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Sample records for possess high phenolic

  1. High-Temperature Graphite/Phenolic Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Ellis C.; Bodepudi, Venu P.; Biggs, Robert W., Jr.; Cranston, John A.

    1995-01-01

    Graphite-fiber/phenolic-resin composite material retains relatively high strength and modulus of elasticity at temperatures as high as 1,000 degrees F. Costs only 5 to 20 percent as much as refractory materials. Fabrication composite includes curing process in which application of full autoclave pressure delayed until after phenolic resin gels. Curing process allows moisture to escape, so when composite subsequently heated in service, much less expansion of absorbed moisture and much less tendency toward delamination. Developed for nose cone of external fuel tank of Space Shuttle. Other potential aerospace applications for material include leading edges, parts of nozzles, parts of aircraft engines, and heat shields. Terrestrial and aerospace applications include structural firewalls and secondary structures in aircraft, spacecraft, and ships. Modified curing process adapted to composites of phenolic with other fiber reinforcements like glass or quartz. Useful as high-temperature circuit boards and electrical insulators.

  2. High chemoselectivity in the phenol synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stephen K. Hashmi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to trap early intermediates of the gold-catalyzed phenol synthesis failed. Neither inter- nor intramolecularly offered vinyl groups, ketones or alcohols were able to intercept the gold carbenoid species. This indicates that the competing steps of the gold-catalyzed phenol synthesis are much faster than the steps of the interception reaction. In the latter the barrier of activation is higher. At the same time this explains the high tolerance of this very efficient and general reaction towards functional groups.

  3. Continuous extraction of phenolic compounds from pomegranate peel using high voltage electrical discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jun; He, Lang; Yan, Liang-Gong

    2017-09-01

    Pomegranate peel, a waste generated from fruit processing industry, is a potential source of phenolic compounds that are known for their anti-oxidative properties. In this study, a continuous high voltage electrical discharge (HVED) extraction system was for the first time designed and optimized for phenolic compounds from pomegranate peel. The optimal conditions for HVED were: flow rate of materials 12mL/min, electrodes gap distance 3.1mm (corresponding to 29kV/cm of electric field intensity) and liquid to solid ratio 35mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of phenolic compounds was 196.7±6.4mg/g, which closely agreed with the predicted value (199.83mg/g). Compared with the warm water maceration, HVED method possessed higher efficiency for the extraction of phenolic compounds. The results demonstrated that HVED technique could be a very effective method for continuous extraction of natural compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs for Refinery Wastewater Treatment Contains High Phenol Concentration

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    Azizah Alif Nurul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum Refinery wastewater is characterized by a high phenol content. Phenol is toxic and resistant to biological processes for treatment of the petroleum refinery wastewater. The combination of an AOP and a biological process can be used for treatment of the refinery wastewater. It is necessary to conduct a study to determine the appropriate condition of AOP to meet the phenol removal level. Two AOP configurations were investigated: H2O2 / UV and H2O2 / UV / O3. From each process samples, COD, phenol and pH were measured. The oxidation was carried out until the targeted phenol concentration of treated effluent were obtained. The better result obtained by using process H2O2 / UV / O3 with the H2O2 concentration 1000 ppm. After 120 minutes, the final target has been achieved in which phenol concentration of 37.5 mg/L or phenol degradation of 93.75%.

  5. Recovery of UAPB from high organic load during startup for phenolic wastewater treatment

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    Bakhshi Zeinab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation of synthetic wastewater containing phenol by upflow anaerobic packed bed reactor (UAPB was studied in this work. The reactor was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT of 24 h and under mesophilic (30±1ºC conditions. The startup operation was conducted for 150 days; split into 4 phases. The phenol concentration was stepwise increased. The concentration of phenol in phases 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 100, 400, 700 and 1000 mg/l, respectively. In phase 1, the reactor reached steady state conditions on the 8th day with a phenol removal efficiency and biogas production rate of 96.8% and 1.42 l/d, respectively. For an increase of the initial phenol concentration in phase 2, a slight decrease in phenol removal efficiency was observed. Similar trends were observed in phases 3 and 4 of startup. Due to the high phenol concentration a sudden decrease in removal efficiency and biogas production was observed. The surviving microorganisms were gradually adapted and acclimated to high phenol concentrations. In phases 3 and 4, the phenol removal efficiency at steady state conditions were 98.4 and 98%, respectively. The maximum biogas production was observed at day 130 with a value of 3.57 l/d that corresponds to phenol concentration of 1000 mg/l.

  6. Highly tilted liquid crystalline materials possessing a direct phase transition from antiferroelectric to isotropic phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewska, K.; Drzewiński, W. [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Czerwiński, M., E-mail: mczerwinski@wat.edu.pl [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Dąbrowski, R. [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Piecek, W. [Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-03-01

    Pure compounds and multicomponent mixtures with a broad temperature range of high tilted liquid crystalline antiferroelectric phase and a direct phase transition from antiferroelectric to isotropic phase, were obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms these kinds of materials form a high tilted anticlinic phase, with a fixed layer spacing and very weak dependency upon temperature, after the transition from the isotropic phase. Due to this, not only pure orthoconic antiferroelectric liquid crystals but also those with a moderate tilt should generate a good dark state. Furthermore, due to the increased potential for forming anticlinic forces, such materials could minimize a commonly observed asymmetry of a rise and fall switching times at a surface stabilized geometry. - Highlights: • The new class of liquid crystalline materials with the direct SmC{sub A}*. • Iso phase transition were obtained. • Materials possess the layer spacing fixed and very weak dependent upon temperature. • Smectic layers without shrinkage are observed. • A good dark state can be generate in SSAFLC.

  7. High Phenolics Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce Improves Glucose Metabolism in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Diana M.; Roopchand, Diana E.; Poulev, Alexander; Kuhn, Peter; Armas, Isabel; Johnson, William D.; Oren, Andrew; Ribnicky, David; Zelzion, Ehud; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Raskin, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Scope The ability of high phenolic Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce (RSL) to attenuate metabolic syndrome and gut dysbiosis was studied in very high fat diet (VHFD)-fed mice. Phenolic absorption was assessed in vivo and in a gastrointestinal tract model. Methods and results Mice were fed VHFD, VHFD supplemented with RSL (RSL-VHFD) or store-purchased green lettuce (GL-VHFD), or low-fat diet (LFD) for 13 weeks. Compared to VHFD or GL-VHFD-fed groups, RSL-VHFD group showed significantly improved oral glucose tolerance (p<0.05). Comparison of VHFD, RSL-VHFD, and GL-VHFD groups revealed no significant differences with respect to insulin tolerance, hepatic lipids, body weight gain, fat mass, plasma glucose, triglycerides, free fatty acid, and lipopolysaccharide levels, as well as relative abundances of major bacterial phyla from 16S rDNA amplicon data sequences (from fecal and cecal samples). However, RSL and GL-supplementation increased abundance of several taxa involved in plant polysaccharide degradation/fermentation. RSL phenolics chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-glucoside, and quercetin-malonyl-glucoside were bioaccessible in the TIM-1 digestion model, but had relatively low recovery. Conclusions RSL phenolics contributed to attenuation of postprandial hyperglycemia. Changes in gut microbiota were likely due to microbiota accessible carbohydrates in RSL and GL rather than RSL phenolics, which may be metabolized, absorbed, or degraded before reaching the colon. PMID:27529448

  8. Effect of the molecular structure of phenolic novolac precursor resins on the properties of phenolic fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Yong-Gang; Pan, Yan-Ping; Ren, Rui; Dang, Jiang-Min; Liu, Chun-Ling

    2013-01-01

    A series of phenolic resins with different weight-average molecular weights (M w ) and ortho/para (O/P) ratios were prepared. The effect of the phenolic precursor resin structure on the structure and properties of the resulting phenolic fibers was investigated. The structures of the resins and fibers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, melt rheometry, dynamic mechanical analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results show that the O/P ratio, unsubstituted ortho and para carbon ratio (O u /P u ), and M w of the phenolic resins play an important role in determining the properties of the phenolic fibers. The tensile strength of the phenolic fibers increases with increasing novolac precursor O u /P u ratios, corresponding to low O/P ratios, at comparable resin M w values. Also, the tensile strength of the phenolic fibers increases with increasing novolac M w values at comparable O/P ratios. Phenolic fibers with high tensile strength and good flame resistance characteristics were generated from a phenolic precursor resin, possessing a high weight-average molecular weight and a low O/P value. - Highlights: • Phenolic resins with different weight-average molecular weights and ortho/para ratios have been prepared. • The tensile strength of the phenolic fibers increases with reducing novolac O/P ratio. • The tensile strength of the phenolic fibers increases with increasing novolac M w

  9. Preparative Separation of Phenolic Compounds from Halimodendron halodendron by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jihua; Gao, Haifeng; Zhao, Jianglin; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Ligang; Han, Jianguo; Yu, Zhu; Yang, Fuyu

    2010-01-01

    Three phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (2), and 3,3'-di-O-methylquercetin (5), along with a phenolic mixture were successfully separated from the ethyl acetate crude extract of Halimodendron halodendron by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with chloroform-methanol-water-acetic acid (4:3:2:0.05, v/v) as the two-phase solvent system. The phenolic mixture from HSCCC was further separated by preparative HPLC and purified by Sephadex LH...

  10. Highly controlled nest homeostasis of honey bees helps deactivate phenolics in nectar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fanglin; He, Jianzhong; Fu, Wenjun

    2005-06-01

    Honey bees have a highly developed nest homeostasis, for example, maintaining low CO2 levels and stable nest temperatures at 35°C.We investigate the role of nest homeostasis in deactivating phenolic compounds present in the nectar of Aloe littoralis. We show that the phenolic content in nectar was reduced (from 0.65% to 0.49%) after nectar was incubated in a nest of Apis cerana, and that it was reduced still more (from 0.65% to 0.37%) if nectar was mixed with hypopharyngeal gland proteins (HGP) of worker bees before being placed inside a nest. HGP had little effect on samples outside a nest, indicating that nest conditions are necessary for HGP to deactivate phenolics in nectar. Consequently, the highly controlled nest homeostasis of honey bees facilitates direct deactivation of phenolics in nectar, and plays a role in the action of HGP as well.

  11. Biodegradation of high concentrations of phenol by baker’s yeast in anaerobic sequencing batch reactor

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    Ali Asghar Najafpoor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenol, as a pure substance, is used in many fields because of its disinfectant, germicidal, local anesthetic, and peptizing properties. Aqueous solutions of phenol are produced as waste in industries and discharged into the environment. Therefore, elevated concentrations of phenol may be found in air or water because of industrial discharge or the use of phenolic products. Method: The strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in this project were natural strains previously purchased from Razavy company. They were grown at 30°C on Petri plates containing yeast extract glucose (YGC and then purified by being spread onto new plates, and isolated colonies were obtained. These colonies provided the basis of selection. Prepared strains were applied in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs as first seed. The experiment conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. After the determined runs were performed using Design-Expert software, data were analyzed using mentioned software as well. Results: This study evaluated the capability of baker’s yeast to remove phenol in high concentrations. The tested strains showed excellent tolerance to phenol toxicity at concentrations up to 6100 mg/L. Study of the batch degradation process showed that the phenol removal rate could exceed 99.9% in 24 hours at a concentration of 1000 mg/L. The results showed catechol is the first intermediate product of phenol degradation. In survey results of the Design–Expert software, R2 and Adeq precision were 0.97 and 25.65, respectively. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that ASBR performs robustly under variable influent concentrations of inhibitory compounds. The high removal performance despite the high phenol concentration may be a result of reactor operating strategies. Based on the progressive increase of inlet phenol concentration, allowing for an enhanced biomass acclimation in a short time, results at the microbiological levels

  12. Efficient Four-Parametric with-and-without-Memory Iterative Methods Possessing High Efficiency Indices

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    Alicia Cordero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a family of derivative-free optimal iterative methods without memory to approximate a simple zero of a nonlinear function. Error analysis demonstrates that the without-memory class has eighth-order convergence and is extendable to with-memory class. The extension of new family to the with-memory one is also presented which attains the convergence order 15.5156 and a very high efficiency index 15.51561/4≈1.9847. Some particular schemes of the with-memory family are also described. Numerical examples and some dynamical aspects of the new schemes are given to support theoretical results.

  13. Biodegradation of high strength phenolic wastewater in a modified external loop inversed fluidized bed airlift bioreactor (EIFBAB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aye, T. T.; Loh, K-C. [National University of Singapore, Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, (Singapore)

    2003-12-01

    Phenol degradation at high concentrations was investigated in both batch and continuous mode, using a modified external loop inversed fluidized bed airlift bioreactor (EIFBAB). It was found that the modified EIFBAB, when operated at five litres/hour was capable of degrading 3,000 mg/L phenol. Under continuous operation the bioreactor was capable of degrading up to 5,000 mg/L phenol, with gradual acclimatization of the biofilm on the expanded polystyrene beads. Response of the system under shock loading was also evaluated. Results showed that the system was able to absorb the shock well up to 5,000 mg/L phenol. Although phenol breakthrough was evident in the effluent beyond 4,500 mg/L., the increase in effluent phenol concentration was gradual, and the effluent concentration did not increase beyond 1,000 mg/L phenol. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  14. Peel and pulp of baru (Dipteryx Alata Vog. provide high fiber, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity

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    Gabriela de Lima SANTIAGO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog. is a native fruit of the Brazilian Savannah that can be used in the food industry and may contribute to the economy of the Brazilian Midwest. The proximate composition, the phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity of the peel, pulp and raw and roasted baru almond were examined and compared. Peel showed higher concentrations of dietary fibers (24.1 g/100 g followed by pulp and roasted almond (18 g/100 g and 16 g/100 g, respectively, and raw almond (12.0 g/100 g. However, the almonds presented the highest lipid and protein concentrations compared to baru peel and pulp. In addition, raw almond showed the highest total phenolic contents (1,107.0 mg GAE/100 g and antioxidant capacity, but the roasted almond, and baru peel with its pulp, also presented high phenolic contents. The correlation coefficients between phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (via ABTS and FRAP were strong and significant. The chemical composition of baru peel has not previously been reported. The results showed promising prospects for the consumption of baru pulp with its peel, the fruit component richest in fiber, whose phenolic content and antioxidant capacity are comparable to those of the baru almond.

  15. Anionic chromogenic chemosensors highly selective for fluoride or cyanide based on 4-(4-Nitrobenzylideneamine)phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoleti, Celso R.; Marini, Vanderleia G.; Zimmermann, Lizandra M.; Machado, Vanderlei G.

    2012-01-01

    4-(4-Nitrobenzylideneamine)phenol was used in two strategies allowing the highly selective detection of F - and CN - . Firstly, the compound in acetonitrile acts as a chromogenic chemosensor based on the idea that more basic anions cause its deprotonation (colorless solution), generating a colored solution containing phenolate. The discrimination of CN - over F - was obtained by adding 1.4% water to acetonitrile: water preferentially solvates F - , leaving the CN - free to deprotonate the compound. Another strategy involved an assay comprised of the competition between phenolate dye and the analyte for calyx[4]pyrrole in acetonitrile, a receptor highly selective for F - . Phenolate and calyx[4]pyrrole form a hydrogen-bonded complex, which changes the color of the medium. On the addition of various anions, only F - was able to restore the original color corresponding to phenolate in solution due to the fact that the anion dislodges phenolate from the complexation site. (author)

  16. Exploring the potential of high resolution mass spectrometry for the investigation of lignin-derived phenol substitutes in phenolic resin syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dier, Tobias K F; Fleckenstein, Marco; Militz, Holger; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2017-05-01

    Chemical degradation is an efficient method to obtain bio-oils and other compounds from lignin. Lignin bio-oils are potential substitutes for the phenol component of phenol formaldehyde (PF) resins. Here, we developed an analytical method based on high resolution mass spectrometry that provided structural information for the synthesized lignin-derived resins and supported the prediction of their properties. Different model resins based on typical lignin degradation products were analyzed by electrospray ionization in negative ionization mode. Utilizing enhanced mass defect filter techniques provided detailed structural information of the lignin-based model resins and readily complemented the analytical data from differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. Relative reactivity and chemical diversity of the phenol substitutes were significant determinants of the outcome of the PF resin synthesis and thus controlled the areas of application of the resulting polymers. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  17. Preparative Separation of Phenolic Compounds from Halimodendron halodendron by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

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    Zhu Yu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Three phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (2, and 3,3'-di-O-methylquercetin (5, along with a phenolic mixture were successfully separated from the ethyl acetate crude extract of Halimodendron halodendron by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC with chloroform-methanol-water-acetic acid (4:3:2:0.05, v/v as the two-phase solvent system. The phenolic mixture from HSCCC was further separated by preparative HPLC and purified by Sephadex LH-20 to afford quercetin (3 and 3-O-methylquercetin (4. Seven hundred mg of ethyl acetate crude extract was separated by HSCCC to obtain six fractions which were then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The HSCCC separation obtained total of 80 mg of the mixture of quercetin (3 and 3-O-methylquercetin (4 (26.43% and 71.89%, respectively in fraction 2, 14 mg of 3,3'-di-O-methylquercetin (5 at 95.14% of purity in fraction 3, 15 mg of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1 at 92.83% of purity in fraction 5, 12 mg of isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (2 at 97.99% of purity in fraction 6. This is the first time these phenolic compounds have been obtained from H. halodendron, and their chemical structures identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis.

  18. Preparative separation of phenolic compounds from Halimodendron halodendron by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jihua; Gao, Haifeng; Zhao, Jianglin; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Ligang; Han, Jianguo; Yu, Zhu; Yang, Fuyu

    2010-08-31

    Three phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (2), and 3,3'-di-O-methylquercetin (5), along with a phenolic mixture were successfully separated from the ethyl acetate crude extract of Halimodendron halodendron by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with chloroform-methanol-water-acetic acid (4:3:2:0.05, v/v) as the two-phase solvent system. The phenolic mixture from HSCCC was further separated by preparative HPLC and purified by Sephadex LH-20 to afford quercetin (3) and 3-O-methylquercetin (4). Seven hundred mg of ethyl acetate crude extract was separated by HSCCC to obtain six fractions which were then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HSCCC separation obtained total of 80 mg of the mixture of quercetin (3) and 3-O-methylquercetin (4) (26.43% and 71.89%, respectively) in fraction 2, 14 mg of 3,3'-di-O-methylquercetin (5) at 95.14% of purity in fraction 3, 15 mg of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1) at 92.83% of purity in fraction 5, 12 mg of isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (2) at 97.99% of purity in fraction 6. This is the first time these phenolic compounds have been obtained from H. halodendron, and their chemical structures identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis.

  19. Radiolysis ob benzene, toluene and phenol aqueous solutions utilizing high energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Vanderhaghen, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In a search for solutions to environmental pollution problems, radiolysis has proved to be an innovative technique for the removal of organic chemical pollutants in aqueous solution. Radiolysis has shown many advantages over many other techniques, as highly reactive species formed in water by ionizing radiation oxidize organic pollutants breaking down organic molecules to final simple products by oxidation to carbon dioxide and water in a complete oxidation. Our work consisted in doing some experiments in radiolysis with simulated polluted water to help us understand this technique and also develop, in a near future, a project for large scale water treatment. Our project includes the application of a Pelletron type Mexican made Electron Accelerator, which will affirm its capability and usefulness in performing investigation in this field of study. Experiments consisted in treating benzene, toluene and phenol aqueous solutions with an Electron Beam (0.48-0.55 MeV; 24 μA). Two concentrations were used for each compound: 5 and 20 ppm (mg/l) for benzene and toluene; 10 and 50 ppm for phenol. Solutions were prepared with pure, mineral free water and two different p H (5.9), in order to study the effect of concentration and p H on removal efficiency, but avoiding the interference of radical scavengers. Results obtained coincide with the ones reported by Cooper, Nickelsen and Kurucz; highly efficient removal was achieved for benzene (>99.8%), toluene (>98.0%) and phenol (>88%). There was no visible important effect of p H on radiolysis efficiency for benzene nor toluene, phenol however, showed lower removal efficiency in acidic conditions. Concentration of aqueous solutions, nevertheless, did show an important effect at low doses for phenol. Results obtained reveal the importance of this technique in water pollution control and water remedial as expressed by Cooper, Nickelsen and Kurucz, who have studied radiolysis of organic compounds and apply this technique in water

  20. High hydrostatic pressure extraction of phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High hydrostatic pressure processing (HHPP) is a food processing method, in which food is subjected to the elevated pressure which is mostly between 100 to 800 MPa. HHPP is seen not only in food engineering, but also have other application areas, such as extraction of active ingredients from natural biomaterials.

  1. Hierarchical porous carbons prepared by an easy one-step carbonization and activation of phenol-formaldehyde resins with high performance for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zhoujun [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Graduate School, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Gao, Qiuming [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Graduate School, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, 37 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Hierarchical porous carbons are prepared by an easy one-step process of carbonization and activation derived from phenol-formaldehyde resins, in which potassium hydroxide acts as both the catalyst of polymerization and the activation reagent. The simple one-step preparation saves the cost of carbons and leads to high yield. The porous carbons have high surface areas with abundant pore structures. The plenty of micropores and small mesopores increase the capacitance and make the electrolyte ions diffuse fast into the pores. These hierarchical porous carbons show high performance for supercapacitors possessing of the optimized capacitance of 234 F g{sup -1} in aqueous electrolyte and 137 F g{sup -1} in organic electrolyte with high capacitive retention. (author)

  2. Oxidative degradation of phenols in sono-Fenton-like systems upon high-frequency ultrasound irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseev, D. G.; Sizykh, M. R.; Batoeva, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The kinetics of oxidative degradation of phenol and chlorophenols upon acoustic cavitation in the megahertz range (1.7 MHz) is studied experimentally in model systems, and the involvement of in situ generated reactive oxygen species (ROSs) is demonstrated. The phenols subjected to high frequency ultrasound (HFUS) are ranked in terms of their rate of conversion: 2,4,6-trichlorophenol > 2,4-dichlorophenol 2-chlorophenol > 4-chlorophenol phenol. Oxidative degradation upon HFUS irradiation is most efficient at low concentrations of pollutants, due to the low steady-state concentrations of the in situ generated ROSs. A dramatic increase is observed in the efficiency of oxidation in several sonochemical oxidative systems (HFUS in combination with other chemical oxidative factors). The system with added Fe2+ (a sono-Fenton system) derives its efficiency from hydrogen peroxide generated in situ as a result of the recombination of OH radicals. The S2O8 2-/Fe2+/HFUS system has a synergetic effect on substrate oxidation that is attributed to a radical chain mechanism. In terms of the oxidation rates, degrees of conversion, and specific energy efficiencies of 4-chlorophenol oxidation based on the amount of oxidized substance per unit of expended energy the considered sonochemical oxidative systems form the series HFUS < S2O8 2-/HFUS < S2O8 2-/Fe2+/HFUS.

  3. Colorimetric biomimetic sensor systems based on molecularly imprinted polymer membranes for highly-selective detection of phenol in environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeyeva T. A.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Development of an easy-to-use colorimetric sensor system for fast and accurate detection of phenol in envi- ronmental samples. Methods. Technique of molecular imprinting, method of in situ polymerization of molecularly imprinted polymer membranes. Results. The proposed sensor is based on free-standing molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP membranes, synthesized by in situ polymerization, and having in their structure artificial binding sites capable of selective phenol recognition. The quantitative detection of phenol, selectively adsorbed by the MIP membranes, is based on its reaction with 4-aminoantipyrine, which gives a pink-colored product. The intensity of staining of the MIP membrane is proportional to phenol concentration in the analyzed sample. Phenol can be detected within the range 50 nM–10 mM with limit of detection 50 nM, which corresponds to the concentrations that have to be detected in natural and waste waters in accordance with environmental protection standards. Stability of the MIP-membrane-based sensors was assessed during 12 months storage at room temperature. Conclusions. The sensor system provides highly-selective and sensitive detection of phenol in both mo- del and real (drinking, natural, and waste water samples. As compared to traditional methods of phenol detection, the proposed system is characterized by simplicity of operation and can be used in non-laboratory conditions.

  4. Diatomite as high performance and environmental friendly catalysts for phenol hydroxylation with H2O2

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    Yuxin Jia et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of diatomite catalysts were treated and characterized. For the first time, the resulting materials were used in catalysis for the hydroxylation of phenol with H2O2 and showed very high hydroxylation activity due to the Fe species in the diatomite. The effect of HCl treatment, contents of catalysts and H2O2 were investigated and the active components of diatomite were discussed. The results show that diatomite is the promising candidate for industrial output due to their high catalytic activity, easy physical separation and very low costs.

  5. Dendritic silica nanomaterials (KCC-1) with fibrous pore structure possess high DNA adsorption capacity and effectively deliver genes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxi; Tao, Zhimin; Praskavich, John C; Goswami, Anandarup; Al-Sharab, Jafar F; Minko, Tamara; Polshettiwar, Vivek; Asefa, Tewodros

    2014-09-16

    The pore size and pore structure of nanoporous materials can affect the materials' physical properties, as well as potential applications in different areas, including catalysis, drug delivery, and biomolecular therapeutics. KCC-1, one of the newest members of silica nanomaterials, possesses fibrous, large pore, dendritic pore networks with wide pore entrances, large pore size distribution, spacious pore volume and large surface area--structural features that are conducive for adsorption and release of large guest molecules and biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and DNAs). Here, we report the results of our comparative studies of adsorption of salmon DNA in a series of KCC-1-based nanomaterials that are functionalized with different organoamine groups on different parts of their surfaces (channel walls, external surfaces or both). For comparison the results of our studies of adsorption of salmon DNA in similarly functionalized, MCM-41 mesoporous silica nanomaterials with cylindrical pores, some of the most studied silica nanomaterials for drug/gene delivery, are also included. Our results indicate that, despite their relatively lower specific surface area, the KCC-1-based nanomaterials show high adsorption capacity for DNA than the corresponding MCM-41-based nanomaterials, most likely because of KCC-1's large pores, wide pore mouths, fibrous pore network, and thereby more accessible and amenable structure for DNA molecules to diffuse through. Conversely, the MCM-41-based nanomaterials adsorb much less DNA, presumably because their outer surfaces/cylindrical channel pore entrances can get blocked by the DNA molecules, making the inner parts of the materials inaccessible. Moreover, experiments involving fluorescent dye-tagged DNAs suggest that the amine-grafted KCC-1 materials are better suited for delivering the DNAs adsorbed on their surfaces into cellular environments than their MCM-41 counterparts. Finally, cellular toxicity tests show that the KCC-1-based

  6. High-Throughput Screening for a Moderately Halophilic Phenol-Degrading Strain and Its Salt Tolerance Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhi-Yan; Guo, Xiao-Jue; Li, Hui; Huang, Zhong-Zi; Lin, Kuang-Fei; Liu, Yong-Di

    2015-01-01

    A high-throughput screening system for moderately halophilic phenol-degrading bacteria from various habitats was developed to replace the conventional strain screening owing to its high efficiency. Bacterial enrichments were cultivated in 48 deep well microplates instead of shake flasks or tubes. Measurement of phenol concentrations was performed in 96-well microplates instead of using the conventional spectrophotometric method or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The high-throughput screening system was used to cultivate forty-three bacterial enrichments and gained a halophilic bacterial community E3 with the best phenol-degrading capability. Halomonas sp. strain 4-5 was isolated from the E3 community. Strain 4-5 was able to degrade more than 94% of the phenol (500 mg·L−1 starting concentration) over a range of 3%–10% NaCl. Additionally, the strain accumulated the compatible solute, ectoine, with increasing salt concentrations. PCR detection of the functional genes suggested that the largest subunit of multicomponent phenol hydroxylase (LmPH) and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O) were active in the phenol degradation process. PMID:26020478

  7. Anionic chromogenic chemosensors highly selective for fluoride or cyanide based on 4-(4-Nitrobenzylideneamine)phenol

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleti,Celso R.; Marini,Vanderléia G.; Zimmermann,Lizandra M.; Machado,Vanderlei G.

    2012-01-01

    4-(4-Nitrobenzylideneamine)phenol was used in two strategies allowing the highly selective detection of F- and CN-. Firstly, the compound in acetonitrile acts as a chromogenic chemosensor based on the idea that more basic anions cause its deprotonation (colorless solution), generating a colored solution containing phenolate. The discrimination of CN- over F- was obtained by adding 1.4% water to acetonitrile: water preferentially solvates F-, leaving the CN- free to deprotonate the compound. A...

  8. Preparation of graphene oxide-wrapped carbon sphere@silver spheres for high performance chlorinated phenols sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Tian, E-mail: gantsjy@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Lv, Zhen; Sun, Junyong; Shi, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yanming [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Hierarchical CS@Ag@GO composite was obtained by a simple solution route. • Signal amplification is achieved for sensitive detection of chlorinated phenols. • The low-cost method exhibits wide concentration range and acceptable accuracy. • The method can be successfully applied to detect chlorinated phenols in waters. - Abstract: A template-activated strategy was developed to construct core/shell structured carbon sphere@silver composite based on one-pot hydrothermal treatment. The CS@Ag possessed a uniform three-dimensional interconnected microstructure with an enlarged surface area and catalytic activity, which was further mechanically protected by graphene oxide (GO) nanolayers to fabricate intriguing configuration, which was beneficial for efficiently preventing the aggregation and oxidation of AgNPs and improving the electrical conductivity through intimate contact. By immobilizing this special material on electrode surface, the CS@Ag@GO was further used for sensitive determination of chlorinated phenols including 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. The tailored structure, fast electron transfer ability and facile preparation of CS@Ag@GO made it a promising electrode material for practical applications in phenols sensing.

  9. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in Equisetum palustre L. by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry combined with matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zuofu; Pan, Youzhi; Li, Lu; Huang, Yuyang; Qi, Xiaolin; Luo, Meng; Zu, Yuangang; Fu, Yujie

    2014-11-01

    A method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry is presented for the extraction and determination of phenolic compounds in Equisetum palustre. This method combines the high efficiency of matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and the rapidity, sensitivity, and accuracy of ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The influential parameters of the matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction were investigated and optimized. The optimized conditions were as follows: silica gel was selected as dispersing sorbent, the ratio of silica gel to sample was selected to be 2:1 (400/200 mg), and 8 mL of 80% methanol was used as elution solvent. Furthermore, a fast and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of nine phenolic compounds in E. palustre. This method was carried out within <6 min, and exhibited satisfactory linearity, precision, and recovery. Compared with ultrasound-assisted extraction, the proposed matrix solid-phase dispersion procedure possessed higher extraction efficiency, and was more convenient and time saving with reduced requirements on sample and solvent amounts. All these results suggest that the developed method represents an excellent alternative for the extraction and determination of active components in plant matrices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Concentration of phenolic compounds is increased in lettuce grown under high light intensity and elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Usue; Sgherri, Cristina; Miranda-Apodaca, Jon; Micaelli, Francesco; Lacuesta, Maite; Mena-Petite, Amaia; Quartacci, Mike Frank; Muñoz-Rueda, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    The present study was focused on lettuce, a widely consumed leafy vegetable for the large number of healthy phenolic compounds. Two differently-pigmented lettuce cultivars, i.e. an acyanic-green leaf cv. and an anthocyanic-red one, were grown under high light intensity or elevated CO 2 or both in order to evaluate how environmental conditions may affect the production of secondary phenolic metabolites and, thus, lettuce quality. Mild light stress imposed for a short time under ambient or elevated CO 2 concentration increased phenolics compounds as well as antioxidant capacity in both lettuce cvs, indicating how the cultivation practice could enhance the health-promoting benefits of lettuce. The phenolic profile depended on pigmentation and the anthocyanic-red cv. always maintained a higher phenolic amount as well as antioxidant capacity than the acyanic-green one. In particular, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, kaempferol, quercitrin and rutin accumulated under high light or high CO 2 in the anthocyanic-red cv., whereas cyanidin derivatives were responsive to mild light stress, both at ambient and elevated CO 2 . In both cvs total free and conjugated phenolic acids maintained higher values under all altered environmental conditions, whereas luteolin reached significant amounts when both stresses were administered together, indicating, in this last case, that the enzymatic regulation of the flavonoid synthesis could be differently affected, the synthesis of flavones being favored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Anionic chromogenic chemosensors highly selective for fluoride or cyanide based on 4-(4-Nitrobenzylideneamine)phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoleti, Celso R; Marini, Vanderleia G; Zimmermann, Lizandra M; Machado, Vanderlei G., E-mail: vanderlei.machado@ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    4-(4-Nitrobenzylideneamine)phenol was used in two strategies allowing the highly selective detection of F{sup -} and CN{sup -}. Firstly, the compound in acetonitrile acts as a chromogenic chemosensor based on the idea that more basic anions cause its deprotonation (colorless solution), generating a colored solution containing phenolate. The discrimination of CN{sup -} over F{sup -} was obtained by adding 1.4% water to acetonitrile: water preferentially solvates F{sup -}, leaving the CN{sup -} free to deprotonate the compound. Another strategy involved an assay comprised of the competition between phenolate dye and the analyte for calyx[4]pyrrole in acetonitrile, a receptor highly selective for F{sup -}. Phenolate and calyx[4]pyrrole form a hydrogen-bonded complex, which changes the color of the medium. On the addition of various anions, only F{sup -} was able to restore the original color corresponding to phenolate in solution due to the fact that the anion dislodges phenolate from the complexation site. (author)

  12. Detection and quantification of phenolic compounds in olive oil by high resolution {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophoridou, Stella [NMR Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Voutes, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Dais, Photis [NMR Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Voutes, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)], E-mail: dais@chemistry.uoc.gr

    2009-02-09

    High resolution {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy has been employed as a versatile and rapid method to analyze the polar fraction of extra virgin olive oils containing various classes of phenolic compounds. The strategy for identification of phenolic compounds is based on the NMR chemical shifts of a large number of model compounds assigned by using two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, 2D NMR was applied to phenolic extracts in an attempt to discover additional phenolic compounds. The {sup 1}H NMR methodology was successful in detecting simple phenols, such as p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, homovanillyl alcohol, vanillin, free tyrosol, and free hydroxytyrosol, the flavonols apigenin and luteolin, the lignans (+) pinoresinol, (+) 1-acetoxypinoresinol and syringaresinol, two isomers of the aldehydic form of oleuropein and ligstroside, the dialdehydic form of oleuropein and ligstroside lacking a carboxymethyl group, and finally total hydroxytyrosol and total tyrosol reflecting the total amounts of free and esterified hydroxytyrol and tyrosol, respectively. The absolute amount of each phenolic constituent was determined in the polar fraction by using anhydrous 1,3,5-triazine as an internal standard.

  13. Identification of phenolic acids and flavonoids in monofloral honey from Bangladesh by high performance liquid chromatography: determination of antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Yung An, Chua; Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Hawlader, Mohammad Nurul Islam; Azlan, Siti Amirah Binti Mohd; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic acids, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties of monofloral honey collected from five different districts in Bangladesh. A new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a UV detector method was developed for the identification of the phenolic acids and flavonoids. A total of five different phenolic acids were identified, with the most abundant being caffeic acid, benzoic acid, gallic acid, followed by chlorogenic acid and trans-cinnamic acid. The flavonoids, kaempferol, and catechin were most abundant, followed by myricetin and naringenin. The mean moisture content, total sugar content, and color characteristics of the honey samples were 18.36 ± 0.95%, 67.40 ± 5.63 g/100 g, and 129.27 ± 34.66 mm Pfund, respectively. The mean total phenolic acids, total flavonoid content, and proline content were 199.20 ± 135.23, 46.73 ± 34.16, and 556.40 ± 376.86 mg/kg, respectively, while the mean FRAP values and DPPH radical scavenging activity were 327.30 ± 231.87 μM Fe (II)/100 g and 36.95 ± 20.53%, respectively. Among the different types of honey, kalijira exhibited the highest phenolics and antioxidant properties. Overall, our study confirms that all the investigated honey samples are good sources of phenolic acids and flavonoids with good antioxidant properties.

  14. Detection and quantification of phenolic compounds in olive oil by high resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophoridou, Stella; Dais, Photis

    2009-01-01

    High resolution 1 H NMR spectroscopy has been employed as a versatile and rapid method to analyze the polar fraction of extra virgin olive oils containing various classes of phenolic compounds. The strategy for identification of phenolic compounds is based on the NMR chemical shifts of a large number of model compounds assigned by using two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, 2D NMR was applied to phenolic extracts in an attempt to discover additional phenolic compounds. The 1 H NMR methodology was successful in detecting simple phenols, such as p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, homovanillyl alcohol, vanillin, free tyrosol, and free hydroxytyrosol, the flavonols apigenin and luteolin, the lignans (+) pinoresinol, (+) 1-acetoxypinoresinol and syringaresinol, two isomers of the aldehydic form of oleuropein and ligstroside, the dialdehydic form of oleuropein and ligstroside lacking a carboxymethyl group, and finally total hydroxytyrosol and total tyrosol reflecting the total amounts of free and esterified hydroxytyrol and tyrosol, respectively. The absolute amount of each phenolic constituent was determined in the polar fraction by using anhydrous 1,3,5-triazine as an internal standard

  15. Pt-catalyzed ozonation of aqueous phenol solution using high-gravity rotating packed bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chia-Chi; Chiu, Chun-Yu; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Chang, Chiung-Fen; Chen, Yi-Hung; Ji, Dar-Ren; Tseng, Jyi-Yeong; Yu, Yue-Hwa

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a high-gravity rotating packed bed (HGRPB or HG) was used as a catalytic ozonation (Cat-OZ) reactor to decompose phenol. The operation of HGRPB system was carried out in a semi-batch apparatus which combines two major parts, namely the rotating packed bed (RPB) and photo-reactor (PR). The high rotating speed of RPB can give a high volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient with one or two orders of magnitude higher than those in the conventional packed beds. The platinum-containing catalyst (Dash 220N, Pt/γ-Al 2 O 3 ) and activated alumina (γ-Al 2 O 3 ) were packed in the RPB respectively to adsorb molecular ozone and the target pollutant of phenol on the surface to catalyze the oxidation of phenol. An ultra violet (UV) lamp (applicable wavelength λ = 200-280 nm) was installed in the PR to enhance the self-decomposition of molecular ozone in water to form high reactive radical species. Different combinations of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) with the HGRPB for the degradation of phenol were tested. These included high-gravity OZ (HG-OZ), HG catalytic OZ (HG-Cat-OZ), HG photolysis OZ (HG-UV-OZ) and HG-Cat-OZ with UV (HG-Cat-UV-OZ). The decomposition efficiency of total organic compound (η TOC ) of HG-UV-OZ with power of UV (P UV ) of 16 W is 54% at applied dosage of ozone per volume sample m A,in = 1200 mg L -1 (reaction time t = 20 min), while that of HG-OZ without the UV irradiation is 24%. After 80 min oxidation (m A,in = 4800 mg L -1 ), the η TOC of HG-UV-OZ is as high as 94% compared to 82% of HG-OZ process. The values of η TOC for HG-Cat-OZ process with m S = 42 g are 56% and 87% at m A,in = 1200 and 4800 mg L -1 , respectively. By increasing the catalyst mass to 77 g, the η TOC for the HG-Cat-OZ process reaches 71% and 90% at m A,in = 1200 and 4800 mg L -1 , respectively. The introduction of Pt/γ-Al 2 O 3 as well as UV irradiation in the HG-OZ process can enhance the η TOC of phenol significantly, while γ-Al 2 O 3 exhibits

  16. Targeted and untargeted high resolution mass approach for a putative profiling of glycosylated simple phenols in hybrid grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaba, Chiara; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Nicolini, Giorgio; Giacomelli, Mattia; Roman Villegas, Tomas; Nardin, Tiziana; Larcher, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    Vitis vinifera is one of the most widespread grapevines around the world representing the raw material for high quality wine production. The availability of more resistant interspecific hybrid vine varieties, developed from crosses between Vitis vinifera and other Vitis species, has generated much interest, also due to the low environmental effect of production. However, hybrid grape wine composition and varietal differences between interspecific hybrids have not been well defined, particularly for the simple phenols profile. The dynamic of these phenols in wines, where the glycosylated forms can be transformed into the free ones during winemaking, also raises an increasing health interest by their role as antoxidants in wine consumers. In this work an on-line SPE clean-up device, to reduce matrix interference, was combined with ultra-high liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry in order to increase understanding of the phenolic composition of hybrid grape varieties. Specifically, the phenolic composition of 4 hybrid grape varieties (red, Cabernet Cantor and Prior; white, Muscaris and Solaris) and 2 European grape varieties (red, Merlot; white, Chardonnay) was investigated, focusing on free and glycosidically bound simple phenols and considering compound distribution in pulp, skin, seeds and wine. Using a targeted approach 53 free simple phenols and 7 glycosidic precursors were quantified with quantification limits ranging from 0.001 to 2mgKg -1 and calibration R 2 of 0.99 for over 86% of compounds. The untargeted approach made it possible to tentatively identify 79 glycosylated precursors of selected free simple phenols in the form of -hexoside (N=30), -pentoside (21), -hexoside-hexoside (17), -hexoside-pentoside (4), -pentoside-hexoside (5) and -pentoside-pentoside (2) derivatives on the basis of accurate mass, isotopic pattern and MS/MS fragmentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing Strategies on Retention of Antioxidant Phenolic Bioactives in Foods and Beverages – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokuşoğlu Özlem

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids have health-promoting benefits that play some important roles in foods as visual appearance, taste, aroma and represent an abundant antioxidant component of the human and animal diet. High hydrostatic pressure processing (HHPP conditions (300–700 MPa at moderate initial temperatures (around ambient are generally sufficient to inactivate vegetative pathogens for pasteurization processes, some enzymes, or spoilage organisms to extend the shelf-life. The aim of the review is to reveal the effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing strategies on the retention of antioxidant phenolic bioactives in foods and beverages. HHPP can increase extraction capacity of phenolic constituents, and ensure higher levels of preserved bioactive constituents. High pressure extraction (HPE can shorten processing times, provide higher extraction yields while having less negative effects on the structure and antioxidant activity of bioactive constituents. HPE enhances mass transfer rates, increases cell permeability, increases diffusion of phenolics and retains higher levels of bioactive compounds. Total phenolics in HHPP-treated foods were either unaffected or actually increased in concentration and/or extractability following treatment with high pressure.

  18. Ultra‐high performance supercritical fluid chromatography of lignin‐derived phenols from alkaline cupric oxide oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingzhe; Lidén, Gunnar; Sandahl, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Traditional chromatographic methods for the analysis of lignin‐derived phenolic compounds in environmental samples are generally time consuming. In this work, an ultra‐high performance supercritical fluid chromatography method with a diode array detector for the analysis of major lignin‐derived phenolic compounds produced by alkaline cupric oxide oxidation was developed. In an analysis of a collection of 11 representative monomeric lignin phenolic compounds, all compounds were clearly separated within 6 min with excellent peak shapes, with a limit of detection of 0.5–2.5 μM, a limit of quantification of 2.5–5.0 μM, and a dynamic range of 5.0–2.0 mM (R 2 > 0.997). The new ultra‐high performance supercritical fluid chromatography method was also applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of lignin‐derived phenolic compounds obtained upon alkaline cupric oxide oxidation of a commercial humic acid. Ten out of the previous eleven model compounds could be quantified in the oxidized humic acid sample. The high separation power and short analysis time obtained demonstrate for the first time that supercritical fluid chromatography is a fast and reliable technique for the analysis of lignin‐derived phenols in complex environmental samples. PMID:27452148

  19. Ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography of lignin-derived phenols from alkaline cupric oxide oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingzhe; Lidén, Gunnar; Sandahl, Margareta; Turner, Charlotta

    2016-08-01

    Traditional chromatographic methods for the analysis of lignin-derived phenolic compounds in environmental samples are generally time consuming. In this work, an ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography method with a diode array detector for the analysis of major lignin-derived phenolic compounds produced by alkaline cupric oxide oxidation was developed. In an analysis of a collection of 11 representative monomeric lignin phenolic compounds, all compounds were clearly separated within 6 min with excellent peak shapes, with a limit of detection of 0.5-2.5 μM, a limit of quantification of 2.5-5.0 μM, and a dynamic range of 5.0-2.0 mM (R(2) > 0.997). The new ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography method was also applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of lignin-derived phenolic compounds obtained upon alkaline cupric oxide oxidation of a commercial humic acid. Ten out of the previous eleven model compounds could be quantified in the oxidized humic acid sample. The high separation power and short analysis time obtained demonstrate for the first time that supercritical fluid chromatography is a fast and reliable technique for the analysis of lignin-derived phenols in complex environmental samples. © 2016 The Authors, Journal of Separation Science Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Development of highly effective neutron shielding material made of phenol-novolac type epoxy resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Soo Haeng; Jeong, Myeong Soo; Hong, Sun Seok; Lee, Won Kyoung; Kim, Ik Soo; Shin, Young Joon; Do, Jae Bum; Ro, Seung Gy; Oh, Seok Jin

    1998-06-01

    Because the exposure to radiation in the nuclear facilities can be fatal to human, it is important to reduce the radiation dose level to a tolerable level. The purpose of this study is to develop highly effective neutron shielding materials for the shipping and storage cask of radioactive materials or in the nuclear/radiation facilities. On this study, we developed epoxy resin based neutron shielding materials and their various material properties, including neutron shielding ability, fire resistance, combustion characteristics, radiation resistance, thermal and mechanical properties were evaluated experimentally. Especially we developed phenol-novolac type epoxy resin based neutron shielding materials and their characteristics were also evaluated. (author). 22 refs., 11 tabs., 21 figs

  1. Evaluation of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil by direct injection in high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggini, Roberto; Servili, Maurizio; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Montedoro, GianFrancesco

    2006-04-19

    Hydrophilic phenols are the most abundant natural antioxidants of virgin olive oil (VOO), in which tocopherols and carotenes are also present. The prevalent classes of hydrophilic phenols found in VOO are phenyl alcohols, phenolic acids, secoiridoids such as the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol or (p-hydroxypheny1)ethanol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA or p-HPEA-EDA) and an isomer of the oleuropein aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA), lignans such as (+)-1-acetoxypinoresinol and (+)-pinoresinol, and flavonoids. A new method for the analysis of VOO hydrophilic phenols by direct injection in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with the use of a fluorescence detector (FLD) has been proposed and compared with the traditional liquid-liquid extraction technique followed by the HPLC analysis utilizing a diode array detector (DAD) and a FLD. Results show that the most important classes of phenolic compounds occurring in VOO can be evaluated using HPLC direct injection. The efficiency of the new method, as compared to the liquid-liquid extraction, was higher to quantify phenyl alcohols, lignans, and 3,4-DHPEA-EA and lower for the evaluation of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EDA.

  2. Person perception and autonomic nervous system response: the costs and benefits of possessing a high social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, J; Norman, G J; Li, T; Berntson, G G

    2013-02-01

    This research was designed to investigate the relationship between sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to the perception of social targets varying in social status. Participants varying in subjective financial status were presented with faces assigned with either a low, average, or high financial status. Electrocardiographic and impedance cardiography signals were recorded and measures of sympathetic (pre-ejection period; PEP) and parasympathetic (high frequency heart rate variability; HF HRV) cardiac control were derived. These measures associated with the presentation of each face condition were examined in relation to the subjective status of the perceivers. Participants with high subjective financial status showed reduced sympathetic activity when viewing low- and medium-status targets as compared to high-status targets, and lower parasympathetic response when viewing high- and medium-status targets relative to low-status targets. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Natural rubber/nitrile butadiene rubber/hindered phenol composites with high-damping properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuying Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available New natural rubber (NR/nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR/hindered phenol (AO-80 composites with high-damping properties were prepared in this study. The morphological, structural, and mechanical properties were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM, polarized Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR, dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA, and a tensile tester. Each composite consisted of two phases: the NR phase and the NBR/AO-80 phase. There was partial compatibility between the NR phase and the NBR/AO-80 phase, and the NR/NBR/AO-80 (50/50/20 composite exhibited a co-continuous morphology. Strain-induced crystallization occurred in the NR phase at strains higher than 200%, and strain-induced orientation appeared in the NBR/AO-80 phase with the increase of strain from 100% to 500%. The composites had a special stress–strain behavior and mechanical properties because of the simultaneous strain-induced orientation and strain-induced crystallization. In the working temperature range of a seismic isolation bearing, the composites (especially the NR/NBR/AO-80 (50/50/20 composite presented a high loss factor, high area of loss peak (TA, and high hysteresis energy. Therefore, the NR/NBR/AO-80 rubber composites are expected to have important application as a high-performance damping material for rubber bearing.

  4. The protection of possession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection in disputes for the protection of possession can be attained through the following actions a for dispossession (interdictum recuperande possessionis and b with an action for the disturbance of possession (interdictum retinendae possessionis. The general feature of these disputes is that there is only discussion on the facts and not a legal matters. Subject matter jurisdiction for the resolution of such disputes belongs to the court of general jurisdiction, while the dispute itself is a litigation. The special rule of proceedings of action for disturbance are: provisionality of the protection of possession; urgency in proceedings; initiation of the proceedings; limiting of objection; prescribing temporary measures; rendering a ruling in the form of order; appeals which may be filed within a short deadline and which does not have suspensive effect (do not delay the execution of the order; revision is not allowed etc.

  5. Low cognitive load strengthens distractor interference while high load attenuates when cognitive load and distractor possess similar visual characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Shipstead, Zach; Osaka, Naoyuki; Engle, Randall W

    2015-07-01

    Studies on visual cognitive load have reported inconsistent effects of distractor interference when distractors have visual characteristic that are similar to the cognitive load. Some studies have shown that the cognitive load enhances distractor interference, while others reported an attenuating effect. We attribute these inconsistencies to the amount of cognitive load that a person is required to maintain. Lower amounts of cognitive load increase distractor interference by orienting attention toward visually similar distractors. Higher amounts of cognitive load attenuate distractor interference by depleting attentional resources needed to process distractors. In the present study, cognitive load consisted of faces (Experiments 1-3) or scenes (Experiment 2). Participants performed a selective attention task in which they ignored face distractors while judging a color of a target dot presented nearby, under differing amounts of load. Across these experiments distractor interference was greater in the low-load condition and smaller in the high-load condition when the content of the cognitive load had similar visual characteristic to the distractors. We also found that when a series of judgments needed to be made, the effect was apparent for the first trial but not for the second. We further tested an involvement of working memory capacity (WMC) in the load effect (Experiment 3). Interestingly, both high and low WMC groups received an equivalent effect of the cognitive load in the first distractor, suggesting these effects are fairly automatic.

  6. Characterization and quantitation of low and high molecular weight phenolic compounds in apple seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Matthias; Bayha, Sandra; Carle, Reinhold; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2012-02-08

    The phenolic constituents of seeds of 12 different apple cultivars were fractionated by sequential extraction with aqueous acetone (30:70, v/v) and ethyl acetate after hexane extraction of the lipids. Low molecular weight phenolic compounds were individually quantitated by RP-HPLC-DAD. The contents of extractable and nonextractable procyanidins were determined by applying RP-HPLC following thiolysis and n-butanol/HCl hydrolysis, respectively. As expected, the results revealed marked differences of the ethyl acetate extracts, aqueous acetone extracts, and insoluble residues with regard to contents and mean degrees of polymerization of procyanidins. Total phenolic contents in the defatted apple seed residues ranged between 18.4 and 99.8 mg/g. Phloridzin was the most abundant phenolic compound, representing 79-92% of monomeric polyphenols. Yields of phenolic compounds significantly differed among the cultivars under study, with seeds of cider apples generally being richer in phloridzin and catechins than seeds of dessert apple cultivars. This is the first study presenting comprehensive data on the contents of phenolic compounds in apple seeds comprising extractable and nonextractable procyanidins. Furthermore, the present work points out a strategy for the sustainable and complete exploitation of apple seeds as valuable agro-industrial byproducts, in particular as a rich source of phloridzin and antioxidant flavanols.

  7. Phenols removal by immobilized tyrosinase reactor in on-line high performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girelli, Anna Maria [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Roma ' La Sapienza' , P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: annamaria.girelli@uniroma1.it; Mattei, Enrico [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Roma ' La Sapienza' , P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Messina, Antonella [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Roma ' La Sapienza' , P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2006-11-24

    The development of an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) based on tyrosinase immobilized on aminopropyl-controlled pore glass (AP-CPG) for the removal of phenols from model aqueous solutions was reported. To elucidate the influence of the substrate nature, the apparent (V{sup '}{sub max}, K{sup '}{sub m}) and the inherent (V{sub max}, K{sub m}) Michaelis-Menten constants were determined by Lineweaver-Burk method and the external diffusional contributions on measured enzyme activities were removed by a graphical method. The dephenolization process was realized by recycling the phenol solutions through the bioreactor connected to a chitosan trap in order to remove the colored quinone-type products of the tyrosinase reactions. The results indicated that a complete removal of phenol derivatives in the range of 150-300min, with the exception of 60% removal for phenol reached in 400min, was obtained. The observed sequence: cresol>4-methylcathecol>catechol>4-Cl-phenol-bar phenol was in accordance to the V{sup '}{sub max}/K{sup '}{sub m} values.

  8. Phenols removal by immobilized tyrosinase reactor in on-line high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girelli, Anna Maria; Mattei, Enrico; Messina, Antonella

    2006-01-01

    The development of an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) based on tyrosinase immobilized on aminopropyl-controlled pore glass (AP-CPG) for the removal of phenols from model aqueous solutions was reported. To elucidate the influence of the substrate nature, the apparent (V ' max , K ' m ) and the inherent (V max , K m ) Michaelis-Menten constants were determined by Lineweaver-Burk method and the external diffusional contributions on measured enzyme activities were removed by a graphical method. The dephenolization process was realized by recycling the phenol solutions through the bioreactor connected to a chitosan trap in order to remove the colored quinone-type products of the tyrosinase reactions. The results indicated that a complete removal of phenol derivatives in the range of 150-300min, with the exception of 60% removal for phenol reached in 400min, was obtained. The observed sequence: cresol>4-methylcathecol>catechol>4-Cl-phenol-bar phenol was in accordance to the V ' max /K ' m values

  9. Determination of Phenols Isomers in Water by Novel Nanosilica/Polydimethylsiloxane-Coated Stirring Bar Combined with High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bei; Li, Wentao; Liu, Lin; Wang, Xin; Chen, Chen; Yu, Zhiyong; Li, Hongyan

    2017-08-18

    A novel nanosilica/polydimethylsiloxane (SiO 2 /PDMS) coated stirring bar was adopted in the sorption extraction (SBSE) of phenols in water, and the high performance liquid chromatography-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (HPLC-FTIR) was subsequently used to determination of phenol concentration. The SiO 2 /PDMS coating was prepared by sol-gel method and characterized with respect to morphology and specific surface area. The results of field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and N 2 adsorption-desorption as well as phenol adsorption experiments denoted that SiO 2 /PDMS has larger surface area and better adsorption capacity than commercial PDMS. The extraction efficiency of phenol with SiO 2 /PDMS coated stirring bar was optimized in terms of ion strength, flow rate of phenol-involved influent, type of desorption solvent and desorption time. More than 75% of phenol desorption efficiency could be kept even after 50 cycles of extraction, indicating the high stability of the SiO 2 /PDMS coated stirring bar. Approximately 0.16 mg/L 2, 5-dimethylphenol (2, 5-DMP), which was 34-fold more toxic than phenol, was detected in water through HPLC-FTIR. However, 2, 5-DMP could be oxidized to 5-methy-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde after disinfection in drinking water treatment process. Therefore, the proposed method of SiO 2 /PDMS-SBSE-HPLC-FTIR is successfully applied in the analysis of phenols isomers in aqueous environment.

  10. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  11. Identification/quantification of free and bound phenolic acids in peel and pulp of apples (Malus domestica) using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Chan, Bronte Lee Shan; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2017-01-15

    Free and bound phenolic acids were measured in the pulp and peel of four varieties of apples using high resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty-five phenolic acids were identified and included: 8 hydroxybenzoic acids, 11 hydroxycinnamic acids, 5 hydroxyphenylacetic acids, and 1 hydoxyphenylpropanoic acid. Several phenolics are tentatively identified for the first time in apples and include: methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, hydroxy phenyl acetic acid, three phenylacetic acid isomers, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, and homoveratric acid. With exception of chlorogenic and caffeic acid, most phenolic acids were quantified for the first time in apples. Significant varietal differences (pacids were higher in the pulp as compared to apple peel (dry weight) in all varieties. Coumaroylquinic, protocatechuic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic and t-ferulic acids were present in free forms. With exception of chlorogenic acid, all other phenolic acids were present only as bound forms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Highly-sensitive electrocatalytic determination for toxic phenols based on coupled cMWCNT/cyclodextrin edge-functionalized graphene composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Juanjuan; Liu, Maoxiang [School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Song, Haiou, E-mail: songhaiou2011@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhang, Shupeng, E-mail: shupeng_2006@126.com [School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Qian, Yueyue [School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Li, Aimin, E-mail: liaimin@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Phenol detection based on coupled cMWCNT/CD edge-functionalized graphene composite. • Increased conductivity can inspire enhancement of electrocatalytic performance. • The synergistic combination of the trace amounts of CDs and cMWCNT is a pivotal. • GN-CD-cMWCNT shows an excellent electrocatalytic and anti-interference ability. - Abstract: Highly-sensitive electrocatalytic determination of toxic phenol compounds is of significance in environmental monitoring due to their low degradation and high toxicity to the environment and humans. In this paper, a rapid and sensitive electrochemical sensor based on coupled carboxyl-multi-walled carbon nanotube (cMWCNT) and cyclodextrin (CD) edge-functionalized graphene composite was successfully employed towards trace detection of three typical phenols (4-aminophenol, 4-AP; 4-chlorophenol, 4-CP; 4-nitrophenol, 4-NP). The morphology studies from scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope analysis revealed that cMWCNTs as conductive bridges were successfully incorporated into CD edge-functionalized graphene layers. Further, The electrocatalytic detection performance of the 3D simultaneously reduced and self-assembled sensing architecture (GN-CD-cMWCNT) with trace amounts of CDs was evaluated. The electrochemical studies demonstrated that GN-CD-cMWCNT displays excellent electrocatalytic activity, high sensitivity and stability. Under optimal conditions, the current responses of 4-AP, 4-CP and 4-NP are linear to concentrations over two different ranges, with low detection limit of 0.019, 0.017 and 0.027 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. And, GN-CD-cMWCNT shows an excellent anti-interference ability against electroactive species and metal ions. In addition, validation of the applicability of the presented sensor was also performed for the determination of three phenols in tap water sample with satisfactory results.

  13. Highly-sensitive electrocatalytic determination for toxic phenols based on coupled cMWCNT/cyclodextrin edge-functionalized graphene composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Juanjuan; Liu, Maoxiang; Song, Haiou; Zhang, Shupeng; Qian, Yueyue; Li, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Phenol detection based on coupled cMWCNT/CD edge-functionalized graphene composite. • Increased conductivity can inspire enhancement of electrocatalytic performance. • The synergistic combination of the trace amounts of CDs and cMWCNT is a pivotal. • GN-CD-cMWCNT shows an excellent electrocatalytic and anti-interference ability. - Abstract: Highly-sensitive electrocatalytic determination of toxic phenol compounds is of significance in environmental monitoring due to their low degradation and high toxicity to the environment and humans. In this paper, a rapid and sensitive electrochemical sensor based on coupled carboxyl-multi-walled carbon nanotube (cMWCNT) and cyclodextrin (CD) edge-functionalized graphene composite was successfully employed towards trace detection of three typical phenols (4-aminophenol, 4-AP; 4-chlorophenol, 4-CP; 4-nitrophenol, 4-NP). The morphology studies from scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope analysis revealed that cMWCNTs as conductive bridges were successfully incorporated into CD edge-functionalized graphene layers. Further, The electrocatalytic detection performance of the 3D simultaneously reduced and self-assembled sensing architecture (GN-CD-cMWCNT) with trace amounts of CDs was evaluated. The electrochemical studies demonstrated that GN-CD-cMWCNT displays excellent electrocatalytic activity, high sensitivity and stability. Under optimal conditions, the current responses of 4-AP, 4-CP and 4-NP are linear to concentrations over two different ranges, with low detection limit of 0.019, 0.017 and 0.027 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. And, GN-CD-cMWCNT shows an excellent anti-interference ability against electroactive species and metal ions. In addition, validation of the applicability of the presented sensor was also performed for the determination of three phenols in tap water sample with satisfactory results.

  14. Nanoliposomal carriers for improvement the bioavailability of high - valued phenolic compounds of pistachio green hull extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Zahra; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohammad Ali; Maherani, Behnoush

    2017-04-01

    In present study, nanoliposomes were prepared by thin hydration method with different concentrations of phenolic compounds (500, 750 and 1000ppm) of pure extract and lecithin (1, 2 and 3%w/w) and characterized by considering the particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency (EE) and morphology. The results showed that nanoliposome (90.39-103.78nm) had negative surface charge varied from -51.5±0.9 to -40.2±0.2mV with a narrow size distribution (PDI≈0.069-0.123). Nanoliposomes composed of 1% lecithin with 1000ppm of phenolic compounds had the highest EE (52.93%). The FTIR analysis indicated the formation of hydrogen bonds between the polar zone of phospholipid and the OH groups of phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds also increased phase transition temperature (Tc) of nanoliposomes (2.01-7.24°C). Moreover, nanoliposomes had considerable stability during storage. Consequently, liposome is an efficient carrier for protection and improving PGHE biofunctional actives in foodstuffs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High Selectively Catalytic Conversion of Lignin-Based Phenols into para-/m-Xylene over Pt/HZSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhu Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High selectively catalytic conversion of lignin-based phenols (m-cresol, p-cresol, and guaiacol into para-/m-xylene was performed over Pt/HZSM-5 through hydrodeoxygenation and in situ methylation with methanol. It is found that the p-/m-xylene selectivity is uniformly higher than 21%, and even increase up to 33.5% for m-cresol (with phenols/methanol molar ratio of 1/8. The improved p-/m-xylene selectivity in presence of methanol is attributed to the combined reaction pathways: methylation of m-cresol into xylenols followed by HDO into p-/m-xylene, and HDO of m-cresol into toluene followed by methylation into p-/m-xylene. Comparison of the product distribution over a series of catalysts indicates that both metals and supporters have distinct effect on the p-/m-xylene selectivity.

