systems has opened many opportunities for improving the interaction between man and

  17. The RAE and University Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, John

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates effects of the new British funding formula for universities, based on the research assessment exercise (RAE). Compares effects of the RAE on two contrasting universities and finds the RAE has dramatically affected university organization, teaching, and research. RAE may have increased efficiency in teaching and research but encourages…

  18. Testing the Informational Efficiency on the Romanian Financial Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Murgea

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The classical models of portfolio selection could not be applied on a market were the efficient market hypothesis is not valid (at least in a “weak” sense. The aim of this paper is to enlighten the difficulties of portfolio construction in a financial market with institutional and structural deficiencies, like the Romanian one, and to propose an alternative approach to the problem. The main features of our analysis are: 1 an empirical test for the efficient market hypothesis in the Romanian financial market case; 2 a critical distinction between the concept of “risk” and the concept of “incertitude”; 3 the use of the individual yield/risk ratio versus the market one as a selection variable; 4 the renouncement at the use in the selection procedure of an “non-risky” asset; 5 an example of the proposed selection procedure. The output of this approach could be resumed by the thesis that, even in a situation when the financial market is affected by severe disfunctions, there is a possibility to build an “optimal” portfolio based on a yield-risk arbitrage inside an efficiency frontier and to obtain a “good” schema of an financial placement, in spite of the limited possibilities for a efficient portfolio management.

  19. Testing the Informational Efficiency on the Romanian Financial Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Dima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical models of portfolio selection could not be applied on a market were the efficient market hypothesis is not valid (at least in a "weak" sense. The aim of this paper is to enlighten the difficulties of portfolio construction in a financial market with institutional and structural deficiencies, like the Romanian one, and to propose an alternative approach to the problem. The main features of our analysis are: 1 an empirical test for the efficient market hypothesis in the Romanian financial market case; 2 a critical distinction between the concept of "risk" and the concept of "incertitude"; 3 the use of the individual yield/risk ratio versus the market one as a selection variable; 4 the renouncement at the use in the selection procedure of an "non-risky" asset; 5 an example of the proposed selection procedure. The output of this approach could be resumed by the thesis that, even in a situation when the financial market is affected by severe disfunctions, there is a possibility to build an "optimal" portfolio based on a yield-risk arbitrage inside an efficiency frontier and to obtain a "good" schema of an financial placement, in spite of the limited possibilities for a efficient portfolio management.

  20. Carbon Efficient Building Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellervo Matilainen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the Finnish legislation have focused on energy use and especially on energy used for heating space in buildings. However, in many cases this does not lead to the optimal concept in respect to minimizing green house gases. This paper studies how CO2 emission levels are affected by different measures to reduce energy use in buildings. This paper presents two real apartment buildings with different options of energy efficiency and power sources. The calculations clearly show that in the future electricity and domestic hot water use will have high importance in respect to energy efficiency, and therefore also CO2 equivalent (eq emissions. The importance increases when the energy efficiency of the building increases. There are big differences between average Finnish production and individual power plants; CO2 eq emissions might nearly double depending on the energy source and the power plant type. Both a building with an efficient district heating as a power source, and a building with ground heat in addition to nuclear power electricity as a complimentary electricity source performed very similarly to each other in respect to CO2 eq emissions. However, it is dangerous to conclude that it is not important which energy source is chosen. If hypothetically, the use of district heating would dramatically drop, the primary energy factor and CO2 eq emissions from electricity would rise, which in turn would lead to the increase of the ground heat systems emissions. A problem in the yearly calculations is that the fact that it is very important, sometimes even crucial, when energy is needed, is always excluded.

  1. Possibilities of computer tomography in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vymazal, J.; Bauer, J.

    1983-01-01

    Computer tomography was performed in 41 patients with multiple sclerosis, the average age of patients being 40.8 years. Native examinations were made of 17 patients, examinations with contrast medium of 19, both methods were used in the examination of 5 patients. In 26 patients, i.e. in almost two-thirds, cerebral atrophy was found, in 11 of a severe type. In 9 patients atrophy affected only the hemispheres, in 16 also the stem and cerebellum. The stem and cerebellum only were affected in 1 patient. Hypodense foci were found in 21 patients, i.e. more than half of those examined. In 9 there were multiple foci. In most of the 19 examined patients the hypodense changes were in the hemispheres and only in 2 in the cerebellum and brain stem. No hyperdense changes were detected. The value and possibilities are discussed of examinations by computer tomography multiple sclerosis. (author)

  2. Unconventional, High-Efficiency Propulsors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul

    1996-01-01

    The development of ship propellers has generally been characterized by search for propellers with as high efficiency as possible and at the same time low noise and vibration levels and little or no cavitation. This search has lead to unconventional propulsors, like vane-wheel propulsors, contra-r...

  3. USAGE OF BELARUS TRANSIT POSSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Antioushenya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been determined that sustainable and safety operation of a transport system and also efficient functioning of transport infrastructure depend on introduction of modern systems and technologies of passenger and load transportation  with usage of logistic approaches. The paper cites results of marketing investigations testifying to availability of the potential for formation of a transport and logistic system in the Republic. A conclusion has been made that realization of the mentioned key ideas shall allow efficiently to integrate in the world economic system.

  4. Taeniasis: A possible cause of ileal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settesoldi, Alessia; Tozzi, Alessandro; Tarantino, Ottaviano

    2017-12-16

    Taenia spp. are flatworms of the class Cestoda, whose definitive hosts are humans and primates. Human infestation (taeniasis) results from the ingestion of raw meat contaminated with encysted larval tapeworms and is considered relatively harmless and mostly asymptomatic. Anemia is not recognized as a possible sign of taeniasis and taeniasis-induced hemorrhage is not described in medical books. Its therapy is based on anthelmintics such praziquantel, niclosamide or albendazole. Here we describe a case of acute ileal bleeding in an Italian man affected with both Taenia spp. infestation resistant to albendazole and Helicobacter pylori -associated duodenal ulcers.

  5. Pterins and affective disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hoekstra (Rocco)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe pathophysiology of affective disorders is largely unknown. In patients with various affective disorders the activity of pterins and related amino acids were investigated before and after clinical treatment. In particular the bipolar affective disorder could be

  6. Rheolytic thrombectomy: possibilities and first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatevakhin, I I; Shipovskiĭ, V N; Zolkin, V N; Nechaev, A I; Piliposian, E A

    2008-01-01

    following TIPS in all the cases we managed to completely restore patency of the shunts. Later on, three patients were found to have developed rethrombosis of the shunt. In two cases after RTE, haemolysis was observed to ensue, followed by the development of acute renal insufficiency. The remote results were followed up in the group of the patients with thromboses of the arteries and shunts of the lower limbs within the terms up to 24 months. Patency of the remodelled segments was preserved in seventeen patients (77.3%), and five patients (22.7%) were subjected to amputation of the affected lower extremity. Hence, the initial experience gained in using RTE gives certain hopes in treatment of patients presenting with acute arterial and venous thromboses of various localization, owing to its due safety, minimally invasive nature, and high efficiency, especially in patients with severe accompanying pathology.

  7. How to make competitiveness possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penna, Martim Afonso

    1993-01-01

    The reorganization of the electric sector formulated by a recently-voted low should permit the adoption of an energy policy that will minimize the general costs without consequences to the environment and the quality of life of the population,. To reach this goal, the electricity suppliers should reduce costs, increase their quality and efficiency and should have tariffs compared to the international standards

  8. Rearing environment affects development of the immune system in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inman, C.F.; Haverson, K.; Konstantinov, S.R.; Jones, P.H.; Harris, C.; Smidt, H.; Miller, B.; Bailey, M.; Stokes, C.

    2010-01-01

    P>Early-life exposure to appropriate microbial flora drives expansion and development of an efficient immune system. Aberrant development results in increased likelihood of allergic disease or increased susceptibility to infection. Thus, factors affecting microbial colonization may also affect

  9. Possibilities of spatial hearing testing in occupational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Przewoźny

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunctions of the organ of hearing are a significant limitation in the performance of occupations that require its full efficiency (vehicle driving, army, police, fire brigades, mining. Hearing impairment is associated with poorer understanding of speech and disturbed sound localization that directly affects the worker’s orientation in space and his/her assessment of distance and location of other workers or, even most importantly, of dangerous machines. Testing sound location abilities is not a standard procedure, even in highly specialized audiological examining rooms. It should be pointed out that the ability to localize sounds which are particularly loud, is not directly associated with the condition of the hearing organ, but is rather considered an auditory function of a higher level. Disturbances in sound localization are mainly associated with structural and functional disturbances of the central nervous system and occur also in patients with normal hearing when tested with standard methods. The article presents different theories explaining the phenomenon of sound localization, such as interaural differences in time, interaural differences in sound intensity, monaural spectrum shape and the anatomical and physiological basis of these processes. It also describes methods of measurement of disturbances in sound localization which are used in Poland and around the world, also by the author of this work. The author analyzed accessible reports on sound localization testing in occupational medicine and the possibilities of using such tests in various occupations requiring full fitness of the organ of hearing.

  10. Quantum interferences reconstruction with low homodyne detection efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Martina; Randi, Francesco [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Titimbo, Kelvin; Zimmermann, Klaus; Benatti, Fabio [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Kourousias, Georgios; Curri, Alessio [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy); Floreanini, Roberto [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Parmigiani, Fulvio [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy); University of Cologne, Institute of Physics II, Cologne (Germany); Fausti, Daniele [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    Optical homodyne tomography consists in reconstructing the quantum state of an optical field from repeated measurements of its amplitude at different field phases (homodyne data). The experimental noise, which unavoidably affects the homodyne data, leads to a detection efficiency η<1. The problem of reconstructing quantum states from noisy homodyne data sets prompted an intense scientific debate about the presence or absence of a lower homodyne efficiency bound (η>0.5) below which quantum features, like quantum interferences, cannot be retrieved. Here, by numerical experiments, we demonstrate that quantum interferences can be effectively reconstructed also for low homodyne detection efficiency. In particular, we address the challenging case of a Schroedinger cat state and test the minimax and adaptive Wigner function reconstruction technique by processing homodyne data distributed according to the chosen state but with an efficiency η>0.5. By numerically reproducing the Schroedinger's cat interference pattern, we give evidence that quantum state reconstruction is actually possible in these conditions, and provide a guideline for handling optical tomography based on homodyne data collected by low efficiency detectors. (orig.)

  11. Flightless mutants in the melon fly and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their possible role in the sterile insect release method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombs, S.D.; Saul, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    Two new mutants that affect adult wing morphology and render the flies incapable of flight.sbd.bubble wing (bw) in the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), and small wing (sw) in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).sbd.are described. Both mutants have variable expression and are caused by autosomal, recessive genes. We discuss the possible role of these alleles in constructing genetic sex sorting systems to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the sterile insect release method

  12. Evaluation of mammogram compression efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przelaskowski, A.; Surowski, P.; Kukula, A.

    2005-01-01

    Lossy image coding significantly improves performance over lossless methods, but a reliable control of diagnostic accuracy regarding compressed images is necessary. The acceptable range of compression ratios must be safe with respect to as many objective criteria as possible. This study evaluates the compression efficiency of digital mammograms in both numerically lossless (reversible) and lossy (irreversible) manner. Effective compression methods and concepts were examined to increase archiving and telediagnosis performance. Lossless compression as a primary applicable tool for medical applications was verified on a set 131 mammograms. Moreover, nine radiologists participated in the evaluation of lossy compression of mammograms. Subjective rating of diagnostically important features brought a set of mean rates given for each test image. The lesion detection test resulted in binary decision data analyzed statistically. The radiologists rated and interpreted malignant and benign lesions, representative pathology symptoms, and other structures susceptible to compression distortions contained in 22 original and 62 reconstructed mammograms. Test mammograms were collected in two radiology centers for three years and then selected according to diagnostic content suitable for an evaluation of compression effects. Lossless compression efficiency of the tested coders varied, but CALIC, JPEG-LS, and SPIHT performed the best. The evaluation of lossy compression effects affecting detection ability was based on ROC-like analysis. Assuming a two-sided significance level of p=0.05, the null hypothesis that lower bit rate reconstructions are as useful for diagnosis as the originals was false in sensitivity tests with 0.04 bpp mammograms. However, verification of the same hypothesis with 0.1 bpp reconstructions suggested their acceptance. Moreover, the 1 bpp reconstructions were rated very similarly to the original mammograms in the diagnostic quality evaluation test, but the

  13. Benefits for whom? Energy efficiency within the efficient market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chello, Dario

    2015-01-01

    How should the lack of an efficient energy market affect the design of energy efficiency policies and their implementation? What the consequences of an inefficient energy market on end users’ behaviour? This article tries to give an answer to such questions, by considering the decision making of domestic users following a few fundamental concepts of behavioural economics. The mechanism of price formation in the market, with particular reference to the internal energy market in Europe, will be examined and we will show that price remains the inflexible attribute in making an energy choice. Then, some conclusions will be addressed to policy makers on how to overcome the barriers illustrated.

  14. Efficient running of steam generator trims fuel cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, M.; Eltouny, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    E scaling energy prices have led to drastic changes in the operating philosophy of the worldwide industry. About 50% of the thermal energy in industry is being consumed in steam boilers. The new energy reduction programs that have been adopted in egypt draw attention to the boilers, not only to trim energy consumption and improve the production of steam but also to save as much money as possible in doing it. Organization for energy planning (OEP) has started a program for 'Boiler efficiency improvement' in industry since 2 years. The program aimed at performing energy audits in a selective number of industries in both public and private sectors using fire tube boilers produced locally by El Nasr company. As a result of audits an evaluation of performance of this type of boilers was,performed. The energy profiles and the common problems affecting the efficiency of boilers were determined. Energy conservation opportunities (ECO) were identified. 9 figs

  15. Another Possibility for Boyajian's Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    The unusual light curve of the star KIC 8462852, also known as Tabbys star or Boyajians star, has puzzled us since its discovery last year. A new study now explores whether the stars missing flux is due to internal blockage rather than something outside of the star.Mysterious DipsMost explanations for the flux dips of Boyajians star rely on external factors, like this illustrated swarm of comets. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Boyajians star shows unusual episodes of dimming in its light curve by as much as 20%, each lasting a few to tens of days and separated by periods of typically hundreds of days. In addition, archival observations show that it has gradually faded by roughly 15% over the span of the last hundred years. What could be causing both the sporadic flux dips and the long-term fading of this odd star?Explanations thus far have varied from mundane to extreme. Alien megastructures, pieces of smashed planets or comets orbiting the star, and intervening interstellar medium have all been proposed as possible explanations but these require some object external to the star. A new study by researcher Peter Foukal proposes an alternative: what if the source of the flux obstruction is the star itself?Analogy to the SunDecades ago, researchers discovered that our own stars total flux isnt as constant as we thought. When magnetic dark spots on the Suns surface block the heat transport, the Suns luminosity dips slightly. The diverted heat is redistributed in the Suns interior, becoming stored as a very small global heating and expansion of the convective envelope. When the blocking starspot is removed, the Sun appears slightly brighter than it did originally. Its luminosity then gradually relaxes, decaying back to its original value.Model of a stars flux after a 1,000-km starspot is inserted at time t = 0 and removed at time t = ts at a depth of 10,000 km in the convective zone. The stars luminosity dips, then becomes brighter than originally, and then gradually decays. [Foukal

  16. Current puzzles and future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, S.

    1982-02-01

    Four current puzzles and several future experimental possibilities in high-energy nuclear collision research are discussed. These puzzles are (1) entropy, (2) hydrodynamic flow, (3) anomalon, and (4) particle emission at backward angles in proton-nucleus collisions. The last one seems not to be directly related to the subject of the present school. But it is, because particle emission into the region far beyond the nucleon-nucleon kinematical limit is an interesting subject common for both proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions, and the basic mechanism involved is strongly related in these two cases. Future experimental possibilities are described which include: (1) possibilities of studying multibaryonic excited states, (2) applications of neutron-rich isotopes, and (3) other needed experimental tasks. 72 references

  17. Drones in cadastral applications: possible uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio C. Ferrante

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The considerable diffusion of technologies that use drones as the carriers that make it possible to bring photogrammetric sensors to heights for the acquisition of territorial information is arousing interest in a production sector, that of geotopographic information, which like other sectors, needs to find new stimulus in order to renew itself. The paper here proposed does not seek to analyse technical innovations of the sector, innovations allowed by new and increasingly efficient aircraft, by new sensors, by increasingly high performance software and more or less restrictive limitations imposed by the norms, all activities and regulations in rapid and, in some respects, tumultuous innovation and subject to other and more specific detail. The authors instead wish to propose a reflection on the actual possibilities, in the not too distant future, of the transposition of these technologies within the sphere of cadastral activities, so as to allow the economies and positive findings on photogrammetric measurement within the procedures of conservation of the Italian Cadastre. This work was drawn up within the framework of the activities of the CAT-APR Project, a scientific collaboration between the Revenue Agency and the Dipartimento Interateneo di Scienze, Progetto e Politiche del Territorio - Inter-university Department of Sciences, Project and Land Policies - (DIST of the Polytechnic and the University of Turin, which has as its object the testing of surveying methodologies based on the use of remotely piloted aerial vehicles designed for possible use in the cadastral field.

  18. Triphenylmethane, a possible moderator material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hügle, Th.; Mocko, M.; Hartl, M.A.; Daemen, L.L.; Muhrer, G.

