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Sample records for possess antimicrobial properties

  1. Origanum vulgare mediated green synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles simultaneously possessing plasmonic, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedec D

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Daniela Benedec,1,* Ilioara Oniga,1,* Flavia Cuibus,1 Bogdan Sevastre,2 Gabriela Stiufiuc,3 Mihaela Duma,4 Daniela Hanganu,1 Cristian Iacovita,1 Rares Stiufiuc,1,5 Constantin Mihai Lucaciu1 1Faculty of Pharmacy, “Iuliu Haţieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 2Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 3Faculty of Physics, “Babeş Bolyai” University, 4State Veterinary Laboratory for Animal Health and Safety, 5Department of Bionanoscopy, MedFuture Research Center for Advance Medicine, “Iuliu Haţieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The leaves and flowering stem of Origanum vulgare contain essential oils, flavonoids, phenolic acids and anthocyanins. We propose a new, simple, one-pot, O. vulgare extract (OVE mediated green synthesis method of biocompatible gold nanoparticles (AuNPs possessing improved antioxidant, antimicrobial and plasmonic properties.Materials and methods: Different concentrations of OVEs were used to reduce gold ions and to synthetize biocompatible spherical AuNPs. Their morphology and physical properties have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, whereas their plasmonic properties have been tested using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS. The antioxidant properties of nanoparticles (NPs have been evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, and the antimicrobial tests were performed using the disk diffusion assay. Their cytotoxicity has been assessed by means of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay.Results: The experimental results confirmed the successful synthesis of biocompatible, spherical, plasmonic NPs having a mean diameter of ~40 nm and an outstanding aqueous

  2. Antimicrobial properties of star anise (Illicium verum Hook f).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Minakshi; De, Amit Krishna; Sen, Parimal; Banerjee, Arun Baran

    2002-02-01

    Star anise (Illicium verum Hook f) has been shown to possess potent antimicrobial properties. Chemical studies indicate that a major portion of this antimicrobial property is due to anethole present in the dried fruit. Studies with isolated anethole (compared with standard anethole) indicated that it is effective against bacteria, yeast and fungal strains. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. 22 CFR 72.14 - Nominal possession; property not normally taken into physical possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... possession. (a) When a consular officer take articles of a decedent's personal property from a foreign... Department discharging the consular officer of any responsibility for the articles transferred. (b) A... effects; (2) Motor vehicles, airplanes or watercraft; (3) Toiletries, such as toothpaste or razors; (4...

  4. Radiation protective agents possessing anti-oxidative properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ueno, Emi; Yoshida, Akira; Furuse, Masako; Ikota, Nobuo [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Research Center for Radiation Safety, Chiba, Chiba (Japan)

    2005-11-15

    The purpose of studies is to see mechanisms of radiation protection of agents possessing anti-oxidative properties because the initial step resulting in radiation hazard is the formation of radicals by water radiolysis. Agents were commercially available or synthesized proxyl derivatives (spin prove agents), commercially available spin-trapping agents, edaravone and TMG (a tocopherol glycoside). Mice and cultured cells were X-irradiated by Shimadzu Pantak HF-320 or 320S. Survivals of cells were determined by colony assay and of mice, to which the agents were given intraperitoneally before or after X-irradiation, within 30 days post irradiation. Plasma and marrow concentrations of proxyls were estimated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. Mechanisms of their radiation protective effects were shown different from agent to agent. TMG was found effective even post irradiation, which suggests a possibility for a new drug development. Some (spin trapping agents and TMG), virtually ineffective at the cell level, were found effective in the whole body, suggesting the necessity of studies on their disposition and metabolism. (S.I.)

  5. Radiation protective agents possessing anti-oxidative properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ueno, Emi; Yoshida, Akira; Furuse, Masako; Ikota, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of studies is to see mechanisms of radiation protection of agents possessing anti-oxidative properties because the initial step resulting in radiation hazard is the formation of radicals by water radiolysis. Agents were commercially available or synthesized proxyl derivatives (spin prove agents), commercially available spin-trapping agents, edaravone and TMG (a tocopherol glycoside). Mice and cultured cells were X-irradiated by Shimadzu Pantak HF-320 or 320S. Survivals of cells were determined by colony assay and of mice, to which the agents were given intraperitoneally before or after X-irradiation, within 30 days post irradiation. Plasma and marrow concentrations of proxyls were estimated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. Mechanisms of their radiation protective effects were shown different from agent to agent. TMG was found effective even post irradiation, which suggests a possibility for a new drug development. Some (spin trapping agents and TMG), virtually ineffective at the cell level, were found effective in the whole body, suggesting the necessity of studies on their disposition and metabolism. (S.I.)

  6. Criminalization of 'Possession of Unexplained Property' and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worku_Y

    government operating costs, increases government spending for wages and ... revenues by plundering revenue generating agencies such as tax collection, ..... a) the assets under the ownership or possession of himself and his family; and.

  7. Redesigned Spider Peptide with Improved Antimicrobial and Anticancer Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troeira Henriques, Sónia; Lawrence, Nicole; Chaousis, Stephanie; Ravipati, Anjaneya S; Cheneval, Olivier; Benfield, Aurélie H; Elliott, Alysha G; Kavanagh, Angela Maria; Cooper, Matthew A; Chan, Lai Yue; Huang, Yen-Hua; Craik, David J

    2017-09-15

    Gomesin, a disulfide-rich antimicrobial peptide produced by the Brazilian spider Acanthoscurria gomesiana, has been shown to be potent against Gram-negative bacteria and to possess selective anticancer properties against melanoma cells. In a recent study, a backbone cyclized analogue of gomesin was shown to be as active but more stable than its native form. In the current study, we were interested in improving the antimicrobial properties of the cyclic gomesin, understanding its selectivity toward melanoma cells and elucidating its antimicrobial and anticancer mode of action. Rationally designed analogues of cyclic gomesin were examined for their antimicrobial potency, selectivity toward cancer cells, membrane-binding affinity, and ability to disrupt cell and model membranes. We improved the activity of cyclic gomesin by ∼10-fold against tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria without increasing toxicity to human red blood cells. In addition, we showed that gomesin and its analogues are more toxic toward melanoma and leukemia cells than toward red blood cells and act by selectively targeting and disrupting cancer cell membranes. Preference toward some cancer types is likely dependent on their different cell membrane properties. Our findings highlight the potential of peptides as antimicrobial and anticancer leads and the importance of selectively targeting cancer cell membranes for drug development.

  8. Isolation and Identification of Phyllospheric Bacteria Possessing Antimicrobial Activity from Astragalus obtusifolius, Prosopis juliflora, Xanthium strumarium and Hippocrepis unisiliqousa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazinani, Zohreh; Zamani, Marzieh; Sardari, Soroush

    2017-01-01

    The widespread utilization of antimicrobial compounds has caused emergence of resistant microorganisms in the world. Hence, the research to probe the products with antimicrobial features has led to finding natural habitats and discovering new pharmaceutical products. In this study, an attempt was made to explore the niche of novel habitat to isolate pyllospheric bacteria from the above ground parts (stems and leaves) of Astragalus obtusifolius , Prosopis juliflora , Xanthium strumarium , and Hippocrepis unisiliqousa to evaluate their antimicrobial features. The inhibitory effects of these strains on the growth of two fungi ( Aspergillus niger , Aspergillus fumigatus ), two yeasts ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Candida albicans ) and six bacteria ( Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Bacillus subtilis , Salmonella typhi , Streptococcus pyogenes ) were tested. In total, 113 bacterial strains were isolated. Twenty five bacterial strains (B-1 to B-25) indicated promising antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) activities against aforementioned pathogens. The identification of the bacterial strains was ascertained by morphological, physiological, biochemical tests and two strains with the strongest antimicrobial activities were further characterized based on 16s rRNA sequencing. These two strains were identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens . Our results provide evidence that phyllospheric microorganisms are capable of producing some compounds with antimicrobial properties.

  9. Evaluation of antimicrobial properties of cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Filipa; Correia, Patrícia; Silva, Susana P; Almeida-Aguiar, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Cork presents a range of diverse and versatile properties making this material suitable for several and extremely diverse industrial applications. Despite the wide uses of cork, its antimicrobial properties and potential applications have deserved little attention from industry and the scientific community. Thus, the main purpose of this work was the evaluation of the antibacterial properties of cork, by comparison with commercially available antimicrobial materials (Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate copolymer and a currently used antimicrobial commercial additive (ACA)), following the previous development and optimization of a method for such antimicrobial assay. The AATCC 100-2004 standard method, a quantitative procedure developed for the assessment of antimicrobial properties in textile materials, was used as reference and optimized to assess cork antibacterial activity. Cork displayed high antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, with a bacterial reduction of almost 100% (96.93%) after 90 minutes of incubation, similar to the one obtained with ACA. A more reduced but time-constant antibacterial action was observed against Escherichia coli (36% reduction of the initial number of bacterial colonies). To complement this study, antibacterial activity was further evaluated for a water extract of cork and an MIC of 6 mg mL(-1) was obtained against the reference strain S. aureus. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Incidence, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Toxin Genes Possession Screening of Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Chicken Livers and Gizzards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Few recent outbreaks in Europe and the US involving Campylobacter and Salmonella were linked to the consumption of chicken livers. Studies investigating Staphylococcus aureus in chicken livers and gizzards are very limited. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence of S. aureus and MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in retail chicken livers and gizzards in Tulsa, Oklahoma. In this study, 156 chicken livers and 39 chicken gizzards samples of two brands were collected. While one of the brands showed very low prevalence of 1% (1/100 for S. aureus in chicken livers and gizzards, the second brand showed prevalence of 37% (31/95. No MRSA was detected since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. Eighty seven S. aureus isolates from livers and 28 from gizzards were screened for antimicrobial resistance to 16 antimicrobials and the possession of 18 toxin genes. Resistance to most of the antimicrobials screened including cefoxitin and oxacillin was higher in the chicken gizzards isolates. While the prevalence of enterotoxin genes seg and sei was higher in the gizzards isolates, the prevalence of hemolysin genes hla, hlb, and hld was higher in the livers ones. The lucocidin genes lukE-lukD was equally prevalent in chicken livers and gizzards isolates. Using spa typing, a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are not known to be livestock associated and, hence, may be of a human origin. In conclusion, this study stresses the importance of thorough cooking of chicken livers and gizzards since it might contain multidrug resistant enterotoxigenic S. aureus. To our knowledge this is the first study to specifically investigate the prevalence of S. aureus in chicken livers and gizzards in the US.

  11. Mesobuthus Venom-Derived Antimicrobial Peptides Possess Intrinsic Multifunctionality and Differential Potential as Drugs

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    Bin Gao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Animal venoms are a mixture of peptides and proteins that serve two basic biological functions: predation and defense against both predators and microbes. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are a common component extensively present in various scorpion venoms (herein abbreviated as svAMPs. However, their roles in predation and defense against predators and potential as drugs are poorly understood. Here, we report five new venom peptides with antimicrobial activity from two Mesobuthus scorpion species. These α-helical linear peptides displayed highly bactericidal activity toward all the Gram-positive bacteria used here but differential activity against Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. In addition to the antibiotic activity, these AMPs displayed lethality to houseflies and hemotoxin-like toxicity on mice by causing hemolysis, tissue damage and inducing inflammatory pain. Unlike AMPs from other origins, these venom-derived AMPs seem to be unsuitable as anti-infective drugs due to their high hemolysis and low serum stability. However, MeuTXKβ1, a known two-domain Mesobuthus AMP, is an exception since it exhibits high activity toward antibiotic resistant Staphylococci clinical isolates with low hemolysis and high serum stability. The findings that the classical AMPs play predatory and defensive roles indicate that the multifunctionality of scorpion venom components is an intrinsic feature likely evolved by natural selection from microbes, prey and predators of scorpions. This definitely provides an excellent system in which one can study how a protein adaptively evolves novel functions in a new environment. Meantimes, new strategies are needed to remove the toxicity of svAMPs on eukaryotic cells when they are used as leads for anti-infective drugs.

  12. As-pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse possessing exotic field emission properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnia, Lucky; Yadav, Brajesh S.; Palnitkar, Umesh; Satyam, P. V.; Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Koratkar, Nikhil A.; Tyagi, Pawan K.

    2018-06-01

    The present study aims to demonstrate the application of sugarcane bagasse as an excellent field emitter. Field emission property of as-pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse (p-SBg) before and after the plasma treatment has been investigated. It has been observed that electronic nature of p-SBg transformed from semiconducting to metallic after plasma treatment. Maximum current and turn-on field defined at 10 μA/cm2 was found to be 800 μA/cm2 and 2.2 V/μm for as-pyrolyzed sugarcane bagasse (p-SBg) and 25 μA/cm2 and 8.4 V/μm for H2-plasma treated p-SBg. These values are found to be better than the reported values for graphene and activated carbon. In this report, pyrolysis of bagasse has been carried in a thermal chemical vapor deposition (Th-CVD) system in inert argon atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to study the structure of both pre and post plasma-treated p-SBg bagasse's sample. HRTEM study reveals that carbonaceous structures such as 3D-nanographene oxide (3D-NGO), graphite nanodots (GNDs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and carbon onions are present in both pre-treated and plasma-treated p-SBg. Hence, we envision that the performed study will be a forwarding step to facilitate the application of p-SBg in display devices.

  13. Three Phoma spp. synthesised novel silver nanoparticles that possess excellent antimicrobial efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Mahendra; Ingle, Avinash P; Gade, Aniket K; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Duran, Nelson

    2015-10-01

    The authors report extracellular mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by Phoma capsulatum, Phoma putaminum and Phoma citri. The AgNPs thus synthesised were characterised by UV-visible spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Nanosight LM20 and transmission electron microscopy, which confirmed the synthesis of mostly spherical and polydisperse nanoparticles capped with proteins. The size of AgNPs was found in the range of 10-80 , 5-80 and 5-90 nm with an average size of 31.85, 25.43 and 23.29 nm by P. capsulatum, P. putaminum and P. citri, respectively. Further, potential antimicrobial activity was reported against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Salmonella choleraesuis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) (0.85 µg/ml) was reported for AgNPs synthesised from P. citri against S. choleraesuis. However, AgNPs synthesised from P. capsulatum showed the highest MIC (10.62 µg/ml) against S. choleraesuis, P. aeruginosa and E. coli (clinical isolate). The same MIC values (10.62 µg/ml) were also reported against P. aeruginosa and both clinical and standard isolates of E. coli for AgNPs synthesised from P. citri. It was also observed that all the silver nanoparticles showed remarkable antifungal and antibacterial activity against these tested pathogens as compared with the commercially available antifungal and antibacterial agents.

  14. Antimicrobial properties of indigenous Lactobacillus sakei strain

    OpenAIRE

    Vesković-Moračanin Slavica; Obradović D.; Velebit B.; Borović Branka; Škrinjar Marija; Turubatović L.

    2010-01-01

    The strain I 154 of Lactobacillus sakei has been isolated from traditionally fermented sausages in the course of the realization of the international project (INCO PROJECT No ICA4-CT-2002-10037). This strain exhibited the ability for bacteriocin production. Antimicrobial properties of the isolated bacteriocin (sakacine), its sensibility towards proteolytic enzymes, as well as the effect of increased to high temperatures on its stability have been examined in this work. Semi purified bacterioc...

  15. High Pressure Laminates with Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Magina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure laminates (HPLs are durable, resistant to environmental effects and good cost-benefit decorative surface composite materials with special properties tailored to meet market demand. In the present work, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB was incorporated for the first time into melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF matrix on the outer layer of HPLs to provide them antimicrobial properties. Chemical binding of PHMB to resin matrix was detected on the surface of produced HPLs by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. Antimicrobial evaluation tests were carried out on the ensuing HPLs doped with PHMB against gram-positive Listeria innocua and gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria. The results revealed that laminates prepared with 1.0 wt % PHMB in MF resin were bacteriostatic (i.e., inhibited the growth of microorganisms, whereas those prepared with 2.4 wt % PHMB in MF resin exhibited bactericidal activity (i.e., inactivated the inoculated microorganisms. The results herein reported disclose a promising strategy for the production of HPLs with antimicrobial activity without affecting basic intrinsic quality parameters of composite material.

  16. Antimicrobial and biocompatible properties of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Islam, M; Shehzad, A; Khan, S; Khattak, W A; Ullah, M W; Park, J K

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of drug-resistant characteristics in pathogenic viral, bacterial, and fungal species and the consequent spread of infectious diseases are currently receiving serious attention. Indeed, there is a pressing demand to explore novel materials and develop new strategies that can address these issues of serious concern. Nanomaterials are currently proving to be the most capable therapeutic agents to cope with such hazards. The exceptional physiochemical properties and impressive antimicrobial capabilities of nanoparticles have provoked their utilization in biomedical fields. Nanomaterials of both organic and inorganic nature have shown the capabilities of disrupting microbial cells through different mechanisms. Along with the direct influence on the microbial cell membrane, DNA and proteins, these nanomaterials produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage cell components and viruses. Currently, a serious hazard associated with these antimicrobial nanomaterials is their toxicity to human and animal cells. Extensive studies have reported the dose, time, and cell-dependent toxicology of various nanomaterials, and some have shown excellent biocompatible properties. Nevertheless, there is still debate regarding the use of nanomaterials for medical applications. Therefore, in this review, the antimicrobial activities of various nanomaterials with details of their acting mechanisms were compiled. The relative toxic and biocompatible behavior of nanomaterials emphasized in this study provides information pertaining to their practical applicability in medical fields.

  17. Polylactic Acid?Lemongrass Essential Oil Nanocapsules with Antimicrobial Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Liakos, Ioannis L.; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria; Florin, Iordache; D?Autilia, Francesca; Carzino, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid was combined with lemongrass essential oil (EO) to produce functional nanocapsules (NCs). The obtained polylactic acid nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity both with and without the presence of lemongrass oil; however, the presence of EO improved the activity of the NCs. The presence of lemongrass assisted the formation of well-separated NCs and also provided enhanced antimicrobial properties, since lemongrass is known for its antimicrobial character. Fluorescence micro...

  18. Antimicrobial, Optical and Mechanical Properties of Chitosan-Starch Films with Natural Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Navarro, Jessica I; Díaz-Zavala, Nancy P; Velasco-Santos, Carlos; Martínez-Hernández, Ana L; Tijerina-Ramos, Beatriz I; García-Hernández, Margarita; Rivera-Armenta, José L; Páramo-García, Ulises; Reyes-de la Torre, Adriana I

    2017-05-05

    Natural extracts possess several kinds of antioxidants (anthocyanins, betalains, thymol, carvacrol, and resveratrol) that have also demonstrated antimicrobial properties. In order to study these properties, extracts from cranberry, blueberry, beetroot, pomegranate, oregano, pitaya, and resveratrol (from grapes) were obtained. Growth inhibition tests of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, and fungi were conducted in films prepared from the extracts in accordance with Mexican Official Norms (NOM). Optical properties such as transparency and opacity, mechanical properties, and pH were also analyzed in these materials. The films with beetroot, cranberry, and blueberry extracts demonstrated the best antimicrobial activity against various bacteria and fungi in comparison with unmodified chitosan-starch film. This study shows that the addition of antioxidants improved the antimicrobial performance of these films. It was also found that antimicrobial properties are inherent to the films. These polymers combined with the extracts effectively inhibit or reduce microorganism growth from human and environmental contact; therefore, previous sterilization could be unnecessary in comparison with traditional plastics. The presence of extracts decreased transmittance percentages at 280 and 400 nm, as well as the transparency values, while increasing their opacity values, providing better UV-VIS light barrier properties. Despite diminished glass transition temperatures ( T g), the values obtained are still adequate for food packaging applications.

  19. Antimicrobial, Optical and Mechanical Properties of Chitosan–Starch Films with Natural Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Navarro, Jessica I.; Díaz-Zavala, Nancy P.; Velasco-Santos, Carlos; Martínez-Hernández, Ana L.; Tijerina-Ramos, Beatriz I.; García-Hernández, Margarita; Rivera-Armenta, José L.; Páramo-García, Ulises; Reyes-de la Torre, Adriana I.

    2017-01-01

    Natural extracts possess several kinds of antioxidants (anthocyanins, betalains, thymol, carvacrol, and resveratrol) that have also demonstrated antimicrobial properties. In order to study these properties, extracts from cranberry, blueberry, beetroot, pomegranate, oregano, pitaya, and resveratrol (from grapes) were obtained. Growth inhibition tests of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, and fungi were conducted in films prepared from the extracts in accordance with Mexican Official Norms (NOM). Optical properties such as transparency and opacity, mechanical properties, and pH were also analyzed in these materials. The films with beetroot, cranberry, and blueberry extracts demonstrated the best antimicrobial activity against various bacteria and fungi in comparison with unmodified chitosan–starch film. This study shows that the addition of antioxidants improved the antimicrobial performance of these films. It was also found that antimicrobial properties are inherent to the films. These polymers combined with the extracts effectively inhibit or reduce microorganism growth from human and environmental contact; therefore, previous sterilization could be unnecessary in comparison with traditional plastics. The presence of extracts decreased transmittance percentages at 280 and 400 nm, as well as the transparency values, while increasing their opacity values, providing better UV–VIS light barrier properties. Despite diminished glass transition temperatures (Tg), the values obtained are still adequate for food packaging applications. PMID:28475151

  20. Colloidal silver solutions with antimicrobial properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petica, A.; Gavriliu, S.; Lungu, M.; Buruntea, N.; Panzaru, C.

    2008-01-01

    Some colloidal silver solutions involving the electrochemical technique with 'sacrificial anode method and different stabilizers and co-stabilizers' have been prepared. A constant current pulse generator with stirrer at different working times has been used. To achieve stable colloidal silver solutions, a mix of different tensioactive agents namely [poly (N-vinylpyrrolidone)], Na-naphthalene sulphonate, Na-lauryl sulfate and Na-dodecyl sulphonate were tested. The effects of these various mixes of polymer and ionic surfactants upon the Ag concentration and UV-vis spectra of silver nanoparticles were determined by spectrophotometer techniques. The nanoparticles sizes have been analyzed through dynamic light scattering technique and the silver nanoparticle morphology has been evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Micobiological analysis has been made by determining minimal inhibitorial concentration upon the following germs: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC) (Gram-positive cocci), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATTC), Escherichia coli (ATCC) and Acinetobacter spp. (Gram-negative coccobacillus). To evaluate the antifungal effect, the antibiogram method involving various tests using a fungi mix of Aspergillus, Penicillium and Trichoderma species has been used. The presented method allows obtaining of some stable colloidal solutions containing up to 35 ppm of Ag with very good antimicrobial and antifungal properties

  1. Colloidal silver solutions with antimicrobial properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petica, A. [INCDIE ICPE-Advanced Research, Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: petica@icpe-ca.ro; Gavriliu, S.; Lungu, M.; Buruntea, N. [INCDIE ICPE-Advanced Research, Bucharest (Romania); Panzaru, C. [Institute of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iassy (Romania)

    2008-08-25

    Some colloidal silver solutions involving the electrochemical technique with 'sacrificial anode method and different stabilizers and co-stabilizers' have been prepared. A constant current pulse generator with stirrer at different working times has been used. To achieve stable colloidal silver solutions, a mix of different tensioactive agents namely [poly (N-vinylpyrrolidone)], Na-naphthalene sulphonate, Na-lauryl sulfate and Na-dodecyl sulphonate were tested. The effects of these various mixes of polymer and ionic surfactants upon the Ag concentration and UV-vis spectra of silver nanoparticles were determined by spectrophotometer techniques. The nanoparticles sizes have been analyzed through dynamic light scattering technique and the silver nanoparticle morphology has been evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Micobiological analysis has been made by determining minimal inhibitorial concentration upon the following germs: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC) (Gram-positive cocci), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATTC), Escherichia coli (ATCC) and Acinetobacter spp. (Gram-negative coccobacillus). To evaluate the antifungal effect, the antibiogram method involving various tests using a fungi mix of Aspergillus, Penicillium and Trichoderma species has been used. The presented method allows obtaining of some stable colloidal solutions containing up to 35 ppm of Ag with very good antimicrobial and antifungal properties.