  16. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  17. Wine phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Andrew L

    2002-05-01

    Wine contains many phenolic substances, most of which originate in the grape berry. The phenolics have a number of important functions in wine, affecting the tastes of bitterness and astringency, especially in red wine. Second, the color of red wine is caused by phenolics. Third, the phenolics are the key wine preservative and the basis of long aging. Lastly, since phenolics oxidize readily, they are the component that suffers owing to oxidation and the substance that turns brown in wine (and other foods) when exposed to air. Wine phenolics include the non-flavonoids: hydroxycinnamates, hydroxybenzoates and the stilbenes; plus the flavonoids: flavan-3-ols, the flavonols, and the anthocyanins. While polymeric condensed tannins and pigmented tannins constitute the majority of wine phenolics, their large size precludes absorption and thus they are not likely to have many health effects (except, perhaps, in the gut). The total amount of phenols found in a glass of red wine is on the order of 200 mg versus about 40 mg in a glass of white wine.

  18. Determination of phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography with Ce4+-Tween 20 chemiluminescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Hua; Zhou Jian; Xu Feng; Lai Chunze; Wan Guohui

    2004-01-01

    A novel method for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds such as salicylic acid, resorcinol, phloroglucinol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and m-nitrophenol by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with chemiluminescence (CL) detection was developed. The procedure was based on the chemiluminescent enhancement by phenolic compounds of the cerium(IV)-Tween 20 system in a sulfuric acid medium. The separation was carried out with an isocratic elution or with a gradient elution using a mixture of methanol and 1.5% acetic acid. For six phenolic compounds, the detection limits (3σ) were in the range 1.40-5.02 ng/ml and the relative standard deviations (n=11) for the determination of 0.1 μg/ml compounds were in the range 1.9-2.9%. The CL reaction was well compatible with the mobile phase of HPLC, no baseline drift often occurred in HPLC-CL detection was observed with a gradient elution. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of salicylic acid and resorcinol in Dermatitis Clear Tincture and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in apple juices

  19. Monitoring the bacterial community dynamics in a petroleum refinery wastewater membrane bioreactor fed with a high phenolic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cynthia C; Viero, Aline F; Dias, Ana Carolina F; Andreote, Fernando D; Jesus, Ederson C; De Paula, Sergio O; Torres, Ana Paula R; Santiago, Vania M J; Oliveira, Valeria M

    2010-01-01

    The phenolic compounds are a major contaminant class often found in industrial wastewaters and the biological treatment is an alternative tool commonly employed for their removal. In this sense, monitoring microbial community dynamics is crucial for a successful wastewater treatment. This work aimed to monitor the structure and activity of the bacterial community during the operation of a laboratory-scale continuous submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR), using PCR and RT-PCR followed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rRNA libraries. Multivariate analyses carried out using DGGE profiles showed significant changes in the total and metabolically active dominant community members during the 4-week treatment period, explained mainly by phenol and ammonium input. Gene libraries were assembled using 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA PCR products from the fourth week of treatment. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of clones from 16S rDNA library revealed a high diversity of taxa for the total bacterial community, with predominance of Thauera genus (ca. 50%). On the other hand, a lower diversity was found for metabolically active bacteria, which were mostly represented by members of Betaproteobacteria (Thauera and Comamonas), suggesting that these groups have a relevant role in the phenol degradation during the final phase of the SMBR operation.

  20. The effect of high power ultrasound on phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and aroma compounds of red wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natka Ćurko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High power ultrasound (HPU is a novel, non-thermal technology the application of which has been primarily evaluated in managing food quality. The application of high power ultrasound in wine technology is therefore directed at modulating microbial activity during fermentation, extraction of phenolic and aroma compounds from grapes to must, as well as at accelerating aging reactions in wine. The main aim of this article was to evaluate the effect of different HPU process parameters on sustaining the phenolic and aroma composition of red wine and its colour characteristics. Three different red wines, including Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Plavac mali, were treated with high power ultrasound (20kHz, considering the variations in ultrasound probe diameter size (12.7 and 19 mm, amplitude level (20, 30, and 40 %, and processing time (2, 4, and 6 minutes. Total polyphenol content, total anthocyanin concentration, and chromatic characteristics were analyzed by spectrophotometry, free anthocyanins were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography, and wine aroma compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography combined with solid-phase microextraction. The obtained results show that ultrasonic irradiation induces chemical changes in phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and aroma compounds concentration, and accelerates chemical reactions responsible for wine aging. The intensity of the mentioned chemical changes depends on the selected processing parameters and on the treated variety. Among three different parameters, the selection of the probe diameter was showed to be most significant factor influencing chemical composition, followed by the amplitude level and processing time. The smaller diameter probe size (12.7 mm, lowest amplitude (20%, and a shorter processing time (2 minutes showed a more favourable and lighter effect on the chemical composition of the treated red wines.

  1. Evaluation of different carbon sources for high frequency callus culture with reduced phenolic secretion in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. SVPR-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Prem Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An efficient protocol was developed to control excessive phenolic compound secretion during callus culture of cotton. As cotton is naturally rich in phenolic compounds factors influencing the phenolic compound secretion, callus induction and proliferation were optimized for getting high frequency callus culture. Different carbon sources such as fructose, glucose, sucrose and maltose were tested at various concentrations to control phenolic secretion in callus culture. Among them, 3% maltose was found to be the best carbon source for effectively controlling phenolic secretion in callus induction medium. High frequency of callus induction was obtained on MSB5 medium supplemented with 3% Maltose, 2,4-D (0.90 μM and Kinetin (4.60 μM from both cotyledon and hypocotyl explants. The best result of callus induction was obtained with hypocotyl explant (94.90% followed by cotyledon explant (85.20%. MSB5 medium supplemented with 2,4-D (0.45 μM along with 2iP (2.95 μM gave tremendous proliferation of callus with high percentage of response. Varying degrees of colors and textures of callus were observed under different hormone treatments. The present study offers a solution for controlling phenolic secretion in cotton callus culture by adjusting carbon sources without adding any additives and evaluates the manipulation of plant growth regulators for efficient callus culture of SVPR-2 cotton cultivar.

  2. Bacterial removal of toxic phenols from an industrial effluent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... Chlorinated phenols, widely used in industries, are of growing concern owing to their high toxicity, .... phenol-degradation ability of bacterial isolate at the high phenol .... ed virtually no decrease in the respiratory response over.

  3. Optimisation of phenolics recovery from Vitex agnus-castus Linn. leaves by high-pressure and temperature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lataoui, Mohammed; Seffen, Mongi; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Converti, Attilio; Perego, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    To optimise recovery of phenolics from Vitex agnus-castus Linn., a non-conventional high-pressure (2-24 bar) and temperature (100-180°C) extraction method was used under nitrogen atmosphere with methanol as a solvent. Optimal temperature was between 100 and 140°C, and optimal extraction time was about one half that of conventional solid/liquid extraction at room temperature. Final yields of total polyphenols, total flavonoids, o-diphenols and anthocyanins extraction were 2.0, 3.0, 2.5 and 11-fold those obtained by conventional extraction.

  4. pirABvp-Bearing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio campbellii Pathogens Isolated from the Same AHPND-Affected Pond Possess Highly Similar Pathogenic Plasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Dong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND is a severe shrimp disease originally shown to be caused by virulent strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND. Rare cases of AHPND caused by Vibrio species other than V. parahaemolyticus were reported. We compared an AHPND-causing V. campbellii (VCAHPND and a VPAHPND isolate from the same AHPND-affected pond. Both strains are positive for the virulence genes pirABvp. Immersion challenge test with Litopenaeus vannamei indicated the two strains possessed similar pathogenicity. Complete genome comparison showed that the pirABvp-bearing plasmids in the two strains were highly homologous, and they both shared high homologies with plasmid pVA1, the reported pirABvp-bearing plasmid. Conjugation and DNA-uptake genes were found on the pVA1-type plasmids and the host chromosomes, respectively, which may facilitate the dissemination of pirABvp. Novel variations likely driven by ISVal1 in the genetic contexts of the pirABvp genes were found in the two strains. Moreover, the VCAHPND isolate additionally contains multiple antibiotic resistance genes, which may bring difficulties to control its future outbreak. The dissemination of the pirABvp in non-parahaemolyticus Vibrio also rises the concern of missing detection in industrial settings since the isolation method currently used mainly targeting V. parahaemolyticus. This study provides timely information for better understanding of the causes of AHPND and molecular epidemiology of pirABvp and also appeals for precautions to encounter the dissemination of the hazardous genes.

  5. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing Pei Tan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC. The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C, time (5 min, water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g, particle size (1 mm and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×, the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g and less time (5 min were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h. Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon.

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds Against the Phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, Christina E.; Laur, Lisa M.; Tian, Li

    2010-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a pathogenic bacterium that causes diseases in many crop species, which leads to considerable economic loss. Phenolic compounds (a group of secondary metabolites) are widely distributed in plants and have shown to possess antimicrobial properties. The anti-Xylella activity of 12 phenolic compounds, representing phenolic acid, coumarin, stilbene and flavonoid, was evaluated using an in vitro agar dilution assay. Overall, these phenolic compounds were effective in inhibiti...

  7. Effect of solar radiation (UV and visible) at high altitude on CAM-cycling and phenolic compound biosynthesis in Sedum album

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachereau, F.; Marigo, G.; Asta, J.

    1998-01-01

    The field experiment was carried out in order to compare the response of a CAM plant, Sedum album L., to solar radiation at a high altitude (2 100 m) with that at a low altitude location with respect to CAM and phenolic content. Treatment sites included (1) sun-exposed, low altitude, (2) sun-exposed, high altitude with different light treatments, including UV-B and UV-B + A screening, and (3) shade at high altitude. After a 70-day treatment period, CAM-cycling and phenolic compound content were analysed, and high altitude treatments were compared to the low altitude control. The sun-exposed low altitude control was characterized by CAM-cycling and a low phenolic compound content during the experiment. In plants transplanted to the high altitude, only the shaded group maintained a CAM-cycling and a phenolic compound content similar to those of the sun-exposed low altitude control. Samples under UV-B and UV-B + A filters showed similar responses, suggesting the absence of a specific UV-A radiation effect. The screening of UV-B or UV-B + A radiation allowed plants to partially maintain a CAM-cycling and induced a decrease in phenolic compound content. These responses under UV filters were, however, intermediate between those observed in sun-exposed and shaded groups. These results demonstrate a specific effect of radiation from both visible (400–800 nm) and UV-B (280–320 nm) bands on both CAM-cycling and phenolic biosynthesis in S. album L. plants. These light-dependent effects are discussed on a physiological basis and a possible interaction between CAM-cycling and phenolic metabolism is suggested. (author)

  8. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in Cynthiana grape (Vitis aestivalis) by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Lopez, L M; McGlynn, W; Goad, C L; Mireles Dewitt, C A

    2014-04-15

    Phenolic acids, flavanols, flavonols and stilbenes (PAFFS) were isolated from whole grapes, juice, or pomace and purified using enzymatic hydrolysis. Only anthocyanin mono-glucosides and a few of the oligomers from Cynthiana grape (Vitis aestivalis) were analysed. Flavonoid-anthocyanin mono-glucosides (FA) were isolated using methanol/0.1% hydrochloric acid extraction. In addition, crude extractions of phenolic compounds from Cynthiana grape using 50% methanol, 70% methanol, 50% acetone, 0.01% pectinase, or petroleum ether were also evaluated. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) detector was used to identify phenolic compounds. A method was developed for simultaneous separation, identification and quantification of both PAFFS and FA. Quantification was performed by the internal standard method using a five points regression graph of the UV-visible absorption data collected at the wavelength of maximum absorbance for each analyte. From whole grape samples nine phenolic compounds were tentatively identified and quantified. The individual phenolic compounds content varied from 3 to 875 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight. For juice, twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. The content varied from 0.07 to 910 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight. For pomace, a total of fifteen phenolic compounds were tentatively identified and quantified. The content varied from 2 mg kg⁻¹ to 198 mg kg⁻¹ dry matter. Results from HPLC analysis of the samples showed that gallic acid and (+)-catechin hydrate were the major phenolic compounds in both whole grapes and pomace. Cyanidin and petunidin 3-O-glucoside were the major anthocyanin glucosides in the juice. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Preparation of High Surface Area Activated Carbon from Spent Phenolic Resin by Microwave Heating and KOH Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Song; Zhang, Libo; Zhang, Shengzhou; Xia, Hongying; Peng, Jinhui

    2018-01-01

    The spent phenolic resin is as raw material for preparing high surface area activated carbon (HSAAC) by microwave-assisted KOH activation. The effects of microwave power, activation duration and impregnation ratio (IR) on the iodine adsorption capability and yield of HSAAC were investigated. The surface characteristics of HSAAC were characterized by nitrogen adsorption isotherms, FTIR, SEM and TEM. The operating variables were optimized utilizing the response surface methodology (RSM) and were identified to be microwave power of 700 W, activation duration of 15 min and IR of 4, corresponding to a yield of 51.25 % and an iodine number of 2,384 mg/g. The pore structure parameters of the HSAAC, i. e., Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, total pore volume, and average pore diameter were estimated to be 4,269 m2/g, 2.396 ml/g and 2.25 nm, respectively, under optimum conditions. The findings strongly support the feasibility of microwave-assisted KOH activation for preparation of HSAAC from spent phenolic resin.

  10. Content of insoluble bound phenolics in millets and their contribution to antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekara, Anoma; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2010-06-09

    Soluble and insoluble-bound phenolic extracts of several varieties of millet (kodo, finger, foxtail, proso, pearl, and little millets) whole grains were evaluated for their phenolic contents and antioxidative efficacy using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), reducing power (RP), and beta-carotene-linoleate model system as well as ferrous chelating activity. In addition, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were present in soluble and bound phenolic fractions of millets, and their contents were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS). Kodo millet had the highest total phenolic content, whereas proso millet possessed the least. All millet varieties showed high antioxidant activities, although the order of their efficacy was assay dependent. HPLC analysis of millet phenolic extracts demonstrated that the bound fractions contained more ferulic and p-coumaric acids compared to their soluble counterparts. The results of this study showed that soluble as well as bound fractions of millet grains are rich sources of phenolic compounds with antioxidant, metal chelating, and reducing power. The potential of whole millets as natural sources of antioxidants depends on the variety used. The importance of the insoluble bound fraction of millet as a source of ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid was established, and their contribution to the total phenolic content must be taken into account in the assessment of the antioxidant activity of millets.

  11. Evaluation of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Blueberry Cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L. Grown in the Northwest Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Dragović-Uzelac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the content of phenolics: total phenols (TPC, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA, flavan-3-ols (TF3ols, as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC and reducing power (RP in four blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L. introduced in the Northwest Croatian climate conditions. Phenolic compounds were measured by spectrophotometric methods, TAC was determined using DPPH and ABTS assays and RP by FRAP assay. All cultivars contained high mass fraction of TPC, TF, TA and lower mass fraction of TF3ols. Among the researched fruits, Sierra cultivar contained the highest amounts of all groups of phenolics, followed by Elliott>Bluecrop≥Duke. Significant differences were observed in phenolic mass fraction among different cultivars and growing seasons (p<0.05, and phenolic compounds were significantly higher in growing season 2006. Examined cultivars possess high antioxidant capacity and reducing power, and all phenolics were highly correlated with TAC and RP (R=0.46 to 0.99. The study indicated that growing and climate conditions in Northwest Croatia are convenient for introducing blueberry cultivars. Generally, blueberry fruits are a rich source of phenolics, which show evident antioxidant capacity.

  12. Antioxidant Capacity, Radical Scavenging Kinetics and Phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Phenolic Profile of Methanol Extracts of Wild Plants of. Southern Sonora ... plant extracts. Phenolic compounds determination was carried out by high ... Determination of antioxidant capacity ..... In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities ...

  13. Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents of 56 Wild Fruits from South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify wild fruits possessing high nutraceutical potential, the antioxidant activities of 56 wild fruits from South China were systematically evaluated. The fat-soluble components were extracted with tetrahydrofuran, and the water-soluble ones were extracted with a 50:3.7:46.3 (v/v methanol-acetic acid-water mixture. The antioxidant capacities of the extracts were evaluated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays, and their total phenolic contents were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Most of these wild fruits were analyzed for the first time for their antioxidant activities. Generally, these fruits had high antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents. A significant correlation between the FRAP value and the TEAC value suggested that antioxidant components in these wild fruits were capable of reducing oxidants and scavenging free radicals. A high correlation between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content indicated that phenolic compounds could be the main contributors to the measured antioxidant activity. The results showed that fruits of Eucalyptus robusta, Eurya nitida, Melastoma sanguineum, Melaleuca leucadendron, Lagerstroemia indica, Caryota mitis, Lagerstroemia speciosa and Gordonia axillaris possessed the highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents among those tested, and could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants and functional foods. The results obtained are very helpful for the full utilization of these wild fruits.

  14. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in cashew apple juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, C.; Moreira, C. F. F.; Lavinas, F. C.; Lopes, M. L. M.; Fialho, E.; Valente-Mesquita, V. L.

    2010-12-01

    The cashew apple is native to Brazil, but there is insufficient information regarding the nutritional properties of this fruit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of high pressure processing (HPP) at room temperature (25 °C) on phenolic compound and ascorbic acid contents and antioxidant capacity of cashew apple juice. This study showed that HPP at 250 or 400 MPa for 3, 5 and 7 min did not change pH, acidity, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid or hydrolysable polyphenol contents. However, juice pressurized for 3 and 5 min showed higher soluble polyphenol contents. Antioxidant capacity, measured by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power method, was not altered by HPP, but when treated at 250 MPa for 3 min, it resulted in an increased value when 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl was used. These data demonstrate that HPP can be used in the food industry for the generation of products with higher nutritional quality.

  15. Separation of phenolic acids from sugarcane rind by online solid-phase extraction with high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ping; Fang, Yingtong; Xie, Ronglong; Hu, Weilun; Xi, Xingjun; Chu, Qiao; Dong, Genlai; Shaheen, Nusrat; Wei, Yun

    2017-02-01

    Sugarcane rind contains some functional phenolic acids. The separation of these compounds from sugarcane rind is able to realize the integrated utilization of the crop and reduce environment pollution. In this paper, a novel protocol based on interfacing online solid-phase extraction with high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was established, aiming at improving and simplifying the process of phenolic acids separation from sugarcane rind. The conditions of online solid-phase extraction with HSCCC involving solvent system, flow rate of mobile phase as well as saturated extent of absorption of solid-phase extraction were optimized to improve extraction efficiency and reduce separation time. The separation of phenolic acids was performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of butanol/acetic acid/water at a volume ratio of 4:1:5, and the developed online solid-phase extraction with HSCCC method was validated and successfully applied for sugarcane rind, and three phenolic acids including 6.73 mg of gallic acid, 10.85 mg of p-coumaric acid, and 2.78 mg of ferulic acid with purities of 60.2, 95.4, and 84%, respectively, were obtained from 150 mg sugarcane rind crude extracts. In addition, the three different elution methods of phenolic acids purification including HSCCC, elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography and back-extrusion counter-current chromatography were compared. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Dietary phenolic acids reverse insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Oluwayemisi B; Ajiboye, Taofeek O

    2017-12-20

    This study investigated the influence of caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic acids on high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Oral administration of the phenolic acids significantly reversed high-fructose diet-mediated increase in body mass index and blood glucose. Furthermore, phenolic acids restored high-fructose diet-mediated alterations in metabolic hormones (insulin, leptin and adiponectin). Similarly, elevated tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and -8 were significantly lowered. Administration of phenolic acids restored High-fructose diet-mediated increase in the levels of lipid parameters and indices of atherosclerosis, cardiac and cardiovascular diseases. High-fructose diet-mediated decrease in activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and increase in oxidative stress biomarkers (reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation products, protein oxidation and fragmented DNA) were significantly restored by the phenolic acids. The result of this study shows protective influence of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid in high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome.

  17. Spice phenolics inhibit human PMNL 5-lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, N Satya; Raghavendra, R; Lokesh, B R; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2004-06-01

    A wide variety of phenolic compounds and flavonoids present in spices possess potent antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities. We examined whether 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), the key enzyme involved in biosynthesis of leukotrienes is a possible target for the spices. Effect of aqueous extracts of turmeric, cloves, pepper, chili, cinnamon, onion and also their respective active principles viz., curcumin, eugenol, piperine, capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, quercetin, and allyl sulfide were tested on human PMNL 5-LO activity by spectrophotomeric and HPLC methods. The formation of 5-LO product 5-HETE was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 0.122-1.44 mg for aqueous extracts of spices and 25-83 microM for active principles, respectively. The order of inhibitory activity was of quercetin>eugenol>curcumin>cinnamaldehyde>piperine>capsaicin>allyl sulfide. Quercetin, eugenol and curcumin with one or more phenolic ring and methoxy groups in their structure showed high inhibitory effect, while the non-phenolic spice principle allyl sulfide showed least inhibitory effect on 5-LO. The inhibitory effect of quercetin, curcumin and eugenol was similar to that of synthetic 5-LO inhibitors-phenidone and NDGA. Moreover, the inhibitory potency of aqueous extracts of spice correlated with the active principles of their respective spices. The synergistic or antagonistic effect of mixtures of spice active principles and spice extracts were investigated and all the combinations of spice active principles/extracts exerted synergistic effect in inhibiting 5-LO activity. These findings clearly suggest that phenolic compounds present in spices might have physiological role in modulating 5-LO pathway.

  18. High-dimensional nested analysis of variance to assess the effect of production season, quality grade and steam pasteurization on the phenolic composition of fermented rooibos herbal tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanimirova, I; Kazura, M; de Beer, D; Joubert, E; Schulze, A E; Beelders, T; de Villiers, A; Walczak, B

    2013-10-15

    A nested analysis of variance combined with simultaneous component analysis, ASCA, was proposed to model high-dimensional chromatographic data. The data were obtained from an experiment designed to investigate the effect of production season, quality grade and post-production processing (steam pasteurization) on the phenolic content of the infusion of the popular herbal tea, rooibos, at 'cup-of-tea' strength. Specifically, a four-way analysis of variance where the experimental design involves nesting in two of the three crossed factors was considered. For the purpose of the study, batches of fermented rooibos plant material were sampled from each of four quality grades during three production seasons (2009, 2010 and 2011) and a sub-sample of each batch was steam-pasteurized. The phenolic content of each rooibos infusion was characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection (DAD). In contrast to previous studies, the complete HPLC-DAD signals were used in the chemometric analysis in order to take into account the entire phenolic profile. All factors had a significant effect on the phenolic content of a 'cup-of-tea' strength rooibos infusion. In particular, infusions prepared from the grade A (highest quality) samples contained a higher content of almost all phenolic compounds than the lower quality plant material. The variations of the content of isoorientin and orientin in the different quality grade infusions over production seasons are larger than the variations in the content of aspalathin and quercetin-3-O-robinobioside. Ferulic acid can be used as an indicator of the quality of rooibos tea as its content generally decreases with increasing tea quality. Steam pasteurization decreased the content of the majority of phenolic compounds in a 'cup-of-tea' strength rooibos infusion. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of phenolic derivatives of antipyrine in plasma with solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, S.A.J.; Ligor, T.; Lieshout, van H.P.M.; Huf, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    This manuscript describes a method to determine antipyrine and its phenolic derivatives in plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC–MS). The sample pretreatment consisted of a C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE), to remove the salts and proteins. The

  20. Determination of the Acid Dissociation Constant of a Phenolic Acid by High Performance Liquid Chromatography: An Experiment for the Upper Level Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboh, Ghada

    2018-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiment for the upper level analytical chemistry laboratory is described. The students consider the effect of mobile-phase composition and pH on the retention times of ionizable compounds in order to determine the acid dissociation constant, K[subscript a], of a phenolic acid. Results are analyzed…

  1. Sorption of phenol and phenol derivatives in hydrotalcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avina G, E.I.

    2002-01-01

    One of the main problems in Mexico and in the World is the waste water pollution of a great variety of industrial processes by organic compounds. Among those ones the phenol compounds which are highly toxic, refractories (to the chemical degradation) and poorly biodegradable. This is due in a large extent to the problem created by the accelerated increase in the environmental pollution in the cities and industrial centers. The phenol compounds are used in a great variety of industries such as the production of resins, plasticizers, antioxidants, pesticides, colourings, disinfectants, etc. These phenol compounds are specially harmful, since they have repercussions on the flora of plants of biological treatment of water affecting its operation. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the capacities of phenol detention and its derivatives in an hydrotalcite type compound and diminishing with it the presence in water, in this case, of solutions prepared in the laboratory. In order to analyse this elimination process was used a methodology based in the carrying out in batch experiments and in the elaboration of a sorption isotherm. It is worth pointing out that this work was realized at laboratory scale, at relatively high phenol concentration ratio. With the obtained results when the sorption properties are evaluated the calcined hydrotalcite (HTC) for detaining phenol and p-chloro phenol it was observed that it is detained greater quantity of p-chloro phenol than phenol in the HTC. The detention of these phenol compounds in the HTC is due to the memory effect by the hydrotalcite regeneration starting from the oxides which are formed by the burning material. (Author)

  2. Production of phenolic-rich bio-oil from catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass using magnetic solid base catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhi-bo; Lu, Qiang; Ye, Xiao-ning; Li, Wen-tao; Hu, Bin; Dong, Chang-qing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Phenolic-rich bio-oil was selectively produced from catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass using magnetic solid base catalyst. • The actual yield of twelve major phenolic compounds reached 43.9 mg/g. • The peak area% of all phenolics reached 68.5% at the catalyst-to-biomass ratio of 7. • The potassium phosphate/ferroferric oxide catalyst possessed promising recycling properties. - Abstract: A magnetic solid base catalyst (potassium phosphate/ferroferric oxide) was prepared and used for catalytic fast pyrolysis of poplar wood to selectively produce phenolic-rich bio-oil. Pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of pyrolysis temperature and catalyst-to-biomass ratio on the product distribution. The actual yields of important pyrolytic products were quantitatively determined by the external standard method. Moreover, recycling experiments were performed to determine the re-utilization abilities of the catalyst. The results showed that the catalyst exhibited promising activity to selectively produce phenolic-rich bio-oil, due to its capability of promoting the decomposition of lignin to generate phenolic compounds and meanwhile inhibiting the devolatilization of holocellulose. The maximal phenolic yield was obtained at the pyrolysis temperature of 400 °C and catalyst-to-biomass ratio of 2. The concentration of the phenolic compounds increased monotonically along with the increasing of the catalyst-to-biomass ratio, with the peak area% value increasing from 28.1% in the non-catalytic process to as high as 68.5% at the catalyst-to-biomass ratio of 7. The maximal total actual yield of twelve quantified major phenolic compounds was 43.9 mg/g, compared with the value of 29.0 mg/g in the non-catalytic process. In addition, the catalyst could be easily recovered and possessed promising recycling properties.

  3. In situ treatment of soil contaminated with PAHs and phenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sresty, G.; Dev, H.; Chang, J.; Houthoofd, J.

    1992-01-01

    The wood preserving industry uses more pesticides than any other industry worldwide. The major chemicals used are creosote, pentachlorophenol, and CCA (copper, chrome and arsenate). It is reported that between 415 to 550 creosoting operations within the United States consume approximately 454,000 metric tons of creosote annually. When properly used and disposed off, creosote does not appear to significantly threaten human health. However, due to improper disposal and spillage at old facilities, creosote and other wood preserving chemicals have found their way into surface soils. Active wood preserving sites generate an estimated 840 to 1530 dry metric tons of hazardous contaminated sludge annually, which is classified as KOOL. Creosote, obtained from coal tar, contains a large number of chemical components. The three main families of compounds represented in creosote are: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), phenolic, and heterocyclic compounds. Creosote is composed of approximately 85% PAHs, 10% phenolic compounds and 5% heterocyclic compounds. There are approximately a total of 17 PAHs present in creosote. The four most prominent compounds belonging to the PAH family are naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. These four compounds represent approximately 52% of the total PAHs present in creosote. There are approximately 12 different phenolic compounds present in creosote among which phenol is the most abundant, representing 20% of the total phenolics. In addition, the various isomers of cresol represent about 20% and pentachlorophenol (PCP) represents 10% of the total phenolics. There are approximately 13 different heterocyclic compounds are the most abundant, representing approximately 70% of the total heterocyclics. All of these compounds possess toxic properties and some of them, for example, PCP, when subjected to high temperature environments are suspected precursors in the formation of dioxins

  4. Phenolics composition and antidiabetic property of Brachystegia eurycoma seed flur in high-fat diet, low-dose streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Anyachukwu Irondi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantify some major pharmacologically important flavonoids and phenolic acids in Brachystegia eurycoma seed flour (BESF and evaluate its antidiabetic activity in type 2 diabetic rats. Method: Flavonoids and phenolic acids were quantified using a reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatrography coupled with diode array detection. Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats using high-fat diet, low-dose streptozotocin (HFD/STZ model, by feeding the rats with HFD for 2 weeks followed by single dose administration of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally. The diabetic rats were later fed BESF-supplemented (10% and 20% diets, or administered with metformin (25 mg/kg b.w. for 21 days; the control rats were fed basal diet during this period. After the dietary regimen, the rats were sacrificed, and their blood, liver and pancreas samples were collected for biochemical assays. Results: The flavonoids (catechin, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol and phenolic acids (gallic acid, caffeic, chlorogenic and ellagic acid were abundant in BESF. BESFsupplemented diets (BESF-SD significantly (P 0.05 with metformin administration in some of the biomarkers. Conclusion: The flavonoids and phenolic acids in BESF may have acted synergistically to produce the observed antidiabetic effects. BESF could therefore be an effective and affordable dietary therapy for the management of T2DM; and an excellent source for drug discovery.

  5. Protocol: A simple phenol-based method for 96-well extraction of high quality RNA from Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coustham Vincent

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many experiments in modern plant molecular biology require the processing of large numbers of samples for a variety of applications from mutant screens to the analysis of natural variants. A severe bottleneck to many such analyses is the acquisition of good yields of high quality RNA suitable for use in sensitive downstream applications such as real time quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real time qRT-PCR. Although several commercial kits are available for high-throughput RNA extraction in 96-well format, only one non-kit method has been described in the literature using the commercial reagent TRIZOL. Results We describe an unusual phenomenon when using TRIZOL reagent with young Arabidopsis seedlings. This prompted us to develop a high-throughput RNA extraction protocol (HTP96 adapted from a well established phenol:chloroform-LiCl method (P:C-L that is cheap, reliable and requires no specialist equipment. With this protocol 192 high quality RNA samples can be prepared in 96-well format in three hours (less than 1 minute per sample with less than 1% loss of samples. We demonstrate that the RNA derived from this protocol is of high quality and suitable for use in real time qRT-PCR assays. Conclusion The development of the HTP96 protocol has vastly increased our sample throughput, allowing us to fully exploit the large sample capacity of modern real time qRT-PCR thermocyclers, now commonplace in many labs, and develop an effective high-throughput gene expression platform. We propose that the HTP96 protocol will significantly benefit any plant scientist with the task of obtaining hundreds of high quality RNA extractions.

  6. Purpurogallin, a Natural Phenol, Attenuates High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Induced Vasospasm in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Zen Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 was shown to be an important extracellular mediator involved in vascular inflammation of animals following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. This study is of interest to examine the efficacy of purpurogallin, a natural phenol, on the alternation of cytokines and HMGB1 in a SAH model. A rodent double hemorrhage SAH model was employed. Basilar arteries (BAs were harvested to examine HMGB1 mRNA and protein expression (Western blot. CSF samples were to examine IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α (rt-PCR. Deformed endothelial wall, tortuous elastic lamina, and necrotic smooth muscle were observed in the vessels of SAH groups but were absent in the purpurogallin group. IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the SAH only and SAH plus vehicle groups were significantly elevated (P<0.01. Purpurgallin dose-dependently reduced HMGB1 protein expression. Likewise, high dose purpurogallin reduced TNF-α and HMGB1 mRNA levels. In conclusion, purpurogallin exerts its neuroinflammation effect through the dual effect of inhibiting IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression and reducing HMGB1 protein and mRNA expression. This study supports purpurogallin could attenuate both proinflammatory cytokines and late-onset inflammasome in SAH induced vasospasm.

  7. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of hybrid variety cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonfia-Essien, W A; West, G; Alderson, P G; Tucker, G

    2008-06-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a major, economically important, international crop and has been associated with several nutritional benefits including high antioxidant capacity. New cocoa hybrids have been developed in Ghana that exhibit resistance to pest damage during storage. The aim of this work was to assess the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these new hybrids in comparison to more traditional cocoa varieties. Total extractable phenolics were similar in all the four hybrids tested ranging from 69.9 to 81.6FAEg(-1). These levels were very similar to that extracted from traditional beans (73.8±2.5FAEg(-1)). The "phenolic profile" was determined by HPLC. A total of 25 peaks was observed but there were only minor differences in this profile between traditional and hybrid bean extracts. Antioxidant capacity was determined using the FRAP assay and traditional beans were found to possess 12.4μmolTEg(-1). In comparison the hybrid beans had antioxidant capacities ranging from 21.6 to 45.5μmolTEg(-1), and these were significantly higher than in the traditional beans for three out of the four hybrids. Since the phenolic and antioxidant levels and in these hybrid varieties were either similar to, or higher than, that obtained from traditional beans, the introduction of these new varieties would be unlikely to impact detrimentally on these nutritional components of the beans. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biological effects and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in high-back crucian carp exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingliang; Wang Renmin; Huang Bin; Lin Chan; Zhou Jiali; Pan Xuejun

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) found in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents have been shown to cause adverse effects, but the uptake of EDCs from effluents (measured in fish muscle) are not known. In this study, the biological effects and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic EDCs were assessed in high-back crucian carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to WWTP effluents for 141 days. Compared with fish controls caged in Dianchi Lake, a significant reduction in gonadosomatic index (GSI) and increase in hepatosomatic index (HSI) and plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels were observed in effluent-exposed fish. The concentrations of steroids and phenols in effluent-exposed fish showed time-dependent increase during the exposure. In addition, bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for steroids and phenols were between 17 and 59 on day 141. The results confirm that steroids and phenols bioconcentrate in fish muscle and this accumulation may account for the biological effects associated with exposures to WWTP effluents. - Highlights: ► We assess the potential risk of WWTP effluents to fish. ► We investigate the biological responses of EDCs in fish exposed to effluents. ► We estimate the uptake of EDCs originating from WWTP effluents in fish. ► The bioaccumulation of EDCs may account for the biological effects of effluents. - Bioaccumulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals in WWTP effluent-exposed fish.

  9. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry applied to the identification of valuable phenolic compounds from Eucalyptus wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sónia A O; Vilela, Carla; Freire, Carmen S R; Neto, Carlos Pascoal; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2013-11-01

    Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) was applied for the first time in the analysis of wood extracts. The potential of this technique coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry in the rapid and effective detection and identification of bioactive components in complex vegetal samples was demonstrated. Several dozens of compounds were detected in less than 30min of analysis time, corresponding to more than 3-fold reduction in time, when compared to conventional HPLC analysis of similar extracts. The phenolic chemical composition of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urograndis (E. grandis×E. urophylla) and Eucalyptus maidenii wood extracts was assessed for the first time, with the identification of 51 phenolic compounds in the three wood extracts. Twenty of these compounds are reported for the first time as Eucalyptus genus components. Ellagic acid and ellagic acid-pentoside are the major components in all extracts, followed by gallic and quinic acids in E. grandis and E. urograndis and ellagic acid-pentoside isomer, isorhamnetin-hexoside and gallic acid in E. maidenii. The antioxidant scavenging activity of the extracts was evaluated, with E. grandis wood extract showing the lowest IC50 value. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of these extracts was higher than that of the commercial antioxidant BHT and of those of the corresponding bark extracts. These results, together with the phenolic content values, open good perspectives for the exploitation of these renewable resources as a source of valuable phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization and profiling of phenolic amides from Cortex Lycii by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxian; Guan, Shuhong; Sun, Jianghao; Liu, Tian; Chen, Pei; Feng, Ruihong; Chen, Xin; Wu, Wanying; Yang, Min; Guo, De-An

    2015-01-01

    Cortex Lycii, the root bark of Lycium chinense Mill. or Lycium barbarum L., is a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine. Phytochemical studies have shown that phenolic amides are not only characteristic compounds but also abundant ones in this plant. In the present study, an effective method was developed for structural characterization of phenolic amides from Cortex Lycii by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry. The fragmentation of 14 compounds including six cinnamic acid amides, six neolignanamides, and two lignanamides were studied systematically for the first time. It was found that, in the positive ion mode, neutral loss of the tyramide moiety (137 Da) or N-(4-aminobutyl)acetamide moiety (130 Da) were characteristic for these compounds. At least 54 phenolic amides were detected in the extract and 48 of them were characterized, among which 14 known compounds were identified unambiguously by comparing the retention time and mass spectra with those of reference compounds, and 34 components were tentatively identified based on the fragmentation patterns, exact mass, UV spectra, as well as retention time. Fifteen compounds were characterized as potential new ones. Additionally, the developed method was applied to analyze eight batches of samples collected from the northwest of China, and it was found that cinnamic acid amides were the main type of phenolic amides in Cortex Lycii. In conclusion, the identification of these chemicals provided essential data for further phytochemical studies, metabolites identification, and the quality control of Cortex Lycii.

  11. Bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Gutiérrez-Grijalva Paul Gutiérrez-Grijalva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in plant-based foods. High dietary intake of fruits, vegetables and cereals is related to a decreased rate in chronic diseases. Phenolic compounds are thought to be responsible, at least in part, for those health effects. Nonetheless, phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and biotransformation is often not considered in these studies; thus, a precise mechanism of action of phenolic compounds is not known. In this review we aim to present a comprehensive knowledge of the metabolic processes through which phenolic compounds go after intake.

  12. Radiolysis ob benzene, toluene and phenol aqueous solutions utilizing high energy electron beam; Radiolisis de benceno, tolueno y fenol en solucion acuosa utilizando haces de electrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Vanderhaghen, D E

    1999-12-31

    In a search for solutions to environmental pollution problems, radiolysis has proved to be an innovative technique for the removal of organic chemical pollutants in aqueous solution. Radiolysis has shown many advantages over many other techniques, as highly reactive species formed in water by ionizing radiation oxidize organic pollutants breaking down organic molecules to final simple products by oxidation to carbon dioxide and water in a complete oxidation. Our work consisted in doing some experiments in radiolysis with simulated polluted water to help us understand this technique and also develop, in a near future, a project for large scale water treatment. Our project includes the application of a Pelletron type Mexican made Electron Accelerator, which will affirm its capability and usefulness in performing investigation in this field of study. Experiments consisted in treating benzene, toluene and phenol aqueous solutions with an Electron Beam (0.48-0.55 MeV; 24 {mu}A). Two concentrations were used for each compound: 5 and 20 ppm (mg/l) for benzene and toluene; 10 and 50 ppm for phenol. Solutions were prepared with pure, mineral free water and two different p H (5.9), in order to study the effect of concentration and p H on removal efficiency, but avoiding the interference of radical scavengers. Results obtained coincide with the ones reported by Cooper, Nickelsen and Kurucz; highly efficient removal was achieved for benzene (>99.8%), toluene (>98.0%) and phenol (>88%). There was no visible important effect of p H on radiolysis efficiency for benzene nor toluene, phenol however, showed lower removal efficiency in acidic conditions. Concentration of aqueous solutions, nevertheless, did show an important effect at low doses for phenol. Results obtained reveal the importance of this technique in water pollution control and water remedial as expressed by Cooper, Nickelsen and Kurucz, who have studied radiolysis of organic compounds and apply this technique in water

  13. Radiolysis ob benzene, toluene and phenol aqueous solutions utilizing high energy electron beam; Radiolisis de benceno, tolueno y fenol en solucion acuosa utilizando haces de electrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Vanderhaghen, D.E

    1998-12-31

    In a search for solutions to environmental pollution problems, radiolysis has proved to be an innovative technique for the removal of organic chemical pollutants in aqueous solution. Radiolysis has shown many advantages over many other techniques, as highly reactive species formed in water by ionizing radiation oxidize organic pollutants breaking down organic molecules to final simple products by oxidation to carbon dioxide and water in a complete oxidation. Our work consisted in doing some experiments in radiolysis with simulated polluted water to help us understand this technique and also develop, in a near future, a project for large scale water treatment. Our project includes the application of a Pelletron type Mexican made Electron Accelerator, which will affirm its capability and usefulness in performing investigation in this field of study. Experiments consisted in treating benzene, toluene and phenol aqueous solutions with an Electron Beam (0.48-0.55 MeV; 24 {mu}A). Two concentrations were used for each compound: 5 and 20 ppm (mg/l) for benzene and toluene; 10 and 50 ppm for phenol. Solutions were prepared with pure, mineral free water and two different p H (5.9), in order to study the effect of concentration and p H on removal efficiency, but avoiding the interference of radical scavengers. Results obtained coincide with the ones reported by Cooper, Nickelsen and Kurucz; highly efficient removal was achieved for benzene (>99.8%), toluene (>98.0%) and phenol (>88%). There was no visible important effect of p H on radiolysis efficiency for benzene nor toluene, phenol however, showed lower removal efficiency in acidic conditions. Concentration of aqueous solutions, nevertheless, did show an important effect at low doses for phenol. Results obtained reveal the importance of this technique in water pollution control and water remedial as expressed by Cooper, Nickelsen and Kurucz, who have studied radiolysis of organic compounds and apply this technique in water

  14. Highly sensitive and selective detection of Bis-phenol A based on hydroxyapatite decorated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Mohammad K.; Rahman, Mohammed M.; Elzwawy, Amir; Torati, Sri Ramulu; Islam, Mohammad S.; Todo, Mitsugu; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Kim, Dojin; Kim, CheolGi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Simple chemical reduction method was used for preparation of reduced graphene oxide/hydroxyapatite (rGO/HAp) nanocomposites. •The rGO/HAp nanocomposites exhibited good biocompatibility with hMSCs. •Selective chemical sensor based on rGO/HAp nanocomposites was developed for detection of Bis-phenol A. •The fabricated rGO/HAp/Nafion/GCE sensor exhibited good detection limit of 60 pmol L −1 . -- Abstract: A facile and cost effective chemical reduction method is employed for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide/hydroxyapatite (rGO/HAp) nanocomposites. The transmission electron microscopy images revealed that the HAp flakes are well decorated on the surface of rGO. The morphological structure of the as-synthesized rGO/HAp nanocomposites was confirmed through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, while the composition and thermal stability were analyzed by energy dispersive spectra and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of rGO/HAp nanocomposites for the proliferation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell (hMSC) was performed to confirm the biocompatibility. A selective chemical sensor based on rGO/HAp modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for sensitive detection of Bis-phenol A (BPA) has been developed. Several important parameters controlling the performance of the BPA chemi-sensor were investigated and optimized at room conditions. The rGO/HAp/Nafion/GCE sensor offers a fast response and highly sensitive BPA detection. Under the optimal conditions, a linear range from 0.2 nmol L −1 to 2.0 mmol L −1 for the detection of BPA was observed with the detection limit of 60.0 pmol L −1 (signal-to-noise ratio, at an SNR of 3) and sensitivity of 18.98 × 10 4 μA.L/μmol.m 2 . Meanwhile, the fabricated chemi-sensor showed an excellent, specific and selective recognition to target BPA molecules among coexistence of other analytes in the buffer system. This novel effort initiated

  15. Comprehensive Characterization of Extractable and Nonextractable Phenolic Compounds by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight of a Grape/Pomegranate Pomace Dietary Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara

    2018-01-24

    Grape and pomegranate are rich sources of phenolic compounds, and their derived products could be used as ingredients for the development of functional foods and dietary supplements. However, the profile of nonextractable or macromolecular phenolic compounds in these samples has not been evaluated. Here, we show a comprehensive characterization of extractable and nonextractable phenolic compounds of a grape/pomegranate pomace dietary supplement using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight (HPLC-ESI-QTOF) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-TOF techniques. The main extractable phenolic compounds were several anthocyanins (principally malvidin 3-O-glucoside) as well as gallotannins and gallagyl derivatives; some phenolic compounds were reported in grape or pomegranate for the first time. Additionally, there was a high proportion of nonextractable phenolic compounds, including vanillic acid, and dihydroxybenzoic acid. Unidentified polymeric structures were detected by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. This study shows that mixed grape and pomegranate pomaces are a source of different classes of phenolic compounds including a high proportion of nonextractable phenolic compounds.

  16. Individual ball possession in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Link

    Full Text Available This paper describes models for detecting individual and team ball possession in soccer based on position data. The types of ball possession are classified as Individual Ball Possession (IBC, Individual Ball Action (IBA, Individual Ball Control (IBC, Team Ball Possession (TBP, Team Ball Control (TBC und Team Playmaking (TPM according to different starting points and endpoints and the type of ball control involved. The machine learning approach used is able to determine how long the ball spends in the sphere of influence of a player based on the distance between the players and the ball together with their direction of motion, speed and the acceleration of the ball. The degree of ball control exhibited during this phase is classified based on the spatio-temporal configuration of the player controlling the ball, the ball itself and opposing players using a Bayesian network. The evaluation and application of this approach uses data from 60 matches in the German Bundesliga season of 2013/14, including 69,667 IBA intervals. The identification rate was F = .88 for IBA and F = .83 for IBP, and the classification rate for IBC was κ = .67. Match analysis showed the following mean values per match: TBP 56:04 ± 5:12 min, TPM 50:01 ± 7:05 min and TBC 17:49 ± 8:13 min. There were 836 ± 424 IBC intervals per match and their number was significantly reduced by -5.1% from the 1st to 2nd half. The analysis of ball possession at the player level indicates shortest accumulated IBC times for the central forwards (0:49 ± 0:43 min and the longest for goalkeepers (1:38 ± 0:58 min, central defenders (1:38 ± 1:09 min and central midfielders (1:27 ± 1:08 min. The results could improve performance analysis in soccer, help to detect match events automatically, and allow discernment of higher value tactical structures, which is based on individual ball possession.

  17. Classification of wine by determination of bioactive phenolic compounds using high resolution mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Dimovska, Violeta; Mitrev, Sasa; Gulaboski, Rubin; Bogeva, Elena; Petruseva, Dragana; Causon, Tim; Hann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    In this project proposal, metabolomic fingerprinting of wine samples will be examined using high performance liquid chromatography combined with ion mobility quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC–IMS-QTOF-MS) for the first time. Bioactive compounds in wines from various red and white varieties produced in Macedonia and Austria from different wine regions and different vintages will be determined for the first time using a non-targeted fingerprinting approach on this analytical plat...

  18. Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds from rum aged in oak barrels by high-speed countercurrent chromatography/high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and screening for antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Erik L; Tolle, Sebastian; Pino, Jorge A; Winterhalter, Peter; Menendez, Roberto; Morales, Ana R; Rodríguez, José L

    2011-10-14

    Beverages, especially wines are well-known to contain a variety of health-beneficial bioactive substances, mainly of phenolic nature which frequently exhibit antioxidant activity. Significant information is available about the separation and identification of polyphenols from some beverages by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques, but considerably poor is chemical data related to the polyphenolic content in rums. In this paper, a method involving the all-liquid chromatographic technique of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n)) has been successfully applied for separation and identification of phenolic compounds in an aged rum. Besides, the phenolic fraction (PF) was assayed for its antioxidant effects using three different free radical in vitro assays (DPPH·, RO(2)· and spontaneous lipid peroxidation (LPO) on brain homogenates) and on ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Results showed that PF potently scavenged DPPH and strongly scavenged peroxyl radicals compared to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT); and almost equally inhibited LPO on brain homogenates subjected to spontaneous LPO when compared to quercetin. Moreover, PF also exhibited strong reducing power. This chemical analysis illustrates the rich array of phenols in the aged rum and represents a rapid and suitable method for the isolation and identification of phenolic compounds from mixtures of considerable complexity, achieving high purity and reproducibility with the use of two separation steps. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Titanium Supported on High Order Nanoporous Silica and Application for Direct Oxidation of Benzene to Phenol

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Badiei; Javad Gholami; Yeganeh Khaniani

    2009-01-01

    Direct oxidation of benzene to phenol in liquid phase by H2O2 peroxide was examined over Ti/ LUS-1 catalyst in methanol and acetic acid as solvents. The maximum yield and selectivity of the phenol produced was obtained in the presence of acetic acid. It can be attributed to the stabilization of H2O2 as peroxy acetic acid species in the radical mechanism for this reaction. Acetic acid interacts with hydrogen peroxide over Ti/LUS-1 and produces acetoxy radicals.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Titanium Supported on High Order Nanoporous Silica and Application for Direct Oxidation of Benzene to Phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Badiei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct oxidation of benzene to phenol in liquid phase by H2O2 peroxide was examined over Ti/ LUS-1 catalyst in methanol and acetic acid as solvents. The maximum yield and selectivity of the phenol produced was obtained in the presence of acetic acid. It can be attributed to the stabilization of H2O2 as peroxy acetic acid species in the radical mechanism for this reaction. Acetic acid interacts with hydrogen peroxide over Ti/LUS-1 and produces acetoxy radicals.

  1. Isolation of four phenolic compounds from Mangifera indica L. flowers by using normal phase combined with elution extrusion two-step high speed countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Nusrat; Lu, Yanzhen; Geng, Ping; Shao, Qian; Wei, Yun

    2017-03-01

    Two-step high speed countercurrent chromatography method, following normal phase and elution-extrusion mode of operation by using selected solvent systems, was introduced for phenolic compounds separation. Phenolic compounds including gallic acid, ethyl gallate, ethyl digallate and ellagic acid were separated from the ethanol extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) flowers for the first time. In the first step, gallic acid of 3.7mg and ethyl gallate of 3.9mg with the purities of 98.87% and 99.55%, respectively, were isolated by using hexane-ethylacetate-methanol-water (4:6:4:6, v/v) in normal phase high speed countercurrent chromatography from 200mg of crude extract, while ethyl digallate and ellagic acid were collected in the form of mixture fraction. In the second step, further purification of the mixture was carried out with the help of another selected solvent system of dichloromethane-methanol-water (4:3:2, v/v) following elusion-extrusion mode of operation. Ethyl digallate of 3.8mg and ellagic acid of 5.7mg were separated well with high purities of 98.68% and 99.71%, respectively. The separated phenolic compounds were identified and confirmed by HPLC, UPLC-QTOF/ESI-MS, 1 H and 13 C NMR spectrometric analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biological removal of phenol from wastewaters: a mini review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, N. V.; Anupama, S.; Navya, K.; Shalini, H. N.; Idris, M.; Hampannavar, U. S.

    2015-06-01

    Phenol and its derivatives are common water pollutants and include wide variety of organic chemicals. Phenol poisoning can occur by skin absorption, inhalation, ingestion and various other methods which can result in health effects. High exposures to phenol may be fatal to human beings. Accumulation of phenol creates toxicity both for flora and fauna. Therefore, removal of phenol is crucial to perpetuate the environment and individual. Among various treatment methods available for removal of phenols, biodegradation is environmental friendly. Biological methods are gaining importance as they convert the wastes into harmless end products. The present work focuses on assessment of biological removal (biodegradation) of phenol. Various factors influence the efficiency of biodegradation of phenol such as ability of the microorganism, enzymes involved, the mechanism of degradation and influencing factors. This study describes about the sources of phenol, adverse effects on the environment, microorganisms involved in the biodegradation (aerobic and anaerobic) and enzymes that polymerize phenol.

  3. Binding of substituted phenol and aniline derivatives to the corn protein zein studied by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forgács, E.; Cserháti, T.; Deyl, Zdeněk; Mikšík, Ivan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 753, č. 1 (2001), s. 79-86 ISSN 0378-4347 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/0191 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : zein * phenol * anylin Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.911, year: 2001

  4. Comparative Analysis of Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity and Quantitative Characterization of Some Phenolic Compounds in Selected Herbs and Spices in Different Solvent Extraction Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahpour, Shabnam; Selamat, Jinap; Abdul Manap, Mohd Yazid; Khatib, Alfi; Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal

    2018-02-13

    This study evaluated the efficacy of various organic solvents (80% acetone, 80% ethanol, 80% methanol) and distilled water for extracting antioxidant phenolic compounds from turmeric, curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass extracts. They were analyzed regarding the total phenol and flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity and concentration of some phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Quantification of phenolic compounds was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All the extracts possessed antioxidant activity, however, the different solvents showed different efficiencies in the extraction of phenolic compounds. Turmeric showed the highest DPPH values (67.83-13.78%) and FRAP (84.9-2.3 mg quercetin/g freeze-dried crude extract), followed by curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass. While 80% acetone was shown to be the most efficient solvent for the extraction of total phenolic compounds from turmeric, torch ginger and lemon grass (221.68, 98.10 and 28.19 mg GA/g freeze dried crude extract, respectively), for the recovery of phenolic compounds from curry leaf (92.23 mg GA/g freeze-dried crude extract), 80% ethanol was the most appropriate solvent. Results of HPLC revealed that the amount of phenolic compounds varied depending on the types of solvents used.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity and Quantitative Characterization of Some Phenolic Compounds in Selected Herbs and Spices in Different Solvent Extraction Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Sepahpour

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of various organic solvents (80% acetone, 80% ethanol, 80% methanol and distilled water for extracting antioxidant phenolic compounds from turmeric, curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass extracts. They were analyzed regarding the total phenol and flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity and concentration of some phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Quantification of phenolic compounds was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. All the extracts possessed antioxidant activity, however, the different solvents showed different efficiencies in the extraction of phenolic compounds. Turmeric showed the highest DPPH values (67.83–13.78% and FRAP (84.9–2.3 mg quercetin/g freeze-dried crude extract, followed by curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass. While 80% acetone was shown to be the most efficient solvent for the extraction of total phenolic compounds from turmeric, torch ginger and lemon grass (221.68, 98.10 and 28.19 mg GA/g freeze dried crude extract, respectively, for the recovery of phenolic compounds from curry leaf (92.23 mg GA/g freeze-dried crude extract, 80% ethanol was the most appropriate solvent. Results of HPLC revealed that the amount of phenolic compounds varied depending on the types of solvents used.

  6. Polydimethylsiloxane/covalent triazine frameworks coated stir bar sorptive extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection for the determination of phenols in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cheng; He, Man; Liao, Huaping; Chen, Beibei; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Bin

    2016-04-08

    In this work, covalent triazine frameworks (CTFs) were introduced in stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and a novel polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS)/CTFs stir bar coating was prepared by sol-gel technique for the sorptive extraction of eight phenols (including phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, p-chloro-m-cresol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) from environmental water samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection. The prepared PDMS/CTFs coated stir bar showed good preparation reproducibility with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 3.5 to 5.7% (n=7) in one batch, and from 3.7 to 9.3% (n=7) among different batches. Several parameters affecting SBSE of eight target phenols including extraction time, stirring rate, sample pH, ionic strength, desorption solvent and desorption time were investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) were found to be in the range of 0.08-0.30 μg/L. The linear range was 0.25-500 μg/L for 2-nitrophenol, 0.5-500 μg/L for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-nitrophenol as well as 2,4-dimethylphenol, and 1-500 μg/L for p-chloro-m-cresol, 2,4-dichlorophenol as well as 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, respectively. The intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 4.3-9.4% (n=7, c=2 μg/L) and the enrichment factors ranged from 64.9 to 145.6 fold (theoretical enrichment factor was 200-fold). Compared with commercial PDMS coated stir bar (Gerstel) and PEG coated stir bar (Gerstel), the prepared PDMS/CTFs stir bar showed better extraction efficiency for target phenol compounds. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of phenols in environmental water samples and good relative recoveries were obtained with the spiking level at 2, 10, 50 μg/L, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of phenolic content, total flavonoid and survey of antioxidant activity of leaves of Ficus carica and Pterocarya fraxinifolia trees using spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatograph methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Jafari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, to evaluate the antioxidant activity of leaf Pterocarya fraxinifolia (Juglandaceae and Ficus carica (Moraceae extract were carried out by spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography methods. The leaves of P. fraxinifolia and F. carica were collected from Whitney and Shast Kalate (Golestan, Noor (Mazandaran and Asalem (Guilan forests in Iran. Methanolc extract was used in different experiments. The phenolic compounds (gallic acid, coumaric acid and quercetin were also measured by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method.The maximum IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity (595.12±21.4 μg ml-1 were observed in P. fraxinifolia leaves. According to the inhibition time, phenolic compound (gallic acid, coumaric acid and quercetin in F. carica leaves and gallic acid and coumaric acid were detected of Pterocarya leaves methanol extracts. The maximum amount of gallic acid (78.93 and coumaric acid (8.14 in extracts Pterocarya leaves Asalem and the lowest gallic acid (8.56 and coumaric acid (0.89 milligrams per gram was observed in Ficus leaf of Noor forest. Based on the standard chromatogram retention time of gallic acid (2.383, coumaric acid (3.817 and quercetin (7.217 mg/g was reported. This study showed that soil factors, such as potassium, sodium, phosphorus and nitrogen compounds with antioxidant phenolic extracts of the leaves of both plants there is a significant correlation.

  8. Differences in bioactivity of three endemic Nepeta species arising from main terpenoid and phenolic constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestorović-Živković Jasmina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol extracts of three endemic Nepeta species were analyzed for their main secondary metabolites, terpenes and phenolics, and further investigated for antioxidant capacity and embryonic toxicity in zebrafish. UHPLC/DAD/(± HESI-MS/MS analysis showed that the dominant compound in N. rtanjensis was trans,cis-nepetalactone, the cis,trans isomer of this monoterpene lactone was dominant in N. sibirica, while nepetalactone was detected only in traces in N. nervosa. In all investigated species, rosmarinic acid was the dominant phenolic compound, while other identified phenolic acids (chlorogenic, neochlorogenic and caffeic were present in considerably lower amounts. ABTS and DPPH assays showed that the methanol extracts of N. rtanjensis, N. sibirica and especially N. nervosa possessed strong antioxidant activities, with the FRAP assay revealing high ferric-reducing abilities for all three tested species. Such a strong antioxidant potential, especially as manifested in the DPPH and FRAP assays, can be attributed to phenolic acids, and in the first place to rosmarinic acid. Increased lethality of zebrafish embryos in any of the treatments was not observed, but several toxic effects on embryonic development were recorded, such as pericardial and yolk sac edema. As in other Nepeta species, the three studied endemic species possessed a great potential for food conservation or as medicinal supplements if applied in optimized concentrations; however, alternative sources of plant material (e.g. field cultivation should be established bearing in mind their vulnerability in nature.

  9. The multifunctionality of berries toward blood platelets and the role of berry phenolics in cardiovascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata

    2017-09-01

    Diet and nutrition have an important influence on the prophylaxis and progression of cardiovascular disease; one example is the inhibition of blood platelet functions by specific components of fruits and vegetables. Garlic, onion, ginger, dark chocolate and polyunsaturated fatty acids all reduce blood platelet aggregation. A number of fruits contain a range of cardioprotective antioxidants and vitamins, together with a large number of non-nutrient phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds, which may possess both antioxidant properties and anti-platelet activity. Fresh berries and berry extracts possess high concentrations of phenolic compounds, i.e. phenolic acid, stilbenoids, flavonoids and lignans. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of current knowledge of the anti-platelet activity of berries, which form an integral part of the human diet. It describes the effects of phenolic compounds present in a number of berries, i.e. black chokeberries - aronia berries (Aronia melanocarpa), blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus), cranberries (Vaccinium sect. Oxycoccus), sea buckthorn berries (Hippophae rhamnoides) and grapes (Vitis), as well as various commercial products from berries (i.e. juices), on platelets and underlying mechanisms. Studies show that the effects of berries on platelet activity are dependent on not only the concentrations of the phenolic compounds in the berries or the class of phenolic compounds, but also the types of berry and the form (fresh berry, juice or medicinal product). Different results indicate that berries may play a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disorders, but the development of well-controlled clinical studies with berries is encouraged.

  10. Simultaneous determination of six synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oils using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuangjiao; Liu, Liangliang; Wang, Yanqin; Zhou, Dayun; Kuang, Meng; Fang, Dan; Yang, Weihua; Wei, Shoujun; Xiao, Aiping; Ma, Lei

    2016-08-01

    A simple, rapid, organic-solvent- and sample-saving pretreatment technique, called dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, was developed for the determination of six synthetic phenolic antioxidants from edible oils before high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The entire procedure was composed of a two-step microextraction and a centrifugal process and could be finished in about 5 min, only consuming only 25 mg of sample and 1 mL of the organic solvent for each extraction. The influences of several important parameters on the microextraction efficiency were thoroughly investigated. Recovery assays for oil samples were spiked at three concentration levels, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, and provided recoveries in the 86.3-102.5% range with a relative standard deviation below 3.5%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions for the analysis were less than 3.8%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in different oil samples, and satisfactory results were obtained. Thus, the developed method represents a viable alternative for the quality control of synthetic phenolic antioxidant concentrations in edible oils. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Characterization of phenolic compounds in Helichrysum melaleucum by high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line ultraviolet and mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Sandra C; Castilho, Paula C

    2010-07-15

    Helicrysum melaleucum is a medicinal plant traditionally used in the islands of the Macaronesia region for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this work, the phenolic compounds of Helicrysum melaleucum plants collected in different geographical locations of Madeira Island and their morphological parts (total aerial parts, leaves, flowers and stems) were extracted and analyzed separately by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n)). A total of 68 compounds were characterized based mainly on their UV and mass spectra. These included derivatives of O-glycosylated flavonoids (flavonol and flavones type), quinic acid, caffeic acid, lignans and polyphenols. The flowers were found to be the morphological part with higher variety of phenolic compounds. The large differences in the phenolic composition of plants collected from different geographical locations allowed the identification of a few components, such as pinoresinol and methoxylated flavone derivatives, likely to be useful as geographical markers. Also, these results promote further comparison of the bioactivities of the different samples analyzed. This paper marks the first report on the chemical analysis of Helichrysum melaleucum species. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The Escherichia coli argW-dsdCXA genetic island is highly variable, and E. coli K1 strains commonly possess two copies of dsdCXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Rebecca L; Welch, Rodney A

    2006-11-01

    The genome sequences of Escherichia coli pathotypes reveal extensive genetic variability in the argW-dsdCXA island. Interestingly, the archetype E. coli K1 neonatal meningitis strain, strain RS218, has two copies of the dsdCXA genes for d-serine utilization at the argW and leuX islands. Because the human brain contains d-serine, an epidemiological study emphasizing K1 isolates surveyed the dsdCXA copy number and function. Forty of 41 (97.5%) independent E. coli K1 isolates could utilize d-serine. Southern blot hybridization revealed physical variability within the argW-dsdC region, even among 22 E. coli O18:K1:H7 isolates. In addition, 30 of 41 K1 strains, including 21 of 22 O18:K1:H7 isolates, had two dsdCXA loci. Mutational analysis indicated that each of the dsdA genes is functional in a rifampin-resistant mutant of RS218, mutant E44. The high percentage of K1 strains that can use d-serine is in striking contrast to our previous observation that only 4 of 74 (5%) isolates in the diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) collection have this activity. The genome sequence of diarrheagenic E. coli isolates indicates that the csrRAKB genes for sucrose utilization are often substituted for dsdC and a portion of dsdX present at the argW-dsdCXA island of extraintestinal isolates. Among DEC isolates there is a reciprocal pattern of sucrose fermentation versus d-serine utilization. The ability to use d-serine is a trait strongly selected for among E. coli K1 strains, which have the ability to infect a wide range of extraintestinal sites. Conversely, diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes appear to have substituted sucrose for d-serine as a potential nutrient.