    2014-01-01

    New challenges in neutron scattering result in an increased demand in novel moderator concepts. The most direct way to address the problem would be to change the moderator material itself. However the range of available neutron moderator materials is small. In this paper, we discuss triphenylmethane, a possible moderator material especially promising for cold neutron moderator applications. Our investigations include a parallel experimental and theoretical approach ranging from cross-section measurements and inelastic neutron spectroscopy to molecular modeling. -- Highlights: • Triphenylmethane as a potential moderator material is discussed. • Parallel theoretical and experimental approach. • Possibly very useful for cold neutrons

  19. Neutrino geophysics - a future possibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, Dezsoe

    1988-01-01

    The history and basic properties of the neutrinos are reviewed. A new idea: neutrino tomography of the Earth interior is discussed in detail. The main contradiction: the high pervasivity of neutrinos, which makes possible the transillumination of the Earth, and the gigantic technical problems of detection caused by the small cross section is pointed out. The proposed possibilities of detection (radiowaves, sound, muons and Cherenkov light emitted by neutrinos) are described. Proposed futuristic technical ideas (mobile muon detectors aboard trucks, floating proton accelerators of 100 km circumference, moving in the ocean) and supposed geological aims (Earth's core, internal density anomalies, quarries of minerals and crude oil) are discussed. (D.Gy.) 5 figs

  20. Review on possible gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, Xavier E

    2005-01-01

    This is an updated introductory review of 2 possible gravitational anomalies that has attracted part of the Scientific community: the Allais effect that occur during solar eclipses, and the Pioneer 10 spacecraft anomaly, experimented also by Pioneer 11 and Ulysses spacecrafts. It seems that, to date, no satisfactory conventional explanation exist to these phenomena, and this suggests that possible new physics will be needed to account for them. The main purpose of this review is to announce 3 other new measurements that will be carried on during the 2005 solar eclipses in Panama and Colombia (Apr. 8) and in Portugal (Oct.15)

  1. Affective cycling in thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapp, A.

    1988-01-01

    Depression in an elderly man with primary recurrent unipolar depression responded to radioactive iodine treatment of a thyrotoxic nodule, without the addition of psychotropic medications. Two months later, manic symptoms developed concomitant with the termination of the hyperthyroid state secondary to the radioactive iodine treatment. Clinical implications of these findings in relation to the possible mechanism of action of thyroid hormones on affective cycling are discussed

  2. Energy efficiency fallacies revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    A number of governments including that of the UK subscribe to the belief that a national program devoted to raising energy efficiency throughout the economy provides a costless - indeed profitable - route to meeting international environmental obligations. This is a seductive policy. It constitutes the proverbial free lunch - not only avoiding politically unpopular measures like outlawing, taxing or rationing offending fuels or expanding non-carboniferous sources of energy like nuclear power but doing so with economic benefit. The author of this contribution came to doubt the validity of this solution when it was offered as a way of mitigating the effect of the OPEC price hikes of the 1970s, maintaining that economically justified improvement in energy efficiency led to higher levels of energy consumption at the economy-wide level than in the absence of any efficiency response. More fundamentally, he argues that there is no case for preferentially singling out energy, from among all the resources available to us, for efficiency maximisation. The least damaging policy is to determine targets, enact the restrictive measures needed to curb consumption, and then leave it to consumers - intermediate and final - to reallocate all the resources available to them to best effect subject to the new enacted constraints and any others they might be experiencing. There is no reason to suppose that it is right for all the economic adjustment following a new resource constraint to take the form of improvements in the productivity of that resource alone. As many others have argued, any action to impose resource constraint entails an inevitable economic cost in the shape of a reduction in production and consumption possibilities: there would be no free lunch. In the last few years debate about the validity of these contentions has blossomed, especially under the influence of writers on the western side of the Atlantic. In this contribution the author outlines the original arguments

  3. European regional efficiency and geographical externalities: a spatial nonparametric frontier analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramajo, Julián; Cordero, José Manuel; Márquez, Miguel Ángel

    2017-10-01

    This paper analyses region-level technical efficiency in nine European countries over the 1995-2007 period. We propose the application of a nonparametric conditional frontier approach to account for the presence of heterogeneous conditions in the form of geographical externalities. Such environmental factors are beyond the control of regional authorities, but may affect the production function. Therefore, they need to be considered in the frontier estimation. Specifically, a spatial autoregressive term is included as an external conditioning factor in a robust order- m model. Thus we can test the hypothesis of non-separability (the external factor impacts both the input-output space and the distribution of efficiencies), demonstrating the existence of significant global interregional spillovers into the production process. Our findings show that geographical externalities affect both the frontier level and the probability of being more or less efficient. Specifically, the results support the fact that the spatial lag variable has an inverted U-shaped non-linear impact on the performance of regions. This finding can be interpreted as a differential effect of interregional spillovers depending on the size of the neighboring economies: positive externalities for small values, possibly related to agglomeration economies, and negative externalities for high values, indicating the possibility of production congestion. Additionally, evidence of the existence of a strong geographic pattern of European regional efficiency is reported and the levels of technical efficiency are acknowledged to have converged during the period under analysis.

  4. Student Leadership: Challenges and Possibilities*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In my attempt to adhere to the request that I provide an interpretation of the theme for the session,. 'Critical Engagement, Innovation and Inclusivity', and cognisant of the primary audience,. I weave student leadership responsibilities, challenges and possibilities into the address. Events since the plenary address ...

  5. Student Leadership: Challenges and Possibilities*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I weave student leadership responsibilities, challenges and possibilities into the ... The conundrum of fee-free higher education is not an abstract concept floating ... You can choose to engage with the issue by expressing yourself in many ways. .... Africa today, such as Recognition of Prior Learning (SAQA, 2004), we very ...

  6. Machiavelli’s Possibility Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Holler, Manfred J.; Marciano, Alain

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the thesis that in Arrow’s Possibility Theorem the dictator (merely) serves as a solution to the logical problem of aggregating preference while Machiavelli’s dictator, the Prince, has the historical function to bring order into a world of chaos and thus make society ready for the implementation of a republican structure.

  7. Possible nonvanishing mass of photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, Hiromichi; Namiki, Mikio; Yamanaka, Yoshiya; Yokoyama, Kan-ichi.

    1985-05-01

    From phenomenological and field-theoretical considerations on photon mass, we first show that photon is not limitted to being massless at the present stage. Next we illustrate a possibility of formulating a local field theory for massive photons coupled with nonconserved currents, while we cannot do for massless photons. (author)

  8. Student Leadership: Challenges and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Willy

    2016-01-01

    In my attempt to adhere to the request that I provide an interpretation of the theme for the session, "Critical Engagement, Innovation and Inclusivity", and cognisant of the primary audience, I weave student leadership responsibilities, challenges and possibilities into the address. Events since the plenary address have however…

  9. On probability-possibility transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klir, George J.; Parviz, Behzad

    1992-01-01

    Several probability-possibility transformations are compared in terms of the closeness of preserving second-order properties. The comparison is based on experimental results obtained by computer simulation. Two second-order properties are involved in this study: noninteraction of two distributions and projections of a joint distribution.

  10. Fungal interactions reduce carbon use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maynard, Daniel S.; Crowther, Thomas W.; Bradford, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    The efficiency by which fungi decompose organic matter contributes to the amount of carbon that is retained in biomass vs. lost to the atmosphere as respiration. This carbon use efficiency (CUE) is affected by various abiotic conditions, including temperature and nutrient availability.

  11. Non-parametric analysis of technical efficiency: factors affecting efficiency of West Java rice farms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázdik, František

    -, č. 286 (2006), s. 1-45 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rice farms * data envelopment analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp286.pdf

  12. Possibility of Coal Combustion Product Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyński, Tomasz Z.; Król, Maciej R.

    2018-03-01

    This paper is focused on properties of materials known as green binders. They can be used to produce aluminium-siliceous concrete and binders known also as geopolymers. Comparing new ecological binders to ordinary cements we can see huge possibility of reducing amount of main greenhouse gas which is emitted to atmosphere by 3 to even 10 times depending of substrate type used to new green material production. Main ecological source of new materials obtaining possibility is to use already available products which are created in coal combustion and steel smelting process. Most of them are already used in many branches of industry. They are mostly civil engineering, chemistry or agriculture. Conducted research was based on less popular in civil engineering fly ash based on lignite combustion. Materials were examine in order to verify possibility of obtaining hardened mortars based of different factors connected with process of geopolymerization, which are temperature, amount of reaction reagent and time of heat treatment. After systematizing the matrices for the basic parameters affecting the strength of the hardened mortars, the influence of the fly ash treatment for increasing the strength was tested.

  13. The smallest possible thermal machines and the foundations of thermodynamics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    In my talk I raise the question on the fundamental limits to the size of thermal machines – refrigerators, heat pumps and work producing engines - and I will present the smallest possible ones. I will then discuss the issue of a possible complementarity between size and efficiency and show that even the smallest machines could be maximally efficient and I will also present a new point of view over what is work and what do thermal machines actually do. Finally I will present a completely new approach to the foundations of thermodynamics that follows from these results.

  14. Endometriosis and possible inflammation markers

    OpenAIRE

    Meng-Hsing Wu; Kuei-Yang Hsiao; Shaw-Jenq Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Infiltration of peritoneal macrophages and local proinflammatory mediators in the peritoneal microenvironment affect ovarian function and pelvic anatomy leading to the symptoms and signs of endometriosis. The identification of a noninvasive marker for endometriosis will facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of this disease. This review provides an overview of local microenvironmental inflammation and systemic inflam...

  15. Endometriosis and possible inflammation markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hsing Wu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Infiltration of peritoneal macrophages and local proinflammatory mediators in the peritoneal microenvironment affect ovarian function and pelvic anatomy leading to the symptoms and signs of endometriosis. The identification of a noninvasive marker for endometriosis will facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of this disease. This review provides an overview of local microenvironmental inflammation and systemic inflammation biomarkers in endometriosis.

  16. Possible State Approaches to Cryptocurrencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lansky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptocurrencies are a type of digital currencies that are relying on cryptographic proofs for confirmation of transactions. Cryptocurrencies usually achieve a unique combination of three features: ensuring limited anonymity, independence from central authority and double spending attack protection. No other group of currencies, including fiat currencies, has this combination of features. We will define cryptocurrency ownership and account anonymity. We will define cryptocurrency ownership and account anonymity. We will introduce a classification of the types of approaches to regulation of cryptocurrencies by various individual countries. We will present the risks that the use of cryptocurrencies involves and the possibilities of prevention of those risks. We will present the possible use of cryptocurrencies for the benefit of the state. The conclusion addresses the implications of adoption of a cryptocurrency as a national currency.

  17. MOBILE LEARING - possibilities and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes that SMS (Short Message Service) or text-messaging on mobile devices can serve as an extension or possible create another way of learning traditional scholastic content normally associated with the school system. The potential of the SMS is still very much untapped and largely...... unexplored as a pedagogical tool within teaching and learning domains. This paper is inspired by locative arts and ongoing experiments regarding not only SMS based pervasive systems, but also the more complex usage of mobile devices in investigating urban living conditions and experiences both existentially...... and as an exploring mechanism of the cityscape. This paper aims at discussing the potentials and outlining the possibilities for mobile learning in the traditional school setting. The complexity of these issues derives not only from the traditions of the school system, but also from diverging perspectives...

  18. A possible radiocancerogenesis explanatory model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenta, G.; Trenta, A.

    2000-01-01

    When the radiation induced experimental tumours are plotted against a wide range of doses, then no or not statistical significant values are seen at low doses ( c that an exposed cell will exceed all the three stages is: P c =(1-e -kD ) 3 , where k is the single mutation probability per unit of dose. The mutation process is opposed by the protection and repair mechanisms, like: the antioxidative systems, the repairing enzymatic systems, and so on. They are certainly very efficient being able to repair the numerous 'natural' mutations every day a living organism is subject. It is also plausible to think the lower the dose, the more efficient the repair will be. If this is the case, supposing α being the not exposed cell repairing efficiency, and assuming a Poisson distribution for the repair process of irradiated cell as a function of dose, then the repairing probability in the exposed cell would be: P n =αe -βD , where β is a suitable constant. Therefore the probability the cell will not be repaired is: P r =1-αe -βD . In a living organism among the pool of irradiated cells just the ones escaping the apoptosis and the killing immune system will reach the final malignancy stage. This total killing efficiency increases with increasing doses, following a Poisson distribution in accordance with the radiobiological evidence of the surviving probability: P s =e -D/D0 . Where D 0 is the lethal 50% dose. The final probability of a cell to became cancerous in a living organism because of the radiation will be: P=(1-e -kD ) 3 (1-αe -βD )e -D/D0 . As could be seen the curve shape is in accordance with the experimental probability of neoplastic transformation per irradiated cell and, if reasonable and suitable values for: k, α, β and D 0 are assumed, bearing in mind the number of cells a human organism is constituted, realistic values for the radiation induced cancer risk are obtained. (author)

  19. Enzymes: The possibility of production and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronijević Živomir B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are biological catalysts with increasing application in the food pharmaceutical, cosmetic, textile and chemical industry. They are also important as reagents in chemical analysis, leather fabrications and as targets for the design of new drugs. Keeping in mind the growing need to replace classical chemical processes by alternative ones, because of ever growing environmental pollution, it is important that enzyme and other biotechnological processes are economical. Therefore, price decrease and stability and enzyme preparation efficiency increase are required more and more. This paper presents a short review of methods for yield increase and the improvement of the quality of enzyme products as commercial products, as well as a review of the possibilities of their application.

  20. Trigeneration Possibilities of Implementation at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnl-Kinel, J

    1999-01-01

    Optimum distribution of energy supply systems can result in large savings in industrial facilities and production devices. Identifying the configuration of existing equipment and its loading, in order to minimize total energy consumption and at the same time satisfy given load demands, has very high payback potential. This paper presents the principle of trigeneration, the technology that can offer a highly efficient way of converting primary fuel (gas, oil) into useful energy as electricity, heat and chilled water simultaneously. It explains different factors that must be considered for such systems to be economically feasible. Some examples of industrial trigeneration systems are analysed and discussed to illustrate the application. Also the possibility of implementation of trigeneration at CERN is discussed, taking into account the existing cogeneration system, power supply structure, secondary energy demands, as well as future developments in our energy policy.

  1. The prize - what's possible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, K.J.

    1999-05-01

    Recovery factors for comparable reservoirs are often from 10 to 20% higher in the USA than elsewhere. The reason is the relatively low cost of drilling and work-over combined with the high revenue per barrel for the producers in the States. This implies that elsewhere the scope for additional recovery will frequently be of the same order as the noted differences. Another motivation for re-evaluation of older fields is the realisation that irreducible oil saturations measured on core plugs in the past were generally much too high. Consequently, the assumed sweep efficiencies were much too high also, resulting in little incentive for infill drilling or recompletion. A number of factors stimulate the re-evaluation of remaining reserves. Reliable through-casing logging makes the poorly swept zones visible. Detailed structural definition is often possible with 3D seismic. New drilling techniques, like short radius horizontal side tracks, allow economic recompletions of old wells. (Author)

  2. Possibilities of sustainable development the RTB Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeković Slavka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analysis the medium and long-term perspectives, framework and considered possibilities of sustainable development of RTB "Bor" in the period of transition. It is today the giant in the best quality copper production in the Balkans. In the paper are elaborated the problems of privatization, debt, investment, growth of copper production from own mines (and imported raw, opening of new mines, economical efficiency of production, environmental problems and impacts in the last time. The RTB "Bor" is a serious hot spot in Serbia. Unsustainability trends and process are identified, as follows: open-pit waste dumps, flotation tailings, mining and processing waste waters, air pollution; inefficiency useful of energy water and other inputs in copper complex; trans boundary character of emissions of dust; environmental degradation and quality of wide area and ecologically highly risk, etc.

  3. Freedom: A Promise of Possibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

    2015-10-01

    The idea of freedom as a promise of possibility is explored in this column. The core concepts from a research study on considering tomorrow (Bunkers, 1998) coupled with humanbecoming community change processes (Parse, 2003) are used to illuminate this notion. The importance of intentionality in human freedom is discussed from both a human science and a natural science perspective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Bioplastics: Development, Possibilities and Difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Karpušenkaitė, Aistė; Varžinskas, Visvaldas

    2014-01-01

    New possible ways of plastics manufacture and waste treatment are being searched when trying to tackle the problems related to the growth of waste quantities and decline in non-renewable resources. Presently, the most promising and effective way to solve the mentioned problems is production of bioplastics, but its way to recognition is very slow. One of the barriers is the absence of clear and united opinion throughout the EU Arising new discussions about biodegradable and biobased plastics w...

  5. new possibilities in diagnostic radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Scheel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) allows a non-invasive diffusion-based tissue characterization and thus offers completely new possibilities in the field of diagnostic radiology. On the one hand, this method allows an improved detection of pathological changes at the microstructural level, which are frequently not detectable in conventional MRI methods. On the other hand new strategies for therapy monitoring are feasible by quantification of diffusion parameters (e.g., Parallel, Radial and Mean ...

  6. Steel refining possibilities in LF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, M. G.; Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Ciobanu, F.; Pollifroni, M.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the main possibilities for steel refining in Ladle Furnace (LF). These, are presented: steelmaking stages, steel refining through argon bottom stirring, online control of the bottom stirring, bottom stirring diagram during LF treatment of a heat, porous plug influence over the argon stirring, bottom stirring porous plug, analysis of porous plugs disposal on ladle bottom surface, bottom stirring simulation with ANSYS, bottom stirring simulation with Autodesk CFD.

  7. The Possibilities of Network Sociality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Michele

    Technologically networked social forms are broad, extensive and in demand. The rapid development and growth of web 2.0, or the social web, is evidence of the need and indeed hunger for social connectivity: people are searching for many and varied ways of enacting being-together. However, the ways in which we think of, research and write about network(ed) sociality are relatively recent and arguably restricted, warranting further critique and development. This article attempts to do several things: it raises questions about the types of sociality enacted in contemporary techno-society; critically explores the notion of the networked individual and the focus on the individual evident in much of the technology and sociality literature and asks questions about the place of the social in these discussions. It argues for a more well-balanced and multilevelled approach to questions of sociality in networked societies. The article starts from the position that possibilities enabled/afforded by the technologies we have in place have an effect upon the ways in which we understand being in the world together and our possible actions and futures. These possibilities are more than simply supplementary; in many ways they are transformative. The ways in which we grapple with these questions reveals as much about our understandings of sociality as it does about the technologies themselves.