  2. Hyaluronan- and heparin-reduced silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Melissa M; Kumar, Ashavani; Clement, Dylan; Ajayan, Pulickel; Mousa, Shaker

    2009-01-01

    Aims Silver nanoparticles exhibit unique antibacterial properties that make these ideal candidates for biological and medical applications. We utilized a clean method involving a single synthetic step to prepare silver nanoparticles that exhibit antimicrobial activity. Materials & methods These nanoparticles were prepared by reducing silver nitrate with diaminopyridinylated heparin (DAPHP) and hyaluronan (HA) polysaccharides and tested for their efficacy in inhibiting microbial growth. Results & discussion The resulting silver nanoparticles exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and modest activity against Escherichia coli. Silver–HA showed greater antimicrobial activity than silver–DAPHP, while silver–glucose nanoparticles exhibited very weak antimicrobial activity. Neither HA nor DAPHP showed activity against S. aureus or E. coli. Conclusion These results suggest that DAPHP and HA silver nanoparticles have potential in antimicrobial therapeutic applications. PMID:19505245

  3. Size-dependent antimicrobial properties of the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Žalnėravičius, Rokas [State Research Institute Center for Physical Sciences and Technology (Lithuania); Paškevičius, Algimantas [Nature Research Centre, Laboratory of Biodeterioration Research (Lithuania); Kurtinaitiene, Marija; Jagminas, Arūnas, E-mail: arunas.jagminas@ftmc.lt [State Research Institute Center for Physical Sciences and Technology (Lithuania)

    2016-10-15

    The growing resistance of bacteria to conventional antibiotics elicited considerable interest to non-typical drugs. In this study, antimicrobial investigations were performed on low-size dispersion cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (Nps) fabricated by co-precipitation approach in several average sizes, in particular, 15.0, 5.0, and 1.65 nm. A variety of experimental tests demonstrated that the size of these Nps is determinant for antimicrobial efficiency against S. cerevisiae and several Candida species, in particular, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, and C. albicans. The small and ultra-small fractions of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} Nps possess especially strong antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. The possible reasons are discussed. Nps were characterized by means of transmission and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, chemical analysis and magnetic measurements.Graphical Abstract.

  4. Size-dependent antimicrobial properties of the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žalnėravičius, Rokas; Paškevičius, Algimantas; Kurtinaitiene, Marija; Jagminas, Arūnas

    2016-10-01

    The growing resistance of bacteria to conventional antibiotics elicited considerable interest to non-typical drugs. In this study, antimicrobial investigations were performed on low-size dispersion cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (Nps) fabricated by co-precipitation approach in several average sizes, in particular, 15.0, 5.0, and 1.65 nm. A variety of experimental tests demonstrated that the size of these Nps is determinant for antimicrobial efficiency against S. cerevisiae and several Candida species, in particular, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, and C. albicans. The small and ultra-small fractions of CoFe2O4 Nps possess especially strong antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. The possible reasons are discussed. Nps were characterized by means of transmission and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, chemical analysis and magnetic measurements.

  5. Size-dependent antimicrobial properties of the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Žalnėravičius, Rokas; Paškevičius, Algimantas; Kurtinaitiene, Marija; Jagminas, Arūnas

    2016-01-01

    The growing resistance of bacteria to conventional antibiotics elicited considerable interest to non-typical drugs. In this study, antimicrobial investigations were performed on low-size dispersion cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (Nps) fabricated by co-precipitation approach in several average sizes, in particular, 15.0, 5.0, and 1.65 nm. A variety of experimental tests demonstrated that the size of these Nps is determinant for antimicrobial efficiency against S. cerevisiae and several Candida species, in particular, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, and C. albicans. The small and ultra-small fractions of CoFe_2O_4 Nps possess especially strong antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. The possible reasons are discussed. Nps were characterized by means of transmission and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, chemical analysis and magnetic measurements.Graphical Abstract

  6. Self-assembly of cationic multidomain peptide hydrogels: supramolecular nanostructure and rheological properties dictate antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Linhai; Xu, Dawei; Sellati, Timothy J.; Dong, He

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogels are an important class of biomaterials that have been widely utilized for a variety of biomedical/medical applications. The biological performance of hydrogels, particularly those used as wound dressing could be greatly advanced if imbued with inherent antimicrobial activity capable of staving off colonization of the wound site by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Possessing such antimicrobial properties would also protect the hydrogel itself from being adversely affected by microbial attachment to its surface. We have previously demonstrated the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of supramolecular assemblies of cationic multi-domain peptides (MDPs) in solution. Here, we extend the 1-D soluble supramolecular assembly to 3-D hydrogels to investigate the effect of the supramolecular nanostructure and its rheological properties on the antimicrobial activity of self-assembled hydrogels. Among designed MDPs, the bactericidal activity of peptide hydrogels was found to follow an opposite trend to that in solution. Improved antimicrobial activity of self-assembled peptide hydrogels is dictated by the combined effect of supramolecular surface chemistry and storage modulus of the bulk materials, rather than the ability of individual peptides/peptide assemblies to penetrate bacterial cell membrane as observed in solution. The structure-property-activity relationship developed through this study will provide important guidelines for designing biocompatible peptide hydrogels with built-in antimicrobial activity for various biomedical applications.Hydrogels are an important class of biomaterials that have been widely utilized for a variety of biomedical/medical applications. The biological performance of hydrogels, particularly those used as wound dressing could be greatly advanced if imbued with inherent antimicrobial activity capable of staving off colonization of the wound site by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Possessing such antimicrobial properties would

  7. Assessment techniques of antimicrobial properties of natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants have recently received the attention of the pharmaceutical and scientific communities and various publications have documented the therapeutic value of natural compounds in a bid to validate claims of their biological activity. Attention has been drawn to the antimicrobial activity of plants and their ...

  8. Identification of antimicrobial properties of cashew, Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    3 *Department of. Plant Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Email: bionyananyo@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT: The antimicrobial capabilities of plant extract derived from the leaves of the cashew plant,. Anacardium occidentale L. (Family ...

  9. phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of solanum macranthum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR J.O. OLAYEMI

    reducing sugars and anthraquinones. The in vitro antimicrobial activity was done using agar well diffusion technique. Six clinical strains of human pathogenic microorganisms, comprising two Gram positive, two Gram negative bacteria and two fungi were utilized in the studies. The various plant extracts varied in their high ...

  10. In vitro antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of crude extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... concentration of 25 mg/ml against twenty-one of the bacterial isolates, ... Key words: Afzelia africana, antimicrobial, phytochemical properties, ... A. africana mixed with millet beer has been found to ..... effects, cytostatic and antioxidant properties (Hodek et .... Role of plant polyphenols in genomic stability.

  11. Stability properties of solutions to nonlinear models possessing a sign-undefined metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, I.V.

    1983-01-01

    Multicomponent field systems possessing a sign-undefined internal space metric, in particular models with a noncompact global invariance group are investigated. It is shown that the energy cannot have even a conditional relative minimum. It is demonstrated, nevertheless, that the corresponding nonlinear equations of motion are permitted to possess stable particle-like solutions

  12. Stability properties of solutions to nonlinear models possessing a sign-undefined metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, I.V.

    1983-01-01

    Multicomponent field systems possessing a sign-undefined internal space metric, in particular models with a noncompact global invariance group, are investigated. It is shown that the energy cannot have even a conditional relative minimum. It is demonstrated, nevertheless, that the corresponding nonlinear equations of motion are permitted to possess stable particle-like solutions. (Auth.)

  13. Antimicrobial properties of Honduran medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, D L; Clark, A M; Hufford, C D; Meurer-Grimes, B; Passreiter, C M; Cordero, J; Ibrahimi, O; Okunade, A L

    1998-12-01

    Ninety-two plants used in the traditional pharmacopoeia of the Pech and neighboring Mestizo peoples of central Honduras are reported. The results of in vitro antimicrobial screens showed that 19 of the extracts from medicinal plants revealed signs of antifungal activity while 22 demonstrated a measurable inhibitory effect on one or more bacterial cultures. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Mikania micrantha, Neurolaena lobata and Piper aduncum produced weak to moderately active isolates. The broad spectrum of activity of the extracts helps to explain the widespread use of these plants for wound healing and other applications.

  14. Polylactic Acid-Lemongrass Essential Oil Nanocapsules with Antimicrobial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis L; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria; Florin, Iordache; D'Autilia, Francesca; Carzino, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-07-07

    Polylactic acid was combined with lemongrass essential oil (EO) to produce functional nanocapsules (NCs). The obtained polylactic acid nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity both with and without the presence of lemongrass oil; however, the presence of EO improved the activity of the NCs. The presence of lemongrass assisted the formation of well-separated NCs and also provided enhanced antimicrobial properties, since lemongrass is known for its antimicrobial character. Fluorescence microscopy was used to optically observe the nanoparticles and NCs and revealed the attachment of lemongrass oil with the polylactic acid NCs. Dynamic light scattering was used to determine their size. UV absorption was used to determine the exact amount of lemongrass oil found in the polylactic acid-lemongrass oil NCs, which was important for understanding the minimum inhibitory concentration for the antimicrobial experiments. A series of clinically important microbial species were used in the study and the obtained NCs proved to have very good antimicrobial properties against all tested strains. Such NCs can be used for the design of ecological strategies, based on natural alternatives, which may be efficient against severe infections, including those that involve resistant pathogens and biofilms or those with difficult to reach localization.

  15. Polylactic Acid—Lemongrass Essential Oil Nanocapsules with Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis L. Liakos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid was combined with lemongrass essential oil (EO to produce functional nanocapsules (NCs. The obtained polylactic acid nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity both with and without the presence of lemongrass oil; however, the presence of EO improved the activity of the NCs. The presence of lemongrass assisted the formation of well-separated NCs and also provided enhanced antimicrobial properties, since lemongrass is known for its antimicrobial character. Fluorescence microscopy was used to optically observe the nanoparticles and NCs and revealed the attachment of lemongrass oil with the polylactic acid NCs. Dynamic light scattering was used to determine their size. UV absorption was used to determine the exact amount of lemongrass oil found in the polylactic acid—lemongrass oil NCs, which was important for understanding the minimum inhibitory concentration for the antimicrobial experiments. A series of clinically important microbial species were used in the study and the obtained NCs proved to have very good antimicrobial properties against all tested strains. Such NCs can be used for the design of ecological strategies, based on natural alternatives, which may be efficient against severe infections, including those that involve resistant pathogens and biofilms or those with difficult to reach localization.

  16. A comparative study of the antimicrobial properties of the ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... enema for intestinal worms in parts of Ivory Coast. The latex is also used as a natural preservative (Anthony,. 1995). This work was undertaken to compare the phytoche- mical and antimicrobial properties of the leaf and root extracts of L. owariensis on three clinical bacterial isolates so as to validate or ...

  17. The Immunostimulatory and Antimicrobial Property of two Herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The decoctions were assessed for immunostimulatory property in cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed ICR mice. Total white blood cell count, as well as lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were determined and their effects compared with Levamisole. The decoctions were also screened for antimicrobial activity by ...

  18. Antimicrobial activity against Shigella sonnei and probiotic properties of wild lactobacilli from fermented food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingchun; Zhang, Lanwei; Du, Ming; Yi, Huaxi; Guo, Chunfeng; Tuo, Yanfeng; Han, Xue; Li, Jingyan; Zhang, Lili; Yang, Lin

    2011-12-20

    Four lactobacilli strains (Lactobacillus paracasei subp. paracasei M5-L, Lactobacillus rhamnosus J10-L, Lactobacillus casei Q8-L and L. rhamnosus GG (LGG), were systematically assessed for the production of antimicrobial substances active towards Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Agar-well assay showed that the four lactobacilli strains displayed strong antibacterial activity towards S. sonnei. The nature of antimicrobial substances was also investigated and shown to be dependent on the production of organic acids, in particular the lactic acid. Time-kill assay showed that the viability of the S. sonnei was decreased by 2.7-3.6logCFU/ml after contact with CFCS (cell-free culture supernatants) of four lactobacilli for 2h, which confirmed the result of the agar-well assay. Further analysis of the organic acid composition in the CFCS revealed that the content of lactic acid range from 227 to 293mM. In addition, the aggregations properties, adherence properties and tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal conditions were also investigated in vitro tests. The result suggested that the M5-L, J10-L and Q8-L strains possess desirable antimicrobial activity towards S. sonnei and probiotic properties as LGG and could be potentially used as novel probiotic strains in the food industry. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Study on the Antimicrobial Properties of Citrate-Based Biodegradable Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Chun eSu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrate-based polymers possess unique advantages for various biomedical applications since citric acid is a natural metabolism product, which is biocompatible and antimicrobial. In polymer synthesis, citric acid also provides multiple functional groups to control the crosslinking of polymers and active binding sites for further conjugation of biomolecules. Our group recently developed a number of citrate-based polymers for various biomedical applications by taking advantage of their controllable chemical, mechanical, and biological characteristics. In this study, various citric acid derived biodegradable polymers were synthesized and investigated for their physicochemical and antimicrobial properties. Results indicate that citric acid derived polymers reduced bacterial proliferation to different degrees based on their chemical composition. Among the studied polymers, poly(octamethylene citrate (POC showed approximately 70-80% suppression to microbe proliferation, owing to its relatively higher ratio of citric acid contents. Crosslinked urethane-doped polyester elastomers (CUPEs and biodegradable photoluminescent polymers (BPLPs also exhibited significant bacteria reduction of ~20% and ~50% for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Thus, the intrinsic antibacterial properties in citrate-based polymers enable them to inhibit bacteria growth without incorporation of antibiotics, silver nanoparticles, and other traditional bacteria-killing agents suggesting that they are unique beneficial materials for wound dressing, tissue engineering, and other potential medical applications where antimicrobial property is desired.

  20. Tuning antimicrobial properties of biomimetic nanopatterned surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Martyna; Gambacorta, Francesca; Divan, Ralu; Aranson, Igor S; Sokolov, Andrey; Noirot, Philippe; Laible, Philip D

    2018-04-05

    Nature has amassed an impressive array of structures that afford protection from microbial colonization/infection when displayed on the exterior surfaces of organisms. Here, controlled variation of the features of mimetics derived from etched silicon allows for tuning of their antimicrobial efficacy. Materials with nanopillars up to 7 μm in length are extremely effective against a wide range of microbial species and exceed the performance of natural surfaces; in contrast, materials with shorter/blunter nanopillars (<2 μm) selectively killed specific species. Using a combination of microscopies, the mechanisms by which bacteria are killed are demonstrated, emphasizing the dependence upon pillar density and tip geometry. Additionally, real-time imaging reveals how cells are immobilized and killed rapidly. Generic or selective protection from microbial colonization could be conferred to surfaces [for, e.g., internal medicine, implants (joint, dental, and cosmetic), food preparation, and the agricultural industry] patterned with these materials as coatings.

  1. Antimicrobial Property of Hydrocolloid Impression Material Incorporated with Silver Nanoparticles Against Staphylococcus Aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangchuk Norbu Penden

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental impressions can easily become contaminated with patient’s blood and saliva which are capable of transmitting infectious diseases to dental personnel. The addition of antimicrobial agents into impression materials could be effective in reducing the chances of cross-infection. Silver nanoparticles have been applied in dentistry as a potent antimicrobial agent. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of silver nanoparticles incorporated to irreversible hydrocolloid impression material against Staphylococcus aureus. Silver nanoparticles (AgZrPO4, National Direct Network Company, Thailand at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.50%, 1.00% and 1.50% w/w were added to powder of impression materials (Kromopan, Lascod, Ilaty. Impression material samples were prepared on sterile plate in accordance with manufacturer’s instruction. After setting, a 100 microliter of S. aureus ATCC6538 suspension (106 cells/mL were inoculated on the surface of the impression sample and left for 10 minutes. The amount of S. aureus on the surface was quantified using imprint technique on Mannitol Salt agar. Impression materials incorporated with AgZrPO4 showed antimicrobial property against S. aureus (up to 95% reduction compared with control (impression material without AgZrPO4. Even though the mechanism of antimicrobial action was not clearly understood, AgZrPO4 incorporated to impression material was demonstrated to possess an inhibitory effect against pathogenic bacteria. Further studies are needed to investigate physical properties of the material and the clinical usage.

  2. Antimicrobial properties of nudibranchs tissues extracts from South Andaman, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Veeraswamy Reddy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of tissues extracts of different nudibranchs such as Phyllidia varicosa, Plakobranchus ocellatus, Phyllidiella rosans and Halgerda stricklandi against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Methods: Nudibranchs tissue samples were subjected to organic solvent extraction for antimicrobial activity by well diffusion method. Results: The crude extract 50 μL (0.2 mg of Phyllidia varicosa showed the maximum inhibitory zone (22 mm against Shigella flexneri. Plakobranchus ocellatus extract of 50 μL (0.2 mg showed the maximum inhibitory zone against Shigella flexneri (22 mm and Staphylococcus aureus (19 mm and no significant activity was found against the fungal pathogens. Conclusions: This work reveals that nudibranch tissues contain the antimicrobial secondary metabolites, which leads the significant activity against bacterial pathogens and further emphasizes detailed study on novel drug discovery from nudibranch tissues against certain human bacterial infections.

  3. Production and antimicrobial property of glycolipid biosurfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial glycolipids such as rhamnolipid (RL) and sophorolipid (SL) are an important class of biosurfactants with excellent surface tension-lowering activity. Besides their surfactant- and environment-friendly properties, however, additional value-added property such as bacteriocidal activity is n...

  4. Antimicrobial and cell-penetrating properties of penetratin analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahnsen, Jesper Søborg; Franzyk, Henrik; Sandberg-Schaal, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) show great potential as drug delivery vectors and new antibiotic drug entities, respectively. The current study deals with the properties of a variety of peptide analogs derived from the well-known CPP penetratin as well as octaar......Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) show great potential as drug delivery vectors and new antibiotic drug entities, respectively. The current study deals with the properties of a variety of peptide analogs derived from the well-known CPP penetratin as well...... as octaarginine and different Tat sequences. The effects of peptide length, guanidinium content, and sequence of non-cationic residues were assessed in mammalian and bacterial cells. The arginine (Arg) content in the penetratin analogs was found to influence eukaryotic cell uptake efficiency, antimicrobial...... was similar, the eukaryotic cellular uptake of the shuffled analogs was noticeably lower than for native penetratin. Moreover, a point substitution of Met to Leu in native penetratin had no influence on eukaryotic cellular uptake and antimicrobial effect, and only a minor effect on cytotoxicity, in contrast...

  5. Development of pea protein-based bioplastics with antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Puyana, Víctor; Felix, Manuel; Romero, Alberto; Guerrero, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, bioplastics from renewable polymers were studied in order to reduce the huge generation of plastic wastes, causing an environmental problem that continues owing to the increasing demand for plastic products. Bioplastics with much better antimicrobial properties, in particular against Gram-positive bacteria, were obtained with the addition of nisin to the initial protein/plasticizer mixture. However, the addition of nisin produces more rigid but less deformable bioplastics (higher Young's modulus but lower strain at break). The results obtained are useful to demonstrate the antimicrobial properties of pea protein-based bioplastics by adding nisin and make them suitable as potential candidates to replace conventional plastics in food packaging. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Polysaccharide-based biomaterials with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Coma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Active packaging is one of the responses to the recent food-borne microbial outbreaks and to the consumer’s demand for high quality food and for packaging that is more advanced and creative than what is currently offered. Moreover, with the recent increase in ecological awareness associated with the dramatic decrease in fossil resources, research has turned towards the elaboration of more natural materials. This paper provides a short review of biomaterials exhibiting antimicrobial and antioxidant properties for applications in food preservation. The two main concepts of active biopackaging materials are briefly introduced. The different polysaccharides potentially used in packaging materials are then presented associated with a brief overview of research works related to biopackaging, exhibiting notably antimicrobial or antioxidant properties. Finally, future trends such as the release-on-demand of bioactive agents are discussed.

  7. Antimicrobial and biophysical properties of surfactant supplemented with an antimicrobial peptide for treatment of bacterial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaschewski, Brandon J H; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Keating, Eleonora; Haagsman, Henk P; Zuo, Yi Y; Yamashita, Cory M; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections represent an emerging health concern in clinical settings, and a lack of novel developments in the pharmaceutical pipeline is creating a "perfect storm" for multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been suggested as future therapeutics for these drug-resistant bacteria, since they have potent broad-spectrum activity, with little development of resistance. Due to the unique structure of the lung, bacterial pneumonia has the additional problem of delivering antimicrobials to the site of infection. One potential solution is coadministration of AMPs with exogenous surfactant, allowing for distribution of the peptides to distal airways and opening of collapsed lung regions. The objective of this study was to test various surfactant-AMP mixtures with regard to maintaining pulmonary surfactant biophysical properties and bactericidal functions. We compared the properties of four AMPs (CATH-1, CATH-2, CRAMP, and LL-37) suspended in bovine lipid-extract surfactant (BLES) by assessing surfactant-AMP mixture biophysical and antimicrobial functions. Antimicrobial activity was tested against methillicin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All AMP/surfactant mixtures exhibited an increase of spreading compared to a BLES control. BLES+CATH-2 mixtures had no significantly different minimum surface tension versus the BLES control. Compared to the other cathelicidins, CATH-2 retained the most bactericidal activity in the presence of BLES. The BLES+CATH-2 mixture appears to be an optimal surfactant-AMP mixture based on in vitro assays. Future directions involve investigating the potential of this mixture in animal models of bacterial pneumonia. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Antimicrobial properties of metal and metal-halide nanoparticles and their potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, Jason Robert

    Heavy metals, including silver and copper, have been known to possess antimicrobial properties against bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Metal nanoparticles (aggregations of metal atoms 1-200 nm in size) have recently become the subject of intensive study for their increased antimicrobial properties. In the current studies, metal and metal-halide nanoparticles were evaluated for their antibacterial efficacy. Silver (Ag), silver bromide (AgBr), silver iodide (AgI), and copper iodide (CuI) nanoparticles significantly reduced bacterial numbers of the Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus within 24 hours and were more effective against P. aeruginosa. CuI nanoparticles were found to be highly effective, reducing both organisms by >4.43 log 10 within 15 minutes at 60 ppm Cu. CuI nanoparticles formulated with different stabilizers (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS; polyvinyl pyrrolidone, PVP) were further tested against representative Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Mycobacteria, a fungus (Candida albicans ), and a non-enveloped virus (poliovirus). Both nanoparticles caused significant reductions in most of the Gram-negative bacteria within five minutes (>5.09-log10). The Gram-positive bacterial species and C. albicans were more sensitive to the CuI-SDS than the CuI-PVP nanoparticles. In contrast, the acid-fast Mycobacterium smegmatis was more resistant to CuI-SDS than CuI-PVP nanoparticles. Poliovirus was more resistant than the other organisms tested except for Mycobacterium fortuitum, which displayed the greatest resistance to CuI nanoparticles. As an example of a real world antimicrobial application, polymer coatings embedded with various concentrations of CuI nanoparticles were tested for antibacterial efficacy against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Polyester-epoxy powder coatings were found to display superior uniformity, stability and antimicrobial properties against both organisms (>4.92 log 10 after six hours at

  9. Electrochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Diamondlike Carbon-Metal Composite Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORRISON, M. L.; BUCHANAN, R. A.; LIAW, P. K.; BERRY, C. J.; BRIGMON, R.; RIESTER, L.; JIN, C.; NARAYAN, R. J.

    2005-05-11

    Implants containing antimicrobial metals may reduce morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs associated with medical device-related infections. We have deposited diamondlike carbon-silver (DLC-Ag), diamondlike carbon-platinum (DLC-Pt), and diamondlike carbon-silver-platinum (DLC-AgPt) thin films using a multicomponent target pulsed laser deposition process. Transmission electron microscopy of the DLC-silver and DLC-platinum composite films revealed that the silver and platinum self-assemble into nanoparticle arrays within the diamondlike carbon matrix. The diamondlike carbon-silver film possesses hardness and Young's modulus values of 37 GPa and 331 GPa, respectively. The diamondlike carbon-metal composite films exhibited passive behavior at open-circuit potentials. Low corrosion rates were observed during testing in a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) electrolyte. In addition, the diamondlike carbon-metal composite films were found to be immune to localized corrosion below 1000 mV (SCE). DLC-silver-platinum films demonstrated exceptional antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus bacteria. It is believed that a galvanic couple forms between platinum and silver, which accelerates silver ion release and provides more robust antimicrobial activity. Diamondlike carbon-silver-platinum films may provide unique biological functionalities and improved lifetimes for cardiovascular, orthopaedic, biosensor, and implantable microelectromechanical systems.