  13. Mesoporous carbon nitride based biosensor for highly sensitive and selective analysis of phenol and catechol in compost bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yaoyu; Tang, Lin; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Jun; Cai, Ye; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Guide; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chen; Tang, Wangwang

    2014-11-15

    Herein, we reported here a promising biosensor by taking advantage of the unique ordered mesoporous carbon nitride material (MCN) to convert the recognition information into a detectable signal with enzyme firstly, which could realize the sensitive, especially, selective detection of catechol and phenol in compost bioremediation samples. The mechanism including the MCN based on electrochemical, biosensor assembly, enzyme immobilization, and enzyme kinetics (elucidating the lower detection limit, different linear range and sensitivity) was discussed in detail. Under optimal conditions, GCE/MCN/Tyr biosensor was evaluated by chronoamperometry measurements and the reduction current of phenol and catechol was proportional to their concentration in the range of 5.00 × 10(-8)-9.50 × 10(-6)M and 5.00 × 10(-8)-1.25 × 10(-5)M with a correlation coefficient of 0.9991 and 0.9881, respectively. The detection limits of catechol and phenol were 10.24 nM and 15.00 nM (S/N=3), respectively. Besides, the data obtained from interference experiments indicated that the biosensor had good specificity. All the results showed that this material is suitable for load enzyme and applied to the biosensor due to the proposed biosensor exhibited improved analytical performances in terms of the detection limit and specificity, provided a powerful tool for rapid, sensitive, especially, selective monitoring of catechol and phenol simultaneously. Moreover, the obtained results may open the way to other MCN-enzyme applications in the environmental field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chloroform-assisted phenol extraction improving proteome profiling of maize embryos through selective depletion of high-abundance storage proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhui Xiong

    Full Text Available The presence of abundant storage proteins in plant embryos greatly impedes seed proteomics analysis. Vicilin (or globulin-1 is the most abundant storage protein in maize embryo. There is a need to deplete the vicilins from maize embryo extracts for enhanced proteomics analysis. We here reported a chloroform-assisted phenol extraction (CAPE method for vicilin depletion. By CAPE, maize embryo proteins were first extracted in an aqueous buffer, denatured by chloroform and then subjected to phenol extraction. We found that CAPE can effectively deplete the vicilins from maize embryo extract, allowing the detection of low-abundance proteins that were masked by vicilins in 2-DE gel. The novelty of CAPE is that it selectively depletes abundant storage proteins from embryo extracts of both monocot (maize and dicot (soybean and pea seeds, whereas other embryo proteins were not depleted. CAPE can significantly improve proteome profiling of embryos and extends the application of chloroform and phenol extraction in plant proteomics. In addition, the rationale behind CAPE depletion of abundant storage proteins was explored.

  15. Biochemical characterization of a novel tyrosine phenol-lyase from Fusobacterium nucleatum for highly efficient biosynthesis of l-DOPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ren-Chao; Tang, Xiao-Ling; Suo, Hui; Feng, Li-Lin; Liu, Xiao; Yang, Jian; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2018-05-01

    Tyrosine phenol-lyase (TPL) catalyzes the reversible cleavage of l-tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate and ammonia. When pyrocatechol is substituted for phenol, l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) is produced. The TPL-catalyzed route was regarded as the most economic process for l-DOPA production. In this study, a novel TPL from Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn-TPL) was successfully overexpressed in Escherichia coli and screened for l-DOPA synthesis with a specific activity of 2.69Umg -1 . Fn-TPL was found to be a tetramer, and the optimal temperature and pH for α, β-elimination of l-tyrosine was 60°C and pH 8.5, respectively. The enzyme showed broad substrate specificity toward natural and synthetic l-amino acids. Kinetic analysis suggested that the k cat /K m value for l-tyrosine decomposition was much higher than that for l-DOPA decomposition, while Fn-TPL exhibited similar catalytic efficiency for synthesis of l-tyrosine and l-DOPA. With whole cells of recombinant E. coli as biocatalyst, l-DOPA yield reached 110gL -1 with a pyrocatechol conversion of 95%, which was comparable to the reported highest level. The results demonstrated the great potential of Fn-TPL for industrial production of l-DOPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The qualified possession turn into ownership

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    Popov Danica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Possession is prima facie evidence of ownership. Possession is ninetents of the law, means that possession is good against all other, except the true owner. The possession ripens into ownership if it is qualified and by effluxion of time. In Serbian law there are two kinds of adverse possession ripens into ownership. The first one is named ordinary and second one extraordinary adverse possession. Ordinary possession need to be legal, conscientious and genuine. Extraordinary possession is only conscientious, but in a wide sense. Adverse possession destroys the title of the owner and vests it in possessor. An occupation of land inconsistent with the right of the true owner: the possession of those against whom a right action has accured to the true owner. It is actual possession in the absence of possession by the rightful owner and without lawful title. If the adverse possession continues, the effect at the expiration of the prescribed period is that not only the remedy but the title of former owner is extinguished. The person in adverse possession gains a new possessory title which cannot, normally exceed in extent of duration the interest of the former owner.

  17. Importance of phenols structure on their activity as antinitrosating agents: A kinetic study

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    Marcia Pessego

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Nitrosative deamination of DNA bases induced by reaction with reactive nitrogen species (RNS has been pointed out as a probable cause of mutagenesis. (Polyphenols, present in many food items from the Mediterranean diet, are believed to possess antinitrosating properties due to their RNS scavenging ability, which seems to be related to their structure. It has been suggested that phenolic compounds will react with the above-mentioned species more rapidly than most amino compounds, thus preventing direct nitrosation of the DNA bases and their transnitrosation from endogenous N-nitroso compounds, or most likely from the transient N-nitrosocompounds formed in vivo. Materials and Methods : In order to prove that assumption, a kinetic study of the nitroso group transfer from a N-methyl-N-nitrosobenzenesulfonamide (N-methyl-N-nitroso-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide, MeNMBS to the DNA bases bearing an amine group and to a series of phenols was carried out. In the transnitrosation of phenols, the formation of nitrosophenol was monitored by Ultraviolet (UV / Visible spectroscopy, and in the reactions of the DNA bases, the consumption of MeNMBS was followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results : The results obtained point to the transnitrosation of DNA bases being negligible, as well as that of phenols bearing electron-withdrawing groups. Phenols with methoxy substituents in positions 2, 4, and / or 6, although they seemed to react, did not afford the expected product. Phenols with electron-releasing substituents, unless these blocked the oxygen atom, reacted with our model compound at an appreciable rate. O-nitrosation of the phenolate ion followed by rearrangement of the C-nitrosophenol seemed to be involved. Conclusion : This study provided evidence that the above compounds might actually act as antinitrosating agents in vivo.

  18. Identification of the free phenolic profile of Adlay bran by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and inhibitory mechanisms of phenolic acids against xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lianzhu; Yang, Qingyun; Zhao, Kun; Zhao, Mouming

    2018-07-01

    Adlay bran free phenolic extract has been previously demonstrated to possess potent xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitory activity. The aims of this study were to characterize the free phenolic profile of adlay bran and investigate the structure-activity relationship, underlying mechanism and interaction of phenolic acids as XOD inhibitors. A total of twenty phenolics including ten phenolic acids, two coumarins, two phenolic aldedhyes and six flavonoids were identified in a phenolic compound-guided separation by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Adlay bran free phenolic extract possessed strong XOD inhibitory activity related to hydroxycinnamic acids with methoxyl groups. The hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions were the main forces in the binding of adlay phenolics to XOD. Sinapic acid, identified in adlay bran for the first time, possessed strong XOD inhibitory activity in a mixed non-competitive manner, and synergistic effects with other adlay phenolic acids at low concentrations, and would be a promising agent for preventing and treating hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Toxicity of Phenol and Salt on the Phenol-Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacterium

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    Samaei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Phenolic compounds, phenol and phenol derivatives are environmental contaminants in some industrial effluents. Entrance of such substances into the environment causes severe environmental pollution, especially pollution of water resources. Biological treatment is a method that uses the potential of microorganisms to clean up contaminated environments. Among microorganisms, bacteria play an important role in treating wastewater contaminated with phenol. Objectives This study aimed to examine the effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on degradation of phenol in wastewater contaminated with this pollutant. Methods In this method, the growth rate of P. aeruginosa bacteria was investigated using different concentrations of salt and phenol. This is an experimental study conducted as a pilot in a batch reactor with different concentrations of phenol (25, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 600 mg L-1 and salt (0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2.5% and 5% during 9, 12 and 15 hours. During three days, from 5 experimental and 3 control samples, 18 samples were taken a day forming a sample size of 54 samples for each phenol concentration. Given the number of phenol concentrations (n = 6, a total of 324 samples were analyzed using a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 600 nm. Results The phenol concentration of 600 mg L-1 was toxic for P. aeruginosa. However, at a certain concentration, it acts as a carbon source for P. aeruginosa. During investigations, it was found that increasing the concentration of phenol increases the rate of bacteria growth. The highest bacteria growth rate occurred was at the salt concentration of zero and phenol concentration of 600 mg L-1. Conclusions The findings of the current study indicate that at high concentrations of salt, the growth of bacteria reduces so that it stops at a concentration of 50 mg L-1 (5%. Thus, the bacterium is halotolerant or halophilic. With an increase in phenol concentration, the growth rate increased. Phenol toxicity appears

  20. [Determination of four phenolic endocrine disruptors in environmental water samples by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with derivatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Qi, Weimei; Zhao, Xian'en; Lü, Tao; Wang, Xiya; Zheng, Longfang; Yan, Yehao; You, Jinmao

    2014-06-01

    To achieve accurate, fast and sensitive detection of phenolic endocrine disruptors in small volume of environmental water samples, a method of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with fluorescent derivatization was developed for the determination of bisphenol A, nonylphenol, octylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol in environmental water samples by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The DLLME and derivatization conditions were investigated, and the optimized DLLME conditions for small volume of environmental water samples (pH 4.0) at room temperature were as follows: 70 microL chloroform as extraction solvent, 400 microL acetonitrile as dispersing solvent, vortex mixing for 3 min, and then high-speed centrifugation for 2 min. Using 2-[2-(7H-dibenzo [a, g] carbazol-7-yl)-ethoxy] ethyl chloroformate (DBCEC-Cl) as precolumn derivatization reagent, the stable derivatives of the four phenolic endocrine disruptors were obtained in pH 10.5 Na2CO3-NaHCO3 buffer/acetonitrile at 50 degrees C for 3 min, and then separated within 10 min by HPLC-FLD. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.9-1.6 ng/L, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 3.8-7.1 ng/L. This method had perfect linearity, precision and recovery results, and showed obvious advantages and practicality comparing to the previously reported methods. It is a convenient and validated method for the routine analysis of phenolic endocrine disruptors in waste water of paper mill, lake water, domestic wastewater, tap water, etc.

  1. Cleavage and synthesis function of high and low redox potential laccases towards 4-morpholinoaniline and aminated as well as chlorinated phenols.

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    Hahn, Veronika; Mikolasch, Annett; Schauer, Frieder

    2014-02-01

    Laccases are able to mediate both cleavage and synthesis processes. The basis for this dual reaction capability lies in the property of the enzyme laccase to oxidize phenolic, and to some extent non-phenolic substances, to reactive radicals which can undergo on the one hand separations of small substitutents or large molecule parts from the parent compound and on the other hand coupling reactions with other radicals or molecules which are not themselves oxidizable by laccase. The cleavage of the non-phenolic compound 4-morpholinoaniline as well as the deamination of 4-aminophenol and the dechlorination of 4-chlorophenol resulted in the formation of 1,4-hydroquinone which is immediately oxidized by laccase to 1,4-benzoquinone. The formation of the 1,4-hydroquinone/1,4-benzoquinone is the rate limiting step for the synthesis of the heteromolecular dimers and trimers composed of 1,4-benzoquinone and one or two molecules of morpholine. In addition to the synthesis of new compounds from the cleavage products, 4-morpholinoaniline polymerized probably via azo groups and C-N bonds to a homomolecular dimer and trimer. Similarities and differences in cleavage and synthesis reactions catalyzed by the low redox potential laccase of Myceliophthora thermophila (0.46 V) and the high redox potential laccase of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus (0.79 V) were determined. In addition, the dependency of the cleavage and synthesis efficiencies on the (a) structure and redox potential of the laccase, (b) structure and redox potential of the substrate, (c) pH value of the buffer used, (d) incubation temperature, (e) solvent concentration, and (f) laccase activity is discussed in general.

  2. Analysis of eleven phenolic compounds including novel p-coumaroyl derivatives in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Agustí, Albert; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Sárraga, Carmen; García-Regueiro, José-Antonio; Castellari, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Lettuce is a widely consumed vegetable and a good source of phenolic compounds. Several factors (genetic, agronomical and environmental) can influence the lettuce composition; their effects are not completely defined and more studies are needed on this topic. To develop an improved ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method to quantify the main target intact phenolic compounds in lettuce. UHPLC identification of the compounds was supported by PAD spectra and MS(n) analyses. Quantification was carried out by PAD, by creating matrix-matched calibration curves at the specific wavelength for each compound. Sample pretreatment was simplified, with neither purification nor hydrolysis steps. Chromatographic conditions were chosen to minimise matrix interferences and to give a suitable separation of the major phenolic compounds within 27 min. The method allowed the quantification of 11 intact phenolic compounds in Romaine lettuces, including phenolic acids (caffeoyl and p-coumaroyl esters) and flavonoids (quercetin glycosides). Four p-coumaroyl esters were tentatively identified and quantified for the first time in lettuce. The main intact phenolic compounds, including four novel p-coumaroyl esters, were simultaneously quantified in lettuce with optimal performances and a reduced total time of analysis. These findings make headway in the understanding of the lettuce phytochemicals with potential nutritional relevance. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Phenol-formaldehyde carbon with ordered/disordered bimodal mesoporous structure as high-performance electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tingwei; Zhou, Min; Han, Guangshuai; Guan, Shiyou

    2013-11-01

    A novel phenol-formaldehyde carbon with ordered/disordered bimodal mesoporous structure is synthesized by the facile evaporation induced self-assembly strategy under a basic aqueous condition with SiO2 particles as template. The prepared bimodal mesoporous carbons (BMCs) are composed of ordered mesoporous and disordered mesoporous with diameter of about 3.5 nm and 7.0 nm, respectively. They can be employed as supercapacitor electrodes in H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte after the simple acid-treatment. BMC exhibits an exceptional specific capacitance of 344 F g-1 at the current density of 0.1 A g-1, although it has a relatively low surface area of 722 m2 g-1. And the BMC electrode displays an excellent cycling stability over 10,000 cycles.

  4. Simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Chenopodium formosanum Koidz. (djulis) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, B Y; Lin, S W; Inbaraj, B Stephen; Chen, B H

    2017-01-05

    A high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) was developed for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in djulis (Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.), a traditional Chinese herb reported to possess vital biological activities. A high yield of phenolic acids and flavonoids was attained by employing 50% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent and shaking in a 60°C water bath for 3h. A total of 8 phenolic acids and 14 flavonoids were separated and identified within 55min by using a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column with detection at 280nm, flow rate at 0.8mL/min, column temperature at 35°C, and a gradient solvent system of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. Two internal standards caffeic acid and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside were used for quantitation of phenolic acids and flavonoids in djulis respectively. The amounts of phenolic acids ranged from 11.5±0.8μg/g (caffeoyl-putrescine-derivative (2)) to 1855.3±16.9μg/g (hydroxylphenylacetic acid pentoside), while the flavonoids ranged from 19.93±2.29μg/g (quercetin-3-O-(coumaryl)-rutinoside-pentoside (1)) to 257.3±2.05μg/g (rutin-O-pentoside (2)). A high recovery (89.68-97.20%) and high reproducibility was obtained for both phenolic acids and flavonoids with the relative standard deviation (RSD) for the latter ranging from 0.09-8.22% (intra-day variability) and 0.80-8.48% (inter-day variability). This method may be applied to determination of both phenolic acids and flavonoids in food products and Chinese herbs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Highly invasive alien plant Reynoutria japonica Houtt. represents a novel source for pharmaceutical industry - evidence from phenolic profile and biological activity

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    Božin Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reynoutria japonica is on the IUCN list of the Worlds’100 worst invasive species, but it is also, especially its rhizome, an integral part of traditional chinese medicine. The objective of this study was to determine the amount of selected phenolic compounds in rhizome, stems, leaves and inflorescence methanol extracts of this plant, their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity. The chemical profile of the examined extracts was obtained by a high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro assays on DPPH, OH and NO radicals were used to estimate antioxidant potential and Ellman’s method was applied for the determination of anticholinesterase activity. Leaves and rhizome extracts were found to be rich in rosmarinic and chlorogenic acid, and selected flavonoids. Resveratrol was exclusively present in rhizome and stems extracts. All the investigated extracts expressed certain antioxidant activity, where leaves extract was the most active. However, rhizome extract was the strongest inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase. These findings indicate that there is a possibility of R. japonica exploitation for the isolation of biologically active phenolic compounds used in pharmaceutical and food industry.

  6. High Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Amplification Factor Obtained with Silver Printed Circuit Boards and the Influence of Phenolic Resins for the Characterization of the Pesticide Thiram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva de Almeida, Francylaine; Bussler, Larissa; Marcio Lima, Sandro; Fiorucci, Antonio Rogério; da Cunha Andrade, Luis Humberto

    2016-07-01

    In this work, low-cost substrates with rough silver surfaces were prepared from commercial copper foil-covered phenolic board (CPB) and an aqueous solution of AgNO3, and were used for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) measurements. A maximum SERS amplification factor of 1.2 × 10(7) was obtained for Rhodamine 6G (R6G), and use of the CPB resulted in a detection limit for Thiram pesticide of 0.5 µmol L(-1) The minimum detection level was limited by residual traces of phenolic groups that originated from the substrate resin, which became solubilized in the aqueous Ag(+) solution. It was found that the bands corresponding to the impurities had less influence in the Thiram analysis, which could be explained by the high affinity of sulfur for Ag surfaces. The influence of impurities in the SERS analyses therefore depended on the linkage between the rough silver surface and the analyte. The findings demonstrated the ease and effectiveness of using CPB to prepare a nanostructured surface for SERS. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Preparation of black soybean (Glycine max L) extract with enhanced levels of phenolic compound and estrogenic activity using high hydrostatic pressure and pre-germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Young; Jang, Gwi Yeong; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kyung Mi; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the influence of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on the estrogenic properties and conversion of the phenolic compounds in germinated black soybean. The black soybean was germinated for two- or four-days, and then subjected to HHP at 0.1, 50, 100, or 150 MPa for 12 or 24 h. The highest total polyphenol content (3.9 mg GAE/g), flavonoid content (0.8 mg CE/g), phenolic acid content (940 ± 18.96 μg/g), and isoflavonone content (2600 μg/g) were observed after germination for four days and HHP treatment at 100 MPa for 24 h. In terms of isoflavone composition, the malonyl, acetyl and β-glycoside contents decreased, while the aglycone content increased with HHP. The highest proliferative effect (150%) is observed at four days germination and HHP treatment at 100 MPa. These results suggest that application of HHP may provide useful information regarding the utility of black soybean as alternative hormone replacement therapy.

  8. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wines

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    Charalampos Proestos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Wine contains natural antioxidants such as phenolic compounds also known as bioactive compounds. Samples of commercially available Greek wines were analyzed in order to determine this phenolic content. For the analysis, Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC coupled with a multiwavelength Ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis detector was used. The most abundant phenolic substances detected were (+-catechin (13.5-72.4 mg L-1 , gallic acid (0.40-99.47 mg L-1 and caffeic acid (0.87-33.48 mg L-1. The principal component analysis (PCA technique was used to study differentiation among wines according to their production area. Red wines contained more phenolic substances than white ones. Differences of the phenolic composition in wines of the same cultivar were investigated too.

  9. Arylsulfotransferase from Clostridium innocuum-A new enzyme catalyst for sulfation of phenol-containing compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozhaev, Vadim V; Khmelnitsky, Yuri L; Sanchez-Riera, Fernando; Maurina-Brunker, Julie; Rosson, Reinhardt A; Grund, Alan D

    2002-06-05

    Arylsulfotransferase (AST, EC 2.8.2.22), an enzyme capable of sulfating a wide range of phenol-containing compounds was purified from a Clostridium innocuum isolate (strain 554). The enzyme has a molecular weight of 320 kDa and is composed of four subunits. Unlike many mammalian and plant arylsulfotransferases, AST from Clostridium utilizes arylsulfates, including p-nitrophenyl sulfate, as sulfate donors, and is not reactive with 3-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). The enzyme possesses broad substrate specificity and is active with a variety of phenols, quinones and flavonoids, but does not utilize primary and secondary alcohols and sugars as substrates. Arylsulfotransferase tolerates the presence of 10 vol% of polar cosolvents (dimethyl formamide, acetonitrile, methanol), but loses significant activity at higher solvent concentrations of 30-40 vol%. The enzyme retains high arylsulfotransferase activity in biphasic systems composed of water and nonpolar solvents, such as cyclohexane, toluene and chloroform, while in biphasic systems with more polar solvents (ethyl acetate, 2-pentanone, methyl tert-butyl ether, and butyl acetate) the enzyme activity is completely lost. High yields of AST-catalyzed sulfation were achieved in reactions with several phenols and tyrosine-containing peptides. Overall, AST studied in this work is a promising biocatalyst in organic synthesis to afford efficient sulfation of phenolic compounds under mild reaction conditions. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 78: 567-575, 2002.

  10. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Phenolic Extract from Rambutan Peels (Nephelium lappaceum) in High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingyu; Guo, Yan; Sun, Liping; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2017-07-26

    Recent studies have shown that rambutan peel phenolic (RPP) extract demonstrate high antioxidant and antiglycation activities in vitro and in vivo. This study further evaluated the anti-diabetic activity of RPP in a mouse model of Type II diabetes induced by streptozotocin combined with high-fat diet. Results showed that RPP increased the body weight and reduced the fasting blood glucose level of the diabetic mice. RPP significantly reduced the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, and glycated serum protein in diabetic mice in a dose-dependent manner. Glycogen content in mice liver was recovered by RPP, which further increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and reduced lipid peroxidation in diabetic mice. Histological analysis showed that RPP effectively protected the tissue structure of the liver, kidney, and pancreas. In addition, RPP decreased the mesangial index and inhibited the expression of TGF-β in the kidney of diabetic mice.

  11. Characterization of phenolic and other polar compounds in peel and flesh of pink guava (Psidium guajava L. cv. 'Criolla') by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Garbanzo, Carolina; Zimmermann, Benno F; Schulze-Kaysers, Nadine; Schieber, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Pink guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a highly consumed fruit in tropical countries. Despite of interesting research on health effects of this fruit, investigations into the profile of secondary plant metabolites are scarce. In this study, the phenolic compounds in the peel and flesh of pink guava were characterized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detection. Sixty phenolic compounds were characterized by MS 2 and classified as ellagitannins, flavones, flavonols, flavanols, proanthocyanidins, dihydrochalcones, and anthocyanidins, and non-flavonoids such as phenolic acid derivatives, stilbenes, acetophenones, and benzophenones. Forty-two polyphenols are reported for the first time in both peel and flesh, and twenty-four compounds were detected for the first time in P. guajava, e.g., phlorizin, nothofagin, astringin, chrysin-C-glucoside, valoneic acid bilactone, cinnamoyl-glucoside, and two dimethoxycinnamoyl-hexosides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and validation of an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the simultaneous determination of six phenolic compounds in abnormal savda munziq decoction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shuge; Liu, Wenxian; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Xuejia; Upur, Halmuart

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Given the high-effectiveness and low-toxicity of abnormal savda munziq (ASMQ), its herbal formulation has long been used in traditional Uyghur medicine to treat complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Settings and Design: ASMQ decoction by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector was successfully developed for the simultaneous quality assessment of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, rosmarinic acid, and luteolin. The six phenolic compounds were separated on an Agilent TC-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm) by gradient elution using 0.3% aqueous formic acid (v/v) and 0.3% methanol formic acid (v/v) at 1.0 mL/min. Materials and Methods: The plant material was separately ground and mixed at the following ratios (10): Cordia dichotoma (10.6), Anchusa italic (10.6), Euphorbia humifusa (4.9), Adiantum capillus-veneris (4.9), Ziziphus jujube (4.9), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (7.1), Foeniculum vulgare (4.9), Lavandula angustifolia (4.9), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (4.9), and Alhagi pseudoalhagi (42.3). Statistical Analysis Used: The precisions of all six compounds were Highly significant linear correlations were found between component concentrations and specific chromatographic peak areas (R2 > 0.999). Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of six active components in ASMQ. Conclusions: Given the simplicity, precision, specificity, and sensitivity of the method, it can be utilized as a quality control approach to simultaneously determining the six phenolic compounds in AMSQ. PMID:25709227

  13. Selective extraction of high-value phenolic compounds from distillation wastewater of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Imma; Sánchez-Camargo, Andrea Del Pilar; Mendiola, Jose Antonio; Campone, Luca; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Rastrelli, Luca; Ibañez, Elena

    2018-01-31

    During the essential oil steam distillation from aromatic herbs, huge amounts of distillation wastewaters (DWWs) are generated. These by-products represent an exceptionally rich source of phenolic compounds such as rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA). Herein, the alternative use of dried basil DWWs (dDWWs) to perform a selective extraction of RA and CA by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) employing bio-based solvent was studied. To select the most suitable solvent for PLE, the theoretical modelling of Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) was carried out. This approach allows reducing the list of candidate to two solvents: ethanol and ethyl lactate. Due to the composition of the sample, mixtures of water with those solvents were also tested. An enriched PLE extract in RA (23.90 ± 2.06 mg/g extract) with an extraction efficiency of 75.89 ± 16.03% employing a water-ethanol mixture 25:75 (% v/v) at 50°C was obtained. In the case of CA, a PLE extract with 2.42 ± 0.04 mg/g extract, having an extraction efficiency of 13.86 ± 4.96% using ethanol absolute at 50°C was achieved. DWWs are proposed as new promising sources of natural additives and/or functional ingredients for cosmetic, nutraceutical, and food applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Highly Oxygenated Flavonoids from the Leaves of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Solanaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Shafiullah Shajib; Bidyut Kanti Datta; Md. Hossain Sohrab; Mohammad Abdur Rashid; Lutfun Nahar; Satyajit Dey Sarker

    2017-01-01

    Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. is an annual herb of the family Solanaceae, which grows abundantly in the weedy lands of Bangladesh . This plant possesses analgesic, antibacterial, anti-anxiety and hepatoprotective properties, and produces various phenolic compounds including flavonoids. The present study afforded determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and for the first time, the isolation and characterization of highly oxygenated flavonoids, e.g., 3,3' ,5,6,7,8-hexamethoxy- 4...

  15. Amino modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polydimethylsiloxane coated stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection for the determination of phenols in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cong; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2013-07-26

    In this work, amino modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polydimethylsiloxane (multi-walled carbon nanotubes-4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane/polydimethylsiloxane, MWCNTs-DDM/PDMS) was synthesized, and utilized as a novel coating for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) of seven phenols (phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, p-choro-m-cresol and 2,4,6-trichlorphenol) in environmental water and soil samples, followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The prepared MWCNTs-DDM/PDMS coated stir bar was characterized and good preparation reproducibility was obtained with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 4.7% to 11.3% (n=9) in one batch, and from 4.8% to 13.9% (n=8) among different batches. Several parameters affecting the extraction of seven target phenols by MWCNTs-DDM/PDMS-SBSE including extraction time, stirring rate, pH, ionic strength, desorption solvent and desorption time were investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) were found to be in the range of 0.14μg/L (2-nitrophenol) to 1.76μg/L (phenol) and the limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N=10) were found to be in the range of 0.46μg/L (2-nitrophenol) to 5.8μg/L (phenol). The linear range was 5-1000μg/L for phenol and 4-nitrophenol, 1-1000μg/L for 2-nitrophenol and 2-1000μg/L for other phenols, respectively. The RSDs of the developed method were in the range of 6.2-11.6% (n=8, c=10μg/L) and the enrichment factors were from 6.5 to 62.8-fold (theoretical enrichment factor was 100-fold). The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of phenols in environmental water and soil samples, and good recoveries were obtained for the spiked samples. The proposed method is simple, highly sensitive and suitable for the analysis of trace phenols in environmental samples with complex matrix. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bromination of Phenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This "Science note" examines the bromination of phenol, a reaction that is commonly taught at A-level and IB (International Baccalaureate) as an example of electrophilic substitution. Phenol undergoes bromination with bromine or bromine water at room temperature. A white precipitate of 2,4,6-tribromophenol is rapidly formed. This…

  17. Preparation and quantification of the total phenolic products in Citrus fruit using solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Honglian; Liu, Zhenli; Zhao, Siyu; Shu, Yisong; Song, Zhiqian; Wang, Chun; Dong, Yunzhuo; Ning, Zhangchi; He, Dan; Wang, Menglei; Lu, Cheng; Liu, Yuanyan; Lu, Aiping

    2016-10-01

    Citrus fruit is an important health-promoting food that is rich in dietary phenolic metabolites. Traditional Chinese medicines, such as Zhishi and Zhiqiao, come from young and immature fruits of Citrus cultivars. The preparation of diversified bioactive phenolic products and establishment of the corresponding quality control methodology are challenging and necessary. In the current study, four types of solid-phase extraction sorbents for the enrichment and clean-up of the phenolic matrix were evaluated. A solid-phase extraction column coated with Strata-X was finally used in the procedure. Twenty phenolic compounds were selected to evaluate the extraction performances of the sorbents using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Under the optimized conditions, good linearities were obtained with R 2 more than 0.9996 for all analytes with LODs of 0.04-1.012 μg/g. Intra- and interday relative standard deviation values were less than 3%, and the recovery was equal to or higher than 90.02%. Compared to non-solid-phase extraction process, the content of total phenolic products was elevated 35.55-68.48% with solid-phase extraction. Finally, the developed and validated method was successfully applied to the discrimination of Zhishi samples from different species as well as Zhishi and Zhiqiao samples in different development stages. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Identification and Quantification of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids in Burr Parsley (Caucalis platycarpos L., Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mornar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive method coupling high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with diode-array detector (DAD and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS was optimized for the separation and identification of phenolic acids, flavonoid glycosides and flavonoid aglycones in the extract of burr parsley (Caucalis platycarpos L.. Fragmentation behavior of flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids were investigated using ion trap mass spectrometry in negative electrospray ionization. The MS, MSn and UV data together with HPLC retention time (TR of phenolic acids and flavonoids allowed structural characterization of these compounds. Caffeoylquinic acid (CQA isomers, p-coumaroyl-quinic acids (p-CoQA, feruloylquinic acids (FQA, dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQA, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-7-O-rutinoside as well as isolated chrysoeriol-7-O-rutinoside have been identified as constituents of C. platycarpos for the first time. An accurate, precise and sensitive LC-DAD method for quantification of four phenolic acids (3-O-caffeoylquinic, caffeic, p-coumaric, o-coumaric acid, four flavonoid glycosides (luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, and three flavonoid aglycones (luteolin, apigenin, chrysoeriol in C. platycarpos extract was validated in terms of linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision and accuracy. 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid was the predominant phenolic acid and luteolin-7-O-glucoside was the predominant flavonoid glycoside.

  19. 50 CFR 648.164 - Possession restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Atlantic Bluefish Fishery § 648.164 Possession restrictions. (a) No person shall possess more than 15 bluefish in, or harvested from, the EEZ unless that person is the owner or operator of a fishing vessel issued a bluefish commercial permit or is issued a bluefish dealer permit. Persons aboard a vessel that...

  20. Degradation of formaldehyde at high concentrations by phenol-adapted Ralstonia eutropha closely related to pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Alireza; Vahabzadeh, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    The ability of the phenol-adapted Ralstonia eutropha to utilize formaldehyde (FD) as the sole source of carbon and energy was studied. Adaptation to FD was accomplished by substituting FD for glucose in a stepwise manner. The bacterium in the liquid test culture could tolerate concentrations of FD up to 900 mg L(-1). Degradation of FD was complete in 528 h at 30°C with shaking at 150 rpm (r = 1.67 mg L(-1) h(-1)), q = 0.035 g(FD) g(cell) (-1) h(-1). Substrate inhibition kinetics (Haldane and Luong equations) are used to describe the experimental data. At non-inhibitory concentrations of FD, the Monod equation was used. According to the Luong model, the values of the maximum specific growth rate (μ(max)), half-saturation coefficient (k(S)), the maximum allowable formaldehyde concentration (S(m)), and the shape factor (n) were 0.117 h(-1), 47.6 mg L(-1), 900 mg L(-1), and 2.2, respectively. The growth response of the test bacterium to consecutive FD feedings was examined, and the FD-adapted R. eutropha cells were able to degrade 1000 mg L(-1) FD in 150 h through 4 cycles of FD feeds. During FD degradation, formic acid metabolite was formed. Assimilation of FD, methanol, formic acid, and oxalate by the test bacterium was accompanied by the formation of a pink pigment. The carotenoid nature of the cellular pigment has been confirmed and the test bacterium appeared to be closely related to pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFM). The extent of harm to soil exposed to biotreated wastewaters containing FD may be moderated due to the association between methylotrophic/oxalotrophic bacteria and plants.

  1. Enzymes of Candida tropicalis yeast biodegrading phenol

    OpenAIRE

    Koubková, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    Effluents of industrial wastewaters from oil refineries, paper mills, dyes, ceramic factories, resins, textiles and plastic contain high concentrations of aromatic compounds, which are toxic to organisms. Degradation of these compounds to tolerant limits before releasing them into the environment is an urgent requirement. Candida tropicalis yeast is an important representative of eucaryotic microorganisms that are able to utilize phenol. During the first phase of phenol biodegradation, cytopl...

  2. Recycling of phenolic compounds in Borneo's tropical peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Catherine M; Lim, Yau Yan; Lim, Tse Yuen

    2018-02-07

    Tropical peat swamp forests (TPSF) are globally significant carbon stores, sequestering carbon mainly as phenolic polymers and phenolic compounds (particularly as lignin and its derivatives) in peat layers, in plants, and in the acidic blackwaters. Previous studies show that TPSF plants have particularly high levels of phenolic compounds which inhibit the decomposition of organic matter and thus promote peat accumulation. The studies of phenolic compounds are thus crucial to further understand how TPSF function with respect to carbon sequestration. Here we present a study of cycling of phenolic compounds in five forests in Borneo differing in flooding and acidity, leaching of phenolic compounds from senescent Macaranga pruinosa leaves, and absorption of phenolics by M. pruinosa seedlings. The results of the study show that total phenolic content (TPC) in soil and leaves of three species of Macaranga were highest in TPSF followed by freshwater swamp forest and flooded limestone forest, then dry land sites. Highest TPC values were associated with acidity (in TPSF) and waterlogging (in flooded forests). Moreover, phenolic compounds are rapidly leached from fallen senescent leaves, and could be reabsorbed by tree roots and converted into more complex phenolics within the leaves. Extreme conditions-waterlogging and acidity-may facilitate uptake and synthesis of protective phenolic compounds which are essential for impeded decomposition of organic matter in TPSF. Conversely, the ongoing drainage and degradation of TPSF, particularly for conversion to oil palm plantations, reverses the conditions necessary for peat accretion and carbon sequestration.

  3. Electrochemical removal of phenol from oil refinery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, O; Amin, N K; El-Ashtoukhy, E-S Z

    2009-04-30

    This study explores the possibility of using electrocoagulation to remove phenol from oil refinery waste effluent using a cell with horizontally oriented aluminum cathode and a horizontal aluminum screen anode. The removal of phenol was investigated in terms of various parameters namely: pH, operating time, current density, initial phenol concentration and addition of NaCl. Removal of phenol during electrocoagulation was due to combined effect of sweep coagulation and adsorption. The results showed that, at high current density and solution pH 7, remarkable removal of 97% of phenol after 2h can be achieved. The rate of electrocoagulation was observed to increase as the phenol concentration decreases; the maximum removal rate was attained at 30 mg L(-1) phenol concentration. For a given current density using an array of closely packed Al screens as anode was found to be more effective than single screen anode, the percentage phenol removal was found to increase with increasing the number of screens per array. After 2h of electrocoagulation, 94.5% of initial phenol concentration was removed from the petroleum refinery wastewater. Energy consumption and aluminum Electrode consumption were calculated per gram of phenol removed. The present study shows that, electrocoagulation of phenol using aluminum electrodes is a promising process.

  4. POSSESSION, REVIEW FROM CULTURAL AND PSYCHIATRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Sri Diniari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Possession is a culture related syndrome, commonly found in Indonesia including Bali. We can see this event in religion and cultural ceremony and at other times at school, home, and in society. This syndrome consist of temporary loss of self identification and environment awareness; in several events a person acts as if he/she was controlled by other being, magic force, spirit or ‘other forces’. There are still several different opinions about trance-possession, whether it is related to certain culture or is a part of mental disorder. DSM-IV-TR and PPDGJ-III defined trance-possession as mental disorder (dissociative for involuntary possession, if it is not a common activity, and if it is not a part of religion or cultural event. (MEDICINA 2012;43:37-40.

  5. Subself theory and reincarnation/possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2004-12-01

    A subself model of the mind is used to account for multiple personality, possession, the spirit controls of mediums, reincarnation, and the auditory hallucinations of schizophrenics, with suggestions for empirical research.

  6. The Impact of Banning Juvenile Gun Possession.

    OpenAIRE

    Marvell, Thomas B

    2001-01-01

    A 1994 federal law bans possession of handguns by persons under 18 years of age. Also in 1994, 11 states passed their own juvenile gun possession bans. Eighteen states had previously passed bans, 15 of them between 1975 and 1993. These laws were intended to reduce homicides, but arguments can be made that they have no effect on or that they even increase the homicide rate. This paper estimates the laws' impacts on various crime measures, primarily juvenile gun homicide victimizations and suic...

  7. Phenolic content variability and its chromosome location in tritordeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Lopez, José F.; Ostos-Garrido, Francisco J.; Castillo, Almudena; Martín, Antonio; Gimenez, Maria J.; Pistón, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    For humans, wheat is the most important source of calories, but it is also a source of antioxidant compounds that are involved in the prevention of chronic disease. Among the antioxidant compounds, phenolic acids have great potential to improve human health. In this paper we evaluate the effect of environmental and genetic factors on the phenolics content in the grain of a collection of tritordeums with different cytoplasm and chromosome substitutions. To this purpose, tritordeum flour was used for extraction of the free, conjugates and bound phenolic compounds. These phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by RP-HPLC and the results were analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods. This is the first study that describes the composition of phenolic acids of the amphiploid tritordeum. As in wheat, the predominant phenolic compound is ferulic acid. In tritordeum there is great variability for the content of phenolic compounds and the main factor which determines its content is the genotype followed by the environment, in this case included in the year factor. Phenolic acid content is associated with the substitution of chromosome DS1D(1Hch) and DS2D(2Hch), and the translocation 1RS/1BL in tritordeum. The results show that there is high potential for further improving the quality and quantity of phenolics in tritordeum because this amphiploid shows high variability for the content of phenolic compounds. PMID:24523725

  8. Possession divestment by sales in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekerdt, David J; Addington, Aislinn

    2015-08-01

    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers' capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential relocation. Among this group, three-quarters of the households downsized by selling some belongings. Informal sales seemed the least fraught of all strategies, estate sales had mixed reviews, and garage sales were recalled as laborious. Sellers' efforts were eased by social relations and social networks as helpers and buyers came forward. As selling proceeded, sentiment about possessions waned as their materiality and economic value came to the fore, easing their detachment from the household. Possession selling is challenging because older adults are limited in the knowledge, skills, and efforts that they can apply to the recommodification of their belongings. Selling can nonetheless be encouraged as a divestment strategy as long as the frustrations and drawbacks are transparent, and the goal of ridding is kept in view. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Highly Active and Isospecific Styrene Polymerization Catalyzed by Zirconium Complexes Bearing Aryl-substituted [OSSO]-Type Bis(phenolate Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Nakata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available [OSSO]-type dibenzyl zirconium(IV complexes 9 and 10 possessing aryl substituents ortho to the phenoxide moieties (ortho substituents, phenyl and 2,6-dimethylphenyl (Dmp were synthesized and characterized. Upon activation with dMAO (dried methylaluminoxane, complex 9 was found to promote highly isospecific styrene polymerizations ([mm] = 97.5%–99% with high molecular weights Mw up to 181,000 g·mmol−1. When the Dmp-substituted pre-catalyst 10/dMAO system was used, the highest activity, over 7700 g·mmol(10−1·h−1, was recorded involving the formation of precisely isospecific polystyrenes of [mm] more than 99%.

  10. The Failed Image and the Possessed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This article asks if the recurrent queries regarding the value of images in visual anthropology could find new answers by exploring responses to visual media in neo-orthodox Islam. It proposes that the visual display of the photographic image shares a curious resemblance to the bodies of people...... possessed by invisible spirits called jinn. The image as a failed example or model of reality works like the possessed body as an amplifier of invisibility pointing towards that which cannot be seen, depicted visually, or represented in writing. This suggests a negative epistemology in which images obtain...

  11. The impact of high pressure processing on the phenolic profile, hydrophilic antioxidant and reducing capacity of purée obtained from commercial tomato varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeż, Maja; Wiczkowski, Wiesław; Zielińska, Danuta; Białobrzewski, Ireneusz; Błaszczak, Wioletta

    2018-09-30

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (450-550-650 MPa/5-10-15 min) on polyphenols profile of purée obtained from commercial tomato varieties (Maliniak, Cerise, Black Prince and Lima) was investigated. Individual polyphenols, total phenolic index (TPI) were quantified using a mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS). Photochemiluminescence (PCLACW), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the hydrophilic extract. The results demonstrated that at certain processing conditions, HHP may enhance or decrease the nutritional quality of tomato purée. However, the tomato variety was a key factor influencing the polyphenols profile and the antioxidant capacity. A significant positive correlation was found among TPI, FRAP or CV parameters and the concentration of caffeic, ferulic, sinapic and p-coumaric acids, and epicatechin. On the other hand, significant positive correlation was observed among antioxidant capacity (PCLACW), TPC, rutin and naringenin concentration as well as chlorogenic and isochlorogenic acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High reliable and stable organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memory with a poly(4-vinyl phenol) charge trapping layer based on a pn-heterojunction active layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Lanyi; Ying, Jun; Han, Jinhua; Zhang, Letian, E-mail: zlt@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: wwei99@jlu.edu.cn; Wang, Wei, E-mail: zlt@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: wwei99@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2016-04-25

    In this letter, we demonstrate a high reliable and stable organic field-effect transistor (OFET) based nonvolatile memory (NVM) with a polymer poly(4-vinyl phenol) (PVP) as the charge trapping layer. In the unipolar OFETs, the inreversible shifts of the turn-on voltage (V{sub on}) and severe degradation of the memory window (ΔV{sub on}) at programming (P) and erasing (E) voltages, respectively, block their application in NVMs. The obstacle is overcome by using a pn-heterojunction as the active layer in the OFET memory, which supplied a holes and electrons accumulating channel at the supplied P and E voltages, respectively. Both holes and electrons transferring from the channels to PVP layer and overwriting the trapped charges with an opposite polarity result in the reliable bidirectional shifts of V{sub on} at P and E voltages, respectively. The heterojunction OFET exhibits excellent nonvolatile memory characteristics, with a large ΔV{sub on} of 8.5 V, desired reading (R) voltage at 0 V, reliable P/R/E/R dynamic endurance over 100 cycles and a long retention time over 10 years.

  13. Reversed-phase single drop microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for the quantification of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajmand, Bahman; Esteki, Mahnaz; Koohpour, Elham; Salmani, Vahid

    2017-04-01

    The reversed-phase mode of single drop microextraction has been used as a preparation method for the extraction of some phenolic antioxidants from edible oil samples. Butylated hydroxyl anisole, tert-butylhydroquinone and butylated hydroxytoluene were employed as target compounds for this study. High-performance liquid chromatography followed by fluorescence detection was applied for final determination of target compounds. The most interesting feature of this study is the application of a disposable insulin syringe with some modification for microextraction procedure that efficiently improved the volume and stability of the solvent microdrop. Different parameters such as the type and volume of solvent, sample stirring rate, extraction temperature, and time were investigated and optimized. Analytical performances of the method were evaluated under optimized conditions. Under the optimal conditions, relative standard deviations were between 4.4 and 10.2%. Linear dynamic ranges were 20-10 000 to 2-1000 μg/g (depending on the analytes). Detection limits were 5-670 ng/g. Finally, the proposed method was successfully used for quantification of the antioxidants in some edible oil samples prepared from market. Relative recoveries were achieved from 88 to 111%. The proposed method had a simplicity of operation, low cost, and successful application for real samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Phenol Removal from Industrial Wastewater by HRP Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iran Alemzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, horseradish peroxidase for phenol removal was utilized. First, the process was studied at the laboratory scale using a synthetic phenol solution (1-10 mM. Results showed that horseradish peroxidase (HRP could effectively remove phenolic compounds from wastewater and that the catalytic capability of the enzyme was maintained for a wide range of pH, temperature, and aromatic concentration levels. The performance conditions were optimized for at lease 95% and 100% removal of phenolic compounds for both actual and synthetic wastewaters under high and low phenol concentrations (1 and 10 mM. The phenolic wastewater used was an olive mill effluent with a phenol concentration of 1221 mg/L (13 mM and a pH value of 3.5. At the end of the reaction, the phenolic compounds changed to insoluble polymers and precipitated. Each enzyme/wastewater system was optimized for the following chemical dosages: hydrogen peroxide, enzyme, polyethylene glycol (PEG, and buffer. Furthermore, the reaction time to achieve at least 95% phenol removal was determined. According to the results, COD and BOD reduced to 58% and 78%, respectively. Experimental results showed an increase in H2O2 concentration beyond the optimum dose resulting from enzyme inactivation, thus reducing the phenol removal efficiency. On the other hand, increasing the enzyme, PEG, and/or reaction time beyond the optimum values resulted in only a marginal increase in removal efficiency.

  15. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of leaf infusions of Myrtaceae species from Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Takao

    Full Text Available Abstract There is considerable interest in identifying new antioxidants from plant materials. Several studies have emphasized the antioxidant activity of species belonging to the Myrtaceae family. However, there are few reports on these species from the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna. In this study, the antioxidant activity and phenolic content of 12 native Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado were evaluated (Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Eugenia bimarginata, Eugenia dysenterica, Eugenia klotzschiana, Hexachlamys edulis, Myrcia bella, Myrcia lingua, Myrcia splendens, Myrcia tomentosa, Psidium australe, Psidium cinereum, and Psidium laruotteanum. Antioxidant potential was assessed using the antioxidant activity index (AAI by the DPPH method and total phenolic content (TPC by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay. There was a high correlation between TPC and AAI values. Psidium laruotteanum showed the highest TPC (576.56 mg GAE/g extract and was the most potent antioxidant (AAI = 7.97, IC50 = 3.86 µg·mL−1, with activity close to that of pure quercetin (IC50 = 2.99 µg·mL−1. The extracts of nine species showed IC50 of 6.24–8.75 µg·mL−1. Most species showed TPC and AAI values similar to or higher than those for Camellia sinensis, a commonly consumed tea with strong antioxidant properties. The results reveal that the analyzed Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado possess high phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Thus, they are a potential source of new natural antioxidants.

  16. Phenolics and Plant Allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-An Jiang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical structures and modes of action are diverse and may offer potential lead compounds for the development of future herbicides or pesticides. This article reviews allelopathic effects, analysis methods, and allelopathic mechanisms underlying the activity of plant phenolic compounds. Additionally, the currently debated topic in plant allelopathy of whether catechin and 8-hydroxyquinoline play an important role in Centaurea maculata and Centaurea diffusa invasion success is discussed. Overall, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the allelopacthic potential of phenolic compounds to provide us with methods to solve various ecology problems, especially in regard to the sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, nature resources and environment conservation.

  17. Computer-aided design and synthesis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers with high selectivity for the removal of phenol from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenming; Liu, Lukuan; Ni, Xiaoni; Zhou, Wei; Huang, Weihong; Liu, Hong; Xu, Wanzhen

    2016-02-01

    A molecular simulation method was introduced to compute the phenol-monomer pre-assembled system of a molecularly imprinted polymer. The interaction type and intensity between phenol and monomer were evaluated by combining binding energy and charge transfer with complex conformation. The simulation results indicate that interaction energies are simultaneously affected by the type of monomer and the ratio between phenol and monomers. At the same time, we considered that by increasing the amount of functional monomer is not always better for preparing molecularly imprinter polymers. In this study, three kinds of novel magnetic phenol-imprinted polymers with favorable specific adsorption effects were prepared by the surface imprinting technique combined with atom transfer radical polymerization. Various measures were selected to characterize the structure and morphology to obtain the optimal polymer. The characterization results show that the optimal polymer has suitable features for further adsorption process. A series of static adsorption experiments were conducted to analyze its adsorption performance, which follows the Elovich model from the kinetic analysis and the Sips equation from the isothermal analysis. To further verify the reliability and accuracy of the simulation results, the effects of different monomers on the adsorption selectivity were also determined. They display higher selectivity towards phenol than 4-nitrophenol.The results from the simulation of the pre-assembled complexes are in reasonable agreement with those from the experiment. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Optimization of a new mobile phase to know the complex and real polyphenolic composition: towards a total phenolic index using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Rong; Yang, Raymond

    2003-11-07

    An HPLC method is reported for the separation and quantification of five major polyphenolic groups found in fruits and related products: single ring phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives), flavan-3-ols, flavonols, anthocyanins, and dihydrochalcones. A binary mobile phase consisting of 6% acetic acid in 2 mM sodium acetate aqueous solution (v/v, final pH 2.55) (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) was used. The use of sodium acetate was new and key to the near baseline separation of 25 phenolics commonly found in fruits. A photodiode array detector was used and data were collected at four wavelengths (280, 320, 360, and 520 nm). This method was sensitive and gave good separation of polyphenolics in apple, cherry, strawberry, blackberry, grape, apple juice, and a processing by-product. The improved separation has led to better understanding of the polyphenolic profiles of these fruits. Individual as well as total phenolic content was obtained, and the latter was close to and correlated well with that obtained by the Folin-Ciocalteu method (FC). The HPLC data can be used as a total phenolic index (TPI) for quantification of fruit phenolics, which is advantageous over the FC because it has more information on individual compounds.

  19. Digital possessions after a romantic break up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herron, Daniel; Moncur, Wendy; van den Hoven, Elise

    2016-01-01

    With technology becoming more pervasive in everyday life, it is common for individuals to use digital media to support the enactment and maintenance of romantic relationships. Partners in a relationship may create digital possessions frequently. However, after a relationship ends, individuals

  20. Cloud-point extraction and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miao; Xia, Qinghai; Liu, Mousheng; Yang, Yaling

    2011-01-01

    A cloud-point extraction (CPE) method using Triton X-114 (TX-114) nonionic surfactant was developed for the extraction and preconcentration of propyl gallate (PG), tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) from edible oils. The optimum conditions of CPE were 2.5% (v/v) TX-114, 0.5% (w/v) NaCl and 40 min equilibration time at 50 °C. The surfactant-rich phase was then analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection at 280 nm, using a gradient mobile phase consisting of methanol and 1.5% (v/v) acetic acid. Under the studied conditions, 4 synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs) were successfully separated within 24 min. The limits of detection (LOD) were 1.9 ng mL(-1) for PG, 11 ng mL(-1) for TBHQ, 2.3 ng mL(-1) for BHA, and 5.9 ng mL(-1) for BHT. Recoveries of the SPAs spiked into edible oil were in the range 81% to 88%. The CPE method was shown to be potentially useful for the preconcentration of the target analytes, with a preconcentration factor of 14. Moreover, the method is simple, has high sensitivity, consumes much less solvent than traditional methods, and is environment-friendly. Practical Application: The method established in this article uses less organic solvent to extract SPAs from edible oils; it is simple, highly sensitive and results in no pollution to the environment.

  1. Antioxidant and Anti-Fatigue Activities of Phenolic Extract from the Seed Coat of Euryale ferox Salisb. and Identification of Three Phenolic Compounds by LC-ESI-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinan Wu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the antioxidant potential and anti-fatigue effects of phenolics extracted from the seed coat of Euryale ferox Salisb. The in vitro antioxidant potentials, including scavenging DPPH, hydroxyl radical activities and reducing power were evaluated. Antioxidant status in vivo was analyzed by SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activities and the MDA content in liver and kidneys of D-galactose-induced aging mice. The anti-fatigue effect was evaluated using an exhaustive swimming test, along with the determination of LDH, BUN and HG content. The phenolic extract possessed notable antioxidant effects on DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging and reducing power. The mice which received the phenolic extract showed significant increases of SOD, CAT (except for in the kidney, GSH-Px activities, and a decrease of MDA content. The average exhaustive swimming time was obviously prolonged. Meanwhile, increase of LDH content and decrease of BUN content were observed after mice had been swimming for 15 min. The HG storage of mice was improved in the high and middle dose extract groups compared with the normal group. The contents of total phenols and gallic acid of the extract were determined. Three compounds in the extract were identified as 5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl-chroman-4-one, 5,7,4-trihydroxyflavanone and buddlenol E. These results suggest that the extract of E. ferox is a promising source of natural antioxidants and anti-fatigue material for use in functional foods and medicines.

  2. POSSESSION VERSUS POSITION: STRATEGIC EVALUATION IN AFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M. O'Shaughnessy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In sports like Australian Rules football and soccer, teams must battle to achieve possession of the ball in sufficient space to make optimal use of it. Ultimately the teams need to score, and to do that the ball must be brought into the area in front of goal - the place where the defence usually concentrates on shutting down space and opportunity time. Coaches would like to quantify the trade-offs between contested play in good positions and uncontested play in less promising positions, in order to inform their decision-making about where to put their players, and when to gamble on sending the ball to a contest rather than simply maintain possession. To evaluate football strategies, Champion Data has collected the on-ground locations of all 350,000 possessions and stoppages in the past two seasons of AFL (2004, 2005. By following each chain of play through to the next score, we can now reliably estimate the scoreboard "equity" of possessing the ball at any location, and measure the effect of having sufficient time to dispose of it effectively. As expected, winning the ball under physical pressure (through a "hard ball get" is far more difficult to convert into a score than winning it via a mark. We also analyse some equity gradients to show how getting the ball 20 metres closer to goal is much more important in certain areas of the ground than in others. We conclude by looking at the choices faced by players in possession wanting to maximise their likelihood of success

  3. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Otles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Types of nettles (Urtica dioica were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET.

  4. Phenolic compounds analysis of root, stalk, and leaves of nettle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otles, Semih; Yalcin, Buket

    2012-01-01

    Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves) samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET).

  5. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otles, Semih; Yalcin, Buket

    2012-01-01

    Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves) samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET). PMID:22593694

  6. Taking Possession: Rituals, Space and Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mara DeSilva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In early modern Europe authority over communities, both people and spaces, was visualized through ritual gestures and processions. Communities gathered to witness ceremonial entries that drew on accepted forms of gestures and speech identifying individuals and articulating their place in the urban power relationship. Ceremonial entries by rulers, ambassadors, bishops, and other office-holders drew on ritual acts projecting messages of possession in order to establish reputations of prestige and authority. This introductory essay draws on cultural anthropology and recent historiography to build a framework for understanding rituals of possession that went beyond the tradition triumphal entry to incorporate substitutes, new modes of prestigious display, and attend to conflicts. By “taking possession” of communities, offices, and spaces using accepted ritual forms, early moderns initiated conversations about authority and power that were far more flexible in their scope, practice, and participants than expected.

  7. Quantitative determination of plant phenolics in Urtica dioica extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orčić, Dejan; Francišković, Marina; Bekvalac, Kristina; Svirčev, Emilija; Beara, Ivana; Lesjak, Marija; Mimica-Dukić, Neda

    2014-01-15

    A method for quantification of 45 plant phenolics (including benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, flavonoid aglycones, C- and O-glycosides, coumarins, and lignans) in plant extracts was developed, based on reversed phase HPLC separation of extract components, followed by tandem mass spectrometric detection. The phenolic profile of 80% MeOH extracts of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) herb, root, stem, leaf and inflorescence was obtained by using this method. Twenty-one of the investigated compounds were present at levels above the reliable quantification limit, with 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin as the most abundant. The inflorescence extracts were by far the richest in phenolics, with the investigated compounds amounting 2.5-5.1% by weight. As opposed to this, the root extracts were poor in phenolics, with only several acids and derivatives being present in significant amounts. The results obtained by the developed method represent the most detailed U. dioica chemical profile so far. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. METHODS OF REDUCTION OF FREE PHENOL CONTENT IN PHENOLIC FOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruyako Mikhail Gerasimovich

    2012-12-01

    method aimed at reduction of toxicity of phenolic foams consists in the introduction of a composite mixture of chelate compounds. Raw materials applied in the production of phenolic foams include polymers FRB-1A and VAG-3. The aforementioned materials are used to produce foams FRP-1. Introduction of 1% aluminum fluoride leads to the 40% reduction of the free phenol content in the foam. Introduction of crystalline zinc chloride accelerates the foaming and curing of phenolic foams. The technology that contemplates the introduction of zeolites into the mixture includes pre-mixing with FRB -1A and subsequent mixing with VAG-3; thereafter, the composition is poured into the form, in which the process of foaming is initiated. The content of free phenol was identified using the method of UV spectroscopy. The objective of the research was to develop methods of reduction of the free phenol content in the phenolic foam.

  9. Validated RP-HPLC Method for Quantification of Phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of the methanol extracts of aerial parts and roots of Thymus sipyleus Boiss and also to determine some phenolic compounds using a newly developed and validated reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method.

  10. Anti-cancer and antioxidant properties of phenolics isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of phenolics from the leaf extract of Toona sinensis (TS). Methods: Acetone leaf extract of TS was screened for total phenolic and flavanoid contents, and the flanonoids were subjected to high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis. Antioxidant ...

  11. Phenolic acid changes during Orobanche parasitism on faba bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work is intended to provide further information on broomrape parasitism based on phenolic acid changes in either the host plant(s) or in each of the host and the parasite in the host-parasite system. Detection of phenolic acids was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the host ...

  12. Biodegradation of phenol using an anaerobic EGSB reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguia, A.; Olvera, M. E.; Cerezo, R.; Kuppusamy, I.

    2009-01-01

    Phenol is a compound found naturally in domestic and industrial waste waters and should be removed since in high concentrations it proves to be fatal. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the anaerobic biodegradability of the phenol in the wastewaters supplementing sulphates in the form of CaSO 4 2 , to increment the COD t otal removal value. (Author)

  13. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Velasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  14. Wine phenolic compounds influence the production of volatile phenols by wine-related lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, I; Campos, F M; Hogg, T; Couto, J A

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of wine phenolic compounds on the production of volatile phenols (4-vinylphenol [4VP] and 4-ethylphenol [4EP]) from the metabolism of p-coumaric acid by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus collinoides and Pediococcus pentosaceus were grown in MRS medium supplemented with p-coumaric acid, in the presence of different phenolic compounds: nonflavonoids (hydroxycinnamic and benzoic acids) and flavonoids (flavonols and flavanols). The inducibility of the enzymes involved in the p-coumaric acid metabolism was studied in resting cells. The hydroxycinnamic acids tested stimulated the capacity of LAB to synthesize volatile phenols. Growth in the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids, especially caffeic acid, induced the production of 4VP by resting cells. The hydroxybenzoic acids did not significantly affect the behaviour of the studied strains. Some of the flavonoids showed an effect on the production of volatile phenols, although strongly dependent on the bacterial species. Relatively high concentrations (1 g l(-1) ) of tannins inhibited the synthesis of 4VP by Lact. plantarum. Hydroxycinnamic acids were the main compounds stimulating the production of volatile phenols by LAB. The results suggest that caffeic and ferulic acids induce the synthesis of the cinnamate decarboxylase involved in the metabolism of p-coumaric acid. On the other hand, tannins exert an inhibitory effect. This study highlights the capacity of LAB to produce volatile phenols and that this activity is markedly influenced by the phenolic composition of the medium. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Grandstand view of phenolic foam insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    Stadium Insulation Ltd, manufacture pipe sections, tank and vessel insulation products in Lowphen, polyisocyanurate, polyurethane foams and expanded polystyrene, though for certain specialist applications, cork is still employed in small quantities. Currently the emphasis is very much on Lowphen, the company's range of pipe sections based on phenolic foam. The company's manufacturing and marketing effort reflects the increasing market trend towards the use of insulating material capable of withstanding higher temperatures, and phenolic foam neatly satisfies the demand since it is capable of use at temperatures up to 140/sup 0/C. Moreover, phenolic foam has the lowest K value at 0.02W/m/sup 0/C of any of the currently available range of insulating materials, and while the product is slightly more expensive than alternatives such as polyisocyanurate and polyurethane, its high performance offsets that premium.