  8. CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR EFFICIENCY CALCULATION WITH HEAT TRANSFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu Dragan

    2017-12-01

    and manner under which the efficiency itself is calculated. The paper  presents a more robust approach to measuring efficiency, regardless of the heat transfer within the turbomachinery itself. Possible applications of the study may range from cold-start regime simulation to the optimization of inter-cooling setup or even flow angle control without mechanically actuated OGV

  9. Energy efficient data centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-03-30

    Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed

  10. Efficiency improvements in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Transport, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-11-15

    Transport of people, personal belongings and goods in private cars is fundamental to our modern welfare society and economic growth, and has grown steadily over many decades. Motor fuels have been based almost entirely on crude oil for the last century. During the last couple of decades engines built for traditional fuels have become more advanced and efficient; this has reduced fuel consumption by around 40% and emissions by more than 90%. Only in the same time span have we begun to look at alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethanol and biogas can replace petrol and diesel, and in recent years algae have shown a new potential for diesel fuel. Natural gas is also becoming an interesting fuel due to its large resources worldwide. GTL, CTL and BTL are liquid fuels produced from solid or gaseous sources. GTL and CTL are expensive to produce and not very CO{sub 2}-friendly, but they are easily introduced and need little investment in infrastructure and vehicles. DME is an excellent fuel for diesel engines. Methanol and DME produced from biomass are among the most CO{sub 2}-reducing fuels and at the same time the most energy-efficient renewable fuels. Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are currently fuelled by hydrogen, but other fuels are also possible. There are, however, several barriers to the implementation of fuel cell vehicles. In particular, a hydrogen infrastructure needs to be developed. Electric vehicles (EVs) have the advantage that energy conversion is centralised at the power plant where it can be done at optimum efficiency and emissions. EVs have to be charged at home, and also away from home when travelling longer distances. With an acceptable fast charging infrastructure at least 85% of the one-car families in Denmark could be potential EV customers. Range improvements resulting from better batteries are expected to create a large increase in the number of EVs in Denmark between 2020 and 2030. The hybrid electric vehicle

  11. A guide on the possibilities of increasing energy efficiency in the meat, poultry, beverage and milk processing industries; Guide sur les possibilites d'accroitre l'efficacite energetique dans l'industrie de la transformation des viandes et volailles, des boissons et de la transformation du lait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    This guide describes the potential for improving the energy effectiveness in Canada's agri-food sector. The food and beverage sector is the second most important manufacturing sector in Canada. Since 1998, it has ranked as the highest employer in Quebec. The sector consumed 29,050 GWh of electricity in 1998, with greenhouse gas emissions in the order of 3,800 kilo tonnes. This report referred specifically to energy efficiency measures that can be adopted for meat and poultry processing, beverage and beer production, and milk processing. It also described some aspects of water management, which is closely associated with energy use in the agri-food sector which relies heavily on hot water. Some promising innovations that can lead to energy savings include membrane filtration, cold pasteurization, heat pumps, and mechanical vapour re-compression. Energy savings can also be achieved through innovative heat transfer methods such as infrared, microwave, and heat induction. refs., tabs., figs.

  12. 78 FR 37995 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... in receiving information that relates to the relationship between energy efficiency and indoor air... higher energy efficiencies, and possible enforcement models for the DOE standards. This notice identifies...

  13. Mediatised affective activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reestorff, Camilla Møhring

    2014-01-01

    bodies by addressing affective registers. The mediatised ‘affective environment’ (Massumi, 2009) cues bodies and generates spreadability, yet it also produces disconnections. These disconnections might redistribute the ‘economy of recognizability’ (Butler and Athanasiou, 2013); however, the Femen...

  14. Modeling of venturi scrubber efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Jerry W.; Noll, Kenneth E.; Davis, Wayne T.

    The parameters affecting venturi scrubber performance have been rationally examined and modifications to the current modeling theory have been developed. The modified model has been validated with available experimental data for a range of throat gas velocities, liquid-to-gas ratios and particle diameters and is used to study the effect of some design parameters on collection efficiency. Most striking among the observations is the prediction of a new design parameter termed the minimum contactor length. Also noted is the prediction of little effect on collection efficiency with increasing liquid-to-gas ratio above about 2ℓ m-3. Indeed, for some cases a decrease in collection efficiency is predicted for liquid rates above this value.

  15. Mind the gap. Quantifying principal-agent problems in energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    Energy efficiency presents a unique opportunity to address three energy-related challenges in IEA member countries: energy security, climate change, and economic development. Yet an energy-efficiency gap exists between actual and optimal energy use. That is, significant cost-effective energy efficiency potential is wasted because market barriers prevent countries from achieving optimal levels. Market barriers take many forms, from inadequate access to capital, isolation from price signals, information asymmetry, and split-incentives. Though many studies have reported the existence of such market barriers, none so far have attempted to quantify the magnitude of their effect on energy use and efficiency. This publication is an unprecedented attempt to quantify the size of one of the most pervasive barriers to energy efficiency - principal-agent problems, or in common parlance, variations on the 'landlord-tenant' problem. In doing so, the book provides energy analysts and economists with unique insights into the amount of energy affected by principal-agent problems. Using an innovative methodology applied to eight case studies (covering commercial and residential sectors, and end-use appliances) from five different IEA countries, the analysis identifies over 3,800 PJ/year of affected energy use - that is, around 85% of the annual energy use of a country the size of Spain. The book builds on these findings to suggest a range of possible policy solutions that can reduce the impact of principal-agent problems and help policy makers mind the energy efficiency gap.

  16. Pharmacogenomics and migraine: possible implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, P.; Brosen, K.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics is the science about how inherited factors influence the effects of drugs. Drug response is always a result of mutually interacting genes with important modifications from environmental and constitutional factors. Based on the genetic variability of pharmacokinetic and in some...... cases pharmacodynamic variability we mention possible implications for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine. Pharmacogenomics will most likely in the future be one part of our therapeutic armamentarium and will provide a stronger scientific basis for optimizing drug therapy on the basis...

  17. Amazon: Is Profitability a Possibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett DENNIS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, companies seem to all be following the same trend; growth in profitability at all cost. Higher profits, for the most part, leads to more investors and more potential financing. Amazon.com appears to be breaking that trend, however. Their strategy seems to be growth, but not in profits. We would like to look into how and why Amazon is growing at such a fast pace, while their profits are staying steady at a very low level. Is profitability a possibility for Amazon? We believe that a marginal increase in price could accomplish just that, with a minimal impact to consumers.

  18. Is self-regulation possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkenbus, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's increasingly prescriptive regulation of the nuclear industry can have deleterious effects, perhaps the most serious being the shift in responsibility for safety from the utility to the NRC. Several factors account for this type of regulation including the nature and structure of the nuclear industry, public opinion and bureaucratic incentives, and the nature of the technology itself. The opportunities to create heightened industry self-regulation (performance-based regulation) deserve further examination. The key to self-regulation is to structure incentives so that it is clearly within the nuclear utilities' interests to build and operate nuclear power facilities in the safest manner possible. 27 references

  19. Satellite communications: possibilities and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hine, M.

    1986-01-01

    Communication links via satellites are becoming available in Europe, both as part of the development of the telephone system and as special services aimed at data traffic. They offer the possibility of speeds between 50 kb/s and 2 Mb/s, without the problems and long term commitments of long distance land lines. Such links are provided by the PTT's as circuits which can be booked for variable periods, and have error rates which can be very low and well controlled. Problems in networking can arise from the satellite delay, particularly if errors occur in the local connections, and from the leased circuit and tariff philosophies of the PTT's. (Auth.)

  20. Frontier technologies to improve efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalhammer, F.R.

    1992-01-01

    The author discusses conservation technology to improve the efficiency of energy production. Although coal is seen as the largest source of fuel for producing electricity until the year 2040, the heating value of coal is expected to be increased by using Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology. Use of fuel cells to produce electricity will be a viable option only if costs can be reduced to make the technology competitive. By coupling IGCC with fuel cells it may be possible to increase total conversion efficiency of coal to electricity at 50%. Photovoltaics technology is more likely to be used in developing countries. Electric utilities target power electronics, lighting fixtures, heat pumps, plasma processing, freeze concentration and application of superconductivity as electricity end use technologies that have the most potential for efficiency improvement. The impact of these technologies in coping with the greenhouse effect was not addressed

  1. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, Bill

    1999-03-15

    On March 15, 1999, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory hosted a workshop focused on energy efficiency in Cleanroom facilities. The workshop was held as part of a multiyear effort sponsored by the California Institute for Energy Efficiency, and the California Energy Commission. It is part of a project that concentrates on improving energy efficiency in Laboratory type facilities including cleanrooms. The project targets the broad market of laboratory and cleanroom facilities, and thus cross-cuts many different industries and institutions. This workshop was intended to raise awareness by sharing case study success stories, providing a forum for industry networking on energy issues, contributing LBNL expertise in research to date, determining barriers to implementation and possible solutions, and soliciting input for further research.

  2. Future possibilities: summary of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pondrom, L.G.

    1977-01-01

    In ISABELLE, the basic machine will consist of two superconducting rings capable of storing and accelerating high currents of protons to energies up to 400 GeV, and colliding the two beams in six interactions. In order to broaden the experimental capability beyond p--p collisions, two possibilities have traditionally been considered in the past: (1) anti pp collisions, in which antiprotons are somehow stored and accelerated in one of the rings; and (2) ep collisions, in which a third ring is constructed to accelerate electrons. In the 1977 workshop, these two possibilities were reconsidered, the implications of the 400 GeV design were discussed, and some new conclusions were reached. The necessity for high luminosity in anti pp is emphasized, but a definitive best scheme for obtaining this luminosity has not been found. In ep a 20 GeV x 400 GeV combination is appealing, with electrons in a low field conventional ring in the ISABELLE tunnel. It is probably smoother to do ep and pp physics in separate running periods. Vertical crossing is preferred if the electrons are polarized. Synchrotron radiation in the intersecting region remains a problem for detailed design. Extrapolated rate estimates for interesting electromagnetic and weak processes look promising

  3. NET model coil test possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, J.; Gruenhagen, A.; Herz, W.; Jentzsch, K.; Komarek, P.; Lotz, E.; Malang, S.; Maurer, W.; Noether, G.; Ulbricht, A.; Vogt, A.; Zahn, G.; Horvath, I.; Kwasnitza, K.; Marinucci, C.; Pasztor, G.; Sborchia, C.; Weymuth, P.; Peters, A.; Roeterdink, A.

    1987-11-01

    A single full size coil for NET/INTOR represents an investment of the order of 40 MUC (Million Unit Costs). Before such an amount of money or even more for the 16 TF coils is invested as much risks as possible must be eliminated by a comprehensive development programme. In the course of such a programme a coil technology verification test should finally prove the feasibility of NET/INTOR TF coils. This study report is almost exclusively dealing with such a verification test by model coil testing. These coils will be built out of two Nb 3 Sn-conductors based on two concepts already under development and investigation. Two possible coil arrangements are discussed: A cluster facility, where two model coils out of the two Nb 3 TF-conductors are used, and the already tested LCT-coils producing a background field. A solenoid arrangement, where in addition to the two TF model coils another model coil out of a PF-conductor for the central PF-coils of NET/INTOR is used instead of LCT background coils. Technical advantages and disadvantages are worked out in order to compare and judge both facilities. Costs estimates and the time schedules broaden the base for a decision about the realisation of such a facility. (orig.) [de

  4. Possible phthalates transport into plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Jarošová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils can be contaminated by high concentrations of phthalic acid esters (PAE resulting from industrial and intensive agricultural activities. A plant receives water and substances (including pollutants from soil by means of rootage. Water solution received by the roots is distributed in particular by means of xylem. Reception by means of floem is not very considerable. Pollutants (including phthalates can be absorbed by roots either by diffusion by means of soil gas phase or soil liquid phase. Another possible way of pollutant entering into the plant is diffusion from atmosphere. Way of substance entering into the plant is decided by so called Henry constant as well as octanol-water partition coefficient. In case of phthalates, big differences between di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP reception and dioctyl phthalate reception were detected. For example, DBP can enter into the plant by means of gas as well as liquid phase while dioctyl phthalate only by gas phase.This publication summarizes fundamental knowledge on possible phthalates transport into plants.

  5. Affectivity in the Liminal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    In this paper I propose a return to the work of Arnold van Gennep, in order to briefly discuss how the terms of liminality and affectivity were always already connected. By linking the concept of liminality that van Gennep made famous to affectivity, we are actually not proposing new...... at the threshold. The paper contains three sections: a) liminality and affectivity in van Gennep’s life; b) liminality and affectivity as a theme in his work; c) liminality and affectivity as developed in the early reception of his work....

  6. Engaging in Affective Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galløe, Lotte Rannveig

    schools, the paper develops an affective-power approach drawing on Foucault’s notion of power and Whetherell’s conceptualisation of affect. The approach captures the affective dimension of governing and resistance in interactional practice that engages teachers and pupils. This enables a research focus......The paper presents how the merging of the theoretical concepts ‘Affect’ and ‘Power’ faces methodological and ethical challenges when entangled in teachers’ and pupils’ practice. Based on a study of pedagogical methods aiming to shape certain affective relations and avoid conflicts in Danish primary....... Witnessing tense conflict situations taking place I as a researcher get affected as well, and in turn affect the practice myself. Because, both the teacher, pupil, and I are well aware of my research focus on power and affect, being observed in conflictual situations contributes to pervasive shame...

  7. Comparative Analysis of Possible Designs for Flexible Distribution System Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jeremy; Knezovic, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    for achieving the most efficient utilization of these resources while meeting the forecasted load. In this paper, we present possible system design frameworks proposed for flexible distribution system operation. Critical evaluations and comparison of these models are made based on a number of key attributes...

  8. ECDIS Possibilities for BWE Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan ŽuŁkin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS development and implementation have been linked primarily to the safety of navigation. Further development allows the implementation from other aspects of navigation. This primarily pertains to the Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens (HAOP from Ballast Water Exchange (BWE and the use of ECDIS system for improving environmental protection. The paper contains an overview of important legal aspects of sea environment protection related to the Ballast Water Management (BWM Convention on global as well as on local scale. Apart from enhancing the safety of navigation, integration of the proposed tool for sea environment protection in the ECDIS with onboard ballast water system can significantly contribute to sea and sea environment protection from harmful substances. In this paper, the architecture of such system is suggested. This approach also ensures a reduction of possible consequences on ecological incidents and human errors.

  9. Possible consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Speeches of Soviet and foreign scientists at the Second Section of 2d All-UNION conference of scientists on problems of peace and prevention of nuclear war related to possible consequences of nuclear war have been considered. It is noted that production of a large amount of aerosol particles, dust, smoke and combustion products due to forest-fires, fires in cities, which change considerably atmosphere properties, will be the greatest effect of nuclear strike from the point of view of global consequencies. ''Nuclear winter'', photosynthesis suppression, plant bioproductivity weakening, long-term climate changes, ozone layer disturbance, mass and irreversible degeneration of all biosphere on the whole are great consequencies of nuclear conflict. Attention is paid to medical service, industrial accidents, radioactive fallouts consequence of radiation and other harmful factors for people in nuclear war

  10. Analysis of possible fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, H.; Kessler, G.; Engelmann, P.; Maerkl, H.; Stoll, W.

    1978-01-01

    A brief survey is presented of the most important fuel cycles. A rough analysis of fuel cycles is attempted under the aspects of proliferation, status of technical feasibility, resource conservation and waste management and the most important criteria for such an analysis are discussed. Among the multitude of potential combinations of fuel cycles and types of reactors only a few have reached a level of technical feasibility which would make them eligible for commercial implementation within the next decade. However, if, for instance, the higher proliferation resistance of a specific fuel cycle is to be utilized to diminish the worldwide proliferation hazard, that cycle would first of all have to be introduced on an industrial scale as quickly as possible. The analysis shows that the reduction of the bazard of worldwide proliferation will continue to be the objective primarily of international agreements and measures taken in the political realm. (orig.) [de

  11. Future possibilities in migraine genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Laura Aviaja; Esserlind, Ann-Louise; Olesen, Jes

    2012-01-01

    Migraine with and without aura (MA and MO, respectively) have a strong genetic basis. Different approaches using linkage-, candidate gene- and genome-wide association studies have been explored, yielding limited results. This may indicate that the genetic component in migraine is due to rare...... variants; capturing these will require more detailed sequencing in order to be discovered. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques such as whole exome and whole genome sequencing have been successful in finding genes in especially monogenic disorders. As the molecular genetics research progresses......, the technology will follow, rendering these approaches more applicable in the search for causative migraine genes in MO and MA. To date, no studies using NGS in migraine genetics have been published. In order to gain insight into the future possibilities of migraine genetics, we have looked at NGS studies...

  12. Are baryonic galactic halos possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, K.A.; Hegyi, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    There is little doubt from the rotation curves of spiral galaxies that galactic halos must contain large amounts of dark matter. In this contribution, the authors review arguments which indicate that it is very unlikely that galactic halos contain substantial amounts of baryonic matter. While the authors would like to be able to present a single argument which would rule out baryonic matter, at the present time they are only able to present a collection of arguments each of which argues against one form of baryonic matter. These include: 1) snowballs; 2) gas; 3) low mass stars and Jupiters; 4) high mass stars; and 5) high metalicity objects such as rooks or dust. Black holes, which do not have a well defined baryon number, are also a possible candidate for halo matter. They briefly discuss black holes

  13. POSSIBLE ROLES OF EPIPLOIC APPENDAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Di Noto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Historically, only the energy storage function had been attributed to adipose tissue. However, recent studies have shown that it is also able to secrete several substances which act in a paracrine or endocrine manner, contributing to the maintenance of organism’s homeostasis. It has been reported that the visceral fat has distinctive secreting characteristics. Based on previous scientific observations, here we shall describe the possible functional role of epiploic appendages. The epiploic appendages may play an important role in the metabolic regulation and/or in immune defense through the secretion of specific factors, such as leptin and some inflammatory cytokines. Leptin has been seen to be involved both in the regulation of hunger signals, in coordination with the hypothalamus, and in complex immune defense processes. The exact understanding of the behavior of this hormone could play a key role in understanding the functions ascribed to the epiploic appendages.

  14. Moving from objects to possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, Jared; Gunn, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    and controls that determine indoor climate. A central issue in relating perceptions and experiences of indoor climate to wider structures and systems is finding ways of supporting company, university partners and users to imagine possibilities instead of certainties in terms of innovation potential. Whereas....... This involves opening up pathways within wider structures and systems for improvisation, at the same time finding ways of negotiating openness and closure with materials. How then do design materials support partial understandings of indoor climate between researchers, users and company partners in situated......, researchers and industry partners working in the field of indoor climate emphasize identifiable, measurable, parameters of comfort and focus their efforts on engineering products and systems based upon behavioural models, as researchers interested in the notion of participatory innovation, we engage...