  10. Antimicrobial properties of coconut husk aqueous extract on cariogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B Cyriac

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The husk fibers of coconut (Cocos nucifera are reported to be used by people of rural areas of South India for daily cleaning their teeth. As the beneficial effects of this plant material, with respect to antimicrobial properties against common cariogenic bacteria, are not scientifically proven, the present study was conducted. Materials and Methods: The husk of coconut was collected and aqueous extract was prepared and antimicrobial properties against common oral pathogens like Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus were performed by agar well diffusion method. The values obtained were then subjected to statistical analysis using one way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. Results: Aqueous extract of coconut husk showed a concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity against different tested organisms with zone of inhibition ranging from 4.44 to 15.33 mms. However, the efficacy was less in comparison to chlorhexidine. Conclusion: Inhibitory action against cariogenic bacteria exhibited by aqueous extract of coconut husk indicate presence of highly effective active compounds in these extracts, which can be identified and incorporated into modern oral care systems for controlling dental caries.

  11. Antimicrobial properties of Zr–Cu–Al–Ag thin film metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsien-Wei; Hsu, Kai-Chieh; Chan, Yu-Chen; Duh, Jenq-Gong; Lee, Jyh-Wei; Jang, Jason Shian-Ching; Chen, Guo-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Metallic glass as a prominent class of structure and multifunctional materials exhibits several unique properties in mechanical, electrochemical, and thermal properties. This study aimed to realize the advantage of biomedical application and to promote the attainable size of metallic glasses by the physical vapor deposition. The Zr–Cu–Al–Ag thin film metallic glass (TFMG) was deposited on silicon wafer and SUS304 stainless steel substrates by magnetron sputtering with single target. For X-ray diffraction analysis, all TFMGs revealed typical broad peaks around the incident angle of 30 to 50°, suggesting that coatings possess amorphous structure. In addition, diffuse halo ring patterns of transmission electron microscopy indicated a fine amorphorization for TFMG via sputtering process. The variation of surface roughness showed that TFMG derived from higher power of metallic targets revealed rougher morphology. Besides, the roughness of SUS304 stainless steel substrate significantly reduced from 7 nm to about 1 nm after TFMGs were deposited. The microbes of Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used and cultivated on the TFMG coatings with medium to investigate the antimicrobial properties. In the incubation experiment, the growth of each microbe was recorded by a digital photography system and the growth area was calculated by image processing software. The growth area of the microbes on the TFMG was mostly smaller than that on SUS304 stainless steel ones within incubation time of 72 h, indicating that the TFMGs reveal better antimicrobial capability. Moreover, the coatings exhibit a particularly long-term antimicrobial effect for P. aeruginosa. In summary, the Zr–Cu–Al–Ag prepared by sputtering with a single target device presented superior glass forming ability, and coatings with copper and silver constituents revealed significantly antimicrobial properties. Besides, the surface roughness is another factor to affect the

  12. Antimicrobial properties of Zr–Cu–Al–Ag thin film metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsien-Wei; Hsu, Kai-Chieh; Chan, Yu-Chen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Duh, Jenq-Gong, E-mail: jgd@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jyh-Wei [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Center for Thin Film Technologies and Applications, Mingchi University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jang, Jason Shian-Ching [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Chen, Guo-Ju [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-30

    Metallic glass as a prominent class of structure and multifunctional materials exhibits several unique properties in mechanical, electrochemical, and thermal properties. This study aimed to realize the advantage of biomedical application and to promote the attainable size of metallic glasses by the physical vapor deposition. The Zr–Cu–Al–Ag thin film metallic glass (TFMG) was deposited on silicon wafer and SUS304 stainless steel substrates by magnetron sputtering with single target. For X-ray diffraction analysis, all TFMGs revealed typical broad peaks around the incident angle of 30 to 50°, suggesting that coatings possess amorphous structure. In addition, diffuse halo ring patterns of transmission electron microscopy indicated a fine amorphorization for TFMG via sputtering process. The variation of surface roughness showed that TFMG derived from higher power of metallic targets revealed rougher morphology. Besides, the roughness of SUS304 stainless steel substrate significantly reduced from 7 nm to about 1 nm after TFMGs were deposited. The microbes of Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used and cultivated on the TFMG coatings with medium to investigate the antimicrobial properties. In the incubation experiment, the growth of each microbe was recorded by a digital photography system and the growth area was calculated by image processing software. The growth area of the microbes on the TFMG was mostly smaller than that on SUS304 stainless steel ones within incubation time of 72 h, indicating that the TFMGs reveal better antimicrobial capability. Moreover, the coatings exhibit a particularly long-term antimicrobial effect for P. aeruginosa. In summary, the Zr–Cu–Al–Ag prepared by sputtering with a single target device presented superior glass forming ability, and coatings with copper and silver constituents revealed significantly antimicrobial properties. Besides, the surface roughness is another factor to affect the

  13. The preparation, cytocompatibility and antimicrobial property of micro/nano structural titanium loading alginate and antimicrobial peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Zhong, Mou; Sun, Yuhua; Chen, Junhong; Feng, Bo

    2018-03-01

    Titanium with hybrid microporous/nanotubes (TMNT) structure on its surface was fabricated by acid etching and subsequently anodization at different voltages. Bovine lactoferricin, a kind of antimicrobial peptide, and sodium alginate (NaAlg) were loaded onto titanium surface through layer by layer assembly. The drug release, cytocompatibility and antimicrobial property against S.aureus and E.coil were studied by release experiment, osteoblast and bacterial cultures. Results indicated that samples with nanotubes of bigger diameter carried more drugs and had better biocompatibility, and drug-loaded samples acquired better biocompatibility compared with drug-free samples. Furthermore, the drug-loaded samples exhibited good initial antimicrobial property, but weak long-term antimicrobial property. Therefore, drug-loaded titanium with micro/nano structure, especially, of big diameter nanotubes, could be a promise material for medical implants, such as internal/external fixation devices.

  14. Escherichia coli Isolates Causing Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Catheterized and Noncatheterized Individuals Possess Similar Virulence Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watts, Rebecca E; Hancock, Viktoria; Ong, Cheryl-lynn Y

    2010-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infectious diseases of humans, with Escherichia coli being responsible for >80% of all cases. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) occurs when bacteria colonize the urinary tract without causing clinical symptoms and can affect both catheterized...... patients (catheter-associated ABU [CA-ABU]) and noncatheterized patients. Here, we compared the virulence properties of a collection of ABU and CA-ABU nosocomial E. coli isolates in terms of antibiotic resistance, phylogenetic grouping, specific UTI-associated virulence genes, hemagglutination...

  15. Alpha-momorcharin: a ribosome-inactivating protein from Momordica charantia, possessing DNA cleavage properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuzhen; Zheng, Yinzhen; Yan, Junjie; Zhu, Zhixuan; Wu, Zhihua; Ding, Yi

    2013-11-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) function to inhibit protein synthesis through the removal of specific adenine residues from eukaryotic ribosomal RNA and rending the 60S subunit unable to bind elongation factor 2. They have received much attention in biological and biomedical research due to their unique activities toward tumor cells, as well as the important roles in plant defense. Alpha-momorcharin (α-MC), a member of the type I family of RIPs, is rich in the seeds of Momordica charantia L. Previous studies demonstrated that α-MC is an effective antifungal and antibacterial protein. In this study, a detailed analysis of the DNase-like activity of α-MC was conducted. Results showed that the DNase-like activity toward plasmid DNA was time-dependent, temperature-related, and pH-stable. Moreover, a requirement for divalent metal ions in the catalytic domain of α-MC was confirmed. Additionally, Tyr(93) was found to be a critical residue for the DNase-like activity, while Tyr(134), Glu(183), Arg(186), and Trp(215) were activity-related residues. This study on the chemico-physical properties and mechanism of action of α-MC will improve its utilization in scientific research, as well as its potential industrial uses. These results may also assist in the characterization and elucidation of the DNase-like enzymatic properties of other RIPs.

  16. Gold and silver nanoparticles conjugated with heparin derivative possess anti-angiogenesis properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, Melissa M; Linhardt, Robert J; Kumar, Ashavani; Ajayan, Pulickel; Mousa, Shaymaa; Dyskin, Evgeny; Yalcin, Murat; Mousa, Shaker A

    2009-01-01

    Silver and gold nanoparticles display unique physical and biological properties that have been extensively studied for biological and medical applications. Typically, gold and silver nanoparticles are prepared by chemical reductants that utilize excess toxic reactants, which need to be removed for biological purposes. We utilized a clean method involving a single synthetic step to prepare metal nanoparticles for evaluating potential effects on angiogenesis modulation. These nanoparticles were prepared by reducing silver nitrate and gold chloride with diaminopyridinyl (DAP)-derivatized heparin (HP) polysaccharides. Both gold and silver nanoparticles reduced with DAPHP exhibited effective inhibition of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2)-induced angiogenesis, with an enhanced anti-angiogenesis efficacy with the conjugation to DAPHP (P<0.01) as compared to glucose conjugation. These results suggest that DAPHP-reduced silver nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles have potential in pathological angiogenesis accelerated disorders such as cancer and inflammatory diseases.

  17. Gold and silver nanoparticles conjugated with heparin derivative possess anti-angiogenesis properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Melissa M.; Kumar, Ashavani; Mousa, Shaymaa; Dyskin, Evgeny; Yalcin, Murat; Ajayan, Pulickel; Linhardt, Robert J.; Mousa, Shaker A.

    2009-11-01

    Silver and gold nanoparticles display unique physical and biological properties that have been extensively studied for biological and medical applications. Typically, gold and silver nanoparticles are prepared by chemical reductants that utilize excess toxic reactants, which need to be removed for biological purposes. We utilized a clean method involving a single synthetic step to prepare metal nanoparticles for evaluating potential effects on angiogenesis modulation. These nanoparticles were prepared by reducing silver nitrate and gold chloride with diaminopyridinyl (DAP)-derivatized heparin (HP) polysaccharides. Both gold and silver nanoparticles reduced with DAPHP exhibited effective inhibition of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2)-induced angiogenesis, with an enhanced anti-angiogenesis efficacy with the conjugation to DAPHP (Pcancer and inflammatory diseases.

  18. Gold and silver nanoparticles conjugated with heparin derivative possess anti-angiogenesis properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Melissa M; Linhardt, Robert J [Department of Biology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Kumar, Ashavani; Ajayan, Pulickel [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Mousa, Shaymaa; Dyskin, Evgeny; Yalcin, Murat; Mousa, Shaker A, E-mail: Shaker.mousa@acphs.ed [Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY 12208 (United States)

    2009-11-11

    Silver and gold nanoparticles display unique physical and biological properties that have been extensively studied for biological and medical applications. Typically, gold and silver nanoparticles are prepared by chemical reductants that utilize excess toxic reactants, which need to be removed for biological purposes. We utilized a clean method involving a single synthetic step to prepare metal nanoparticles for evaluating potential effects on angiogenesis modulation. These nanoparticles were prepared by reducing silver nitrate and gold chloride with diaminopyridinyl (DAP)-derivatized heparin (HP) polysaccharides. Both gold and silver nanoparticles reduced with DAPHP exhibited effective inhibition of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2)-induced angiogenesis, with an enhanced anti-angiogenesis efficacy with the conjugation to DAPHP (P<0.01) as compared to glucose conjugation. These results suggest that DAPHP-reduced silver nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles have potential in pathological angiogenesis accelerated disorders such as cancer and inflammatory diseases.

  19. Antimicrobial properties of natural honey: a review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurongzeb, M.; Azim, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Health benefits of honey have been reported in a variety of conditions including microbial infections, wound healing, inflammation, glucose tolerance and analgesia. Honey is a supersaturated sugar solution mainly comprised of D-fructose, D-glucose, sucrose, maltose and higher sugars (80% of solid mass). While other natural products i.e. alkaloids, flavonoids/isoflavones, glycosides, phenolics, peptides/proteins are present in minor quantities. A number of enzymes such as invertase, amylase and glucose oxidase have been found in honey. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of honey are well documented and characterized. These antimicrobial properties have been related to oligosaccharides, glycopeptides and peptides present in honey. Honey glucose oxidase provides a continuous and slow release of hydrogen peroxide at a level which is antibacterial but not tissue-damaging. Hydrogen peroxide produced by glucose oxidase plays important roles in inflammation, wound healing etc. The antimicrobial properties of honey have great potential for application in medicine as well as in food industry. (author)

  20. Synthesis and characterization of new bifunctional nanocomposites possessing upconversion and oxygen-sensing properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lina; Li Bin; Qin Ruifei; Zhao Haifeng; Ren Xinguang; Su Zhongmin

    2010-01-01

    A new type of bifunctional nanocomposites for biomedical applications, upconversion NaY F 4 :Y b 3+ , Tm 3+ nanoparticles coated with Ru(II) complex chemically doped SiO 2 , has been developed by combining the useful functions of upconversion and oxygen-sensing properties into one nanoparticle. NaY F 4 :Y b 3+ , Tm 3+ nanoparticles were successfully coated with an Ru(II) complex doped SiO 2 shell with a thickness of ∼ 30 nm, and the surface of the SiO 2 was functionalized with amines. The obtained nanocomposites exhibited bright blue upconversion emission, and the luminescent emission intensity of the Ru(II) complex in the nanocomposites was sensitive to oxygen. Compared with the simple mixture of Ru(II) complex and SiO 2 , the core-shell nanocomposites showed better linearity between emission intensity of Ru(II) complex and oxygen concentrations. These bifunctional nanocomposites may find applications in biochemical and biomedical fields, such as biolabels and optical oxygen sensors, which can measure the oxygen concentrations in biological fluids.

  1. Antimicrobial properties of uncapped silver nanoparticles synthesized by DC arc thermal plasma technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Manish; Patil, Rajendra; Karmakar, Soumen; Bhoraskar, Sudha; Rane, Sunit; Gade, Wasudev; Amalnerkar, Dinesh

    2012-02-01

    We, herein, report the antimicrobial properties of uncapped silver nanoparticles for a Gram positive model organism, Bacillus subtilis. Uncapped silver nanoparticles have been prepared using less-explored DC arc thermal plasma technique by considering its large scale generation capability. It is observed that the resultant nanoparticles show size as well as optical property dependent antimicrobial effect.

  2. Effect of potassium sorbate on antimicrobial and physical properties of starch-clay nanocomposite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Hassan; Azizi, Mohammad Hossein; Barzegar, Mohsen; Hamidi-Esfahani, Zohreh

    2014-09-22

    Using fresh foods which undergo the least processing operations developed widely in recent years. Active packaging is a novel method for preserving these products. Active starch-clay nanocomposite films which contained potassium sorbate (PS) at a level of 0, 5, 7.5 and 10 g PS/100 g starch were produced and their physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties were evaluated. In order to evaluate antimicrobial properties of films Aspergillus niger was used. The results showed that 5% of the PS did not produce antimicrobial property in the film, but by increasing the content of the additive in film formulation, antimicrobial effect increased. PS increased water permeability and elongation at break of the films, but decreased tensile strength. The rate of PS migration into the semi-solid medium in starch-nanocomposites was lower than starch films. This shows that nanocomposite films could retain their antimicrobial property for longer time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A critical analysis of debtor’s right to reinstate a credit agreement & resume possession of property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlako Choma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In terms of section 129(3(a of the South African National Credit Act 34 of 2005 a consumer may reinstate a credit agreement that is in default by paying all the money that is overdue together with default charges incurred by the credit provider and also the costs of enforcing the agreement until the agreement is reinstated. A consumer should pay costs of reinstating agreement if the credit provider has not yet cancelled the agreement. A consumer who paid the required costs will also resume possession of goods that were repossessed by the credit provider pursuant to attachment order. However a consumer is prohibited from reinstating a credit agreement after the property is sold pursuant to attachment order or surrender of property in terms of section 127 (section 129(4. A consumer is also prohibited from reinstating a credit agreement after the execution of court order enforcing that agreement or after termination of agreement in terms of the NCA (section 129(4. Therefore a question arise as to whether a consumer who fell in arrears can reinstate a credit agreement by paying the arrears and preclude a credit provider from proceeding to sell the property. In other words whether a consumer who paid arrears on credit agreement can reinstate such credit agreement and disentitling the credit provider from selling the property. This was the crisp question put to the court in the recent decision in Nkata v Firstrand Bank Limited and Others (CCT73/15 [2016] ZACC 12; 2016 (6 BCLR 794 (CC; 2016 (4 SA 257 (CC (21 April 2016. The purpose this article is to critically analyse the decision in Nkata v Firstrand Bank Limited and Others (CCT73/15 [2016] ZACC 12; 2016 (6 BCLR 794 (CC; 2016 (4 SA 257 (CC (21 April 2016 in view of the application and interpretation of section 129(3 and (4 of the NCA.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of Glass Ionomer Cements with and without Chlorhexidine Gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadiki, Josna Vinutha; Jampanapalli, Sharada Reddy; Konda, Suhasini; Inguva, Hema Chandrika; Chimata, Vamsi Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Chlorhexidine gluconate is a widely used antimicrobial agent. Adding chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium compounds to filling materials, such as composite resins, acrylic resins, and glass ionomer cements increases the antibacterial property of restorative materials. This study includes antibacterial property of glass ionomer restorative cements with chlorhexidine gluconate. The primary objective of our study was to compare the antimicrobial properties of two commercially available glass ionomer cements with and without chlorhexidine gluconate on strains of mutans streptococci. Two glass ionomers (Fuji II Conventional and Fuji IX) were used. Chlorhexidine gluconate was mixed with glass ionomer cements, and antimicrobial properties against mutans streptococci were assessed by agar diffusion. The tested bacterial strain was inhibited and the antimicrobial properties decreased with time. The highest amount of antimicrobial activity with mean inhibitory zone was found in Fuji II with chlorhexidine gluconate followed by Fuji IX with chlorhexidine gluconate, Fuji II without chlorhexidine gluconate, and Fuji IX without chlorhexidine gluconate. The results of the study confirmed that the addition of 5% chlorhexidine gluconate to Fuji II and Fuji IX glass ionomer cements resulted in a restorative material that had increased antimicrobial properties over the conventional glass ionomer cements alone for Streptococcus mutans. How to cite this article: Yadiki JV, Jampanapalli SR , Konda S, Inguva HC, Chimata VK. Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of Glass Ionomer Cements with and without Chlorhexidine Gluconate. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):99-103.

  5. Antimicrobial Properties and Cytocompatibility of PLGA/Ag Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Scavone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of multifunctional nanocomposites based on poly(dl-Lactide-co-Glycolide (PLGA and increasing concentration of silver (Ag nanoparticles and their effects on cell viability for biomedical applications. PLGA nanocomposite films, produced by solvent casting with 1 wt%, 3 wt% and 7 wt% of Ag nanoparticles were investigated and surface properties were characterized by atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements. Antibacterial tests were performed using an Escherichia coli RB and Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4 strains. The cell viability and morphology were performed with a murine fibroblast cell line (L929 and a human osteosarcoma cell line (SAOS-2 by cell viability assay and electron microscopy observations. Matrix protein secretion and deposition were also quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The results suggest that the PLGA film morphology can be modified introducing a small percentage of silver nanoparticles, which induce the onset of porous round-like microstructures and also affect the wettability. The PLGA/Ag films having silver nanoparticles of more than 3 wt% showed antibacterial effects against E. coli and S. aureus. Furthermore, silver-containing PLGA films displayed also a good cytocompatibility when assayed with L929 and SAOS-2 cells; indicating the PLGA/3Ag nanocomposite film as a promising candidate for tissue engineering applications.

  6. Physicochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Cocoa Pod Husk Pectin Intended as a Versatile Pharmaceutical Excipient and Nutraceutical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofosua Adi-Dako

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of cocoa pod husk (CPH pectin intended as a versatile pharmaceutical excipient and nutraceutical were studied. Properties investigated include pH, moisture content, ash values, swelling index, viscosity, degree of esterification (DE, flow properties, SEM, FTIR, NMR, and elemental content. Antimicrobial screening and determination of MICs against test microorganisms were undertaken using agar diffusion and broth dilution methods, respectively. CPH pectin had a DE of 26.8% and exhibited good physicochemical properties. Pectin had good microbiological quality and exhibited pseudoplastic, shear thinning behaviour, and high swelling capacity in aqueous media. The DE, FTIR, and NMR results were similar to those of previous studies and supported highly acetylated low methoxy pectin. CPH pectin was found to be a rich source of minerals and has potential as a nutraceutical. Pectin showed dose-dependent moderate activity against gram positive and gram negative microorganisms but weak activity against Listeria spp. and A. niger. The MICs of pectin ranged from 0.5 to 4.0 mg/mL, with the highest activity against E. coli and S. aureus (MIC: 0.5–1.0 mg/mL and the lowest activity against A. niger (MIC: 2.0–4.0 mg/mL. The study has demonstrated that CPH pectin possesses the requisite properties for use as a nutraceutical and functional pharmaceutical excipient.

  7. Antimicrobial and Biophysical Properties of Surfactant Supplemented with an Antimicrobial Peptide for Treatment of Bacterial Pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banaschewski, Brandon J H; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Keating, Eleonora; Haagsman, Henk P; Zuo, Yi Y; Yamashita, Cory M; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistant bacterial infections represent an emerging health concern in clinical settings, and a lack of novel developments in the pharmaceutical pipeline is creating a "perfect storm" for multi-drug resistant bacterial infections. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been

  8. in-vitro antimicrobial properties of aspilla africana (compositae).

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    The in vitro anti-microbial activity of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Aspilia africana. (Compositae) was studied. The bacterial used for the antimicrobial analysis consisted of 3 clinical strains of. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, 2 clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas ...

  9. In vitro antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of crude extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa. 2Department of Microbiology, Obafemi Awolowo .... Thus improvement on such extract by pharmaceutical industry to produce antimicrobial drug of ... Table 1. Antimicrobial activity profile of the crude extract of stem bark of A. africana. Zones of inhibition (mm)*.

  10. Structural and antimicrobial properties of human pre-elafin/trappin-2 and derived peptides against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagné Stéphane M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-elafin/trappin-2 is a human innate defense molecule initially described as a potent inhibitor of neutrophil elastase. The full-length protein as well as the N-terminal "cementoin" and C-terminal "elafin" domains were also shown to possess broad antimicrobial activity, namely against the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa. The mode of action of these peptides has, however, yet to be fully elucidated. Both domains of pre-elafin/trappin-2 are polycationic, but only the structure of the elafin domain is currently known. The aim of the present study was to determine the secondary structures of the cementoin domain and to characterize the antibacterial properties of these peptides against P. aeruginosa. Results We show here that the cementoin domain adopts an α-helical conformation both by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses in the presence of membrane mimetics, a characteristic shared with a large number of linear polycationic antimicrobial peptides. However, pre-elafin/trappin-2 and its domains display only weak lytic properties, as assessed by scanning electron micrography, outer and inner membrane depolarization studies with P. aeruginosa and leakage of liposome-entrapped calcein. Confocal microscopy of fluorescein-labeled pre-elafin/trappin-2 suggests that this protein possesses the ability to translocate across membranes. This correlates with the finding that pre-elafin/trappin-2 and elafin bind to DNA in vitro and attenuate the expression of some P. aeruginosa virulence factors, namely the biofilm formation and the secretion of pyoverdine. Conclusions The N-terminal cementoin domain adopts α-helical secondary structures in a membrane mimetic environment, which is common in antimicrobial peptides. However, unlike numerous linear polycationic antimicrobial peptides, membrane disruption does not appear to be the main function of either cementoin, elafin or full-length pre-elafin/trappin-2 against

  11. African peppermint (Mentha piperita) from Morocco: Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Marwa, Chraibi; Fikri-Benbrahim, Kawtar; Ou-Yahia, Douae; Farah, Abdellah

    2017-01-01

    To replace and avoid synthetic chemicals toxicity, there is a growing interest in the investigation of natural products from plant origin for the discovery of active compounds with antimicrobial properties. This work was devoted to determine chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the EO of M. piperita harvested in the garden of the National Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Morocco. Experiments have been conducted at the Microbial Biotechnology Laboratory at the Scie...