  16. Predawn and high intensity application of supplemental blue light decreases the quantum yield of PSII and enhances the amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and pigments in Lactuca sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theoharis eOuzounis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of blue light intensity and timing, two cultivars of lettuce [Lactuca sativa cv. ’Batavia’ (green and cv. ‘Lollo Rossa’ (red] were grown in a greenhouse compartment in late winter under natural light and supplemental high pressure sodium (SON-T lamps yielding 90 (±10 µmol m-2 s-1 for up to 20 hr, but never between 17:00 and 21:00. The temperature in the greenhouse compartments was 22/11°C day/night, respectively. The five light-emitting diode (LED light treatments were Control (no blue addition, 1B 06-08 (Blue light at 45 µmol m-2 s-1 from 06:00 to 08:00, 1B 21-08 (Blue light at 45 µmol m-2 s-1 from 21:00 to 08:00, 2B 17-19 (Blue at 80 µmol m-2 s-1 from 17:00 to 19:00, and (1B 17-19 Blue at 45 µmol m-2 s-1from 17:00 to 19:00. Total fresh and dry weight was not affected with additional blue light; however, plants treated with additional blue light were more compact. The stomatal conductance in the green lettuce cultivar was higher for all treatments with blue light compared to the Control. Photosynthetic yields measured with chlorophyll fluorescence showed different response between the cultivars; in red lettuce, the quantum yield of PSII decreased and the yield of non-photochemical quenching increased with increasing blue light, whereas in green lettuce no difference was observed. Quantification of secondary metabolites showed that all four treatments with additional blue light had higher amount of pigments, phenolic acids, and flavonoids compared to the Control. The effect was more prominent in red lettuce, highlighting that the results vary among treatments and compounds. Our results indicate that not only high light level triggers photoprotective heat dissipation in the plant, but also the specific spectral composition of the light itself at low intensities. However, these plant responses to light are cultivar dependent.

  17. Predawn and high intensity application of supplemental blue light decreases the quantum yield of PSII and enhances the amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and pigments in Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of blue light intensity and timing, two cultivars of lettuce [Lactuca sativa cv. "Batavia" (green) and cv. "Lollo Rossa" (red)] were grown in a greenhouse compartment in late winter under natural light and supplemental high pressure sodium (SON-T) lamps yielding 90 (±10) μmol m(-2) s(-1) for up to 20 h, but never between 17:00 and 21:00. The temperature in the greenhouse compartments was 22/11°C day/night, respectively. The five light-emitting diode (LED) light treatments were Control (no blue addition), 1B 06-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 06:00 to 08:00), 1B 21-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 21:00 to 08:00), 2B 17-19 (Blue at 80 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 17:00 to 19:00), and 1B 17-19 (Blue at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 17:00 to 19:00). Total fresh and dry weight was not affected with additional blue light; however, plants treated with additional blue light were more compact. The stomatal conductance in the green lettuce cultivar was higher for all treatments with blue light compared to the Control. Photosynthetic yields measured with chlorophyll fluorescence showed different response between the cultivars; in red lettuce, the quantum yield of PSII decreased and the yield of non-photochemical quenching increased with increasing blue light, whereas in green lettuce no difference was observed. Quantification of secondary metabolites showed that all four treatments with additional blue light had higher amount of pigments, phenolic acids, and flavonoids compared to the Control. The effect was more prominent in red lettuce, highlighting that the results vary among treatments and compounds. Our results indicate that not only high light level triggers photoprotective heat dissipation in the plant, but also the specific spectral composition of the light itself at low intensities. However, these plant responses to light are cultivar dependent.

  18. Predawn and high intensity application of supplemental blue light decreases the quantum yield of PSII and enhances the amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and pigments in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of blue light intensity and timing, two cultivars of lettuce [Lactuca sativa cv. “Batavia” (green) and cv. “Lollo Rossa” (red)] were grown in a greenhouse compartment in late winter under natural light and supplemental high pressure sodium (SON-T) lamps yielding 90 (±10) μmol m−2 s−1 for up to 20 h, but never between 17:00 and 21:00. The temperature in the greenhouse compartments was 22/11°C day/night, respectively. The five light-emitting diode (LED) light treatments were Control (no blue addition), 1B 06-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 06:00 to 08:00), 1B 21-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 21:00 to 08:00), 2B 17-19 (Blue at 80 μmol m−2 s−1 from 17:00 to 19:00), and 1B 17-19 (Blue at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 17:00 to 19:00). Total fresh and dry weight was not affected with additional blue light; however, plants treated with additional blue light were more compact. The stomatal conductance in the green lettuce cultivar was higher for all treatments with blue light compared to the Control. Photosynthetic yields measured with chlorophyll fluorescence showed different response between the cultivars; in red lettuce, the quantum yield of PSII decreased and the yield of non-photochemical quenching increased with increasing blue light, whereas in green lettuce no difference was observed. Quantification of secondary metabolites showed that all four treatments with additional blue light had higher amount of pigments, phenolic acids, and flavonoids compared to the Control. The effect was more prominent in red lettuce, highlighting that the results vary among treatments and compounds. Our results indicate that not only high light level triggers photoprotective heat dissipation in the plant, but also the specific spectral composition of the light itself at low intensities. However, these plant responses to light are cultivar dependent. PMID:25767473

  19. Iodination of phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.V.; Feldthus, A.; Carlsen, L.

    1990-01-01

    Phenol is iodinated in aqueous solution at pH 5 (acetate buffer) by elemental iodine or, if the iodine is present as iodide, enzymatically controlled by peroxidases. Generally mono-, di- and triiodophenols are obtained, the overall product composition being virtually identical for the two iodination modes. However, there is a tendency to a higher para to ortho ratio for the enzymatically controlled reaction. The mutual ratios of the single iodophenols depends on the initial concentration ratio between phenol and the iodinating species. The first step in the iodination leads preferentially to substitution in the ortho position rather than in the para position in contract to e.g. the corresponding bromination. The relative rates of the competive reactions in the combined iodination scheme has been derived. (author) 2 tabs., 3 ills., 15 refs

  20. Antiplasmodial activity of some phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Plasmodium falciparum, one of the causative agents of malaria, has high adaptability through mutation and is resistant to many types of anti-malarial drugs. This study presents an in vitro assessment of the antiplasmodial activity of some phenolic compounds isolated from plants of the genus Allanblackia.

  1. Preparation of pure phenols from tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J

    1929-06-18

    A process is disclosed for preparing pure phenols from brown coal and shale tar, characterized in that the alkaline extract obtained from the tar is oxidized and concurrently the alkaline solution is separated from the existing impurities by heating with steam at high temperature, which finally reaches at least 150/sup 0/C.

  2. Analysis of hydrolyzable tannins and other phenolic compounds in emblic leafflower (Phyllanthus emblica L.) fruits by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baoru; Kortesniemi, Maaria; Liu, Pengzhan; Karonen, Maarit; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2012-09-05

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from dried emblic leafflower (Phyllanthus emblica L.) fruits with methanol and separated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The raw extracts and fractions were analyzed with HPLC coupled with diode array UV spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry. Mucic acid gallate, mucic acid lactone gallate, monogalloylglucose, gallic acid, digalloylglucose, putranjivain A, galloyl-HHDP-glucose, elaeocarpusin, and chebulagic acid were suggested to be the most abundant compounds in the crude methanol extracts of the fruits. In addition, 144 peaks were detected, of which 67 were tentatively identified mostly as ellagitannins, flavonoids, and simple gallic acid derivatives in the fractions. The results indicated the presence of neochebulagic acid, isomers of neochebuloyl galloylglucose, chebuloyl neochebuloyl galloylglucose, ellagic acid glycosides, quercetin glycosides, and eriodictyol coumaroyl glycosides in the fruits. The study provides a systematic report of the retention data and characteristics of UV, MS, and MS/MS spectra of the phenolic compounds in the fruits of emblic leafflower. The fruits of two varieties (Ping Dan No 1 and Fruity) from Guangxi Province differed from those of wild Tian Chuan emblic leafflower from Fujian Province in the content and profile of phenolic compounds.

  3. Preparative Separation of Phenolic Compounds from Chimonanthus praecox Flowers by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography Using a Stepwise Elution Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaizhi Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC has been successfully used for the separation of eight compounds from Chimonanthus praecox flowers. Firstly, the crude extract of Chimonanthus praecox flowers was dissolved in a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–H2O (5:5:3:7, v/v and divided into two parts: the upper phase (part I and the lower phase (part II. Then, HSCCC was applied to separate the phenolic acids from part I and part II, respectively. Considering the broad polarity range of target compounds in part I, a stepwise elution mode was established. Two optimal solvent systems of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–H2O–formic acid (FA (5:5:3:7:0.02, 5:5:4.3:5.7:0.02, v/v were employed in this separation. Five phenylpropanoids and two flavonoids were successfully separated from 280 mg of part I, including 8.7 mg of 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid (a, 95.3% purity, 10.9 mg of protocatechualdehyde (b, 96.8% purity, 11.3 mg of p-coumaric acid (c, 98.9% purity, 12.2 mg of p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (d, 95.9% purity, 24.7 mg of quercetin (e, 97.3% purity, 33.8 mg of kaempferol (f, 96.8% purity, and 24.6 mg of 4-hydroxylcinnamic aldehyde (g, 98.0% purity. From 300 mg of part II, 65.7 mg of rutin (h, 98.2% purity, 7.5 mg of 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid (a, 77.4% purity, and 4.7 mg of protocatechualdehyde (b, 81.6% purity were obtained using the solvent system EtOAc–n-butanol (n-BuOH–FA–H2O (4:1:0.5:5, v/v. The structures of the eight pure compounds were confirmed by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. To the best of our knowledge, compounds a–d and f were the first separated and reported from the Chimonanthus praecox flower extract.

  4. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of selective phenolic acids on T47D human breast cancer cells: potential mechanisms of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampa, Marilena; Boskou, Dimitrios; Gravanis, Achille; Castanas, Elias; Alexaki, Vassilia-Ismini; Notas, George; Nifli, Artemissia-Phoebe; Nistikaki, Anastassia; Hatzoglou, Anastassia; Bakogeorgou, Efstathia; Kouimtzoglou, Elena; Blekas, George

    2004-01-01

    The oncoprotective role of food-derived polyphenol antioxidants has been described but the implicated mechanisms are not yet clear. In addition to polyphenols, phenolic acids, found at high concentrations in a number of plants, possess antioxidant action. The main phenolic acids found in foods are derivatives of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxycinnamic acid. This work concentrates on the antiproliferative action of caffeic acid, syringic acid, sinapic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid and 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylacetic acid (PAA) on T47D human breast cancer cells, testing their antioxidant activity and a number of possible mechanisms involved (interaction with membrane and intracellular receptors, nitric oxide production). The tested compounds showed a time-dependent and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell growth with the following potency: caffeic acid > ferulic acid = protocatechuic acid = PAA > sinapic acid = syringic acid. Caffeic acid and PAA were chosen for further analysis. The antioxidative activity of these phenolic acids in T47D cells does not coincide with their inhibitory effect on tumoral proliferation. No interaction was found with steroid and adrenergic receptors. PAA induced an inhibition of nitric oxide synthase, while caffeic acid competes for binding and results in an inhibition of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-induced CYP1A1 enzyme. Both agents induce apoptosis via the Fas/FasL system. Phenolic acids exert a direct antiproliferative action, evident at low concentrations, comparable with those found in biological fluids after ingestion of foods rich in phenolic acids. Furthermore, the direct interaction with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, the nitric oxide synthase inhibition and their pro-apoptotic effect provide some insights into their biological mode of action

  6. Biological degradation of the phenol for activated sludge. Answer of the system to the load increment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil V, Luis Hernando

    1998-01-01

    Initially, a literature review about the general behaviour of the biological decomposition of phenol by the activated-sludge system is presented, where discrepancies seem to appear among researchers due to different operation conditions Worked by them. The degradation velocity depends on phenol concentration in a high level and on the charge used because its potential toxicity. Experiments were carryon in a pilot plant, using a mixture of low molecular weight alcohols, highly biodegradable, with a solution of pure phenol, increasing the phenol concentration from 33 % to 60 % in relation to DQO. Charges of phenol between 0,2 and 0,8 g of phenol /day/litter were applied, the initial concentration of phenol was changed between 200- 2000 mg/L and hydraulic retention times between 0,9 and 1,5 days were handled. The results have shown that the phenol concentration in the downstream has an exponential behaviour with the charge of phenol applied. In general, high efficiency in phenol removability is presented, reaching phenol concentration below 0,2 mg/1 downstream, with an average of 1,5 days in THR and average charges between 0,5-0,6 g phenol/day/ litter and a micro organism relation feed (arm) of 0,4- 0,5 g DBO 5 /day/g. SS

  7. Male homosexuality and spirit possession in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, P

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between male homosexuality and the Afro-Brazilian possession cults in Belém do Parà. After a discussion of the literature follows a description of the cults' beliefs, rites and social organization. Male sex roles are then discussed and the two categories, bicha and man, analyzed. It is noted that there is no term which is equivalent to the western category of "homosexual" in this taxonomic system. After putting forward folk explanations for the presence of many bichas in the cults, an analysis is put forward of the social rewards available to bichas within these cults, and the structural relationship between homosexuality and these regions in terms of their congruent marginality vis-à-vis "normal society."

  8. Factors controlling phenol content on Theobroma cacao callus culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiñones-Galvez, Janet; HernándezTorre, Martha de la; Quirós Molina, Yemeys; Capdesuñer Ruiz, Yanelis; Trujillo Sánchez, Reinaldo

    2016-01-01

    Theobroma cacao L. is known in folk medicine as an antiseptic, diuretic and antiparasitic. Foods derived from this plant are rich in natural products of high added value, including phenolic compounds. As in vitro cultivation handle is an alternative source for the production of these metabolites. The present study was conducted to obtain phenolic compounds from callus culture with embryogenic structures. Culture conditions (agitation, light and glucose) were established to increase the concentration of phenols in calluses and elicitors to achieve the increase in callus and excretion into the culture area. The accumulation of phenolic compounds was favored with the additional supplement of glucose, growth in agitation and darkness. The addition of random hydroxylated cyclodextrins allowed the increase in the specific yield of phenols and biomass. (author)

  9. Predicative possession in Medieval Slavic Bible translations Predicative Possession in Early Biblical Slavic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia McAnallen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Late Proto-Slavic (LPS had an inventory of three constructions for expressing predicative possession. Using the earliest Slavic Bible translations from Old Church Slavic (OCS, and to a lesser degree Old Czech, a number of conclusions can be drawn about the status of predicative possession for LPS. The verb iměti ‘have’ was the most frequent and least syntactically and semantically restricted predicative possessive construction (PPC. Existential PPCs with a dative possessor appear primarily with kinship relations, abstract possessums, and in a number of other fixed construction types; existential PPCs with the possessor in an u + genitive prepositional phrase primarily appear with concrete and countable possessums. Both existential PPCs call for an animate, most often pronominal, possessor. The u + genitive was the rarest type of PPC in LPS, though it had undoubtedly grammaticalized as a PPC.

  10. Phenol oxidation with hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramiez Cortina, R.C.; Hernadez Perez, I. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco, Div. de CBI, Dept. de Energia, Azcapotzalco (Mexico); Ortiz Lozoya, C.E. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco, Div. de CBI, Dept. de Energia, Azcapotzalco (Mexico)]|[Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Alonso Gutierrez, M.S. [Inst. National Polytechnique, ENSCT, Lab. of Chimie Agro-Industrielle, Toulouse (France)

    2003-07-01

    In this work the process application of advanced oxidation is investigated with hydrogen peroxide, for the phenol destruction. The experiments were carried out in a glass reactor of 750 mL. Three phenol concentrations were studied (2000, 1000 and 500 ppm) being oxidized with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (1, 2 and 3 M). The tests of oxidation had a reaction time of 48 h at ambient temperature and pressure. The phenol degradation was determined as COD at different reaction times and intermediate oxidation products were analyzed by chromatography. The results of this study show that it is possible to degrade phenol (1000 ppm) until 90% with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} 2M. Being achieved the best efficiency with a good molar relationship of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/phenol. Intends a reaction outline in the degradation of the phenol. (orig.)

  11. The reactivity of natural phenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, Evgenii T; Denisova, Taisa G [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-30

    This review surveys physicochemical data of natural phenols published in recent years. The structures of some compounds of this class are given. A complete set of the dissociation energies of the O-H bonds for 71 natural phenols is presented. Kinetic characteristics of the reactions of peroxyl, alkyl and thiyl radicals with natural phenols, exchange reactions of phenoxyl radicals with phenols and reactions of phenoxyl radicals with lipids, hydroperoxides, cysteine and ascorbic acid are compiled and described systematically. The reactivity of phenols in radical reactions and the factors that determine the reactivity (the enthalpy of reaction, triplet repulsion, the electronegativities of atoms at the reaction centre, the presence of pi-electrons adjacent to the reaction centre, the radii of atoms at the reaction centre, steric hindrance, the force constants of the reacting bonds) are discussed. An important role of hydrogen bonding between surrounding molecules and the OH groups of natural phenols in decreasing their reactivities is noted.

  12. 50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird wounded by hunting and reduced to possession by the hunter shall be immediately killed...

  13. Bioassay of Phenol and its Intermediate Products Using Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Maleki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenol is one of the most common compounds found in many industrial effluents such as petroleum refining and petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, paint and dye industries, organic chemicals manufacturing, etc. The contamination of bodies of water with phenol is a serious problem in terms of environmental considerations due to its high toxicity. In this study, toxicity of phenol and its degradation mixtures by sonochemical, photochemical, and photosonochemical processes were investigated. Toxicity assay tests were carried out using Daphnia magna as a bio-indicator. The sonochemical and photochemical experiments were carried out using a bath sonicator (500 W working at 35 and 130 kHz frequencies and with a 400 W medium pressure mercury lamp, respectively. Experiments were performed at initial concentrations of 100 mg L-1. Bioassay tests showed that phenol was toxic to D.magna and so resulted in quite low LC50 values. Comparison of toxicity units (TU between phenol and effluent toxicity showed that TU value for photosonochemical effluent was lower than that obtained for phenol, photochemical effluent, and sonochemical effluent. It was found that the toxicity unit of photochemical effluent was lower than that obtained for sonochemical effluent. According to the D.magna acute toxicity test, it is concluded that photosonolysis and photolysis are capable of decreasing the toxicity of by-products formed during the degradation of phenol aqueous solutions. Photosonic and photolytic processes can, therefore, be recommended as a potential approach to the treatment of phenolic wastewater.

  14. Catalytic Ozonation of Phenolic Wastewater: Identification and Toxicity of Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Farzadkia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new strategy in catalytic ozonation removal method for degradation and detoxification of phenol from industrial wastewater was investigated. Magnetic carbon nanocomposite, as a novel catalyst, was synthesized and then used in the catalytic ozonation process (COP and the effects of operational conditions such as initial pH, reaction time, and initial concentration of phenol on the degradation efficiency and the toxicity assay have been investigated. The results showed that the highest catalytic potential was achieved at optimal neutral pH and the removal efficiency of phenol and COD is 98.5% and 69.8%, respectively. First-order modeling demonstrated that the reactions were dependent on the initial concentration of phenol, with kinetic constants varying from 0.038 min−1  ([phenol]o = 1500 mg/L to 1.273 min−1 ([phenol]o = 50 mg/L. Bioassay analysis showed that phenol was highly toxic to Daphnia magna (LC50 96 h=5.6 mg/L. Comparison of toxicity units (TU of row wastewater (36.01 and the treated effluent showed that TU value, after slightly increasing in the first steps of ozonation for construction of more toxic intermediates, severely reduced at the end of reaction (2.23. Thus, COP was able to effectively remove the toxicity of intermediates which were formed during the chemical oxidation of phenolic wastewaters.

  15. Phenolic compounds participating in mulberry juice sediment formation during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bo; Xu, Yu-Juan; Wu, Ji-Jun; Yu, Yuan-Shan; Xiao, Geng-Sheng

    The stability of clarified juice is of great importance in the beverage industry and to consumers. Phenolic compounds are considered to be one of the main factors responsible for sediment formation. The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in the phenolic content in clarified mulberry juice during storage. Hence, separation, identification, quantification, and analysis of the changes in the contents of phenolic compounds, both free and bound forms, in the supernatant and sediments of mulberry juice, were carried out using high performance liquid chromatographic system, equipped with a photo-diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) and HPLC coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometric (HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) techniques. There was an increase in the amount of sediment formed over the period of study. Total phenolic content of supernatant, as well as free phenolic content in the extracts of the precipitate decreased, whereas the bound phenolic content in the sediment increased. Quantitative estimation of individual phenolic compounds indicated high degradation of free anthocyanins in the supernatant and sediment from 938.60 to 2.30 mg/L and 235.60 to 1.74 mg/g, respectively. A decrease in flavonoids in the supernatant was also observed, whereas the contents of bound forms of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin in the sediment increased. Anthocyanins were the most abundant form of phenolics in the sediment, and accounted for 67.2% of total phenolics after 8 weeks of storage. These results revealed that phenolic compounds, particularly anthocyanins, were involved in the formation of sediments in mulberry juice during storage.

  16. Registration of the sunflower oilseed maintainer genetic stocks HOLS1, HOLS2, HOLS3, and HOLS4, possessing genes for high oleic and low saturated fatty acids, and tolerance to imidazolinone herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the primary goals for the oilseed sunflower industry is to provide novel oil products for human consumption. One oil profile of particular interest is high oleic/ low saturated fat, because it combines high oxidative stability of the oil with a reduction in the fatty acids that are detriment...

  17. 22 CFR 72.14 - Nominal possession; property not normally taken into physical possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... possession. (a) When a consular officer take articles of a decedent's personal property from a foreign... Department discharging the consular officer of any responsibility for the articles transferred. (b) A... effects; (2) Motor vehicles, airplanes or watercraft; (3) Toiletries, such as toothpaste or razors; (4...

  18. Sorption of phenol and phenol derivatives in hydrotalcite; Sorcion de fenol y derivados de fenol en hidrotalcita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avina G, E I

    2002-07-01

    One of the main problems in Mexico and in the World is the waste water pollution of a great variety of industrial processes by organic compounds. Among those ones the phenol compounds which are highly toxic, refractories (to the chemical degradation) and poorly biodegradable. This is due in a large extent to the problem created by the accelerated increase in the environmental pollution in the cities and industrial centers. The phenol compounds are used in a great variety of industries such as the production of resins, plasticizers, antioxidants, pesticides, colourings, disinfectants, etc. These phenol compounds are specially harmful, since they have repercussions on the flora of plants of biological treatment of water affecting its operation. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the capacities of phenol detention and its derivatives in an hydrotalcite type compound and diminishing with it the presence in water, in this case, of solutions prepared in the laboratory. In order to analyse this elimination process was used a methodology based in the carrying out in batch experiments and in the elaboration of a sorption isotherm. It is worth pointing out that this work was realized at laboratory scale, at relatively high phenol concentration ratio. With the obtained results when the sorption properties are evaluated the calcined hydrotalcite (HTC) for detaining phenol and p-chloro phenol it was observed that it is detained greater quantity of p-chloro phenol than phenol in the HTC. The detention of these phenol compounds in the HTC is due to the memory effect by the hydrotalcite regeneration starting from the oxides which are formed by the burning material. (Author)

  19. Utilisation of the binders prepared from coal tar pitch and phenolic resins for the production metallurgical quality briquettes from coke breeze and the study of their high temperature carbonization behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benk, Ayse [University of Erciyes, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Chemistry, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2010-09-15

    To reduce the cost of the formed coke briquettes which can be used as a substitute fuel to the metallurgical coke for the blast furnace from the coke breeze alternative binders and their blends were used. The high temperature behavior was investigated. The binders tested were: the nitrogen blown, air blown coal tar pitch and the blend of air blown coal tar pitch with the phenolic resins blends. The phenolic resin blends were prepared by mixing equal amount of resole and novalac. From the results, nitrogen blowing resulted in the weakest briquettes. The air blowing procedure should be preferred in place of nitrogen blowing for this purpose. When the air blown coal tar pitch was used alone as a binder, the briquettes must be cured at 200 C for 2 h, then carbonized at a temperature above 670 C. Since it requires higher temperature at carbonization stage, using air blown coal tar pitch alone as a binder was not economical. Therefore, the briquettes were prepared from the blended binder, containing air blown coal tar pitch and phenolic resins blend. The optimum amount of air blown coal tar pitch was found to be 50% w/w in the blended binder. Curing the briquettes at 200 C for 2 h was found to be sufficient for producing strong briquettes with a tensile strength of 50.45 MN/m{sup 2}. When these cured briquettes were carbonized at temperatures 470 C, 670 C and 950 C, their strength were increasing continuously, reaching to 71.85 MN/m{sup 2} at the carbonization temperature of 950 C. These briquettes can be used as a substitute for the metallurgical coke after curing; the process might not require un-economical high temperature carbonization stage. (author)

  20. Scavenging Capacities of Some Wines and Wine Phenolic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis G. Roussis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the ability of different wines – a sweet red, a dry red, a sweet white, and a dry white – to scavenge the stable 1,1’-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH. and to determine their phenolic composition. Both red wines contained, apart from anthocyanins, also higher concentration of total phenolics, tartaric esters, and flavonols than the two white wines. All wines exhibited scavenging activity analogous to their total phenolic content. However, their phenolics differed in antiradical potency, which was visible in their EC50 values. The dry red wine, Xinomavro, had a lower EC50 value, indicating the higher antiradical potency of its phenolics. The scavenging capacities of phenolic extracts from Xinomavro red wine on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen were also assessed. Wine total extract was fractionated by extraction, and each of the three fractions was then subfractionated by column chromatography into two subfractions. Wine total extract, and its fractions and subfractions exhibited scavenging capacity on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen, indicating the activity of many wine phenolics. The most active wine extracts towards hydroxyl radicals were characterized by the high peaks of flavanols, anthocyanins and flavonols in their HPLC-DAD chromatograms. The most active extract towards superoxide radicals was rich in flavanols and anthocyanins. The characteristic phenolics of the most active wine extracts towards singlet oxygen were flavanols, flavonols and phenolic acids. The ability of all red wine phenolic extracts to scavenge singlet oxygen, along with hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, emphasizes its health functionality.

  1. Phenol degradation catalyzed by a peroxidase mimic constructed through the grafting of heme onto metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Yang, Jiebing; Wang, Xinghuo; Han, Haobo; Yang, Yan; Tang, Jun; Li, Quanshun

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to construct a peroxidase mimic for achieving the phenol degradation through Fenton reaction. The enzyme mimic was synthesized through the conjugation of heme with the amino group of 2-amino-1,4-benzene dicarboxylate in UiO-66-NH 2 (ZrMOF), namely Heme-ZrMOF. Compared to free heme, the composite Heme-ZrMOF exhibited an obviously enhanced ability for phenol degradation with up to 97.3% of phenol removal after 2h. Meanwhile, it could achieve the easy separation of catalyst from the system and the elimination of iron residues in the process of phenol degradation. Finally, the catalyst Heme-ZrMOF was observed to possess good recyclability in the phenol degradation with still 76.2% of phenol removal after 4 cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of HPLC- and GC-QTOF to determine hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols in mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) and its by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cobo, Ana; Verardo, Vito; Diaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana M

    2017-10-01

    Mango industry processing generates high quantities of mango by-products such as peels and seeds (35%-60% of the fruit). Indeed, it is known that mango and its by-products contain different families of bioactive compounds that possess several health benefits. Thus, the aim of this study has been the determination of different families of phenolic derivatives (free and bound phenolic compounds and alk(en)ylresorcinols (ARs)) in mango edible part and its by-products (peel, seed and seed husk) from three different cultivars. This is the first study that evaluates the phenolic compounds and ARs in the four fractions of mango of three different cultivars. Special attention has been paid to the determination of anthocyanins and ARs, because these families of compounds had not been studied in depth in mango. In fact, petunidin rutinoside-(p-coumaric acid) gallate was found in mango pulp, peel, seed and seed husk of the three cultivars and, it had never been described in mango before. It is also important to highlight that this is the first time that the identification and quantification of ARs have been performed in mango seed and seed husk; besides, four and five out of eleven alk(en)ylresorcinols detected in peel and pulp, respectively, were identified for the first time in these mango fractions. Furthermore, antioxidant activity was measured by ABTS and FRAP assays. Seed free and bound phenolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongzhu; Zhang Xinhai; Ma Qingliang; Wang Bo

    2009-01-01

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  4. Electrochemical catalytic treatment of phenol wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Hongzhu, E-mail: hzmachem@snnu.edu.cn [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Zhang Xinhai [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Ma Qingliang [Department of Applied Physics, College of Sciences, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 Taiyuan (China); Wang Bo [Institute of Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The slurry bed catalytic treatment of contaminated water appears to be a promising alternative for the oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. In this paper, the electrochemical oxidation of phenol in synthetic wastewater catalyzed by ferric sulfate and potassium permanganate adsorbed onto active bentonite in slurry bed electrolytic reactor with graphite electrode has been investigated. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised and the results revealed that the system of ferric sulfate, potassium permanganate and active bentonite showed a high catalytic efficiency on the process of electrochemical oxidation phenol in initial pH 5. When the initial concentration of phenol was 0.52 g/L (the initial COD 1214 mg/L), up to 99% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was obtained in 40 min. According to the experimental results, a possible mechanism of catalytic degradation of phenol was proposed. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little impact on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation.

  5. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhijing

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC, total tannin content (TTC, mean degree of polymerization (mDP, and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant (p < 0.05 impact on total phenol and tannin content of the samples. White wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50–62% and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material. This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications.

  6. Dynamic Changes in Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity during Pecan (Carya illinoinensis Kernel Ripening and Its Phenolics Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Jia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pecan (Carya illinoinensis kernels have a high phenolics content and a high antioxidant capacity compared to other nuts—traits that have attracted great interest of late. Changes in the total phenolic content (TPC, condensed tannins (CT, total flavonoid content (TFC, five individual phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of five pecan cultivars were investigated during the process of kernel ripening. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple time-of-flight mass (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS was also used to analyze the phenolics profiles in mixed pecan kernels. TPC, CT, TFC, individual phenolics, and antioxidant capacity were changed in similar patterns, with values highest at the water or milk stages, lowest at milk or dough stages, and slightly varied at kernel stages. Forty phenolics were tentatively identified in pecan kernels, of which two were first reported in the genus Carya, six were first reported in Carya illinoinensis, and one was first reported in its kernel. The findings on these new phenolic compounds provide proof of the high antioxidant capacity of pecan kernels.

  7. Dynamic Changes in Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity during Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) Kernel Ripening and Its Phenolics Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaodong; Luo, Huiting; Xu, Mengyang; Zhai, Min; Guo, Zhongren; Qiao, Yushan; Wang, Liangju

    2018-02-16

    Pecan ( Carya illinoinensis ) kernels have a high phenolics content and a high antioxidant capacity compared to other nuts-traits that have attracted great interest of late. Changes in the total phenolic content (TPC), condensed tannins (CT), total flavonoid content (TFC), five individual phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of five pecan cultivars were investigated during the process of kernel ripening. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple time-of-flight mass (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) was also used to analyze the phenolics profiles in mixed pecan kernels. TPC, CT, TFC, individual phenolics, and antioxidant capacity were changed in similar patterns, with values highest at the water or milk stages, lowest at milk or dough stages, and slightly varied at kernel stages. Forty phenolics were tentatively identified in pecan kernels, of which two were first reported in the genus Carya , six were first reported in Carya illinoinensis , and one was first reported in its kernel. The findings on these new phenolic compounds provide proof of the high antioxidant capacity of pecan kernels.

  8. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of phenol onto graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanhui, E-mail: liyanhui@tsinghua.org.cn [Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Du, Qiuju; Liu, Tonghao; Sun, Jiankun; Jiao, Yuqin [Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Xia, Yanzhi, E-mail: xiayzh@qdu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Xia, Linhua; Wang, Zonghua [Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Zhang, Wei; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai [Key Laboratory for Advanced Manufacturing by Material Processing Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: The effect of temperature on phenol adsorbed by graphene shows that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of phenol increases with the increase in temperature from 285 to 333 K. Increasing adsorption capacities with temperature indicates that the adsorption of phenol is controlled by an endothermic reaction. Highlights: ► The graphene has high phenol adsorption capacity. ► The graphene has a high specific surface area of 305 m{sup 2}/g. ► The adsorption capacity is high at acidic pH range. ► The graphene has rapid phenol adsorption rate. ► Phenol adsorption is a spontaneous and endothermic process. -- Abstract: Graphene, a new member of carbon family, has been prepared, characterized and used as adsorbent to remove phenol from aqueous solution. The effect parameters including pH, dosage, contact time, and temperature on the adsorption properties of phenol onto graphene were investigated. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity can reach 28.26 mg/g at the conditions of initial phenol concentration of 50 mg/L, pH 6.3 and 285 K. Adsorption data were well described by both Freundlich and Langmuir models. The kinetic study illustrated that the adsorption of phenol onto graphene fit the pseudo second-order model. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption of phenol onto graphene was endothermic and spontaneous.

  9. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of phenol onto graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanhui; Du, Qiuju; Liu, Tonghao; Sun, Jiankun; Jiao, Yuqin; Xia, Yanzhi; Xia, Linhua; Wang, Zonghua; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The effect of temperature on phenol adsorbed by graphene shows that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of phenol increases with the increase in temperature from 285 to 333 K. Increasing adsorption capacities with temperature indicates that the adsorption of phenol is controlled by an endothermic reaction. Highlights: ► The graphene has high phenol adsorption capacity. ► The graphene has a high specific surface area of 305 m 2 /g. ► The adsorption capacity is high at acidic pH range. ► The graphene has rapid phenol adsorption rate. ► Phenol adsorption is a spontaneous and endothermic process. -- Abstract: Graphene, a new member of carbon family, has been prepared, characterized and used as adsorbent to remove phenol from aqueous solution. The effect parameters including pH, dosage, contact time, and temperature on the adsorption properties of phenol onto graphene were investigated. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity can reach 28.26 mg/g at the conditions of initial phenol concentration of 50 mg/L, pH 6.3 and 285 K. Adsorption data were well described by both Freundlich and Langmuir models. The kinetic study illustrated that the adsorption of phenol onto graphene fit the pseudo second-order model. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption of phenol onto graphene was endothermic and spontaneous.

  10. Effects of different cellulases on the release of phenolic acids from rice straw during saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yiyun; Wang, Xiahui; Chen, Xingxuan; Hu, Jiajun; Gao, Min-Tian; Li, Jixiang

    2017-06-01

    Effects of different cellulases on the release of phenolic acids from rice straw during saccharification were investigated in this study. All cellulases tested increased the contents of phenolic acids during saccharification. However, few free phenolic acids were detected, as they were present in conjugated form after saccharification when the cellulases from Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger were used. On the other hand, phenolic acids were present in free form when the Acremonium cellulolyticus cellulase was used. Assays of enzyme activity showed that, besides high cellulase activity, the A. cellulolyticus cellulase exhibited high feruloyl esterase (FAE) activity. A synergistic interaction between FAE and cellulase led to the increase in free phenolic acids, and thus an increase in antioxidative and antiradical activities of the phenolic acids. Moreover, a cost estimation demonstrated the feasibility of phenolic acids as value-added products to reduce the total production cost of ethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum, Part 2: Roles of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids against natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Anu

    2013-11-01

    Geranium sylvaticum is a common herbaceous plant in Fennoscandia, which has a unique phenolic composition. Ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, galloylglucoses, gallotannins, galloyl quinic acids and flavonoids possess variable distribution in its different organs. These phenolic compounds are thought to have an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. The aim of this study was to quantify these different water-soluble phenolic compounds and measure the biological activity of the eight organs of G. sylvaticum. Compounds were characterized and quantified using HPLC-DAD/MS, in addition, total proanthocyanidins were determined by BuOH-HCl assay and total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Two in vitro biological activity measurements were used: the prooxidant activity was measured by the browning assay and antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Organ extracts were fractionated using column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and the activities of fractions was similarly measured to evaluate which polyphenol groups contributed the most to the biological activity of each organ. The data on the activity of fractions were examined by multivariate data analysis. The water-soluble extracts of leaves and pistils, which contained over 30% of the dry weight as ellagitannins, showed the highest pro-oxidant activity among the organ extracts. Fraction analysis revealed that flavonoids and galloyl quinic acids also exhibited high pro-oxidant activity. In contrast, the most antioxidant active organ extracts were those of the main roots and hairy roots that contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins in addition to ellagitannins. Analysis of the fractions showed that especially ellagitannins and galloyl quinic acids have high antioxidant activity. We conclude that G. sylvaticum allocates a significant amount of tannins in those plant parts that are important to the fitness of the plant and susceptible to natural enemies, i

  12. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts Obtained from Crataegus azarolus L. var. aronia (Willd. Batt. Ovaries Calli

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    Radhia Bahri-Sahloul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Plant cell culture is an innovative technology to produce a variety of substances. Numerous plants synthesize among their secondary metabolites phenolic compounds which possess antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. Hawthorn (Crataegus is one of these plants which has long been used in folk medicine and is widely utilized in pharmaceutical preparations mainly in neuro- and cardiosedative actions. Methods and Results. The production of polyphenol by fifty-two-week-old Crataegus azarolus var. aronia calli was studied in relation to growth variation and antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity within a subcultured period. The DPPH and ABTS+ assays were used to characterize the antioxidant actions of the callus cultures. Antimicrobial activity was tested by using disc diffusion and dilution assays for the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC values of each active extract. High TEACDPPH, TEACABTS, and antimicrobial activity was observed when maximal growth was reached. An optimum of total phenol, proanthocyanidins, flavonoid, (−-epicatechin, procyanidin B2, chlorogenic acid, and hyperoside was produced during this period. Conclusion. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were strongly correlated with total phenols and total flavonoids. Crataegus azarolus var. aronia cells culture represents an important alternative source of natural antioxidants and antimicrobials.

  13. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant potential, phenolic and flavonoid contents of the stem bark ethanol extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olugbami, J O; Gbadegesin, M A; Odunola, O A

    2014-09-01

    Plant-derived antioxidants with free radical scavenging activities can be relevant as chemopreventive agents against the numerous diseases associated with free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Some phytoconstituents possess antioxidant activities in biological systems. On this basis, we evaluated the antioxidant potential, and determined the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the e thanol e xtract of the s tem bark of A nogeissus l eiocarpus [ EESAL ]. Antioxidant assays carried out include: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, phosphomolybdate, β-carotene bleaching, ferric reducing, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. Results of DPPH assay showed no significant difference ( p antioxidant capacity of 190.00 ± 70.53 µg butylated hydroxytoluene equivalents [BHTE]/mg dry extract, while β-carotene bleaching assay gave percent antioxidant activities of both EESAL and BHT as 81.46±1.62 and 80.90±1.39 respectively. Ferric reducing abilities of both EESAL and ascorbic acid increased in a concentration-dependent manner with EESAL displaying a significantly ( p concentration with no significant difference at the highest concentration. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of EESAL were obtained as 608.10 ± 2.12 µg GAE/mg and 78.96 ± 3.37 µg QE/mg respectively. Taken together, the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of EESAL is likely due to its high phenolic content with complementary effects of the flavonoid components.

  14. Effect of pecan phenolics on the release of nitric oxide from murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Katherine S; Greenspan, Phillip; Pegg, Ronald B

    2016-12-01

    Inflammation is linked to numerous chronic disease states. Phenolic compounds have attracted attention because a number of these compounds possess anti-inflammatory properties. A phenolic crude extract was prepared from pecans and separated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography into low- and high-molecular-weight (LMW/HMW) fractions. Anti-inflammatory properties of these fractions were assessed in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored after 3 different experimental protocols: (1) pre-treatment with Escherichia coli O111:B4 lipopolysaccharide (LPS); (2) pre-treatment with a pecan crude extract and its fractions; and (3) co-incubation of LPS with a pecan crude extract and its fractions. The LMW fraction displayed a dose-dependent decrease in NO production and a significant decrease from the LPS control in ROS production when cells were either co-incubated with or pre-treated with LPS. The phenolics were characterized by HPLC to help identify those responsible for the observed effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hierarchical activated mesoporous phenolic-resin-based carbons for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao; Zhou, Min; Chen, Hao; Jiang, Jingui; Guan, Shiyou

    2014-10-01

    A series of hierarchical activated mesoporous carbons (AMCs) were prepared by the activation of highly ordered, body-centered cubic mesoporous phenolic-resin-based carbon with KOH. The effect of the KOH/carbon-weight ratio on the textural properties and capacitive performance of the AMCs was investigated in detail. An AMC prepared with a KOH/carbon-weight ratio of 6:1 possessed the largest specific surface area (1118 m(2) g(-1)), with retention of the ordered mesoporous structure, and exhibited the highest specific capacitance of 260 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.1 A g(-1) in 1 M H2 SO4 aqueous electrolyte. This material also showed excellent rate capability (163 F g(-1) retained at 20 A g(-1)) and good long-term electrochemical stability. This superior capacitive performance could be attributed to a large specific surface area and an optimized micro-mesopore structure, which not only increased the effective specific surface area for charge storage but also provided a favorable pathway for efficient ion transport. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. [Branch-specific detection of phenols and assessment of ground water solubility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, F; Kerndorff, H; Kühn, S

    2000-01-01

    are possible. Input of phenols on agricultural lands can be caused by pesticides, sewage sludge or manure. The groundwater downstream of landfills often contains phenol, chlorophenols, cresols, and xylenols. The formation of phenol from other organic contaminants as benzene in groundwater has been reported. The potential for mobilization of phenols in the saturated zone can be estimated from their physical and chemical properties. Especially low molecular weight phenols are easily mobilized due to their high solubility in water and low potential for accumulation. These compounds are: phenol, cresols, xylenols, chlorophenols, hydroxybenzenes, nitrophenols, anisidines, aminophenols, anisol, 2-phenoxyethanol, and thiophenol. The stability of phenols under laboratory conditions varies. The complete mineralization depends mainly on the experimental set-up, i.e. nutrients, temperature, and type of inocula. The anaerobic degradation of phenols is generally slower than the aerobic. Phenol is readily biodegradable under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In general, the biodegradability depends on the type, number and position of substitutes. Phenols with nitro-, alkyl-, or chlorosubstitutes are more recalcitrant than phenol itself. Our biodegradability test show that the decomposition of alkylphenols is determined by the length and branching of the alcyllic chain. Phenols with high contamination potential are chlorophenols, xylenols, and nitrophenols. These compounds are both mobile and recalcitrant in the saturated zone. Phenolic compounds of a medium contamination risk are dichlorophenols, trichlorophenols, cresols, and phenol because they are mobile but less stable in groundwater. These compounds are known contaminants in the groundwater at gasworks, landfills, and ammunition factories. Aminophenols, anisidines, tert-butylphenols, ethylphenols, hydroxybenzenes, and 2-phenoxyethanol also constite a potential hazard for groundwater; however, no contaminations with these

  17. Possession States: Approaches to Clinical Evaluation and Classification

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    S. McCormick

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The fields of anthropology and sociology have produced a large quantity of literature on possession states, physicians however rarely report on such phenomena. As a result clinical description of possession states has suffered, even though these states may be more common and less deviant than supposed. Both ICD-10 and DSM-IV may include specific criteria for possession disorders. The authors briefly review Western notions about possession and kindred states and present guidelines for evaluation and classification.

  18. Isolation and Identification of Phenol Degrader Bacteria from Sirjan Golgohar Mine Effluent

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    Mehdi Hassanshhian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenol and phenolic compounds are highly toxic substances that are found as monoaromatic compounds in various industrial effluents from oil refineries, petrochemical plants, (coal mines, and phenol resin plants. Their discharge into the environment, especially in water resources, causes serious toxicity. Traditionally, physicochemical methods have been used for the removal of phenol and phenolic compounds. Nowadays, bioremediation is known to be the best method for phenol removal from wastewater. The objective of the present study was twofold: isolation and identification of phenol degrading bacteria in the effluent from Golgohar Mine in Sirjan. For this purpose, samples were collected from different sections at Golgohar Mine and its effluent. Phenol degrading bacteria were isolated via enrichment of the samples in the Bushnell Hass medium with phenol used as the only source of carbon and energy. The predominant phenol degrader bacteria were selected by measuring turbidity at 600 nm. The bacteria were subsequently identified by amplification of 16S rRNA with specific primers and PCR sequencing. In this study, 17 strains of phenol degrader bacteria were isolated in soil and wastewater samples collected from different zones of the mine. Screening methods confirmed that 4 strains exhibit a better capability for phenol degradation as evidenced by their capability to degrade 0.4 g/l of phenol. Molecular identification showed that these bacteria belong to the species Pesudomonas sp, Nitrratireductor sp., and Salegentibacter sp. The results also show that the effluent from Golgohar Mine in Sirjan contains many phenol degrading bacteria. The use of these bacteria in the treatment process may lead to a significant reduction in phenol pollution in the mineral effluent.

  19. Phenol adsorption by activated carbon produced from spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Cínthia S; Abreu, Anelise L; Silva, Carmen L T; Guerreiro, Mário C

    2011-01-01

    The present work highlights the preparation of activated carbons (ACs) using spent coffee grounds, an agricultural residue, as carbon precursor and two different activating agents: water vapor (ACW) and K(2)CO(3) (ACK). These ACs presented the microporous nature and high surface area (620-950 m(2) g(-1)). The carbons, as well as a commercial activated carbon (CAC) used as reference, were evaluated as phenol adsorbent showing high adsorption capacity (≈150 mg g(-1)). The investigation of the pH solution in the phenol adsorption was also performed. The different activating agents led to AC with distinct morphological properties, surface area and chemical composition, although similar phenol adsorption capacity was verified for both prepared carbons. The production of activated carbons from spent coffee grounds resulted in promising adsorbents for phenol removal while giving a noble destination to the residue.

  20. Bioactivity of Olive Oil Phenols in Neuroprotection

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    Cristina Angeloni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and few or no effective options are available for their treatment. These disorders share common pathological characteristics like the induction of oxidative stress, abnormal protein aggregation, perturbed Ca2+ homeostasis, excitotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis. A large body of evidence supports the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet in preventing neurodegeneration. As the Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high consumption of extra-virgin olive oil it has been hypothesized that olive oil, and in particular its phenols, could be responsible for the beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet. This review provides an updated vision of the beneficial properties of olive oil and olive oil phenols in preventing/counteracting both acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Bioactivity of Olive Oil Phenols in Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeloni, Cristina; Barbalace, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and few or no effective options are available for their treatment. These disorders share common pathological characteristics like the induction of oxidative stress, abnormal protein aggregation, perturbed Ca2+ homeostasis, excitotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis. A large body of evidence supports the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet in preventing neurodegeneration. As the Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high consumption of extra-virgin olive oil it has been hypothesized that olive oil, and in particular its phenols, could be responsible for the beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet. This review provides an updated vision of the beneficial properties of olive oil and olive oil phenols in preventing/counteracting both acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:29068387

  2. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous solution by SnO2:Sb nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamdi, Abdullah M.; Sillanpää, Mika; Bora, Tanujjal; Dutta, Joydeep

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sb doped SnO 2 nanoparticles were synthesized using sol–gel process. • Photocatalytic degradation of phenol were studies using SnO 2 :Sb nanoparticles. • Under solar light phenol was degraded within 2 h. • Phenol mineralization and intermediates were investigated by using HPLC. - Abstract: Photodegradation of phenol in the presence of tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles under UV light irradiation is known to be an effective photocatalytic process. However, phenol degradation under solar light is less effective due to the large band gap of SnO 2 . In this study antimony (Sb) doped tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles were prepared at a low temperature (80 °C) by a sol–gel method and studied for its photocatalytic activity with phenol as a test contaminant. The catalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous media was studied using high performance liquid chromatography and total organic carbon measurements. The change in the concentration of phenol affects the pH of the solution due to the by-products formed during the photo-oxidation of phenol. The photoactivity of SnO 2 :Sb was found to be a maximum for 0.6 wt.% Sb doped SnO 2 nanoparticles with 10 mg L −1 phenol in water. Within 2 h of photodegradation, more than 95% of phenol could be removed under solar light irradiation.

  3. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous solution by SnO{sub 2}:Sb nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hamdi, Abdullah M., E-mail: Abdullah.Al.Hamdi@lut.fi [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, 50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Chemistry Department, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 17, 123 Al-Khoudh (Oman); Chair in Nanotechnology, Water Research Center, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 17, 123 Al-Khoudh (Oman); Sillanpää, Mika [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, 50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Bora, Tanujjal [Chair in Nanotechnology, Water Research Center, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 17, 123 Al-Khoudh (Oman); Dutta, Joydeep [Chair in Nanotechnology, Water Research Center, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 17, 123 Al-Khoudh (Oman); Functional Materials Division, ICT, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Isafjordsgatan 22, SE-164 40 KistaStockholm (Sweden)

    2016-05-01

    Highlights: • Sb doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized using sol–gel process. • Photocatalytic degradation of phenol were studies using SnO{sub 2}:Sb nanoparticles. • Under solar light phenol was degraded within 2 h. • Phenol mineralization and intermediates were investigated by using HPLC. - Abstract: Photodegradation of phenol in the presence of tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles under UV light irradiation is known to be an effective photocatalytic process. However, phenol degradation under solar light is less effective due to the large band gap of SnO{sub 2}. In this study antimony (Sb) doped tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were prepared at a low temperature (80 °C) by a sol–gel method and studied for its photocatalytic activity with phenol as a test contaminant. The catalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous media was studied using high performance liquid chromatography and total organic carbon measurements. The change in the concentration of phenol affects the pH of the solution due to the by-products formed during the photo-oxidation of phenol. The photoactivity of SnO{sub 2}:Sb was found to be a maximum for 0.6 wt.% Sb doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with 10 mg L{sup −1} phenol in water. Within 2 h of photodegradation, more than 95% of phenol could be removed under solar light irradiation.

  4. Aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves: phenolic compounds and inhibitory potential on digestive enzymes

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    ANDERSON A. SIMÃO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Leaves of Psidium guajava L. (guava have been widely used in the popular way for prevention and treatment of various diseases. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of leaves aqueous extract from three cultivars of P. guajava (Pedro Sato, Paluma and Século XXI on α-amylase, α-glycosidase, lipase, and trypsin enzymes, in the presence or not of simulated gastric fluid and to determine the content of phenolic compounds by high performance liquid chromatography. All cultivars presented the same composition in phenolic compounds, but in different proportions. The compounds identified are gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, syringic acid, o-coumaric acid, resveratrol, quercetin, and catechin (which was the major compound in all the cultivars evaluated. In the absence of simulated gastric fluid, it was observed different inhibitions exercised by the leaves aqueous extracts from three cultivars of P. guajava on each enzyme. In presence of simulated gastric fluid, all cultivars showed increase in the inhibition of lipase and α-glycosidase, and decrease in inhibition of α-amylase and trypsin enzymes. These results indicate that P. guajava leaves aqueous extracts from all cultivars evaluated possess potential of use as an adjuvant in the treatment of obesity and other dyslipidemias.

  5. Aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves: phenolic compounds and inhibitory potential on digestive enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Anderson A; Marques, Tamara R; Marcussi, Silvana; Corrêa, Angelita D

    2017-01-01

    Leaves of Psidium guajava L. (guava) have been widely used in the popular way for prevention and treatment of various diseases. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of leaves aqueous extract from three cultivars of P. guajava (Pedro Sato, Paluma and Século XXI) on α-amylase, α-glycosidase, lipase, and trypsin enzymes, in the presence or not of simulated gastric fluid and to determine the content of phenolic compounds by high performance liquid chromatography. All cultivars presented the same composition in phenolic compounds, but in different proportions. The compounds identified are gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, syringic acid, o-coumaric acid, resveratrol, quercetin, and catechin (which was the major compound in all the cultivars evaluated). In the absence of simulated gastric fluid, it was observed different inhibitions exercised by the leaves aqueous extracts from three cultivars of P. guajava on each enzyme. In presence of simulated gastric fluid, all cultivars showed increase in the inhibition of lipase and α-glycosidase, and decrease in inhibition of α-amylase and trypsin enzymes. These results indicate that P. guajava leaves aqueous extracts from all cultivars evaluated possess potential of use as an adjuvant in the treatment of obesity and other dyslipidemias.

  6. Urban physiology: city ants possess high heat tolerance.

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    Michael J Angilletta

    Full Text Available Urbanization has caused regional increases in temperature that exceed those measured on a global scale, leading to urban heat islands as much as 12 degrees C hotter than their surroundings. Optimality models predict ectotherms in urban areas should tolerate heat better and cold worse than ectotherms in rural areas. We tested these predications by measuring heat and cold tolerances of leaf-cutter ants from South America's largest city (São Paulo, Brazil. Specifically, we compared thermal tolerances of ants from inside and outside of the city. Knock-down resistance and chill-coma recovery were used as indicators of heat and cold tolerances, respectively. Ants from within the city took 20% longer to lose mobility at 42 degrees C than ants from outside the city. Interestingly, greater heat tolerance came at no obvious expense of cold tolerance; hence, our observations only partially support current theory. Our results indicate that thermal tolerances of some organisms can respond to rapid changes in climate. Predictive models should account for acclimatory and evolutionary responses during climate change.

  7. Phenol oxidation by a sequential CWPO-CWAO treatment with a Fe/AC catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla, A; Fraile, A F; Casas, J A; Rodríguez, J J

    2007-07-31

    Catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) of phenol with a homemade Fe/activated carbon (Fe/AC) catalyst has been studied in a stainless steel fixed-bed reactor at different operating conditions (T=23-100 degrees C, P(T)=1-8atm, W=0-2.5g, and tau=20-320g(CAT)h/g(Phenol)). The results show that, thanks to the incorporation of Fe on the activated carbon, phenol conversion improved dramatically, reaching a 90% at 65 degrees C, 2atm, and 40g(CAT)h/g(Phenol). However, TOC conversion values remain fairly low, (around 5% at 40g(CAT)h/g(Phenol)), and no improvement was obtained with the inclusion of Fe. The presence of Fe seems to promote the nondesirable coupling reactions that take place in CWPO of phenol due to the condensation of the ring intermediates (the primary phenol oxidation products). These condensation products are quite refractory to CWPO at the conditions employed. Taking advantage of the high phenol conversions in CWPO and the high phenol mineralization in CWAO, along with the good stability of the Fe/AC catalyst, a CWPO-CWAO sequential treatment has been successfully performed by using a fixed-bed and trickle-bed reactor in series. A CWPO treatment at ambient conditions followed by a CWAO treatment at mild conditions (100 degrees C and 8atm) is presented as high efficiency process for the decontamination of phenolic wastewaters.

  8. Phenol oxidation by a sequential CWPO-CWAO treatment with a Fe/AC catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintanilla, A.; Fraile, A.F.; Casas, J.A.; Rodriguez, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) of phenol with a homemade Fe/activated carbon (Fe/AC) catalyst has been studied in a stainless steel fixed-bed reactor at different operating conditions (T = 23-100 deg. C, P T = 1-8 atm, W = 0-2.5 g, and τ = 20-320 g CAT h/g Phenol ). The results show that, thanks to the incorporation of Fe on the activated carbon, phenol conversion improved dramatically, reaching a 90% at 65 deg. C, 2 atm, and 40 g CAT h/g Phenol . However, TOC conversion values remain fairly low, (around 5% at 40 g CAT h/g Phenol ), and no improvement was obtained with the inclusion of Fe. The presence of Fe seems to promote the nondesirable coupling reactions that take place in CWPO of phenol due to the condensation of the ring intermediates (the primary phenol oxidation products). These condensation products are quite refractory to CWPO at the conditions employed. Taking advantage of the high phenol conversions in CWPO and the high phenol mineralization in CWAO, along with the good stability of the Fe/AC catalyst, a CWPO-CWAO sequential treatment has been successfully performed by using a fixed-bed and trickle-bed reactor in series. A CWPO treatment at ambient conditions followed by a CWAO treatment at mild conditions (100 deg. C and 8 atm) is presented as high efficiency process for the decontamination of phenolic wastewaters

  9. Optimization of Ultrasound-assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Myrcia amazonica DC. (Myrtaceae) Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Rodrigues, Mariana Cristina; Borges, Leonardo Luiz; Martins, Frederico Severino; Mourão, Rosa Helena V.; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Background: Myrcia amazonica. DC is a species predominantly found in northern Brazil, and belongs to the Myrtaceae family, which possess various species used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal disorders, infectious diseases, and hemorrhagic conditions and are known for their essential oil contents. Materials and Methods: This study aimed applied the Box–Behnken design combined with response surface methodology to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction of total polyphenols, total tannins (TT), and total flavonoids (TF) from M. amazonica DC. Results: The results indicated that the best conditions to obtain highest yields of TT were in lower levels of alcohol degree (65%), time (15 min), and also solid: Liquid ratio (solid to liquid ratio; 20 mg: 5 mL). The TF could be extracted with high amounts with higher extraction times (45 min), lower values of solid: Liquid ratio (20 mg: mL), and intermediate alcohol degree level. Conclusion: The exploitation of the natural plant resources present very important impact for the economic development, and also the valorization of great Brazilian biodiversity. The knowledge obtained from this work should be useful to further exploit and apply this raw material. SUMMARY Myrcia amazonica leaves possess phenolic compounds with biological applications;Lower levels of ethanolic strength are more suitable to obtain a igher levels of phenolic compouds such as tannins;Box-Behnken design indicates to be useful to explore the best conditions of ultrasound assisted extraction. Abbreviation used: Nomenclature ES: Ethanolic strength, ET: Extraction time, SLR: Solid to liquid ratio, TFc: Total flavonoid contents, TPc: Total polyphenol contents, TTc: Total tannin contents PMID:27019555

  10. RESEARCH OF PHENOLIC COMPLEX OF LEAVES OF MESPILUS GERMANICA L.

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    N. N. Vdovenko-Martynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Mespilus germanica L. from Rosaceae family gathered in Kabardino Balkaria regions and in Botanical garden of Pyatigorsk Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute. The purpose of the study is examination of phenolic compounds in the raw materieals under analysis. Qualitative composition and quantitative identification of phenolic compounds in the air-dry raw materials of samples under study was done using qualitative reactions and high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC. 13 compounds were received, 8 of them were identified as the substances of phenolic origin: flavonoids (quercetine, taxofolin, luteolin, hydroxycoric acids (gallic, chlorogenic, ferulic, polyphenolic compounds (epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin. The sum of identified phenolic compounds amounted to 78,24% of all compounds found by the given method.

  11. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiha Bichra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC. The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest in Pelargonium roseum. Linear correlation was found between TPC, especially the non-flavonoid content (NFC and the antioxidant activity. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes of major phenolics by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC were also performed. On the basis of the obtained results, these studied medicinal herbs were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their richness in phenolic compounds and marked antioxidant activity.

  12. Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds of Cassava (Manihot esculenta from Hainan

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    Haofu Dai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to isolate antioxidant components from cassava stems produced in Hainan. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed greater DPPH˙and ABTS·+ scavenging activities than other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield ten phenolic compounds: Coniferaldehyde (1, isovanillin (2, 6-deoxyjacareubin (3, scopoletin (4, syringaldehyde (5, pinoresinol (6, p-coumaric acid (7, ficusol (8, balanophonin (9 and ethamivan (10, which possess significant antioxidant activities. The relative order of DPPH· scavenging capacity for these compounds was ascorbic acid (reference > 6 > 1 > 8 > 10 > 9 > 3 > 4 > 7 > 5 > 2, and that of ABTS·+ scavenging capacity was 5 > 7 > 1 > 10 > 4 > 6 > 8 > 2 > Trolox (reference compound > 3 > 9. The results showed that these phenolic compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of cassava.

  13. Synthesis and Properties of New Polymer Having Hindered Phenol Antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taek Hyeon; Song, Yi Rang; Kim, Jae Nyoung

    2003-01-01

    Polymeric antioxidants was successfully prepared by the copolymerization of monomeric maleimide with MMA. The copolymers possess some stabilizing effect against thermal oxidation with oven aging in air at 120 .deg. C for 5 days and also have the some resistance to water extraction. It is well known that the addition of antioxidants is the most convenient and effective way to block the thermal oxidation of polyolefins. Hindered phenol antioxidants, which contain the 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol functional group, are very effective primary antioxidants. However, low molecular weight (MW) antioxidants are easily lost from the polymers by the physical loss such as migration, evaporation, and extraction by liquid. The effectiveness of low MW antioxidants is limited. Therefore a new trend for antioxidant development is to prepare antioxidant with higher MW. The copolymerization or homopolymerization of the functional monomer bearing hindered phenol antioxidants is a conventional method for preparing polymeric antioxidants

  14. Comparative evaluation of maceration and ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from fresh olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Junlin; Xu, Zhou; Xiang, Chunrong; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Lijun; Li, Tian; Yang, Zeshen; Ding, Chunbang

    2017-07-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and maceration extraction (ME) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) for total phenolic compounds (TPC) from fresh olives. The main phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of TPC were also investigated. The optimized result for UAE was 22mL/g of liquid-solid ratio, 47°C of extraction temperature and 30min of extraction time, 7.01mg/g of yielding, and for ME was 24mL/g of liquid-solid ratio, 50°C of extraction temperature and 4.7h of extraction time, 5.18mg/g of yielding. The HPLC analysis revealed that the extracts by UAE and ME possessed 14 main phenolic compounds, and UAE exhibited more amounts of all phenols than ME. The most abundant phenolic compounds in olive extracts were hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein and rutin. Both extracts showed excellent antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, UAE could effectively increase the yield of phenolic compounds from olives. In addition these phenolic compounds could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Antioxidant properties and principal phenolic phytochemicals of Indian medicinal plants from Asclepiadoideae and Periplocoideae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surveswaran, Siddharthan; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Xing, Jie; Corke, Harold; Sun, Mei

    2010-02-01

    The subfamily Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae) and the closely-related Periplocoideae are sources of many indigenous Indian medicinal plants. We surveyed antioxidant properties and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of 15 samples, representing 12 Indian medicinal plant species from these subfamilies. Total antioxidant assay was performed using the 2,2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power methods. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured using colourimetric methods. Principal phenolic compounds were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The highest antioxidant capacity and high levels of total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the leaves of Decalepis hamiltonii. The stems of Sarcostemma brevistigma exhibited the highest xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity. The roots of Hemidesmus indicus showed the highest OH(-) radical scavenging activity. In general, Periplocoideae members exhibited higher antioxidant activity than Asclepiadoideae members. The highly significant and positive correlations (R > 0.914) between total antioxidant capacity parameters and total phenolic content indicated that the phenolic compounds contributed significantly to the antioxidant activity of the tested plant samples. The principal phenolic phytochemicals from these plants were identified by LC-MS, including flavonoids, phenolic acids and phenolic terpenoids. Chlorogenic acid and rutin were detected in almost all of the plant samples. The LC-MS analysis provided full fingerprints of the principal phenolic compounds in the medicinal plants from these two subfamilies, which are useful for their authentication and quality evaluation.