  15. [Possibilities of psychoprophylaxis in epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilikiewicz, A

    1976-01-01

    The psychiatrist should be given also their share in the prevetion of epilepsy by means of raising the psychiatric culture of the society and teaching the population the principles of mental hygiene and psychoprophylaxia. The possibilities of psychiatry in prophylactic management of patients with developed epilepsy include: 1. Energetic measures for controlling attacks which has many psychoprophylactic aspects. 2. Prevention of psychotraumatizing situations leading to secondary neurotic, psychotic and other reactions and behaviour disorders of the type of homilopathy and sociopathy, 3. Counteracting the development of mental and social disability in epileptics. Treatment of epilepsy should be conducted from its very beginning in cooperation with psychiatrists and therapeutic psychologists. The probems of prophylaxis cannot be separated from prophylactic treatment, psychotherapy sociotherapy and rehabilitation.

  16. Coating possibilities for magnetic switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, D.J.; Harjes, H.C.; Mann, G.A.; Morgan, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    High average power magnetic pulse compression systems are now being considered for use in several applications such as the High Power Radiation Source (HiPoRS) project. Such systems will require high reliability magnetic switches (saturable inductors) that are very efficient and have long lifetimes. One of the weakest components in magnetic switches is their interlaminar insulation. Considerations related to dielectric breakdown, thermal management of compact designs, and economical approaches for achieving these needs must be addressed. Various dielectric insulation and coating materials have been applied to Metglas foil in an attempt to solve the complex technical and practical problems associated with large magnetic switch structures. This work reports various needs, studies, results, and proposals in selecting and evaluating continuous coating approaches for magnetic foil. Techniques such as electrophoretic polymer deposition and surface chemical oxidation are discussed. We also propose continuous photofabrication processes for applying dielectric ribs or spacers to the foil which permit circulation of dielectric liquids for cooling during repetitive operation. 10 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs

  17. Efficient Environmental Policy with Imperfect Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandmo, A. [Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Bergen (Norway)

    2002-09-01

    Discussions of efficient environmental policy tend to recommend taxes rather than quotas on grounds of efficiency; a uniform tax will equalize marginal abatement cost between polluters. When polluters' actions are imperfectly observable, the distinction between taxes and quotas becomes less clear. Taxes may be evaded by underreporting of emissions, while quota violations will not always be discovered. This paper explores the conditions under which the efficiency properties of taxes continue to hold even when evasion is possible, and the extent to which the fine for quota violations plays the same role as a tax on emissions with similar efficiency properties.

  18. Masticatory efficiency contributing to the improved dynamic postural balance: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hae-Yun; Choi, Jun-Seon; Kim, Hee-Eun

    2018-05-28

    To evaluate whether masticatory efficiency is associated with dynamic postural balance. Masticatory dysfunction can cause deterioration of general health due to nutritional imbalances, thereby negatively affecting postural balance. However, few studies have investigated the association between masticatory efficiency and postural balance. The masticatory efficiency of 74 participants was evaluated by calculating mixing ability index (MAI) using a wax cube. The timed up and go test (TUGT) was used to measure dynamic balance. Participants with an MAI above or below the median value of 1.05 were defined as having high or low masticatory efficiency, respectively. An independent samples t-test was used to identify significant differences in TUGT, according to masticatory efficiency. Analysis of covariance was performed to adjust for confounding factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the correlation between masticatory efficiency and postural balance. The high masticatory efficiency group could complete the TUGT exercise approximately 1.67 seconds faster while maintaining the postural balance, compared to the low masticatory efficiency group (P = .005). Furthermore, the postural imbalance odds of the group with high mastication efficiency decreased by 0.14-fold, relative to the group with low mastication efficiency (95% confidence interval: 0.04-0.46). With some reservations about statistical power, the association found between masticatory efficiency and postural balance justifies further investigations to confirm the strength of the associations, and possibly to identify causal relationships between mastication and posture in old age. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy & Susceptibility to Leading Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Murphy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Load Theory (Lavie, 1995; 2005 states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e. the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory. Across three experiments (two video-based and one in a driving simulator, the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory was assessed. The results showed that eyewitnesses were less accurate under high load, in particular for peripheral details. For example, memory for the central character in the video was not affected by load but memory for a witness who passed by the window at the edge of the scene was significantly worse under high load. High load memories were also more open to suggestion, showing increased susceptibility to leading questions. High visual perceptual load also affected recall for auditory information, illustrating a possible cross-modal perceptual load effect on memory accuracy. These results have implications for eyewitness memory researchers and forensic professionals.

  20. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy and Susceptibility to Leading Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M

    2016-01-01

    Load Theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e., the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory. Across three experiments (two video-based and one in a driving simulator), the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory was assessed. The results showed that eyewitnesses were less accurate under high load, in particular for peripheral details. For example, memory for the central character in the video was not affected by load but memory for a witness who passed by the window at the edge of the scene was significantly worse under high load. High load memories were also more open to suggestion, showing increased susceptibility to leading questions. High visual perceptual load also affected recall for auditory information, illustrating a possible cross-modal perceptual load effect on memory accuracy. These results have implications for eyewitness memory researchers and forensic professionals.

  1. Uncertainty Relations and Possible Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg Jaeger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty principle can be understood as a condition of joint indeterminacy of classes of properties in quantum theory. The mathematical expressions most closely associated with this principle have been the uncertainty relations, various inequalities exemplified by the well known expression regarding position and momentum introduced by Heisenberg. Here, recent work involving a new sort of “logical” indeterminacy principle and associated relations introduced by Pitowsky, expressable directly in terms of probabilities of outcomes of measurements of sharp quantum observables, is reviewed and its quantum nature is discussed. These novel relations are derivable from Boolean “conditions of possible experience” of the quantum realm and have been considered both as fundamentally logical and as fundamentally geometrical. This work focuses on the relationship of indeterminacy to the propositions regarding the values of discrete, sharp observables of quantum systems. Here, reasons for favoring each of these two positions are considered. Finally, with an eye toward future research related to indeterminacy relations, further novel approaches grounded in category theory and intended to capture and reconceptualize the complementarity characteristics of quantum propositions are discussed in relation to the former.

  2. Gene doping: possibilities and practicalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Dominic J

    2009-01-01

    Our ever-increasing understanding of the genetic control of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function together with recent technical improvements in genetic manipulation generates mounting concern over the possibility of such technology being abused by athletes in their quest for improved performance. Genetic manipulation in the context of athletic performance is commonly referred to as gene doping. A review of the literature was performed to identify the genes and methodologies most likely to be used for gene doping and the technologies that might be used to identify such doping. A large number of candidate performance-enhancing genes have been identified from animal studies, many of them using transgenic mice. Only a limited number have been shown to be effective following gene transfer into adults. Those that seem most likely to be abused are genes that exert their effects locally and leave little, if any, trace in blood or urine. There is currently no evidence that gene doping has yet been undertaken in competitive athletes but the anti-doping authorities will need to remain vigilant in reviewing this rapidly emerging technology. The detection of gene doping involves some different challenges from other agents and a number of promising approaches are currently being explored. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. One Antimatter— Two Possible Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Y. Klimenko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Conventional thermodynamics, which is formulated for our world populated by radiation and matter, can be extended to describe physical properties of antimatter in two mutually exclusive ways: CP-invariant or CPT-invariant. Here we refer to invariance of physical laws under charge (C, parity (P and time reversal (T transformations. While in quantum field theory CPT invariance is a theorem confirmed by experiments, the symmetry principles applied to macroscopic phenomena or to the whole of the Universe represent only hypotheses. Since both versions of thermodynamics are different only in their treatment of antimatter, but are the same in describing our world dominated by matter, making a clear experimentally justified choice between CP invariance and CPT invariance in context of thermodynamics is not possible at present. This work investigates the comparative properties of the CP- and CPT-invariant extensions of thermodynamics (focusing on the latter, which is less conventional than the former and examines conditions under which these extensions can be experimentally tested.

  4. Presence of nitrate NO 3 a ects animal production, photocalysis is a possible solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba-Molina, Heli; Barba-Ortega, J.; Joya, M. R.

    2016-02-01

    Farmers and ranchers depend on the successful combination of livestock and crops. However, they have lost in the production by nitrate pollution. Nitrate poisoning in cattle is caused by the consumption of an excessive amount of nitrate or nitrite from grazing or water. Both humans and livestock can be affected. It would appear that well fertilised pasture seems to take up nitrogen from the soil and store it as nitrate in the leaf. Climatic conditions, favour the uptake of nitrate. Nitrate poisoning is a noninfectious disease condition that affects domestic ruminants. It is a serious problem, often resulting in the death of many animals. When nitrogen fertilizers are used to enrich soils, nitrates may be carried by rain, irrigation and other surface waters through the soil into ground water. Human and animal wastes can also contribute to nitrate contamination of ground water. A possible method to decontaminate polluted water by nitrates is with methods of fabrication of zero valent iron nanoparticles (FeNps) are found to affect their efficiency in nitrate removal from water.

  5. Recovery efficiencies for Burkholderia thailandensis from various aerosol sampling media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eDabisch

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia thailandensis is used in the laboratory as a surrogate of the more virulent B. pseudomallei. Since inhalation is believed to be a natural route of infection for B. pseudomallei, many animal studies with B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis utilize the inhalation route of exposure. The aim of the present study was to quantify the recovery efficiency of culturable B. thailandensis from several common aerosol sampling devices to ensure that collected microorganisms could be reliably recovered post-collection. The sampling devices tested included 25-mm gelatin filters, 25-mm stainless steel disks used in Mercer cascade impactors, and two types of glass impingers. The results demonstrate that while several processing methods tested resulted in significantly lower physical recovery efficiencies than other methods, it was possible to obtain culturable recovery efficiencies for B. thailandensis and physical recovery efficiencies for 1 μm fluorescent spheres of at least 0.95 from all of the sampling media tested given an appropriate sample processing procedure. The results of the present study also demonstrated that the bubbling action of liquid media in all-glass impingers (AGIs can result in physical loss of material from the collection medium, although additional studies are needed to verify the exact mechanisms involved. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that the collection mechanism as well as the post-collection processing method can significantly affect the recovery from and retention of culturable microorganisms in sampling media, potentially affecting the calculated airborne concentration and any subsequent estimations of risk or dose derived from such data.

  6. Enhanced efficiency of internal combustion engines by employing spinning gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyko, V I; Fisch, N J

    2014-08-01

    The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A remarkable gain in fuel efficiency is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in efficiency.

  7. Possible factors for ankle fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabaković Dejan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Classification of ankle fractures is commonly used for selecting an appropriate treatment and prognosing an outcome of definite management. One of the most used classifications is the Danis-Weber classification. To the best of our knowledge, in the available literature, there are no parameters affecting specific types of ankle fractures according to the Danis-Weber classification. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation of the following parameters: age, body weight, body mass index (BMI, height, osteoporosis, osteopenia and physical exercises with specific types of ankle fractures using the Danis-Weber classification. Methods. A total of 85 patients grouped by the Danis-Weber classification fracture types were analyzed and the significance of certain parameters for specific types of ankle fractures was established. Results. The proportion of females was significantly higher (p < 0.001 with a significantly higher age (59.9 years, SD ± 14.2 in relation to males (45.1 years, SD ± 12.8 (p < 0.0001. Type A fracture was most frequent in the younger patients (34.2 years, SD ± 8.6, and those with increased physical exercises (p = 0.020. In type B fracture, the risk factor was osteoporosis (p = 0.0180, while in type C fracture, body weight (p = 0.017 and osteoporosis (p = 0.004 were significant parameters. Conclusion. Statistical analysis using the Danis-Weber classification reveals that there are certain parameters suggesting significant risk factors for specific types of ankle fractures.

  8. THE POSSIBILITY OF LEGUMES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glinushkin A.P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary receptacles improve profitability legumes are limiting demonstrations and acts of plant diseases and pests. Pathogens are 25-50% lower yield of soybean, chickpea, beans, peas. Pests focally up to 87% of viable seeds sown reduce the number of plants per 1 ha. Only effective protection against disease and estimates of crop production can increase the average profitability of legume crops by 15-30%. Livestock is very important, but in the Southern Urals requires real support for its production with a positive balance (in the calculations with a deviation of 5%. The most important resource in our opinion may be a reduction in price of fodder. Thus, legumes are sought for animal protein. Soybeans, chickpeas, beans, peas universal culture and the possibility of their use in the food balance for a healthy diet of ordinary people engaged in recreational and other sports niche expands further improve the profitability of their production. Regulation of the balance of the distribution of food and feed produced grain legumes allows fine regulation of the cost of fodder for a particular type of livestock activities. Phytosanitary capabilities , the balance of influence of legumes on arable land, also requires a fine regulation of these processes. Obtaining long-term public support for this production is unlikely in the WTO because actual search for ways to improve the profitability of production of agricultural technologies. In our view, a comprehensive approach taking into account the capacity of local markets for crop production. Such activity can act as a guaranteed quality of agro-technology and animal products from local resources specific zonal conditions of production.

  9. Engineering crop nutrient efficiency for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyu; Liao, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Increasing crop yields can provide food, animal feed, bioenergy feedstocks and biomaterials to meet increasing global demand; however, the methods used to increase yield can negatively affect sustainability. For example, application of excess fertilizer can generate and maintain high yields but also increases input costs and contributes to environmental damage through eutrophication, soil acidification and air pollution. Improving crop nutrient efficiency can improve agricultural sustainability by increasing yield while decreasing input costs and harmful environmental effects. Here, we review the mechanisms of nutrient efficiency (primarily for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and iron) and breeding strategies for improving this trait, along with the role of regulation of gene expression in enhancing crop nutrient efficiency to increase yields. We focus on the importance of root system architecture to improve nutrient acquisition efficiency, as well as the contributions of mineral translocation, remobilization and metabolic efficiency to nutrient utilization efficiency. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Harmful Effects of Formaldehyde and Possible Protective Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... the ocular and respiratory system, but it also affects the nervous and genital system. ... possible protective effect of Nigella sativa on the trachea of rats. Niger ..... Vitamin A deficiency in the tracheal epithelium of rats has been ...

  11. Affected in the nightclub

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan

    2013-01-01

    simultaneously with the affects of love, joy, sympathy and so on. Alcohol, illicit drugs, bouncers, music and other human or non-human actants are part of the place. It is within this heterogeneous assemblage that affects become embodied. The data consists of 273 cases from a large Copenhagen nightclub where...

  12. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RFof aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissionsper unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size.South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions,its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency.The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is loweredbyasmall per capita GDP.Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The resulting

  13. Media Managing Mood: A Look at the Possible Effects of Violent Media on Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Alexandra; LaQuea, Rachel; Cromwell, Rachel; Ferguson, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The potential impact of violent media on children's emotional well-being has been a source of controversy for several decades. To date evidence for a negative impact of violent media on emotional well-being has been mixed and increasingly connected to a "replication crisis" throughout psychological science. Objective: The…

  14. Possible interaction between myxomatosis and calicivirosis related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease affecting the European rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchandeau, S; Bertagnoli, S; Peralta, B; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Letty, J; Reitz, F

    2004-11-06

    Serological data on myxoma virus, rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus and RHD-like viruses in juvenile rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) trapped in 1995, 1996 and 1997 in two areas of France were analysed. For each disease, the effects of bodyweight, year, month and seropositivity for the other disease were modelled by using logistic regressions. In one area, a model including RHD seropositivity was selected to explain the myxoma virus seropositivity. Models including myxoma virus seropositivity were selected to explain the RHD seropositivity in both areas, and the odds of a rabbit being seropositive to both viruses were 5.1 and 8.4 times higher than the odds of a rabbit being seronegative to myxoma virus and seropositive to RHD. The year and bodyweight had significant effects for myxomatosis in one area and for RHD in both areas.

  15. POSSIBILITIES OF USING UNCONVENTIONAL METHODS AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS TO AFFECT WEIGHT GAINS OF CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubo Zbransk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthy and strong individuals are fundamental in every cattle breeding. The aim of this study was to find out which of these given supplement had the best influence on calf weight gain in the early period after weaning to milk nutrition. This research was carried out in cooperation with the farm in Haklovy Dvory. Calves were studied from March 2012 to February 2013. They were weaned into outdoor individual box after birth. There were added supplements into their ration in the first two weeks of life. Calves were partitioned according to the added supplement into three experimental groups and one control group. The first weight control of calves was after birth and the second weight control was at the age of thirty days. The average weight gain was calculated from the differences in these values. The best demonstrable effect was in the experimental Homeopathy and Prebiotics (Biopolym groups with the average increment of 26.9 kilograms, then in the experimental Probiotics (Lactovita group with the average increment of 26.1 kilograms. The last group was the Control one, there was not any change in the calves ration and their average increment was 23.5 kilograms. The results of the statistical evaluation was p = 0.0572 in the Biopolym group, p = 0.2570 in the Lactovita group and p = 0.2124 in the Homeopathy group versus the Control group. It can be concluded from the results of this study that calves had a positive reaction on the supplements added in the first days of life and these had a favourable effect on diarrhoea prevention. Prebiotics, homeopathic drugs and probiotics beneficially stimulate calvesdigestive system and, in general, they have a positive effect on the calves physiological condition.