  12. Investigation of antimicrobial activity and morphological properties of metal coated textile surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslan, Necdet; Sen, Tuba; Senturk, Kenan; Corukhlu, Turgay; Varturk, Ipek; Seker, S.; Shahidi, S.; Korachi, May; Dobrovolskiy, A.M.; Tsiolko, V.V.; Matsevich, S.V.; Keskin, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    The results of investigation antimicrobial and surface properties of the textiles metal coated by means of magnetron or the cleaning-deposition system, which is based on sequentially arranged DC anode layer accelerator and hollow cathode, are presented. The antimicrobial properties against bacteria E. coli and S. aureus of cotton and polyester/cotton textiles coated by Cu, Ti and Ag with the use of two different systems were examined and compared.

  13. Evaluation of the antimicrobial properties of unripe banana ( Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activity of these plants was examined using different solvents ... paratyphi, Shigella flexnerii, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ... medicinal plants.

  14. Antimicrobial properties of poriferan species from Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mokashe, S.S.; Tulaskar, A.S.; Venkat, K.; Wagh, A.B.

    Poriferan species belonging to Class Demospongiae were collected from the rocky intertidal pools of Ratnagiri (Maharashtra, India) and extracted with methanol. The methanol extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six fouling...

  15. Study of antimicrobial property of some hypoglycemic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Dash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a comparative antimicrobial study of different hypoglycemic drugs (Metformin, Phenformin, and Rosiglitazone was carried out. The main objective was to ascertain the antimicrobial activity by using "non-antibiotics" as the test substances. The antimicrobial activity was carried out against different bacteria and fungi namely Bacillus liceniformis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus subspp., and Staphylococcus epidermidis by using disc diffusion method and agar dilution method. Ciprofloxacin was taken as the standard antibiotic. The entire procedure was carried out in an aseptic area under the laminar flow by inoculating the bacterial strain to the agar media in which the drug solution was added. Different concentrations (300 and 400 μg/ml of the standard antibiotic and selected drugs were subjected for minimum inhibitory concentration, and zone of inhibition tests and the antimicrobial activity of the selected drugs were determined.

  16. Antimicrobial properties of nano-silver: a cautionary approach to ionic interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, K; Casey, A; Murphy, A; Chambers, G

    2015-04-01

    Metallic nanoparticles such as nano-silver have found many applications as alternative antimicrobials in recent years. However methods for determining their proposed antimicrobial activity have received little attention to date. The disk diffusion assay is commonly used as a demonstration of antimicrobial properties and is a regular feature in synthetic nanoparticle papers. The aim of this study was to assess its effectiveness in demonstrating the "nanoparticle specific" antimicrobial properties in the absence of ionic contributions from unreacted reducing agents and or impurities. The disk diffusion assay was carried out on a range of silver nanoparticles, both in-house synthesised and commercially available, using Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as a model organism. Capped and purified nanoparticles show no antimicrobial activity despite claims to the contrary for this assay. Results will be discussed in terms of the need for researchers without a background in microbiology to understand the mechanism of antimicrobial action before choosing an assay. Also discussed is the importance understanding the physiochemical characteristics of when interpreting results. Finally the relevance of the results in terms establishing protocols for method development for 'nanoparticle specific' antimicrobial properties will also be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Oxidative nanopatterning of titanium generates mesoporous surfaces with antimicrobial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Variola F

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fabio Variola,1,2 Sylvia Francis Zalzal,3 Annie Leduc,3 Jean Barbeau,3 Antonio Nanci31Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, 3Faculty of Dental Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, CanadaAbstract: Mesoporous surfaces generated by oxidative nanopatterning have the capacity to selectively regulate cell behavior, but their impact on microorganisms has not yet been explored. The main objective of this study was to test the effects of such surfaces on the adherence of two common bacteria and one yeast strain that are responsible for nosocomial infections in clinical settings and biomedical applications. In addition, because surface characteristics are known to affect bacterial adhesion, we further characterized the physicochemical properties of the mesoporous surfaces. Focused ion beam (FIB was used to generate ultrathin sections for elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, nanobeam electron diffraction (NBED, and high-angle annular dark field (HAADF scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM imaging. The adherence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans onto titanium disks with mesoporous and polished surfaces was compared. Disks with the two surfaces side-by-side were also used for direct visual comparison. Qualitative and quantitative results from this study indicate that bacterial adhesion is significantly hindered by the mesoporous surface. In addition, we provide evidence that it alters structural parameters of C. albicans that determine its invasiveness potential, suggesting that microorganisms can sense and respond to the mesoporous surface. Our findings demonstrate the efficiency of a simple chemical oxidative treatment in generating nanotextured surfaces with antimicrobial capacity with potential applications in the implant manufacturing industry and hospital setting

  18. SCREENING OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM SOME KINDS OF RAW MATERIALS WITH QUINONEDERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyko N.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data on screening of antimicrobial properties of extracts from some kinds of raw materials (18 plants with hydroquinone, naphtoquinone or anthraquinone derivatives. Some technological parameters of extracts (density and concentration of extraneous substances have been determined. The most appropriate microbiological method of studying antimicrobial properties of extracts, diffusion method of “well”, has been applied; special mathematic method of comparison of antimicrobial properties of extracts vector analysis has been applied in order to study and to compare antimicrobial properties of extracts. Indexes of antimicrobial properties of extracts have been determined: a complex index of medicinal product antimicrobial activity for quantitative estimation of antimicrobial effect - A, and square of correlation coefficient - r², which demonstrates the spectrum of antimicrobial activity of the extracts (degree of similarity to the standard. The most active extracts have been selected; they have antimicrobial properties of medium strength: from the herb of chimaphila umbellata А=2.20; the fruits of rhamnus cathartica А=2.12; the root of rubia tinctorum А=2.11; the bark of frangula alnus А=2.05; the root of rumex confertus А=2.04; the leaf of pyrola rotundifolia А=2.00; and leaf of arctostaphylos uva-ursi А=2.08 (but extract from uva-ursi did not affected on 2 strains of microorganisms r²=0.64. Low levels of antimicrobial activity have been demonstrated by the extract obtained from the leaf of urtica dioica А=0.72, r²=0.34. The mean result of the complex index of antimicrobial activity for the most of extracts from plants containing quinonederivatives is A = 1.77 (on 70% vol. ethanol at a ratio of raw material : extracting agent – 1:7 wt. : vol. and may range from 0.68 to 2.85. The mean result of the correlation coefficient is r = 0.93 and may range from 0.59 to 0.99. The mean result of the concentration of

  19. Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collise Njume

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638 using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50 values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05 as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05. These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity.

  20. Eggshell bacterial load is related to antimicrobial properties of feathers lining barn swallow nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Soler, Juan José; Martín-Platero, Antonio Manuel; Knight, Rob; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-02-01

    The use of feathers to line bird's nests has traditionally been interpreted as having a thermoregulatory function. Feather-degrading bacteria growing on feathers lining nests may have antimicrobial properties, which may provide an additional benefit to lining nests with feathers. We test the hypothesis that the production of antimicrobial substances by feather bacteria affects the microbiological environment of the nest, and therefore the bacterial density on eggshells and, indirectly, hatching success. These effects would be expected to differ between nests lined with pigmented and white feathers, because bacteria grow differently on feathers of different colors. We experimentally manipulated the composition of pigmented and unpigmented feathers in nests of the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) and studied the antimicrobial properties against the keratin-degrading bacterium Bacillus licheniformis of bacteria isolated from feathers of each color. Analyzed feathers were collected at the end of the incubation period, and antimicrobial activity was defined as the proportion of bacteria from the feathers that produce antibacterial substances effective against B. licheniformis. Our experimental manipulation affected antimicrobial activity, which was higher in nests with only white feathers at the beginning of incubation. Moreover, white feathers showed higher antimicrobial activity than black ones. Interestingly, antimicrobial activity in feathers of one of the colors correlated negatively with bacterial density on feather of the opposite color. Finally, antimicrobial activity of white feathers was negatively related to eggshell bacterial load. These results suggest that antimicrobial properties of feathers in general and of white feathers in particular affect the bacterial environment in nests. This environment in turn affects the bacterial load on eggshells, which may affect hatching success.

  1. In Vitro Evaluation of Nanoscale Hydroxyapatite-Based Bone Reconstructive Materials with Antimicrobial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajduković, Zorica R; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana M; Ignjatović, Nenad L; Stojanović, Zoran; Mladenović-Antić, Snezana B; Kocić, Branislava D; Najman, Stevo; Petrović, Nenad D; Uskoković, Dragan P

    2016-02-01

    In the field of oral implantology the loss of bone tissue prevents adequate patient care, and calls for the use of synthetic biomaterials with properties that resemble natural bone. Special attention is paid to the risk of infection after the implantation of these materials. Studies have suggested that some nanocontructs containing metal ions have antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to examine the antimicrobial and hemolytic activity of cobalt-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, compared to hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite/poly-lactide-co-glycolide. The antibacterial effects of these powders were tested against two pathogenic bacterial strains: Escherichia coi (ATCC 25922) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), using the disc diffusion method and the quantitative antimicrobial test in a liquid medium. The quantitative antimicrobial test showed that all of the tested biomaterials have some antibacterial properties. The effects of both tests were more prominent in case of S. aureus than in E coli. A higher percentage of cobalt in the crystal structure of cobalt-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles led to an increased antimicrobial activity. All of the presented biomaterial samples were found to be non-hemolytic. Having in mind that the tested of cobalt-substituted hydroxyapatite (Ca/Co-HAp) material in given concentrations shows good hemocompatibility and antimicrobial effects, along with its previously studied biological properties, the conclusion can be reached that it is a potential candidate that could substitute calcium hydroxyapatite as the material of choice for use in bone tissue engineering and clinical practices in orthopedic, oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  2. EVALUATION OF CYTOTOXIC, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIINFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES FROM THE LATEX OF IPOMEA STAPHYLINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanthi Narra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The plant Ipomoea staphylina has been used in diverse traditional medication for the treatment of diseases and illness of human beings. The crude latex extract obtained from the stem of Ipomea staphylina was evaluated for cytotoxic, antimicrobial and wound healing properties. Cell viability and cytotoxicity assays such as Colony Formation method and Enzyme based methods that determined cell viability with a colorimetric method were performed to evaluate the medicinal properties of Ipomea staphylina. Similarly Microbiological Antibiotic Assay to determine the antimicrobial properties and wound healing properties were tested by determining the potent anti-inflammatory molecules that inhibited COX and LOX enzymes. Results showed that the latex crude extract of Ipomea staphylina showed potent Antimicrobial and Antiinflamatory properties, but the viability of the cells were unaffected.

  3. Studies on the antimicrobial properties of formulated creams and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their performances were compared with those of standard antiseptic creams and ointments. The results of agar diffusion studies on cream and ointment formulations revealed that the topical bases used to disperse the medicaments could significantly affect the antimicrobial effectiveness of the formulation. Formulations ...

  4. Microbial Load And Antimicrobial Property Of Two Nigerian Herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative phytochemical screening of the herbal remedies revealed the presence of saponin, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinone and cardiac glycosides which suggest possible antimicrobial effect. However, the presence of microbial contaminants in the herbal remedies suggests that they may serve as source of infection to ...

  5. Acid resistance, bile tolerance and antimicrobial properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maari is a fermented food condiment obtained by spontaneous fermentation of seeds from the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata). Nine dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, isolated from traditional maari fermentation were examined for their resistance to pH 2.5, their tolerance to 0.3% bile and their antimicrobial ...

  6. Antimicrobial properties and chemical compositions of the petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial and chemical compositions of the petroleum ether extract of theaerial parts of Rauvolfia vomitoria. The aerial parts of the plant were air dried under shade, pounded using wooden mortar and pestle into coarse powder. The coarse powder was extracted in aSoxhlet ...

  7. In vitro antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of crude extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude extract of the stem bark of the plant exhibited antimicrobial activities at a concentration of 25 mg/ml against twenty-one of the bacterial isolates, (i.e. 72.41% of the tested isolates) comprising both Gram positive and Gram negative strains. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the extract against the test bacterial ...

  8. A comparative study of the physicochemical properties and antimicrobial qualities of Abuad moringa soap with conventional medicated soaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pius Abimbola Okiki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at assessing the physicochemical properties and antimicrobial qualities of 'ABUAD moringa soap', a herbal soap produced with Moringa oleifera leaf by 'ABUAD Farm', Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria. The physicochemical properties and antimicrobial qualities of  ABUAD moringa soap on some selected bacteria and fungi were evaluated and compared with those of some conventional medicated and herbal soaps commonly used in Nigeria, such as Dettol,  Tetmosol, Tura, Septol, Delta and Dudu Osun (herbal, as well as Lux, which serves as a control soap. The results of the physicochemical analyses revealed that all the soaps fall within the pH range of 8.83 and 9.83. All the soaps possess low values of free caustic alkali and detectable free fatty acid, as well as moderate values of total fatty matter. In-vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of the soaps were investigated against microbial agents commonly found in association with skin infections, using the well-agar diffusion technique. The bacteria tested were Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Proteus mirabilis (ATCC 12453, as well as four clinical isolates namely, Escherichia coli, Leutococcus sanguinis, Corynebacterium accolens and Burkholderia cepacia. The fungi were Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Malassezia furfur ATCC 44349, and Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 23645. All the soaps, with exeption of lux, produced varied degrees of antibacterial activities, but ABUAD Moringa soap and Dudu Osun indicated superior effectiveness against the bacteria tested. Antifugal activities were produced by ABUAD moringa and Dudu Osun soaps only, on the fungi tested.  ABUAD Moringa produced significantly higher antifungal activities on Malassezia furfur ATCC 44349 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 than Dudu Osun, but no significant difference was observed between the two soaps on their activities against Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 23645. The study showed that ABUAD Moringa soap

  9. Enhancement of the antimicrobial properties of orthorhombic molybdenum trioxide by thermal induced fracturing of the hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafaei, Shahram; Van Opdenbosch, Daniel [Technische Universität München (TUM), Chair for Biogenic Polymers, Schulgasse 16, D-94315 Straubing (Germany); Fey, Tobias [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Department of Materials Science and Engineering 3: Glass and Ceramics, Martensstraße 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Koch, Marcus; Kraus, Tobias [INM, Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Campus D2 2, D-66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Guggenbichler, Josef Peter [AMiSTec GmbH & Co. KG, Leitweg 23, A-6345 Kössen (Austria); Zollfrank, Cordt, E-mail: cordt.zollfrank@tum.de [Technische Universität München (TUM), Chair for Biogenic Polymers, Schulgasse 16, D-94315 Straubing (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    The oxides of the transition metal molybdenum exhibit excellent antimicrobial properties. We present the preparation of molybdenum trioxide dihydrate (MoO{sub 3} × 2H{sub 2}O) by an acidification method and demonstrate the thermal phase development and morphological evolution during and after calcination from 25 °C to 600 °C. The thermal dehydration of the material was found to proceed in two steps. Microbiological roll-on tests using Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were performed and exceptional antimicrobial activities were determined for anhydrous samples with orthorhombic lattice symmetry and a large specific surface area. The increase in the specific surface area is due to crack formation and to the loss of the hydrate water after calcination at 300 °C. The results support the proposed antimicrobial mechanism for transition metal oxides, which based on a local acidity increase as a consequence of the augmented specific surface area. - Highlights: • Molybdenum trioxide dihydrate (MoO{sub 3} × 2H{sub 2}O) and anhydrous MoO{sub 3} after calcination exhibit exceptional antimicrobial activities • Especially the orthorhombic samples with a large specific surface area show excellent antimicrobial properties. • The increased specific surface area is due to crack formation and to loss of hydrate water after calcination at 300 °C. • Increased a local acidity as a consequence of the augmented surface area is related to the antimicrobial characteristics.

  10. Divorcing folding from function: how acylation affects the membrane-perturbing properties of an antimicrobial peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vad, Brian Stougaard; Thomsen, Line Aagot Hede; Bertelsen, Kresten

    2010-01-01

    Many small cationic peptides, which are unstructured in aqueous solution, have antimicrobial properties. These properties are assumed to be linked to their ability to permeabilize bacterial membranes, accompanied by the transition to an alpha-helical folding state. Here we show that there is no d......Many small cationic peptides, which are unstructured in aqueous solution, have antimicrobial properties. These properties are assumed to be linked to their ability to permeabilize bacterial membranes, accompanied by the transition to an alpha-helical folding state. Here we show...... that there is no direct link between folding of the antimicrobial peptide Novicidin (Nc) and its membrane permeabilization. N-terminal acylation with C8-C16 alkyl chains and the inclusion of anionic lipids both increase Nc's ability to form alpha-helical structure in the presence of vesicles. Nevertheless, both acylation......, this cannot rationalize our results since permeabilization and antimicrobial activities are observed well below concentrations where aggregation occurs. This suggests that significant induction of alpha-helical structure is not a prerequisite for membrane perturbation in this class of antimicrobial peptides...

  11. Physical and Antimicrobial Properties of Starch-PVA Blend Films as Affected by the Incorporation of Natural Antimicrobial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Amalia; Cháfer, Maite; Chiralt, Amparo; González-Martínez, Chelo

    2015-12-26

    In this work, active films based on starch and PVA (S:PVA ratio of 2:1) were developed by incorporating neem (NO) and oregano essential oils (OEO). First, a screening of the antifungal effectiveness of different natural extracts (echinacea, horsetail extract, liquid smoke and neem seed oil) against two fungus ( P. expansum and A. niger ) was carried out. The effect of NO and OEO incorporation on the films' physical and antimicrobial properties was analyzed. Only composite films containing OEO exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity. Antibacterial activity occurred at low OEO concentration (6.7%), while antifungal effect required higher doses of OEO in the films. Incorporation of oils did not notably affect the water sorption capacity and water vapor barrier properties of S-PVA films, but reduced their transparency and gloss, especially at the highest concentrations. The mechanical response of the S-PVA films was also negatively affected by oil incorporation but this was only relevant at the highest oil ratio (22%). S-PVA films with 6.7% of OEO exhibited the best physical properties, without significant differences with respect to the S-PVA matrix, while exhibiting antibacterial activity. Thus, the use of OEO as a natural antimicrobial incorporated into starch-PVA films represents a good and novel alternative in food packaging applications.

  12. Physical and Antimicrobial Properties of Starch-PVA Blend Films as Affected by the Incorporation of Natural Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Cano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, active films based on starch and PVA (S:PVA ratio of 2:1 were developed by incorporating neem (NO and oregano essential oils (OEO. First, a screening of the antifungal effectiveness of different natural extracts (echinacea, horsetail extract, liquid smoke and neem seed oil against two fungus (P. expansum and A. niger was carried out. The effect of NO and OEO incorporation on the films’ physical and antimicrobial properties was analyzed. Only composite films containing OEO exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity. Antibacterial activity occurred at low OEO concentration (6.7%, while antifungal effect required higher doses of OEO in the films. Incorporation of oils did not notably affect the water sorption capacity and water vapor barrier properties of S-PVA films, but reduced their transparency and gloss, especially at the highest concentrations. The mechanical response of the S-PVA films was also negatively affected by oil incorporation but this was only relevant at the highest oil ratio (22%. S-PVA films with 6.7% of OEO exhibited the best physical properties, without significant differences with respect to the S-PVA matrix, while exhibiting antibacterial activity. Thus, the use of OEO as a natural antimicrobial incorporated into starch-PVA films represents a good and novel alternative in food packaging applications.

  13. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT BASIL OILS

    OpenAIRE

    H.C. Srivastava, Pankaj Shukla, Ajay Singh Maurya and Sonia Tripathi*

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aerial parts essential oils of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) from Togo were steam-distilled and investigated for their percentage composition (GC and GC/MS) and in vitro antimicrobial activities. Five oil chemotypes were identified and classified as follows in line with their principal components: estragole type; linalool/estragole type; methyleugenol type; methyleugenol/t-anethole type; tanethole type. The in vitro microbiological experiments revealed that only the methyleugenol...

  14. Physicochemical properties and antimicrobial activity of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, EunKyung; Kim, YoungJun; Joo, Nami

    2013-12-01

    The therapeutic action of a plant depends on its chemical constituents. In this study, experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the effect of extraction conditions on the antioxidative and antimicrobial activities of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Roselle was found to be rich in malic acid, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid and minerals, especially Ca and Fe, but low in glucose. More than 18 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This herb, which is rich in phenolic compounds and displays DPPH radical scavenging activity, could be a good source of natural antioxidants. The antimicrobial activity of the Roselle water and ethanol extracts was tested with Bacillus subtilis (ATCC6633), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC6538) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739). The inhibition of the Roselle ethanol extract against B. subtilis and S. aureus was slightly higher than that of water extract but this difference was not significant. However, E. coli was strongly inhibited by the Roselle water extract at concentrations of 25 and 50 mg mL(-1) as determined by a paper disc method. The obtained results indicated that antioxidant and antimicrobial activity was related to different methods of extraction and Roselle extracts could be a source of therapeutically useful products. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Antimicrobial properties of a nanostructured eggshell from a compost-nesting bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alba, Liliana; Jones, Darryl N; Badawy, Hope T; Eliason, Chad M; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2014-04-01

    Infection is an important source of mortality for avian embryos but parental behaviors and eggs themselves can provide a network of antimicrobial defenses. Mound builders (Aves: Megapodiidae) are unique among birds in that they produce heat for developing embryos not by sitting on eggs but by burying them in carefully tended mounds of soil and microbially decomposing vegetation. The low infection rate of eggs of one species in particular, the Australian brush-turkey (Alectura lathami), suggests that they possess strong defensive mechanisms. To identify some of these mechanisms, we first quantified antimicrobial albumen proteins and characterized eggshell structure, finding that albumen was not unusually antimicrobial, but that eggshell cuticle was composed of nanometer-sized calcite spheres. Experimental tests revealed that these modified eggshells were significantly more hydrophobic and better at preventing bacterial attachment and penetration into the egg contents than chicken eggs. Our results suggest that these mechanisms may contribute to the antimicrobial defense system of these eggs, and may provide inspiration for new biomimetic anti-fouling surfaces.

  16. Antimicrobial properties of graphene-like nanoparticles: coating effect on Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivi, M. [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Biology and Biotechnology (Italy); Alfè, M.; Gargiulo, V. [CNR, Institute for Research on Combustion (Italy); Valle, F. [ISMN, Institute of Nanostructured Materials (Italy); Mura, F. [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Chemistry (Italy); Di Giosia, M.; Rapino, S. [University of Bologna, Department of Chemistry “Giacomo Ciamician” (Italy); Palleschi, C.; Uccelletti, D., E-mail: daniela.uccelletti@uniroma1.it [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Biology and Biotechnology (Italy); Fiorito, S., E-mail: silvana.fiorito@ift.cnr.it [CNR, Institute of Translational Pharmacology (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    The exploitation of nanomaterials with antimicrobial properties has attracted an ever-growing interest in the recent years. Carbon-based materials, such as graphene and graphene family materials (GFMs), have gained most of the attention for application in many biomedical fields. Here, we describe the antimicrobial activity of graphene-like (GL) layers derived from the chemical demolition of carbon black, against the planktonic growth of Staphylococcus aureus cells, primary cause of hospital and community-acquired infections, often leading to bacteremia and sepsis. The inhibitory capabilities of GL layers on the formation of S. aureus biofilm are also assessed. The antimicrobial properties seem based mainly on the interaction between GL layers and bacteria surfaces. FESEM and AFM analyses suggest that the GL layers coat the cells as soon as they get in contact with them, as also indicated by the wettability of the GLs.

  17. Effect of Graphene Nanoplatelets on the Physical and Antimicrobial Properties of Biopolymer-Based Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Scaffaro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, biopolymer-based nanocomposites with antimicrobial properties were prepared via melt-compounding. In particular, graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs as fillers and an antibiotic, i.e., ciprofloxacin (CFX, as biocide were incorporated in a commercial biodegradable polymer blend of poly(lactic acid (PLA and a copolyester (BioFlex®. The prepared materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and rheological and mechanical measurements. Moreover, the effect of GnPs on the antimicrobial properties and release kinetics of CFX was evaluated. The results indicated that the incorporation of GnPs increased the stiffness of the biopolymeric matrix and allowed for the tuning of the release of CFX without hindering the antimicrobial activity of the obtained materials.