  16. Influence of different nominal molecular weight fractions of humic acids on phenol oxidation by permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Di; Guan, Xiaohong; Ma, Jun; Yu, Min

    2009-11-01

    The effects of humic acid (HA) and its different nominal molecular weight (NMW) fractions on the phenol oxidation by permanganate were studied. Phenol oxidation by permanganate was enhanced by the presence of HA at pH 4-8, while slightly inhibited at pH 9-10. The effects of HA on phenol oxidation by permanganate were dependent on HA concentration and permanganate/phenol molar ratios. The high NMW fractions of HA enhanced phenol oxidation by permanganate at pH 7 more significantly than the low fractions of HA. The apparent second-order rate constants of phenol oxidation by permanganate in the presence of HA correlated well with their specific ultraviolet absorption (SUVA) at 254 nm and specific violet absorption (SVA) at 465 or 665 nm. High positive correlation coefficients (R(2) > 0.72) implied that pi-electrons of HA strongly influenced the reactivity of phenol towards permanganate oxidation which agreed well with the information provided by fluorescence spectroscopy. The FTIR analysis indicated that the HA fractions rich in aliphatic character, polysaccharide-like substances, and the amount of carboxylate groups had less effect on phenol oxidation by permanganate. The negative correlation between the rate constants of phenol oxidation by permanganate and O/C ratios suggested that the oxidation of phenol increased with a decrease in the content of oxygen-containing functional groups.

  17. Tracing phenolic biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera via in situ C-13 labeling and liquid chromatography–diode-array detector–mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassy, Alexander W.; Adams, Douglas O.; Laurie, V. Felipe; Waterhouse, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► L-Phenyl- 13 C 6 -alanine was incorporated into grape berries, intact on the vine, at two stages of maturity. ► Labeled anthocyanins were synthesized by the berry and quantified by LC–UV/Vis–MS/MS. ► Extremely tight regulation of phenylpropanoid pathways was observed. - Abstract: Phenolic compounds in Vitis vinifera contribute important flavor, functionality, and health qualities to both table and wine grapes. The plant phenolic metabolic pathway has been well characterized, however many important questions remain regarding the influence of environmental conditions on pathway regulation. As a diagnostic for this pathway's regulation, we present a technique to incorporate a stable-isotopic tracer, L-phenyl- 13 C 6 -alanine (Phe 13 ), into grape berries in situ and the accompanying high throughput analytical method based on LC–DAD–MS/MS to quantify and track the label into phenylalanine metabolites. Clusters of V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, either near the onset of ripening or 4 weeks later, were exposed to Phe 13 in the vineyard. Phe 13 was present in berries 9 days afterwards as well as labeled flavonols and anthocyanins, all of which possessed a molecular ion shift of 6 amu. However, nearly all the label was found in anthocyanins, indicating tight regulation of phenolic biosynthesis at this stage of maturity. This method provides a framework for examining the regulation of phenolic metabolism at different stages of maturity or under different environmental conditions. Additionally, this technique could serve as a tool to further probe the metabolism/catabolism of grape phenolics.

  18. Tracing phenolic biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera via in situ C-13 labeling and liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassy, Alexander W.; Adams, Douglas O. [Department of Viticulture and Enology, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Laurie, V. Felipe [School of Agricultural Sciences, Universidad de Talca, Talca (Chile); Waterhouse, Andrew L., E-mail: alwaterhouse@ucdavis.edu [Department of Viticulture and Enology, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-10-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Phenyl-{sup 13}C{sub 6}-alanine was incorporated into grape berries, intact on the vine, at two stages of maturity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Labeled anthocyanins were synthesized by the berry and quantified by LC-UV/Vis-MS/MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extremely tight regulation of phenylpropanoid pathways was observed. - Abstract: Phenolic compounds in Vitis vinifera contribute important flavor, functionality, and health qualities to both table and wine grapes. The plant phenolic metabolic pathway has been well characterized, however many important questions remain regarding the influence of environmental conditions on pathway regulation. As a diagnostic for this pathway's regulation, we present a technique to incorporate a stable-isotopic tracer, L-phenyl-{sup 13}C{sub 6}-alanine (Phe{sup 13}), into grape berries in situ and the accompanying high throughput analytical method based on LC-DAD-MS/MS to quantify and track the label into phenylalanine metabolites. Clusters of V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, either near the onset of ripening or 4 weeks later, were exposed to Phe{sup 13} in the vineyard. Phe{sup 13} was present in berries 9 days afterwards as well as labeled flavonols and anthocyanins, all of which possessed a molecular ion shift of 6 amu. However, nearly all the label was found in anthocyanins, indicating tight regulation of phenolic biosynthesis at this stage of maturity. This method provides a framework for examining the regulation of phenolic metabolism at different stages of maturity or under different environmental conditions. Additionally, this technique could serve as a tool to further probe the metabolism/catabolism of grape phenolics.

  19. Taxation of petroleum companies possessing private information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, P.

    1995-01-01

    For countries having petroleum resources, a common objective of the Ministry of Energy is to maximise the net total government take from the petroleum industry. Most models of petroleum taxation, assuming symmetric information, recommended neutral taxation. A royalty is not optimal in this case as it gives disincentives for extraction, causing too much of the reservoir to remain unexploited. Through the operating activities, however, the companies obtain private information about the costs. A low cost company may conceal its information by imitating a high cost company, and must therefore be given an economic compensation (information rent) to be induced to reveal its true costs. An optimal regulatory response to asymmetric information may involve royalties, as these enable the government to capture a larger fraction of the economic rent. 17 refs., 2 figs

  20. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijing, Ye; Shavandi, Amin; Harrison, Roland; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2018-03-25

    The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), mean degree of polymerization (mDP), and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant ( p tannin content of the samples. White wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50-62%) and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM) (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material). This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications.

  1. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijing, Ye; Shavandi, Amin; Harrison, Roland; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), mean degree of polymerization (mDP), and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant (p wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50–62%) and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM) (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material). This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications. PMID:29587406

  2. Osmotic membrane bioreactor for phenol biodegradation under continuous operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen, Prashant; Loh, Kai-Chee, E-mail: chelohkc@nus.edu.sg

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Osmotic membrane bioreactor was used for phenol biodegradation in continuous mode. • Extractant impregnated membranes were used to alleviate substrate inhibition. • Phenol removal was achieved through both biodegradation and membrane rejection. • Phenol concentrations up to 2500 mg/L were treated at HRT varying in 2.8–14 h. • A biofilm removal strategy was formulated to improve bioreactor sustainability. - Abstract: Continuous phenol biodegradation was accomplished in a two-phase partitioning osmotic membrane bioreactor (TPPOMBR) system, using extractant impregnated membranes (EIM) as the partitioning phase. The EIMs alleviated substrate inhibition during prolonged operation at influent phenol concentrations of 600–2000 mg/L, and also at spiked concentrations of 2500 mg/L phenol restricted to 2 days. Filtration of the effluent through forward osmosis maintained high biomass concentration in the bioreactor and improved effluent quality. Steady state was reached in 5–6 days at removal rates varying between 2000 and 5500 mg/L-day under various conditions. Due to biofouling and salt accumulation, the permeate flux varied from 1.2–7.2 LMH during 54 days of operation, while maintaining an average hydraulic retention time of 7.4 h. A washing cycle, comprising 1 h osmotic backwashing using 0.5 M NaCl and 2 h washing with water, facilitated biofilm removal from the membranes. Characterization of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) through FTIR showed peaks between 1700 and 1500 cm{sup −1}, 1450–1450 cm{sup −1} and 1200–1000 cm{sup −1}, indicating the presence of proteins, phenols and polysaccharides, respectively. The carbohydrate to protein ratio in the EPS was estimated to be 0.3. These results indicate that TPPOMBR can be promising in continuous treatment of phenolic wastewater.

  3. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  4. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Hazal; Riciputi, Ylenia; Capanoglu, Esra; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Verardo, Vito

    2016-01-01

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are synthetized by the potato plant as a protection response from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. Several works showed that these potato compounds exhibited health-promoting effects in humans. However, the use of the potato in the food industry submits this vegetable to different processes that can alter the phenolic content. Moreover, many of these compounds with high bioactivity are located in the potato’s skin, and so are eliminated as waste. In this review the most recent articles dealing with phenolic compounds in the potato and potato byproducts, along with the effects of harvesting, post-harvest, and technological processes, have been reviewed. Briefly, the phenolic composition, main extraction, and determination methods have been described. In addition, the “alternative” food uses and healthy properties of potato phenolic compounds have been addressed. PMID:27240356

  5. Natural Phenol Polymers: Recent Advances in Food and Health Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzella, Lucia; Napolitano, Alessandra

    2017-04-14

    Natural phenol polymers are widely represented in nature and include a variety of classes including tannins and lignins as the most prominent. Largely consumed foods are rich sources of phenol polymers, notably black foods traditionally used in East Asia, but other non-edible, easily accessible sources, e.g., seaweeds and wood, have been considered with increasing interest together with waste materials from agro-based industries, primarily grape pomace and other byproducts of fruit and coffee processing. Not in all cases were the main structural components of these materials identified because of their highly heterogeneous nature. The great beneficial effects of natural phenol-based polymers on human health and their potential in improving the quality of food were largely explored, and this review critically addresses the most interesting and innovative reports in the field of nutrition and biomedicine that have appeared in the last five years. Several in vivo human and animal trials supported the proposed use of these materials as food supplements and for amelioration of the health and production of livestock. Biocompatible and stable functional polymers prepared by peroxidase-catalyzed polymerization of natural phenols, as well as natural phenol polymers were exploited as conventional and green plastic additives in smart packaging and food-spoilage prevention applications. The potential of natural phenol polymers in regenerative biomedicine as additives of biomaterials to promote growth and differentiation of osteoblasts is also discussed.

  6. Sulfomethylated phenolic material useful in post primary oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, P.R.; Pardue, J.E.

    1986-12-30

    This patent describes a sulfomethylated alkyl phenol compound chosen from among the group consisting of sulfomethylated alkyl phenol, sulfomethylated alkylated bis-phenol, and sulfomethylated alkylated naphthol.

  7. Solid/liquid extraction equilibria of phenolic compounds with trioctylphosphine oxide impregnated in polymeric membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Prashant; Loh, Kai-Chee

    2016-06-01

    Trioctylphosphine oxide based extractant impregnated membranes (EIM) were used for extraction of phenol and its methyl, hydroxyl and chloride substituted derivatives. The distribution coefficients of the phenols varied from 2 to 234, in the order of 1-napthol > p-chlorophenol > m-cresol > p-cresol > o-cresol > phenol > catechol > pyrogallol > hydroquinone, when initial phenols loadings was varied in 100-2000 mg/L. An extraction model, based on the law of mass action, was formulated to predict the equilibrium distribution of the phenols. The model was in excellent agreement (R(2) > 0.97) with the experimental results at low phenols concentrations ( 0.95), which signified high mass transfer resistance in the EIMs. Examination of the effects of ring substitution on equilibrium, and bivariate statistical analysis between the amounts of phenols extracted into the EIMs and factors affecting phenols interaction with TOPO, indicated the dominant role of hydrophobicity in equilibrium determination. These results improve understanding of the solid/liquid equilibrium process between phenols and the EIMs, and these will be useful in designing phenol recovery process from wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Variations of total phenol, carotenoid, in vitro antioxidant contents, and phenolic profiles of the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in the peel, seeds, and leaves of mango, yet less is known about the phenolic ...

  9. Variations of total phenol, carotenoid, in vitro antioxidant contents, and phenolic profiles of the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peel, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxi...

  10. Adducin family proteins possess different nuclear export potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Mei; Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Lin, Wan-Yi; Chen, Hong-Chen

    2017-05-10

    The adducin (ADD) family proteins, namely ADD1, ADD2, and ADD3, are actin-binding proteins that play important roles in the stabilization of membrane cytoskeleton and cell-cell junctions. All the ADD proteins contain a highly conserved bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) at the carboxyl termini, but only ADD1 can localize to the nucleus. The reason for this discrepancy is not clear. To avoid the potential effect of cell-cell junctions on the distribution of ADD proteins, HA epitope-tagged ADD proteins and mutants were transiently expressed in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and their distribution in the cytoplasm and nucleus was examined by immunofluorescence staining. Several nuclear proteins were identified to interact with ADD1 by mass spectrometry, which were further verified by co-immunoprecipitation. In this study, we found that ADD1 was detectable both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, whereas ADD2 and ADD3 were detected only in the cytoplasm. However, ADD2 and ADD3 were partially (~40%) sequestered in the nucleus by leptomycin B, a CRM1/exportin1 inhibitor. Upon the removal of leptomycin B, ADD2 and ADD3 re-distributed to the cytoplasm. These results indicate that ADD2 and ADD3 possess functional NLS and are quickly transported to the cytoplasm upon entering the nucleus. Indeed, we found that ADD2 and ADD3 possess much higher potential to counteract the activity of the NLS derived from Simian virus 40 large T-antigen than ADD1. All the ADD proteins appear to contain multiple nuclear export signals mainly in their head and neck domains. However, except for the leucine-rich motif ( 377 FEALMRMLDWLGYRT 391 ) in the neck domain of ADD1, no other classic nuclear export signal was identified in the ADD proteins. In addition, the nuclear retention of ADD1 facilitates its interaction with RNA polymerase II and zinc-finger protein 331. Our results suggest that ADD2 and ADD3 possess functional NLS and shuttle between the cytoplasm and nucleus. The discrepancy in the

  11. Fruit Phenolic Profiling: A New Selection Criterion in Olive Breeding Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana G; León, Lorenzo; Sanz, Carlos; de la Rosa, Raúl

    2018-01-01

    Olive growing is mainly based on traditional varieties selected by the growers across the centuries. The few attempts so far reported to obtain new varieties by systematic breeding have been mainly focused on improving the olive adaptation to different growing systems, the productivity and the oil content. However, the improvement of oil quality has rarely been considered as selection criterion and only in the latter stages of the breeding programs. Due to their health promoting and organoleptic properties, phenolic compounds are one of the most important quality markers for Virgin olive oil (VOO) although they are not commonly used as quality traits in olive breeding programs. This is mainly due to the difficulties for evaluating oil phenolic composition in large number of samples and the limited knowledge on the genetic and environmental factors that may influence phenolic composition. In the present work, we propose a high throughput methodology to include the phenolic composition as a selection criterion in olive breeding programs. For that purpose, the phenolic profile has been determined in fruits and oils of several breeding selections and two varieties ("Picual" and "Arbequina") used as control. The effect of three different environments, typical for olive growing in Andalusia, Southern Spain, was also evaluated. A high genetic effect was observed on both fruit and oil phenolic profile. In particular, the breeding selection UCI2-68 showed an optimum phenolic profile, which sums up to a good agronomic performance previously reported. A high correlation was found between fruit and oil total phenolic content as well as some individual phenols from the two different matrices. The environmental effect on phenolic compounds was also significant in both fruit and oil, although the low genotype × environment interaction allowed similar ranking of genotypes on the different environments. In summary, the high genotypic variance and the simplified procedure of the

  12. Possession experiences in dissociative identity disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A

    2011-01-01

    Dissociative trance disorder, which includes possession experiences, was introduced as a provisional diagnosis requiring further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Consideration is now being given to including possession experiences within dissociative identity disorder (DID) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), which is due to be published in 2013. In order to provide empirical data relevant to the relationship between DID and possession states, I analyzed data on the prevalence of trance, possession states, sleepwalking, and paranormal experiences in 3 large samples: patients with DID from North America; psychiatric outpatients from Shanghai, China; and a general population sample from Winnipeg, Canada. Trance, sleepwalking, paranormal, and possession experiences were much more common in the DID patients than in the 2 comparison samples. The study is preliminary and exploratory in nature because the samples were not matched in any way.

  13. Determination of phenol in tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierichs, A; Heinichen, G

    1955-01-01

    During low-temperature carbonization of lignite, the phenols and other oxygenated compounds appear both in the aqueous-process liquor and in the tar. Measurements of these oxygenated components resulting from low-temperature carbonization may serve as a parameter for the classification of lignites. However, such measurements are complicated by the instability of the tar and the complex nature of some of the acidic substances. Difficulties with the previous methods of analysis are reviewed. The present method outlines separation of aqueous-process liquor from lignite tar in a Fischer retort, followed by determination of phenols and fatty acids in the tar phase. The jacketed tar receiver is washed with 300 milliliter xylol and treated with aqueous caustic washes. Neutral oils are separated from the aqueous alkali solution. It is then extracted with ether and finally acidified with HCl. Solids are filtered off, and phenols and fatty acids are separated by Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ solution.

  14. Antioxidant activity and phenolic profile of pistachio (Pistacia vera L., variety Bronte) seeds and skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaino, Antonio; Martorana, Maria; Arcoraci, Teresita; Monteleone, Domenico; Giovinazzo, Corrado; Saija, Antonella

    2010-09-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.; Anacardiaceae) is native of aride zones of Central and West Asia and distributed throughout the Mediterranean basin. In Italy, a pistachio cultivar of high quality is typical of Bronte (Sicily), an area around the Etna volcano, where the lava land and climate allow the production of a nut with intense green colour and aromatic taste, very appreciated in international markets. Pistachio nuts are a rich source of phenolic compounds, and have recently been ranked among the first 50 food products highest in antioxidant potential. Pistachio nuts are often used after removing the skin, which thus represents a significant by-product of pistachio industrial processing. The present study was carried out to better characterize the phenolic composition and the antioxidant activity of Bronte pistachios, with the particular aim to evaluate the differences between pistachio seeds and skins. The total content of phenolic compounds in pistachios was shown to be significantly higher in skins than in seeds. By HPLC analysis, gallic acid, catechin, eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside, naringenin-7-O-neohesperidoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and eriodictyol were found both in pistachio seeds than in skins; furthermore, genistein-7-O-glucoside, genistein, daidzein and apigenin appeared to be present only in pistachio seeds, while epicatechin, quercetin, naringenin, luteolin, kaempferol, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside are contained only in pistachio skins. The antioxidant activity of pistachio seeds and skins were determined by means of four different assays (DPPH assay, Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric method and TEAC assay, SOD-mimetic assay). As expected on the basis of the chemical analyses, pistachio skins have shown to possess a better activity with respect to seeds in all tests. The excellent antioxidant activity of pistachio skins can be explained by its higher content of antioxidant phenolic compounds. By HPLC-TLC analysis, gallic acid

  15. Assessing wines based on total phenols, phenolic acids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic profile of some red wines produced from native Turkish grape varieties (Vitis vinifera Öküzgözü, V. vinifera Boğazkere and V. vinifera Shiraz) and some red fruit wines produced from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) and black mulberry ...

  16. Microscale validation of 4-aminoantipyrine test method for quantifying phenolic compounds in microbial culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justiz Mendoza, Ibrahin; Aguilera Rodriguez, Isabel; Perez Portuondo, Irasema

    2014-01-01

    Validation of test methods microscale is currently of great importance due to the economic and environmental advantages possessed, which constitutes a prerequisite for the performance of services and quality assurance of the results to provide customer. This paper addresses the microscale validation of 4-aminoantipyrine spectrophotometric method for the quantification of phenolic compounds in culture medium. Parameters linearity, precision, regression, accuracy, detection limits, quantification limits and robustness were evaluated, addition to the comparison test with no standardized method for determining polyphenols (Folin Ciocalteu). The results showed that both methods are feasible for determining phenols

  17. Changes in Phenolic Acid Content in Maize during Food Product Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts-Wilmsmeyer, Carrie J; Mumm, Rita H; Rausch, Kent D; Kandhola, Gurshagan; Yana, Nicole A; Happ, Mary M; Ostezan, Alexandra; Wasmund, Matthew; Bohn, Martin O

    2018-04-04

    The notion that many nutrients and beneficial phytochemicals in maize are lost due to food product processing is common, but this has not been studied in detail for the phenolic acids. Information regarding changes in phenolic acid content throughout processing is highly valuable because some phenolic acids are chemopreventive agents of aging-related diseases. It is unknown when and why these changes in phenolic acid content might occur during processing, whether some maize genotypes might be more resistant to processing induced changes in phenolic acid content than other genotypes, or if processing affects the bioavailability of phenolic acids in maize-based food products. For this study, a laboratory-scale processing protocol was developed and used to process whole maize kernels into toasted cornflakes. High-throughput microscale wet-lab analyses were applied to determine the concentrations of soluble and insoluble-bound phenolic acids in samples of grain, three intermediate processing stages, and toasted cornflakes obtained from 12 ex-PVP maize inbreds and seven hybrids. In the grain, insoluble-bound ferulic acid was the most common phenolic acid, followed by insoluble-bound p-coumaric acid and soluble cinnamic acid, a precursor to the phenolic acids. Notably, the ferulic acid content was approximately 1950 μg/g, more than ten-times the concentration of many fruits and vegetables. Processing reduced the content of the phenolic acids regardless of the genotype. Most changes occurred during dry milling due to the removal of the bran. The concentration of bioavailable soluble ferulic and p-coumaric acid increased negligibly due to thermal stresses. Therefore, the current dry milling based processing techniques used to manufacture many maize-based foods, including breakfast cereals, are not conducive for increasing the content of bioavailable phenolics in processed maize food products. This suggests that while maize is an excellent source of phenolics, alternative

  18. Isolation and characterization of phenol degrading yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Riddhi; Rajkumar, Shalini

    2009-04-01

    A phenol degrading yeast isolate was identified and characterized from the soil sample collected from a landfill site, in Ahmedabad, India, by plating the soil dilutions on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar. The microscopic studies and biochemical tests indicated the isolate to be Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The phenol degrading potential of the isolate was measured by inoculation of pure culture in the mineral medium containing various phenol concentrations ranging from 100 to 800 mg l(-1 )and monitoring phenol disappearance rate at regular intervals of time. Growth of the isolate in mineral medium with various phenol concentrations was monitored by measuring the turbidity (OD(600) nm). The results showed that the isolated yeast was tolerant to phenol up to 800 mg(-1). The phenol degradation ranged from 8.57 to 100% for the concentration of phenol from 800 mg l(-1 )to 200 mg l(-1), respectively. ((c) 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  19. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the presence of total phenolics, while spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques are utilized to identify and quantify individual phenolic compounds. This review addresses the application of different methodologies utilized in the analysis of phenolic compounds in plant-based products, including recent technical developments in the quantification of phenolics.

  20. Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Expression Profiles of Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Developing Grains of White, Purple, and Red Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongyun; Li, Yaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Ding, Huina; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat, while total soluble phenolic acid, soluble ferulic acid, and vanillic acid levels were significantly higher in purple and red wheat than in white wheat. Ferulic acid and syringic acid levels peaked at 14 days after anthesis (DAA), whereas p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid levels peaked at 7 DAA, and vanillic acid levels gradually increased during grain filling and peaked near ripeness (35 DAA). Nine phenolic acid biosynthesis pathway genes (TaPAL1, TaPAL2, TaC3H1, TaC3H2, TaC4H, Ta4CL1, Ta4CL2, TaCOMT1, and TaCOMT2) exhibited three distinct expression patterns during grain filling, which may be related to the different phenolic acids levels. White wheat had higher phenolic acid contents and relatively high gene expression at the early stage, while purple wheat had the highest phenolic acid contents and gene expression levels at later stages. These results suggest that the expression of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes may be closely related to phenolic acids accumulation.

  1. Octyl Phenol Synthesis Using Natural Clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Casuscelli

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of clay minerals, HB, NB and Al-PILC have been studied in the alkylation reactions of 2-octanol with phenol at 180°C, under conditions of alcohol/phenol = 1 (mole ratio and W/FAo °= 64,27 ghmol-1. The selectivity of Al-PILC was 77,12% for octyl phenol and 16,5% for dioctyl phenol.

  2. Facile Synthesis of Yolk/Core-Shell Structured TS-1@Mesosilica Composites for Enhanced Hydroxylation of Phenol

    KAUST Repository

    Zou, Houbing

    2015-12-14

    © 2015 by the authors. In the current work, we developed a facile synthesis of yolk/core-shell structured TS-1@mesosilica composites and studied their catalytic performances in the hydroxylation of phenol with H2O2 as the oxidant. The core-shell TS-1@mesosilica composites were prepared via a uniform coating process, while the yolk-shell TS-1@mesosilica composite was prepared using a resorcinol-formaldehyde resin (RF) middle-layer as the sacrificial template. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 sorption, Fourier transform infrared spectoscopy (FT-IR) UV-Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The characterization results showed that these samples possessed highly uniform yolk/core-shell structures, high surface area (560–700 m2 g−1) and hierarchical pore structures from oriented mesochannels to zeolite micropores. Importantly, owing to their unique structural properties, these composites exhibited enhanced activity, and also selectivity in the phenol hydroxylation reaction.

  3. Compositional differences in the phenolics compounds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates phenolic composition of commercial and experimental wines derived from bunch (Vitis vinifera) and muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia) grapes to determine compositional differences in phenolics. HPLC analysis of wines showed that majority of phenolic compounds eluted during the first 30 min. Of the red ...

  4. Identification and genetic characterization of phenol- degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAURABH

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... this paper, we reported about the new strain of Acinetobacter sp. ... characteristics of an efficient phenol-degrading microorganism. ... compounds are widespread in the environment. The problem is compounded by the fact that phenol is toxic, ... The phenol biodegradation ability of this bacterium was.

  5. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, A M; Man, Y B Che; Nazimah, S A H; Amin, I

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method. However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power. The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity. The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.

  6. Phenolic acid composition and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M I; Alam, N; Moniruzzaman, M; Sulaiman, S A; Gan, S H

    2011-08-01

    The phenolic acid and flavonoid contents of Malaysian Tualang, Gelam, and Borneo tropical honeys were compared to those of Manuka honey. Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities were also quantified. All honey extracts exhibited high phenolic contents (15.21 ± 0.51- 42.23 ± 0.64 mg/kg), flavonoid contents (11.52 ± 0.27- 25.31 ± 0.37 mg/kg), FRAP values (892.15 ± 4.97- 363.38 ± 10.57 μM Fe[II]/kg), and high IC₅₀ of DPPH radical-scavenging activities (5.24 ± 0.40- 17.51 ± 0.51 mg/mL). Total of 6 phenolic acids (gallic, syringic, benzoic, trans-cinnamic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids) and 5 flavonoids (catechin, kaempferol, naringenin, luteolin, and apigenin) were identified. Among the Malaysian honey samples, Tualang honey had the highest contents of phenolics, and flavonoids, and DPPH radical-scavenging activities. We conclude that among Malaysian honey samples, Tualang honey is the richest in phenolic acids, and flavonoid compounds, which have strong free radical-scavenging activities. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Lotus Root Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lotus root attracts increasing attention mainly because of its phenolic compounds known as natural antioxidants. Its thirteen varieties were systematically analyzed on the content, distribution, composition and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds for a better understanding of this aquatic vegetable. The respective mean contents of total phenolics in their flesh, peel and nodes were 1.81, 4.30 and 7.35 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g fresh weight (FW, and those of total flavonoids were 3.35, 7.69 and 15.58 mg rutin equivalents/g FW. The phenolic composition determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography method varied significantly among varieties and parts. The phenolics of flesh were mainly composed of gallocatechin and catechin; those of peel and node were mainly composed of gallocatechin, gallic acid, catechin and epicatechin. The antioxidant activities of phenolic extracts in increasing order were flesh, peel and node; their mean concentrations for 50% inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical were 46.00, 26.43 and 21.72 µg GAE/mL, and their mean values representing ferric reducing antioxidant power were 75.91, 87.66 and 100.43 µg Trolox equivalents/100 µg GAE, respectively. “Zoumayang”, “Baheou”, “No. 5 elian” and “Guixi Fuou” were the hierarchically clustered varieties with relatively higher phenolic content and stronger antioxidant activity as compared with the others. Especially, their nodes and peels are promising sources of antioxidants for human nutrition.

  8. Biological transformation of phenols in a sandstone aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, M.; Arvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    Ammonia liquor with very high concentrations of phenols is known to have leaked into the subsurface at a former coal carbonization plant in the UK. High concentrations of ammonium has been encountered in the groundwater reservoir at the site. In spite of this no significant concentrations of phen...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1093 - Possession of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment... figuring your net earnings from self-employment, the term possession of the United States shall be deemed...

  10. Mental illness complicated by the santeria belief in spirit possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, L; Jeffrey, W D

    1988-11-01

    Santeria, a religious system that blends African and Catholic beliefs, is practiced by many Cuban Americans. One aspect of this system is the belief in spirit possession. Basic santeria beliefs and rituals, including the fiesta santera (a gathering at which some participants may become possessed), are briefly described, and four cases in which the patients' belief in possession played a role in their mental illness are presented. The belief in possession can complicate the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness, but it should not be considered a culture-bound syndrome. Rather, it may be a nonspecific symptom of a variety of mental illnesses and should be evaluated in the context of the patient's overall belief system and ability to carry out usual activities.

  11. Constitutional Law: Right of Privacy--Possession of Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, David E.

    1976-01-01

    The Alaska Supreme Court in Ravin v. State accepted the defendant's contention that the prohibition of possession of marihuana infringed on his constitutional right to privacy. The significance of the case is discussed. (LBH)

  12. The epistemological significance of possession entering the DSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Craig

    2015-09-01

    The discourse of the American Psychiatric Association's DSM reflects the inherently dialogic or contradictory nature of its stated mandate to demonstrate both 'nosological completeness' and cultural 'inclusiveness'. Psychiatry employs the dialogic discourse of the DSM in a one-sided, positivistic manner by identifying what it considers universal mental disease entities stripped of their cultural context. In 1992 the editors of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders proposed to introduce possession into their revisions. A survey of the discussions about introducing 'possession' as a dissociative disorder to be listed in the DSM-IV indicates a missed epistemological break. Subsequently the editors of the DSM-5 politically 'recuperated' possession into its official discourse, without acknowledging the anarchic challenges that possession presents to psychiatry as a cultural practice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Criminalization of 'Possession of Unexplained Property' and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worku_Y

    government operating costs, increases government spending for wages and ... revenues by plundering revenue generating agencies such as tax collection, ..... a) the assets under the ownership or possession of himself and his family; and.

  14. Application conditions for ester cured alkaline phenolic resin sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-he Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Five organic esters with different curing speeds: propylene carbonate (i.e. high-speed ester A; 1, 4-butyrolactone; glycerol triacetate (i.e. medium-speed ester B; glycerol diacetate; dibasic ester (DBE (i.e. low-speed ester C, were chosen to react with alkaline phenolic resin to analyze the application conditions of ester cured alkaline phenolic resin. The relationships between the curing performances of the resin (including pH value, gel pH value, gel time of resin solution, heat release rate of the curing reaction and tensile strength of the resin sand and the amount of added organic ester and curing temperature were investigated. The results indicated the following: (1 The optimal added amount of organic ester should be 25wt.%-30wt.% of alkaline phenolic resin and it must be above 20wt.%-50 wt.% of the organic ester hydrolysis amount. (2 High-speed ester A (propylene carbonate has a higher curing speed than 1, 4-butyrolactone, and they were both used as high-speed esters. Glycerol diacetate is not a high-speed ester in alkaline phenolic resin although it was used as a high-speed ester in ester cured sodium silicate sand; glycerol diacetate and glycerol triacetate can be used as medium-speed esters in alkaline phenolic resin. (3 High-speed ester A, medium-speed ester B (glycerol triacetate and low-speed ester C (dibasic ester, i.e., DBE should be used below 15 ìC, 35 ìC and 50 ìC, respectively. High-speed ester A or low-speed ester C should not be used alone but mixed with medium-speed ester B to improve the strength of the resin sand. (4 There should be a suitable solid content (generally 45wt.%-65wt.% of resin, alkali content (generally 10wt.%-15wt.% of resin and viscosity of alkaline phenolic resin (generally 50-300 mPa≤s in the preparation of alkaline phenolic resin. Finally, the technique conditions of alkaline phenolic resin preparation and the application principles of organic ester were discussed.

  15. Phenolic and Theobromine Contents of Commercial Dark, Milk and White Chocolates on the Malaysian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chia Meng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate contains a wide range of antioxidants that includes soluble phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, catechin, epicatechin, and proanthocyanidins, insoluble polymeric phenolics and methylxanthines. The objective of this study was to determine phenolic and theobromine contents in dark (DC, milk (MC, and white (WC chocolates commonly found in the Malaysian marketplace. Total phenolic and flavonoids were determined by means of a spectrometric assay, while catechin, epicatechin and theobromine were quantified using a reverse-phase HPLC method. Dark chocolates exhibited the highest phenolics and flavonoids contents, followed by milk and white chocolates. Catechin and epicatechin were major flavonoids detected in dark chocolates. Theobromine was detected in dark and milk chocolates, but not in white chocolates. A high correlation (r= 0.93 between total phenolic and flavonoid contents, indicating that the major phenolic compounds in dark chocolates belong to the flavonoid class. When nutrition and health promotion are of concern, dark chocolates would be recommended over milk and white chocolates owing to their higher contents of antioxidant phenolic compounds.

  16. Phenolic and theobromine contents of commercial dark, milk and white chocolates on the Malaysian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Cheng Chia; Jalil, Abbe Maleyki Mhd; Ismail, Amin

    2009-01-05

    Chocolate contains a wide range of antioxidants that includes soluble phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, catechin, epicatechin, and proanthocyanidins), insoluble polymeric phenolics and methylxanthines. The objective of this study was to determine phenolic and theobromine contents in dark (DC), milk (MC), and white (WC) chocolates commonly found in the Malaysian marketplace. Total phenolic and flavonoids were determined by means of a spectrometric assay, while catechin, epicatechin and theobromine were quantified using a reverse-phase HPLC method. Dark chocolates exhibited the highest phenolics and flavonoids contents, followed by milk and white chocolates. Catechin and epicatechin were major flavonoids detected in dark chocolates. Theobromine was detected in dark and milk chocolates, but not in white chocolates. A high correlation (r= 0.93) between total phenolic and flavonoid contents, indicating that the major phenolic compounds in dark chocolates belong to the flavonoid class. When nutrition and health promotion are of concern, dark chocolates would be recommended over milk and white chocolates owing to their higher contents of antioxidant phenolic compounds.

  17. Determination of biologically active phenols and polyphenols in various objects by chromatographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetova, M V; Semenistaya, E N; Larionov, Oleg G; Revina, A A

    2007-01-01

    Chromatographic techniques for determination of biologically active phenols and polyphenols are considered. Various methods for sample preparation and detection are compared. The advantages of high performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection for determination of antioxidants are demonstrated. Data on determination of biologically active phenols and polyphenols published in the period from 1995 to 2005 are analysed.

  18. Influence of foliar nutrients on phenol levels in leaves of Eugenia uniflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, leaves contain high amounts of phenolic compounds which are responsible for several pharmacological activities. In order to evaluate the phenolics seasonal variation leaves were analysed on a monthly basis during the period of two years for the contents of hydrolysable tannins, total phenols, flavonoids, and nutrients (N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Fe. Results were correlated with climate conditions (rainfall, humidity, and mean temperature by Principal Component and ClusterAnalysis which allowed four groups to be distinguished with respect to the age of the leaves and the content of some metals. Young leaves were characterised by high levels of Zn and nitrogen whereas old leaves contained high levels of Fe and calcium, and both groups had moderate amounts of phenolics. Adult leaves were divided in two groups and results revealed that while one group had the highest levels of all phenols and lowest amounts of Mn and Cu, the other showed opposite quantities. The Canonical Correlation Analysis confirmed a highly significant negative correlation between phenol contents and Mn and Cu. These facts suggested that flavonoids and tannins production depends of the amounts of foliar nutrients, Cu and Mn in particular, which are cofactors of enzymes involved in phenol degradation and lignin biosynthesis. This knowledge can improve this specie cultivation in order to enhance the phenolic compounds concentration.

  19. Simultaneous bond degradation and bond formation during phenol-formaldehyde curing with wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Bonding of wood using phenol–formaldehyde adhesive develops highly durable bonds. Phenol– formaldehyde is believed to form primary bonds with wood cell wall polymers (e.g., lignin). However, it is unclear how this adhesive interacts and bonds to lignin. Through wood solubilisation methodologies, earlywood and latewood bonded assemblies were characterized using two-...

  20. Are colorimetric assays appropriate for measuring phenol oxidase activity in peat soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena M. Wiedermann; Evan S. Kane; Timothy J. Veverica; Erik A. Lilleskov

    2017-01-01

    The activity of extracellular phenol oxidases is believed to play a critical role in decomposition processes in peatlands. The water logged, acidic conditions, and recalcitrant litter from the peatland vegetation, lead to exceptionally high phenolics in the peat. In order to quantify the activity of oxidative enzymes involved in the modification and break down of...

  1. Novel β-amyloid aggregation inhibitors possessing a turn mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yoshio; Miyamoto, Naoko; Kiso, Yoshiaki

    2015-04-01

    Amyloid β peptide, the main component of senile plaques found in the brain of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients, is a molecular target for AD therapeutic intervention. A number of potential AD therapeutics have been reported, including inhibitors of β-secretase, γ-secretase, and Aβ aggregation, and anti-amyloid agents, such as neprilysin, insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), and Aβ antibodies. Recently, we reported potent small-sized β-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors, which could serve as anti-AD drugs. However AD is a progressive disorder, where dementia symptoms gradually worsen over several decades, and therefore may require many years to get cured. One possible way to achieve a greater therapeutic effect is through simultaneous administration of multiple drugs, similar to those used in Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) used to treat AIDS. In order to overcome AD, we took a drug discovery approach to evaluate, novel β-amyloid aggregation inhibitors. Previously, we reported that a tong-type compound possessing a turn mimic as the inhibitor of HIV-1 protease dimerization. Oligomerized amyloid β peptides contain a turn structure within the molecule. Here, we designed and synthesized novel β-amyloid aggregation inhibitors with a turn-mimic template, based on the turn conformer of the oligomerized amyloid β peptides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Removal of phenol from synthetic waste water using Gemini micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (GMEUF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenxiang [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy and Environmental Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Huang, Guohe, E-mail: huang@iseis.org [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy and Environmental Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Wei, Jia [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada S4S 0A2 (Canada); Li, Huiqin; Zheng, Rubing; Zhou, Ya [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy and Environmental Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gemini surfactant micellar enhanced ultrafiltration was used to remove phenol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of different hydrophilic head groups of surfactant was analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM, ATR-FTIR and mercury porosimeter were applied to elucidate membrane fouling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gemini surfactant had superior performance in comparing with conventional surfactant. - Abstract: Comprehensive studies were conducted on the phenol wastewater ultrafiltration (UF) with the help of various concentrations of cationic Gemini surfactant (N1-dodecyl-N1,N1,N2,N2-tetramethyl-N2-octylethane-1,2-diaminium bromide, CG), conventional cationic surfactant (dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, DTAB), anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) and nonionic surfactant ((dodecyloxy)polyethoxyethanol, Brij35). A flat sheet module with polyethersulfone (PES) membrane was employed in this investigation. The effects of feed concentration (phenol and surfactant) on the retention of phenol and surfactant, permeate flux and membrane fouling by micelles were evaluated. The distribution coefficient (D), the loading of the micelles (L{sub m}) and the equilibrium distribution constant (K) were also utilized to estimate the micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration ability for phenol. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer with attenuated total reflectance accessory (ATR-FTIR) and mercury porosimeter were applied to analyze membrane surface morphology, membrane material characteristics and membrane fouling for the original and fouled membranes. Based on the above analysis, the performance of the selected Gemini surfactant was proved superior in the following aspects: retention of phenol/surfactant (peak value is 95.8% for phenol retention), permeate flux and membrane fouling with respect to other conventional surfactants possessing equal alkyl chain length. These results demonstrated

  3. Phenolic Compounds of Cereals and Their Antioxidant Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hung, Pham

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds play an important role in health benefits because of their highly antioxidant capacity. In this review, total phenolic contents (TPCs), phenolic acid profile and antioxidant capacity of the extracted from wheat, corn, rice, barley, sorghum, rye, oat, and millet, which have been recently reported, are summarized. The review shows clearly that cereals contain a number of phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, etc. The phytochemicals of cereals significantly exhibit antioxidant activity as measured by trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, reducing power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and DNA, Rancimat, inhibition of photochemilumenescence (PCL), and iron(II) chelation activity. Thus, the consumption of whole grains is considered to have significantly health benefits in prevention from chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer because of the contribution of phenolic compounds existed. In addition, the extracts from cereal brans are considered to be used as a source of natural antioxidants.

  4. Distribution and potential ecological risk of 50 phenolic compounds in three rivers in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wenjue; Wang, Donghong; Wang, Zijian

    2018-04-01

    Phenolic compounds widely exist in the surface water of many countries; however, few studies have simultaneously analyzed and evaluated broad-spectrum phenolic compounds in various components of the water environment. Therefore this study analyzed the distribution and potential ecological risk of 50 phenolic compounds in the surface water, sediment and suspended particulate matter of three important rivers in Tianjin, the main heavy industry city with high pollution in China. The qualitative results show that phenolic pollution existed extensively in the three rivers and the kinds of phenolic compounds in the water were relatively higher than in both sediment and suspended particulate matter. The quantitative results show that the phenolic pollution in the wet-season samples was serious than dry-season samples. Meanwhile, total concentrations of phenolic compounds in three components from the Dagu Drainage River (DDR) were all much higher than those in the Beitang Drainage River (BDR) and Yongdingxin River (YDXR). The highest total concentrations of phenolic compounds in three components all appeared in wet-season samples in DDR, and the highest total concentration was 1354 μg/L in surface water, 719 μg/kg dw in suspended particulate matter and 2937 μg/kg dw in sediment, respectively. The ecological risk of phenolic compounds in surface water was evaluated using the quotient method, and phenolic compounds with risk quotient (RQ) > 1 (RQ > 0.3 for YDXR) were identified as priority pollutants. Five kinds of phenolic compounds were identified as priority phenolic compounds in BDR, and the order of risk was 2-cresol > 2,4-xylenol > 2-sec-butylphenol > 2-naphthol > 3-cresol. Six kinds of phenolic compounds were identified as priority phenolic compounds in DDR, and the order of risk was 2-naphthol > p-chloro-m-xylenol > 4-cresol > 3-cresol > 2,4-xylenol > 2,3,6-Trimethylphenol. In YDXR, only phenol, 2-naphthol and 2,4-xylenol were identified as

  5. Potential Use of Phenolic Acids as Anti-Candida Agents: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Guilherme R.; Ellepola, Kassapa; Seneviratne, Chaminda J.; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Y.

    2015-01-01

    There has been a sharp rise in the occurrence of Candida infections and associated mortality over the last few years, due to the growing body of immunocompromised population. Limited number of currently available antifungal agents, undesirable side effects and toxicity, as well as emergence of resistant strains pose a considerable clinical challenge for the treatment of candidiasis. Therefore, molecules that derived from natural sources exhibiting considerable antifungal properties are a promising source for the development of novel anti-candidal therapy. Phenolic compounds isolated from natural sources possess antifungal properties of interest. Particularly, phenolic acids have shown promising in vitro and in vivo activity against Candida species. However, studies on their mechanism of action alone or in synergism with known antifungals are still scarce. This review attempts to discuss the potential use, proposed mechanisms of action and limitations of the phenolic acids in anti-candidal therapy. PMID:26733965

  6. Phenolic aminocarboxylic acids as gallium-binding radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, F.C.

    1984-06-01

    The phenolic aminocarboxylic acids ethylenediamine di (o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (EDDHA) and N,N'-bis (2-hydroxybenzyl) ethylenediamine N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED) form gallium complexes having high stability constants which enable them to resist exchange of gallium with plasma transferrin. /sup 67/Ga complexes were synthesized with these ligands, placing substituent groups in the phenolic ring to direct excretion via the renal or hepatobiliary route. The amount of /sup 67/Ga-Br-EDDHA excreted via the hepatobiliary route was comparable with that of some of the sup(99m)Tc agents. Excretion of /sup 67/Ga-Br-HBED was similar but with delayed transit from the liver. /sup 67/Ga COOH-EDDHA was excreted exclusively via the renal route. These findings provide a basis for developing new /sup 67/Ga or /sup 68/Ga radiopharmaceuticals, the latter for use in positron emission tomography, using these phenolic aminocarboxylates.

  7. Phenolic aminocarboxylic acids as gallium-binding radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    The phenolic aminocarboxylic acids ethylenediamine di [o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid] (EDDHA) and N,N'-bis [2-hydroxybenzyl] ethylenediamine N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED) form gallium complexes having high stability constants which enable them to resist exchange of gallium with plasma transferrin. 67 Ga complexes were synthesized with these ligands, placing substituent groups in the phenolic ring to direct excretion via the renal or hepatobiliary route. The amount of 67 Ga-Br-EDDHA excreted via the hepatobiliary route was comparable with that of some of the sup(99m)Tc agents. Excretion of 67 Ga-Br-HBED was similar but with delayed transit from the liver. 67 Ga COOH-EDDHA was excreted exclusively via the renal route. These findings provide a basis for developing new 67 Ga or 68 Ga radiopharmaceuticals, the latter for use in positron emission tomography, using these phenolic aminocarboxylates. (orig.) [de

  8. Phenolic aminocarboxylic acids as gallium-binding radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, F C

    1984-06-01

    The phenolic aminocarboxylic acids ethylenediamine di [o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid] (EDDHA) and N,N'-bis [2-hydroxybenzyl] ethylenediamine N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED) form gallium complexes having high stability constants which enable them to resist exchange of gallium with plasma transferrin. 67Ga complexes were synthesized with these ligands, placing substituent groups in the phenolic ring to direct excretion via the renal or hepatobiliary route. The amount of 67Ga-Br-EDDHA excreted via the hepatobiliary route was comparable with that of some of the 99mTc agents. Excretion of 67Ga-Br-HBED was similar but with delayed transit from the liver. 67Ga COOH-EDDHA was excreted exclusively via the renal route. These findings provide a basis for developing new 67Ga or 68Ga radiopharmaceuticals, the latter for use in positron emission tomography, using these phenolic aminocarboxylates.

  9. Characterization of phenolic amides from cortex lycii by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    High performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and flow injection electrospray ionization with ion trap mass spectrometry (FIMS) fingerprints combined with the principal component analysis (PCA) were examined for their potential in differentiating commercial organic and conventional sage samples. The...

  10. Development of Low Density, Flexible Carbon Phenolic Ablators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, Mairead; Thornton, Jeremy; Fan, Wendy; Covington, Alan; Doxtad, Evan; Beck, Robin; Gasch, Matt; Arnold, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) was the enabling TPS material for the Stardust mission where it was used as a single piece heatshield. PICA has the advantages of low density (approximately 0.27 grams per cubic centimeter) coupled with efficient ablative capability at high heat fluxes. Due to its brittle nature and low strain to failure recent efforts at NASA ARC have focused on alternative architectures to yield flexible and more conformal carbon phenolic materials with comparable densities to PICA. This presentation will discuss flexible alternatives to PICA and include preliminary mechanical and thermal properties as well as recent arc jet and LHMEL screening test results.

  11. Electrochemical Behavior and Antioxidant and Prooxidant Activity of Natural Phenolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Todorović

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the electrochemical oxidation of a number natural phenolics (salicylic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, o-coumaric acid, m-coumaric acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, quercetin and rutin using cyclic voltammetry. The antioxidant properties of these compounds were also studied. A structural analysis of the tested phenolics suggests that multiple OH substitution and conjugation are important determinants of the free radical scavenging activity and electrochemical behavior. Compounds with low oxidation potentials (Epa lower than 0.45 showed antioxidant activity, whereas compounds with high Epa values (>0.45 act as prooxidants.

  12. Possessive Pronouns in European Portuguese and Old French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Miguel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to bring European Portuguese (EP data into light, showing that, in spite of the lack of morphological evidence, the syntactic behaviour of possessives, across EP dialects, shows evidences for a tripartite possessive system (Cardinaletti, 1998; Cardinaletti & Starke, 1999. It will be argued that the syntactic position of possessives parallels the positions assumed for EP sentential subjects in non interrogative contexts: [Spec, AgrsP], [Spec, TP] and [Spec, VP]. As a matter of fact, depending on their syntactic properties and assuming, as null hypothesis, that the nominal head moves to Numb'º', possessives may occur in [Spec, AgrsNP], [Spec, NumbP] and [Spec, NP]. Furthermore, would it be so, this dialectal variation would be useful in order to understand the changes that have occurred in other romance languages in previous stages. It might be the case that the loss of weak possessive forms (“mien” in French parallels, among other things, the lack of sentential subjects in [Spec, TP].

  13. The goalkeeper influence on ball possession effectiveness in futsal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente-Vila Pedro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify which variables were the best predictors of success in futsal ball possession when controlling for space and task related indicators, situational variables and the participation of the goalkeeper as a regular field player or not (5 vs. 4 or 4 vs. 4. The sample consisted of 326 situations of ball possession corresponding to 31 matches played by a team from the Spanish Futsal League during the 2010–2011, 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 seasons. Multidimensional qualitative data obtained from 10 ordered categorical variables were used. Data were analysed using chi-square analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis. Overall, the highest ball possession effectiveness was achieved when the goalkeeper participated as a regular field player (p<0.01, the duration of the ball possession was less than 10 s (p<0.01, the ball possession ended in the penalty area (p<0.01 and the defensive pressure was low (p<0.01. The information obtained on the relative effectiveness of offensive playing tactics can be used to improve team’s goal-scoring and goal preventing abilities.

  14. Student award for outstanding research winner in the Ph.D. category for the 2017 society for biomaterials annual meeting and exposition, april 5-8, 2017, Minneapolis, Minnesota: Characterization of protein interactions with molecularly imprinted hydrogels that possess engineered affinity for high isoelectric point biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, John R; Zhong, Justin X; Irani, Afshan S; Gu, Joann; Spencer, David S; Peppas, Nicholas A

    2017-06-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with selective affinity for protein biomarkers could find extensive utility as environmentally robust, cost-efficient biomaterials for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In order to develop recognitive, synthetic biomaterials for prohibitively expensive protein biomarkers, we have developed a molecular imprinting technique that utilizes structurally similar, analogue proteins. Hydrogel microparticles synthesized by molecular imprinting with trypsin, lysozyme, and cytochrome c possessed an increased affinity for alternate high isoelectric point biomarkers both in isolation and plasma-mimicking adsorption conditions. Imprinted and non-imprinted P(MAA-co-AAm-co-DEAEMA) microgels containing PMAO-PEGMA functionalized polycaprolactone nanoparticles were net-anionic, polydisperse, and irregularly shaped. MIPs and control non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) exhibited regions of Freundlich and BET isotherm adsorption behavior in a range of non-competitive protein solutions, where MIPs exhibited enhanced adsorption capacity in the Freundlich isotherm regions. In a competitive condition, imprinting with analogue templates (trypsin, lysozyme) increased the adsorption capacity of microgels for cytochrome c by 162% and 219%, respectively, as compared to a 122% increase provided by traditional bulk imprinting with cytochrome c. Our results suggest that molecular imprinting with analogue protein templates is a viable synthetic strategy for enhancing hydrogel-biomarker affinity and promoting specific protein adsorption behavior in biological fluids. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1565-1574, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Variation of anthocyanins and other major phenolic compounds throughout the ripening of four Portuguese blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sara; Costa, Eduardo M; Coelho, Marta C; Morais, Rui M; Pintado, Manuela E

    2017-01-01

    Blueberries are widely recognised as one of the richest sources of bioactive compounds, among which are anthocyanins, though the ripeness of berries has been reported as affecting the phytochemical composition of fruits. Therefore, the present work aimed to evaluate the variation of anthocyanins, and other major phenolics, throughout five ripening stages in four blueberry cultivars. The results showed that the antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content increased during ripening, reaching the highest values when the blueberries are collected from bunches comprised of 75% ripe blueberries. Antagonistically, the amount of phenolic acid decreases, while the quercetin-3-glucoside levels remain stable. Furthermore, Goldtraube blueberries appear to possess, systematically, higher amounts of phenolic compounds than the other cultivars studied. Thus, when seeking the highest yield of anthocyanins, the preferred harvest should occur in bunches that contain ca 75% of ripe blueberries and, considering the cultivars assayed, the Goldtraube cultivar appears to be the richest in phenolic compounds.

  16. Effects of Vinification Techniques Combined with UV-C Irradiation on Phenolic Contents of Red Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmaz, Hande; Söylemezoğlu, Gökhan

    2017-06-01

    Red wines are typically high in phenolic and antioxidant capacity and both of which can be increased by vinification techniques. This study employed 3 vinification techniques to assess the increase in phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. Wines were obtained from Boğazkere grape cultivar by techniques of classical maceration, cold maceration combined with ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation, and thermovinification combined with UV irradiation and changes in phenolic contents were examined. Total phenolic and anthocyanin contents and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of wines were measured spectrophotometrically and phenolic contents (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, rutin, quercetin, trans-resveratrol, and cis-resveratrol were measured by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD). As a result of the study, the highest phenolic content except for quercetin was measured in the wines obtained by thermovinification combined with UV irradiation. We demonstrated that the highest phenolic compounds with health effect, total phenolic compounds, total anthocyanin, and antioxidant activity were obtained from thermovinification with UV-C treatment than classical wine making. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significa...

  18. Stability of phenolic compounds of the propolis processed by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Andrea H.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2002-01-01

    Propolis is the generic term of a resin of different colors and consistency collected by bees, Apis mellifera, from diverse parts of plants, buds and resinous exudates. It possesses antibacterial , antifungal and antiviral properties and many other biological activities such as antiinflammatory, antiulcer, local anaesthetic, antitumor, etc. The aim of this work is to study the effect of 60 Co ionizing radiation on the stability of phenolic compounds of propolis. (author)

  19. Nitration of phenolic compounds and oxidation of hydroquinones ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this work, we have reported a mild, efficient and selective method for the mononitration of phenolic compounds using sodium nitrite in the presence of tetrabutylammonium dichromate (TBAD) and oxidation of hydroquinones to quinones with TBAD in CH2Cl2. Using this method, high yields of nitrophenols and ...

  20. Role and significance of total phenols during rooting of Protea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high total phenol content was associated with significantly higher rooting percentage and increased the number of roots formed. Blanching reduced the time needed for the cuttings to root sufficiently to be transplanted to the field by 30 days. Analyses of different parts of cuttings throughout the entire rooting period ...

  1. Acute Toxicity of a Recently Identified Phenol-based Synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on the acute toxicity of a new phenol based synthetic tsetse fly repellent recently identified at the International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (patent No. ... The repellent can be classified as being highly toxic with central nervous system (CNS) involvement and a mild skin and eye irritant.

  2. Effect of phenolic compounds released during degradation of Coir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    www.bioline.org.br/ja. Effect of phenolic compounds released during degradation of Coir pith by ... of the culture filtrate appears to be non toxic in the tested animals @ JASEM. Coir pith is a highly ... degradation of coir pith by fungi and bacteria were already reported, ... no.1 filter paper and used as feed for the experimental ...

  3. Impacts of ambient salinity and copper on brown algae: 2. Interactive effects on phenolic pool and assessment of metal binding capacity of phlorotannin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connan, Solene, E-mail: solene.connan@gmail.com [Botany and Plant Science, School of Natural Sciences, Environmental Change Institute and Martin Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway (Ireland); Stengel, Dagmar B., E-mail: dagmar.stengel@nuigalway.ie [Botany and Plant Science, School of Natural Sciences, Environmental Change Institute and Martin Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway (Ireland)

    2011-07-15

    The aim of this study was to establish in laboratory experiments a quantitative link between phenolic pool (production, composition and exudation) in Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus and their potential to bind metals. Additionally, the copper binding capacity of purified phlorotannin was investigated. A reduction in salinity decreased total phenolic contents, altered phenolic composition by increasing proportion of cell-wall phenolics, and also increased phenolic exudation of the two seaweed species. After 15 days at a salinity of 5, the inhibition of photosynthesis observed previously for A. nodosum coincided with the high exudation of phenolic compounds into the surrounding water of the seaweed tips which resulted in a significant reduction of phenolic contents. Increased copper concentration also reduced total phenolic contents, changed phenolic composition (increase in proportion and level of cell-wall phenolics), and positively affected phenolic exudation of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus. A decrease in salinity enhanced the copper toxicity and caused the earlier impact on the physiology of seaweed tips. An involvement of phlorotannins in copper binding is also demonstrated; purified phlorotannins from A. nodosum collected from a site with little anthropogenic activity contained all four metals tested. When placed in copper-enriched water, as for the seaweed material, copper contents of the phenolics increased, zinc and cadmium contents decreased, but no change in chromium content was observed. The use of cell-wall phenolic content as biomarker of copper contamination seems promising but needs further investigation.

  4. The impact of ColRS two-component system and TtgABC efflux pump on phenol tolerance of Pseudomonas putida becomes evident only in growing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kivisaar Maia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently found that Pseudomonas putida deficient in ColRS two-component system is sensitive to phenol and displays a serious defect on solid glucose medium where subpopulation of bacteria lyses. The latter phenotype is significantly enhanced by the presence of phenol in growth medium. Here, we focused on identification of factors affecting phenol tolerance of the colR-deficient P. putida. Results By using transposon mutagenesis approach we identified a set of phenol-tolerant derivatives of colR-deficient strain. Surprisingly, half of independent phenol tolerant clones possessed miniTn5 insertion in the ttgABC operon. However, though inactivation of TtgABC efflux pump significantly enhanced phenol tolerance, it did not affect phenol-enhanced autolysis of the colR mutant on glucose medium indicating that phenol- and glucose-caused stresses experienced by the colR-deficient P. putida are not coupled. Inactivation of TtgABC pump significantly increased the phenol tolerance of the wild-type P. putida as well. Comparison of phenol tolerance of growing versus starving bacteria revealed that both ColRS and TtgABC systems affect phenol tolerance only under growth conditions and not under starvation. Flow cytometry analysis showed that phenol strongly inhibited cell division and to some extent also caused cell membrane permeabilization to propidium iodide. Single cell analysis of populations of the ttgC- and colRttgC-deficient strains revealed that their membrane permeabilization by phenol resembles that of the wild-type and the colR mutant, respectively. However, cell division of P. putida with inactivated TtgABC pump seemed to be less sensitive to phenol than that of the parental strain. At the same time, cell division appeared to be more inhibited in the colR-mutant strain than in the wild-type P. putida. Conclusions ColRS signal system and TtgABC efflux pump are involved in the phenol tolerance of P. putida. However, as

  5. Phenol oxidation by a sequential CWPO-CWAO treatment with a Fe/AC catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla, A. [Area de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: asun.quintanilla@uam.es; Fraile, A.F. [Area de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Casas, J.A. [Area de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez, J.J. [Area de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-31

    Catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) of phenol with a homemade Fe/activated carbon (Fe/AC) catalyst has been studied in a stainless steel fixed-bed reactor at different operating conditions (T = 23-100 deg. C, P {sub T} = 1-8 atm, W = 0-2.5 g, and {tau} = 20-320 g{sub CAT} h/g{sub Phenol}). The results show that, thanks to the incorporation of Fe on the activated carbon, phenol conversion improved dramatically, reaching a 90% at 65 deg. C, 2 atm, and 40 g{sub CAT} h/g{sub Phenol}. However, TOC conversion values remain fairly low, (around 5% at 40 g{sub CAT} h/g{sub Phenol}), and no improvement was obtained with the inclusion of Fe. The presence of Fe seems to promote the nondesirable coupling reactions that take place in CWPO of phenol due to the condensation of the ring intermediates (the primary phenol oxidation products). These condensation products are quite refractory to CWPO at the conditions employed. Taking advantage of the high phenol conversions in CWPO and the high phenol mineralization in CWAO, along with the good stability of the Fe/AC catalyst, a CWPO-CWAO sequential treatment has been successfully performed by using a fixed-bed and trickle-bed reactor in series. A CWPO treatment at ambient conditions followed by a CWAO treatment at mild conditions (100 deg. C and 8 atm) is presented as high efficiency process for the decontamination of phenolic wastewaters.

  6. Helichrysum monizii Lowe: phenolic composition and antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Sandra; Castilho, Paula C

    2012-01-01

    In Madeira Archipelago there are four endemic Helichyrsum species and three of them are used in the traditional medicine. Helichrysum monizii is a rare endemism with very scarce information available concerning its uses in the local traditional medicine. The aim of this work was to study for the first time Helichrysum monizii in terms of its antioxidant capacity and the identification of the phenolic compounds to which that activity is due. Three different methods of extraction were performed and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of extracts were correlated to radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and β-carotene assays. An HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) method was employed for the separation and identification of the phenolic and flavonoid components. The results revealed a high antioxidant potential mainly related to the phenolic profile of the plant. Polar components of methanol extracts of Helichrsyum monizii were detected by a high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) ) method. Thirty-three compounds were identified and 19 of them were identified as quinic acid derivatives. The high antioxidant potential Helichrysum monizii was for the first time established. Dicaffeoylquinic acids are the main responsible for that activity. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESEARCH AND TEACHING: THE CHART OF POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS IN PORTUGUESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lennertz Marcotulio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between research and teaching, concerning the rearrangements operated in the chart of possessive pronouns,  observing in which way sociolinguistic studies have been applied to the teaching of Portuguese through the didactic material prepared for High School and the courses of Portuguese as a Foreign Language.