  16. How will Brexit affect health and health services in the UK? Evaluating three possible scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Nick; Hervey, Tamara; Greer, Scott; Jarman, Holly; Stuckler, David; Galsworthy, Mike; McKee, Martin

    2017-11-04

    The process of leaving the European Union (EU) will have profound consequences for health and the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK. In this paper, we use the WHO health system building blocks framework to assess the likely effects of three scenarios we term soft Brexit, hard Brexit, and failed Brexit. We conclude that each scenario poses substantial threats. The workforce of the NHS is heavily reliant on EU staff. Financing of health care for UK citizens in the EU and vice versa is threatened, as is access to some capital funds, while Brexit threatens overall economic performance. Access to pharmaceuticals, technology, blood, and organs for transplant is jeopardised. Information used for international comparisons is threatened, as is service delivery, especially in Northern Ireland. Governance concerns relate to public health, competition and trade law, and research. However, we identified a few potential opportunities for improvement in areas such as competition law and flexibility of training, should the UK Government take them. Overall, a soft version of Brexit would minimise health threats whereas failed Brexit would be the riskiest outcome. Effective parliamentary scrutiny of policy and legal changes will be essential, but the scale of the task risks overwhelming parliament and the civil service. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. How does the possibility to defer pension payments affect the labour supply of elderly Danish workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna; Nielsen, Torben Heien

    2010-01-01

    This chapter investigates the effects of a recent Danish policy reform on the number of hours worked after age 65. In short, the policy reform involved the option to defer pension payments and a reduction in the official retirement age from 67 to 65. Using a quasi-experimental design, we find tha...... positions that choose to defer their pensions. The results, therefore, indicate that the reform has mainly improved the situation of an already well-off group.......This chapter investigates the effects of a recent Danish policy reform on the number of hours worked after age 65. In short, the policy reform involved the option to defer pension payments and a reduction in the official retirement age from 67 to 65. Using a quasi-experimental design, we find...... that the reform has had a small positive impact on the number of hours worked at age 65. In the longer term (from age 65 to 67) the effect disappears, probably due to the reduction in the official retirement age causing people to retire earlier. It is mainly men, the highly educated and people holding advanced...

  18. Baseline ultrasound examination as possible predictor of relapse in patients affected by juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Orazio; Ravagnani, Viviana; Pregnolato, Francesca; Hila, Arvena; Pontikaki, Irene; Gattinara, Maurizio; Romano, Micol; Gerloni, Valeria; Pieropan, Sara; Murgo, Antonella; Rossini, Maurizio; Cimaz, Rolando; Meroni, Pier Luigi

    2018-02-06

    To define the correlation between joint ultrasonography and clinical examination in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and to assess whether synovitis detected by ultrasonography in clinically inactive patients predicts arthritis flares. 88 consecutive patients with JIA-46 (52%) with persistent oligoarthritis, 15 (17%) with extended oligoarthritis, 15 (17%) with rheumatoid factor-negative polyarthritis and 12 (14%) with other forms of JIA, all clinically inactive for a minimum of 3 months-underwent ultrasound (US) assessment of 44 joints. Joints were scanned at study entry for synovial hyperplasia, joint effusion and power Doppler (PD) signal. Patients were followed clinically for 4 years. US was abnormal in 20/88 (22.7%) patients and in 38/3872 (0.98%) joints. Extended oligoarthritis and rheumatoid factor-negative polyarthritis were more frequent in US-positive than in US-negative patients (35.0% vs 11.8% and 30.0% vs 13.2%, respectively; P=0.005). During 4 years of follow-up, 41/88 (46.6%) patients displayed a flare; 26/68 (38.2%) were US-negative and 15/20 (75%) were US-positive at baseline. Abnormality on US examination, after correction for therapy modification, significantly increased the risk of flare (OR=3.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 11.5). The combination of grey scale and PD abnormalities displayed a much higher predictive value of relapse (65%, 13/20) than grey scale alone (33%, 6/18). US abnormalities are a strong predictor of relapse at individual patient level. Irrespective of treatment, the risk of flare in US-positive versus US-negative patients was almost four times higher. In case of US abnormalities, patients should be carefully followed regardless of both the International League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wallace categories. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Possible mechanisms by which electric fields from power lines might affect airborne particles harmful to health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.; Jeffers, D.

    1999-01-01

    Power lines produce alternating electric fields and modify static electric fields in their vicinity. These electric fields, if large enough, can alter the concentration or transport of airborne particles (including particles harmful to health), for example by causing deposition of charged particles, polarisation of neutral particles, or by production of ions. It has been suggested that this could lead to adverse health effects being associated with power lines. Theoretical considerations and experimental evidence relevant to eight separate postulated mechanisms involving power lines and airborne particles are examined. On theoretical grounds, none should lead to any adverse health effect, primarily because the effects produced are very small and are swamped by air currents or by gravity, and because people spend limited time in the relevant conditions. The experimental evidence also weighs against any adverse health effects. Further, even if significant health effects were produced, they would be different from those suggested by existing epidemiology concerning power lines. (author)

  20. Hydrodynamic cavitation as a strategy to enhance the efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terán Hilares, Ruly; Ramos, Lucas; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

    2018-01-01

    to accelerate certain chemical reactions. The application of cavitation energy to enhance the efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment is an interesting strategy proposed for integration in biorefineries for the production of bio-based products. Moreover, the use of an HC-assisted process...... was demonstrated as an attractive alternative when compared to other conventional pretreatment technologies. This is not only due to high pretreatment efficiency resulting in high enzymatic digestibility of carbohydrate fraction, but also, by its high energy efficiency, simple configuration, and construction...... of systems, besides the possibility of using on the large scale. This paper gives an overview regarding HC technology and its potential for application on the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. The parameters affecting this process and the perspectives for future developments in this area are also...

  1. Reconsidering energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Energy and environmental policies are reconsidering energy efficiency. In a perfect market, rational and well informed consumers reach economic efficiency which, at the given prices of energy and capital, corresponds to physical efficiency. In the real world, market failures and cognitive frictions distort the consumers from perfectly rational and informed choices. Green incentive schemes aim at balancing market failures and directing consumers toward more efficient goods and services. The problem is to fine tune the incentive schemes [it

  2. Possible refurbishment of Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.M.; Groom, S.H.; Thompson, P.D.; Barclay, J.M.; Allen, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    In February 2000, the NB Power Board of Directors approved Phase one of a project to produce a business case including a detailed scope and estimate associated with the possible refurbishment of the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS). The Preliminary plan for refurbishment projects an 18-month outage starting as early as the spring of 2006. If the station were to be refurbished, then it would be run for another 25 to 30 years. The decision on whether or not to refurbish PLGS has not been made and is not expected until the summer of 2002. The results of the first phase of the project will be used to prepare a detailed business case that will be presented to the NB Power board of directors in January of 2002. At that time a decision will be made as to whether to refurbish the unit, or obtain other means of replacing the energy produced by PLGS. The station currently produces about a third of the power generated within the province. If the business case is approved, all-380 Pressure Tubes and Calandria Tubes, along with their related End Fittings and Feeders would be replaced. This material would be stored in new storage vaults to be constructed at the existing on-site Waste Management Facility. Replacement of other station components will be performed as required, as determined from the results of a comprehensive Plant Condition Assessment. The condition assessments build on work done under the Plant Life Management Program. Point Lepreau Generating Station has operated well since start of commercial operation in early 1983. With a lifetime capacity factor of about 84% (up to the end of 2000), it has proven to be an economic and environmentally sound electricity provider. The station has also had a significant positive economic impact in Southern New Brunswick, employing over 600 people. However the Pressure Tubes and Feeders are nearing the point in time in which they will exceed their fitness for service criteria. Although tubes can be replaced on an

  3. Possible refurbishment of Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.M.; Groom, S.H.; Thompson, P.D.; Barclay, J.M.; Allen, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    In February 2000, the NB Power Board of Directors approved Phase one of a project to produce a business case including a detailed scope and estimate associated with the possible refurbishment of the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS). The Preliminary plan for refurbishment projects an 18-month outage starting as early as the spring of 2006. If the station were to be refurbished, then it would be run for another 25 to 30 years. The decision on whether or not to refurbish PLGS has not been made and is not expected until the summer of 2002. The results of the first phase of the project will be used to prepare a detailed business case that will be presented to the NB Power board of directors in January of 2002. At that time a decision will be made as to whether to refurbish the unit, or obtain other means of replacing the energy produced by PLGS. The station currently produces about a third of the power generated within the province. If the business case is approved, all-380 Pressure Tubes and Calandria Tubes, along with their related End Fittings and Feeders would be replaced. This material would be stored in new storage vaults to be constructed at the existing on-site Waste Management Facility. Replacement of other station components will be performed as required, as determined from the results of a comprehensive Plant Condition Assessment. The condition assessments build on work done under the Plant Life Management Program. Point Lepreau Generating Station has operated well since start of commercial operation in early 1983. With a lifetime capacity factor of about 84% (up to the end of 2000), it has proven to be an economic and environmentally sound electricity provider. The station has also had a significant positive economic impact in Southern New Brunswick, employing over 600 people. However the Pressure Tubes and Feeders are nearing the point in time in which they will exceed their fitness for service criteria. Although tubes can be replaced on an

  4. Energy efficiency and renewables policies: Promoting efficiency or facilitating monopsony?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    The cliche in the electricity sector, the 'cheapest power plant is the one we don't build,' neglects the benefits of the energy that plant would generate. That economy-wide perspective need not apply in considering benefits to only consumers if not building that plant was the exercise of monopsony power. A regulator maximizing consumer welfare may need to avoid rationing demand at monopsony prices. Subsidizing energy efficiency to reduce electricity demand at the margin can solve that problem, if energy efficiency and electricity use are substitutes. Renewable energy subsidies, percentage use standards, or feed in tariffs may also serve monopsony as well with sufficient inelasticity in fossil fuel electricity supply. We may not observe these effects if the regulator can set price as well as quantity, lacks buyer-side market power, or is legally precluded from denying generators a reasonable return on capital. Nevertheless, the possibility of monopsony remains significant in light of the debate as to whether antitrust enforcement should maximize consumer welfare or total welfare. - Research Highlights: → Subsidizing energy efficiency can promote monopsony, if efficiency and use are substitutes. → Renewable energy subsidies, portfolio standards, or feed-in tariffs may also promote monopsony. → Effects require buyer-side market power and ability to deny generators a reasonable return. → Monopsony is significant in light of whether antitrust should maximize consumer or total welfare.

  5. Resource allocation based on cost efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehnokhalaji, Akram; Ghiyasi, Mojtaba; Korhonen, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    -objective linear programming problem using two different strategies. First, we propose an RA model which keeps the cost efficiencies of units unchanged. This is done assuming fixed technical and allocative efficiencies. The approach is based on the assumption that the decision maker (DM) may not have big changes......In this paper, we consider a resource allocation (RA) problem and develop an approach based on cost (overall) efficiency. The aim is to allocate some inputs among decision making units (DMUs) in such way that their cost efficiencies improve or stay unchanged after RA. We formulate a multi...... in the structure of DMUs within a short term. The second strategy does not impose any restrictions on technical and allocative efficiencies. It guarantees that none of the cost efficiencies of DMUs get worse after RA, and the improvement for units is possible if it is feasible and beneficial. Two numerical...

  6. Energy efficiency; Efficacite energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the energy efficiency. It presents the energy efficiency and intensity around the world with a particular focus on Europe, the energy efficiency in industry and Total commitment. (A.L.B.)

  7. Transgene flow: Facts, speculations and possible countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryffel, Gerhart U

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence has accumulated that unintended transgene escape occurs in oilseed rape, maize, cotton and creeping bentgrass. The escaped transgenes are found in variant cultivars, in wild type plants as well as in hybrids of sexually compatible species. The fact that in some cases stacked events are present that have not been planted commercially, implies unintended recombination of transgenic traits. As the consequences of this continuous transgene escape for the ecosystem cannot be reliably predicted, I propose to use more sophisticated approaches of gene technology in future. If possible GM plants should be constructed using either site-directed mutagenesis or cisgenic strategies to avoid the problem of transgene escape. In cases where a transgenic trait is needed, efficient containment should be the standard approach. Various strategies available or in development are discussed. Such a cautious approach in developing novel types of GM crops will enhance the sustainable potential of GM crops and thus increase the public trust in green gene technology. PMID:25523171

  8. Possibility of polarized beams at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    A two week study was held at Brookhaven this summer to investigate polarized proton acceleration at the AGS in more detail and to produce a preliminary design and cost estimate. The Brookhaven study discovered no new problems which cannot be solved. A polarized proton ion source of the H - type is preferred, which could yield pulses of 75% polarized H - ions with an intensity of 10 to 100 μamp and a length of 1 to 3 msec. Upon injection this would result in an AGS intensity of 3 x 10 10 to 10 12 polarized protons per pulse which, together with the 2 sec repetition rate and the high extraction efficiency of the AGS, would yield an extracted beam intensity 5 to 150 times larger than that of the ZGS. Twelve new pulsed tune-shift quadrupoles will be necessary to jump the intrinsic resonances while the existing 96 correction dipoles can be used to tune out the imperfection harmonics. Most of the polarization monitors necessary are simply extensions of existing polarimeters; however, a fast internal polarimeter with an associated thin internal target would be useful for rapid tuning during the acceleration cycle. With these modifications it should be possible to accelerate polarized protons through the 8 intrinsic and 47 imperfection resonances in the AGS up to 23 GeV/c by late 1980. Although no decision has yet been reached with regard to the implementation of such a program, it is presently being considered together with other options for future AGS operation

  9. Possibility of applying probiotics in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holec, V.; Holecova, A.; Holec, V.; Zajac, V.; Danihel, L.; Adamcikova, Z.; Mego, M.

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, which in the form of drugs or food supplements contribute to maintaining health-enhancing microbiological balance in the digestive tract of human or other host (1). Their effects closely related to natural function of the intestinal flora. Their application is associated with good tolerance and minimal risk. They could be well applied in therapy and especially in the prevention of many civilisation disorders,which include a significant proportion of the cancer diseases. We could think not only about their role in the actual prevention of these diseases, but also about their status as a complementary therapy for their potential use in the treatment of complications caused by aggressivity of the existing basic treatment and maybe also another essential use in the future. Obstacle for the possibility to their wider application in oncology is still a lack of experiences in these patients, mainly with regard to evoking the iatrogenic infection. The main assumption of their wider application is the availability of safe strains with proven clinical efficiency. (author)

  10. Possible role of reassortment in tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terashima, Toyozo

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of age-dependent response pattern of cultured mammalian cells, various exogenous agents, such as x-ray, antimetabolites, and antitumor drugs, were classified into two groups, i.e., x-ray type (A) and hydroxyurea type (B). Each type of agent was specific not only for the pattern of survival response during the cell cycle but also for the inhibition of progression. The treatment of cycling cell population with either type of agent results in the reassortment of cells in relation to cell age, thereby providing a chance for successive administrations of either type of agent. Taking advantage of such specific effects of agents on the tumor cell cycle, possible schedules for efficient cell sterilization were suggested: B.X(simultaneous administration) and A-X, X-B(two successive administrations at a scheduled interval) were found promissing. Finally, it was emphasized that much more information must be collected to formulate the cellular response of cycling and non-cycling fractions of the tumor to various exogenous agents. (J.P.N.)

  11. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  12. Selected Banks Economic Efficiency Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of economic efficiency indicators in theory. It is necessary to choice some of them for concrete purposes. ROA, ROE and C/I play important role due to last experience of polish banks.Cost to Income Ratio plays very important role affecting not only efficiency monitoring process in the banks but also becoming a very important target in strategy or finance plan. There are several methodological approaches to construct this index in detail. Results are differing due to implementing methodology. This article describes trends C/I concerning both polish and foreign banks. It is difficult to compare banks in emerging country and real giants in finance mature economies.

  13. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, Mihail C.

    2008-01-01

    The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and

  14. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, Mihail C.

    2008-01-01

    The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and

  15. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roco, Mihail C. [National Science Foundation (NSF) (United States)], E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov

    2008-01-15

    The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and

  16. Current possibilities in occlusal caries management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Jurić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that affects most populations throughout the world and it is still the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth are the most vulnerable sites for dental caries due to their anatomy. Therefore, the aim of the following article is to summarize current knowledge on occlusal caries development and the possibilities of its prevention. Although the overall caries rate today has fallen for populations in industrialized countries, the rate of occlusal surface caries has not decreased. This may be explained with fact that topically applied fluorides and their mode of action prevent caries better on smooth than on occlusal surfaces. As we know, tooth decay of first permanent molars causes a great deal of different short and long term difficulties for patients. Therefore, there is a continuous need for implementation of programs for caries prevention in permanent teeth. Nowadays, we like to treat our patients by minimally invasive methods. A very important step in our effective preventive treatment is sealing pits and fissures as a cornerstone of occlusal caries management. Reliable assessment of caries activity is also very important for defining treatment needs and plans. A very important decision, which should be made during occlusal caries management, is the selection of restorative material according to the treatment plan. Conclusion. Current possibilities in occlusal caries prevention and management are very effective. Therefore, dentists today do not have any excuse for avoiding the philosophy of Minimally Invasive Dentistry, especially when we talk about caries management of occlusal surfaces in permanent molars.

  17. Possible Habitability of Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Lena; Höning, Dennis; Bredehöft, Jan H.; Lammer, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade, the number of detected exoplanets has increased to over thousand confirmed planets and more as yet unconfirmed planet candidates. The scientific community mainly concentrates on terrestrial planets (up to 10 Earth masses) in the habitable zone, which describes the distance from the host star where liquid water can exist at the surface (Kasting et al., 1993). Another target group of interest are ocean worlds, where a terrestrial-like body (i.e. with an iron core and a silicate mantle) is covered by a thick water-ice layer - similar to the icy moons of our solar system but with several Earth masses (e.g. Grasset et al., 2009). When an exoplanet is detected and confirmed as a planet, typically the radius and the mass of it are known, leading to the mean density of the planet that gives hints to possible interior structures. A planet with a large relative iron core and a thick ocean on top of the silicate mantle for example would have the same average planet density as a planet with a more Earth-like appearance (where the main contributor to the mass is the silicate mantle). In this study we investigate how the radius and mass of a planet depend on the amount of water, silicates and iron present (after Wagner et al., 2011) the occurence of high-pressure-ice in the water-ice layer (note: we only consider surface temperatures at which liquid water exists at the surface) if the ocean layer influences the initiation of plate tectonics We assume that ocean worlds with a liquid ocean layer (and without the occurence of high-pressure ice anywhere in the water layer) and plate tectonics (especially the occurence of subduction zones, hydrothermal vents and continental formation) may be called habitable (Class III/IV habitats after Lammer et al., 2009). References: Kasting, J.F., Whitmire, D.P., and Reynolds, R.T. (1993). Habitable Zones around Main Sequence Stars. Icarus 101, 108-128. Grasset, O., Schneider, J., and Sotin, C. (2009). A study of the accuracy

  18. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...