  18. Antimicrobial properties of graphene-like nanoparticles: coating effect on Staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivi, M.; Alfè, M.; Gargiulo, V.; Valle, F.; Mura, F.; Di Giosia, M.; Rapino, S.; Palleschi, C.; Uccelletti, D.; Fiorito, S.

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of nanomaterials with antimicrobial properties has attracted an ever-growing interest in the recent years. Carbon-based materials, such as graphene and graphene family materials (GFMs), have gained most of the attention for application in many biomedical fields. Here, we describe the antimicrobial activity of graphene-like (GL) layers derived from the chemical demolition of carbon black, against the planktonic growth of Staphylococcus aureus cells, primary cause of hospital and community-acquired infections, often leading to bacteremia and sepsis. The inhibitory capabilities of GL layers on the formation of S. aureus biofilm are also assessed. The antimicrobial properties seem based mainly on the interaction between GL layers and bacteria surfaces. FESEM and AFM analyses suggest that the GL layers coat the cells as soon as they get in contact with them, as also indicated by the wettability of the GLs.

  19. Antimicrobial and physical properties of chitosan films incorporated with turmeric extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaycıoğlu, Zeynep; Torlak, Emrah; Akın-Evingür, Gülşen; Özen, İlhan; Erim, F Bedia

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the effects of turmeric extract incorporation on the antibacterial and physical properties of the chitosan films were evaluated. Turmeric containing chitosan-based film was produced with casting procedure and cross-linked with sodium sulfate. Mechanical, optical, thermal properties, and water vapor permeability of the films were studied. The addition of turmeric to chitosan film significantly increased the tensile strength of the film and improved the ultraviolet-visible light barrier of the film. Infrared spectroscopy analysis suggested an interaction between the phenolic compounds of the extract and amin group of chitosan. Antimicrobial activity of the chitosan films was studied against Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus by plate count agar technique and a better antimicrobial activity was observed with turmeric incorporation. Turmeric incorporated chitosan films with enhanced antimicrobial activity and film stiffness can be suggested as a promising application for food packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prediction of antibacterial activity from physicochemical properties of antimicrobial peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel N Melo

    Full Text Available Consensus is gathering that antimicrobial peptides that exert their antibacterial action at the membrane level must reach a local concentration threshold to become active. Studies of peptide interaction with model membranes do identify such disruptive thresholds but demonstrations of the possible correlation of these with the in vivo onset of activity have only recently been proposed. In addition, such thresholds observed in model membranes occur at local peptide concentrations close to full membrane coverage. In this work we fully develop an interaction model of antimicrobial peptides with biological membranes; by exploring the consequences of the underlying partition formalism we arrive at a relationship that provides antibacterial activity prediction from two biophysical parameters: the affinity of the peptide to the membrane and the critical bound peptide to lipid ratio. A straightforward and robust method to implement this relationship, with potential application to high-throughput screening approaches, is presented and tested. In addition, disruptive thresholds in model membranes and the onset of antibacterial peptide activity are shown to occur over the same range of locally bound peptide concentrations (10 to 100 mM, which conciliates the two types of observations.

  1. Determination of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Eremurus spectabilis Bieb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Bircan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the E. spectabilis Bieb., which is consumed as a vegetable among people, was investigated and Kluyveromyces lactis’s antioxidant activies in anaerobic cultural environment is researched. This purpose; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, flavonoid, resveratrol, sugar contents, lipid peroxidation (LPO levels, fatty acid level, lipophilic vitamin values, protein and glutathione amounts were measured. In the FeCl group in which FeCl2+ H2O2 is applied, when compared with LPO level control group (K, it was observed that it increase in high amount (p<0.05. LPO level decreases in certain proportions in treatment groups. It is suggested that the lowering effect of the LPO of E. spectabilis extracts are arise from phytochemical like flavonoids that it includes. As a result of the antibacterial activity studies, it was observed that E. spectabilis have different proportional antimicrobial activities against E. coli, S. aureus, Epidermophyton spp. and C. albicans.

  2. Effects of dentin on the antimicrobial properties of endodontic medicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasalo, Markus; Qian, Wei; Portenier, Isabelle; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2007-08-01

    Successful treatment of apical periodontitis is dependent on the elimination of the infective microflora from the necrotic root canal system. Antimicrobial irrigating solutions and other locally used disinfecting agents and medicaments have a key role in the eradication of the microbes. While most if not all presently used disinfecting agents rapidly kill even the resistant microbes when tested in vitro in a test tube, the effectiveness of the same agents is clearly weaker in the in vivo conditions. Recent studies have given valuable information about the interaction of endodontic disinfecting agents with dentin and other compounds present in the necrotic root canal. As a result of such interactions the antimicrobial effectiveness of several of our key disinfectants may be weakened, or even eliminated under certain circumstances. Different disinfectants show different sensitivity to the action by the various potential inactivators, such as dentin, serum proteins, hydroxyapatite, collagen derived from different sources, and microbial biomass. This review is a summary of our present knowledge of the mostly negative interactions between endodontic disinfecting agents and the various compounds present in the root canal environment.

  3. Effect of deposition time of sputtering Ag-Cu thin film on mechanical and antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purniawan, A.; Hermastuti, R.; Purwaningsih, H.; Atmono, T. M.

    2018-04-01

    Metallic implants are important components in biomedical treatment. However, post-surgery infection often occurs after installation of implant. The infections are usually treated by antibiotics, but it still causes several secondary problems. As a prevention treatment, the surgical instruments and implants must be in a sterile condition. This action is still not optimal too because the material still can attract the bacteria. From material science point of view, it can be anticipated by developing a type of material which has antibacterial properties or called antimicrobial material. Silver (Ag) and Copper (Cu) have antimicrobial properties to prevent the infection. In this research, the influence of deposition time of Ag-Cu thin film deposition process as antimicrobial material with Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) RF Sputtering method was analyzed. Deposition time used were for 10, 15 and 20 minutes in Argon gas pressure around 3 x 10-2 mbar in during deposition process. The morphology and surface roughness of Ag-Cu thin film were characterized using SEM and AFM. Based on the results, the deposition time influences the quality morphology that the thin films have good homogeneity and complete structure for longer deposition time. In addition, from roughness measurement results show that increase deposition time decrease the roughness of thin film. Antimicrobial performance was analyzed using Kirby Bauer Test. The results show that all of sample have good antimicrobial inhibition. Adhesion quality was evaluated using Rockwell C Indentation Test. However, the results indicate that the Ag-Cu thin film has low adhesion strength.

  4. Chemical synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antimicrobial properties of Cu and its oxide nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motlatle, Abesach M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 18: DOI: 10.1007/s11051-016-3614-8 Chemical synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antimicrobial properties of Cu and its oxide nanoparticles Motlatle AM Kesevan Pillai S Scriba MR Ray SS ABSTRACT: Cu...

  5. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF STEVIA LEAVES EXTRACTS AND SILVER NANOPARTICLES COLLOIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Laguta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three extracts of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni were prepared using various types of raw materials: leaves of plants grown ex situ, leaves of plants grown in vitro, callus culture formed on damaged leaves. Composition of the extracts, their activity in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles colloids, as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the extracts and the colloids were investigated.

  6. Influence of Salvadora persica (miswak) extract on physical and antimicrobial properties of glass ionomer cement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Tatari, A.; de Soet, J.J.; de Gee, A.J.; Abou Shelib, M.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate physical and antimicrobial properties of Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) combined with Salvadora Persica Extract (SPE). METHODS: SPE was added to GIC (Fuji IX) in concentrations of 1%, 2% and 4% w/w. The compressive strength and diametral tensile strength were measured at 1 h, 24 h

  7. ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF PLEUROTUS ERYNGII AND LENTINUS EDODES HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Popa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Besides superior nutritional values mushrooms posed significant medicinal properties. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of several isolates of Pleurotus eryngii and Lentinus edodes mushroom species were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against pathogenic microorganisms with medicinal importance. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts were evaluated by the agar disk diffusion method. Results revealed that the 70% ethylic alcohol extracts have significant inhibitory activities against Bacillus subtilis var. spizizinii, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results showed that the 70% ethanol extracts of Pleurotus eryngii and Lentinus edodes mushroom isolates may have biopharmaceutical potentiality.

  8. Recovery potential of cold press byproducts obtained from the edible oil industry: physicochemical, bioactive, and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Safa; Karasu, Salih; Tornuk, Fatih; Toker, Omer Said; Geçgel, Ümit; Sagdic, Osman; Ozcan, Nihat; Gül, Osman

    2015-03-04

    Physicochemical, bioactive, and antimicrobial properties of different cold press edible oil byproducts (almond (AOB), walnut (WOB), pomegranate (POB), and grape (GOB)) were investigated. Oil, protein, and crude fiber content of the byproducts were found between 4.82 and 12.57%, between 9.38 and 49.05%, and between 5.87 and 45.83%, respectively. GOB had very high crude fiber content; therefore, it may have potential for use as a new dietary fiber source in the food industry. As GOB, POB, and WOB oils were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, AOB was rich in monounsaturated fatty acids. Oil byproducts were also found to be rich in dietary mineral contents, especially potassium, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. WOB had highest total phenolic (802 ppm), flavonoid (216 ppm), and total hydrolyzed tannin (2185 ppm) contents among the other byproducts. Volatile compounds of all the byproducts are mainly composed of terpenes in concentration of approximately 95%. Limonene was the dominant volatile compound in all of the byproducts. Almond and pomegranate byproduct extracts showed antibacterial activity depending on their concentration, whereas those of walnut and grape byproducts showed no antibacterial activity against any pathogenic bacteria tested. According to the results of the present study, walnut, almond, pomegranate, and grape seed oil byproducts possess valuable properties that can be taken into consideration for improvement of nutritional and functional properties of many food products.

  9. The Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Entomopathogenic Fungi in Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzgerald L. Fabelico

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenicfungi (EPF are potential biocontrol agents against agricultural pests and insects. These fungi are also known to be a source of secondary metabolites and could be a potential source of antibiotic drugs in the future. This study aims to determine the phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of EPF isolated from different host insects and their larvae in the province of Nueva Vizcaya.The method employed in this study includes the collection of EPF from dead insects and their larvae, isolation and mass production of the fungi, identification of the different fungi, extraction of secondary metabolites from the fungi, phytochemical screening, and antimicrobial assay. The results revealed that the antimicrobial properties of the different EPF could be explained by their phytochemical properties.When compared to the positive control, the significantly high antifungal activities of the Pandora neoaphidis(EPF 1 against the Candida albicans can be due to the presence of sterols. Conversely, the significantly high antibacterial activities of Beauveria alba (EPF 5 against Bacillus subtiliscould be due to the presence ofsteroids, triterpenoids, glycosides, and fatty acids.These findings indicate that entomopathogenic fungi could be a potential source of antibiotic drugs against pathogenic microorganism in the near future. To realize this, future research is highly recommended for the isolation, elucidation, and evaluation of the safety of the bioactive compounds of entomopathogenic fungi responsible for the antimicrobial activities, prior to their use in humans.

  10. Study on Europium-Doped Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Their Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Liliana Iconaru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR analysis was conducted on europium-doped hydroxyapatite, Ca10-xEux(PO46(OH2 nanocrystalline powders (Eu:HAp with 0≤xEu≤0.2. Antimicrobial studies were also performed for the first time on Eu:HAp. The antimicrobial properties of Eu:HAp nanoparticles with 0≤xEu≤0.2 on Gram-negative (E. coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1397 and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus 0364, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 bacteria systems and a species of fungus (Candida albicans ATCC 10231 were reported. Our study demonstrates that the antimicrobial activity of Eu:HAp nanoparticles is dependent on the europium concentration.

  11. Antimicrobial activity and properties of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials incorporated with silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginjupalli, Kishore; Alla, Rama Krishna; Tellapragada, Chaitanya; Gupta, Lokendra; Upadhya Perampalli, Nagaraja

    2016-06-01

    Conventional spray and the immersion disinfection of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials may lead to dimensional changes. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity and properties of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials incorporated with silver nanoparticles. The antimicrobial activity and properties of 2 commercially available irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials were evaluated after incorporating varying concentrations of silver nanoparticles. Antimicrobial activity was determined using the disk diffusion method. The gel strength, permanent deformation, flow, and gelation time were measured according to American Dental Association specification #18. Analysis of variance was used to identify the significant differences within and across the groups (α=.05). Adding silver nanoparticles to irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials resulted in superior antimicrobial activity without adversely affecting their properties. Adding silver nanoparticles to Zelgan significantly increased the gel strength compared with the control group, except at 5 wt%. However, the gel strength of Tropicalgin was unaffected except at 5 wt%. An increase in the permanent deformation was found with the incorporation of silver nanoparticles in both Zelgan and Tropicalgin. The flow of Zelgan increased with the incorporation of silver nanoparticles, whereas a decrease in the flow of Tropicalgin was observed at 1 wt% and 2 wt%. An increase in the gelation time of both Zelgan and Tropicalgin was observed with the incorporation of silver nanoparticles. Based on this in vitro study, silver nanoparticles can be incorporated into irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials as antimicrobial agents without adversely affecting their properties. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. STUDY OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF CERTAIN SAPROPHYTIC OBLIGATE MARINE FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyuzhnaya O.S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Today promising area of the development and introduction of new antimicrobial agents is to search for new antibiotics from natural sources, namely among marine organisms - microscopic fungi. Such saprophytic fungi as Ascomycota (families Arenariomyces, Ceriosporopsis, Corollospora, Halosphaeria and Basidiomycota (family Nia, which are widely spreaded in Ukraine (salty estuaries and the coast of the Black Sea, are the objects of the study of this work. These types of marine organisms have been provided by the Odessa Branch of the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas after collecting samples of water, sediment, cellulose substrates and subsequent isolation and obtain pure cultures by accumulation in the form fruiting bodies of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes - ascocarps and basidiocarps that can be stored 3-5 months in sterile seawater. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of antimicrobial properties of saprophytic fungi obligate marine, which are characteristic for residents in Ukraine, namely the Black Sea. Materials and methods. At this stage the study of antimicrobial activity was performed by agar diffusion method and method of cocultivation of marine fungi with test strains in liquid culture medium. We have used reference strains of microorganisms: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 6896, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and opportunistic fungus Candida albicans ATCC 885-653. Results and Discussion. Determination of antimicrobial activity by agar diffusion method showed that all samples had antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive test strains (S. aureus and B. subtilis, effect for the Gramnegative bacteria (E. coli, P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa was much smaller or non-existent, and it isn’t observed against C. albicans (exclusion Nia vibrissa with zone of growth inhibition – 6.2 mm. The results of the counting of cells test strains

  13. Analysis of biosurfactants from industrially viable Pseudomonas strain isolated from crude oil suggests how rhamnolipids congeners affect emulsification property and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Palashpriya; Yang, Xin-Ping; Ma, Luyan Z

    2014-01-01

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced mainly by Pseudomonas sp. had been reported to possess a wide range of potential industrial application. These biosurfactants are produced as monorhamnolipid (MRL) and di-rhamnolipid (DRL) congeners. The present study deals with rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by three bacterial isolates from crude oil. Biosurfactants produced by one of the strains (named as IMP67) was found to be very efficacious based on its critical micelle concentration value and hydrocarbon emulsification property. Strikingly, antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm potential of this biosurfactant were higher than biosurfactants produced by other two strains. Thin layer chromatography analysis and rhamnose quantification showed that the rhamnolipids of IMP67 had more MRL congeners than biosurfactants of the other two strains. Emulsification and antimicrobial actions were affected by manual change of MRL and DRL congener proportions. Increase of MRL proportion enhanced emulsification index and antimicrobial property to Gram negative bacteria. This result indicated that the ratio of MRL and DRL affected the emulsification potentials of rhamnolipids, and suggested that high emulsification potentials might enhance rhamnolipids to penetrate the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria. In line with this finding, rhamnolipids of IMP67 also reduced the MIC of some antibiotics against bacteria, suggesting their synergistic role with the antibiotics.

  14. Analysis of biosurfactants from industrially-viable Pseudomonas strain isolated from crude oil suggests how rhamnolipids congeners affect on emulsification property and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palashpriya eDas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced mainly by Pseudomonas sp. had been reported to possess a wide range of potential industrial application. These biosurfactants are produced as monorhamnolipid (MRL and di-rhamnolipid (DRL congeners. The present study deals with rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by three bacterial isolates from crude oil. Biosurfactants produced by one of the strains (named as IMP67 was found to be very efficacious based on its critical micelle concentration (CMC value and hydrocarbon emulsification property. Strikingly, antimicrobial and anti-biofilm potential of this biosurfactant were higher than biosurfactants produced by other two strains. Thin layer chromatography (TLC analysis and rhamnose quantification showed that the rhamnolipids of IMP67 had more MRL congeners than biosurfactants of the other two strains. Emulsification and antimicrobial actions were affected by manual change of MRL and DRL congener proportions. Increase of MRL proportion enhanced emulsification index and antimicrobial property to Gram negative bacteria. This result indicated that the ratio of MRL and DRL affect the emulsification potentials of rhamnolipids, and suggested that high emulsification potentials might enhance rhamnolipids to penetrate the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria. In consistent, rhamnolipids of IMP67 reduced the MIC of some antibiotics against bacteria, suggesting the potential of biosurfactant as antibiotics synergist.

  15. Antimicrobial Properties of Chitosan-Alumina/f-MWCNT Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masheane, M.; Nthunya, L.; Malinga, S.; Masheane, M.; Nthunya, L.; Nxumalo, E.; Mhlanga, S.; Barnard, T.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial chitosan-alumina/functionalized-multi walled carbon nano tube (f-MWCNT) nano composites were prepared by a simple phase inversion method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses showed the change in the internal morphology of the composites and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed the presence of alumina and f-MWCNTs in the chitosan polymer matrix. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed the appearance of new functional groups from both alumina and f-MWCNTs, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the addition of alumina and f-MWCNTs improved the thermal stability of the chitosan polymer. The presence of alumina and f-MWCNTs in the polymer matrix was found to improve the thermal stability and reduced the solubility of chitosan polymer. The prepared chitosan-alumina/f-MWCNT nano composites showed inhibition of twelve strains of bacterial strains that were tested. Thus, the nano composites show a potential for use as a biocides in water treatment for the removal of bacteria at different environmental conditions.

  16. Effect of antimicrobial agents on cellulose acetate nano composites properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bruna, Julio E.; Galotto, Maria J.; Guarda, Abel; Sepulveda, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Nano composites based on cellulose acetate, Cloisite 30B, triethyl citrate and thymol or cinnamaldehyde were prepared using a dissolution casting technique. The effect of thymol and cinnamaldehyde on the cellulose acetate nano composite properties was evaluated by XRD and DSC. Important changes on the thermal properties and morphological structure were observed according to thymol and cinnamaldehyde content. (author)

  17. Effect of antimicrobial agents on cellulose acetate nano composites properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bruna, Julio E.; Galotto, Maria J.; Guarda, Abel; Sepulveda, Hugo, E-mail: francisco.rodriguez.m@usach.cl [Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA). Universidad de Santiago de Chile. Faculty of Technology. Department of Food Science and Technology. Food Packaging Laboratory. Santiago (Chile)

    2011-07-01

    Nano composites based on cellulose acetate, Cloisite 30B, triethyl citrate and thymol or cinnamaldehyde were prepared using a dissolution casting technique. The effect of thymol and cinnamaldehyde on the cellulose acetate nano composite properties was evaluated by XRD and DSC. Important changes on the thermal properties and morphological structure were observed according to thymol and cinnamaldehyde content. (author)

  18. CD24 negative lung cancer cells, possessing partial cancer stem cell properties, cannot be considered as cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haineng; Mu, Jiasheng; Xiao, Jing; Wu, Xiangsong; Li, Maolan; Liu, Tianrun; Liu, Xinyuan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play vital role in lung cancer progression, resistance, metastasis and relapse. Identifying lung CSCs makers for lung CSCs targeting researches are critical for lung cancer therapy. In this study, utilizing previous identified lung CSCs as model, we compared the expression of CD24, CD133 and CD44 between CSCs and non-stem cancer cells. Increased ratio of CD24- cells were found in CSCs. CD24- cells were then sorted by flow cytometry and their proliferative ability, chemo-resistance property and in vivo tumor formation abilities were detected. A549 CD24- cells formed smaller colonies, slower proliferated in comparison to A549 CD24+ cells. Besides, A549 CD24- exhibited stronger resistance to chemotherapy drug. However, A549 CD24- didn't exert any stronger tumor formation ability in vivo, which is the gold standard of CSCs. These results showed that CD24- A549 cells showed some properties of CSCs but not actually CSCs. This study provides evidence that CD24 cannot be considered as lung CSCs marker.

  19. African peppermint (Mentha piperita from Morocco: Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chraibi Marwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To replace and avoid synthetic chemicals toxicity, there is a growing interest in the investigation of natural products from plant origin for the discovery of active compounds with antimicrobial properties. This work was devoted to determine chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the EO of M. piperita harvested in the garden of the National Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Morocco. Experiments have been conducted at the Microbial Biotechnology Laboratory at the Sciences and Technology Faculty, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez, Morocco. M. piperita oil was screened for its antimicrobial activity against seven bacteria and two fungi using broth microdilution method. Chemical EO analysis was performed using CPG/MS. The EO revealed menthol (46.32%, menthofuran (13.18%, menthyl acetate (12.10%, menthone (7.42%, and 1,8-cineole (6.06% as the main constituents. The tested EO exhibited strong inhibitory effect against all tested microorganisms with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.062% to 0.5% (v/v, except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa that was the least sensitive and was only inhibited by concentrations as high as 0.5% (v/v. The studied EO showed an antimicrobial potential. This reinforces its use as an alternative to chemical additives that can be applied to the food and drug industry.

  20. African peppermint (Mentha piperita) from Morocco: Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwa, Chraibi; Fikri-Benbrahim, Kawtar; Ou-Yahia, Douae; Farah, Abdellah

    2017-01-01

    To replace and avoid synthetic chemicals toxicity, there is a growing interest in the investigation of natural products from plant origin for the discovery of active compounds with antimicrobial properties. This work was devoted to determine chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the EO of M. piperita harvested in the garden of the National Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Morocco. Experiments have been conducted at the Microbial Biotechnology Laboratory at the Sciences and Technology Faculty, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez, Morocco. M. piperita oil was screened for its antimicrobial activity against seven bacteria and two fungi using broth microdilution method. Chemical EO analysis was performed using CPG/MS. The EO revealed menthol (46.32%), menthofuran (13.18%), menthyl acetate (12.10%), menthone (7.42%), and 1,8-cineole (6.06%) as the main constituents. The tested EO exhibited strong inhibitory effect against all tested microorganisms with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.062% to 0.5% (v/v), except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa that was the least sensitive and was only inhibited by concentrations as high as 0.5% (v/v). The studied EO showed an antimicrobial potential. This reinforces its use as an alternative to chemical additives that can be applied to the food and drug industry. PMID:28795021

  1. Antimicrobial properties of Cocos nucifera (coconut) husk: An extrapolation to oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Maji; Cyriac, Maria B; Pai, Vidya; Varghese, Ipe; Shantaram, Manjula

    2014-07-01

    Brushing the teeth with fibrous husk of Cocos nucifera (coconut) is a common oral hygiene practice among people of rural areas of South India. However, the probable antimicrobial properties of this plant material against common oral pathogens have not been proved scientifically. Therefore, the present study was designed. Alcoholic extract of the husk of Cocos nucifera was prepared and the antimicrobial properties against common oral pathogens like cariogenic bacteria, periodontal pathogens, and candidal organisms were performed by the Agar Well Diffusion Method. The results obtained were then subjected to statistical analysis using One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD). The alcoholic extract of Cocos nucifera showed a significant concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity, expressed as a zone of inhibition with respect to all tested organisms except Actinomyces species. The inhibitory effect was more significant, with a majority of cariogenic organisms and Candida, with a zone of inhibition ranging from 4.6 mm to 16.3 mm. However, the effect was lesser with Cocos nucifera compared to chlorhexidine. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 50 mg/ml to 75 mg/ml. Cocos nucifera has a significant inhibitory action against common oral pathogens, indicating the presence of highly effective antimicrobial compounds. Therefore, it is proved that its use can contribute to oral health to a great extent. Identification of these active compounds provides the scope for incorporating it into a modern oral care system, so as to control oral diseases.