  8. Experimental and theoretical binding affinity between polyvinylpolypyrrolidone and selected phenolic compounds from food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Lara, Esteban F; López-Cortés, Xaviera A; Castro, Ricardo I; Avila-Salas, Fabián; González-Nilo, Fernando D; Laurie, V Felipe; Santos, Leonardo S

    2015-02-01

    Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) is a fining agent, widely used in winemaking and brewing, whose mode of action in removing phenolic compounds has not been fully characterised. The aim of this study was to evaluate the experimental and theoretical binding affinity of PVPP towards six phenolic compounds representing different types of phenolic species. The interaction between PVPP and phenolics was evaluated in model solutions, where hydroxyl groups, hydrophobic bonding and steric hindrance were characterised. The results of the study indicated that PVPP exhibits high affinity for quercetin and catechin, moderate affinity for epicatechin, gallic acid and lower affinity for 4-methylcatechol and caffeic acid. The affinity has a direct correlation with the hydroxylation degree of each compound. The results show that the affinity of PVPP towards phenols is related with frontier orbitals. This work demonstrates a direct correlation between the experimental affinity and the interaction energy calculations obtained through computational chemistry methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of kernels and shells of Mexican pecan (Carya illinoinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, Laura A; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2011-01-12

    The phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of pecan kernels and shells cultivated in three regions of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, were analyzed. High concentrations of total extractable phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins were found in kernels, and 5-20-fold higher concentrations were found in shells. Their concentrations were significantly affected by the growing region. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by ORAC, DPPH•, HO•, and ABTS•-- scavenging (TAC) methods. Antioxidant activity was strongly correlated with the concentrations of phenolic compounds. A strong correlation existed among the results obtained using these four methods. Five individual phenolic compounds were positively identified and quantified in kernels: ellagic, gallic, protocatechuic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acids and catechin. Only ellagic and gallic acids could be identified in shells. Seven phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in kernels by means of MS and UV spectral comparison, namely, protocatechuic aldehyde, (epi)gallocatechin, one gallic acid-glucose conjugate, three ellagic acid derivatives, and valoneic acid dilactone.

  10. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the phenolic acids of some Indian spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variyar, P.S.; Bandyopadhyay, C.; Thomas, P.

    1998-01-01

    Five commercially important spices, namely cinnamon, clove, cardamom, nutmeg and mace, were subjected to gamma-irradiation using a dose of 10 kGy, which is recommended for microbial decontamination. Various phenolic acids present in these spices were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In clove and nutmeg, quantitatively significant changes were noted in some of the phenolic acids upon irradiation. The content of gallic and syringic acids in irradiated clove increased by 2.2- and 4.4-fold respectively, whereas in irradiated nutmeg many of the phenolic acids showed wide increases and decreases in the range of two- to sixfold compared with the control samples. No qualitative and major quantitative changes were, however, observed in the phenolic acids of cinnamon, cardamom and mace upon irradiation. The possibility that gamma-radiation induced breakdown of tannins could be responsible for the changes in phenolic acids content of clove and nutmeg is discussed

  11. Chemistry and health of olive oil phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerale, Sara; Conlan, Xavier A; Sinclair, Andrew J; Keast, Russell S J

    2009-03-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially attributed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Most recent interest has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have shown that olive oil phenolics have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, and antimicrobial activity. Presumably, regular dietary consumption of virgin olive oil containing phenolic compounds manifests in health benefits associated with a Mediterranean diet. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the physiological effects of olive oil phenolics. Moreover, a number of factors have the ability to affect phenolic concentrations in virgin olive oil, so it is of great importance to understand these factors in order to preserve the essential health promoting benefits of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  12. Influence of humic acids of different origins on oxidation of phenol and chlorophenols by permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Di; Guan Xiaohong; Ma Jun; Yang Xue; Cui Chongwei

    2010-01-01

    The influences of humic acids (HAs) of different origins, including two commercial HAs, three soil HAs and one aquatic HA, on phenols oxidation by permanganate were studied. The apparent second-order rate constants of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP)/phenol oxidation by permanganate in the presence of HAs at pH 7 followed the order of commercial HA (Shanghai) > soil HAs > commercial HA (Fluka) > aquatic HA. Moreover, the commercial HA (Shanghai) could accelerate the oxidation of different chlorophenols (CP) significantly under neutral condition. The FTIR analysis demonstrated greater content of C=C moieties and less amount of carboxylate, aliphatic groups and polysaccharide-like substances in soil HAs than in aqueous HA, suggesting that the increase of aromaticity in HA was beneficial to the oxidation of phenols by permanganate. The apparent second-order rate constants of 2-CP/phenol oxidation by permanganate in the presence of HAs correlated well with specific visible absorption (SVA) at 665 nm of HAs. High positive correlation coefficients (R 2 > 0.75) implied that π-electrons of HA strongly influenced the reactivity of 2-CP/phenol towards permanganate oxidation, which agreed well with positive correlation between Fluorescence Regional Integration (FRI) and the apparent second-order rate constants. The π-π interaction between HAs and phenols, the steric hindrance effect and the dissociation of phenols may affect the oxidation of phenols by permanganate in the presence of HA at pH = 7.0.

  13. Toxic and inhibitory effects of trichloroethylene aerobic co-metabolism on phenol-grown aerobic granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, JooHwa

    2015-04-09

    Aerobic granule, a form of microbial aggregate, exhibits good potential in degrading toxic and recalcitrant substances. In this study, the inhibitory and toxic effects of trichloroethylene (TCE), a model compound for aerobic co-metabolism, on phenol-grown aerobic granules were systematically studied, using respiratory activities after exposure to TCE as indicators. High TCE concentration did not exert positive or negative effects on the subsequent endogenous respiration rate or phenol dependent specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR), indicating the absence of solvent stress and induction effect on phenol-hydroxylase. Phenol-grown aerobic granules exhibited a unique response to TCE transformation product toxicity, that small amount of TCE transformation enhanced the subsequent phenol SOUR. Granules that had transformed between 1.3 and 3.7 mg TCE gSS(-1) showed at most 53% increase in the subsequent phenol SOUR, and only when the transformation exceeded 6.6 mg TCE gSS(-1) did the SOUR dropped below that of the control. This enhancing effect was found to sustain throughout several phenol dosages, and TCE transformation below the toxicity threshold also lessened the granules' sensitivity to higher phenol concentration. The unique toxic effect was possibly caused by the granule's compact structure as a protection barrier against the diffusive transformation product(s) of TCE co-metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of Growth Process and Phenol Biodegradation by a Bacterium Isolated from Wastewater (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayye Eskandary

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Phenol is a carbonic compound that is dangerous for humans at a concentration of 0.5 ppm in the environment. The best phenol removal from coal tar wastewaters is achieved by bioremediation. In this study, we isolated indigenous bacteria from phenolic wastewater and adapted it to a high concentration of phenol for its removal from wastewater. We also investigated the growth and removal curves of the bacteria in media with 2000 and 4000 ppm of phenol. It was observed that after lag phases of 24 and 48 hours, they grew and removed all of the phenol concentration over 264 and 312 hours. It was also found that this isolate was able to remove 2233 ppm of phenol in natural wastewater over a period of 120 hours. Identification tests showed that it is a gram-negative bactetium possibly belonging to the pseudomonas species. Phenol concentrations in wastewater can be reduced over a shorter period of time by using either this isolate alone or a group of them.

  15. Extracellular laccase production and phenolic degradation by an olive mill wastewater isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastewater (OMWW presents a challenge to the control of effluents due to the presence of a high organic load, antimicrobial agents (monomeric-polymeric phenols, volatile acids, polyalcohols, and tannins, salinity and acidity. In this study, the production of extracellular laccase, monomeric or polymeric phenol, from an OMWW isolate based on its ability to biodegrade phenols and gallic acid as a model of phenolic compounds in OMWW was investigated. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S RNA gene sequences identified the bacterial isolate (Acinetobacter REY as being closest to Acinetobacter pittii. This isolate exhibited a constitutive production of extracellular laccase with an activity of 1.5 and 1.3 U ml/L when supplemented with the inducers CuSO4 and CuSO4+phenols, respectively. Batch experiments containing minimal media supplemented with phenols or gallic acid as the sole carbon and energy source were performed in order to characterize their phenolic biodegradability. Acinetobacter REY was capable of biodegrading up to 200 mg/L of phenols and gallic acid both after 10 h and 72 h, respectively.

  16. Influence of humic acids of different origins on oxidation of phenol and chlorophenols by permanganate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Di, E-mail: hedy1997@hotmail.com [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment (HIT), Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Guan Xiaohong, E-mail: hitgxh@126.com [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment (HIT), Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Ma Jun, E-mail: majun@hit.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment (HIT), Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Yang Xue, E-mail: yangxue1_ok@163.com [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment (HIT), Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Cui Chongwei, E-mail: cuichongwei1991@126.com [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment (HIT), Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2010-10-15

    The influences of humic acids (HAs) of different origins, including two commercial HAs, three soil HAs and one aquatic HA, on phenols oxidation by permanganate were studied. The apparent second-order rate constants of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP)/phenol oxidation by permanganate in the presence of HAs at pH 7 followed the order of commercial HA (Shanghai) > soil HAs > commercial HA (Fluka) > aquatic HA. Moreover, the commercial HA (Shanghai) could accelerate the oxidation of different chlorophenols (CP) significantly under neutral condition. The FTIR analysis demonstrated greater content of C=C moieties and less amount of carboxylate, aliphatic groups and polysaccharide-like substances in soil HAs than in aqueous HA, suggesting that the increase of aromaticity in HA was beneficial to the oxidation of phenols by permanganate. The apparent second-order rate constants of 2-CP/phenol oxidation by permanganate in the presence of HAs correlated well with specific visible absorption (SVA) at 665 nm of HAs. High positive correlation coefficients (R{sup 2} > 0.75) implied that {pi}-electrons of HA strongly influenced the reactivity of 2-CP/phenol towards permanganate oxidation, which agreed well with positive correlation between Fluorescence Regional Integration (FRI) and the apparent second-order rate constants. The {pi}-{pi} interaction between HAs and phenols, the steric hindrance effect and the dissociation of phenols may affect the oxidation of phenols by permanganate in the presence of HA at pH = 7.0.

  17. Themes in Spirit Possession in Ugandan Christianity | James ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . This paper discerns a number of common themes that run through many of these experiences. In particular, sex as a motif for deviance and evil is noted as a common feature of many of the possession stories and all contact with spirits is seen ...

  18. Gun Possession among Massachusetts Batterer Intervention Program Enrollees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F.; Johnson, Renee M.; Hemenway, David

    2006-01-01

    Batterers with access to firearms present a serious lethal threat to their partners. The purpose of this exploratory study is to estimate the prevalence of and risk markers for gun possession among Massachusetts men enrolled in batterer intervention programs. The authors found that 1.8% of the men reported having a gun in or around their home.…

  19. Licenses for possessing and applying radioactive sources, materials, etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Commercial and governmental institutions have been licensed by Dutch authorities to possess and apply radioactive sources, materials, etc. A summary is given and the list is subdivided into a number of sections such as radioactive sources, radioactive materials, X-ray equipment and technetium-generators

  20. 46 CFR 308.504 - Definition of territories and possessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of territories and possessions. 308.504 Section 308.504 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.504 Definition of territories and...

  1. Bioactivities, biosynthesis and biotechnological production of phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Min; Huang, Fenfen; Deng, Changping; Wang, Yao; Kai, Guoyin

    2018-05-10

    Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen in Chinese), is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant, which is used as not only human medicine but also health-promotion food. Danshen has been extensively used for the treatment of various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. As a major group of bioactive constituents from S. miltiorrhiza, water-soluble phenolic acids such as salvianolic acid B possessed good bioactivities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and other health-promoting activities. It is of significance to improve the production of phenolic acids by modern biotechnology approaches to meet the increasing market demand. Significant progresses have been made in understanding the biosynthetic pathway and regulation mechanism of phenolic acids in S.miltiorrhiza, which will facilitate the process of targeted metabolic engineering or synthetic biology. Furthermore, multiple biotechnology methods such as in vitro culture, elicitation, hairy roots, endophytic fungi and bioreactors have been also used to obtain pharmaceutically active phenolic acids from S. miltiorrhiza. In this review, recent advances in bioactivities, biosynthetic pathway and biotechnological production of phenolic acid ingredients were summarized and future prospective was also discussed.

  2. Reaction of Non-Symmetric Schiff Base Metallo-Ligand Complexes Possessing an Oxime Function with Ln Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Costes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of non-symmetric Schiff base ligands possessing one oxime function that is associated to a second function such as pyrrole or phenol function is first described. These ligands, which possess inner N4 or N3O coordination sites, allow formation of cationic or neutral non-symmetric CuII or NiII metallo-ligand complexes under their mono- or di-deprotonated forms. In presence of Lanthanide ions the neutral complexes do not coordinate to the LnIII ions, the oxygen atom of the oxime function being only hydrogen-bonded to a water molecule that is linked to the LnIII ion. This surprising behavior allows for the isolation of LnIII ions by non-interacting metal complexes. Reaction of cationic NiII complexes possessing a protonated oxime function with LnIII ions leads to the formation of original and dianionic (Gd(NO352− entities that are well separated from each other. This work highlights the preparation of well isolated mononuclear LnIII entities into a matrix of diamagnetic metal complexes. These new complexes complete our previous work dealing with the complexing ability of the oxime function toward Lanthanide ions. It could open the way to the synthesis of new entities with interesting properties, such as single-ion magnets for example.

  3. Emissions of fine particulate nitrated phenols from the burning of five common types of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xinfeng; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Liwei; Xu, Wenxue; Zhang, Yating; Chen, Bing; Li, Weijun; Xue, Likun; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing

    2017-01-01

    and provides basic data for modeling studies. - Highlights: • Emission characteristics of nitrated phenols from biomass burning were determined. • High proportion of methyl nitrophenols were directly emitted from biomass burning. • Emission factors and emission amount of nitrated phenols were estimated for China. - High proportions of methyl nitrocatechols were directly emitted from biomass burning and the emission factors of fine nitrated phenols from flaming burning were 0.75–11.1 mg kg −1 .

  4. Dynamics of the spirit possession phenomenon in Eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Liisa Swantz

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the spirit possession phenomenon is related in this study to the more general question of the role of religious institutions as part in the development process of a people living in a limited geographical area of a wider national society. It is assumed that religion, like culture in general, has its specific institutional forms as result of the historical development of a society, but at the same time religion is a force shaping that history. People's cultural resources influence their social and economic development and form a potential creative element in it'. Some of the questions to be asked are: "How are specific religious practices related to the dynamics of change in the societies in question? What is the social and religious context in which the spirit possession phenomenon occurs in them? What social and economic relations get their expression in them? To what extent is spirit possession in this case a means of exerting values and creatively overcoming a crisis or conflict which the changing social and economic relations impose on the people? The established spirit possession cults are here seen as the institutional forms of religious experience. At the same time it becomes evident that there is institutionalization in process as well as deinstitutionalization of spirit possession where it occurs outside established institutional forms. Institution is taken as a socially shared form of behaviour the significance of which is commonly recognized by those who share it. By the term spirit possession cult is meant a ritual form of spirit possession of a group which is loosely organized and without strict membership. The context of the study is four ethnic groups in Eastern Tanzania, near the coast of the Indian Ocean. The general theme of the project is The Role of Culture in the Restructuring of Tanzanian Rural Areas. The restructuring refers to a villagisation programme carried out in the whole country. People are being

  5. Wine phenolics: looking for a smooth mouthfeel

    OpenAIRE

    Alice, Vilela; António, M. Jordão; Fernanda, Cosme

    2016-01-01

    Each grape variety has its own phenolic profile. However, the concentration of the phenolic compounds present in wine mainly dependson winemaking processes. Phenolic compounds influence wine sensorial characteristics namely taste or mouthfeel, bitterness, astringency and color. Humans can perceive six basic tastes: sweet, salty; sour; umami; fat-taste and bitter taste. This last basic taste is considered as a defense mechanism against the ingestion of potential poisons. Some of the genes,enco...

  6. Evaluation of Phenolic Content of Turmeric hydroalcoholic Extract in Iran by Singleton Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bahrami

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenolic compounds have an important role as essential metabolites for plants growth and reproduction, as well as protecting agents against pathogens. These compounds are important sources of antioxidants which act as reducing agents and hydrogen donors. Consumption of fruits, vegetables and plants rich in poly phenols is associated with the reduced risk of certain cancer, cardiovascular, diabetes and Alzheimer’s diseases. Curcuma langa or Turmeric is a tropical plant that natively grows in South and Southeast Asia. This plant has been used as a spice as well as a herbal drug in traditional medicine in India. Recently, many studies have been conducted on the medical effects of this plant and still some researches are ongoing. Turmeric possesses a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects. It seems that pharmacological activities of turmeric is related to poly phenolic compounds existing in this plant. Methods: This study was performed on the hydroalcoholic extract of the turmeric rhizome experimentally with a repetition of several times. Results of this study were presented via means±SD. In the present research poly phenolic contents of turmeric extract was evaluated using tannic acid standard. Results: The study findings demonstrated that 1µg hydroalcoholic extract contains 0.59±0.051µmoleTAE of poly phenolic compounds. Conclusion: This study revealed that phenolic contents of turmeric hydroalcoholic extraction is noticeable and it seems that phenolic contents are caused by curcuminoids compounds that exist in this plant.

  7. Chemopreventive effects of free and bound phenolics associated to steep waters (nejayote) obtained after nixtamalization of different maize types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-García, Carlos; García-Lara, Silverio; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2012-03-01

    Free and bound phenolics extracts from nejayote solids were obtained after optimally lime-cooking blue, normal white, red, normal yellow, high-carotenoid and quality protein maize types. The extraction yield ranged from 4.47 to 10.05%. Bound phenolics extracts had higher content of total phenolics, antioxidant activity and ferulic acid compared to the free phenolics extracts. In general, free phenolics extracts were less cytotoxic than the bound phenolics counterparts. Bound phenolics extracts had higher induction of quinone reductase (QR) and particularly the normal yellow nejayote exerted the highest chemopreventive index tested in Hepa1c1c7 cells. When tested for monofunctional phase 2 induction capacity in BPrc1 cells, the bound phenolics extracts of blue, normal white and quality protein nejayotes were better inducers than the normal yellow counterpart. Particularly, the free phenolics extract of the white maize nejayote induced BPrc1 cells QR and exerted a higher chemopreventive index compared to the bound phenolics extract. Therefore, the nejayote of the normal white maize was the best source of monofunctional phase 2 enzyme inducers.

  8. A highly sensitive and selective sensor on the basis of 4-hydroxy-2-(triphenylphosphonio)phenolate and multi-wall carbon nanotubes for electrocatalytic determination of folic acid in presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Hamid R.; Shishehbore, M. Reza; Nematollahi, Davood

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► HTP has been used as modifier for electrocatalytic oxidation of FA. ► The oxidation mechanism of FA at the modified electrode surface is an E i C ′ i mechanism. ► Combination of carbon nanotubes and the modifier causes a dramatic enhancement in the sensitivity of FA quantification. ► The sensor could separate AA, FA and UA signals into three well-defined voltammetric peaks. - Abstract: In this study, a highly sensitive and selective sensor was fabricated on the basis of 4-hydroxy-2-(triphenylphosphonio)phenolate (HTP) and a multi-wall carbon nanotubes paste electrode (HTP-MWCNT-CPE) for the trace amounts quantification of folic acid (FA). The results show that the combination of multi-wall carbon nanotubes and a modifier causes a dramatic enhancement in the sensitivity of FA quantification. Kinetic parameters such as the electron transfer coefficient, α, and the catalytic electron transfer rate constant, k′, for the oxidation of FA at the modified electrode were estimated using cyclic voltammetry. The detection limit of 0.036 μM and two linear calibration ranges of 0.2–8.0 μM and 8.0–175.0 μM were obtained for FA determination at HTP-MWCNT-CPE using the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). By DPV, the modified electrode could separate ascorbic acid (AA), FA, and uric acid (UA) signals into three well-defined voltammetric peaks. Finally, HTP-MWCNT-CPE proved to have good sensitivity and stability, and was successfully applied for the determination of FA in wheat flour and pharmaceutical samples, FA and AA in fruits, and AA, FA and UA in human urine samples.

  9. Determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in raw propolis by silica-supported ionic liquid-based matrix solid phase dispersion extraction high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibing; Sun, Rui; Wang, Yuanpeng; Li, Na; Lei, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Yu, Aimin; Qiu, Fangping; Zhang, Hanqi

    2014-10-15

    The silica-supported ionic liquid (S-SIL) was prepared by impregnation and used as the dispersion adsorbent of matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) for the simultaneous extraction of eight phenolic acids and flavonoids, including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, morin, luteolin, quercetin, apigenin, chrysin, and kaempferide in raw propolis. High performance liquid chromatography with a Zorbax SB-C18 column (150mm×4.6mm, 3.5μm) was used for separation of the analytes. The mobile phase consisted of 0.2% phosphoric acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile and the flow rate of the mobile phase was 0.5mL/min. The experimental conditions for silica-supported ionic liquid-based matrix solid phase dispersion (S-SIL-based MSPD) were optimized. S-SIL containing 10% [C6MIM]Cl was used as dispersant, 20mL of n-hexane as washing solvent and 15mL of methanol as elution solvent. The ratio of S-SIL to sample was selected to be 4:1. The standard curves showed good linear relationship (r>0.9995). The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 5.8-22.2ngmL(-1) and 19.2-74.0ngmL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra-day and inter-day determination were lower than 8.80% and 11.19%, respectively. The recoveries were between 65.51% and 92.32% with RSDs lower than 8.95%. Compared with ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and soxhlet extraction, the present method consumed less sample, organic solvent, and extraction time, although the extraction yields obtained by S-SIL-based MSPD are slightly lower than those obtained by UAE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of high-temperature treatment on Fe/ZSM-5 prepared by chemical vapor deposition of FeCl3. II. Nitrous oxide decomposition, selective oxidation of benzene to phenol, and selective reduction of nitric oxide by isobutane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Q.; Teeffelen, van R.M.; Santen, van R.A.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The catalytic performance (nitrous oxide decomposition, hydroxylation of benzene to phenol with nitrous oxide, and selective reduction of nitric oxide by i-butane) was evaluated for a set of HZSM-5 and sublimed Fe/ZSM-5 catalysts, which have been extensively characterized in an earlier contribution

  11. N-caffeoyltryptomine, a potent anti-inflammatory phenolic amide, suppressed MCP-1 expression in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells and rats fed with a high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a well-known chemokine critically involved in the pathophysiological progression of cardiovascular diseases such as arthrosclerosis. N-caffeoyltryptamine is a phenolic amide with strong anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, in this paper, the potential e...

  12. Production and accumulation of UV-B [ultra violet] absorbing compounds in UV-B irradiated leaves of rice, Oryza SativaL.: effects of varying UV-B doses on leaf damage, phenolic content and HPLC [high performance liquid chromatography] peak I area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caasi-Lit, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of varying UV-B doses on leaf damage, phenolic content and HPLC peak 1 area were studied using 65-d-old plants of the UV-B tolerant rice cultivar, M202, and the UV-B susceptible rice cultivar, Dular. Results showed that the production and accumulation of UV-B- absorbing compounds in rice leaves were affected by leaf position and levels (dose) of UV-B and time or duration of UV-B irradiation or exposure. The youngest terminal leaves showed the least damage when exposed to medium and high UV-B doses. The production of these absorptive compounds as represented by relative phenolic and HPLC peak 1 were significantly higher in younger leaves and lower in older or senescing leaves. M202 showed significantly higher amounts of peak 1 area and relative phenolic compared to UV-B susceptible rice cultivar, Dular. The results also confirmed the strong relationship of overall damage rating and area of HPLC peak 1. The development of UV-B symptoms in the susceptible cultivar was hastened when a high UV-B treatment was applied. Peak 1 area did not accumulate in the UV-B susceptible Dular at any given UV-B dose

  13. Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Aqueous Reactions of Phenols in Fog Drops and Deliquesced Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.; Anastasio, C.

    2014-12-01

    The formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in atmospheric condensed phases (i.e., aqueous SOA) can proceed rapidly, but relatively little is known of the important aqueous SOA precursors or their reaction pathways. In our work we are studying the aqueous SOA formed from reactions of phenols (phenol, guaiacol, and syringol), benzene-diols (catechol, resorcinol, and hydroquinone), and phenolic carbonyls (e.g., vanillin and syringaldehyde). These species are potentially important aqueous SOA precursors because they are released in large quantities from biomass burning, have high Henry's Law constants (KH = 103 -109 M-1 atm-1) and are rapidly oxidized. To evaluate the importance of aqueous reactions of phenols as a source of SOA, we first quantified the kinetics and SOA mass yields for 11 phenols reacting via direct photodegradation, hydroxyl radical (•OH), and with an excited organic triplet state (3C*). In the second step, which is the focus of this work, we use these laboratory results in a simple model of fog chemistry using conditions during a previously reported heavy biomass burning event in Bakersfield, CA. Our calculations indicate that under aqueous aerosol conditions (i.e., a liquid water content of 100 μg m-3) the rate of aqueous SOA production (RSOA(aq)) from phenols is similar to the rate in the gas phase. In contrast, under fog/cloud conditions the aqueous RSOA from phenols is 10 times higher than the rate in the gas phase. In both of these cases aqueous RSOA is dominated by the oxidation of phenols by 3C*, followed by direct photodegradation of phenolic carbonyls, and then •OH oxidation. Our results suggest that aqueous oxidation of phenols is a significant source of SOA during fog events and also during times when deliquesced aerosols are present.

  14. Phenolics, Antiradical Assay and Cytotoxicity of Processed Mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolics, Antiradical Assay and Cytotoxicity of Processed Mango ( Mangifera indica ) and Bush Mango ( Irvingia gabonensis ) Kernels. ... Nigerian Food Journal ... Phenolic constituents (total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, and anthocyanins), comparative antiradical potency and cytotoxicity of processed mango (Mangifera ...

  15. Gold-catalyzed oxidation of substituted phenols by hydrogen peroxide

    KAUST Repository

    Cheneviere, Yohan; Caps, Valerie; Tuel, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles deposited on inorganic supports are efficient catalysts for the oxidation of various substituted phenols (2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol and 2,3,6-trimethyl phenol) with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. By contrast to more conventional

  16. Biodegradation of phenol by a newly isolated marine bacterial strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-26

    Dec 26, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Biodegradation of phenol ... screen bacteria with potential for phenol degradation from sea water, mud and sand. .... poisonous compound media, such as phenol (Santos et al., 2001). For instance ...

  17. Comparison of phenolic content and antioxidant activities of millet varieties grown in different locations in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Disna; Madhujith, Terrence; Chandrasekara, Anoma

    2017-05-01

    Soluble and bound phenolic compounds were extracted from different varieties of millet types namely, finger millet, foxtail, and proso millet cultivated at dry and intermediate climatic zones in Sri Lanka. The extracts were examined for their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and proanthocyanidin content (PC). The antioxidant activities were meassured by reducing power (RP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferrous ion chelating ability (FICA), and using a β carotene linoleate model system. The ferulic acid content of extracts were determined using high-performance liquid chromatoghraphy (HPLC). Finger millet showed the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activities compared to proso and foxtail millets. The phenolic content as well as antioxidant activites of soluble and bound phenolic extracts of millets were affected by variety and cultivated location. The highest phenolic content and antioxidant activites were reported for millet samples cultivated in areas belonging to the dry zone in Sri Lanka.

  18. Descending with Angels: Jinn Possession, Islamic Exorcism, and Psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    What is it like to be a Muslim possessed by a jinn spirit? How do you find refuge from madness and evil in a place like Denmark? In this book I explore some of the ways in which Muslims in the West have sought to protect themselves. Over several years I followed Muslim patients being treated.......” In the book I analyze how these broader social and political issues are paralleled in the invisible dynamics of jinn possession and psychosis, proposing new theoretical perspectives on religious and psychiatric healing as ritual practices for dealing with the invisible in human life....... hypervisible in public discourse through intensive state monitoring, surveillance, and media coverage. Yet their religion of Islam remains poorly understood and is frequently identified by politicians, commentators, and even healthcare specialists as the underlying invisible cause of “integration problems...

  19. The Regulation of the Possession of Weapons at Gatherings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter du Toit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dangerous Weapons Act 15 of 2013 provides for certain prohibitions and restrictions in respect of the possession of a dangerous weapon and it repeals the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 as well as the different Dangerous Weapons Acts in operation in the erstwhile TBVC States. The Act also amends the Regulation of Gatherings Act 205 of 1993 to prohibit the possession of any dangerous weapon at a gathering or demonstration. The Dangerous Weapons Act provides for a uniform system of law governing the use of dangerous weapons for the whole of South Africa and it furthermore no longer places the onus on the individual charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon to show that he or she did not have any intention of using the firearm for an unlawful purpose. The Act also defines the meaning of a dangerous weapon. According to our court’s interpretation of the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 a dangerous weapon was regarded as an object used or intended to be used as a weapon even if it had not been designed for use as a weapon. The Act, however, requires the object to be capable of causing death or inflicting serious bodily harm if it were used for an unlawful purpose. The possession of a dangerous weapon, in circumstances which may raise a reasonable suspicion that the person intends to use it for an unlawful purpose, attracts criminal liability. The Act also provides a useful set of guidelines to assist courts to determine if a person charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon had indeed intended to use the weapon for an unlawful purpose. It seems, however, that the Act prohibits the possession of a dangerous weapon at gatherings, even if the person carrying the weapon does not intend to use it for an unlawful purpose. The state will, however, have to prove that the accused had the necessary control over the object and the intention to exercise such control, as well as that the object is capable of

  20. A biorefinery concept for simultaneous recovery of cellulosic ethanol and phenolic compounds from oil palm fronds: Process optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofori-Boateng, Cynthia; Lee, Keat Teong; Saad, Bahruddin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biorefinery concept for simultaneous recovery of cellulose and phenolic compounds. • Sono-assisted organosolv/H 2 O 2 pretreatment was used to isolate palm fronds cellulose. • Optimum conditions for pretreatment: 60 °C, 40 min, 1:20 g/ml, 3% NaOH concentration. • Optimum conditions yielded 55.3% cellulose, 20.1 g/l glucose and 0.769 g/g ethanol. • Pretreatment liquor contained 4.691 mg GAE/g phenolics. - Abstract: In this study, process optimization of an ultrasonic-assisted organosolv/liquid oxidative pretreatment (SOP) of oil palm fronds (OPFs) for the simultaneous recovery of cellulose, bioethanol and biochemicals (i.e. phenolic compounds) in a biorefinery concept was carried out. The effects of time (30–60 min.), temperature (40–80 °C), NaOH concentration (1–5%) and sample:solvent ratio (1:10–1:50 g/ml) on cellulose content, bioethanol yield and total phenolics contents (TPC) after SOP were investigated. At optimum conditions of pretreatment (i.e. 60 °C, 40 min, 3% w/v aq. NaOH and 1:20 g/ml sample to solvent ratio), the recovered cellulose (55.30%) which served as substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent fermentation yielded about 20.1 g/l glucose, 11.3 g/l xylose and 9.3 g/l bioethanol (yield of 0.769 g/g). The pretreatment liquor (mostly regarded as wastes) obtained at the optimum pretreatment conditions contained about 4.691 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g OPFs of TPC, 0.297 mg vanillic acid (VA)/g OPFs, 1.591 mg gallic acid (GA)/g OPFs and 0.331 mg quercetin (QU)/g OPFs. The pretreatment liquor was again analyzed to possess high antiradical scavenging activity (about 97.2%) compared to the synthetic antioxidant, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT) (80.7%) at 100 ppm. Thus one sustainable way of managing wastes in biorefinery is the recovery of multi-bioproducts (e.g. bioethanol and biochemicals) during the pretreatment process

  1. Determination of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of pomegranate peel, seed and juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tadi Beni

    2018-03-01

    CONCLUSION: The results of study indicated that pomegranate juice showed the lowest antioxidant activity and phenolic content in comparison to peel and seed. High antioxidant activity of pomegranate can introduce them as natural food preservatives.

  2. Hydroxylation of benzene to phenol over magnetic recyclable nanostructured CuFe mixed-oxide catalyst

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makgwane, PR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A highly active and magnetically recyclable nanostructured copper–iron oxide (CuFe) catalyst has been synthesized for hydroxylation of benzene to phenol under mild reaction conditions. The obtained catalytic results were correlated with the catalyst...

  3. Application of Moringa Peregrina seed extract as a natural coagulant for Phenol removal from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: According to the obtained results, Moringa peregrina seed extract, with respect to its high efficacy, can be used as an effective, efficient, and inexpensive coagulant in removing phenol from aqueous environments.

  4. In-liquid arc plasma jet and its application to phenol degradation

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jing-Lin Lin; Park, Hyun-Woo; Hamdan, Ahmad; Cha, Min

    2018-01-01

    of the phenol into water and carbon dioxide required very high energy because the final intermediate, oxalic acid, is relatively stable. Detailed chemical and physical analyses, including byproducts, ions, solution acidity, and conductivity, were conducted

  5. The Adsorption Mechanism of Modified Activated Carbon on Phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin J. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modified activated carbon was prepared by thermal treatment at high temperature under nitrogen flow. The surface properties of the activated carbon were characterized by Boehm titration, BET and point of zero charge determination. The adsorption mechanism of phenol on modified activated carbon was explained and the adsorption capacity of modified activated carbon for phenol when compared to plain activated carbon was evaluated through the analysis of adsorption isotherms, thermodynamic and kinetic properties. Results shows that after modification the surface alkaline property and pHpzc value of the activated carbon increase and the surface oxygen-containing functional groups decrease. The adsorption processes of the plain and modified carbon fit with Langmuir isotherm equation well, and the maximum adsorption capacity increase from 123.46, 111.11, 103.09mg/g to 192.31, 178.57, 163,93mg/g under 15, 25 and 35°C after modification, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters show that the adsorption of phenol on activated carbon is a spontaneously exothermic process of entropy reduction, implying that the adsorption is a physical adsorption. The adsorption of phenol on activated carbon follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics (R2>0.99. The optimum pH of adsorption is 6~8.

  6. Phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of wheat species: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leváková Ľudmila

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (genus Triticum is considered to be an important source of polyphenols, plant secondary metabolites with numerous health-promoting effects. Many phytochemicals are responsible for the high antioxidant activity of whole grain products. However, there is a lack of information about composition of phenolic acids and their concentrations in different Triticum species. Despite the fact that the increased consumption of whole grain cereals and whole grain-based products has been closely related to reduced risk of chronic diseases, bioactive compounds found in whole grain cereals have not achieved as much attention as the bioactive compounds in vegetables and fruits. Recent studies have revealed that the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of whole grain cereals have been regularly undervalued in the literature, because they contain more polyphenols and other phytochemicals than was reported in the past. Phenolic acids represent a large group of bioactive compounds in cereals. These compounds play a significant role in the possible positive effects of the human diet rich in whole grain cereals, especially in wheat and provide health benefits associated with demonstrably diminished risk of chronic disease development. Ferulic acid, the primary and the most abundant phenolic acid contained in wheat grain, is mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity of wheat, particularly bran fraction. In this paper, selected phenolic compounds in wheat, their antioxidant activity and health benefits related to consumption of whole grain cereals are reviewed.

  7. Emotional regulation, attachment to possessions and hoarding symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Philip J; Moulding, Richard; Taylor, Jasmine K; Nedeljkovic, Maja

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to test which particular facets of emotion regulation (ER) are most linked to symptoms of hoarding disorder, and whether beliefs about emotional attachment to possessions (EA) mediate this relationship. A non-clinical sample of 150 participants (108 females) completed questionnaires of emotional tolerance (distress tolerance, anxiety sensitivity, negative urgency - impulsivity when experiencing negative emotions), depressed mood, hoarding, and beliefs about emotional attachment to possessions. While all emotional tolerance measures related to hoarding, when considered together and controlling for depression and age, anxiety sensitivity and urgency were the significant predictors. Anxiety sensitivity was fully mediated, and urgency partially mediated, via beliefs regarding emotional attachment to possessions. These findings provide further support for (1) the importance of anxiety sensitivity and negative urgency for hoarding symptoms, and (2) the view that individuals with HD symptoms may rely on items for emotion regulation, leading to stronger beliefs that items are integral to emotional wellbeing. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Phenolic Profiling for Traceability of Vanilla ×tahitensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Busconi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla is a flavoring recovered from the cured beans of the orchid genus Vanilla. Vanilla ×tahitensis is traditionally cultivated on the islands of French Polynesia, where vanilla vines were first introduced during the nineteenth century and, since the 1960s, have been introduced to other Pacific countries such as Papua New Guinea (PNG, cultivated and sold as “Tahitian vanilla,” although both sensory properties and aspect are different. From an economic point of view, it is important to ensure V. ×tahitensis traceability and to guarantee that the marketed product is part of the future protected designation of the origin “Tahitian vanilla” (PDO, currently in progress in French Polynesia. The application of metabolomics, allowing the detection and simultaneous analysis of hundreds or thousands of metabolites from different matrices, has recently gained high interest in food traceability. Here, metabolomics analysis of phenolic compounds profiles was successfully applied for the first time to V. ×tahitensis to deepen our knowledge of vanilla metabolome, focusing on phenolics compounds, for traceability purposes. Phenolics were screened through a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to a UHPLC liquid chromatography system, and 260 different compounds were clearly evidenced and subjected to different statistical analysis in order to enable the discrimination of the samples based on their origin. Eighty-eight and twenty three compounds, with a prevalence of flavonoids, resulted to be highly discriminant through ANOVA and Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA respectively. Volcano plot analysis and pairwise comparisons were carried out to determine those compounds, mainly responsible for the differences among samples as a consequence of either origin or cultivar. The samples from PNG were clearly different from the Tahitian samples that were further divided in two different groups based on

  9. Phenolic Profiling for Traceability of Vanilla ×tahitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busconi, Matteo; Lucini, Luigi; Soffritti, Giovanna; Bernardi, Jamila; Bernardo, Letizia; Brunschwig, Christel; Lepers-Andrzejewski, Sandra; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Fernandez, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    Vanilla is a flavoring recovered from the cured beans of the orchid genus Vanilla . Vanilla × tahitensis is traditionally cultivated on the islands of French Polynesia, where vanilla vines were first introduced during the nineteenth century and, since the 1960s, have been introduced to other Pacific countries such as Papua New Guinea (PNG), cultivated and sold as "Tahitian vanilla," although both sensory properties and aspect are different. From an economic point of view, it is important to ensure V . × tahitensis traceability and to guarantee that the marketed product is part of the future protected designation of the origin "Tahitian vanilla" (PDO), currently in progress in French Polynesia. The application of metabolomics, allowing the detection and simultaneous analysis of hundreds or thousands of metabolites from different matrices, has recently gained high interest in food traceability. Here, metabolomics analysis of phenolic compounds profiles was successfully applied for the first time to V . × tahitensis to deepen our knowledge of vanilla metabolome, focusing on phenolics compounds, for traceability purposes. Phenolics were screened through a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to a UHPLC liquid chromatography system, and 260 different compounds were clearly evidenced and subjected to different statistical analysis in order to enable the discrimination of the samples based on their origin. Eighty-eight and twenty three compounds, with a prevalence of flavonoids, resulted to be highly discriminant through ANOVA and Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) respectively. Volcano plot analysis and pairwise comparisons were carried out to determine those compounds, mainly responsible for the differences among samples as a consequence of either origin or cultivar. The samples from PNG were clearly different from the Tahitian samples that were further divided in two different groups based on the different

  10. Olive oil phenols are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Leenen, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies suggest that olive oil phenols are effective antioxidants. The most abundant phenols in olive oil are the nonpolar oleuropein- and ligstroside-aglycones and the polar hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the metabolism of those

  11. CORRELATION AMONG PHENOLIC, TOXIC METALS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    in food and related products is essential for understanding their nutritive importance. .... (prepared solution), with 0.1 M nitric acid in order to check the linearity. ..... Shahidi, F.; Naczk, M. Food Phenolics: An overview in Food Phenolics: Sources ...

  12. Process of converting phenols into hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelig, S

    1929-02-02

    A process is disclosed for the conversion of phenols into hydrocarbons, characterized by preheating a mixture of phenols and hydrogen or hydrogen-producing gases to approximately the reaction temperature under pressure, heating by passage percussion-like through a bath of metal to the reaction temperature, and rapidly cooling.

  13. Brown beer vinegar: A potentially functional product based on its phenolic profile and antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudura Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to create a functional, enriched in polyphenols and free of alcohol product obtained by acetic fermentation of beer. Beer and vinegar were tested first for their phenolic content and antioxidant activity, by the Folin Ciocalteu and the free radical scavenging activity by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging assay, respectively. Then, the separation and identification of the 30 phenolic compounds was realized by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with positive electrospray ionisation and diode array detection (HPLC-DAD–ESI(+-MS analysis. Identification of the phenolic compounds data was realized based on the UV spectra of each compound. Based on a calibration curve (R2 = 0.9985, the amounts of the phenolic compounds, expressed as mg cathechin equivalents (CE/L, were calculated. The total phenolic content of the beer and vinegar samples determined using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent were of 428.9±1.58 and 661.5±7.69 mg GAE L-1, respectively, which contributed to the high antioxidant activity in the vinegar sample of 82.18 %. Statistically significant differences were observed after acetic fermentation between each parameter (p < 0.05. Brown beer vinegar represents a rich source of polyphenols and phenolic derivatives, compared to beer. By its increased phenolic content and antioxidant activity, brown beer vinegar could be considered another source of valuable compounds to beer, which could also be of interest in special diets.

  14. ALTERNATIVE FOR PHENOL BIODEGRADATION IN OIL CONTAMINATED WASTEWATERS USING AN ADAPTED BACTERIAL BIOFILM LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kopytko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The project studied the biodegradation potential of phenols in an industrial wastewater from an oil field in the province of Santander, Colombia. An elevated potential was established, according to three important factors: the great abundance of microorganisms found in the wastewater and sludge samples collected, the bacterial adaptation to high phenol concentrations (10 mg/l and the elevated elimination efficiencies (up to 86% obtained in the laboratory tests. The laboratory scale treatment system, which consisted of fixed-bed bioreactors with adapted bacterial biofilm, was optimized using a 22 factorial experimental design. The selected variables, studied in their maximum and minimum level were: HRT (hydraulic retention time and the presence or absence of GAC (granular activated carbon layer. The response variable was phenol concentration. The optimum treatment conditions for low and high phenol concentrations (2.14 y 9.30 mg/l, were obtained with the presence of GAC and 18 hours of HRT. The best result for the intermediate phenol concentration (6.13 mg/l was obtained with a 24 hour HRT and the presence of GAC. Nevertheless, the presence of the GAC layer was not significantly important in terms of phenol removal. Moreover, the increase of HRT from 18 to 24 hours, showed no significant improvement in phenol removal.

  15. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Key words: Astragalus squarrosus, antioxidant, phenolics, flavonoids. INTRODUCTION ... Phenolic and flavonoid compounds are widely distri- buted plant constituents. ..... Antioxidant effects of some ginger constituents.

  16. Detailed characterization of glycosylated sensory-active volatile phenols in smoke-exposed grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noestheden, Matthew; Dennis, Eric G; Romero-Montalvo, Eduardo; DiLabio, Gino A; Zandberg, Wesley F

    2018-09-01

    The exposure of Vitis vinifera L. vines to smoke from wildland fires can alter the chemical composition of the berries, such that the resulting wine can possess a defect known as smoke-taint. This work constitutes a complete method for the analysis of simple volatile phenol glycosides (VP-glycosides) that can be elevated in berries and wine following smoke exposure. We synthesized 16 model VP-glycosides, four of which are not reported previously, to facilitate method development. Fragmentation analysis using high-resolution accurate-mass spectrometry demonstrated that the glycone and aglycone influenced the fragmentation pattern of VP-glycosides. Diagnostic fragmentation patterns for the synthesized VP-glycosides were applied to identify several VP-glycosides in smoke-exposed berries and wine. The fragmentation pattern of VP-disaccharides should facilitate the characterization of modified glycones. Putative non-VP glycosides elevated in smoke-exposed berries are demonstrated for the first time. In tandem with VP-glycosides, such compounds may contribute to the expression of smoke taint. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of current and alternative phenol based RNA extraction methodologies for cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindblad Peter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The validity and reproducibility of gene expression studies depend on the quality of extracted RNA and the degree of genomic DNA contamination. Cyanobacteria are gram-negative prokaryotes that synthesize chlorophyll a and carry out photosynthetic water oxidation. These organisms possess an extended array of secondary metabolites that impair cell lysis, presenting particular challenges when it comes to nucleic acid isolation. Therefore, we used the NHM5 strain of Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 to compare and improve existing phenol based chemistry and procedures for RNA extraction. Results With this work we identify and explore strategies for improved and lower cost high quality RNA isolation from cyanobacteria. All the methods studied are suitable for RNA isolation and its use for downstream applications. We analyse different Trizol based protocols, introduce procedural changes and describe an alternative RNA extraction solution. Conclusion It was possible to improve purity of isolated RNA by modifying protocol procedures. Further improvements, both in RNA purity and experimental cost, were achieved by using a new extraction solution, PGTX.

  18. Antioxidant potential of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes): In vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin, Sabeena; Anandan, R.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (a) to extract and quantify the main phenolic acids and tocopherols from the petiole, leaf and flowers of Eichornia crassipes, (b) to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the extracts in four in vitro systems (DPPH radical scavenging ability, iron chelating...... the various parts of E. crassipes. Out of the 11 phenolic acids analysed, ethanolic extracts contained high amounts gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic and phydroxybenzoic acid, whereas, water extracts contained less amounts of varied number of phenolic acids. Ethanolic extracts of flower, which contained...... the highest total phenolic content, were found to have high DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Ethanolic extracts of leaf were found to have high Fe2+ chelating activity and inhibited lipid peroxidation in liposomes and fish oil. Our results demonstrate that E. crassipes, an underutilized...

  19. PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF WATER-ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MENTHA LONGIFOLIA L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Grebennikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article represents data about qualitative and quantitative composition of phenolic compounds in water-ethanol extract of perspective clone of Mentha longifolia L. of NBE-NSC selection. Phenolic substances content in water-ethanol extract amounted to 3003.3 mg/100g. 13 components were determined in the extract. The extract contains caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid isomers, rosmarinic acid and glycosides of luteolin. Rosmarinic acid (50.2% prevails among phenolic substances of Mentha longifolia extract. The conclusion is that the use of this extract is possible to create products with high biological value

  20. Fruit Phenolic Profiling: A New Selection Criterion in Olive Breeding Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana G. Pérez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Olive growing is mainly based on traditional varieties selected by the growers across the centuries. The few attempts so far reported to obtain new varieties by systematic breeding have been mainly focused on improving the olive adaptation to different growing systems, the productivity and the oil content. However, the improvement of oil quality has rarely been considered as selection criterion and only in the latter stages of the breeding programs. Due to their health promoting and organoleptic properties, phenolic compounds are one of the most important quality markers for Virgin olive oil (VOO although they are not commonly used as quality traits in olive breeding programs. This is mainly due to the difficulties for evaluating oil phenolic composition in large number of samples and the limited knowledge on the genetic and environmental factors that may influence phenolic composition. In the present work, we propose a high throughput methodology to include the phenolic composition as a selection criterion in olive breeding programs. For that purpose, the phenolic profile has been determined in fruits and oils of several breeding selections and two varieties (“Picual” and “Arbequina” used as control. The effect of three different environments, typical for olive growing in Andalusia, Southern Spain, was also evaluated. A high genetic effect was observed on both fruit and oil phenolic profile. In particular, the breeding selection UCI2-68 showed an optimum phenolic profile, which sums up to a good agronomic performance previously reported. A high correlation was found between fruit and oil total phenolic content as well as some individual phenols from the two different matrices. The environmental effect on phenolic compounds was also significant in both fruit and oil, although the low genotype × environment interaction allowed similar ranking of genotypes on the different environments. In summary, the high genotypic variance and the

  1. Effect of fiber content on the properties of glass fiber-phenolic matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, M.Y.; Shahid, M.R.; Subhani, T.; Sharif, M.N.

    2003-01-01

    Glass fiber-Phenolic matrix composite is used for the manufacturing of parts /components related to electronic and aerospace industry due to its high strength, dimensional stability and excellent electrical insulation properties. The evaluation of this composite material is necessary prior to make parts/components of new designs. In the present research, thermosetting phenolic plastic was reinforced with E-glass fiber in different fiber-to-resin ratios to produce composites of different compositions. Mechanical and electrical properties of these composite materials were evaluated with reference to the effect of fiber content variation in phenolic resin. (author)

  2. Development of proton exchange membranes fuel cells with sulfonated HTPB-phenol; Desenvolvimento de membranas polimericas trocadoras de protons utilizando PBLH-fenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz, Fernando A.; Oliveira, Angelo R.S.; Cesar-Oliveira, Maria Aparecida F. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Polimeros Sinteticos], e-mail: ferraz@quimica.ufpr.br; Cantao, Mauricio P. [LACTEC - Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico

    2007-07-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) have been paid attention as promising candidates for vehicle and portable applications. PEMFC employ proton exchange polymer membrane which serves as an electrolyte between anode and cathode. Nafion{sup R} (DuPont), perfluorosulfonic acid/PTFE copolymer membranes are typically used as the polymer electrolyte in PEMFC due to their good chemical and mechanical properties as well as high proton conductivity. However, high cost of these materials is one of main obstacles for commercialization of PEMFC. Extensive efforts have been devoted to develop alternative polymer electrolyte membranes. Our group have investigated the development of proton exchange membranes fuel cells using sulfonated HTPB-Phenyl ether (HTPB-Phenol), making possible the formation of membranes with sulfonated groups amount of 2,4, 2,5 and 2,8 mmol/g of dry polymer from HTPB-Phenol 80, 98 and 117 respectively. These results mean a bigger values than those of the Nafion{sup R} membranes, that possess an ion exchange capacity of 0,67 up to 1,25 mmol/g of sulfonated groups. (author)

  3. Sorption of a phenols mixture in aqueous solution with activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia M, D.

    2004-01-01

    The constant population growth and the quick industrialization have caused severe damages to our natural aquifer resources for a great variety of organic and inorganic pollutants. Among these they are those phenol compounds that are highly toxic, resistant (to the degradation chemistry) and poorly biodegradable. The phenolic compounds is used in a great variety of industries, like it is the production of resins, nylon, plastifiers, anti-oxidants, oil additives, drugs, pesticides, colorants, explosives, disinfectants and others. The disseminated discharges or effluents coming from the industrial processes toward lakes and rivers are causing a growing adverse effect in the environment, as well as a risk for the health. Numerous studies exist on the phenols removal and phenols substituted for very varied techniques, among them they are the adsorption in activated carbon. This finishes it has been used successfully for the treatment of residual waters municipal and industrial and of drinking waters and it is considered as the best technique available to eliminate organic compounds not biodegradable and toxic present in aqueous solution (US EPA, 1991). However a little information exists on studies carried out in aqueous systems with more of a phenolic compound. The activated carbon is broadly used as adsorbent due to its superficial properties in the so much treatment of water as of aqueous wastes, adsorbent for the removal of organic pollutants. The main objective of this work is the adsorption of a aqueous mixture of phenol-4 chloro phenol of different concentrations in activated carbon of mineral origin of different meshes and to diminish with it their presence in water. The experiments were carried out for lots, in normal conditions of temperature and pressure. The experimental results show that the removal capacity depends so much of the superficial properties of the sorbent like of the physical properties and chemical of the sorbate. The isotherms were carried

  4. Berry Phenolic Antioxidants – Implications for Human Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata

    2018-01-01

    Antioxidants present in the diet may have a significant effect on the prophylaxis and progression of various diseases associated with oxidative stress. Berries contain a range of chemical compounds with antioxidant properties, including phenolic compounds. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of such phenolic antioxidants, and to discuss whether these compounds may always be natural gifts for human health, based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. It describes the antioxidant properties of fresh berries (including aronia berries, grapes, blueberries, sea buckthorn berries, strawberries and other berries) and their various products, especially juices and wines. Some papers report that these phenolic compounds may sometimes behave like prooxidants, and sometimes demonstrate both antioxidant and prooxidant activity, while others note they do not behave the same way in vitro and in vivo. However, no unwanted or toxic effects (i.e., chemical, hematological or urinary effect) have been associated with the consumption of berries or berry juices or other extracts, especially aronia berries and aronia products in vivo, and in vitro, which may suggest that the phenolic antioxidants found in berries are natural gifts for human health. However, the phenolic compound content of berries and berry products is not always well described, and further studies are required to determine the therapeutic doses of different berry products for use in future clinical studies. Moreover, further experiments are needed to understand the beneficial effects reported so far from the mechanistic point of view. Therefore, greater attention should be paid to the development of well-controlled and high-quality clinical studies in this area. PMID:29662448

  5. Isolation and identification of phenolic antioxidants in black rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hyun-Il; Shin, Jae-Wook; Song, Geun-Seoup; Kim, Young-Soo

    2015-02-01

    Black rice bran contains phenolic compounds of a high antioxidant activity. In this study, the 40% acetone extract of black rice bran was sequentially fractionated to obtain 5 fractions. Out of the 5 fractions, ethyl acetate fraction was subfractionated using the Sephadex LH-20 chromatography. The antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds in the extracts was investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation assay, reducing power. The subfraction 2 from ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total phenolic contents (TPC) (816.0 μg/mg) and the lowest EC50 values (47.8 μg/mL for DPPH radical assay, 112.8 μg/mL for ABTS radical cation assay, and 49.2 μg/mL for reducing power). These results were 3.1, 1.3, and 2.6 times lower than those of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), respectively. At a concentration of 100 μg/mL, the antioxidant activity and TPC of various extracts was closely correlated, with correlation coefficients (R(2) ) higher than 0.86. The major phenolic acid in subfraction 2 was identified as ferulic acid (178.3 μg/mg) by HPLC and LC-ESI/MS/MS analyses. Our finding identified ferulic acid as a major phenolic compound in black rice bran, and supports the potential use of black rice bran as a natural source of antioxidant. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Phenolic profile and effect of growing area on Pistacia lentiscus seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezni, Faten; Slama, Awatef; Ksouri, Riadh; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Khaldi, Abdelhamid

    2018-08-15

    In this investigation, we aimed to study, for the first time, the phenolic composition of Pistacia lentiscus seed oils from different growing areas. Extraction of the phenolic fraction from oils was done by methanol/water. Phenolic profiles were determined using chromatographic analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC-DAD/MSD) and its quantification was done using an internal standard which is unidentified in the studied oil (syringic acid). Forty phenolic compounds were quantified and only eighteen of them were identified. The eight studied oils showed different phenolic profiles. The total phenols amount varied from 538.03 mg/kg oil in Jbel Masour oils to 4260.57 mg/kg oil in oils from Kef Erraai. The highest amount of secoiridoids was reached by Bouchoucha oil containing 366.71 mg/kg oil of Oleuropein aglycon. Oils from Kef Erraai locality contained the highest concentrations in flavonols (377.44 mg/kg oil) and in phenolic acids (2762.67 mg/kg oil). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of phenol on germination capacity and polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and catalase activities in lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Vojin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and antioxidant enzymes, peroxidase (POX and catalase (CAT during lettuce seed germination at different concentrations of phenol. Out of eleven varieties of lettuce, four were chosen according to their germination tolerance to phenol as follows: plants exhibiting high (Ljubljanska ledenka - LJL and Nansen - N and low toleranace (Little Gem - LG and Majska kraljica - MK. A decrease in germination efficiency after exposure to LD50 of phenol was determined for these four varieties. The effects of phenol treatment on POX, CAT and PPO activities were determined after 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 days of growth at LD50 concentrations. A trend of increased peroxidase activity was observed in seeds grown on LD50 of phenol compared to control seeds. A significant increase in CAT activity was observed at the beginning of treatment for MK, LG and N in seeds grown on phenol as well as in control seeds. A trend of increased PPO activity was observed in all control seeds. We also investigated the affinity of PPO for two different substrates that were used for the determination of enzyme activity. Our results show that LJL and N are the varieties most tolerant to growth on phenol. Here we report on the activities of their antioxidant enzymes and PPO during seed germination. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON173017

  8. Chemical structure of the adducts formed by the oxidation of benzidine in the presence of phenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephy, P.D.; Mason, R.P.; Eling, T.

    1982-01-01

    Bioactivation of carcinogens by peroxidases has received increasing attention since the discovery of the oxidation of carcinogens by prostaglandin hydroperoxidase. Benzidine and 3,5,3',5'-tetramethylbenzidine are oxidized by horseradish peroxidase and prostaglandin synthase to two-electron oxidation products (di-imines). Di-imines readily react with the phenolic anti-oxidant butylated hydroxyanisole to form adducts. In this paper, we have studied the oxidation of benzidine by horseradish peroxidase in the presence of phenolic compounds and characterized the resultant benzidine/phenol adducts. A benzidine/2,6-dimethylphenol adduct was isolated and characterized by mass spectrometry and high field n.m.r. The reaction of [ 14 C]benzidine in the presence of horseradish peroxidase and phenol yielded only the benzidine/phenol adduct. Our results indicate that the benzidine/phenol adducts are analogous to the indoaniline dyes, differing only in substitution of a biphenyl group for a benzene ring. The reaction of benzidine di-imine with endogenous phenols may represent a new pathway for detoxication, removing potentially harmful metabolites of benzidine

  9. variability in foliar phenolic composition of several quercus species in northern mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, J.A.A.; Antuna, E.M.; Abarca, N.A.; Alvarado, E.A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative composition of the foliar phenolic compounds were investigated in 81 individual specimens of several white oak species (Quercus spp.). The trees were growing in twelve locations in Durango, Mexico. The phenol profiles were determined by HPLC-DAD and a Folin-Ciocateuprocedure. The results revealed that: (i) the foliar phenol profiles of all species analysed were complex and formed by 6 to 30 compounds, (ii) the flavonols mostly quercetin glycoside, isorhamnetin glycoside, kaempferol glycoside and phenolic acids were the main identified compounds, (iii) there was a high intra and inter-specific variability in the foliar phenol profiles both at the quantitative and qualitative levels, and (iv) the foliar phenol profiles indicated a slight species-specific tendency for phenols to be accumulated, although this was not clearly distinguished. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in the content and composition of the foliar flavonoids between species were observed due to the large environmental and soil conditions variability between localities. (author)

  10. Influences of harvest date and location on the levels of ß-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, in vitro antioxidant capacity, and phenolic profiles of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in the peel, seeds, and leaves of mango, yet less is known about the phenolic ...

  11. Accumulation of solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble antioxidant phenolics in edible bean sprouts: implication of germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-You Gan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Edible bean sprouts are popular fresh vegetables widely recognized for their nutritional quality. However, while their antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition in both solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble extracts has not been systematically evaluated. Methods: The antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition in both solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble fractions of 12 cultivars of edible bean sprouts were evaluated, and relationships of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content were also analyzed. Results: Sprouts demonstrated a wide range of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content, with lower but substantial antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in the solvent-insoluble fractions. Highest levels were found in the green mung bean sprout. Phenolic compounds, such as catechin, ellagic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid and p-coumaric acid were widely detected in these sprouts. Additionally, a positive correlation was discovered between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in these edible bean sprouts. Conclusions: Germination generally resulted in the accumulation of antioxidant phenolics in the most edible bean sprouts. Edible bean sprouts with high antioxidant phenolics can be valuable natural sources of dietary antioxidants for the prevention of oxidative stress-related chronic diseases.

  12. Phytochemical phenolics in organically grown vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Janice E; Zhao, Xin; Carey, Edward E; Welti, Ruth; Yang, Shie-Shien; Wang, Weiqun

    2005-12-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely correlated with risks for several chronic diseases in humans. Phytochemicals, and in particular, phenolic compounds, present in plant foods may be partly responsible for these health benefits through a variety of mechanisms. Since environmental factors play a role in a plant's production of secondary metabolites, it was hypothesized that an organic agricultural production system would increase phenolic levels. Cultivars of leaf lettuce, collards, and pac choi were grown either on organically certified plots or on adjacent conventional plots. Nine prominent phenolic agents were quantified by HPLC, including phenolic acids (e. g. caffeic acid and gallic acid) and aglycone or glycoside flavonoids (e. g. apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, and quercetin). Statistically, we did not find significant higher levels of phenolic agents in lettuce and collard samples grown organically. The total phenolic content of organic pac choi samples as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, however, was significantly higher than conventional samples (p lettuce and collards, the organic system provided an increased opportunity for insect attack, resulting in a higher level of total phenolic agents in pac choi.

  13. Hydrodeoxygenation of phenols as lignin models under acid-free conditions with carbon-supported platinum catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Hidetoshi; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Hara, Kenji; Fukuoka, Atsushi

    2011-11-28

    Carbon-supported Pt catalysts are highly active and reusable for the aqueous-phase hydrodeoxygenation of phenols as lignin models without adding any acids. It is suggested that Pt/carbon facilitates the hydrogenation of phenols and the hydrogenolysis of the resulting cyclohexanols.