  19. 78 FR 78340 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... affecting U.S. competitiveness in exporting renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE&EE) products and...

  20. Predicting the efficiency of deposit removal during filter backwash

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The long-term performance of granular media filters used in drinking water treatment is ultimately limited by the efficiency ... efficiency) within each set of experiments appeared to affect the efficiency of backwash in addition to the parameters varied ... anisms involved in filter cleaning (Amirtharajah, 1978; Amirth-.

  1. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consumption began exceeding planetary supply in 1977 and by 2030, global energy demand, population, and gross domestic product are projected to greatly increase over 1977 levels. With the aim of finding sustainable energy solutions, we present a simple yet rigorous procedure for assessing and counterbalancing the relationship between energy demand, environmental impact, population, GDP, and energy efficiency. Our analyses indicated that infeasible increases in energy efficiency (over 100 %) would be required by 2030 to return to 1977 environmental impact levels and annual reductions (2 and 3 %) in energy demand resulted in physical, yet impractical requirements; hence, a combination of policy and technology approaches is needed to tackle this critical challenge. This work emphasizes the difficulty in moving toward energy sustainability and helps to frame possible solutions useful for policy and management. Based on projected energy consumption, environmental impact, human population, gross domestic product (GDP), and energy efficiency, for this study, we explore the increase in energy-use efficiency and the decrease in energy use intensity required to achieve sustainable environmental impact le

  2. The Effect of Positive Mood on Flexible Processing of Affective Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grol, Maud; De Raedt, Rudi

    2017-07-17

    Recent efforts have been made to understand the cognitive mechanisms underlying psychological resilience. Cognitive flexibility in the context of affective information has been related to individual differences in resilience. However, it is unclear whether flexible affective processing is sensitive to mood fluctuations. Furthermore, it remains to be investigated how effects on flexible affective processing interact with the affective valence of information that is presented. To fill this gap, we tested the effects of positive mood and individual differences in self-reported resilience on affective flexibility, using a task switching paradigm (N = 80). The main findings showed that positive mood was related to lower task switching costs, reflecting increased flexibility, in line with previous findings. In line with this effect of positive mood, we showed that greater resilience levels, specifically levels of acceptance of self and life, also facilitated task set switching in the context of affective information. However, the effects of resilience on affective flexibility seem more complex. Resilience tended to relate to more efficient task switching when negative information was preceded by positive information, possibly because the presentation of positive information, as well as positive mood, can facilitate task set switching. Positive mood also influenced costs associated with switching affective valence of the presented information. This latter effect was indicative of a reduced impact of no longer relevant negative information and more impact of no longer relevant positive information. Future research should confirm these effects of individual differences in resilience on affective flexibility, considering the affective valence of the presented information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Dementia in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Mortensen, P B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether patients with affective disorder have increased risk of developing dementia compared to other groups of psychiatric patients and compared to the general population. METHOD: In the Danish psychiatric central register, 3363 patients...... with unipolar affective disorder, 518 patients with bipolar affective disorder, 1025 schizophrenic and 8946 neurotic patients were identified according to the diagnosis at the first ever discharge from psychiatric hospital during the period from 1970 to 1974. The rate of discharge diagnosis of dementia...... on readmission was estimated during 21 years of follow-up. In addition, the rates were compared with the rates for admission to psychiatric hospitals with a discharge diagnosis of dementia for the total Danish population. RESULTS: Patients with unipolar and with bipolar affective disorder had a greater risk...

  4. Recurrence in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Andersen, P K

    1999-01-01

    The risk of recurrence in affective disorder is influenced by the number of prior episodes and by a person's tendency toward recurrence. Newly developed frailty models were used to estimate the effect of the number of episodes on the rate of recurrence, taking into account individual frailty toward...... recurrence. The study base was the Danish psychiatric case register of all hospital admissions for primary affective disorder in Denmark during 1971-1993. A total of 20,350 first-admission patients were discharged with a diagnosis of major affective disorder. For women with unipolar disorder and for all...... kinds of patients with bipolar disorder, the rate of recurrence was affected by the number of prior episodes even when the effect was adjusted for individual frailty toward recurrence. No effect of episodes but a large effect of the frailty parameter was found for unipolar men. The authors concluded...

  5. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cravings and weight gain Thoughts of death or suicide SAD is more common in women, young people, ... of serotonin, a brain chemical that affects your mood. Their bodies also make too ... with light therapy. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  6. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitus, Kathrine; Andreassen, Rikke

    into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology......This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...

  7. How culture affects management?

    OpenAIRE

    Billi, Lorena

    2012-01-01

    The study is about how culture affects management. Culture can have many different meanings. Management has also many different ways to be approached. While doing research about cultures, the study will try to analyze how the culture affects the management. The study starts with a full explanation of the meaning of culture. Some previous analysis and studies are added to illustrate my study on the subject. The effect culture has on management is studied at different levels. The study does not...

  8. Energy efficiency practices among road freight hauliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Stenholm, Pekka; Tapio, Petri; McKinnon, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) is a highly prevalent public policy goal among European Union member countries. In the new White Paper on transport, the role of road freight transports in this is strongly emphasized. This far, however, the efficiency practices utilised in logistics firms are less studied. Drawing from policy goals and new survey data on 295 road transport firms our results show that hauliers are aware of the possible energy efficiency actions but lack the knowledge and resources to fully utilize them. Energy efficiency seems also to be unimportant for many shippers, so there are no incentives for hauliers to improve it. Examples from various countries show that clear energy efficiency improvements can be achieved with active cooperation between hauliers, shippers and policy makers. Such cooperation can be developed in Finland through the sectoral energy efficiency agreements. The novelty and the utility of these results allow scholars to answer important open questions in the national-level determinants of enhancing energy efficiency practices among road freight hauliers, and contribute to our understanding of how these can be fostered in public policies. - Highlights: ► Hauliers still monitor their fuel consumption with unsophisticated methods. ► Larger hauliers are more active in energy efficiency related issues than smaller ones. ► Hauliers are aware of energy efficiency actions, but lack knowledge of implementation. ► Finnish energy efficiency agreement provides a good framework for public policies. ► Companies that monitor and improve energy efficiency may gain competitive advantage.

  9. Possible sources of radiation in indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djukanovic, M.

    1997-01-01

    More locations and building material will be needed to solve the housing needs, actually the future quantities will equal the total of all the previous building. And presently one quarter of the world population is already homeless. The development of human civilization in the new technological era goes on extremely quickly. In the search for new spaces, in the last decade of the 20th century, in town renovation planning the application of subterranean civil engineering is very popular. Below ground level, the new towns are built with many stories, with exclusively artificial light and artificial climate. There is not the slightest possibility of natural ventilation. These spaces have not been investigated as regards the contents of radon. Man is not adapted to spend most of the time in under artificial conditions. It is still to be discovered how it will affect humans and what is the degree of exposure to ionizing radiation in such conditions. It might be better to abandon underground construction before the adverse effects are proved. Previous mistakes in building must be overcome and new technologies applied as well as sustainable development in the future. (author)

  10. Prospecting for Sustainable Investment Possibilities in Financial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandras Vytautas Rutkauskas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the paper is to analyse the author's proposed model, which is adequate for stock prices and currency exchange rates markets stochasticity, as well as discuss its application to investor's possibilities research in those markets. The paper is grounded on the hypothesis of stratification of stock profitability ratios, traded on the market. In other words, the concept of stratification means concentration into certain groups in risk-profitability plane. If the hypothesis proved overall, then a constructive scheme for investor's possibilities research in exchange and capital markets would appear, as well as efficient investment strategies would develop.

  11. Efficient pooling designs for library screening

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, William J.; Knill, Emanuel; Balding, David J.; Bruce, D. C.; Doggett, N. A.; Sawhill, W. W.; Stallings, R. L.; Whittaker, Craig C.; Torney, David C.

    1994-01-01

    We describe efficient methods for screening clone libraries, based on pooling schemes which we call ``random $k$-sets designs''. In these designs, the pools in which any clone occurs are equally likely to be any possible selection of $k$ from the $v$ pools. The values of $k$ and $v$ can be chosen to optimize desirable properties. Random $k$-sets designs have substantial advantages over alternative pooling schemes: they are efficient, flexible, easy to specify, require fewer pools, and have er...

  12. Energy efficiency in U.K. shopping centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, Michela

    Energy efficiency in shopping centres means providing comfortable internal environment and services to the occupants with minimum energy use in a cost-effective and environmentally sensitive manner. This research considers the interaction of three factors affecting the energy efficiency of shopping centres: i) performance of the building fabric and services ii) management of the building in terms of operation, control, maintenance and replacement of the building fabric and services, and company's energy policy iii) occupants' expectation for comfort and awareness of energy efficiency. The aim of the investigation is to determine the role of the above factors in the energy consumption and carbon emissions of shopping centres and the scope for reducing this energy usage by changing one or all the three factors. The study also attempts to prioritize the changes in the above factors that are more cost-effective at reducing that energy consumption and identify the benefits and main economic and legal drivers for energy efficiency in shopping centres. To achieve these targets, three case studies have been analysed. Using energy data from bills, the performance of the selected case studies has been assessed to establish trends and current energy consumption and carbon emissions of shopping centres and their related causes. A regression analysis has attempted to break down the energy consumption of the landlords' area by end-use to identify the main sources of energy usage and consequently introduce cost-effective measures for saving energy. A monitoring and occupants' survey in both landlords' and tenants' areas have been carried out at the same time to compare the objective data of the environmental conditions with the subjective impressions of shoppers and shopkeepers. In particular, the monitoring aimed at assessing the internal environment to identify possible causes of discomfort and opportunities for introducing energy saving measures. The survey looked at

  13. Energy efficiency in the foreground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baettig, I.

    2006-01-01

    In this interview with Eberhard Jochem, professor at the Centre for Energy Policy and Economics at the Federal Institute of Science and Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland, several energy-relevant topics are discussed. These include high oil prices, possible power shortages and binding commitments in the climate-protection area. The question is asked, how, in consideration of such general conditions, energy use and energy supply should develop in Switzerland. Options for increasing efficiency or the tapping of new energy sources is discussed, as is Switzerland's increasing energy consumption. The '2000 Watt' concept being worked on at the ETH and the activities needed for its realisation are discussed. The effects of this concept on economical and business development are discussed. The potential of renewable forms of energy and the possibility of building combined gas and steam power stations are looked at. Ways of promoting renewable energy and questions concerning the extent of the state intervention in the energy business are considered

  14. Design and Validation of Affective Warning Pictorial on Cigarette Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanduen Pat-Arin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study were to design and validate affective warning pictorials for cigarette label in Thailand. Brainstorming and survey techniques were used to collect the idea of possible warning pictorials. All ideas were grouped for finding candidated pictorials. Then, primary sixty warning pictorials were collected and equally classified into three affective warning pictorial groups as positive, neutral, and negative. Sixty Thai male engineering students participated in affective validation of warning pictorials using SAM rating. The International Affective Picture System (IAPS was used to manipulate the affective state of participants to neutral affective state before the experiments. The results revealed that all affective warning pictorials were successfully evoked target affective states on participants. After refining, thirty affective warning pictorials were provided as positive, neutral, and negative affective warning pictorials for using on cigarette labels. Implications on the affective warning pictorials design and validation.

  15. Efficient boiler operations sourcebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, F.W. (comp.)

    1985-01-01

    This book emphasizes the practical aspects of industrial and commercial boiler operations. It starts with a comprehensive review of general combustion and boiler fundamentals and then deals with specific efficiency improvement methods, and the cost savings which result. The book has the following chapter headings: boiler combustion fundamentals; boiler efficiency goals; major factors controlling boiler efficiency; boiler efficiency calculations; heat loss; graphical solutions; preparation for boiler testing; boiler test procedures; efficiency-related boiler maintenance procedures; boiler tune-up; boiler operational modifications; effect of water side and gas side scale deposits; load management; auxillary equipment to increase boiler efficiency; air preheaters and economizers; other types of auxillary equipment; combustion control systems and instrumentation; boiler O/sub 2/ trim controls; should you purchase a new boiler.; financial evaluation procedures; case studies. The last chapter includes a case study of a boiler burning pulverized coal and a case study of stoker-fired coal.

  16. On the Use of Student Data in Efficiency Analysis--Technical Efficiency in Swedish Upper Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    While individual data form the base for much empirical analysis in education, this is not the case for analysis of technical efficiency. In this paper, efficiency is estimated using individual data which is then aggregated to larger groups of students. Using an individual approach to technical efficiency makes it possible to carry out studies on a…

  17. Genetic defects in DNA repair system and enhancement of intergenote transformation efficiency in Bacillus subtilis Marburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Takahashi, H.; Saito, H.; Ikeda, Y.

    1978-01-01

    Mechanisms of inefficiency in heterospecies transformation were studied with a transformation system consisting of Bacillus subtilis 168TI (trpC2thy) as recipient and of DNA prepared from partially hybrid strains of B. subtilis which had incorporated trp + DNA of B. amyloliquefaciens 203 (formerly, B. megaterium 203) in the chromosome (termed intergenote). The intergenote transformation was not so efficient as the corresponding homospecies transformation and the efficiency appeared to relate inversely with the length of heterologous portion in the intergenote. When a variety of ultraviolet light (UV) sensitive mutants, deficient in host-cell reactivation capacity, were used as recipients for the intergenote transformation, 2 out of 16 mutants exhibited significantly enhanced transformation efficiency of the trpC marker. Genetic studies by transformation showed that the trait relating to the enhancement of intergenote-transformation efficiency was always associated with the UV sensitivity, suggesting that these two traits are determined by a single gene. The efficiency of intergenote transformation was highly affected also by DNA concentration; the lower the concentration, the less the efficiency. When, however, the UV sensitive mutant was used as recipient, the effect of DNA concentration was largely diminished, suggesting the reduction of DNA-inactivating activity in the UV sensitive recipient. These results were discussed in relation to a possible excision-repair system selectively correcting the mismatched DNA in the course of intergenote transformation. (orig.) [de

  18. Restructuring local distribution services: Possibilities and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duann, D.J.

    1994-08-01

    The restructuring of local distribution services is now the focus of the natural gas industry. It is the last major step in the ``reconstitution`` of the natural gas industry and a critical clement in realizing the full benefits of regulatory and market reforms that already have taken place in the wellhead and interstate markets. It could also be the most important regulatory initiative for most end-use customers because they are affected directly by the costs and reliability of distribution services. Several factors contribute to the current emphasis on distribution service restructuring. They include the unbundling and restructuring of upstream markets, a realization of the limitations of supply-side options (such as gas procurement oversight), and the increased diversity and volatility of gas demand facing local distribution companies. Local distribution service is not one but a series of activities that start with commodity gas procurement and extend to transportation, load balancing, storage, and metering and billing of services provided. There are also considerable differences in the economies of scale and scope associated with these various activities. Thus, a mixture of supply arrangements (such as a competitive market or a monopoly) is required for the most efficient delivery of local distribution services. A distinction must be made between the supply of commodity gas and the provision of a bundled distribution service. This distinction and identification of the best supply arrangements for various distribution service components are the most critical factors in developing appropriate restructuring policies. For most state public utility commissions the criteria for service restructuring should include pursuing the economies of scale and scope in gas distribution, differentiating and matching gas service reliability and quality with customer requirements, and controlling costs associated with the search, negotiation, and contracting of gas services.

  19. Efficiency enhancement in IGCC power plants with air-blown gasification and hot gas clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffrida, Antonio; Romano, Matteo C.; Lozza, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Air-blown IGCC systems with hot fuel gas clean-up are investigated. In detail, the gas clean-up station consists of two reactors: in the first, the raw syngas exiting the gasifier and passed through high-temperature syngas coolers is desulfurized by means of a zinc oxide-based sorbent, whereas in the second the sulfided sorbent is duly regenerated. The hot fuel gas clean-up station releases H 2 S-free syngas, which is ready to fuel the combustion turbine after hot gas filtration, and a SO 2 -laden stream, which is successively treated in a wet scrubber. A thermodynamic analysis of two air-blown IGCC systems, the first with cold fuel gas clean-up and the second with hot fuel gas clean-up, both with a state-of-the-art combustion turbine as topping cycle, shows that it is possible to obtain a really attractive net efficiency (more than 51%) for the second system, with significant improvements in comparison with the first system. Nevertheless, higher efficiency is accomplished with a small reduction in the power output and no sensible efficiency improvements seem to be appreciated when the desulfurization temperature increases. Other IGCC systems, with an advanced 1500 °C-class combustion turbine as the result of technology improvements, are investigated as well, with efficiency as high as 53%. - Highlights: ► Hot fuel gas clean-up is a highly favorable technology for IGCC concepts. ► Significant IGCC efficiency improvements are possible with hot fuel gas clean-up. ► Size reductions of several IGCC components are possible. ► Higher desulfurization temperatures do not sensibly affect IGCC efficiency. ► IGCC efficiency as high as 53% is possible with a 1500°C-class combustion turbine

  20. Educated for Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amore, Mario Daniele; Bennedsen, Morten; Larsen, Birthe

    We study the effect of CEO education on a firm’s energy efficiency. Using a unique dataset of Danish firms, we document that firms led by more educated CEOs exhibit greater energy efficiency. We establish causality by employing exogenous CEO hospitalization episodes: the hospitalization of highly......-educated CEOs induces a drop in a firm’s energy efficiency, whereas the hospitalization of low-education CEOs does not have any significant effect. Disentangling the effect of educational length from that of the field of study, we find that the greater energy efficiency is mostly driven by the cumulated years...

  1. Pricing of payment cards, competition, and efficiency : A possible guide for SEPA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Wilko; Schmiedel, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes equilibrium pricing of payment cards and welfare consequences of payment card competition. In particular, we model competition between debit and credit cards. The paper argues that optimal consumer and merchant fees must take safety, income uncertainty, default risk, and the

  2. New possibilities for efficient laser surface treatment by diode-pumped kW-class lasers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brajer, Jan; Švábek, Roman; Rostohar, Danijela; Divoký, Martin; Lucianetti, Antonio; Mocek, Tomáš; Madl, J.; Pitrmuc, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, Aug (2015), s. 1-3 ISSN 1823-3430 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0143 Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : amplifier Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  3. Teacher’s asserting premises and possibilities of efficient managerial styles

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Marian Bunăiașu

    2014-01-01

    The issue of teacher's managerial styles is unitary approached along with educational styles issue and institutional management styles issue, and is part of the class' managerial dimension. Comparative, educational and managerial styles (of the school manager) have a theoretical history and benefit from validated techniques and tools, whereas teacher's managerial styles issue are about to gain consistency as part of the pedagogical literature, and present researches emphasize their roles in e...