  2. Application of eco-friendly antimicrobial finish butea monosperma leaves on fabric properties of polyester and cotton/polyester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaf, S.; Saeed, M.; Kalsoom, S.; Saeed, M.

    2017-01-01

    The study was aimed to check the effect of eco-friendly antimicrobial finish on 100% polyester and 50/50 cotton/polyester woven fabrics. The leaves' extract of Butea monosperma was used as an eco-friendly antimicrobial finish. The fabric was first desized, scoured, bleached and washed then antimicrobial finish was applied by using pad dry cure method. The aesthetic, comfort and mechanical fabrics properties were checked before and after applying antimicrobial finish. Under aesthetic property stiffness and smoothness appearance was checked, under comfort related property absorbency and air permeability was checked and under mechanical property tear and tensile strength was checked. The antimicrobial finish was checked by using ASTEM E2149 Shake Flask method. The AATCC and ISO standard testing methods were used for checking fabric properties. One way ANOVA statistical test was applied for analysis of results. Antimicrobial finish has increased aesthetic (stiffness, smoothness appearance), comfort (absorbency, air permeability) and mechanical (tensile and tear strengths) properties of polyester and cotton/polyester fabrics. The antimicrobial finish was effective on both 100% polyester and 50/50 cotton/polyester fabrics up to 25 washes. This study is beneficial to medical industry, paramedical staff, sports wears, home furnishing as well as common people. (author)

  3. Surface modification and antimicrobial properties of cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalova, Yulia A.

    Surface modification of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) was performed by acetylation and subsequent reaction with various tertiary amines with different lengths of alkyl groups. Chloroacetic anhydride (95%) was used for acetylation. The acetylation of CNC was confirmed using IR spectroscopy. The bands associated with C=0 stretching (1740 cm-1) and C-Cl stretching (793 cm -1) was present in the acetylated CNC but they were absent in the neat CNC. It has been suggested that the primary hydroxyl groups of CNC are substituted by chloro acetyl groups during acetylation reaction. Subsequent reaction of chloro acetylated CNC with N, N - Dimethyl ethylamine, N, N - Dimethyl hexylamine, N, N - Dimethyl dodecylamine, N, N - Dimethyl hexadecylamine and N, N - Dimethyl decylamine formed quaternary ammonium salts. These quaternary ammonium salts were characterized by FTIR and solid state13C NMR spectroscopy. FTIR spectra of five types of quaternary ammonium salts of CNC are similar and they showed infrared bands at 2905 -1 and 2850 cm-1, attributed to symmetrical and unsymmetrical C-H stretching vibration. The absence of C-Cl band at 793 cm-1 proves that quaternary salt formation was successful. The 13C NMR spectrum of quaternary ammonium modified CNC with N, N - Dimethyl dodecylamine shows several additional resonances ranging from 14.5 ppm to 58.0 ppm when compared to 13C NMR spectrum of pure CNC. This evidence proves that long alkyl chains have been added to the pure CNC. The disc diffusion method confirmed that quaternary ammonium modified CNCs with a chain longer than ten carbons are effective antimicrobial agents against Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli bacteria. Pure CNC and quaternary ammonium modified CNCs with an alkyl chain length of ten or less were not able to inhibit bacteria growth.

  4. The effect of heat treatment on the antimicrobial properties of honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuilan eChen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the antimicrobial properties of honey. In most honey samples, antimicrobial activity is due to the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 by the bee-derived enzyme glucose oxidase, however the amount of H2O2 produced can vary greatly among samples. In addition, honey is a complex product, and other components may contribute to or modulate this activity, which may be further affected by processing procedures used in large-scale commercial production. In this study we examined honey derived from three native Australian floral sources that had previously been associated with H2O2-dependent activity: spotted gum (Eucalyptus maculata, red stringybark (Eucalyptus macrorrhyncha and yellowbox (Eucalyptus melliodora. Antimicrobial activity was measured using standardized assays against the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Antibacterial activity was only seen in four of the six red stringybark samples and ranged from 12-21.1% phenol equivalence. No antibacterial activity was detected in the spotted gum or yellowbox samples. Antifungal activity ranged from MIC values of 19-38.3 % (w/v, and although all samples were significantly more active than an osmotically equivalent sugar solution, most had relatively low activity. All honey samples were provided unprocessed and underwent standard heating and filtration procedures (45˚C for 8 hours followed by filtration with a 100 µm filter, allowing the effects of commercial heating and filtration methods on antimicrobial activity and H2O2 levels to be assessed. Average antibacterial and antifungal activities decreased, but while processing was usually detrimental, occasionally the reverse was seen and antimicrobial activity increased. Significant activity was eliminated from all samples by the addition of catalase, indicating that H2O2 was chiefly responsible for their antimicrobial action, and H2O2 production was measured in the

  5. Antimicrobial properties of analgesic kyotorphin peptides unraveled through atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Marta M.B.; Franquelim, Henri G.; Torcato, Inês M.; Ramu, Vasanthakumar G.; Heras, Montserrat; Bardaji, Eduard R.; Castanho, Miguel A.R.B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► New kyotorphin derivatives have antimicrobial properties against S. aureus. ► Atomic force microscopy show membrane disturbing effects of KTP–NH 2 and IbKTP–NH 2 . ► None of the KTP derivatives are hemolytic. ► The minimal peptidic sequence with antimicrobial activity is Tyr-Arg, if amidated. -- Abstract: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates as alternatives to conventional antibiotics for the treatment of resistant pathogens. In the last decades, new AMPs have been found from the cleavage of intact proteins with no antibacterial activity themselves. Bovine hemoglobin hydrolysis, for instance, results in AMPs and the minimal antimicrobial peptide sequence was defined as Tyr-Arg plus a positively charged amino acid residue. The Tyr-Arg dipeptide alone, known as kyotorphin (KTP), is an endogenous analgesic neuropeptide but has no antimicrobial activity itself. In previous studies new KTP derivatives combining C-terminal amidation and Ibuprofen (Ib) – KTP–NH 2 , IbKTP, IbKTP–NH 2 – were designed in order to improve KTP brain targeting. Those modifications succeeded in enhancing peptide-cell membrane affinity towards fluid anionic lipids and higher analgesic activity after systemic injection resulted therefrom. Here, we investigated if this affinity for anionic lipid membranes also translates into antimicrobial activity because bacteria have anionic membranes. Atomic force microscopy revealed that KTP derivatives perturbed Staphylococcus aureus membrane structure by inducing membrane blebbing, disruption and lysis. In addition, these peptides bind to red blood cells but are non-hemolytic. From the KTP derivatives tested, amidated KTP proves to be the most active antibacterial agent. The combination of analgesia and antibacterial activities with absence of toxicity is highly appealing from the clinical point of view and broadens the therapeutic potential and application of kyotorphin peptides.

  6. Antimicrobial properties of analgesic kyotorphin peptides unraveled through atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Marta M.B.; Franquelim, Henri G.; Torcato, Ines M. [Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Av. Professor Egas Moniz, 1649-028 Lisboa (Portugal); Ramu, Vasanthakumar G.; Heras, Montserrat; Bardaji, Eduard R. [Laboratori d' Innovacio en Processos i Productes de Sintesi Organica (LIPPSO), Departament de Quimica, Universitat de Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Castanho, Miguel A.R.B., E-mail: macastanho@fm.ul.pt [Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Av. Professor Egas Moniz, 1649-028 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New kyotorphin derivatives have antimicrobial properties against S. aureus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Atomic force microscopy show membrane disturbing effects of KTP-NH{sub 2} and IbKTP-NH{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer None of the KTP derivatives are hemolytic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The minimal peptidic sequence with antimicrobial activity is Tyr-Arg, if amidated. -- Abstract: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates as alternatives to conventional antibiotics for the treatment of resistant pathogens. In the last decades, new AMPs have been found from the cleavage of intact proteins with no antibacterial activity themselves. Bovine hemoglobin hydrolysis, for instance, results in AMPs and the minimal antimicrobial peptide sequence was defined as Tyr-Arg plus a positively charged amino acid residue. The Tyr-Arg dipeptide alone, known as kyotorphin (KTP), is an endogenous analgesic neuropeptide but has no antimicrobial activity itself. In previous studies new KTP derivatives combining C-terminal amidation and Ibuprofen (Ib) - KTP-NH{sub 2}, IbKTP, IbKTP-NH{sub 2} - were designed in order to improve KTP brain targeting. Those modifications succeeded in enhancing peptide-cell membrane affinity towards fluid anionic lipids and higher analgesic activity after systemic injection resulted therefrom. Here, we investigated if this affinity for anionic lipid membranes also translates into antimicrobial activity because bacteria have anionic membranes. Atomic force microscopy revealed that KTP derivatives perturbed Staphylococcus aureus membrane structure by inducing membrane blebbing, disruption and lysis. In addition, these peptides bind to red blood cells but are non-hemolytic. From the KTP derivatives tested, amidated KTP proves to be the most active antibacterial agent. The combination of analgesia and antibacterial activities with absence of toxicity is highly appealing from the clinical point of view

  7. The effect of benzalkonium chloride additions to AH Plus sealer. Antimicrobial, physical and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Moliz, M T; Ruiz-Linares, M; Cassar, G; Ferrer-Luque, C M; Baca, P; Ordinola-Zapata, R; Camilleri, J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities and physicochemical properties of AH Plus sealer mixed with different concentrations of benzalkonium chloride (BC). AH Plus was tested alone and mixed with 1%, 2% and 3% of BC. The antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of the sealers against Enterococcus faecalis were evaluated by the direct contact test (DCT) and by confocal laser scanning microscopy, respectively. Setting time, flow and solubility were assessed according to ANSI/ADA specifications. Microhardness and contact angle tests were also performed. The chemical changes of the sealers were evaluated by X-ray diffraction analysis, and both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR). AH Plus+3% BC was the only sealer to promote total elimination of E. faecalis and the biovolume in this group was significantly lower than in the rest of the sealers (p>0.05). The physical properties of the sealers were according to the ANSI/ADA specifications. The microhardness decreased significantly when BC was added and a significant reduction in contact angle was obtained when incorporating 2% and 3% BC (p<0.05). No phase changes were observed with the modified sealers. The addition of 2% or higher concentrations BC to AH Plus showed antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities without affecting the properties specified in ANSI/ADA standards. However, additives to the root canal sealer altered other physical and chemical properties that are not commonly found in the literature to evaluate filling materials. The present study highlights that the antimicrobial properties of AH Plus can be significantly improved with the addition of BC. Testing beyond what is specified in standards may be indicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a novel resin with antimicrobial properties for dental application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Tornavoi de CASTRO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The adhesion of biofilm on dental prostheses is a prerequisite for the occurrence of oral diseases. Objective: To assess the antimicrobial activity and the mechanical properties of an acrylic resin embedded with nanostructured silver vanadate (β-AgVO3. Material and Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of β-AgVO3 was studied in relation to the species Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The halo zone of inhibition method was performed in triplicate to determine the inhibitory effect of the modified self-curing acrylic resin Dencor Lay - Clássico®. The surface hardness and compressive strength were examined. The specimens were prepared according to the percentage of β-AgVO3 (0%-control, 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%, with a sample size of 9x2 mm for surface hardness and antimicrobial activity tests, and 8x4 mm for the compression test. The values of the microbiologic analysis were compared and evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05; the mechanical analysis used the Shapiro-Wilk's tests, Levene's test, ANOVA (one-way, and Tukey's test (α=0.05. Results: The addition of 10% β-AgVO3 promoted antimicrobial activity against all strains. The antimicrobial effect was observed at a minimum concentration of 1% for P. aeruginosa, 2.5% for S. aureus, 5% for C. albicans, and 10% for S. mutans. Surface hardness and compressive strength increased significantly with the addition of 0.5% β-AgVO3 (p0.05. Conclusions: The incorporation of β-AgVO3 has the potential to promote antimicrobial activity in the acrylic resin. At reduced rates, it improves the mechanical properties, and, at higher rates, it does not promote changes in the control.

  9. Antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting properties of the cacao endophyte Bacillus subtilis ALB629.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcäo, L L; Silva-Werneck, J O; Vilarinho, B R; da Silva, J P; Pomella, A W V; Marcellino, L H

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the effects of the endophyte Bacillus subtilisALB629 on the growth of cacao seedlings at early developmental stage and to evaluate its antimicrobial properties. Germinating cacao seeds were inoculated with ALB629, and seedlings growth was evaluated 30 days later. Significant increase (P cacao-grafting procedure in the field, ALB629 increased the grafting success rate (24%), indicating its protective effect. In addition, this Bacillus secretes an antagonist compound, as shown by the antifungal activity of the cell-free culture. Bacillus subtilisALB629 promotes cacao root growth, besides promoting growth of the aerial part of cacao seedlings. It has antimicrobial properties and produces an antifungal compound. ALB629 presented beneficial characteristics for cacao cultivation, being a good biological control agent candidate. Furthermore, it is a potential source of antifungal compound with potential for commercial exploitation. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Edible films from essential-oil-loaded nanoemulsions: physicochemical characterization and antimicrobial properties

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo Fani, Alejandra; Salvia Trujillo, Laura; Rojas Grau, María Alejandra; Martín Belloso, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Edible films including active ingredients can be used as an alternative to preserve food products. Essential oils (EOs) exhibit antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms but their low water solubility limits the application in foods. To improve water dispersion and protect EOs from degradation, nano-sized emulsions emerge as a viable alternative. Nanoemulsions containing EOs and polysaccharides could be used to form edible films with functional properties. This study was focuse...

  11. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicological properties of Schinus molle L. essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria do Rosário; Arantes, Silvia; Candeias, Fátima; Tinoco, Maria Teresa; Cruz-Morais, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Schinus molle L. has been used in folk medicine as antibacterial, antiviral, topical antiseptic, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumoural as well as antispasmodic and analgesic; however, there are few studies of pharmacological and toxicological properties of Schinus molle essential oils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Schinus molle leaf and fruit essential oils, correlated with their chemical composition and evaluate their acute toxicity. The chemical composition of Schinus molle leaf and fruit essential oils were evaluated by GC-FID and GC-MS. Antioxidant properties were determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and β-carotene/linoleic acid methods. Antimicrobial properties were evaluated by the agar disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration assay. Toxicity in Artemia salina and acute toxicity with behavioural screening in mice were evaluated. The dominant compounds found in leaf and fruit essential oils (EOs) were monoterpene hydrocarbons, namely α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, β-myrcene, limonene and α-pinene. EOs showed low scavenging antioxidant activity by the DPPH free radical method and a higher activity by the β-carotene/linoleic acid method. Antimicrobial activity of EOs was observed for Gram+, Gram- pathogenic bacteria and food spoilage fungi. EOs showed totoxicity for Artemia salina and lower toxicity in Swiss mice. The result showed that EOs of leaves and fruits of Schinus molle demonstrated antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, suggesting their potential use in food or pharmaceutical industries. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Wound-healing and antimicrobial properties of dichloromethane fraction of Dialium guineense (Wild) fruit coat

    OpenAIRE

    Nnadi Charles Okeke; K C Udeani Theophilus; Ugwu Linus Onyebuchi

    2016-01-01

    This research established the scientific bases for the folkloric use of the neglected Dialium guineense fruit coat in wound and microbial infection management in Nigeria. The phytochemical analysis of the crude extract, fractions and sub-fractions was performed by standard methods. Agar well diffusion protocol was adopted for the antimicrobial assay while the wound healing properties was determined by full thickness skin excision wound model. Phytochemical analysis showed high relative propor...

  13. Antimicrobial and physical-mechanical properties of agar-based films incorporated with grapefruit seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-02-15

    The use of synthetic petroleum based packaging films caused serious environmental problems due to their difficulty in recycling and poor biodegradability. Therefore, present study was aimed to develop natural biopolymer-based antimicrobial packaging films as an alternative for the synthetic packaging films. As a natural antimicrobial agent, grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been incorporated into agar to prepare antimicrobial packaging film. The films with different concentrations of GSE were prepared by a solvent casting method and the resulting composite films were examined physically and mechanically. In addition, the films were characterized by FE-SEM, XRD, FT-IR and TGA. The incorporation of GSE caused increase in color, UV barrier, moisture content, water solubility and water vapor permeability, while decrease in surface hydrophobicity, tensile strength and elastic modulus of the films. As the concentration of GSE increased from 0.6 to 13.3 μg/mL, the physical and mechanical properties of the films were affected significantly. The addition of GSE changed film microstructure of the film, but did not influence the crystallinity of agar and thermal stability of the agar-based films. The agar/GSE films exhibited distinctive antimicrobial activity against three test food pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that agar/GSE films have potential to be used in an active food packaging systems for maintaining food safety and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterisation and functional properties of antimicrobial bio-barriers formed by natural fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomšič, Brigita; Ilec, Eva; Žerjav, Metka; Hladnik, Aleš; Simončič, Andrej; Simončič, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    Antimicrobial bio-barriers formed on cotton (CO), silk (SE), and woollen (WO) fabrics were prepared by the application of 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (Si-QAC) at 11 concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 20% using an exhaustion method. The presence of the Si-QAC coating on the treated fabric samples was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The bromophenol blue reagent was used to determine the concentration of quaternary ammonium groups in the coating. The antimicrobial activity of the coated fibres against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus), fungi (Aspergillus niger and Chaetomium globosum), and soil microflora was assessed using standard microbiological methods. The antimicrobial protection of the fibres increased with increases in the applied concentration of Si-QAC. The fibre type strongly influenced the antimicrobial activity of Si-QAC. Si-QAC was most effective for CO fibres, less effective for WO fibres, and least effective for SE fibres, suggesting that Si-QAC is less accessible for interactions with microorganisms when applied to protein fibres than to cellulose. Although Si-QAC reduced the microbial growth, it did not significantly hinder the biodegradability or sustainability of the coated fibres when exposed to soil microflora. The extent of rotting was more influenced by the morphological and chemical properties of the fibres than by the presence of Si-QAC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigating the Phytochemicals and Antimicrobial Properties of Three Sedge (Cyperaceae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwalade Adeyemi ADENIYI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the medicinal value of notorious sedge weeds, three species:Cyperus esculentus, Cyperus rotundus and Mariscus alternifolius were investigated for their phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial properties. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical constituents and in vitro antimicrobial activities were evaluated against four fungi species: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum and Candida albicans, and three bacteria species: Escherichia coli,Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus. Two solvents, water and ethanol, were used to produce the extracts and were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial activity evaluation of the extracts against pathogens was carried out at 100 mg/ml concentration by Disc Diffusion method for fungi, Disc Diffusion and Agar Well Diffusion methods for bacteria. Observed activities were related to standard antibiotics, antifungal and antibacterial, which served as controls. Phytochemically, the plant extracts showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, ketose sugars, steroids, reducing sugars and tannins. The ethanolic extract of C. rotundus exhibited the highest activity against A. niger, E. coli and S. aureus. No extract was active against C. albicans. From these findings, it was concluded that C. rotundus is a potential source of bioactive compounds for new drugs upon isolation and purification for treating infections caused by these pathogens.

  16. Preparation, characterization, mechanical, barrier and antimicrobial properties of chitosan/PVOH/clay nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakas, Aris; Vlacha, Maria; Salmas, Constantinos; Leontiou, Areti; Katapodis, Petros; Stamatis, Haralambos; Barkoula, Nektaria-Marianthi; Ladavos, Athanasios

    2016-04-20

    In the current study low molecular weight poly(vinylalcohol) (PVOH) was used to prepare chitosan/PVOH blends and chitosan/PVOH/montmorillonite nanocomposites via a reflux - solution - heat pressing method. The effect of PVOH content and montmorillonite type (hydrophylic vs. organically modified) on the morphology, mechanical, thermomechanical, barrier and antimicrobial properties of the obtained polymer blends and nanocomposite films was studied. Higher amounts of PVOH (20 and 30%) resulted in plasticization of the films, with an increase in the elongation at break and decrease of the stiffness and the strength while effective blending between chitosan and PVOH chains was observed based on the XRD and DMA findings. Addition of PVOH was beneficial for water and oxygen barrier properties of the obtained films while it did not influence the antimicrobial activity of films against the growth of Escherichia coli. Intercalated structures were obtained after the addition of hydrophilic and organo-modified clays leading into stiffening of the nano-modified films and enhancement of their barrier and antimicrobial properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Production process of a new cellulosic fiber with antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikeli, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The Lyocell process (system: cellulose-water-N-methylmorpholine oxide) of Zimmer AG offers special advantages for the production of cellulose fibers. The process excels by dissolving the most diverse cellulose types as these are optimally adjusted to the process by applying different pretreatment methods. Based on this stable process, Zimmer AG's objective is to impart to the Lyocell fiber additional value to improve quality of life and thus to tap new markets for the product. Thanks to the specific incorporation of seaweed, the process allows to produce cellulose Lyocell fibers with additional and new features. They are activated in a further step - by specific charging with metal ions - in order to obtain antibacterial properties. The favorable textile properties of fibers produced by the Lyocell process are not adversely affected by the incorporation of seaweed material or by activation to obtain an antibacterial fiber so that current textile products can be made from the fibers thus produced. The antibacterial effect is achieved by metal ion activation of the Lyocell fibers with incorporated seaweed, which contrasts with the antibacterial fibers known so far. Antibacterial fibers produced by conventional methods are in part only surface finished with antibacterially active chemicals or else they are produced by incorporating organic substances with antibacterial and fungicidal effects. Being made from cellulose, the antibacterial Lyocell fiber Sea Cell Active as the basis for quality textiles exhibits a special wear comfort compared to synthetic fibers with antibacterial properties and effects. This justifies the conclusion that the Zimmer Lyocell process provides genuine value added and that it is a springboard for further applications.

  18. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of bioactive phytochemicals from cranberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Baranowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the rational human diet, the important role of fruits and vegetables, which are a source of bioactive phytochemicals, is emphasized. Among fruits particular attention, due to a number of documented health-promoting properties, is focused on cranberry. This fruit is characterized by the high content of antioxidant phenolic compounds, which may support the natural antioxidant defense system of the body in the prevention of damage caused by oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS. Therefore, cranberry is suggested for the prevention of civilization diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension and cancer, whose etiology is associated directly with oxidative stress. The health-promoting potential of cranberry is also associated with its antibacterial activity resulting from the presence of proanthocyanidins (PAC type A with documented anti-adherence properties. The best-established medical applications of cranberry fruits are prevention and treatment of bacterial infections of the urinary tract (UTI, infections of gastric mucosa, and infections of the oral cavity. Due to the widespread use of cranberry and pharmaceutical preparations containing PACs in treating UTI, it is very important to evaluate the absorption, bioavailability and metabolism of these compounds in the human body.

  19. Essential oil of the leaves of Ricinus communis L.: in vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarai, Zied; Ben Chobba, Ines; Ben Mansour, Riadh; Békir, Ahmed; Gharsallah, Néji; Kadri, Adel

    2012-08-13

    The aim of the present study was to appraise the antimicrobial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. The essential oil from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. was analyzed by GC-MS and bioassays were carried out. Five constituents of the oil were identified by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against twelve bacteria and four fungi species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested with higher sensitivity for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on HeLa cell lines were examined by MTT assay. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC50 values less than 2.63 mg/ml for both cell lines. The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of Ricinus communis L., indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of different hydroxyapatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feitosa, G.T.; Santos, M.V.B.; Barreto, H.M.; Osorio, L.R.; Osajima, J.A.; Silva Filho, E.C. da

    2014-01-01

    Among the applications of ceramics in the technological context, hydroxyapatite (HAp) stands out in the scientific community due to chemical biocompatibility and molecular similarity to the structures of bone and dental tissues. Such features are added to the antimicrobial properties that this brings. This work aimed at the synthesis of hydroxyapatite by two different routes, hydrothermal (HD HAp) and co-precipitation (CP HAp), as well as verification of the antimicrobial properties of these through direct contact of the powders synthesized tests with Staphylococcus aureus (SA10) and Escherichia coli (EC7) bacteria. The materials was characterized by XRD, Raman and TEM, and Antimicrobial tests showed inhibitory efficacy of 97% and 9.5% of CP HAp for SA10 and EC7, respectively. The HD HAp had inhibitory effect of 95% and 0% for EC7 and SA10, respectively. The inhibitory effect on SA10 is based on the hydrophilicity that the material possesses. (author)

  1. Effect of antimicrobial on mechanical, barrier and optical properties of corn starch based self-supporting edible film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanima Chowdhury

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobials like potassium sorbate, sodium propionate, and benzoic acid were incorporated in corn starch based formulation to investigate their effect on mechanical, water vapour barrier and optical properties of the developed self supporting edible film. The film was prepared by casting technique. When incorporated at 1.40% and above, potassium sorbate decreased the tensile strength (about 22% and increased the elongation (about 55% of control film; whereas, it increased the water vapour permeability by 15% only when added at 2.66%. At 2.66%, benzoic acid reduced the tensile strength by 24% and sodium propionate increased elongation by 17%. These two antimicrobials did not change the water vapour permeability. However, all the three antimicrobials adversely affected the optical properties by decreasing the whiteness index, increasing yellowness index, and reducing the surface gloss, with potassium sorbate showing the maximum effect. Among the three antimicrobials, sodium propionate appeared to be the best with minimum deterioration of film properties.