  14. Extra virgin olive oil phenols and markers of oxidation in Greek smokers: a randomized cross-over study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschandreas, J.; Vissers, M.N.; Wiseman, S.; Putte, van K.P.; Kafatos, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of a low phenol olive oil and high phenol olive oil on markers of oxidation and plasma susceptibility to oxidation in normolipaemic smokers. Design: Randomized single-blind cross-over trial with two intervention periods. Setting: The Medical School and University

  15. Elevated circulating LDL phenol levels in men who consumed virgin rather than refined olive oil are associated with less oxidation of plasma LDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Torre-Carbot, Karina; Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; Jaúregui, Olga

    2010-01-01

    In human LDL, the bioactivity of olive oil phenols is determined by the in vivo disposition of the biological metabolites of these compounds. Here, we examined how the ingestion of 2 similar olive oils affected the content of the metabolic forms of olive oil phenols in LDL in men. The oils differed...... in phenol concentrations as follows: high (629 mg/L) for virgin olive oil (VOO) and null (0 mg/L) for refined olive oil (ROO). The study population consisted of a subsample from the EUROLIVE study and a randomized controlled, crossover design was used. Intervention periods lasted 3 wk and were preceded...... acids (P phenol levels (r = -0.296; P = 0.013). Phenols in LDL were not associated with other oxidation markers. In summary, the phenol concentration of olive oil modulates the phenolic metabolite content in LDL after sustained...

  16. A Lactobacillus plantarum Esterase Active on a Broad Range of Phenolic Esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Torres, María; Landete, José María; Reverón, Inés; Santamaría, Laura; de las Rivas, Blanca

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is the lactic acid bacterial species most frequently found in the fermentation of food products of plant origin on which phenolic compounds are abundant. L. plantarum strains showed great flexibility in their ability to adapt to different environments and growth substrates. Of 28 L. plantarum strains analyzed, only cultures from 7 strains were able to hydrolyze hydroxycinnamic esters, such as methyl ferulate or methyl caffeate. As revealed by PCR, only these seven strains possessed the est_1092 gene. When the est_1092 gene was introduced into L. plantarum WCFS1 or L. lactis MG1363, their cultures acquired the ability to degrade hydroxycinnamic esters. These results support the suggestion that Est_1092 is the enzyme responsible for the degradation of hydroxycinnamic esters on the L. plantarum strains analyzed. The Est_1092 protein was recombinantly produced and biochemically characterized. Surprisingly, Est_1092 was able to hydrolyze not only hydroxycinnamic esters, since all the phenolic esters assayed were hydrolyzed. Quantitative PCR experiments revealed that the expression of est_1092 was induced in the presence of methyl ferulate, an hydroxycinnamic ester, but was inhibited on methyl gallate, an hydroxybenzoic ester. As Est_1092 is an enzyme active on a broad range of phenolic esters, simultaneously possessing feruloyl esterase and tannase activities, its presence on some L. plantarum strains provides them with additional advantages to survive and grow on plant environments. PMID:25746986

  17. A Lactobacillus plantarum esterase active on a broad range of phenolic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Torres, María; Landete, José María; Reverón, Inés; Santamaría, Laura; de las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-05-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is the lactic acid bacterial species most frequently found in the fermentation of food products of plant origin on which phenolic compounds are abundant. L. plantarum strains showed great flexibility in their ability to adapt to different environments and growth substrates. Of 28 L. plantarum strains analyzed, only cultures from 7 strains were able to hydrolyze hydroxycinnamic esters, such as methyl ferulate or methyl caffeate. As revealed by PCR, only these seven strains possessed the est_1092 gene. When the est_1092 gene was introduced into L. plantarum WCFS1 or L. lactis MG1363, their cultures acquired the ability to degrade hydroxycinnamic esters. These results support the suggestion that Est_1092 is the enzyme responsible for the degradation of hydroxycinnamic esters on the L. plantarum strains analyzed. The Est_1092 protein was recombinantly produced and biochemically characterized. Surprisingly, Est_1092 was able to hydrolyze not only hydroxycinnamic esters, since all the phenolic esters assayed were hydrolyzed. Quantitative PCR experiments revealed that the expression of est_1092 was induced in the presence of methyl ferulate, an hydroxycinnamic ester, but was inhibited on methyl gallate, an hydroxybenzoic ester. As Est_1092 is an enzyme active on a broad range of phenolic esters, simultaneously possessing feruloyl esterase and tannase activities, its presence on some L. plantarum strains provides them with additional advantages to survive and grow on plant environments. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Bio-Oil Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Used to Fabricate Phenolic Based Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Hou, Xiaopeng; Wang, Wenliang; Chang, Jianmin

    2017-06-18

    In this study, bio-oil from the fast pyrolysis of renewable biomass was used as the raw material to synthesize bio-oil phenol formaldehyde (BPF) resin-a desirable resin for fabricating phenolic-based material. During the synthesis process, paraformaldehyde was used to achieve the requirement of high solid content and low viscosity. The properties of BPF resins were tested. Results indicated that BPF resin with the bio-oil addition of 20% had good performance on oxygen index and bending strength, indicating that adding bio-oil could modify the fire resistance and brittleness of PF resin. The thermal curing behavior and heat resistance of BPF resins were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Results showed that adding bio-oil had an impact on curing characteristics and thermal degradation process of PF resin, but the influence was insignificant when the addition was relatively low. The chemical structure and surface characteristics of BPF resins were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis demonstrated that adding bio-oil in the amount of 20% was able to improve the crosslinking degree and form more hydrocarbon chains in PF resin.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Bio-Oil Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Used to Fabricate Phenolic Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bio-oil from the fast pyrolysis of renewable biomass was used as the raw material to synthesize bio-oil phenol formaldehyde (BPF resin—a desirable resin for fabricating phenolic-based material. During the synthesis process, paraformaldehyde was used to achieve the requirement of high solid content and low viscosity. The properties of BPF resins were tested. Results indicated that BPF resin with the bio-oil addition of 20% had good performance on oxygen index and bending strength, indicating that adding bio-oil could modify the fire resistance and brittleness of PF resin. The thermal curing behavior and heat resistance of BPF resins were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. Results showed that adding bio-oil had an impact on curing characteristics and thermal degradation process of PF resin, but the influence was insignificant when the addition was relatively low. The chemical structure and surface characteristics of BPF resins were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The analysis demonstrated that adding bio-oil in the amount of 20% was able to improve the crosslinking degree and form more hydrocarbon chains in PF resin.

  20. Yeast effects on Pinot noir wine phenolics, color, and tannin composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carew, Anna L; Smith, Paul; Close, Dugald C; Curtin, Chris; Dambergs, Robert G

    2013-10-16

    Extraction and stabilization of wine phenolics can be challenging for wine makers. This study examined how yeast choice affected phenolic outcomes in Pinot noir wine. Five yeast treatments were applied in replicated microvinification, and wines were analyzed by UV-visible spectrophotometry. At bottling, yeast treatment Saccharomyces cerevisiae RC212 wine had significantly higher concentrations of total pigment, free anthocyanin, nonbleachable pigment, and total tannin and showed high color density. Some phenolic effects were retained at 6 months' bottle age, and RC212 and S. cerevisae EC1118 wines showed increased mean nonbleachable pigment concentrations. Wine tannin composition analysis showed three treatments were associated with a higher percentage of trihydroxylated subunits (skin tannin indicator). A high degree of tannin polymerization was observed in wines made with RC212 and Torulaspora delbruekii , whereas tannin size by gel permeation chromatography was higher only in the RC212 wines. The results emphasize the importance of yeast strain choice for optimizing Pinot noir wine phenolics.

  1. Punctuated 88% Phenol Peeling for the Treatment of Facial Photoaging: A Clinical and Histopathological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendonça, Maria Cristina C; Segheto, Natália N; Aarestrup, Fernando M; Aarestrup, Beatriz J V

    2018-02-01

    Phenol peeling is considered an important agent in the treatment of facial rejuvenation; however, its use has limitations due to its high potential for side effects. This article proposes a new peeling application technique for the treatment of photoaging, aiming to evaluate, clinically and histopathologically, the efficacy of a new way of applying 88% phenol, using a punctuated pattern. The procedure was performed in an outpatient setting, with female patients, on static wrinkles and high flaccidity areas of the face. Accompanying photographs and skin samples were taken for histopathological analysis before and after treatment. It was shown that 88% phenol applied topically using a punctuated technique is effective in skin rejuvenation. The authors thus suggest, based on this new proposal, that further studies be conducted with a larger group of patients to better elucidate the action mechanisms of 88% phenol. This new form of application considerably reduced patients' withdrawal from their regular activities, besides reducing the cost, compared with the conventional procedure.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Phenolic Resin/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Soltan-Dehghan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic resins have been widely used for selective high technology applications due to their excellent ablative properties, structural integrity and thermal stability that make them appropriate for thermal insulation materials, wood products industry, coatings, moulding compounds and composite materials. Polymer layered silicate nanocomposites based on montmorillonite (MMT have attracted a great deal of attention because of enhanced properties in mechanical, thermal, barrier and clarity properties without a significant increase in density, which is not possible with conventional fillers. Phenolic resin/montmorillonite (Cloisite 15A nanocomposite was prepared by a combined route of solution blending and in-situ polymerization. Theoptimized conditions for preparation of nanocomposite were achieved by evaluation of various processing parameters (mechanical mixer, high speed disperser and high energy ultrasonic source, mixing time (0.5, 1, 3, 10, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h and different amounts of montmorillonite (5 and 10 weight percents of montmorillonite relative to resol. X-Ray Diffractometer and thermal gravimetric analyzer were used accordingly to show the degree of nanodispersions of organomontmorillonite in polymeric matrix and the effect of nanofiller on thermal stability of nanocomposite with respect to neatresol. The results of high energy ultrasonic source show that a nanocomposite of phenolic resin with 5 wt% montmorillonite displays the best dispersion of clay layers. Thermal stability of nanocomposite was increased by 27% in comparison with neat resol.

  3. Sources and transformations of dissolved lignin phenols and chromophoric dissolved organic matter in Otsuchi Bay, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jung eLu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved lignin phenols and optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM were measured to investigate the sources and transformations of terrigenous DOM (tDOM in Otsuchi Bay, Japan. Three rivers discharge into the bay, and relatively high values of syringyl:vanillyl phenols (0.73 ± 0.07 and cinnamyl:vanillyl phenols (0.33 ± 0.10 indicated large contributions of non-woody angiosperm tissues to lignin and tDOM. The physical mixing of river and seawater played an important role in controlling the concentrations and distributions of lignin phenols and chromophoric DOM (CDOM optical properties in the bay. Lignin phenol concentrations and the CDOM absorption coefficient at 350 nm, a(350, were strongly correlated in river and bay waters. Measurements of lignin phenols and CDOM in bay waters indicated a variety of photochemical and biological transformations of tDOM, including oxidation reactions, photobleaching and a decrease in molecular weight. Photodegradation and biodegradation of lignin and CDOM were investigated in decomposition experiments with river water and native microbial assemblages exposed to natural sunlight or kept in the dark. There was a rapid and substantial removal of lignin phenols and CDOM during the first few days in the light treatment, indicating transformations of tDOM and CDOM can occur soon after discharge of buoyant river water into the bay. The removal of lignin phenols was slightly greater in the dark (34% than in the light (30% during the remaining 59 days of the incubation. Comparison of the light and dark treatments indicated biodegradation was responsible for 67% of total lignin phenol removal during the 62-day incubation exposed to natural sunlight, indicating biodegradation is a dominant removal process in Otsuchi Bay.

  4. CHRISTIAN SYMBOLISM IN FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY'S NOVEL "THE POSSESSED" ("DEMONS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Leonidovich Sharakov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article raises a question of Christian symbolism in Fyodor Dostoevsky’s novel The Possessed (Demons. The introductory part identifies the purpose of a symbol in Christian poetics through the parallel with ancient symbolism. The author makes a conclusion that the functional role of a symbol in the ancient world and Christian tradition is different. Therefore, the ancient symbol involves a number of interrelated categories, such as fate, intuition or conjecture, inspiration, and predictions. Christian symbolism is based on the idea of redemption and moral innocence. Methodologically, the article is based on a cultural and historical approach, as well as on the comparative academic tradition. The overview of Dostoyevsky’s pre-materials for The Possessed (Demons enables us to suggest the use of Christian symbolism in this novel. Hence, the objective of the study is to investigate a composition of images and symbols in this piece of writing, with a special focus on the image of a chronicler since the storyline of the novel is developed through his perception. We make a supposition that there are several levels of Gospel perception in the artistic vision or consciousness of the chronicler, that form the basis of the symbolical composition of the novel. The article sequentially examines the examples of Christian symbolism, including the connection of ideas, characters and storylines of the novel with the Gospel. Then it gives evidence and reasons for the thesis that the Gospel gives the characters of the novel the grounds for shaping their destiny.

  5. Phytoremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, anilines and phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Patricia J; Campanella, Bruno F; Castro, Paula M L; Harms, Hans; Lichtfouse, Eric; Schäffner, Anton R; Smrcek, Stanislav; Werck-Reichhart, Daniele

    2002-01-01

    Phytoremediation technologies based on the combined action of plants and the microbial communities that they support within the rhizosphere hold promise in the remediation of land and waterways contaminated with hydrocarbons but they have not yet been adopted in large-scale remediation strategies. In this review plant and microbial degradative capacities, viewed as a continuum, have been dissected in order to identify where bottle-necks and limitations exist. Phenols, anilines and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were selected as the target classes of molecule for consideration, in part because of their common patterns of distribution, but also because of the urgent need to develop techniques to overcome their toxicity to human health. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the pollutant, the emerging picture suggests that plants will draw pollutants including PAHs into the plant rhizosphere to varying extents via the transpiration stream. Mycorrhizosphere-bacteria and -fungi may play a crucial role in establishing plants in degraded ecosystems. Within the rhizosphere, microbial degradative activities prevail in order to extract energy and carbon skeletons from the pollutants for microbial cell growth. There has been little systematic analysis of the changing dynamics of pollutant degradation within the rhizosphere; however, the importance of plants in supplying oxygen and nutrients to the rhizosphere via fine roots, and of the beneficial effect of microorganisms on plant root growth is stressed. In addition to their role in supporting rhizospheric degradative activities, plants may possess a limited capacity to transport some of the more mobile pollutants into roots and shoots via fine roots. In those situations where uptake does occur (i.e. only limited microbial activity in the rhizosphere) there is good evidence that the pollutant may be metabolised. However, plant uptake is frequently associated with the inhibition of plant growth and an

  6. Structure Properties and Mechanisms of Action of Naturally Originated Phenolic Acids and Their Derivatives against Human Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Hang; Zhang, Bing-Yi; Qiu, Li-Peng; Guan, Rong-Fa; Ye, Zi-Hong; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2017-01-01

    A great effort has been made to develop efficacious antiviral drugs, but many viral infections are still lack of efficient antiviral therapies so far. The related exploration of natural products to fight viruses has been raised in recent years. Natural compounds with structural diversity and complexity offer a great chance to find new antiviral agents. Particularly, phenolic acids have attracted considerable attention owing to their potent antiviral abilities and unique mechanisms. The aim of this review is to report new discoveries and updates pertaining to antiviral phenolic acids. The relevant references on natural phenolic acids were searched. The antiviral phenolic acids were classified according to their structural properties and antiviral types. Meanwhile, the antiviral characteristics and structure-activity relationships of phenolic acids and their derivatives were summarized. The review finds that natural phenolic acids and their derivatives possessed potent inhibitory effects on multiple virus in humans such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, herpes simplex virus, influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus. In particular, caffeic acid/gallic acid and their derivatives exhibited outstanding antiviral properties by a variety of modes of action. Naturally derived phenolic acids especially caffeic acid/gallic acid and their derivatives may be regarded as novel promising antiviral leads or candidates. Additionally, scarcely any of these compounds has been used as antiviral treatment in clinical practice. Therefore, these phenolic acids with diverse skeletons and mechanisms provide us an excellent resource for finding novel antiviral drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Modeling electrokinetic transport in phenol contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorn, R.; Haus, R.; Czurda, K. [Dept. of Applied Geology, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Numerical simulations are compared to laboratory experiments of electroremediation in soils contaminated by phenolic pollutants. The developing pH affects the electrokinetic transport behaviour of phenol. It is found that a water chemistry model must be included in an electrokinetic mass transport model to describe the process of electroremediation more accurately, if no buffering system is used at the electrodes. In the case of controlling the pH at the electrode compartments only a simplified chemical reaction model must be included in the numerical code to match the experimental phenolic transport. (orig.)

  8. In Vitro Cultivars of Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae) are a Source of Antioxidant Phenolics

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, Rodrigo; Köhler, Hans; Pizarro, Marisol; Zúiga, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of six in vitro cultured blueberry seedlings were determined. Extracts were prepared in 85% ethanol from 30 days old in vitro cultured plants and used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities that included Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazin (DPPH?) scavenging ability, total polyphenols (TP) and the partial phenolic composition performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (H...

  9. Seasonal variation in the phenol content of Eugenia uniflora L. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, R.M; Oliveira, M.S; Ferri, P.H; Santos, S.C

    2011-01-01

    Hydrolysable tannins, total phenols and flavonoids in Eugenia uniflora leaves were monthly analysed for one year. The results were correlated with climate conditions (rainfall, humidity, cloudiness and mean temperature) through chemometric methods. Principal component analysis revealed high levels of hydrolysable tannins in the rainy season, whereas flavonoids were mainly produced in the dry season. These facts suggest that climatic changes may be one of the factors affecting phenol levels in...

  10. Consistent production of phenolic compounds by Penicillium brevicompactum for chemotaxonomic characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte

    1991-01-01

    A consistently produced group of fungal secondary metabolites from Penicillium brevicompactum has been purified and identified as the Raistrick phenols. These compounds are shown to exist separately as an equilibrium mixture in aqueous solutions. The Raistrick phenols have all been included in th...... in the metabolite profile of P. brevicompactum. By means of thin layer chromatography-scanning and high performance liquid chromatography-UV diode array detection, the chromatographic and spectroscopic data can be used in the chemotaxonomic characterization of the fungus....

  11. Determination of the activity signature of key carbohydrate metabolism enzymes in phenolic-rich grapevine tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Covington, Elizabeth Dunn; Roitsch, Thomas Georg; Dermastia, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Physiological studies in plants often require enzyme extraction from tissues containing high concentrations of phenols and polyphenols. Unless removed or neutralized, such compounds may hinder extraction, inactivate enzymes, and interfere with enzyme detection. The following protocol for activity...... assays for enzymes of primary carbohydrate metabolism, while based on our recently published one for quantitative measurement of activities using coupled spectrophotometric assays in a 96-well format, is tailored to the complexities of phenolic- and anthocyanin-rich extracts from grapevine leaf...

  12. Efficient Enzymatic Synthesis of Phenolic Ester by Increasing Solubility of Phenolic Acids in Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    Compounds from phenolic acid family are well known natural antioxidants, but the application of phenolic acids as antioxidants in industry is limited due to the relatively low solubility in oil-based media. The properties of phenolic acids can be modified through enzymatic lipophilization...... and modified phenolic acids will have amphiphilic property, therefore they can be localized at oil-water or water-oil phase where oxidation is considered to occur frequently. It had been reported that immobilized Candida Antarctica lipase B was the most effective biocatalyst for the various esterification...... reactions, and it had been widely used for esterification of various phenolic acids with fatty alcohol or triglycerides. However, the conversion of phenolic acids is low due to low solubility in hydrophobic solvents and hindrance effect of unsaturated side chain towards the enzyme. Our studies show...

  13. Deoxyarbutin Possesses a Potent Skin-Lightening Capacity with No Discernible Cytotoxicity against Melanosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Miao

    Full Text Available Safe and effective ingredients capable of removing undesired hyperpigmentation from facial skin are urgently needed for both pharmaceutical and cosmetic purposes. Deoxyarbutin (4-[(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl oxy] phenol, D-Arb is a glucoside derivative of hydroquinone. Here, we investigated the toxicity and efficacy of D-Arb at the sub-cellular level (directly on melanosomes and skin pigmentation using in vivo and in vitro models to compare with its parent compound hydroquinone (1,4-benzenediol, HQ. At first, we examined the ultrastructural changes of melanosomes in hyperpigmented guinea pig skin induced by 308-nm monochromatic excimer lightand/or treated with HQ and D-Arb using transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that prominent changes in the melanosomal membrane, such as bulb-like structure and even complete rupture of the outer membranes, were found in the skin after topical application of 5% HQ for 10 days. These changes were barely observed in the skin treated with D-Arb. To further clarify whether membrane toxicity of HQ was a direct result of the compound treatment, we also examinedultrastructural changes of individual melanosomes purified from MNT1 human melanoma cells. Similar observations were obtained from the naked melanosome model in vitro. Finally, we determined the effects of melanosomal fractions exposed to HQ or D-Arb on hydroxyl radical generation in the Fenton reaction utilizing an electron spin resonance assay. D-Arb-treated melanosomesexhibit a moderate hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, whereas HQ-treated melanosomessignificantly generate more hydroxyl free radicals. This study suggests that D-Arb possesses a potent ability in skin lightening and antioxidation with less melanosome cytotoxicity.

  14. Deoxyarbutin Possesses a Potent Skin-Lightening Capacity with No Discernible Cytotoxicity against Melanosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Fang; Shi, Ying; Fan, Zhi-Feng; Jiang, Shan; Xu, Shi-Zheng; Lei, Tie-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Safe and effective ingredients capable of removing undesired hyperpigmentation from facial skin are urgently needed for both pharmaceutical and cosmetic purposes. Deoxyarbutin (4-[(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl) oxy] phenol, D-Arb) is a glucoside derivative of hydroquinone. Here, we investigated the toxicity and efficacy of D-Arb at the sub-cellular level (directly on melanosomes) and skin pigmentation using in vivo and in vitro models to compare with its parent compound hydroquinone (1,4-benzenediol, HQ). At first, we examined the ultrastructural changes of melanosomes in hyperpigmented guinea pig skin induced by 308-nm monochromatic excimer lightand/or treated with HQ and D-Arb using transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that prominent changes in the melanosomal membrane, such as bulb-like structure and even complete rupture of the outer membranes, were found in the skin after topical application of 5% HQ for 10 days. These changes were barely observed in the skin treated with D-Arb. To further clarify whether membrane toxicity of HQ was a direct result of the compound treatment, we also examinedultrastructural changes of individual melanosomes purified from MNT1 human melanoma cells. Similar observations were obtained from the naked melanosome model in vitro. Finally, we determined the effects of melanosomal fractions exposed to HQ or D-Arb on hydroxyl radical generation in the Fenton reaction utilizing an electron spin resonance assay. D-Arb-treated melanosomesexhibit a moderate hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, whereas HQ-treated melanosomessignificantly generate more hydroxyl free radicals. This study suggests that D-Arb possesses a potent ability in skin lightening and antioxidation with less melanosome cytotoxicity.

  15. Comparison of total phenolic content and composition of individual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A successful peanut breeding to obtain genotypes with greater phenolic content requires information on type and content of phenolic compounds in parental peanut genotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate the total phenolic contents and phenolic acid profiles of 15 Valencia-type peanut genotypes both in peanut ...

  16. Antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents of 20 polyherbal remedies used as tonics by folk healers in Phatthalung and Songkhla provinces, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthasri, Wipawee; Puangkeaw, Nuntitporn; Kunworarath, Nongluk; Jaisamut, Patcharawalai; Limsuwan, Surasak; Maneenoon, Katesarin; Choochana, Piyapong; Chusri, Sasitorn

    2018-02-21

    Uses of polyherbal formulations have played a major role in traditional medicine. The present study is focused on the formulations used in traditional Thai folkloric medicine as tonics or bracers. Twenty documented polyherbal mixtures, used as nourishing tonics by the folk healers in Phatthalung and Songkhla provinces in southern Thailand, are targeted. Despite traditional health claims, there is no scientific evidence to support the utilization of polyherbal formulations. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of the polyherbal formulations and a series of antioxidant tests were applied to measure their capability as preventive or chain-breaking antioxidants. In addition, the cytotoxic activity of effective formulations was assayed in Vero cells. Ninety-eight plant species belonging to 45 families were used to prepare the tested formulation. The preliminary results revealed that water extracts of THP-R016 and THP-R019 contain a high level of total phenolic and flavonoid contents and exhibit remarkable antioxidant activities, as tested by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. The extract of THP-R019 also showed the strongest metal chelating activities, whereas THP-R016 extract possessed notable superoxide anion and peroxyl radical scavenging abilities. The data provide evidence that the water extracts of folkloric polyherbal formulations, particularly THP-R016, are a potential source of natural antioxidants, which will be valuable in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. The free radical scavenging of THP-R016 may be due to the contribution of phenolic and flavonoid contents. Useful characteristics for the consumer, such as the phytochemical profiles of active ingredients, cellular based antioxidant properties and beneficial effects in vivo, are under further investigation.

  17. Sesquiterpenoids and phenolics from Taraxacum hondoense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Wanda; Michalska, Klaudia

    2005-09-01

    Eleven sesquiterpene lactones, including the new guaianolide 11beta-hydroxydeacetylmatricarin-8-O-beta-glucopyranoside, along with four known phenolic glucosides were isolated from Taraxacum hondoense. The compounds were characterized by spectral methods.

  18. Immobilized cells of Candida rugosa possessing fumarase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L.; Zhone, L.

    1980-01-01

    Immobilized cells of C. rugosa that possessed fumarase activity were prepared by different methods; the most active immobilized cells were entrapped in polyacrylamide gels. The effects of pH temperature, and divalent cations on the fumarase activity of both immobilized and native cells were the same. Mn/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and Fe/sup 2 +/ did not protect the immobilized enzyme against thermal inactivation. The activity of immobilized fumarase remained constant during 91 days of storage of 4-6 degrees. The immobilized cell column was used for the continuous production of L-malic acid from 1M fumarate at 30 degrees and pH 8.5. The immobilized column operated steadily for 2 months. Half life of the immobilized fumarase at 30 degrees was 95 days.

  19. Social forces for team coordination in ball possession game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Keiko; Shima, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Keisuke; Tabuchi, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2018-02-01

    Team coordination is a basic human behavioral trait observed in many real-life communities. To promote teamwork, it is important to cultivate social skills that elicit team coordination. In the present work, we consider which social skills are indispensable for individuals performing a ball possession game in soccer. We develop a simple social force model that describes the synchronized motion of offensive players. Comparing the simulation results with experimental observations, we uncovered that the cooperative social force, a measure of perception skill, has the most important role in reproducing the harmonized collective motion of experienced players in the task. We further developed an experimental tool that facilitates real players' perceptions of interpersonal distance, revealing that the tool improves novice players' motions as if the cooperative social force were imposed.

  20. Sorption of a mixture of phenols in aqueous solution with activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia M, D.; Lopez M, B.E.; Iturbe G, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this work is the sorption of an aqueous mixture of phenol-4 chloro phenol of different concentrations in a molar relationship 1:1 in activated carbon of mineral origin of different nets (10, 20 and 30) and to diminish with it its presence in water. The experimental results show that the removal capacity depends so much of the surface properties of the sorbent like of the physical and chemical properties of the sorbate. In all the cases it was observed that in the aqueous systems of low concentration the 4-chloro phenol are removed in an approximate proportion of 1.2-4 times greater to than phenol, however to concentrations but high both they are removed approximately in the same proportion. (Author)

  1. Effect of Fermentation and Cooking on Soluble and Bound Phenolic Profiles of Finger Millet Sour Porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaza, Molly; Shumoy, Habtu; Muchuweti, Maud; Vandamme, Peter; Raes, Katleen

    2016-10-12

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the soluble and bound phenolic content of finger millet and the impact of process induced changes on phenolic profiles of their sour porridge. Finger millet porridge and intermediate products were collected from four groups of households in the Hwedza communal area, Zimbabwe, after which soluble and bound phenolic compounds (PC) including condensed tannins (CT) were quantified. Bound PC and CT contributed 95% of the total PC and CT. The CT were only detected in the red varieties. Major individual PC identified were catechin occurring in the soluble fraction only, while ferulic, sinapic, and salicylic acid were mainly present in the bound fraction. Fermentation and cooking caused a more than 2-fold increase in soluble PC, CT, and individual PC. Improved traditional processing techniques optimized for improved bioavailability and health benefits of phenolics are highly relevant for the low income populations.

  2. Phenolic acids, hydrolyzable tannins, and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Richard Pereira; Abreu, Bruno Vinicius de Barros; Cunha, Mayara Soares; Batista, Marisa Cristina Aranha; Torres, Luce Maria Brandão; Nascimento, Flavia Raquel Fernandes; Ribeiro, Maria Nilce Sousa; Guerra, Rosane Nassar Meireles

    2014-03-26

    Geopropolis is a mixture of plant resins, waxes, and soil produced by the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith. This paper describes the antioxidant activity and chemical composition of geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata. The total phenolic content determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was highest in the ethyl acetate fraction and hydroalcoholic extract. Antioxidant activity was assayed by the in vitro DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. The hydroalcoholic extract and fractions of geopropolis, except for the hexane fraction, exhibited antioxidant activity against DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP. The phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC-DAD-MS on the basis of the evaluation of their UV-vis absorption maxima (λmax) and mass spectral analysis. Eleven compounds belonging to the classes of phenolic acids and hydrolyzable tannins (gallotannins and ellagitannins) were tentatively identified. These compounds are responsible for the antioxidant activity and high phenolic content of geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata.

  3. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of major Australian red wines throughout the winemaking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginjom, Irine R; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Caffin, Nola A; Gidley, Michael J

    2010-09-22

    Three Australian red wine types (Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot) were analyzed for antioxidant activity and a range of phenolic component contents using various spectral methods. More than half of the total phenolic compounds were tannins, whereas monomeric anthocyanins and flavonols were present in much lesser amounts (wine samples from all stages of winemaking showed progressive changes toward those of commercial wines. The antioxidant activity of the wines in DPPH and ABTS assays was positively correlated with total phenolic contents and tannins. Comparisons of the three wine varieties based on their individual phenolic component groups and antioxidant activities showed limited differences between the different varieties. However, when all of the variables were combined in a principal component analysis, variety differentiation was observed. The three varieties of red wines all contained similar and high concentrations of antioxidants despite differences in grape variety/maturity and winemaking process, suggesting that related health benefits would accrue from all of the red wines studied.

  4. Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds in lentil seeds (Lens culinaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragišić-Maksimović Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of lentil seeds (Lens culinaris L. have been investigated in this work. Scarce reference data describe lentil seeds as rich in polyphenols, which are reported to exhibit bioactive properties due to their capability to reduce or quench reactive oxygen species. The content and composition of phenolics is highly dependent of the cultivars, environments/growth conditions and method of analysis. Therefore, this study is an effort in investigation of phenolics content and composition in lentil seeds trying to prove the contribution of identified phenolics to antioxidant capacity. HPLC measurements revealed that lentil seeds contain gallic acid, epicatechin, catechin, protocatechuic acid, rutin, p-coumaric acid and umbeliferone. Their DPPH radical scavenging activity was in descending order from gallic acid to umbeliferone. The presented results contribute to knowledge of the implications in dietary intake of phenolic compounds from lentil seeds.

  5. Analysis of polymeric phenolics in red wines using different techniques combined with gel permeation chromatography fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe, Zenaida; Soldevilla, Alberto; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ayestarán, Belén

    2006-04-21

    A multiple-step analytical method was developed to improve the analysis of polymeric phenolics in red wines. With a common initial step based on the fractionation of wine phenolics by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), different analytical techniques were used: high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS), capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and spectrophotometry. This method proved to be valid for analyzing different families of phenolic compounds, such as monomeric phenolics and their derivatives, polymeric pigments and proanthocyanidins. The analytical characteristics of fractionation by GPC were studied and the method was fully validated, yielding satisfactory statistical results. GPC fractionation substantially improved the analysis of polymeric pigments by CZE, in terms of response, repeatability and reproducibility. It also represented an improvement in the traditional vanillin assay used for proanthocyanidin (PA) quantification. Astringent proanthocyanidins were also analyzed using a simple combined method that allowed these compounds, for which only general indexes were available, to be quantified.

  6. Enzymatic modifications of grape skin phenolics A new look at wine maceration ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.; Arnous, Anis

    2010-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are decisive for the colour and sensory properties of wines. Especially in the making of red wines, the optimal retrieval of phenolics from the grape skins is crucial for obtaining wines having optimal colour, flavour, and mouth feel properties. Exogenous enzymes are widely use...... processes in the wine industry.......Phenolic compounds are decisive for the colour and sensory properties of wines. Especially in the making of red wines, the optimal retrieval of phenolics from the grape skins is crucial for obtaining wines having optimal colour, flavour, and mouth feel properties. Exogenous enzymes are widely used...... during the wine grape maceration to obtain high juice yield and initial extraction of flavour components, and in the case of red wines for obtaining better initial extraction of colour. Until now, this maceration has mainly been considered as an extraction step. Recent data have shown that significant...

  7. Preparation of pure phenols from tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J

    1933-02-07

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of pure phenols from brown coal tar, shale tar, or primary tar, characterized in that the raw oil obtained from the tar is carefully fractionated, in a suitable way without or with a slight pressure decrease, or before the fractionation the raw oil is heated to free the prepared phenolate solution from impurities after successful oxidation by passing in steam at a temperature between 100 and 120/sup 0/C.

  8. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae) extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, K. S.; Nurestri, A. M. Sri; Norhanom, A. W.

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), commonly known as “Jarum Tujuh Bilah” in Malaysia, have been traditionally used as natural remedy in folk medicine by the locals. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of P. grandifolia crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water) have been investigated, employing three different established testing systems, such as scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, reducing power assay and β-carotene method. The total phenolic content of the P. grandifolia extracts was also assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau’s method. The ethyl acetate extract showed significantly the highest total phenolic content, DPPH scavenging ability and antioxidant activity in β-carotene bleaching assay while the hexane extract possessed significantly strongest reducing power. The data obtained in these testing systems clearly establish the antioxidant potency of P. grandifolia. As such, this is the first report on the antioxidant activities of P. grandifolia. PMID:20931088

  9. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernâni Gerós

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile.

  10. Application of insoluble fibers in the fining of wine phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Raúl F; Smith, Paul; Bindon, Keren A

    2013-05-08

    The application of animal-derived proteins as wine fining agents has been subject to increased regulation in recent years. As an alternative to protein-based fining agents, insoluble plant-derived fibers have the capacity to adsorb red wine tannins. Changes in red wine tannin were analyzed following application of fibers derived from apple and grape and protein-based fining agents. Other changes in wine composition, namely, color, monomeric phenolics, metals, and turbidity, were also determined. Wine tannin was maximally reduced by application of an apple pomace fiber and a grape pomace fiber (G4), removing 42 and 38%, respectively. Potassium caseinate maximally removed 19% of wine tannin, although applied at a lower dose. Fibers reduced anthocyanins, total phenolics, and wine color density, but changes in wine hue were minor. Proteins and apple fiber selectively removed high molecular mass phenolics, whereas grape fibers removed those of both high and low molecular mass. The results show that insoluble fibers may be considered as alternative fining agents for red wines.

  11. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-03-04

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%-65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%-0.67% of total transfer rate). 'Picual' was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas 'Changlot Real' was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  12. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassima Talhaoui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO. The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate. ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  13. Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Effects of Tibetan Tea and Its Phenolic Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan tea (Kangzhuan is an essential beverage of the Tibetan people. In this study, a lyophilized aqueous extract of Tibetan tea (LATT was prepared and analyzed by HPLC. The results suggested that there were at least five phenolic components, including gallic acid, and four catechins (i.e., (+-catechin, (−-catechin gallate (CG, (−-epicatechin gallate (ECG, and (−-epigallocatechin gallate. Gallic acid, the four catechins, and LATT were then comparatively investigated by four antioxidant assays: ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide radical (PTIO• scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazl radical scavenging, and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging assays. In these assays, LATT, along with the five phenolic components, increased their antioxidant effects in a concentration-dependent manner; however, the half maximal scavenging concentrations of ECG were always lower than those of CG. Gallic acid and the four catechins were also suggested to chelate Fe2+ based on UV-visible spectral analysis. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC−ESI−Q−TOF−MS/MS analysis suggested that, when mixed with PTIO•, the five phenolic components could yield two types of radical adduct formation (RAF products (i.e., tea phenolic dimers and tea phenolic-PTIO• adducts. In a flow cytometry assay, (+-catechin and LATT was observed to have a cytoprotective effect towards oxidative-stressed bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Based on this evidence, we concluded that LATT possesses antioxidative or cytoprotective properties. These effects may mainly be attributed to the presence of phenolic components, including gallic acid and the four catechins. These phenolic components may undergo electron transfer, H+-transfer, and Fe2+-chelating pathways to exhibit

  14. Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Effects of Tibetan Tea and Its Phenolic Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong; Li, Xican; Ren, Zhenxing; Qiu, Weimin; Chen, Jianlan; Jiang, Qian; Chen, Ban; Chen, Dongfeng

    2018-01-24

    Tibetan tea (Kangzhuan) is an essential beverage of the Tibetan people. In this study, a lyophilized aqueous extract of Tibetan tea ( LATT ) was prepared and analyzed by HPLC. The results suggested that there were at least five phenolic components, including gallic acid, and four catechins (i.e., (+)-catechin, (-)-catechin gallate ( CG ), (-)-epicatechin gallate ( ECG ), and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate). Gallic acid, the four catechins, and LATT were then comparatively investigated by four antioxidant assays: ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide radical (PTIO•) scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazl radical scavenging, and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assays. In these assays, LATT, along with the five phenolic components, increased their antioxidant effects in a concentration-dependent manner; however, the half maximal scavenging concentrations of ECG were always lower than those of CG . Gallic acid and the four catechins were also suggested to chelate Fe 2+ based on UV-visible spectral analysis. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) analysis suggested that, when mixed with PTIO•, the five phenolic components could yield two types of radical adduct formation (RAF) products (i.e., tea phenolic dimers and tea phenolic-PTIO• adducts). In a flow cytometry assay, (+)-catechin and LATT was observed to have a cytoprotective effect towards oxidative-stressed bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Based on this evidence, we concluded that LATT possesses antioxidative or cytoprotective properties. These effects may mainly be attributed to the presence of phenolic components, including gallic acid and the four catechins. These phenolic components may undergo electron transfer, H⁺-transfer, and Fe 2+ -chelating pathways to exhibit antioxidative or

  15. Woven TPS Enabling Missions Beyond Heritage Carbon Phenolic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Feldman, Jay D.

    2013-01-01

    NASAs Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) Game Changing Division recently funded an effort to advance a Woven TPS (WTPS) concept. WTPS is a new approach to producing TPS architectures that uses precisely engineered 3D weaving techniques to customize material characteristics needed to meet specific missions requirements for protecting space vehicles from the intense heating generated during atmospheric entry. Using WTPS, sustainable, scalable, mission-optimized TPS solutions can be achieved with relatively low life cycle costs compared with the high costs and long development schedules currently associated with material development and certification. WTPS leverages the mature state-of-the-art weaving technology that has evolved from the textile industry to design TPS materials with tailorable performance. Currently, missions anticipated encountering heat fluxes in the range of 1500 4000 Wcm2 and pressures greater than 1.5 atm are limited to using fully dense Carbon Phenolic. However, fully dense carbon phenolic is only mass efficient at higher heat fluxes g(reater than 4000 Wcm2), and current mission designs suffer this mass inefficiency for lack of an alternative mid-density TPS. WTPS not only bridges this mid-density TPS gap but also offers a replacement for carbon phenolic, which itself requires a significant and costly redevelopment effort to re-establish its capability for use in the high heat flux missions recently prioritized in the NRC Decadal survey, including probe missions to Venus, Saturn and Neptune. This presentation will overview the WTPS concept and present some results from initial testing completed comparing WTPS architectures to heritage carbon phenolic.

  16. Phenol remediation by peroxidase from an invasive mesquite: Turning an environmental wound into wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Savita; Mishra, Ruchi; Sharma, Radhey Shyam; Mishra, Vandana

    2017-07-15

    The present study examines mesquite (Prosopis juliflora), an invasive species, to yield peroxidase that may reduce hazards of phenolics to living organisms. As low as 0.3U of low-purity mesquite peroxidase (MPx) efficiently remove phenol and chlorophenols (90-92%) compared with Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) (40-60%). MPx shows a very high removal efficiency (40-50%) at a wide range of pH (2-9) and temperature (20-80°C), as opposed to HRP (15-20%). At a high-level of the substrate (2.4mM) and without the addition of PEG, MPx maintains a significant phenolic removal (60-≥92%) and residual activity (∼25%). It proves the superiority of MPx over HRP, which showed insignificant removal (10-12%) under similar conditions, and no residual activity even with PEG addition. The root elongation and plant growth bioassays confirm phenolic detoxification by MPx. Readily availability of mesquite across the countries and easy preparation of MPx from leaves make this tree as a sustainable source for a low-technological solution for phenol remediation. This study is the first step towards converting a biological wound of invasive species into wisdom and strength for protecting the environment from phenol pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of phenol infiltration resilience in soil media by HYDRUS-1D transport model for a waste discharge site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, K; Pal, S; Chakraborty, B; Mukherjee, S N; Gangopadhyay, A

    2014-10-01

    The movement of contaminants through soil imparts a variety of geo-environmental problem inclusive of lithospheric pollution. Near-surface aquifers are often vulnerable to contamination from surface source if overlying soil possesses poor resilience or contaminant attenuation capacity. The prediction of contaminant transport through soil is urged to protect groundwater from sources of pollutants. Using field simulation through column experiments and mathematical modeling like HYDRUS-1D, assessment of soil resilience and movement of contaminants through the subsurface to reach aquifers can be predicted. An outfall site of effluents of a coke oven plant comprising of alarming concentration of phenol (4-12.2 mg/L) have been considered for studying groundwater condition and quality, in situ soil characterization, and effluent characterization. Hydrogeological feature suggests the presence of near-surface aquifers at the effluent discharge site. Analysis of groundwater of nearby locality reveals the phenol concentration (0.11-0.75 mg/L) exceeded the prescribed limit of WHO specification (0.002 mg/L). The in situ soil, used in column experiment, possess higher saturated hydraulic conductivity (KS  = 5.25 × 10(-4) cm/s). The soil containing 47 % silt, 11 % clay, and 1.54% organic carbon content was found to be a poor absorber of phenol (24 mg/kg). The linear phenol adsorption isotherm model showed the best fit (R(2) = 0.977, RMSE = 1.057) to the test results. Column experiments revealed that the phenol removal percent and the length of the mass transfer zone increased with increasing bed heights. The overall phenol adsorption efficiency was found to be 42-49%. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) predicted by HYDRUS-1D model appears to be close fitting with the BTCs derived from the column experiments. The phenol BTC predicted by the HYDRUS-1D model for 1.2 m depth subsurface soil, i.e., up to the depth of groundwater in the study area, showed that the exhaustion

  18. Poly(N-vinylimidazole/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) for the purification and isolation of phenolic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemeth, Dieter; Noël, Jean-Christophe [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University of Innsbruck, CCB—Center of Chemistry and Biomedicine, Innrain 80-82, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Jakschitz, Thomas [Austrian Drug Screening Institute, Innrain 66a, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Rainer, Matthias, E-mail: m.rainer@uibk.ac.at [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University of Innsbruck, CCB—Center of Chemistry and Biomedicine, Innrain 80-82, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Tessadri, Richard [Institute of Mineralogy and Petrography, Leopold-Franzens University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Huck, Christian W. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University of Innsbruck, CCB—Center of Chemistry and Biomedicine, Innrain 80-82, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Bonn, Günther K. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University of Innsbruck, CCB—Center of Chemistry and Biomedicine, Innrain 80-82, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Austrian Drug Screening Institute, Innrain 66a, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-07-23

    Highlights: • Free-radical polymerization of protonable vinylimidazole with EGMDA. • Polymer-optimization by maximum loading capacity of phenolic acids. • Performs better than SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in normal phase mode using acetonitrile. • Performs equal or even better in anion-exchange mode compared to Oasis-MAX. • Efficient purification of phenolic compounds from crude extract. - Abstract: In this study we report the novel polymeric resin poly(N-vinyl imidazole/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) for the purification and isolation of phenolic acids. The monomer to crosslinker ratio and the porogen composition were optimized for isolating phenolic acids diluted in acetonitrile at normal phase chromatography conditions, first. Acetonitrile serves as polar, aprotic solvent, dissolving phenolic acids but not interrupting interactions with the stationary phase due to the approved Hansen solubility parameters. The optimized resin demonstrated high loading capacities and adsorption abilities particularly for phenolic acids in both, acetonitrile and aqueous solutions. The adsorption behavior of aqueous standards can be attributed to ion exchange effects due to electrostatic interactions between protonated imidazole residues and deprotonated phenolic acids. Furthermore, adsorption experiments and subsequent curve fittings provide information of maximum loading capacities of single standards according to the Langmuir adsorption model. Recovery studies of the optimized polymer in the normal-phase and ion-exchange mode illustrate the powerful isolation properties for phenolic acids and are comparable or even better than typical, commercially available solid phase extraction materials. In order to prove the applicability, a highly complex extract of rosemary leaves was purified by poly(N-vinyl imidazole/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) and the isolated compounds were identified using UHPLC–qTOF-MS.

  19. Global mental health and trauma exposure: the current evidence for the relationship between traumatic experiences and spirit possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Tobias; Braitmayer, Lars; van Duijl, Marjolein

    2015-01-01

    We present a literature review on trauma exposure and spirit possession in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite the World Health Organization's objective of culturally appropriate mental health care in the Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020, and the recommendations of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee to consider local idioms of distress and to collaborate with local resources, this topic still receives very little attention. Pathological spirit possession is commonly defined as involuntary, uncontrollable, and occurring outside of ritual settings. It is often associated with stigmatization, suffering, and dysfunctional behavior. While spirit possession has been discussed as an idiom of distress in anthropological literature, recent quantitative studies have presented support for a strong relationship between traumatic experiences and pathological possession states. The aim of this review was to investigate this relationship systematically in LMICs, in view of the debate on how to address the mental health gap in LMICs. Twenty-one articles, published in peer-reviewed English-language journals between 1994 and 2013, were identified and analyzed with regard to prevalence of possessive trance disorders, patients' sociodemographic characteristics, and its relation to traumatic experiences. The review and analysis of 917 patients with symptoms of possessive trance disorders from 14 LMICs indicated that it is a phenomenon occurring worldwide and with global relevance. This literature review suggests a strong relationship between trauma exposure and spirit possession with high prevalence rates found especially in postwar areas in African countries. More attention for possessive trance disorders in mental health and psychosocial intervention programs in humanitarian emergency settings as well as in societies in transition in LMICs is needed and justified by the results of this systematic literature review.

  20. Global mental health and trauma exposure: the current evidence for the relationship between traumatic experiences and spirit possession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Tobias; Braitmayer, Lars; van Duijl, Marjolein

    2015-01-01

    Background We present a literature review on trauma exposure and spirit possession in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite the World Health Organization's objective of culturally appropriate mental health care in the Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020, and the recommendations of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee to consider local idioms of distress and to collaborate with local resources, this topic still receives very little attention. Pathological spirit possession is commonly defined as involuntary, uncontrollable, and occurring outside of ritual settings. It is often associated with stigmatization, suffering, and dysfunctional behavior. While spirit possession has been discussed as an idiom of distress in anthropological literature, recent quantitative studies have presented support for a strong relationship between traumatic experiences and pathological possession states. Objective The aim of this review was to investigate this relationship systematically in LMICs, in view of the debate on how to address the mental health gap in LMICs. Methods Twenty-one articles, published in peer-reviewed English-language journals between 1994 and 2013, were identified and analyzed with regard to prevalence of possessive trance disorders, patients’ sociodemographic characteristics, and its relation to traumatic experiences. Results The review and analysis of 917 patients with symptoms of possessive trance disorders from 14 LMICs indicated that it is a phenomenon occurring worldwide and with global relevance. This literature review suggests a strong relationship between trauma exposure and spirit possession with high prevalence rates found especially in postwar areas in African countries. Conclusions More attention for possessive trance disorders in mental health and psychosocial intervention programs in humanitarian emergency settings as well as in societies in transition in LMICs is needed and justified by the results of this systematic literature review

  1. Global mental health and trauma exposure: the current evidence for the relationship between traumatic experiences and spirit possession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hecker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We present a literature review on trauma exposure and spirit possession in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Despite the World Health Organization's objective of culturally appropriate mental health care in the Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020, and the recommendations of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee to consider local idioms of distress and to collaborate with local resources, this topic still receives very little attention. Pathological spirit possession is commonly defined as involuntary, uncontrollable, and occurring outside of ritual settings. It is often associated with stigmatization, suffering, and dysfunctional behavior. While spirit possession has been discussed as an idiom of distress in anthropological literature, recent quantitative studies have presented support for a strong relationship between traumatic experiences and pathological possession states. Objective: The aim of this review was to investigate this relationship systematically in LMICs, in view of the debate on how to address the mental health gap in LMICs. Methods: Twenty-one articles, published in peer-reviewed English-language journals between 1994 and 2013, were identified and analyzed with regard to prevalence of possessive trance disorders, patients’ sociodemographic characteristics, and its relation to traumatic experiences. Results: The review and analysis of 917 patients with symptoms of possessive trance disorders from 14 LMICs indicated that it is a phenomenon occurring worldwide and with global relevance. This literature review suggests a strong relationship between trauma exposure and spirit possession with high prevalence rates found especially in postwar areas in African countries. Conclusions: More attention for possessive trance disorders in mental health and psychosocial intervention programs in humanitarian emergency settings as well as in societies in transition in LMICs is needed and justified by the results of this

  2. Phenols recovery after steam explosion of Olive Mill Solid Waste and its influence on a subsequent biomethanization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Antonio; Fermoso, Fernando G; Alonso-Fariñas, Bernabé; Rodríguez-Gutierrez, Guillermo; Fernandez-Bolaños, Juan; Borja, Rafael

    2017-11-01

    A promising source of high added value compounds is the Olive Mill Solid Waste (OMSW). The aim of this research was to evaluate the viability of a biorefinery approach to valorize OMSW through the combination of steam explosion, phenols extraction, and anaerobic digestion. Steam explosion treatment increased the total phenol content in the steam exploited OMSW, which was twice than that the total phenol content in raw OMSW, although some undesirable compounds were also formed. Phenol extraction allowed the recovery of 2098mg hydroxytyrosol per kg of OMSW. Anaerobic digestion allowed the partial stabilization of the different substrates, although it was not improved by the steam explosion treatment. The economic suitability of the proposed biorefinery approach is favorable up to a phenol extract price 90.7% lower than the referenced actual price of 520€/kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantification of the levels of tannins and total phenols and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of fruits of pepper tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Ribeiro Bernardes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi are widely used in the world cooking and its consumption has been encouraged since the late 80’s due to the presence of phenolic substances. Therefore, this study quantified the levels of tannins and total phenols in the fruits of pepper tree, aiming at establishing a possible correlation between these substances and their antioxidant activity. Phenolic compounds were extracted with acetone: water (7:3, and quantified by spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH method. The results showed low levels of condensed tannins and total phenols in the peel of the fruit, not being detected hydrolysable tannins in them. Nevertheless, the methanolic extract showed high antioxidant potential, which indicates the absence of a correlation between antioxidant activity and the levels of phenolic compounds in these fruits.

  4. Potential of LC Coupled to Fluorescence Detection in Food Metabolomics: Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Monasterio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A powerful chromatographic method coupled to a fluorescence detector was developed to determine the phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil (VOO, with the aim to propose an appropriate alternative to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. An excitation wavelength of 285 nm was selected and four different emission wavelengths (316, 328, 350 and 450 nm were simultaneously recorded, working therefore on “multi-emission” detection mode. With the use of commercially available standards and other standards obtained by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography, it was possible to identify simple phenols, lignans, several complex phenols, and other phenolic compounds present in the matrix under study. A total of 26 phenolic compounds belonging to different chemical families were identified (23 of them were susceptible of being quantified. The proposed methodology provided detection and quantification limits within the ranges of 0.004–7.143 μg·mL−1 and 0.013–23.810 μg·mL−1, respectively. As far as the repeatability is concerned, the relative standard deviation values were below 0.43% for retention time, and 9.05% for peak area. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of phenolic compounds in ten VOOs, both monovarietals and blends. Secoiridoids were the most abundant fraction in all the samples, followed by simple phenolic alcohols, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids (being the abundance order of the latter chemical classes logically depending on the variety and origin of the VOOs.

  5. Effect of drying of figs (Ficus carica L.) on the contents of sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatnar, Ana; Klancar, Urska; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2011-11-09

    Fresh figs were subjected to two different drying processes: sun-drying and oven-drying. To assess their effect on the nutritional and health-related properties of figs, sugars, organic acids, single phenolics, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity were determined before and after processing. Samples were analyzed three times in a year, and phenolic compounds were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). In figs, monomer sugars predominate, which is important nutritional information, and the content of sugars as well as organic acids in fresh figs was lower than in dried fruits. However, the best sugar/organic acid ratio was measured after the sun-drying process. Analysis of individual phenolic compounds revealed a higher content of all phenolic groups determined after the oven-drying process, with the exception of cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside. Similarly, higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were detected after the drying process. With these results it can be concluded that the differences in analyzed compounds in fresh and dried figs are significant. The differences between the sun-dried and oven-dried fruits were determined in organic acids, sugars, chlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, luteolin-8-C-glucoside, and total phenolic contents. The results indicate that properly dried figs can be used as a good source of phenolic compounds.

  6. Identification and characterization of phenol hydroxylase from phenol-degrading Candida tropicalis strain JH8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yan; Yang, Sheng; Xie, Zhixiong; Cheng, Li

    2014-09-01

    The gene phhY encoding phenol hydroxylase from Candida tropicalis JH8 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene phhY contained an open reading frame of 2130 bp encoding a polypeptide of 709 amino acid residues. From its sequence analysis, it is a member of a family of flavin-containing aromatic hydroxylases and shares 41% amino acid identity with phenol hydroxylase from Trichosporon cutaneum. The recombinant phenol hydroxylase exists as a homotetramer structure with a native molecular mass of 320 kDa. Recombinant phenol hydroxylase was insensitive to pH treatment; its optimum pH was at 7.6. The optimum temperature for the enzyme was 30 °C, and its activity was rapidly lost at temperatures above 60 °C. Under the optimal conditions with phenol as substrate, the K(m) and V(max) of recombinant phenol hydroxylase were 0.21 mmol·L(-1) and 0.077 μmol·L(-1)·min(-1), respectively. This is the first paper presenting the cloning and expression in E. coli of the phenol hydroxylase gene from C. tropicalis and the characterization of the recombinant phenol hydroxylase.

  7. Selective defunctionalization by TiO2 of monomeric phenolics from lignin pyrolysis into simple phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mante, Ofei D; Rodriguez, Jose A; Babu, Suresh P

    2013-11-01

    This study is focused on defunctionalizing monomeric phenolics from lignin into simple phenols for applications such as phenol/formaldehyde resins, epoxidized novolacs, adhesives and binders. Towards this goal, Titanium dioxide (TiO2) was used to selectively remove hydroxyl, methoxy, carbonyl and carboxyl functionalities from the monomeric phenolic compounds from lignin to produce mainly phenol, cresols and xylenols. The results showed that anatase TiO2 was more selective and active compared to rutile TiO2. Catechols were found to be the most reactive phenolics and 4-ethylguaiacol the least reactive with anatase TiO2. An overall conversion of about 87% of the phenolics was achieved at 550°C with a catalyst-to-feed ratio of 5 w/w. Over 97% conversion of phenolics is achievable at moderate temperatures (550°C or ≤ 600°C) and a moderate catalyst-to-feed ratio of 6.5:1. The reactivity of catechols on TiO2 suggests that titania is a promising catalyst in the removal of hydroxyl moiety. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Phenolic Analysis and Theoretic Design for Chinese Commercial Wines' Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Yu; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2018-01-01

    To develop a robust tool for Chinese commercial wines' varietal, regional, and vintage authentication, phenolic compounds in 121 Chinese commercial dry red wines were detected and quantified by using high-performance liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QqQ-MS/MS), and differentiation abilities of principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were compared. Better than PCA and PLS-DA, OPLS-DA models used to differentiate wines according to their varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon or other varieties), regions (east or west Cabernet Sauvignon wines), and vintages (young or old Cabernet Sauvignon wines) were ideally established. The S-plot provided in OPLS-DA models showed the key phenolic compounds which were both statistically and biochemically significant in sample differentiation. Besides, the potential of the OPLS-DA models in deeper sample differentiating of more detailed regional and vintage information of wines was proved optimistic. On the basis of our results, a promising theoretic design for wine authentication was further proposed for the first time, which might be helpful in practical authentication of more commercial wines. The phenolic data of 121 Chinese commercial dry red wines was processed with different statistical tools for varietal, regional, and vintage differentiation. A promising theoretical design was summarized, which might be helpful for wine authentication in practical situation. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Grapes and Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre-Tudo, Jose Luis; Buica, Astrid; Nieuwoudt, Helene; Aleixandre, Jose Luis; du Toit, Wessel

    2017-05-24

    Phenolic compounds are of crucial importance for red wine color and mouthfeel attributes. A large number of enzymatic and chemical reactions involving phenolic compounds take place during winemaking and aging. Despite the large number of published analytical methods for phenolic analyses, the values obtained may vary considerably. In addition, the existing scientific knowledge needs to be updated, but also critically evaluated and simplified for newcomers and wine industry partners. The most used and widely cited spectrophotometric methods for grape and wine phenolic analysis were identified through a bibliometric search using the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE) database accessed through the Web of Science (WOS) platform from Thompson Reuters. The selection of spectrophotometry was based on its ease of use as a routine analytical technique. On the basis of the number of citations, as well as the advantages and disadvantages reported, the modified Somers assay appears as a multistep, simple, and robust procedure that provides a good estimation of the state of the anthocyanins equilibria. Precipitation methods for total tannin levels have also been identified as preferred protocols for these types of compounds. Good reported correlations between methods (methylcellulose precipitable vs bovine serum albumin) and between these and perceived red wine astringency, in combination with the adaptation to high-throughput format, make them suitable for routine analysis. The bovine serum albumin tannin assay also allows for the estimation of the anthocyanins content with the measurement of small and large polymeric pigments. Finally, the measurement of wine color using the CIELab space approach is also suggested as the protocol of choice as it provides good insight into the wine's color properties.

  10. Methodologies for the Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Environmental Samples: New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mahugo Santana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic derivatives are among the most important contaminants present in the environment. These compounds are used in several industrial processes to manufacture chemicals such as pesticides, explosives, drugs and dyes. They also are used in the bleaching process of paper manufacturing. Apart from these sources, phenolic compounds have substantial applications in agriculture as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. However, phenolic compounds are not only generated by human activity, but they are also formed naturally, e.g., during the decomposition of leaves or wood. As a result of these applications, they are found in soils and sediments and this often leads to wastewater and ground water contamination. Owing to their high toxicity and persistence in the environment, both, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and the European Union have included some of them in their lists of priority pollutants. Current standard methods of phenolic compounds analysis in water samples are based on liquid–liquid extraction (LLE while Soxhlet extraction is the most used technique for isolating phenols from solid matrices. However, these techniques require extensive cleanup procedures that are time-intensive and involve expensive and hazardous organic solvents, which are undesirable for health and disposal reasons. In the last years, the use of news methodologies such as solid-phase extraction (SPE and solid-phase microextraction (SPME have increased for the extraction of phenolic compounds from liquid samples. In the case of solid samples, microwave assisted extraction (MAE is demonstrated to be an efficient technique for the extraction of these compounds. In this work we review the developed methods in the extraction and determination of phenolic derivatives in different types of environmental matrices such as water, sediments and soils. Moreover, we present the new approach in the use of micellar media coupled with SPME process for the

  11. Influence of humic acids of different origins on oxidation of phenol and chlorophenols by permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Di; Guan, Xiaohong; Ma, Jun; Yang, Xue; Cui, Chongwei

    2010-10-15

    The influences of humic acids (HAs) of different origins, including two commercial HAs, three soil HAs and one aquatic HA, on phenols oxidation by permanganate were studied. The apparent second-order rate constants of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP)/phenol oxidation by permanganate in the presence of HAs at pH 7 followed the order of commercial HA (Shanghai)>soil HAs>commercial HA (Fluka)>aquatic HA. Moreover, the commercial HA (Shanghai) could accelerate the oxidation of different chlorophenols (CP) significantly under neutral condition. The FTIR analysis demonstrated greater content of CC moieties and less amount of carboxylate, aliphatic groups and polysaccharide-like substances in soil HAs than in aqueous HA, suggesting that the increase of aromaticity in HA was beneficial to the oxidation of phenols by permanganate. The apparent second-order rate constants of 2-CP/phenol oxidation by permanganate in the presence of HAs correlated well with specific visible absorption (SVA) at 665 nm of HAs. High positive correlation coefficients (R(2)>0.75) implied that pi-electrons of HA strongly influenced the reactivity of 2-CP/phenol towards permanganate oxidation, which agreed well with positive correlation between Fluorescence Regional Integration (FRI) and the apparent second-order rate constants. The pi-pi interaction between HAs and phenols, the steric hindrance effect and the dissociation of phenols may affect the oxidation of phenols by permanganate in the presence of HA at pH=7.0. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiation protective agents possessing anti-oxidative properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ueno, Emi; Yoshida, Akira; Furuse, Masako; Ikota, Nobuo [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Research Center for Radiation Safety, Chiba, Chiba (Japan)

    2005-11-15

    The purpose of studies is to see mechanisms of radiation protection of agents possessing anti-oxidative properties because the initial step resulting in radiation hazard is the formation of radicals by water radiolysis. Agents were commercially available or synthesized proxyl derivatives (spin prove agents), commercially available spin-trapping agents, edaravone and TMG (a tocopherol glycoside). Mice and cultured cells were X-irradiated by Shimadzu Pantak HF-320 or 320S. Survivals of cells were determined by colony assay and of mice, to which the agents were given intraperitoneally before or after X-irradiation, within 30 days post irradiation. Plasma and marrow concentrations of proxyls were estimated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. Mechanisms of their radiation protective effects were shown different from agent to agent. TMG was found effective even post irradiation, which suggests a possibility for a new drug development. Some (spin trapping agents and TMG), virtually ineffective at the cell level, were found effective in the whole body, suggesting the necessity of studies on their disposition and metabolism. (S.I.)