  4. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splitter, Derek A [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  5. Analysis of possible energy efficiency increasing of the cogeneration process in EL-TO Zagreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanisa, B.; Krivak, B.

    1996-01-01

    In the erection planing of new generation capacity, besides the profitability, there is need to taken in account the rational consumption of primary energy, and the environmental protection. The main rules could have cogenerations of the heat and power. In power plant EL-TO Zagreb there are analysed generating capacity of the cogeneration process. There is considered reconstruction and revitalisation's of existing generating units, and erections of new one, all in the purpose to meet the growing heat demand. The district heating system is considered from the point as opportunity in energy saving capacity in the cogeneration of heat and power. For the amount of the energy saved there is need for less primary energy to be consumed, and this in finally means that for the some energy demands it has the some effect as the natural energy resources are expanded. (author)

  6. High efficiency cogeneration in sugar industry: opportunities, obstacles and possible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govinda Rao, R.

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to highlight the feasibility of bagasse based cogeneration systems within the framework of the existing laws and policies of the government, and to encourage the private sector and others to come forth to make good use of an extremely good investment climate. The feasible options worked out are based on financing from banks and other financial institutions at market rates. The other major objective is to establish the impediments to implement these projects. (author)

  7. Financing energy efficiency investments. Third party financing: practical problems and possible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, A.

    1992-01-01

    Third Party Financing means the packaging together of both technical aid and the necessary funding for energy cost saving investments by an outside company (outside to the energy user that is), using the energy cost savings themselves to pay for that investment. There are two key factors which differentiate Third Party Financing and conventional approaches to the implementation of energy conservation projects, the first of which is the provision of all the necessary technical services - both initial and detailed energy audits, engineering design and implementation - from one source. The second difference involves viewing the energy cost savings as a ''stream oincome'' which will repay the cost of the investment. This approach has a number of attractions to energy users: the outside company brings both its technical expertise and the necessary up-front capital to fund the energy saving investment. In addition, because the payments to the outside company are contingent, either wholly or in part, upon the level and timing of the energy cost savings the technical and financial risk for the investment is transferred from the energy user to the outside company. However, although simple in concept, third party financing is complex in practice. How does an energy user judge one third party financing proposal against another? If an agreement is made, how are energy savings measured or what happens if there is a dispute between the two parties? These are examples of the practical questions addressed in this paper which must be resolved if third party financing is to be used to assist energy saving. (Author)

  8. Possibility of increasing the fire-suppression efficiency of the foam in automatic extinguishing installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachanov, I. V.; Veremenyuk, V. V.; Karpenchuk, I. V.; Pavlyukov, S. Yu.

    2013-05-01

    The mechanics of movement of a liquid in the diffuser of the injector of an automatic extinguishing installation with preaeration of the fire-fighting substance was theoretically investigated. An integral solution of the equation for movement of the preaerated fire-fighting gas-liquid mixture in the indicated diffuser has been obtained. A mathematical model of two-phase liquid flow in this diffuser, which allows one to calculate the distribution of the average pressure in the diffuser along its length and to determine the loss in this pressure, has been developed. This model can be used for designing the output region of a hydraulic system with a hydrodynamic drag providing the operation of its injector in a definite regime.

  9. THE ANALYSIS OF POSSIBILITIES OF INTERNET RESOURCES TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С А Усманов

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In article the analysis of Internet resources of educational appointment is carried out and the short characteristic of the main opportunities of these resources is given. Today it is already impossible to present educational process without use of opportunities of Internet resources. The modern teacher has to be able to work with information which is necessary for realization of his professional activity, the solution of his professional tasks, to have skills of cooperation with pupils on the basis of information exchange. The educational Internet resource is complete, named, interconnected, uniform systemically organized set which includes both the general education formalized and professionally significant knowledge and means of organizational and methodical ensuring educational process and means for their automated storage, accumulation and processing. Internet resources are designed to satisfy needs of the user for various aspects and spheres of educational activity. Quite often concrete resource includes several properties such difficult at once on structure and functioning of means what the Internet is. Use of the Internet allows to establish between the teacher and pupils feedback when performing independent works, allows to carry out mailing of materials and to conduct surveys. Occupations with use of resources of the Internet represent alloy of new information technologies with new pedagogical technologies.

  10. Efficient design of clinical trials and epidemiological research: is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Michael S; Gordon, David; Wei, Gina; Pearson, Gail

    2017-08-01

    Randomized clinical trials and large-scale, cohort studies continue to have a critical role in generating evidence in cardiovascular medicine; however, the increasing concern is that ballooning costs threaten the clinical trial enterprise. In this Perspectives article, we discuss the changing landscape of clinical research, and clinical trials in particular, focusing on reasons for the increasing costs and inefficiencies. These reasons include excessively complex design, overly restrictive inclusion and exclusion criteria, burdensome regulations, excessive source-data verification, and concerns about the effect of clinical research conduct on workflow. Thought leaders have called on the clinical research community to consider alternative, transformative business models, including those models that focus on simplicity and leveraging of digital resources. We present some examples of innovative approaches by which some investigators have successfully conducted large-scale, clinical trials at relatively low cost. These examples include randomized registry trials, cluster-randomized trials, adaptive trials, and trials that are fully embedded within digital clinical care or administrative platforms.

  11. Energy efficiency: Lever for the Energy Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The Eco-electric industry group (FFIE, FGME, Gimelec, IGNES, SERCE) has conducted a study to evaluate the energy saving potential of active energy efficiency solutions in the residential and commercial building sectors. Based on field implementations and demonstrators, it has been demonstrated that active energy efficiency can sustainably achieve substantial savings for households, companies and public authorities. Energy Efficiency - Lever for the energy transition presents the results and conclusions of that study, alongside with recommendations for public authority in terms of building retrofit policy for putting France on the best possible 'trajectory' from a budgetary and environmental point of view. (author)

  12. Hydraulic washing removal efficiencies of Orimulsion from rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.R.; Ward, S.; Sergy, G.

    2002-01-01

    Orimulsion is a fuel alternative composed of 70 per cent bitumen in 30 per cent water. It is shipped from Venezuela to New Brunswick where it is used as fuel oil for power plants. While there have not been any major spills of Orimulsion, it is recognized that very little is known regarding the dispersal and weathering processes of Orimulsion, or the behaviour and cleanup of the product on both rocky and course sediment shorelines. For that reason, this study was conducted to determine the efficiency of hydraulic washing under different water temperatures and pressures to remove bitumen from rocky shorelines. The results of the study make it possible to assess the physical effectiveness of the method and to determine the range of effective operational parameters. The coating protocol was refined to create uniform coating of both dispersed and coalesced bitumen of rock surfaces. The use of a chemical agent for enhancing removal efficiency was also assessed. Orimulsion could reach shorelines as low concentration dispersions of bitumen particles suspended in a water column, or as a high concentration mixture of bitumen, water and air. Granite tiles were coated with uniform coatings of both dispersed and coalesced bitumen. They were then washed under different pressures, temperatures and other treatments. Temperatures of more than 40 degrees C and pressures of more than 76 kPa were needed to effectively remove the bitumen coatings. Weathering significantly increased coating tenacity for dispersed coatings, but did not affect coalesced coating tenacity. Immediate washing was found to be very effective for removing dispersed coating, but not for coalesced coating. Coating tenacity was also affected by submergence times. Pre-treatment of the coating with a dispersion called Corexit significantly improved the removal efficiencies of dispersed coatings, but not coalesced coatings. 6 refs., 10 tabs., 5 figs

  13. Telecytology: Is it possible with smartphone images?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Davut; Hacisalihoglu, Uguray Payam; Kirimlioglu, Saime Hale

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to discuss smartphone usage in telecytology and determine intraobserver concordance between microscopic cytopathological diagnoses and diagnoses derived via static smartphone images. The study was conducted with 172 cytologic material. A pathologist captured static images of the cytology slides from the ocular lens of a microscope using a smartphone. The images were transferred via WhatsApp® to a cytopathologist working in another center who made all the microscopic cytopathological diagnoses 5-27 months ago. The cytopathologist diagnosed images on a smartphone without knowledge of their previous microscopic diagnoses. The Kappa agreement between microscopic cytopathological diagnoses and smartphone image diagnoses was determined. The average image capturing, transfer, and remote cytopathological diagnostic time for one case was 6.20 minutes. The percentage of cases whose microscopic and smartphone image diagnoses were concordant was 84.30%, and the percentage of those whose diagnoses were discordant was 15.69%. The highest Kappa agreement was observed in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (1.000), and the lowest agreement was observed in urine cytology (0.665). Patient management changed with smart phone image diagnoses at 11.04%. This study showed that easy, fast, and high-quality image capturing and transfer is possible from cytology slides using smartphones. The intraobserver Kappa agreement between the microscopic cytopathological diagnoses and remote smartphone image diagnoses was high. It was found that remote diagnosis due to difficulties in telecytology might change patient management. The developments in the smartphone camera technology and transfer software make them efficient telepathology and telecytology tools. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Efficiency of Finish power transmission network companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The Finnish Energy Market Authority has investigated the efficiency of power transmissions network companies. The results show that the intensification potential of the branch is 402 million FIM, corresponding to about 15% of the total costs of the branch and 7.3 % of the turnout. Energy Market Authority supervises the reasonableness of the power transmission prices, and it will use the results of the research in supervision. The research was carried out by the Quantitative Methods Research Group of Helsinki School of Economics. The main objective of the research was to create an efficiency estimation method for electric power distribution network business used for Finnish conditions. Data of the year 1998 was used as basic material in the research. Twenty-one of the 102 power distribution network operators was estimated to be totally efficient. Highest possible efficiency rate was 100, and the average of the efficiency rates of all the operators was 76.9, the minimum being 42.6

  15. Radon affected areas: Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Board advice on radon in homes issued in 1990 specifies that areas of the UK where 1% or more of homes exceed the Action Level of 200 becquerels per cubic metre of air should be regarded as Affected Areas. Results of radon measurements in homes in the districts of Kincardine and Deeside and Gordon in Grampian Region and Caithness and Sutherland in Highland Region are mapped and used to delineate Affected Areas in these areas where required. The Scottish Office is advised to consider the desirability of developing guidance on precautions against radon in future homes. (author)

  16. Affects and assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    the paper raises the questions where to locate aesthetics when planners and architects wishes to design for aesthetical experiences and sensations rather than formal objects. The paper will proceed through a brief outline of the recent notion of assemblage and affect in urban studies, planning theory...... happens to aesthetics and how does it change the existing social and geographical understanding of urban space? The paper sets out to reintroduce aesthetical aspects of affects and assemblages in relation to urban space and urban planning. It presupposes urban space as a continuous state of becoming where...

  17. THE FATTY ACIDS OF DIET AFFECT THE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY IN BOVINE FEMALE: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Espinoza Villavicencio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction is the basis of bovine meat and milk production: As a direct result of reproduction, the cycles of calf and milk production are renewed. However, there are many limiting steps in this process as: low pregnancy rates and long open days that result in increasing parturition intervals. Reproductive efficiency in dairy and beef cattle is multifactorial. Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting this efficiency, and some results have shown that feeding diverse sources of lipids and specifically, fatty acids (FA can result in a better reproductive efficiency. As a nutrition strategy to improve reproductive efficiency, FA of the omega 3 (n-3 and omega 6 (n-6 families have been studied, and it has been shown that these FA can control follicular development, production of progesterone in the corpus luteum, and secretion of PGF2α from the endometrium, increasing embryonic survival and pregnancy rates. The purpose of this revision is to analyze the possible mechanisms by which FA in the diet improve reproductive efficiency of cows, with especial emphasis on FA n-3 and n-6.

  18. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birk Engmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet.

  19. Possibility logic applied to pressure vessel residual lifetime prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garribba, S.; Lucia, A.C.; Volta, G.

    1985-01-01

    The adequacy is discussed of a probability measure to deal with the different types of uncertainty affecting any pressure vessel lifetime prediction. A more comprehensive framework derived from the fuzzy set theory and including as particular case possibility and probability measures is considered. With reference to the most critical step of lifetime assessment (the ND inspection), the paper compares the results, obtained adopting a possibility measure or a probability measure, in the representation models, fault tree-event tree, and in the decision models

  20. Energy efficiency through energy audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esan, A. A.

    2000-08-01

    Energy is an essential factor to economic and social development and improved standards of living in developing countries. Nigeria in particular. There is a strong need for greater energy efficiency in every sector of economy in order to reduce costs. enhance competitiveness, conserve energy resources and reduce environmental impacts associated with production, distribution and use of energy. Energy auditing and monitoring has a significant role in any energy management and conservation project. Energy auditing as an important part of industrial energy management on plant level, represents a complex of activities aiming at the efficient use of energy. The activities are undertaken by a team of experts who use a set of measuring instruments to monitor and evaluate all the necessary data to elaborate a package of recommendations on improvements in the field of energy efficiency and possible product quality. The inefficient conversion and use of energy have been identified as a central problem for all developing countries, Nigeria inclusive, since they all consume significantly higher amounts of energy per unit of GDP than OECD countries. This aggravates energy-related environmental problems and is also a burden on domestic resources and foreign exchange. Energy prices have risen drastically in many developing countries, while energy intensities remain high. Price changes alone are not rapidly translating energy efficiency improvements. Identifying and removing the obstacles to greater energy efficiency should be priority for government in developing countries. This is why the Energy Commission, an apex organ of government on Energy matters in all its ramifications is out to encourage relatively low-cost energy audits for the Textile industries - such audits can identify ''good house-keeping's' measures, such as simply process improvements, that reduce energy consumption and operating costs. This will be followed by the training of plant workers/energy managers

  1. EXPLORING THE FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEES’ ADOPTION AND USE OF INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majharul Talukder

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the factors affecting innovation adoption by individual employees within an organization in Australia. Following a qualitative research approach, this paper uses a series of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions involving academic and administrative employees at a tertiary educational institution in Australia. The qualitative approach is adopted to have a deeper insight into the complexities and dynamism associated with the factors influencing innovation adoption process in organizational settings. The findings of this research highlight the need for broadening an understanding of the key factors affecting employee’s decisions to uptake the adoption of innovation. The results provide important clues for comprehending the factors influencing and determining the employee’s adoption and continued use of innovation in the work environment. In the face of the current trend towards end-user applications of technological innovation, the results suggest some guidelines for management toward effective and efficient adoption and use of innovation in organizational settings. This paper has highlighted the above findings and their implications for management practices related to innovation management in an Australian organizational setting. This paper also identifies possible limitations and future research potential in the relevant field.

  2. Institutions, Equilibria and Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Competition and efficiency is at the core of economic theory. This volume collects papers of leading scholars, which extend the conventional general equilibrium model in important ways. Efficiency and price regulation are studied when markets are incomplete and existence of equilibria in such set...... in OLG, learning in OLG and in games, optimal pricing of derivative securities, the impact of heterogeneity...

  3. Energy Efficiency Collaboratives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Michael [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Bryson, Joe [US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Collaboratives for energy efficiency have a long and successful history and are currently used, in some form, in more than half of the states. Historically, many state utility commissions have used some form of collaborative group process to resolve complex issues that emerge during a rate proceeding. Rather than debate the issues through the formality of a commission proceeding, disagreeing parties are sent to discuss issues in a less-formal setting and bring back resolutions to the commission. Energy efficiency collaboratives take this concept and apply it specifically to energy efficiency programs—often in anticipation of future issues as opposed to reacting to a present disagreement. Energy efficiency collaboratives can operate long term and can address the full suite of issues associated with designing, implementing, and improving energy efficiency programs. Collaboratives can be useful to gather stakeholder input on changing program budgets and program changes in response to performance or market shifts, as well as to provide continuity while regulators come and go, identify additional energy efficiency opportunities and innovations, assess the role of energy efficiency in new regulatory contexts, and draw on lessons learned and best practices from a diverse group. Details about specific collaboratives in the United States are in the appendix to this guide. Collectively, they demonstrate the value of collaborative stakeholder processes in producing successful energy efficiency programs.

  4. efficience technico-economique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT. TECHNICO-ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY : CASE OF THE PRODUCERS OF ONION AND POTATO IN KNOW IN MOROCCO. In the new context ... Key words : Technico-economic efficiency, stochastic frontier, potato production, onion production, Morocco ..... sont le labour, le cover-cropage et le traçage. 82 % des ...

  5. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for communications about resource use efficiency and for measures to increase the use efficiency of nutrients in relation to food production. This holds especially for nitrogen. Nitrogen (N) is essential for life and a main nutrient element. It is needed in relatively large

  6. Logistics, Management and Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea UDRESCU; Sandu CUTURELA

    2014-01-01

    The problem related to the efficiency of the management for organization is general being the concern off all managers. In the present essay we consider that the efficacy of the organization begins from the structural systemization of the organizational management into general management, management of logistics and management of production which demands a new managerial process, more competitive based on economic efficiency.

  7. Transmission prices in the electric system. Technical constraints and economic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polidori, P.