  2. Mechanical, material, and antimicrobial properties of acrylic bone cement impregnated with silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slane, Josh; Vivanco, Juan; Rose, Warren; Ploeg, Heidi-Lynn; Squire, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Prosthetic joint infection is one of the most serious complications that can lead to failure of a total joint replacement. Recently, the rise of multidrug resistant bacteria has substantially reduced the efficacy of antibiotics that are typically incorporated into acrylic bone cement. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an attractive alternative to traditional antibiotics resulting from their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and low bacterial resistance. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to incorporate metallic silver nanoparticles into acrylic bone cement and quantify the effects on the cement's mechanical, material and antimicrobial properties. AgNPs at three loading ratios (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0% wt/wt) were incorporated into a commercial bone cement using a probe sonication technique. The resulting cements demonstrated mechanical and material properties that were not substantially different from the standard cement. Testing against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis using Kirby-Bauer and time-kill assays demonstrated no antimicrobial activity against planktonic bacteria. In contrast, cements modified with AgNPs significantly reduced biofilm formation on the surface of the cement. These results indicate that AgNP-loaded cement is of high potential for use in primary arthroplasty where prevention of bacterial surface colonization is vital. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimicrobial and mechanical properties of dental resin composite containing bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Emre; Torlak, Emrah; Altunsoy, Mustafa

    2016-07-26

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy and mechanical properties of dental resin composites containing different amounts of microparticulate bioactive glass (BAG). Experimental resin composites were prepared by mixing resin matrix (70% BisGMA and 30% TEGDMA) and inorganic filler with various fractions of BAG to achieve final BAG concentrations of 5, 10 and 30 wt%. Antimicrobial efficacy was assessed in aqueous suspension against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans and in biofilm against S. mutans. The effect of incorporation of BAG on the mechanical properties of resin composite was evaluated by measuring the surface roughness, compressive strength and flexural strength. Under the dynamic contact condition, viable counts of E. coli, S. aureus and S. mutans in suspensions were reduced up to 78%, 57% and 50%, respectively, after 90 minutes of exposure to disc-shaped composite specimens, depending on the BAG contents. In 2-day-old S. mutans biofilm, incorporation of BAG into composite at ratios of 10% and 30% resulted in 0.8 and 1.4 log reductions in the viable cell counts compared with the BAG-free composite, respectively. The surface roughness values of composite specimens did not show any significant difference (p>0.05) at any concentration of BAG. However, compressive and flexural strengths of composite were decreased significantly with addition of 30% BAG (p<0.05). The results demonstrated the successful utilization of BAG as a promising biomaterial in resin composites to provide antimicrobial function.

  4. Structural and antimicrobial properties of irradiated chitosan and its complexes with zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Azam; Mehmood, Shaukat; Shafiq, Muhammad; Yasin, Tariq; Akhter, Zareen; Ahmad, Shabir

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the structural and antimicrobial properties of irradiated chitosan and its complexes with zinc. Chitosan having a molecular weight (M η ) of 220 kDa was exposed to gamma rays in dry, wet and solution forms. The chitosan-zinc complexes were prepared by varying the M η of chitosan and Zn content. Viscometeric analysis revealed a sharp decrease in the M η of chitosan irradiated in solution form even at lower doses compared with the dry and wet forms. X-ray diffraction patterns demonstrated variation in the crystallinity of chitosan upon exposure to gamma rays. The antibacterial response of the irradiated chitosan and its complexes against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria demonstrated wide spectrum of effective antimicrobial activities, which increased with the dose. Additionally, the complexes exhibited excellent antifungal activity with no growth of Aspergallious fumigatus and Fusarium solani even after two weeks. These results suggested that the irradiated chitosan and its complexes with Zn can be used as antimicrobial additives for various applications. - Highlights: • Gamma radiation is used to lower the molecular weight of chitosan. • The effect of environment on radiation degradation of chitosan is studied. • Its complexes with different amount of zinc are prepared and characterized. • Radiation-degraded chitosan and complexes showed good antibacterial properties

  5. Electrospun meshes possessing region-wise differences in fiber orientation, diameter, chemistry and mechanical properties for engineering bone-ligament-bone tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samavedi, Satyavrata; Vaidya, Prasad; Gaddam, Prudhvidhar; Whittington, Abby R; Goldstein, Aaron S

    2014-12-01

    Although bone-patellar tendon-bone (B-PT-B) autografts are the gold standard for repair of anterior cruciate ligament ruptures, they suffer from drawbacks such as donor site morbidity and limited supply. Engineered tissues modeled after B-PT-B autografts are promising alternatives because they have the potential to regenerate connective tissue and facilitate osseointegration. Towards the long-term goal of regenerating ligaments and their bony insertions, the objective of this study was to construct 2D meshes and 3D cylindrical composite scaffolds - possessing simultaneous region-wise differences in fiber orientation, diameter, chemistry and mechanical properties - by electrospinning two different polymers from off-set spinnerets. Using a dual drum collector, 2D meshes consisting of an aligned polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber region, randomly oriented poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) fiber region and a transition region (comprised of both PCL and PLGA fibers) were prepared, and region-wise differences were confirmed by microscopy and tensile testing. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured on these meshes exhibited random orientations and low aspect ratios on the random PLGA regions, and high aspect ratios and alignment on the aligned PCL regions. Next, meshes containing an aligned PCL region flanked by two transition regions and two randomly oriented PLGA regions were prepared and processed into 3D cylindrical composite scaffolds using an interpenetrating photo-crosslinkable polyethylene glycol diacrylate hydrogel to recapitulate the shape of B-PT-B autografts. Tensile testing indicated that cylindrical composites were mechanically robust, and eventually failed due to stress concentration in the aligned PCL region. In summary, this study demonstrates a process to fabricate electrospun meshes possessing region-wise differences in properties that can elicit region-dependent cell responses, and be readily processed into scaffolds with the shape of B-PT-B autografts.

  6. Synthesis, Physicochemical Properties, and Antimicrobial Studies of Iron (III Complexes of Ciprofloxacin, Cloxacillin, and Amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian I. Eze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron (III complexes of ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, and cloxacillin were synthesized and their aqueous solubility profiles, relative stabilities, and antimicrobial properties were evaluated. The complexes showed improved aqueous solubility when compared to the corresponding ligands. Relative thermal and acid stabilities were determined spectrophotometrically and the results showed that the complexes have enhanced thermal and acid stabilities when compared to the pure ligands. Antimicrobial studies showed that the complexes have decreased activities against most of the tested microorganisms. Ciprofloxacin complex, however, showed almost the same activity as the corresponding ligand. Job’s method of continuous variation suggested 1 : 2 metals to ligand stoichiometry for ciprofloxacin complex but 1 : 1 for cloxacillin complex.

  7. Antimicrobial and Barrier Properties of Bovine Gelatin Films Reinforced by Nano TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nassiri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nano titanium dioxide incorporation were investigated on the water vaporpermeability, oxygen permeability, and antimicrobial properties of bovine gelatin films. The nano TiO2 (TiO2-N was homogenized by sonication and incorporated into bovine gelatin solutions at different concentrations(e.g. 1, 2, 3, and 5% w/w of dried gelatin. The permeability of the films to water vapor and oxygen wassignificantly decreased by incorporating of low concentration TiO2-N to gelatin solutions. TiO2-N gelatin filmsshowed an excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Theseproperties suggest that TiO2-N has the potential as filler in gelatin-based films for using as an active packagingmaterials in pharmaceutical and food packaging industries.

  8. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of wine byproducts and their potential uses in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lomillo, Javier; González-SanJosé, M Luisa; Del Pino-García, Raquel; Rivero-Pérez, M Dolores; Muñiz-Rodríguez, Pilar

    2014-12-31

    Wine pomace (WP) is one of the agricultural byproducts that has received most attention from food scientists due to the wide range of interesting compounds that remain after the winemaking process. Different powdered products rich in phenolic compounds, with interesting antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, were obtained from WP by applying processes that are both environmentally friendly and economically affordable for the food industry. The products obtained showed high global antioxidant activities (ABTS assay), successfully delayed the onset of lipid oxidation in the Rancimat test, and showed different antimicrobial properties. Products derived from seed-free WP showed bactericidal effects against total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and inhibited Enterobacteriaceae growth completely. The product derived from whole WP presented bacteriostatic activity against the three microorganism groups tested, whereas the product obtained from grape seed promoted TAMB and LAB growth but delayed Enterobacteriaceae proliferation.

  9. The Antimicrobial Properties of Zinc-Releasing Bioceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin

    Up to 80% of nosocomial infections are caused by biofilm-producing bacteria such as Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These types of microorganisms can become resistant to antibiotics and are difficult to eliminate. As such, there is tremendous interest in developing bioactive implant materials that can help to minimize these post- operative infections. Using water-based chemistry, we developed an economical, biodegradable and biocompatible orthopedic implant material consisting of zinc- doped hydroxyapatite (HA), which mimics the main inorganic component of the bone. Because the crystallinity of HA is typically too compact for efficient drug release, we substituted calcium ions in HA with zinc during the synthesis step to perturb the crystal structure. An added benefit is that zinc itself is a microelement of the human body with anti-inflammatory property, and we hypothesized that Zn-doped HA is an inherently antibacterial material. All HA samples were synthesized by a co-precipitation method using aqueous solutions of Zinc nitrate, Calcium Nitrate, and Ammonium Phosphate. XRD data showed that Zn was successfully incorporated into the HA. The effectiveness of Zn-doped HA against a model biofilm-forming bacterium is currently being evaluated using a wild-type strain and a streptomycin- resistant strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans (Psp) which is a plant pathogen isolated from diseased apples. Key words: Hydroxyapatite, Zinc, Citrate, Pseudomonas, Antibacterial.

  10. Effect of the incorporation of antimicrobial/antioxidant proteins on the properties of potato starch films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Olga; Atarés, Lorena; Chiralt, Amparo

    2015-11-20

    Glycerol plasticized potato starch films containing bioactive proteins (lactoferrin (LF) and/or lysozyme (LZ), at 0.1 and 0.2 ratio with respect to starch) were obtained by casting method and characterized as to their microstructural, thermal and physical (water content, mechanical, water and oxygen barrier, optical) properties. The bioactive properties, named antioxidant and antimicrobial, of the proteins and the films were also characterized. The incorporation of proteins affected the structural and physical properties of potato starch films, while modifying their thermal behavior and increasing the glass transition temperature. Both proteins showed a certain degree of compatibility with starch chains through the bond formations (increase in Tg), while a part is separated and migrates to the film surface. Their incorporation, especially that of lactoferrin, greatly increased the film's brittleness, regardless of the films water content, although they enhance the water vapor and oxygen barrier properties, whatever the age of the film. Protein also reduced the film's transparency and gloss, while lactoferrin induced color changes. The thermal degradation of blend films and isolated proteins occurred at temperatures of over 250°C, which means that blend starch films can be thermoprocessed, according to their thermoplastic properties and following the usual practices of the plastics industries. A synergistic antimicrobial action against Escherichia coli and coliforms was observed when both LZ and LF were simultaneously applied. Both of these exhibited antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Chitosan-Based Coating with Antimicrobial Agents: Preparation, Property, Mechanism, and Application Effectiveness on Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yage Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan coating is beneficial to maintaining the storage quality and prolonging the shelf life of postharvest fruits and vegetables, which is always used as the carrier film for the antimicrobial agents. This review focuses on the preparation, property, mechanism, and application effectiveness on the fruits and vegetables of chitosan-based coating with antimicrobial agents. Chitosan, derived by deacetylation of chitin, is a modified and natural biopolymer as the coating material. In this article, the safety and biocompatible and antimicrobial properties of chitosan were introduced because these attributes are very important for its application. The methods to prepare the chitosan-based coating with antimicrobial agents, such as essential oils, acid, and nanoparticles, were developed by other researchers. Meanwhile, the application of chitosan-based coating is mainly due to its antimicrobial activity and other functional properties, which were investigated, introduced, and analyzed in this review. Furthermore, the surface and mechanical properties were also investigated by researchers and concluded in this article. Finally, the effects of chitosan-based coating on the storage quality, microbial safety, and shelf life of fruits and vegetables were introduced. Their results indicated that chitosan-based coating with different antimicrobial agents would probably have wide prospect in the preservation of fruits and vegetables in the future.

  12. Analysis of phytochemical profile of Terminalia arjuna bark extract with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shreya; Patra, Arpita; Samanta, Animesh; Roy, Suchismita; Mandal, Arpita; Mahapatra, Tapasi Das; Pradhan, Shrabani; Das, Koushik; Nandi, Dilip Kumar

    2013-12-01

    To investigate phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activity and qualitative thin layer chromatographic separation of flavonoid components, antioxidant activity and total flavonoid compound of Terminalia arjuna. For phytochemical screening, some common and available standard tests were done. Antimicrobial bioassay was done through agar well diffusion method. Detection of antioxidant activity and flavonoid compounds were done through thin layer chromatography. Total antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in colorimetric method. Aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for total flavonoid determination. Phytochemical screening showed the active compounds presence in high concentration, such as phytosterol, lactones, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins and glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of extract showed that greater inhibition zone against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. This methanolic extract showed a promising antioxidant activity, as absorption of DPPH redicles decreased in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Flavonoids components having antioxidant property present in the methanol extract at a level of 199.00 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried methanol extract in colorimetric method. The Terminalia arjuna bark extract revealed the presence of bio-active constituents which are known to exhibit medicinal as well as physiological activities. Copyright © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural characterization and antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles prepared by inverse microemulsion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Irshad A; Khatoon, Sarvari; Ganguly, Aparna; Ahmed, Jahangeer; Ahmad, Tokeer; Manzoor, Nikhat

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been synthesized in the inverse microemulsions formed using three different surfactants viz., cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), Tergitol and Triton X-100. We have done a systematic study of the effect of the surfactants on the particle size and properties of the silver nanoparticles. Microscopic studies show the formation of spheres, cubes and discs shaped silver nanostructures with the size in the range from 8 to 40 nm. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak was observed around 400 nm and 500 nm. In addition to SPR some extra peaks have also been observed due to the formation of silver metal clusters. The surface area increases from 3.45 to 15.06 m(2)/g with decreasing the size of silver nanoparticles (40-8 nm). To investigate the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles, the nanoparticles were tested against the yeast, Candida albicans and the bacterium, E. coli. The results suggest very good antimicrobial activity of the silver nanoparticles against the test microbes. The mode of action of the antimicrobial activity was also proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial properties and the influence of temperature on secondary metabolite production in cold environment soil fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogabaanu, U.; Weber, Jean-Frederic Faizal; Convey, Peter; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Alias, Siti Aisyah

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic and Antarctic share environmental extremes. To survive in such environments, microbes such as soil fungi need to compete with or protect themselves effectively from other soil microbiota and to obtain the often scarce nutrients available, and many use secondary metabolites to facilitate this. We therefore (i) screened for antimicrobial properties of cold-environment Arctic and Antarctic soil fungi, and (ii) identified changes in the secreted secondary metabolite profiles of a subset of these strains in response to temperature variation. A total of 40 polar soil fungal strains from King George Island, maritime Antarctic and Hornsund, Svalbard, High Arctic, were obtained from the Malaysian National Antarctic Research Centre culture collections. The plug assay technique was used to screen for antimicrobial potential against Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli). About 45% of the tested fungal strains showed antimicrobial activity against at least one tested microorganism. Three fungal isolates showed good bioactivity and were subjected to secondary metabolite profiling at different temperatures (4, 10, 15 and 28 °C). We observed a range of responses in fungal metabolite production when incubated at varying temperatures, confirming an influence of environmental conditions such as temperature on the production of secondary metabolites.

  15. Material Properties and Antimicrobial Activity of Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) Films Incorporated with Vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Janifer Raj; Babusha, Sudalaimuthu Thangaraj; George, Johnsy; Ramana, Karna Venkata

    2015-07-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was produced by Bacillus mycoides DFC 1, isolated from garden soil. Antimicrobial (AM) films of PHB were prepared by incorporating vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) from 10 to 200 μg/g of PHB. The films were assessed for antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria comprising of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, and Staphylococcus aureus and fungi such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium viridicatum, and Penicillium clavigerum. The minimum concentration of vanillin required to exhibit antimicrobial activity was ≥80 μg/g PHB for bacteria and ≥50 μg/g PHB for fungi. The PHB films with and without vanillin were studied for mechanical and thermal properties such as tensile strength, Young's modulus, percentage elongation to break, melting temperature, and heat of fusion. The thermal stability of the films was studied using thermogravimetric analysis. The release kinetics of vanillin into food matrices was also checked using food stimulants. The study is intended to find applications for PHB films containing vanillin to enhance the shelf life of foods in the form of biodegradable wrapper.

  16. Antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional yogurt and milk against Shigella strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Mirzaei, Elnaze; Lashani, Elahe; Davoodabadi, Abolfazl

    2018-01-01

    Background: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are normal flora of the mouth, intestines and the female genital tract. They are also frequently found in meat, vegetables, and dairy products. Most of probiotic bacteria belong to the LAB group. Some probiotic LAB are useful in prevention and treatment of diarrheal diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of LAB isolated from traditional yogurt and milk against Shigella strains. Materials and methods: Forty LAB strains were isolated from traditional yogurt and milk. The antimicrobial activity of LAB against Shigella strains (eight S. flexneri , four S. sonnei ) was examined using the agar-well diffusion assay. LAB strains with antimicrobial effect against all Shigella strains were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Six LAB strains inhibited the growth of all 12 Shigella strains. Lb. paracasei Y1-3, Lb. paracasei Y8-1 and Lb. fermentum Y2-2 were isolated from yogurt. Lb. paracasei M18-1, Lb. parelimentarius M4-3 and Lb. plantarum M19-1 were isolated from milk. Conclusion: This study showed that Lactobacillus strains with good inhibitory activity against S. flexneri and S. sonnei could be isolated from traditional yogurt and milk.

  17. Antimicrobial properties and membrane-active mechanism of a potential α-helical antimicrobial derived from cathelicidin PMAP-36.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinfeng Lv

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, which present in the non-specific immune system of organism, are amongst the most promising candidates for the development of novel antimicrobials. The modification of naturally occurring AMPs based on their residue composition and distribution is a simple and effective strategy for optimization of known AMPs. In this study, a series of truncated and residue-substituted derivatives of antimicrobial peptide PMAP-36 were designed and synthesized. The 24-residue truncated peptide, GI24, displayed antimicrobial activity comparable to the mother peptide PMAP-36 with MICs ranging from 1 to 4 µM, which is lower than the MICs of bee venom melittin. Although GI24 displayed high antimicrobial activity, its hemolytic activity was much lower than melittin, suggesting that GI24 have optimal cell selectivity. In addition, the crucial site of GI24 was identified through single site-mutation. An amino acid with high hydrophobicity at position 23 played an important role in guaranteeing the high antimicrobial activity of GI24. Then, lipid vesicles and whole bacteria were employed to investigate the membrane-active mechanisms. Membrane-simulating experiments showed that GI24 interacted strongly with negatively charged phospholipids and weakly with zwitterionic phospholipids, which corresponded well with the data of its biological activities. Membrane permeabilization and flow cytometry provide the evidence that GI24 killed microbial cells by permeabilizing the cell membrane and damaging membrane integrity. GI24 resulted in greater cell morphological changes and visible pores on cell membrane as determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. Taken together, the peptide GI24 may provide a promising antimicrobial agent for therapeutic applications against the frequently-encountered bacteria.

  18. Activation of human mast cells by retrocyclin and protegrin highlight their immunomodulatory and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kshitij; Kotian, Akhil; Subramanian, Hariharan; Daniell, Henry; Ali, Hydar

    2015-10-06

    Preclinical evaluation of Retrocyclins (RC-100, RC-101) and Protegrin-1 (PG-1) antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is important because of their therapeutic potential against bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Human mast cells (HMCs) play important roles in host defense and wound healing but the abilities of retrocyclins and protegrin-1 to harness these functions have not been investigated. Here, we report that chemically synthesized RC-100 and PG-1 caused calcium mobilization and degranulation in HMCs but these responses were not blocked by an inhibitor of formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1), a known receptor for AMPs. However, RC-100 and PG-1 induced degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells stably expressing Mas related G protein coupled receptor X2 (MrgX2). Chemical synthesis of these AMPs is prohibitively expensive and post-synthesis modifications (cyclization, disulfide bonds, folding) are inadequate for optimal antimicrobial activity. Indeed, we found that synthetic RC-100, which caused mast cell degranulation via MrgX2, did not display any antimicrobial activity. Green-fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged RC-101 (analog of RC-100) and GFP-tagged PG-1 purified from transgenic plant chloroplasts killed bacteria and induced mast cell degranulation. Furthermore, GFP-PG1 bound specifically to RBL-2H3 cells expressing MrgX2. These findings suggest that retrocyclins and protegrins activate HMCs independently of FPRL1 but via MrgX2. Harnessing this novel feature of AMPs to activate mast cell's host defense/wound healing properties in addition to their antimicrobial activities expands their clinical potential. Low cost production of AMPs in plants should facilitate their advancement to the clinic overcoming major hurdles in current production systems.

  19. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product--natural preservatives in yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt.

  20. Antimicrobial properties of nest volatiles in red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (hymenoptera: formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Elliott, Brad; Jin, Xixuan; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Jian

    2015-12-01

    The antimicrobial property of volatiles produced by red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, against Beauveria bassiana, a common entomopathogenic fungus, was demonstrated. The germination rate of B. bassiana spores was significantly reduced after they were exposed to volatiles within an artificial ant nest. Since the air that contained the same level of O2 and CO2 as that in artificial fire ant nests did not suppress the germination rate of B. bassiana, the observed reduction of germination rate must be caused by the toxicity of nest volatiles. Nest fumigation may be an important component of the social immune system in S. invicta.

  1. Comparative studies on structural properties and antimicrobial potential of spinel ferrite nanoparticles synthesized using various methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraliya, Jagdish D.; Rakhashiya, Purvi M.; Patel, Pooja P.; Thaker, Vrinda S.; Joshi, Hiren H.

    2017-05-01

    In this study, novel multifunctional magnetic iron-based nanoparticles (CoFe2O4) coated with silica, silica-DEG (diethylene glycol), PEG (polyethylene glycol) were synthesized using Auto Combustion Method (ACM), Co-precipitation Method (COPM), Citrate Precursor Method (CPM), Flash Combustion Method (FCM). These spinel ferrite nanoparticles also contain very high antibacterial properties to fulfill the requirements of a drug delivery system so that the antibiotic concentration could be minimized. A potential delivery system could be based on a ferromagnetic fluid. The effects of various preparation methods on the physical properties of the nanoparticles were examined. The nanoparticles were also tested against four human pathogenic bacteria (Gram negative E.coli, P. aeruginosa, Gram positive S. aureus, S. pyogenus) and two fungi (C. albicans, A.niger). It was revealed that a nanoparticle has strong antibacterial activity as compared to antifungal. Further, Gram positive bacteria are more affected than Gram negative bacteria. It was also clear that different methods of coating have great influence on the antimicrobial properties. It was observed that these nanoparticles have significantly different but potentially very high antimicrobial activities against the tested organisms than found elsewhere by other nanoparticles on the same organisms.