  13. Radiation protective agents possessing anti-oxidative properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ueno, Emi; Yoshida, Akira; Furuse, Masako; Ikota, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of studies is to see mechanisms of radiation protection of agents possessing anti-oxidative properties because the initial step resulting in radiation hazard is the formation of radicals by water radiolysis. Agents were commercially available or synthesized proxyl derivatives (spin prove agents), commercially available spin-trapping agents, edaravone and TMG (a tocopherol glycoside). Mice and cultured cells were X-irradiated by Shimadzu Pantak HF-320 or 320S. Survivals of cells were determined by colony assay and of mice, to which the agents were given intraperitoneally before or after X-irradiation, within 30 days post irradiation. Plasma and marrow concentrations of proxyls were estimated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. Mechanisms of their radiation protective effects were shown different from agent to agent. TMG was found effective even post irradiation, which suggests a possibility for a new drug development. Some (spin trapping agents and TMG), virtually ineffective at the cell level, were found effective in the whole body, suggesting the necessity of studies on their disposition and metabolism. (S.I.)

  14. The possession law suit, caused by forbidden immissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Serbian Law and in most of jurisdictions, there are limits on exercising the right of property. The real estate owner must refrain from activities by which the use of other real estate is being impoded through the immission of execive gasses, vapors, smoke, heat noise, tremors etc. The property ownership whose is affected by immission exceeding the set limits, has the right to request a stop of immisions which exceeded the allowed volume of immissions. In article author describes various kinds of immissions. The general feature of this law suit is that there is only discussion on the facts and not for a legal matters. Subject matter jurisdiction for the resolution of such disputes belongs to the court of general jurisdiction, while the disputes itself is a litigation. The special rule of proceedings of action of disturbance are: provisionality of the protection of possession; urgency in proceedings; initiation of proceedings; limiting of objection; prescribing temporary measures; rendering a ruling in the form of order; appeals which may be filed within a short deadline and which does not have suspensive effect (do not delay the execution of the order; revision is not allowed etc.

  15. Effect of fungal infection on phenolic compounds during the storage of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This work was undertaken to study the effect of Aspergillus infection on phenolic compounds in beans from four cultivars of the coffee plant (Coffea arabica L.. The effects of storage conditions of the coffee beans were also examined. Methodology and results: Beans from four varieties of coffee were artificially infected with three species of Aspergillus: A. niger, A. melleus and A. alliacus, and stored at 0, 8 and 25 ± 2 °C. After 3, 6 and 9 months, the contents of phenolic compounds in the beans were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Conclusion, significance and impact study: The results of this study showed that phenolic compounds were qualitatively and quantitatively higher in the inoculated beans as compared with the uninfected control beans, reflecting a possible induced defense mechanism in the infected beans. Increased storage periods resulted in higher levels of phenols, but the average total, bound and free phenols did not differ between the cultivars tested. Effective control of Apergillus infection in coffee beans can prevent such changes in phenolics that may affect their commercial value.

  16. Evaluation of the Efficiency of a Biofilter System’s Phenol Removal From Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shokoohi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenol is a toxic hydrocarbon that has been found in the wastewater of several industries, including the petroleum and petrochemical industries. The discharge of untreated wastewater from these industries causes environmental pollution, especially in water. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of phenol removal from wastewater using a biofiltration system. In this experimental study, a cylindrical plexiglass biofilter reactor with an effective volume of 12 liters was used. A total of 30 pcs of plastic grid discs were placed inside the reactor by plastic pipes to maintain the biofilm media in the reactor. The microorganisms used in this study were obtained from the biological sludge of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The reproduction and adaptation of the microorganisms to 500 mg/L of phenol lasted three months. The effects of pH, phenol, nitrogen, phosphorus, glucose concentration, and hydraulic retention time on the biofilter system’s performance was evaluated. The results of this study showed that in optimal conditions, this system can reduce the phenol concentration from 500 mg/L to zero within about 4 hr. Maximum efficiency occurred in pH = 7, and the proper COD/N/P ratio was 100/10/2, respectively. In general, this biofilter system is capable of removing 500 mg/L of phenol concentrations and an organic load of 4 - 4.5 kg COD/m3.d within 4 - 5 hr. with high efficiency.

  17. Phenolic composition of Tempranillo wines following early defoliation of the vines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diago, Maria P; Ayestarán, Belén; Guadalupe, Zenaida; Garrido, Álvaro; Tardaguila, Javier

    2012-03-15

    Early defoliation is a viticultural practice aimed at crop control. So far, the impact of early leaf removal on the monomeric phenolic composition of wines has not been explored. This study examines the effects of early defoliation on the phenolic profile and content in Tempranillo wines. The influence of the defoliation method (manual vs mechanical) and the timing of leaf removal (pre-bloom vs fruit set) was investigated. Over two consecutive seasons, 2007 and 2008, the monomeric phenolic composition in Tempranillo wines was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, and 22 compounds were identified and quantified. Overall, early defoliation led to wines more intensely coloured, of higher alcohol content and with larger concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols and anthocyanins (in 2008 only for mechanical treatments). In the absence of fungal infection, resveratrol was found to increase in wines corresponding to early defoliation treatments. The method of leaf removal seemed to be more critical than the timing of intervention, and larger effects on wine phenolic composition were observed for mechanical treatments. Early defoliation proved to be an effective technique for improving the phenolic composition of Tempranillo wines, by favouring the accumulation of hydroxycinnamics, flavonols and anthocyanins. This is an important achievement, as wine quality is often described by its colour and phenolic attributes. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. A study on total phenolics and vitamin c contents of kalecik karasi (vitis vinifera l.) clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, N.; Keskin, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study total phenolic and vitamin C contents of the fully ripe berries of 23 clones of Kalecik Karasi which is one of the leading Turkish local red-wine grape cultivar originally grown in Kizilirmak valley near Kalecik/Ankara region were examined under the clone selection project supported by TUBTAK (Project Nr: 107 O 731). High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for vitamin C and spectrophotometer for total phenolics estimation. One way ANOVA was used to compare means of clone for their total phenolic and vitamin C contents. In addition to this univariate method, hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to identify similarity levels among the clones by considering total phenolics and vitamin C content together. Differences among the clones were found statistically significant for both characteristics. Total phenolic contents of the clones varied from 3.310 mg (clone 21) to 3.389 mg (clone 6) as GAE g fw. Vitamin C content ranged from 14.010 mg (clone 6) to 16.500 mg (clone 19) in 100g fw. Furthermore, similarity level for all clones was 83.1% that means variation rate is about 17% among the clones. As a summary of whole data, the first three performing clones are 6 (3.389 mg), 10 (3.374 mg) and 1 (3.365 mg) for total phenolics, and 19 (16.500 mg), 9 (16.020 mg), and 21 (16.015 mg) for vitamin C contents of the berries. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties and Phenolic Composition of Fruit Tea Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha Şahin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of fruit tea is increasing in the world because of its antioxidant properties and attractive taste. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the antioxidant property and phenolic composition of 16 different fruit teas. The antioxidant property and total phenol content of fruit teas depending on the extraction condition (water temperature were examined using the ABTS (2,2-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] method and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The contents of total flavonoid and total anthocyanin of fruit teas was determined by using the UV/Vis spectrophotometric method. The phenolic composition was determined and quantified by using high performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA. The highest total phenol content and antioxidant capacity were determined in pomegranate (I. The highest contents of total flavonoid and total anthocyanin were determined in peach (III and blackberry (I, respectively. Chlorogenic acid, quercetin, myricetin, rutin, rosmarinic acid and ferulic acid were determined in fruit teas. A water temperature of 100 °C was the most effective to extract the highest contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and the highest antioxidant capacity in 16 different fruit teas. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of water temperature on the extraction and quantify the various phenolic compounds in fruit teas by HPLC method for industrial application in producing the extracts.

  20. Dereplication of plant phenolics using a mass-spectrometry database independent method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ricardo M; Taujale, Rahil; de Souza, Juliana Santana; de Andrade Bezerra, Thaís; Silva, Eder Lana E; Herzog, Ronny; Ponce, Francesca V; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Edison, Arthur S

    2018-05-29

    Dereplication, an approach to sidestep the efforts involved in the isolation of known compounds, is generally accepted as being the first stage of novel discoveries in natural product research. It is based on metabolite profiling analysis of complex natural extracts. To present the application of LipidXplorer for automatic targeted dereplication of phenolics in plant crude extracts based on direct infusion high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry data. LipidXplorer uses a user-defined molecular fragmentation query language (MFQL) to search for specific characteristic fragmentation patterns in large data sets and highlight the corresponding metabolites. To this end, MFQL files were written to dereplicate common phenolics occurring in plant extracts. Complementary MFQL files were used for validation purposes. New MFQL files with molecular formula restrictions for common classes of phenolic natural products were generated for the metabolite profiling of different representative crude plant extracts. This method was evaluated against an open-source software for mass-spectrometry data processing (MZMine®) and against manual annotation based on published data. The targeted LipidXplorer method implemented using common phenolic fragmentation patterns, was found to be able to annotate more phenolics than MZMine® that is based on automated queries on the available databases. Additionally, screening for ascarosides, natural products with unrelated structures to plant phenolics collected from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, demonstrated the specificity of this method by cross-testing both groups of chemicals in both plants and nematodes. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Effect of various gases and chemical catalysts on phenol degradation pathways by pulsed electrical discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Yongjun [Institute of Environmental Pollution Control Technologies, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Lei Lecheng [Institute of Environmental Pollution Control Technologies, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China)], E-mail: lclei@zju.edu.cn; Zhang Xingwang; Zhou Minghua; Zhang Yi [Institute of Environmental Pollution Control Technologies, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China)

    2008-02-11

    The processes of phenol degradation by pulsed electrical discharges were investigated under several kinds of discharge atmospheres (oxygen, argon, nitrogen and ozone) and chemical catalysts (ferrous ion and hydrogen peroxide). The temporal variations of the concentrations of phenol and the intermediate products were monitored by HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. It has been found that the effect of various gases bubbling on phenol degradation rate ranked in the following order: oxygen-containing ozone > oxygen > argon > nitrogen. The high gas bubbling flow rate was beneficial to the removal of phenol. It was found that the degradation proceeded differently when in the presence and absence of catalysts. The phenol removal rate was increased when ferrous ion was added. This considerable enhancement may be due to the Fenton's reaction. What's more, putting the chemical additives hydrogen peroxide into the reactor led to a dramatic increase in phenol degradation rate. The mechanism was due to the direct or indirect photolysis and pyrolysis destruction in plasma channel. Furthermore, the intermediate products were monitored by GC-MS under three degradation conditions. More THBs were generated under degradation conditions without gases bubbling or adding any catalyst, and more DHBs under the condition of adding ferrous ion, and more carboxylic acids under the condition of oxygen-containing ozone gas bubbling. Consequently, three distinct degradation pathways based on different conditions were proposed.

  2. Effect of various gases and chemical catalysts on phenol degradation pathways by pulsed electrical discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yongjun; Lei, Lecheng; Zhang, Xingwang; Zhou, Minghua; Zhang, Yi

    2008-02-11

    The processes of phenol degradation by pulsed electrical discharges were investigated under several kinds of discharge atmospheres (oxygen, argon, nitrogen and ozone) and chemical catalysts (ferrous ion and hydrogen peroxide). The temporal variations of the concentrations of phenol and the intermediate products were monitored by HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. It has been found that the effect of various gases bubbling on phenol degradation rate ranked in the following order: oxygen-containing ozone>oxygen>argon>nitrogen. The high gas bubbling flow rate was beneficial to the removal of phenol. It was found that the degradation proceeded differently when in the presence and absence of catalysts. The phenol removal rate was increased when ferrous ion was added. This considerable enhancement may be due to the Fenton's reaction. What's more, putting the chemical additives hydrogen peroxide into the reactor led to a dramatic increase in phenol degradation rate. The mechanism was due to the direct or indirect photolysis and pyrolysis destruction in plasma channel. Furthermore, the intermediate products were monitored by GC-MS under three degradation conditions. More THBs were generated under degradation conditions without gases bubbling or adding any catalyst, and more DHBs under the condition of adding ferrous ion, and more carboxylic acids under the condition of oxygen-containing ozone gas bubbling. Consequently, three distinct degradation pathways based on different conditions were proposed.

  3. Investigation of Phenol Removal by Proxy-Electrocoagulation Process with Iron Electrodes from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Assadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenol as an aromatic hydroxyl compound are considered as a priority pollutant. Because of their stability, solubility in water and high toxicity had health important. Methods: In the present experimental study, electrocoagulation reactor by iron electrodes are used in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to phenol removing from aqueous solutions. Effects of variables including H2O2 dosage, reaction time, pH, current density and initial phenol concentration were evaluated to estimate the efficiency of the process. Results: The results showed that pH and H2O2 have the most important role in the removal of phenol. Increasing of H2O2 concentrations from 0.0125 to 0.025 M increased removal efficiency from 74% to 100%. Maximum removal was achieved at pH=3. However, increasing the pH to 9 lead to reducing removal efficiency to 9.8%. Also, by increasing of current density removal efficiency was increased. But with increasing initial concentration of phenol removal efficiency was reduced. Conclusion: Proxy-electrocoagulation process as an effective and robust process can be used for handling of phenol containing wastewater.

  4. CATALYTIC PERFORMANCES OF Fe2O3/TS-1 CATALYST IN PHENOL HYDROXYLATION REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Prasetyoko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxylation reaction of phenol into diphenol, such as hydroquinone and catechol, has a great role in many industrial applications. Phenol hydroxylation reaction can be carried out using Titanium Silicalite-1 (TS-1 as catalyst and H2O2 as an oxidant. TS-1 catalyst shows high activity and selectivity for phenol hydroxylation reaction. However, its hydrophobic sites lead to slow H2O2 adsorption toward the active site of TS-1. Consequently, the reaction rate of phenol hydroxylation reaction is tends to be low. Addition of metal oxide Fe2O3 enhanced hydrophilicity of TS-1 catalyst. Liquid phase catalytic phenol hydroxylation using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant was carried out over iron (III oxide-modified TS-1 catalyst (Fe2O3/TS-1, that were prepared by impregnation method using iron (III nitrate as precursor and characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, pyridine adsorption, and hydrophilicity techniques. Catalysts 1Fe2O3/TS-1 showed maximum catalytic activity of hydroquinone product. In this research, the increase of hydroquinone formation rate is due to the higher hydrophilicity of Fe2O3/TS-1 catalysts compare to the parent catalyst, TS-1.   Keywords: Fe2O3/TS-1, hydrophilic site, phenol hydroxylation

  5. Antioxidant activity of selected phenols estimated by ABTS and FRAP methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Biskup

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenols are the most abundant compounds in nature. They are strong antioxidants. Too high level of free radicals leads to cell and tissue damage, which may cause asthma, Alzheimer disease, cancers, etc. Taking phenolics with the diet as supplements or natural medicines is important for homeostasis of the organism. Materials and methods: The ten most popular water soluble phenols were chosen for the experiment to investigate their antioxidant properties using ABTS radical scavenging capacity assay and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP assay. Results and discussion: Antioxidant properties of selected phenols in the ABTS test expressed as IC50 ranged from 4.332 μM to 852.713 μM (for gallic acid and 4- hydroxyphenylacetic acid respectively. Antioxidant properties in the FRAP test are expressed as μmol Fe2 /ml. All examined phenols reduced ferric ions at concentration 1.00 x 10-3 mg/ml. Both methods are very useful for determination of antioxidant capacity of water soluble phenols.

  6. Effect of various gases and chemical catalysts on phenol degradation pathways by pulsed electrical discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yongjun; Lei Lecheng; Zhang Xingwang; Zhou Minghua; Zhang Yi

    2008-01-01

    The processes of phenol degradation by pulsed electrical discharges were investigated under several kinds of discharge atmospheres (oxygen, argon, nitrogen and ozone) and chemical catalysts (ferrous ion and hydrogen peroxide). The temporal variations of the concentrations of phenol and the intermediate products were monitored by HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. It has been found that the effect of various gases bubbling on phenol degradation rate ranked in the following order: oxygen-containing ozone > oxygen > argon > nitrogen. The high gas bubbling flow rate was beneficial to the removal of phenol. It was found that the degradation proceeded differently when in the presence and absence of catalysts. The phenol removal rate was increased when ferrous ion was added. This considerable enhancement may be due to the Fenton's reaction. What's more, putting the chemical additives hydrogen peroxide into the reactor led to a dramatic increase in phenol degradation rate. The mechanism was due to the direct or indirect photolysis and pyrolysis destruction in plasma channel. Furthermore, the intermediate products were monitored by GC-MS under three degradation conditions. More THBs were generated under degradation conditions without gases bubbling or adding any catalyst, and more DHBs under the condition of adding ferrous ion, and more carboxylic acids under the condition of oxygen-containing ozone gas bubbling. Consequently, three distinct degradation pathways based on different conditions were proposed

  7. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile of grape pomace phenolic compounds in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, Fabio; Costabile, Giuseppina; Bresciani, Letizia; Tassotti, Michele; Naviglio, Daniele; Luongo, Delia; Ciciola, Paola; Vitale, Marilena; Vetrani, Claudia; Galaverna, Gianni; Brighenti, Furio; Giacco, Rosalba; Del Rio, Daniele; Mena, Pedro

    2018-05-15

    Grape pomace, the major byproduct of the wine and juice industry, is a relevant source of bioactive phenolic compounds. However, polyphenol bioavailability in humans is not well understood, and the inter-individual variability in the production of phenolic metabolites has not been comprehensively assessed to date. The pharmacokinetic and excretive profiles of phenolic metabolites after the acute administration of a drink made from red grape pomace was here investigated in ten volunteers. A total of 35 and 28 phenolic metabolites were quantified in urine and plasma, respectively. The main circulating metabolites included phenyl-γ-valerolactones, hydroxybenzoic acids, simple phenols, hydroxyphenylpropionic acids, hydroxycinnamates, and (epi)catechin phase II conjugates. A high inter-individual variability was shown both in urine and plasma samples, and different patterns of circulating metabolites were unravelled by applying unsupervised multivariate analysis. Besides the huge variability in the production of microbial metabolites of colonic origin, an important variability was observed due to phase II conjugates. These results are of interest to further understand the potential health benefits of phenolic metabolites on individual basis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Phenolic characterisation of red wines from different grape varieties cultivated in Mendoza province (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanzone, Martín; Zamora, Fernando; Jofré, Viviana; Assof, Mariela; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Peña-Neira, Álvaro

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of wine and its association with the grape variety/cultivar is of paramount importance in oenology and a necessary tool for marketing. Phenolic compounds are very important quality parameters of wines because of their impact on colour, taste and health properties. The aim of the present work was to study and describe the non-flavonoid and flavonoid composition of wines from the principal red grape varieties cultivated in Mendoza (Argentina). Sixty phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids/derivatives, stilbenes, anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and dihydroflavonols, were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS). Marked quantitative differences could be seen in the phenolic profile among varieties, especially in stilbenes, acylated anthocyanins and other flavonoids. The polyphenolic content of Malbec wines was higher compared with the other red varieties. Dihydroflavonols represent a significant finding from the chemotaxonomic point of view, especially for Malbec variety. This is the first report on the individual phenolic composition of red wines from Mendoza (Argentina) and suggests that anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids exert a great influence on cultivar-based differentiation. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. An efficient chemical analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids in raw propolis by microwave-assisted extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography using the fused-core technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellati, Federica; Prencipe, Francesco Pio; Bertelli, Davide; Benvenuti, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    A closed-vessel microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was optimized for the first time for the extraction of polyphenols from raw propolis. The results obtained by means of response surface experimental design methodology showed that the best global response was reached when the extraction temperature was set at 106 °C, the solvent composition close to EtOH-H2O 80:20 (v/v), with an extraction time of 15 min. In comparison with other techniques, such as maceration, heat reflux extraction (HRE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), the extraction with MAE was improved by shorter extraction time and lower volume of solvent needed. The HPLC analyses of propolis extracts were carried out on a fused-core Ascentis Express C18 column (150 mm × 3.0 mm I.D., 2.7 μm), with a gradient mobile phase composed by 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. Detection was performed by DAD and MS. The method validation indicated that the correlation coefficients were >0.999; the limit of detection was in the range 0.5-0.8 μg/ml for phenolic acids and 1.2-3.0 μg/ml for flavonoids; the recovery range was 95.3-98.1% for phenolic acids and 94.1-101.3% for flavonoids; the intra- and inter-day %RSD values for retention times and peak areas were ≤ 0.3 and 2.2%, respectively. The quali- and quantitative analysis of polyphenols in Italian samples of raw propolis was performed with the validated method. Total phenolic acids ranged from 5.0 to 120.8 mg/g and total flavonoids from 2.5 to 168.0mg/g. The proposed MAE procedure and HPLC method can be considered reliable and useful tools for the comprehensive multi-component analysis of polyphenols in propolis extracts to be used in apitherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Medication possession ratio predicts antiretroviral regimens persistence in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jorge L; Alave, Jorge L; Westfall, Andrew O; Paz, Jorge; Moran, Fiorella; Carbajal-Gonzalez, Danny; Callacondo, David; Avalos, Odalie; Rodriguez, Martin; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Echevarria, Juan; Willig, James H

    2013-01-01

    In developing nations, the use of operational parameters (OPs) in the prediction of clinical care represents a missed opportunity to enhance the care process. We modeled the impact of multiple measurements of antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence on antiretroviral treatment outcomes in Peru. Retrospective cohort study including ART naïve, non-pregnant, adults initiating therapy at Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima-Peru (2006-2010). Three OPs were defined: 1) Medication possession ratio (MPR): days with antiretrovirals dispensed/days on first-line therapy; 2) Laboratory monitory constancy (LMC): proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 viral load or CD4 reported; 3) Clinic visit constancy (CVC): proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 clinic visit. Three multi-variable Cox proportional hazard (PH) models (one per OP) were fit for (1) time of first-line ART persistence and (2) time to second-line virologic failure. All models were adjusted for socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory variables. 856 patients were included in first-line persistence analyses, median age was 35.6 years [29.4-42.9] and most were male (624; 73%). In multivariable PH models, MPR (per 10% increase HR=0.66; 95%CI=0.61-0.71) and LMC (per 10% increase 0.83; 0.71-0.96) were associated with prolonged time on first-line therapies. Among 79 individuals included in time to second-line virologic failure analyses, MPR was the only OP independently associated with prolonged time to second-line virologic failure (per 10% increase 0.88; 0.77-0.99). The capture and utilization of program level parameters such as MPR can provide valuable insight into patient-level treatment outcomes.

  11. Fatal Phenol Toxicity Following Attempted Tattoo Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Huang; Li, Shu-Hua; Byard, Roger W

    2016-07-01

    Tattoo removal is increasingly required as the number of, particularly young, people acquiring tattoos is increasing. A 21-year-old man is reported who underwent attempted removal of large dragon tattoo utilizing a tattoo machine that injected a phenol-containing solution. At the end of the 3-h procedure, he collapsed and died. At autopsy, large areas of white skin discoloration with focal necrosis and sloughing were present overlying areas of previous tattooing. Histological examination showed collections of eosinophilic fluid with a minimal chronic inflammatory infiltrate in better preserved areas, with focal areas of dermal necrosis. Toxicology was positive for phenol in cardiac blood and liver tissue. There were no underlying organic disease or injuries present which could have caused or contributed to death. This idiosyncratic method of tattoo removal involving subcutaneous injection of phenol had resulted in death most likely from cardiotoxicity. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Antioxidative and antiradical properties of plant phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    The plant phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, tannins and phenolic acids appeared to be strong antiradical and antioxidant compounds. The number of hydroxy groups and the presence of a 2,3-double bond and orthodiphenolic structure enhance antiradical and antioxidative activity of flavonoids. The glycosylation, blocking the 3-OH group in C-ring, lack of a hydroxy group or the presence of only a methoxy group in B-ring have a decreasing effect on antiradical or antioxidative activity of these compounds. Tannins show strong antioxidative properties. Some tannins in red wine or gallate esters were proved to have antioxidative effect in vivo. The number of hydroxy groups connected with the aromatic ring, in ortho or para position relative to each other, enhance antioxidative and antiradical activity of phenolic acids. The substitution of a methoxy group in ortho position to the OH in monophenols seems to favour the antioxidative activity of the former.

  13. An upper and lower bound of the Medication Possession Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperber CM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Christian M Sperber, Suren R Samarasinghe, Grace P Lomax Patient Connect Limited, Guildford, UK Background: The Medication Possession Ratio (MPR is a ubiquitous and central measurement for adherence in the health care industry. However, attempts to standardize its calculation have failed, possibly due to the opacity of a single, static MPR, incapability of directly lending itself to a variety of studies, and challenges of comparing the value across studies. This work shows that the MPR strictly depends on the length of the time interval over which it is measured as well as on the dominant dispense quantity for short time intervals. Furthermore, removing a proportion of the patient cohort based on the number of acquisitions may also have a severe impact on the MPR. Therefore, it is suggested that the MPR is represented as a trend over a range of time intervals. To this end, an upper and lower bound of the MPR trend is developed with an upper bound acknowledging patients who change their treatment and the lower bound acknowledging patients who discontinue their treatment.Purpose: Introducing a representation of the MPR value as a trend rather than a static number by developing a quantitative description of an upper and lower bound of the MPR trend, while shedding light on the impacts on prefiltering the patient cohort.Patients and methods: Anonymized patient-level data was utilized as an example for a suggested calculation of an upper and lower bound of the MPR.Results: Representation of the MPR for a predefined time interval precludes a reliable MPR assessment. A quantitative approach is suggested to generate an upper and lower trend of the MPR while emphasizing the impact on removing patients with a limited number of acquisitions.Conclusion: An upper and lower trend makes the MPR more transparent and allows a better comparison across different studies. Removing patients with a limited number of acquisitions should be avoided. Keywords: MPR

  14. The role of phenols from bagasse vacuum pyrolysis bio-oil in cupper sulfured ore flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Brossard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum pyrolysis bagasse bio-oil collected in a series of sequential fractions was analyzed for total percentage of phenols and levoglucosan components. It was established that the ratio total phenols- to-levoglucosan could be used as an indicator of the performance of alkaline solutions of bio-oil fractions (SABO when they are used as foaming agents to benefit flotation of sulfured cupper minerals. A high total phenol-to-levoglucosan ratio results in high percentages of Cu in cupper flotation concentrates, L Cu. A closer look at the role of individual phenols reveals that p-cresol is the main phenol, although not the only one, responsible for the observed behavior. Additionally it was noted that rather high doses of these foaming agents must be used to obtain desirable results in flotation processes. A production cost estimate allows consideration of SABO as an alternative to others commercial foaming agents, especially if an optimization study reduces doses of SABO.

  15. Phenolic Compounds Present Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Influence the Lowering of Blood Pressure in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Glória, Lorena; Barreto de Souza Arantes, Mariana; Menezes de Faria Pereira, Silvia; de Souza Vieira, Guilherme; Xavier Martins, Camilla; Ribeiro de Carvalho Junior, Almir; Antunes, Fernanda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; José Curcino Vieira, Ivo; Leandro da Cruz, Larissa; Siqueira de Almeida Chaves, Douglas; de Paiva Freitas, Silvério; Barros de Oliveira, Daniela

    2017-10-23

    This study identified two phenolic compounds in Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi fruits: naringenin (first report in this species) and gallic acid. Their structures were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data (¹H-, 13 C-NMR) and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. A high content of phenolics (659.21 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of sample-Folin-Ciocalteau method) and total flavonoids (140.69 mg of rutin equivalents/g of sample-aluminum chloride method) were quantified in S. terebinthifolius , as well as high antioxidant activity (77.47%-2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH method). The antihypertensive activity related to its phenolic content was investigated. After intravenous infusion in Wistar rats, these phenolics significantly reduced ( p < 0.05) the systolic, median, and diastolic arterial pressures of individuals. The rotarod test was performed to determine the mechanism of action of the sample vasorelaxant effect. It was found that its action exceeded that of the positive control used (diazepam). This confirmed the vasodilatory activity exerted by S. terebinthifolius fruits is related to the phenolic compounds present in the plant, which are potent antioxidants and inhibit oxidative stress, mainly in the central nervous system.

  16. Are symptoms of spirit possessed patients covered by the DSM-IV or DSM-5 criteria for possession trance disorder? A mixed-method explorative study in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijl, M.; Kleyn, W.; de Jong, J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and aims As in many cultures, spirit possession is a common idiom of distress in Uganda. The DSM-IV contains experimental research criteria for dissociative and possession trance disorder (DTD and PTD), which are under review for the DSM-5. In the current proposed categories of the

  17. The effects of oxidative stress on phenolic composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty phenolic compounds (apigenin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, ... quercetin, rutin hydrate, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, salicylic acid, sinapic acid, ... phenolic molecules biosynthesis and activation of antioxidant metabolism on ...

  18. Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... Key words: Barringtonia racemosa, antifungal, HPLC, phenolic acids, flavonoids. ... Among them, phenolic acids and flavonoids have been the object of .... on the previous method as described by Crozier et al. ... Quantification.

  19. Yttrium Nitrate mediated Nitration of Phenols at room temperature in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The described method is selective for phenols. ... the significant cause of post translational modification that can ... decades, significant attention was paid on nitration of phenols to .... Progress of the reaction can be noted visually. Yttrium.

  20. Resveratrol, phenolic antioxidants, and saccharides in South American red wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorio-Macías DE

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Daniel E Osorio-Macías,1,2 Pamela Vásquez,3 Cristhian Carrasco,3 Bjorn Bergenstahl,1 J Mauricio Peñarrieta2 1Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Engineering LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 2School of Chemistry, Faculty of Pure and Natural Sciences, 3Institute of Research and Development of Chemical Processes, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA, La Paz, Bolivia Abstract: Wine is an important beverage with a long tradition, and its moderate consumption may be considered beneficial for human health. Although there are many studies regarding phenolic compounds in wines, there is a lack of information about antioxidants and phenolic content in South American wines. In this study, 35 South American red wines from four different countries, vintages 2004–2013, purchased at retail stores in La Paz, Bolivia, were studied. Resveratrol content, total antioxidant capacity (TAC by the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzotiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP methods, total phenolic content (TPH, total flavonoids (TF, and main saccharides were assessed using the well-established spectrophotometric and high-performance liquid chromatography methods. The results ranged from 4 to 24 mmol/L for TAC determined by ABTS method and 14 to 43 mmol/L for TAC determined by FRAP method, 1600 to 3500 mg gallic acid equivalents/L for TPH, and 2 to 6 mmol catechin equivalents /L for TF. The resveratrol content ranged from 0.1 to 8 mg/L. Saccharides, glucose, and fructose content ranged from 0.4 to 10 g/L, 1.4 to 8.6 g/L, and 0.2 to 12 g/L, respectively. There was a high correlation among the different methods. The results showed that some wines growing at high altitude (>1500 meters above the sea level have higher amounts of TAC and phenolic content, including resveratrol, while non-varietal wines showed the lowest values. It was also observed that the saccharose

  1. The Secret Prover : Proving Possession of Arbitrary Files While not Giving Them Away

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, Wouter

    2005-01-01

    The Secret Prover is a Java application which allows a user (A) to prove to another user (B), that A possesses a file. If B also possesses this file B will get convinced, and if B does not possess this file B will gain no information on (the contents of) this file. This is the first implementation

  2. Phenolic composition, antioxidant, anti-wrinkles and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of cocoa pod extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Azila Abdul; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Hashim, Puziah; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Zainudin, Badrul Hisyam; Abdullah, Nur Azilah

    2014-10-07

    Cocoa pod is an outer part of cocoa fruits being discarded during cocoa bean processing. Authors found out that data on its usage in literature as cosmetic materials was not recorded in vast. In this study, cocoa pod extract was investigated for its potential as a cosmetic ingredient. Cocoa pod extract (CPE) composition was accomplished using UHPLC. The antioxidant capacity were measured using scavenging assay of 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching assay (BCB) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Inhibiting effect on skin degradation enzymes was carried out using elastase and collagenase assays. The skin whitening effect of CPE was determined based on mushroom tyrosinase assay and sun screening effect (UV-absorbance at 200-400 nm wavelength). LC-MS/MS data showed the presence of carboxylic acid, phenolic acid, fatty acid, flavonoids (flavonol and flavones), stilbenoids and terpenoids in CPE. Results for antioxidant activity exhibited that CPE possessed good antioxidant activity, based on the mechanism of the assays compared with ascorbic acid (AA) and standardized pine bark extract (PBE); DPPH: AA > CPE > PBE; FRAP: PBE > CPE > AA; and BCB: BHT > CPE > PBE. Cocoa pod extract showed better action against elastase and collagenase enzymes in comparison with PBE and AA. Higher inhibition towards tyrosinase enzyme was exhibited by CPE than kojic acid and AA, although lower than PBE. CPE induced proliferation when tested on human fibroblast cell at low concentration. CPE also exhibited a potential as UVB sunscreen despite its low performance as a UVA sunscreen agent. Therefore, the CPE has high potential as a cosmetic ingredient due to its anti-wrinkle, skin whitening, and sunscreen effects.

  3. The removal of phenols from oily wastewater by chlorine dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Chung-Jung

    1988-01-01

    Treatability studies were performed on oily wastewaters produced by petroleum and canning industries. Chlorine dioxide was used for the removal of phenolic compounds from these oily wastewaters. Most of phenolic compounds can be destroyed by chlorine dioxide within 15 minutes if CI02-to-phenol ratios of higher than 5.0 are provided. Factors such as pH, temperature, and COD have little effect on phenol removal. The effectiveness of chlorine dioxide treatment depends critic...

  4. Phenolics in Primula veris L. and P. elatior (L. Hill Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bączek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primula veris L. and Primula elatior (L. Hill represent medicinal plants used for the production of herbal teas and preparations with antioxidant and expectorant activity. Flowers and roots of both species possess the same biological activity. In the presented study, raw materials of wild growing P. veris and P. elatior were compared in terms of the content and composition of phenolic compounds using a fast and simple HPLC-DAD method. The study showed that flowers of both species were rich in flavonoids. However, P. veris flowers were characterized with a distinctly higher content of isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, astragalin, and (+-catechin, whereas P. elatior occurred to be a richer source of rutoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside. Hyperoside was found exclusively in P. elatior flowers. Phenolic glycosides (primverin and primulaverin were identified only in the roots. Their content was about ten times higher in P. veris in comparison with P. elatior underground organs. The obtained results clearly show that both Primula species differ distinctly in terms of the content and composition of phenolic compounds. The compounds differentiating both species to the highest degree (hyperoside, in flowers, as well as primverin and primulaverin, in the roots may be useful chemical markers in the identification and evaluation of both species.

  5. Antioxidant and Nitrite-Scavenging Capacities of Phenolic Compounds from Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Tops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane tops were extracted with 50% ethanol and fractionated by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EtOAc, and n-butyl alcohol successively. Eight phenolic compounds in EtOAc extracts were purified through silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and then identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectra. The results showed that eight phenolic compounds from EtOAc extracts were identified as caffeic acid, cis-p-hydroxycinnamic acid, quercetin, apigenin, albanin A, australone A, moracin M, and 5'-geranyl-5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone. The antioxidant and nitrite-scavenging capacities of different solvent extracts correlated positively with their total phenolic (TP contents. Amongst various extracts, EtOAc extracts possessed the highest TP content and presented the strongest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, 2,2'-azobis-3-ethylbenthiaazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical-scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and nitrite-scavenging capacity. Thus, sugarcane tops could be promoted as a source of natural antioxidant.

  6. Cocoa Phenolic Extract Protects Pancreatic Beta Cells against Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bravo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in glutathione, supporting the critical role of oxidative stress in its pathogenesis. Antioxidant food components such as flavonoids have a protective role against oxidative stress-induced degenerative and age-related diseases. Flavonoids constitute an important part of the human diet; they can be found in most plant foods, including green tea, grapes or cocoa and possess multiple biological activities. This study investigates the chemo-protective effect of a cocoa phenolic extract (CPE containing mainly flavonoids against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH on Ins-1E pancreatic beta cells. Cell viability and oxidative status were evaluated. Ins-1E cells treatment with 5–20 μg/mL CPE for 20 h evoked no cell damage and did not alter ROS production. Addition of 50 μM t-BOOH for 2 h increased ROS and carbonyl groups content and decreased reduced glutathione level. Pre-treatment of cells with CPE significantly prevented the t-BOOH-induced ROS and carbonyl groups and returned antioxidant defences to adequate levels. Thus, Ins-1E cells treated with CPE showed a remarkable recovery of cell viability damaged by t-BOOH, indicating that integrity of surviving machineries in the CPE-treated cells was notably protected against the oxidative insult.

  7. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  8. 21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles. Phenolic resins identified in this section may be safely used as the food-contact surface of molded...

  9. Reaction of formaldehyde with phenols: a computational chemistry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohru Mitsunaga; Anthony H. Conner; Charles G. Hill

    2001-01-01

    Phenolic resins are important adhesives used by the forest products industry. The phenolic compounds in these resins are derived primarily from petrochemical sources. Alternate sources of phenolic compounds include tannins, lignins, biomass pyrolysis products, and coal gasification products. Because of variations in their chemical structures, the reactivities of these...

  10. Kinetics of biological treatment of phenolic wastewater in a three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic wastewater was treated in a three-phase draft tube fluidized bed reactor containing biofilm. Phenol removal rate with biofilm was evaluated both theoretically and experimentally. The results indicate that biodegradation of phenolic wastewater by biofilm process could be treated as a zero order reaction.

  11. [Production, absorption and excretion of phenols in intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, M

    1986-11-01

    In intestinal obstruction, phenols were produced in the distended loop proximal to obstruction by enteric bacteria. Clinically, in 17 cases of non-strangulated intestinal obstruction, phenols were detected in 15 cases and mean concentration of phenols was 4.2 +/- 9.7 micro g/ml(mean +/- 1 SD). In the fraction of phenols, p-cresol was detected in 15 cases and mean concentration was 3.8 +/- 7.7 and phenol was detected in 4 cases and mean concentration was 0.5 +/- 2.6. Phenols were decreased as clinical improvement of intestinal obstruction. Enteric bacteria in enteric juice ranged from 10(4) to 10(10)/ml and its change paralleled to phenols concentration. Mean urinary concentration of phenols in intestinal obstruction was increased to 297 +/- 415 mg/day compared to control (less than 50 mg/day). Its change also paralleled to phenols concentration in enteric juice. Closed ileal loop was made in dogs and phenols were infused in the loop. Phenols were increased in the portal vein 5 min after the infusion and in the femoral vein 60 min after the infusion. Phenols, which was thought to be toxic to the host, were proved to be produced in the distended intestine and excreted from the kidney.

  12. Lipophilized phenolics as antioxidants in fish oil enriched food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Food products containing long chain omega-3 PUFA are highly susceptible to oxidation, which causes undesirable flavors and loss of health beneficial fatty acids. Many omega-3 enriched food products on the market are oil-in-water emulsions. According to the so called “polar paradox”, polar compounds...... hypothesis is that lipophilization of such polar phenolic compounds may improve their efficacy in fish oil enriched food systems. Our study aimed at evaluating rutin and dihydrocaffeic acid and their esters as antioxidants in o/w emulsion model system and milk enriched with fish oil. Moreover, the effect...

  13. Prospective analysis of the medicine possession ratio of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although differences between classes of AD were evident, non-compliance was found to be high in the private ... [9,10] This is extended in high-risk patients, those with recurrent illness ... treatment,[15-16] and that up to 30% are likely to stop taking ADs within ... We extracted data for patient demographics (gender and date.

  14. LEGAL SIGNIFICANCE AND PROTECTION OF POSSESSION IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojo Belovski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it will be discussed the legal significance and protection of possession in the Republic of Macedonia. Below it will be listed the kinds of possession, and finally the rules for possession termination will be explained. The possession is an indicator that the person who rules one item is also a right holder of that item. The possession itself occurs in two types specially authorized by a law and pure factual power behind which stands no right. The possession enjoys legal protection. Below in the paper it is processed the judicial protection of the possession which is given based on complaint for disturbance of possession and action to recover the possession. The important thing at the judicial protection is that the rulers’ protection is given to the last actual possession of the item, but it is not disputed the right of possession. Further in this paper it is included the protection of indirect possession where a complaint can be made by the indirect holder of the item, the judicial protection of possessory, possession protection of the heirs and permitted self – help for unauthorized harassment and revoking of the possession. With respect to the termination of the actual power of the item, listed and processed are the ways when the item failed, when the item was lost, when it is obvious that it won’t be returned, when the ruler had freely left it and when the item is not taken from him and the ruler hasn’t realized the right to possession.

  15. From distress to disease: a critique of the medicalisation of possession in DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Divya

    2017-12-01

    This paper critiques the category of possession-form dissociative identity disorder as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 (DSM-5) published in 2013 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). The DSM as an index of psychiatry pathologises possession by categorising it as a form of dissociative identity disorder. Drawing upon ethnographic fieldwork, this paper argues that such a pathologisation medicalises possession, which is understood as a non-pathological condition in other contexts such as by those individuals who manifest possession at a temple in Kerala, South India. Through medicalising and further by creating distinctions between acceptable and pathological possession, the DSM converts a form of distress into a disease. This has both conceptual and pragmatic implications. The temple therefore becomes reduced to a culturally acceptable site for the manifestation of a mental illness in a form that is culturally available and possession is explained solely through a biomedical framework, denying alternative conceptualisations and theories which inform possession. By focussing on the DSM-5 classification of possession and the limitations of such a classification, this paper seeks to posit an alternative conceptualisation of possession by engaging with three primary areas which are significant in the DSM categorisation of possession: the DSM's conceptualisation of self in the singular, the distinction between pathological and non-pathological forms of possession, and the limitations of the DSM's equation of the condition of possession with the manifestation of possession. Finally, the paper briefly highlights alternative conceptualisations of possession, which emerged from the perspective of those seeking to heal possession at the Chottanikkara temple.

  16. Bioactivity of different enriched phenolic extracts of wild fruits from Northeastern Portugal: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-03-01

    Arbutus unedo, Prunus spinosa, Rosa micrantha and Rosa canina are good sources of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins. These compounds have potent antioxidant properties, which have been related to anticancer activity. Herein, the in vitro antioxidant and antitumor properties of enriched phenolic extracts (non-anthocyanin phenolic compounds enriched extract- PE and anthocyanins enriched extract- AE) of the mentioned wild fruits were evaluated and compared. PE gave higher bioactive properties than the corresponding AE. It was observed a high capacity of A. unedo phenolic extract to inhibit lipid peroxidation in animal brain homogenates (EC50 = 7.21 μg/mL), as also a high antitumor potential against NCI-H460 human cell line (non-small lung cancer; GI50 = 37.68 μg/mL), which could be related to the presence of galloyl derivatives (exclusively found in this species). The bioactivity of the studied wild fruits proved to be more related to the phenolic compounds profile than to the amounts present in each extract, and could be considered in the design of new formulations of dietary supplements or functional foods.

  17. Alkylperoxyl radical scavenging activity of red leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Charles R

    2003-07-30

    Although lettuce may provide relatively low levels of antioxidative phytochemicals which may contribute to human health, lettuce leaf extracts in fact contained compounds with high specific peroxyl radical scavenging activities. After determining the extraction conditions that minimized phenolic oxidation and produced the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values, the phenolic compounds from red leaf lettuce were separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The primary phenolic compounds in the leaf tissue extracts were mono- and dicaffeoyltartaric acid (CTA and DCTA), mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acid (CQA and DCQA), quercetin 3-malonylglucoside (QMG), quercetin 3-glucoside (QG), cyanidin 3-malonylglucoside (CMG), and an unknown phenolic ester (UPE). Significant levels of DCQA were only found after wounding. Using the new fluorescein-based ORAC assay procedures, fractions from the HPLC analyses were assayed for peroxyl radical absorbance capacity. Using absorbance to estimate concentration, the decreasing order of contribution to the total ORAC value of an extract from wounded tissue was QMG > DCQA > CMG > DCTA > UPE > QG > CTA. The decreasing order of the specific peroxyl radical scavenging activities was CMG > QG > DCTA > DCQA > QMG > UPE > CQA > CTA. Since the concentrations of plant flavonoid and phenolic acid esters are sensitive to environmental factors, this information may be used to develop pre- and postharvest conditions which increase the dietary benefits of leaf lettuce.

  18. Identification of Phenolic Compounds and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Euphorbia Tirucalli L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keline Medeiros de Araújo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds extracted from natural sources can benefit human health. The aim of this work was to determine total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L. followed by identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds, as well as their antibacterial activities. Antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH and ABTS•+ assay. Identification of phenolic compounds was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and antimicrobial activities were verified by agar dilution methods and MIC values. Total phenolic content ranged from 7.73 to 30.54 mg/100 g gallic acid equivalent. Extracts from dry plants showed higher antioxidant activities than those from fresh ones. The DPPH EC50 values were approximately 12.15 μg/mL and 16.59 μg/mL, respectively. Antioxidant activity measured by the ABTS method yielded values higher than 718.99 μM trolox/g for dry plants, while by the Rancimat® system yielded protection factors exceeding 1 for all extracts, comparable to synthetic BHT. Ferulic acid was the principal phenolic compound identified and quantified through HPLC-UV in all extracts. The extracts proved effective inhibitory potential for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. These results showed that extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L. have excellent antioxidant capacity and moderate antimicrobial activity. These can be attributed to the high concentration of ferulic acid.

  19. DEGRADATION AND TOXICITY REDUCTION OF PHENOL BY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Ultrasonic energy dissipated in the reactor was set at 2.5 W cm-2 through the calorimetric method. ... temperature-controlled condition of 22 ± 2 ºC and a 12/12 light-dark cycle. Culture ... Plot of Ln C/Co vs. time for sonodegradation of phenol.

  20. Interaction of phenolic antioxidants and hydroxyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenfeng; Luo Jian; Yao Side; Lian Zhirui; Zhang Jiashan; Lin Nianyun

    1992-01-01

    Based on pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of four phenolic antioxidants including green tea polyphenols, quercetin, caffeic acid and sinapic acid the rate constants for reactions of OH and the antioxidants were determined. And green tea polyphenols and quercetin are the strongest antioxidants

  1. Continuous phenol removal using Nocardia hydrocarbonoxydans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shock load studies are essential to investigate the suitability of biocontactors in degradation of pollutants. In the present work, the degradation of phenol by immobilized Nocardia hydrocarbonoxydans in a spouted bed contactor was conducted. Granular activated carbon (GAC) and polymer beads were tested for the ...

  2. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Combretaceae) is an Ivorian medicinal plant. There is little ethnobotanical and almost no chemical information available for this species. The aim of this study was to isolate phenolic compounds from T. ivoriensis. In this way, its ethyl acetate extract (Ea) was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography followed by ...

  3. Continuous phenol removal using Nocardia hydrocarbonoxydans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... be removed from waste stream before discharge. Biodegradation of phenol is a widely used method as it is economical and easy to operate as compared to chemi- cal, physical, electrochemical or advanced oxidation process. Attached growth processes have advantage of retain- ing more biomass in the ...

  4. Exposure to phenols, parabens and UV filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Ulla N.; Jørgensen, Niels; Thyssen, Jacob P.

    2017-01-01

    Concentrations of eight simple phenols, six parabens and nine UV filters were analysed in urine from 65 FLG loss-of-function mutation carriers and 130 non-carriers (controls). Regression analyses, controlling for urinary dilution and confounders, were performed to estimate associations between FLG mutation...

  5. Phenolic compounds in Ross Sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Kehrwald, Natalie; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are semi-volatile organic compounds produced during biomass burning and lignin degradation in water. In atmospheric and paleoclimatic ice cores studies, these compounds are used as biomarkers of wood combustion and supply information on the type of combusted biomass. Phenolic compounds are therefore indicators of paleoclimatic interest. Recent studies of Antarctic aerosols highlighted that phenolic compounds in Antarctica are not exclusively attributable to biomass burning but also derive from marine sources. In order to study the marine contribution to aerosols we developed an analytical method to determine the concentration of vanillic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, isovanillic acid, homovanillic acid, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone present in dissolved and particle phases in Sea Ross waters using HPLC-MS/MS. The analytical method was validated and used to quantify phenolic compounds in 28 sea water samples collected during a 2012 Ross Sea R/V cruise. The observed compounds were vanillic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone and p-coumaric acid with concentrations in the ng/L range. Higher concentrations of analytes were present in the dissolved phase than in the particle phase. Sample concentrations were greatest in the coastal, surficial and less saline Ross Sea waters near Victoria Land.

  6. Antioxidant Capacity, Radical Scavenging Kinetics and Phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant Capacity, Radical Scavenging Kinetics and Phenolic Profile of Methanol Extracts of Wild Plants of Southern Sonora, Mexico. EF Moran-Palacio, LA Zamora-Álvarez, NA Stephens-Camacho, GA Yáñez- Farías, A Virgen-Ortiz, O Martínez-Cruz, JA Rosas-Rodríguez ...

  7. Production of phenolic compounds from Spirulina maxima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the enhancing process of phenolics synthesis in Spirulina maxima grown in Zarrouk's medium supplemented with different concentration of NaNO3 and/or combined with phenylalanine (L-PA). Also, the protective efficacy of Spirulina polyphenolic (SPP) extracts against ...

  8. Interaction of phenolic antioxidants and hydroxyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.F.; Luo, J.; Yao, S.D.; Lian, Z.R.; Zhang, J.S.; Lin, N.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Based on pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of four phenolic antioxidants including green tea polyphenols, quercetin, caffeic acid and sinapic acid the rate constants for reactions of OH and the antioxidants were determined. Green tea polyphenols and quercetin are the strongest antioxidants. (author)

  9. Flavonoid, hesperidine, total phenolic contents and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additionally, the antioxidant activities were also determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. C. hystrix had the highest flavonoid and total phenolic contents while C. aurantifolia had the highest hesperidine content. The antioxidant activity of ...

  10. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attioua

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... (Theobroma cacao). J. Mass Spectrom. 38:35-42. Sanchez R, Jauregui LR, Viladomat B, Codina (2004). Qualitative analysis of phenolic compounds in apple Pomace using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem mode. Rapid Communun Mass Spectrom. 18:553-563. Saulo LDS ...

  11. Optimization of Aqueous Phenol Treatment with Persulfate in the Presence of Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    somayeh shahsavan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are among the priority pollutants due to their adverse effects on human health and other living organisms. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs offer promising prospects for the removal of pollutants in water and wastewater due to their high efficiency as well as acceptable health and environmental effects. Persulfate, especially when used with iron, is far stronger than many other oxidants with respect to oxidation properties since it produces sulfate radicals which create a higher oxidation potential. In this research, efforts have been made to achieve the best conditions for phenol removal from aqueous environments by activating persulfate with iron ions. The experimental design was accomplished using the Taguchi statistical method and the Minitab 16 software. For the purposes of this study, four factors, each with five levels, were considered to determine the optimal conditions for phenol removal. The optimum conditions for phenol removal by integrated persulfate/iron ions were found to comprise a contact time of 120 minutes, a persulfate/iron molar ratio of 5/4, and PH=3. Phenol removal efficiencies of 94.93%±0.708 and 58.21%±0.675 were obtained under the optimum conditions for the experimental minimum (50 mg/l and maximum (750 mg/l phenol concentrations, respectively. The results revealed that among the parameters affecting the process, environmental pH with 54.80% and persulfate concentration with 11.05% have the highest and lowest effects, respectively. It is expected that this process is also capable of removing phenol from industrial wastewaters with removal efficiencies in the range of 59‒95%.

  12. The Conjugates of Phenolic Acids in Lichens of the Order Lecanorales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. NIKOLAEVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are symbiotic associations of a fungus (usually an ascomycete and a photobiont, which may be an alga and/or a cyanobacterium. Lichens dominate on about 6–8% of land surface, mainly in the habitats with severe climatic conditions. Lichenized fungi are among the pioneer vegetation on bare rock or soil. Mat-forming species contribute substantially to the soil cover in tundras and high mountain elevations. Lichens are rich in water-soluble compounds which can be leached-out the lichen thalli with atmospheric depositions. We have recently described the occurrence of water-soluble phenolics in lichens (Zagoskina et al 2013. These compounds can play important role in the ecosystem functioning and primary soil formation (weathering, humification. The aim of this work was to study qualitative composition of water-soluble phenolics in the lichen species widespread in the soil cover of tundra zone. The air-dried thalli of Alectoria ochroleuca, Cetraria islandica, C.nigricans, C.nivalis, Cladonia arbuscula and C.stellaris were homogenized to powder and used for the study. Lichens were collected in Khibiny mountains, Kola Peninsula in August 2013. Phenolic compounds were extracted by distilled water (1h, 30C and analyzed by TLC before and after the acid hydrolysis. It was found that all the lichens under the study contained the conjugates of phenol carboxylic acids. We have identified that non-phenolic part in some of these conjugates was represented by sugars and amino acids. The TLC of the hydrolizates of water extracts revealed occurrence of p-oxybenzoic acid in all of the species studied. The lichens Cetraria islandica, С.nigricans and Cladonia stellaris contained also vanillic acid. These phenolic acids are widespread in plant kingdom and are known as products of lignin decomposition in higher plants. The physiological role of water-soluble phenolics in lichens as well as their environmental role are need to be understood in future studies.

  13. Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of 2-methoxy phenol and dibenzofuran over Pt/mesoporous zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyung Won; Jun, Bo Ram; Kim, Hannah; Kim, Do Heui; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Park, Sung Hoon; Ko, Chang Hyun; Kim, Tae-Wan; Park, Young-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    The hydrodeoxygenation of 2-methoxy phenol and dibenzofuran, which are representative model compounds of bio-oil, was performed using two different Pt/mesoporous zeolite catalysts, Pt/mesoporous Y and Pt/mesoporous MFI. The reforming of 2-methoxy phenol and dibenzofuran via catalytic hydrodeoxygenation was investigated using a batch reactor at 40 bar and 250 °C. The characteristics of the catalysts were analyzed by N 2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, and NH 3 temperature programmed desorption. Pt/mesoporous zeolite catalysts containing both strong acid sites and mesopores showed the higher conversion of 2-methoxy phenol than Pt/SiO 2 and Pt/Si-MCM-48 with no acid sites, Pt/γ-Al 2 O 3 , and a mixture of mesoporous Y and Pt/SiO 2 , indicating the importance of both Pt and strong acid sites for high catalytic activity. Among the two Pt/mesoporous zeolite catalysts tested, the conversion of 2-methoxy phenol to cyclohexane over Pt/mesoporous Y was much higher than that over the Pt/mesoporous MFI. This was attributed to the better textural properties, such as surface area, pore volume and micropore size, compared to those of Pt/mesoporous MFI. The catalytic conversions of dibenzofuran obtained using two Pt/mesoporous zeolite catalysts were similar and the main products were 1,1′-bicyclohexyl, cyclopentylmethyl-cyclohexane and cyclohexane. In addition, the reaction mechanisms of 2-methoxy phenol and dibenzofuran over Pt/mesoporous zeolite were suggested. - Highlights: • HDO of 2-methoxy phenol and dibenzofuran was performed over Pt/mesoporous zeolites. • Pt/mesoporous zeolites have mesopores and strong acid sites. • Main product of HDO of 2-methoxy phenol was cyclohexane. • Main products of HDO of dibenzofuran were bicyclohexyl (BCH), i-BCH, and cyclohexane

  14. Combined electrochemical degradation and activated carbon adsorption treatments for wastewater containing mixed phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkumar, D.; Palanivelu, K.; Balasubramanian, N. [Anna University, Madras (India). Center for Environmental Studies

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation of mixed phenolic compounds present in coal conversion wastewater was investigated in the presence of chloride as supporting electrolyte. Initially, the degradation experiments were conducted separately with 300 mg/L of individual phenolic compound in the presence of 2500 mg/L chloride using Ti/TiO{sub 2}-RuO{sub 2}-IrO{sub 2} anode at 5.4 A/dm{sup 2} current density. Comparison of the experimental results of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal versus charge indicated that the order of decreasing COD removal for various phenolic compounds as catechol {gt} resorcinol {gt} m-cresol {gt} o-cresol {gt} phenol {gt} p-cresol. Degradation of the mixture of phenolic compounds and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) determinations at various stages of electrolysis showed that phenolic compounds were initially converted into benzoquinone and then to lower molecular weight aliphatic compounds. The COD and the total organic carbon (TOC) removal were 83 and 58.9% after passing 32 Ah/L with energy consumption of 191.6 kWh/kg of COD removal. Experiments were also conducted to remove adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) content in the treated solution using granular activated carbon. The optimum conditions for the removal of AOX was at pH 3.0, 5 mL/min flow rate and 31.2 cm bed height. Based on the investigation, a general scheme of treatment of mixed phenolic compounds by combined electrochemical and activated carbon adsorption treatment is proposed.

  15. HPLC-DAD-ESIMS analysis of phenolic compounds in nectarines, peaches, and plums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Barberán, F A; Gil, M I; Cremin, P; Waterhouse, A L; Hess-Pierce, B; Kader, A A

    2001-10-01

    The phenolic compounds of 25 peach, nectarine, and plum cultivars were studied and quantified by HPLC-DAD-ESIMS. Hydroxycinnamates, procyanidins, flavonols, and anthocyanins were detected and quantified. White and yellow flesh nectarines and peaches, and yellow and red plums, were analyzed at two different maturity stages with consideration of both peel and flesh tissues. HPLC-MS analyses allowed the identification of procyanidin dimers of the B- and A-types, as well as the presence of procyanidin trimers in plums. As a general rule, the peel tissues contained higher amounts of phenolics, and anthocyanins and flavonols were almost exclusively located in this tissue. No clear differences in the phenolic content of nectarines and peaches were detected or between white flesh and yellow flesh cultivars. There was no clear trend in phenolic content with ripening of the different cultivars. Some cultivars, however, had a very high phenolic content. For example, the white flesh nectarine cultivar Brite Pearl (350-460 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 430-550 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) and the yellow flesh cv. Red Jim (180-190 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 210-330 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh), contained 10 times more phenolics than cultivars such as Fire Pearl (38-50 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 23-30 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh). Among white flesh peaches, cultivars Snow King (300-320 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 660-695 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) and Snow Giant (125-130 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 520-540 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) showed the highest content. The plum cultivars Black Beaut and Angeleno were especially rich in phenolics.

  16. Relationship between red wine grades and phenolics. 1. Tannin and total phenolics concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Meagan D; Dambergs, Robert G; Cozzolino, Daniel; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2010-12-08

    Measuring chemical composition is a common approach to support decisions about allocating foods and beverages to grades related to market value. Red wine is a particularly complex beverage, and multiple compositional attributes are needed to account for its sensory properties, including measurement of key phenolic components such as anthocyanins, total phenolics, and tannin, which are related to color and astringency. Color has been shown to relate positively to red wine grade; however, little research has been presented that explores the relationship between astringency-related components such as total phenolic or tannin concentration and wine grade. The aim of this research has been to investigate the relationship between the wine grade allocations of commercial wineries and total phenolic and tannin concentrations, respectively, in Australian Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Total phenolic and tannin concentrations were determined using the methyl cellulose precipitable (MCP) tannin assay and then compared to wine grade allocations made by winemaker panels during the companies' postvintage allocation process. Data were collected from wines produced by one Australian wine company over the 2005, 2006, and 2007 vintages and by a further two companies in 2007 (total wines = 1643). Statistical analysis revealed a positive trend toward higher wine grade allocation and wines that had higher concentrations of both total phenolics and tannin, respectively. This research demonstrates that for these companies, in general, Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines allocated to higher market value grades have higher total phenolics and higher tannin concentrations and suggests that these compositional parameters should be considered in the development of future multiparameter decision support systems for relevant commercial red wine grading processes. In addition, both tannin and total phenolics would ideally be included because although, in general, a positive relationship

  17. Phenolic Acids, Phenolic Aldehydes and Furanic Derivatives in Oak Chips: American vs. French Oaks

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrita, M.J.; Barrocas Dias, C.; Costa Freitas, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Phenolic acids (gallic, vanillic, syringic and ellagic acids), phenolic aldehydes (vanillin, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde) and furanic derivatives (furfural, 5-methylfurfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) were quantified in commercial American and French oak chips. Chips with different sizes and toast degrees were used. Compounds were extracted directly from the wood samples in order to determine possible differences among woods as well as toast degree. Likewise, the compo...

  18. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction by response surface methodology of Goji berry (Lycium barbarum L.) phenolic bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodo, Giusy; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Fanali, Chiara

    2018-01-03

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) has been used for the first time in this work to extract phenolic compounds from Goji berries according to a multilevel factorial design using response surface methodology. The global yield (% w/dw, weight/dry-weight), total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid (TF) and antioxidant activity (determined via ABTS assay, expressed as TEAC value) were used as response variables to study the effects of temperature (50-180°C) and green solvent composition (mixtures of ethanol/water). Phenolic compounds characterization was performed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). The optimum PLE conditions predicted by the model were as follows: 180°C and 86% ethanol in water with a good desirability value of 0.815. The predicted conditions were confirmed experimentally and once the experimental design was validated for commercial fruit samples, the PLE extraction of phenolic compounds from three different varieties of fruit samples (Selvatico mongolo, Bigol, and Polonia) was performed. Nine phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in these extracts, including phenolic acids and their derivatives, and flavonols. The optimized PLE conditions were compared to a conventional solid-liquid extraction, demonstrating that PLE is a useful alternative to extract phenolic compounds from Goji berry. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Evaluation of effects of phenol recovery on biooxidation and tertiary treatment of SRC-I wastewater. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.W.; Watt, J.C.; Cowan, W.F.; Schuyler, S.E.

    1983-09-01

    Addition of phenol recovery to the wastewater treatment scheme in the Baseline Design for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant was evaluated as a major post-Baseline effort. Phenol recovery affects many downstream processes, but this study was designed to assess primarily its effects on biooxidation and subsequent tertiary treatment. Two parallel treatment schemes were set up, one to treat dephenolated wastewaters and the other for processed nondephenolated wastewaters, a simulation of the Baseline Design. The study focused on comparisons of five areas: effluent quality; system stability; the need for continuous, high-dose powdered activated carbon (PAC) augmentation to the bioreactor; minimum bioreactor hydraulic residence time (HRT); and tertiary treatment requirements. The results show that <