    1999-01-01

    This article analyses the two main models at the core of today's theoretical discussion on transmission pricing in electricity sectors under competition. The first aim of the paper is showing how technical constraints that characterise transmission systems may affect energy production and transmission and therefore the definition of the price system for using the electric grid. The second aim of the paper is showing how it is possible to suggest solutions, although not free from limitations, that can be used for an efficient management of electric systems characterised by generation and consumption sectors under competition [it

  8. Energy efficient aerobic treatment of forest industry wastewaters; Energieffektiv aerob rening av skogsindustriella avloppsvatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Maria; From-Aldaron, Mattias

    2011-01-15

    There is great potential to reduce energy requirements in aerobic biological purification if the oxygen demand can be reduced and oxygen delivery, when process water is aerated, is made more efficient. A model was developed to estimate the possible reduction in oxygen demand. Model variables were COD reduction, sludge withdrawal, oxygen, and alpha-value. Attempts made in an aerator in the lab-scale process shows that water content strongly affects oxygen transport and alpha-value. Surface active extract substances such as fatty acids and resin acids have greatest significance. The effect increases with the concentration of extract substances and decreases with added sodium chloride content

  9. The impact of managed care penetration and hospital quality on efficiency in hospital staffing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Lee R; Magnussen, Jon

    2002-01-01

    The state of California has recently mandated minimum nurse-staffing ratios, raising concerns about possible affects on hospital efficiency. In this study, we examine how market factors and quality were related to staffing levels in California hospitals in 1995 (prior to implementation of the new law). We are particularly interested in the affect of managed care penetration on this aspect of hospital efficiency because the call to legislative action was predicated on fears that hospitals were reducing staffing below optimal levels in response to managed care pressures. We derive a unique measure of excess staffing in hospitals based on a data envelopment analysis (DEA) production function model, which explicitly includes ancillary care among the inputs and outputs. This careful specification of production is important because ancillary care use has risen relative to daily hospital services, with the spread of managed care and advances in medical technology. We find that market share (adjusted for size) and market concentration are the major determinants of excess staffing while managed care penetration is insignificant. We also find that poor quality (outcomes worse than expected) is associated with less efficient staffing. These findings suggest that the larger, more efficient urban hospitals will be penalized more heavily under binding staffing ratios than smaller, less-urban hospitals.

  10. Energy efficiency and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Kunnasvirta, Annika; Kiviluoto, Katariina

    separate key aspects hinders strategic energy efficiency planning. For this reason, the PLEEC project – “Planning for Energy Efficient Cities” – funded by the EU Seventh Framework Programme uses an integrative approach to achieve the sus‐ tainable, energy– efficient, smart city. By coordinating strategies...... to conduct behavioural interventions, to be presented in Deliverable 5.5., the final report. This report will also provide valuable information for the WP6 general model for an Energy-Smart City. Altogether 38 behavioural interventions are analysed in this report. Each collected and analysed case study...... of the European Union’s 20‐20‐20 plan is to improve energy efficiency by 20% in 2020. However, holistic knowledge about energy efficiency potentials in cities is far from complete. Currently, a WP4 location in PLEEC project page 3 variety of individual strategies and approaches by different stakeholders tackling...

  11. Nonverbal synchrony and affect in dyadic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eTschacher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and 'fun task' conditions. We focused on the link between interactants' affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants' personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants' body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (Motion Energy Analysis, MEA. Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.3 years. Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted five minutes. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation.

  12. Possibilities for electricity production from geothermal energy in Slovenia in the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Rajver

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to raise awareness of the public, with the aim that anyone can judge reality and accuracyof records that appear in the media on the exploitation of geothermal energy. It provides a comprehensive overviewof geothermal systems, potential of hydrothermal and enhanced geothermal systems, of mechanisms and characteristicsof middle and high enthalpy geothermal resources. It also deals with a mode of their conversion into electricity.Featured are the main factors affecting the decision on effectiveness of conversion of geothermal energy intoelectricity. Given are the review of the research necessary to establish the geothermal potential and assessment oftechnological and economic possibilities of installing geothermal power plants in Slovenia. The paper also describesthe state of knowledge of middle- and high temperature geothermal resources in Slovenia with initial conditions forconstructing geothermal power plants. In addition, we present theoretical calculations of the conversion efficiencyof geothermal energy into electricity with conventional turbines and present some problems for the exploitationof geothermal energy, which are associated with additional costs and further reduce the efficiency of investment.Described are the characteristics and performance of binary geothermal power plants and foreign experience inobtaining electricity from the EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System. We also address the overlapping of the oil andgas industry with the operation of the EGS and the possibility of exploiting oil and gas wells for producing thegeothermal electricity.

  13. Effect of Energy Efficiency Standards on Natural Gas Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnall, Michael; Dale, Larry; Lekov, Alex

    2011-07-26

    A primary justification for the establishment of energy efficiency standards for home appliances is the existence of information deficiencies and externalities in the market for appliances. For example, when a long-term homeowner purchases a new gas-fired water heater, she will maximize the value of her purchase by comparing the life-cycle cost of ownership of available units, including both total installed cost - purchase price plus installation costs - and operating cost in the calculus. Choice of the appliance with the lowest life-cycle costs leads to the most economically efficient balance between capital cost and fuel cost. However, if the purchaser's expected period of ownership is shorter than the useful life of the appliance, or the purchaser does not pay for the fuel used by the appliance, as is often the case with rental property, fuel cost will be external to her costs, biasing her decision toward spending less on fuel efficiency and resulting in the purchase of an appliance with greater than optimal fuel usage. By imposing an efficiency standard on appliances, less efficient appliances are made unavailable, precluding less efficient purchases and reducing fuel usage. The reduction in fuel demanded by residential users affects the total demand for such fuels as natural gas, for example. Reduced demand implies that residential customers are willing to purchase less gas at each price level. That is, the demand curve, labeled D{sub 0} in Figure 1, shifts to the left to D{sub 1}. If there is no change in the supply function, the supply curve will intersect the demand curve at a lower price. Residential demand is only one component of the total demand for natural gas. It is possible that total demand will decline very little if demand in other sectors increases substantially in response to a decline in the price. If demand does decrease, modeling studies generally confirm the intuition that reductions in demand for natural gas will result in reductions

  14. Dynamic Synchronization of Teacher-Students Affection in Affective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei

    2011-01-01

    Based on Bower's affective network theory, the article links the dynamic analysis of affective factors in affective instruction, and presents affective instruction strategic of dynamic synchronization between teacher and students to implement the best ideal mood that promotes students' cognition and affection together. In the process of teaching,…

  15. Efficiency and deregulation of the electricity market in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngho Chang; Tuan Hin Tay

    2006-01-01

    This study examines production efficiency of electricity generation in the New Electricity Market of Singapore (NEMS), where deregulation is currently proceeding. Singapore is reliant on foreign direct investments and exports so competition from countries with lower costs such as China and India is exerting pressure on the government to reduce the costs of doing business here. Electricity cost is one of these. Deregulation is believed to be able to bring about lower electricity costs due to the various efficiency gains possible. This study concerns itself mainly with production efficiency and attempts to calculate possible production efficiency gains by using linear programming model. Production-efficiency gains are quantified by the base case scenario of continued regulation versus four counterfactual deregulation scenarios. The results indicate that cost gains could be about eight per cent of current production cost, and this is possibly a lower-bound estimate. However, whether the purported efficiency gains are realized is to be seen as the deregulation proceeds. (author)

  16. Efficiency and deregulation of the electricity market in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Hin Tay, Tuan

    2006-01-01

    This study examines production efficiency of electricity generation in the New Electricity Market of Singapore (NEMS), where deregulation is currently proceeding. Singapore is reliant on foreign direct investments and exports so competition from countries with lower costs such as China and India is exerting pressure on the government to reduce the costs of doing business here. Electricity cost is one of these. Deregulation is believed to be able to bring about lower electricity costs due to the various efficiency gains possible. This study concerns itself mainly with production efficiency and attempts to calculate possible production efficiency gains by using linear programming model. Production-efficiency gains are quantified by the base case scenario of continued regulation versus four counterfactual deregulation scenarios. The results indicate that cost gains could be about eight per cent of current production cost, and this is possibly a lower-bound estimate. However, whether the purported efficiency gains are realized is to be seen as the deregulation proceeds

  17. Perspectives on implementing energy efficiency in existing Swedish detached houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joelsson, Anna; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2008-01-15

    of the country has the opposite effect. Also, the increase in real estate tax when implementing energy-efficiency measures gives a contradictory message. The price differences between energy suppliers has a larger impact on the house owners' economic conditions than both subsidies and tax rate changes, and possibly also affect the house owner's attitudes towards various systems. (author)

  18. Perspectives on implementing energy efficiency in existing Swedish detached houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joelsson, Anna; Gustavsson, Leif

    2008-01-01

    the country has the opposite effect. Also, the increase in real estate tax when implementing energy-efficiency measures gives a contradictory message. The price differences between energy suppliers has a larger impact on the house owners' economic conditions than both subsidies and tax rate changes, and possibly also affect the house owner's attitudes towards various systems. (author)

  19. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  20. Second best efficiency and the English auction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelucci, F.; Hernando-Veciana, Á.

    2009-01-01

    We characterize the incentive compatible allocation that maximizes the expected social surplus in a single-unit sale when the efficient allocation is not implementable. We then show that allowing for the possibility that the good remains unsold may increase the expected social surplus even when

  1. Efficient Parallel Algorithms for Unsteady Incompressible Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc; Minev, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give an overview of recent developments on splitting schemes for solving the time-dependent incompressible Navier–Stokes equations and to discuss possible extensions to the variable density/viscosity case. A particular attention is given to algorithms that can be implemented efficiently on large parallel clusters.

  2. Structure And Efficiency Of Timber Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian C. Murray; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2003-01-01

    Perfect competition has long been the standard by which economists have judged the market's ability to achieve an efficient social outcome. The competitive process, unfettered by the imperfections discussed below, forges an outcome in which goods and services are produced at their lowest possible cost, and market equilibrium is achieved at the point at which the...

  3. Efficient GPU-based skyline computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden; Assent, Ira; Magnani, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    The skyline operator for multi-criteria search returns the most interesting points of a data set with respect to any monotone preference function. Existing work has almost exclusively focused on efficiently computing skylines on one or more CPUs, ignoring the high parallelism possible in GPUs. In...

  4. The efficiency of drip irrigation unpacked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Boesveld, H.; Kuper, M.

    2013-01-01

    Drip irrigation figures prominently in water policy debates as a possible solution to water scarcity problems, based on the assertion that it will improve water use efficiencies. We use this article to carefully trace the scientific basis of this assertion. Through a systematic review of the

  5. The Affective Turn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carnera, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This paper confronts biopolitics with modern labour addressing questions of ‘governmentality’, ‘self-management’ and ‘social innovation’. It argues that the new modes of production within immaterial labour involve a new complex relation between on the one hand the ‘Art of Governance...... of biopolitics that surpasses that of governmentality. The affective self-relation is used as a research tool to analyse the creation of social and economic values in our new modes of productions, for instance, within free labour of the cultural industry. The movie The Five Obstructions is used to show how...... organizing good affective encounters based on limitations enhance and facilitate the performative dimension of self-management. Finally, the paper addresses the problem of critique confronting self-relation with Spinoza's ethics as an ethical difference of powe...

  6. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  7. Production possibility frontier analysis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagawa, Shigemi; Takezono, Kanako; Suh, Sangwon; Kudoh, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the productive efficiency of an advanced biodiesel plant in Japan using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The empirical analysis uses monthly input data (waste cooking oil, methanol, potassium hydroxide, power consumption, and the truck diesel fuel used for the procurement of waste cooking oil) and output data (biodiesel) of a biodiesel fuel plant for August 2008–July 2010. The results of this study show that the production activity with the lowest cost on the biodiesel production possibility frontier occurred in March 2010 (production activity used 1.41 kL of waste cooking oil, 0.18 kL of MeOH, 16.33 kg of KOH, and 5.45 kW h of power), and the unit production cost in that month was 18,517 yen/kL. Comparing this efficient production cost to the mean unit production cost on the production possibility frontier at 19,712 yen/kL, revealed that the cost of producing 1 kL of biodiesel could be reduced by as much as 1195 yen. We also find that the efficiency improvement will contribute to decreasing the cost ratio (cost per sale) of the biodiesel production by approximately 1% during the study period (24 months) between August 2008 and July 2010. - Highlights: ► This paper analyzes the productive efficiency of an advanced biodiesel plant using DEA. ► We examine the optimal production activities of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. ► Considering the production frontier, the unit cost of biodiesel could be reduced by 1195 yen. ► The efficiency improvement contributes to decreasing the cost ratio of the biodiesel by 1%

  8. Learning efficient correlated equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Borowski, Holly P.; Marden, Jason R.; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of distributed learning literature focuses on convergence to Nash equilibria. Correlated equilibria, on the other hand, can often characterize more efficient collective behavior than even the best Nash equilibrium. However, there are no existing distributed learning algorithms that converge to specific correlated equilibria. In this paper, we provide one such algorithm which guarantees that the agents' collective joint strategy will constitute an efficient correlated equilibrium with high probability. The key to attaining efficient correlated behavior through distributed learning involves incorporating a common random signal into the learning environment.

  9. Learning efficient correlated equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Borowski, Holly P.

    2014-12-15

    The majority of distributed learning literature focuses on convergence to Nash equilibria. Correlated equilibria, on the other hand, can often characterize more efficient collective behavior than even the best Nash equilibrium. However, there are no existing distributed learning algorithms that converge to specific correlated equilibria. In this paper, we provide one such algorithm which guarantees that the agents\\' collective joint strategy will constitute an efficient correlated equilibrium with high probability. The key to attaining efficient correlated behavior through distributed learning involves incorporating a common random signal into the learning environment.

  10. Shrew trap efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gambalemoke, Mbalitini; Mukinzi, Itoka; Amundala, Drazo

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of four trap types (pitfall, Sherman LFA, Victor snap and Museum Special snap traps) to capture shrews. This experiment was conducted in five inter-riverine forest blocks in the region of Kisangani. The total trapping effort was 6,300, 9,240, 5,280 and 5,460 trap......, our results indicate that pitfall traps are the most efficient for capturing shrews: not only do they have a higher efficiency (yield), but the taxonomic diversity of shrews is also higher when pitfall traps are used....

  11. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  12. Dopamine D4 Receptor Polymorphism and Sex Interact to Predict Children's Affective Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon eBen-Israel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Affective knowledge, the ability to understand others’ emotional states, is considered to be a fundamental part in efficient social interaction. Affective knowledge can be seen as related to cognitive empathy, and in the framework of Theory of Mind (ToM as affective ToM. Previous studies found that cognitive empathy and ToM are heritable, yet little is known regarding the specific genes involved in individual variability in affective knowledge. Investigating the genetic basis of affective knowledge is important for understanding brain mechanisms underlying socio-cognitive abilities. The 7-repeat (7R allele within the third exon of the Dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4-III has been a focus of interest, due to accumulated knowledge regarding its relevance to individual differences in prosocial behavior. A recent study suggests that an interaction between the DRD4-III polymorphism and sex is associated with cognitive empathy among adults. We aimed to examine the same association in two childhood age groups. Children (N = 280, age 3.5 years, N = 283, age 5 years participated as part of the Longitudinal Israel Study of Twins (LIST. Affective knowledge was assessed through children’s responses to an illustrated story describing different emotional situations, told in a laboratory setting. The findings suggest a significant interaction between sex and the DRD4-III polymorphism, replicated in both age groups. Boy carriers of the 7R allele had higher affective knowledge scores than girls, whereas in the absence of the 7R there was no significant sex effect on affective knowledge. The results support the importance of DRD4-III polymorphism and sex differences to social development. Possible explanations for differences from adult findings are discussed, as are pathways for future studies.

  13. Transport Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so. In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations, among which four are for the transport sector. The recommendations focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, and eco-driving. Implementation of the recommendations has been weaker in the transport sector than others. This paper updates the progress that has been made in implementing the transport energy efficiency recommendations in IEA countries since March 2009. Many countries have in the last year moved from 'planning to implement' to 'implementation underway', but none have fully implemented all transport energy efficiency recommendations. The IEA calls therefore for full and immediate implementation of the recommendations.

  14. Efficient incremental relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel relaying scheme which improves the spectral efficiency of cooperative diversity systems by utilizing limited feedback from destination. Our scheme capitalizes on the fact that relaying is only required when direct transmission

  15. Improving efficiency in stereology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Kresten Krarup; Andersen, Ina Trolle; Andersen, Johnnie Bremholm

    2013-01-01

    of the study was to investigate the time efficiency of the proportionator and the autodisector on virtual slides compared with traditional methods in a practical application, namely the estimation of osteoclast numbers in paws from mice with experimental arthritis and control mice. Tissue slides were scanned......, a proportionator sampling and a systematic, uniform random sampling were simulated. We found that the proportionator was 50% to 90% more time efficient than systematic, uniform random sampling. The time efficiency of the autodisector on virtual slides was 60% to 100% better than the disector on tissue slides. We...... conclude that both the proportionator and the autodisector on virtual slides may improve efficiency of cell counting in stereology....

  16. Energy Efficient Cryogenics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, Barry J.; Notardonato, William; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, works to provide practical solutions to low-temperature problems while focusing on long-term technology targets for the energy-efficient use of cryogenics on Earth and in space.

  17. Getting a grip on your feelings: Effects of action orientation and external demands on intuitive affect regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, S.L.; Jostmann, N.B.

    2004-01-01

    The authors propose that volitional action is supported by intuitive affect regulation, defined as flexible, efficient, and nonrepressive control of own affective states. Intuitive affect regulation should be most apparent among action-oriented individuals under demanding conditions. Consistent with

  18. Efficient incremental relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2013-07-01

    We propose a novel relaying scheme which improves the spectral efficiency of cooperative diversity systems by utilizing limited feedback from destination. Our scheme capitalizes on the fact that relaying is only required when direct transmission suffers deep fading. We calculate the packet error rate for the proposed efficient incremental relaying scheme with both amplify and forward and decode and forward relaying. Numerical results are also presented to verify their analytical counterparts. © 2013 IEEE.

  19. More efficient together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    The solar-to-biomass conversion efficiency of natural photosynthesis is between 2.9 and 4.3% for most crops (1, 2). Improving the efficiency of photosynthesis could help increase the appeal of biologically derived fuels and chemicals in comparison with traditional petrochemical processes. One app...... competition between biotechnology and the food industry and avoid the environmental perturbation caused by intensive agriculture (3)....

  20. Thermodynamically efficient solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland

    2012-10-01

    Non-imaging Optics is the theory of thermodynamically efficient optics and as such depends more on thermodynamics than on optics. Hence in this paper a condition for the "best" design is proposed based on purely thermodynamic arguments, which we believe has profound consequences for design of thermal and even photovoltaic systems. This new way of looking at the problem of efficient concentration depends on probabilities, the ingredients of entropy and information theory while "optics" in the conventional sense recedes into the background.