  2. Chemical analysis of Greek pollen - Antioxidant, antimicrobial and proteasome activation properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonos Efstathios

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollen is a bee-product known for its medical properties from ancient times. In our days is increasingly used as health food supplement and especially as a tonic primarily with appeal to the elderly to ameliorate the effects of ageing. In order to evaluate the chemical composition and the biological activity of Greek pollen which has never been studied before, one sample with identified botanical origin from sixteen different common plant taxa of Greece has been evaluated. Results Three different extracts of the studied sample of Greek pollen, have been tested, in whether could induce proteasome activities in human fibroblasts. The water extract was found to induce a highly proteasome activity, showing interesting antioxidant properties. Due to this activity the aqueous extract was further subjected to chemical analysis and seven flavonoids have been isolated and identified by modern spectral means. From the methanolic extract, sugars, lipid acids, phenolic acids and their esters have been also identified, which mainly participate to the biosynthetic pathway of pollen phenolics. The total phenolics were estimated with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the total antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH method while the extracts and the isolated compounds were also tested for their antimicrobial activity by the dilution technique. Conclusions The Greek pollen is rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids which indicate the observed free radical scavenging activity, the effects of pollen on human fibroblasts and the interesting antimicrobial profile.

  3. Antioxidant, Anti-microbial Properties and Chemical Composition of Cumin Essential Oils Extracted by Three Methods

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    Fang Lianying

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-bacterial activity of cumin essential oils (CEOs extracted by different techniques, including supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE, subcritical butane extraction (SBE and traditional solvent extraction (SE. Our results indicated that CEOs are a valuable source of bioactive compounds, including cumin aldehyde, γ-terpinene and β-pinene. The most abundant components found in CEOs obtained by SCE and SBE were similar, while the abundant components in SE, β-Cumic aldehyde (19.31% and α-phellandrene (9.49%, were distinctive. CEOs obtained by SCE exhibited higher antioxidant activity, followed by those extracted by SE and SBE. Moreover, the anti-microbial properties of CEOs obtained by SCE and SBE were higher than that of CEOs collected by SE. In conclusion, CEOs exhibit strong antioxidant and anti-microbial properties, which suggests a potential role of CEOs in preventing diseases associated with aging and oxidative stress, and our results highlight the potential usage of CEOs in the food industry.

  4. antimicrobial properties of some natural and synthetic fabrics modified by radiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, R.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    natural and synthetic fabrics have been treated with different antimicrobial metal complexes under the effect of gamma radiation . in this regard, cotton, cotton/PET blend and PET were grafted with acrylic acid by gamma radiation and this grafted fabrics were complexed with Cu(ll),Ni(ll)and Co(ll) metal ions . the antimicrobial properties were evaluated by the measurement of tensile strength of fabrics after burring in a soil for one and two weeks as well as the effect of this treatment on the growth of certain bacteria and fungi incubated on a culture for 48 hours. the results showed that the highest protection to cotton, cotton/PET blend and PET fabrics by using Cu(ll) ion in the complexation process, where the order of protection by metals is Cu(ll) > Co(ll)> Ni(ll), moreover, the more grafted fabrics the more complexed fabrics with metal ions and is higher protection against microorganisms . the treatment with the metal ions has nearly no effect on the chemical and physical properties of the natural or the synthetic fabrics as indicated from the analysis by TGA, sem, ion exchange testing and wettability testing.

  5. Amino Acid Block Copolymers with Broad Antimicrobial Activity and Barrier Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Michael P; Huang, Daniel J; Wall, Brian D; Lane, Shalyn J; Edwards, Carl K; Hanson, Jarrod A; Benitez, Diego; Solomkin, Joseph S; Deming, Timothy J

    2017-10-01

    Antimicrobial properties of a long-chain, synthetic, cationic, and hydrophobic amino acid block copolymer are reported. In 5 and 60 min time-kill assays, solutions of K 100 L 40 block copolymers (poly(l-lysine·hydrochloride) 100 -b-poly(l-leucine) 40 ) at concentrations of 10-100 µg mL -1 show multi-log reductions in colony forming units of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as yeast, including multidrug-resistant strains. Driven by association of hydrophobic segments, K 100 L 40 copolymers form viscous solutions and self-supporting hydrogels in water at concentrations of 1 and 2 wt%, respectively. These K 100 L 40 preparations provide an effective barrier to microbial contamination of wounds, as measured by multi-log decreases of tissue-associated bacteria with deliberate inoculation of porcine skin explants, porcine open wounds, and rodent closed wounds with foreign body. Based on these findings, amino acid copolymers with the features of K 100 L 40 can combine potent, direct antimicrobial activity and barrier properties in one biopolymer for a new approach to prevention of wound infections. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using cranberry powder aqueous extract: characterization and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Asmaa A; Raafat, Dina; El-Gowelli, Hanan M; El-Kamel, Amal H

    2015-01-01

    The growing threat of microbial resistance against traditional antibiotics has prompted the development of several antimicrobial nanoparticles (NPs), including silver NPs (AgNPs). In this article, a simple and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs using the cranberry powder aqueous extract is reported. Cranberry powder aqueous extracts (0.2%, 0.5%, and 0.8% w/v) were allowed to interact for 24 hours with a silver nitrate solution (10 mM) at 30°C at a ratio of 1:10. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and their concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The prepared NPs were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, measurement of ζ-potential, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The in vitro antimicrobial properties of AgNPs were then investigated against several microbial strains. Finally, in vivo appraisal of both wound-healing and antimicrobial properties of either plain AgNPs (prepared using 0.2% extract) or AgNP-Pluronic F-127 gel was conducted in a rat model after induction of a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P wound infection. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, where a surface-plasmon resonance absorption peak was observed between 432 and 438 nm. Both size and concentration of the formed AgNPs increased with increasing concentration of the extracts. The developed NPs were stable, almost spherical, and polydisperse, with a size range of 1.4-8.6 nm. The negative ζ-potential values, as well as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, indicated the presence of a capping agent adsorbed onto the surface of the particles. In vitro antimicrobial evaluation revealed a size-dependent activity of the AgNPs against the tested organisms. Finally, AgNPs prepared using 0.2% extract exhibited a substantial in vivo healing potential for full-thickness excision wounds in rats. AgNPs were successfully synthesized from a silver nitrate solution

  7. Chemical composition of essential oil and antimicrobial properties of Chrysantemum coronarium (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Ivashchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium L., or edible chrysanthemum, is a valuable food, medicinal, decorative plant, containing a considerable amount of biologically active substances. The herb is widely used as a dietary food in South-East Asia, whereas in spite of being spread throughout Ukraine, it is known there rather as a decorative than a vegetable plant. Introductory studies of C. coronarium were conducted on experimental plots at the Botanical Gardens of Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, which is located in Ukrainian Polesia. Chromatographic analysis of the essential oil composition was performed on the gas-liquid chromatographer Agilent Technologies 6890 with mass spectrometric detector 5973. The material for chromatographic studies was represented by C. coronarium inflorescences. The antimicrobial properties of the ethanolic extract from the areal parts of C. coronarium were studied on test-cultures, collected from the Ukrainian Collection of Microorganisms (UCM, Institute of Microbiology and Virology of NAS Ukraine, the test-cultures being: Escherichia coli UCM B-906 (ATCC 25922, Staphilococcus aureus UCM B-904 (ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCM B-900 (ATCC 9027, Candida albicans UCM Y-1918 (ATCC 885-653. The antimicrobial effect of the investigated substances was studied by the method of serial successive dilutions which determined minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC. This article shows the results of chromatographic analysis of essential oil obtained from C. coronarium inflorescences and focuses on antimicrobial activity of the herb against the test cultures of the following microorganisms: E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, C. albicans. In the essential oil 26 compounds have been determined, 23 of which have been identified, the major components being: chrysanthemyl acetate (24.4%, chrysanthemol (21.8%, chrysanthenyl acetate (7.6%, camphor (7.3%,

  8. Sporulation properties and antimicrobial susceptibility in endemic and rare Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidaric, Valerija; Rupnik, Maja

    2016-06-01

    Increased sporulation and antibiotic resistance have been proposed to be associated with certain Clostridium difficile epidemic strains such as PCR ribotype 027. In this study we examined these properties in another widespread PCR ribotype, 014/020, in comparison to prevalent PCR ribotype 002 and a group of rarely represented PCR ribotypes. Highest sporulation was observed in 014/020 strains at 24 h, while after 72 h PCR ribotype 002 and rare PCR ribotypes formed higher total number of spores. PCR ribotype 014/020 strains exhibited slightly higher resistance to tested antimicrobials, followed by group of rare PCR ribotypes and less common PCR ribotype 002. Neither sporulation properties nor antibiotic resistance clearly differed in endemic and rare strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Improving the antimicrobial properties of titanium condenser material by surface modification using nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Rani P.; Dash, S.; Krishnan, R.; Kamruddin, M.; Kalavathi, S.; Tyagi, A.K.; Manoharan, N.; Dayal, R.K.; Vishwakarma, Vinita; Theresa, Josephine

    2008-01-01

    Biofouling is one of the major problems faced by condenser materials of power plants using seawater for cooling. Fouling control strategies in condensers include a combination of mechanical and chemical treatments like sponge ball cleaning, back washing and chlorination. In general, numerous studies have shown that no routine treatment regime can successfully keep the condenser tube clean over a period extending to years. Surface properties of the substratum influence initial adhesion and growth of bacterial cells on materials, modification of the surface for mitigating microbial attachment is the need of the hour. Metal nanoparticles are known to exhibit enhanced physical and chemical properties when compared to their bulk counter parts because of their high surface to volume ratios. Metals like copper are very toxic to microorganisms and effectively kill most of the microbes by blocking the respiratory enzyme. Copper alloys with their excellent resistance to biofouling are used extensively for marine applications. However, they are prone to localized corrosion initiation and consequently are getting replaced by extremely corrosion resistant titanium. Still, the inertness and biocompatibility of titanium makes it very susceptible to biofouling. Hence, this study attempts to use nano technology methods of surface modification of titanium using thin film of copper and also multilayers and bilayers of copper and nickel. This is aimed at improving the antimicrobial properties of this condenser pipe material. These nano structured thin films have been grown on titanium substrate using pulsed DC magnetron-sputtering and pulsed laser deposition. The thin films were characterized using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Glancing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM with EDAX analysis). Antimicrobial properties were evaluated by exposure studies in seawater and bacterial cultures and by post exposure analysis using culture and

  10. The protection of possession

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    Popov Danica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection in disputes for the protection of possession can be attained through the following actions a for dispossession (interdictum recuperande possessionis and b with an action for the disturbance of possession (interdictum retinendae possessionis. The general feature of these disputes is that there is only discussion on the facts and not a legal matters. Subject matter jurisdiction for the resolution of such disputes belongs to the court of general jurisdiction, while the dispute itself is a litigation. The special rule of proceedings of action for disturbance are: provisionality of the protection of possession; urgency in proceedings; initiation of the proceedings; limiting of objection; prescribing temporary measures; rendering a ruling in the form of order; appeals which may be filed within a short deadline and which does not have suspensive effect (do not delay the execution of the order; revision is not allowed etc.

  11. Antimicrobial Property of Extracts of Indian Lichen against Human Pathogenic Bacteria

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    Priya Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Usnea ghattensis G. Awasthi (Usneaceae endemic fruticose lichen found growing luxuriantly in Northern Western Ghats of India, it also contains Usnic acid as a major chemical and tested against some human pathogenic bacteria. Objective. To explore antimicrobial properties of Usnea ghattensis against some human pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods. The lichen was extracted in acetone, methanol, and ethanol. In vitro antimicrobial activity was tested initially by Kirby-Bauer technique of disc diffusion method and was confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentration using Broth microdilution method according to the NCCLS guidelines. Results. Ethanol extract was most effective against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a zone of inhibition 29.8 ± 0.6 mm and 12.3 ± 0.5 mm diameters at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL. Acetone and methanol extract demonstrated almost similar activity against Staphylococcus aureus and the zone of inhibition was 24.6 ± 0.5 and 24.7 ± 0.4 mm. Only methanol extract was showing activity against Streptococcus faecalis with a 13.5 ± 0.8 mm zone. MIC value noted against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis was 6.25 μg/mL and 25 μg/mL, whereas against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MIC calculated was 3.125 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. The present study demonstrates the relatively higher activity of this lichen against not only gram (+ but significantly also against gram (− bacteria. This indicates that this lichen might be a rich source of effective antimicrobial agents.

  12. In Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effectiveness and Moisture Binding Properties of Wound Dressings

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    Teerapol Srichana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of silver-coated dressings and some impregnated with other chemicals are now available in the market; however, there have been few studies analyzing their comparative efficacies as antimicrobial agents. Moreover, their properties for retaining an appropriate level of moisture that is critical for effective wound healing have never been reported. Five commercially available silver-containing and chlorhexidine dressings, Urgotul SSD®, Bactigras®, Acticoat®, Askina Calgitrol Ag® and Aquacel Ag®, were tested to determine their comparative antimicrobial effectiveness in vitro against five common wound pathogens, namely methicillin-sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mepitel®, a flexible polyamide net coated with soft silicone, was used as a control. The zones of inhibition and both the rapidity and the extent of killing of these pathogens were evaluated. All five antimicrobial dressings investigated exerted some bactericidal activity, particularly against E. coli. The spectrum and rapidity of action ranged widely for the different dressings. Acticoat® had a broad spectrum of action against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Other dressings demonstrated a narrower range of bactericidal activities. Regarding the absorption and release of moisture, Askina Calgitrol Ag® absorbed and released the most moisture from the environment. Aquacel Ag® also exhibited good moisture absorption and moisture release, but to a lower degree. The other tested dressings absorbed or released very little moisture. Askina Calgitrol Ag® and Aquacel Ag® are good alternative dressings for treating wounds with high exudates and pus. An understanding of the characteristics of these dressings will be useful for utilizing them for specific requirements under specified conditions.

  13. Photocatalytic properties and selective antimicrobial activity of TiO2(Eu)/CuO nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michal, Robert; Dworniczek, Ewa; Caplovicova, Maria; Monfort, Olivier; Lianos, Panagiotis; Caplovic, Lubomir; Plesch, Gustav

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanocomposites composed of Eu-doped anatase grafted with CuO. • Increase in photocatalytic hydrogen production due to CuO acting as electrons sink. • CuO in composites decreasing the photoinduced total mineralization of phenol. • Selective photoinduced antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus species. - Abstract: TiO 2 (Eu)/CuO nanocomposites were prepared by precipitation method. The anatase nanocrystallites with a size of 26 nm exhibited well crystallized and characteristical dipyramidal morphology and {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} faceting. Transmission electron microscopy photographs with atomic resolution showed that the Eu(III) dopants were bounded on surface of titania. In the composites, the CuO nanocrystals exhibiting a monoclinic tenorite structure with a size in the range from 2 to 5 nm were grafted to the surface of titania. The influence of copper(II) oxide led to distinct selectivity in the photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties of the investigated TiO 2 (Eu)/CuO nanocomposites. While the presence of CuO nanocrystals strongly increased the photocatalytic production of hydrogen by ethanol reforming, it decreased the activity in photoinduced total mineralization of phenol comparing with non-modified TiO 2 (Eu). In investigated TiO 2 (Eu)/CuO powders, the photoinduced antimicrobial activity against membranes of Enterococcus species was influenced by the selective binding of CuO to the surface of the microorganism leading to distinct selectivity in their action. The activity against Enterococcus faecalis was higher than against Enterococcus faecium.

  14. Effects of oregano oil, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and citral on antimicrobial, mechanical and barrier properties of carrot puree films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinwei; Liu, Huan; Wei, Jing; Ma, Zhongsu

    2011-02-01

    The effects against staphfloccus aureus and escherichia coli of oregano oil, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and citral in chitosan-corn starch-gelatin-carrot puree films at 0.5% to 3% (w/w) concentrations were investigated along with the mechanical and barrier properties of the films. The presence of oregano oil, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and citral did not change the good oxygen barrier of the films, but did significantly modify tensile properties and water vapor permeability, and made films darker. The data also show that the antimicrobial activities were in the following order: cinnamaldehyde > carvacrol > oregano oil > citral. Moreover, the antimicrobial films were more effective against staphfloccus aureus than against the escherichia coli. This study showed that oregano oil, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and citral, especially the first three, could be used to prepare antimicrobial edible films for food applications.

  15. Properties and antimicrobial susceptibility of Trueperella pyogenes isolated from bovine mastitis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkasir, Rashad; Wang, Jianfang; Gao, Jian; Ali, Tariq; Zhang, Limei; Szenci, Ottó; Bajcsy, Árpád Csaba; Han, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Trueperella (T.) pyogenes is an opportunistic pathogen that causes suppurative diseases in domestic animals. In this work, the properties, pathogenesis and phenotypic diversity of T. pyogenes isolates from bovine mastitis were studied. Both pyolysin (plo) and collagen-binding protein (cbp) virulence factor genes were detected by PCR in all T. pyogenes isolates (n = 50). Using the tissue culture plate method, 90% of T. pyogenes isolates were able to form biofilms. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 13 antimicrobials against T. pyogenes isolates were determined. High susceptibility was observed to rifampin (96%), ampicillin (94%), ciprofloxacin (94%), and penicillin (92%), while low susceptibility was found to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (10%) and bacitracin (2%). The intracellular assay revealed that T. pyogenes isolates had different cytopathogenic effects on cells. The high percentage (28.6%) of T. pyogenes isolates suggests that this bacterium is an important contributor to mastitis. Moreover, the high occurrence of multidrug resistance, biofilm production, intracellular survival, and the temporal dynamics of T. pyogenes interactions are key factors for a better understanding of how immunity acts on infections with these bacteria and how they evade immune surveillance, thus highlighting the need for the prudent use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine.

  16. Antimicrobial properties of clove essential oil on raw hamburger during storage in freezer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E Hoseini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing safe foods resistant to pathogens as well as replacing chemical preservatives with natural compounds including essential oils has attracted great attention in current studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of clove’s essential oil on hamburger. For this reason, clove essential oil was extracted by Clevenger apparatus method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger was measured. The antimicrobial effect of the essence in the concentrations of 0.0015%, 0.01%, 0.1% and 0.15% was examined on hamburger. The samples were examined at 0, 7, 30, 60 and 90 days of cold storage. Sensory characteristics of the samples were assessed through Hedonic method. MICs resulted from the test for S. aureus, E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger were 0.1%, 0.065%, 0.03% and 0.01% (V/V, respectively. The results of microbial examinations indicated that with the increasing of the concentration of clove oil essence and also with the progression of storage time, the microbial load was gradually decreased. According to the sensory assays conducted by the consumers, low concentrations of 0.0015% and maximum of 0.01% were found desirable.

  17. Insights into the Antimicrobial Properties of Hepcidins: Advantages and Drawbacks as Potential Therapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lombardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing frequency of multi-drug resistant microorganisms has driven research into alternative therapeutic strategies. In this respect, natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs hold much promise as candidates for the development of novel antibiotics. However, AMPs have some intrinsic drawbacks, such as partial degradation by host proteases or inhibition by host body fluid composition, potential toxicity, and high production costs. This review focuses on the hepcidins, which are peptides produced by the human liver with a known role in iron homeostasis, as well by numerous other organisms (including fish, reptiles, other mammals, and their potential as antibacterial and antifungal agents. Interestingly, the antimicrobial properties of human hepcidins are enhanced at acidic pH, rendering these peptides appealing for the design of new drugs targeting infections that occur in body areas with acidic physiological pH. This review not only considers current research on the direct killing activity of these peptides, but evaluates the potential application of these molecules as coating agents preventing biofilm formation and critically assesses technical obstacles preventing their therapeutic application.

  18. Antimicrobial and Thermal Properties of Metal Complexes of Grafted Fabrics with Acrylic Acid by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.S.; Attia, R.M.; Zohdy, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Cotton, cotton/PET blend and PET fabrics were treated against microbial effect by radiation - induced grafting of acrylic acid followed by metal complexation with some divalent transition metal ions Co (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II). The microbial resistance was evaluated by testing the mechanical properties of the treated fabrics after burring for one and two weeks in a moist soil reach with microorganisms. Also, the growth of microorganisms was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Moreover, the effect of this treatment on the thermal decomposition behavior was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). On the basis of microbial studies, it was found that the metal complexation of the grafted fabrics with acrylic acid enhanced the antimicrobial resistance of the fabrics and the antimicrobial resistance could be arranged according to the metal ions as follows: copper> nickel> cobalt. Also, the thermal stability of different fabrics could be arranged as follow: grafted fabrics complexed with Cu (II) > grafted fabrics complexed with Ni (II) > grafted fabrics complexed with Co (II)

  19. Physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties of starch films incorporated with ε-poly-L-lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liming; Li, Ruichao; Dong, Feng; Tian, Aiying; Li, Zhengjun; Dai, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    Starch/ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) composite films were prepared by combining 4% (w/v) gelatinized cornstarch and varying the level of ε-PL. The physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties of these films were investigated. Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) showed that the carbonyl group stretching vibration band of the ε-PL molecule shifted from 1646 cm(-1) to 1673 cm(-1) in the composite films. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results indicated that there were sharp endothermal peaks at 215-230 °C for the composite films. These results indicated that there was an intense interaction between the two components. The films incorporated with ε-PL showed a higher tensile strength (TS) and elongation-at-break (E) than those of the starch film alone. These composite films exhibited effective inhibition against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, films containing 2% (w/w) ε-PL effectively suppressed the growth of the tested microbes (Pstarch/ε-PL films showed a low inhibitory effect on Aspergillus niger. This antimicrobial trend of the composite films was in agreement with the results of free ε-PL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of ethanolic extracts of guarana, boldo, rosemary and cinnamon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannine Bonilla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this investigation, the ethanolic extracts of two less known plants, little reported in the literature (guarana and boldo leaves were studied in comparison with the ethanolic extracts of two well studied plants (cinnamon and rosemary, regarding their colour, GC-MS profile, phenolic content and their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The rosemary (59.20 ± 0.28 and guarana (56.63 ± 0.54 extracts showed the highest values for luminosity (L* and the UV-Vis absorption increased when L* decreased. GC-MS identified a limited number of compounds in the cinnamon and guarana extracts. The cinnamon extract showed the highest value for the total phenolic content (172 mg GA/g extract as compared to the other extracts. The highest antioxidant capacity was observed for the boldo leaves extract in the TEAC (6.66 ± 0.17 mM assay and for the rosemary extract in the DPPH (0.80 ± 0.14 mg/L test. In addition, all the extracts showed antimicrobial activity against the S. aureus strain, indicating that all the extracts studied could be used by food industries to develop new active food packaging materials.

  1. Photocatalytic properties and selective antimicrobial activity of TiO2(Eu)/CuO nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Robert; Dworniczek, Ewa; Caplovicova, Maria; Monfort, Olivier; Lianos, Panagiotis; Caplovic, Lubomir; Plesch, Gustav

    2016-05-01

    TiO2(Eu)/CuO nanocomposites were prepared by precipitation method. The anatase nanocrystallites with a size of 26 nm exhibited well crystallized and characteristical dipyramidal morphology and {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} faceting. Transmission electron microscopy photographs with atomic resolution showed that the Eu(III) dopants were bounded on surface of titania. In the composites, the CuO nanocrystals exhibiting a monoclinic tenorite structure with a size in the range from 2 to 5 nm were grafted to the surface of titania. The influence of copper(II) oxide led to distinct selectivity in the photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties of the investigated TiO2(Eu)/CuO nanocomposites. While the presence of CuO nanocrystals strongly increased the photocatalytic production of hydrogen by ethanol reforming, it decreased the activity in photoinduced total mineralization of phenol comparing with non-modified TiO2(Eu). In investigated TiO2(Eu)/CuO powders, the photoinduced antimicrobial activity against membranes of Enterococcus species was influenced by the selective binding of CuO to the surface of the microorganism leading to distinct selectivity in their action. The activity against Enterococcus faecalis was higher than against Enterococcus faecium.

  2. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Wound Healing Properties of Kigelia africana (Lam. Beneth. and Strophanthus hispidus DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Agyare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial infections of various types of wounds are a challenge to the treatment of wounds and wound healing. The study was to investigate antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of methanol leaf and stem bark extracts of Kigelia africana and methanol leaf and root extracts of Strophanthus hispidus and also to determine wound healing properties of the extracts. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extracts were determined against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and a fungus using agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl–hydrazyl (DPPH method. The influence of the extracts on rate of wound closure was investigated using the excision wound model and histopathological investigation of treated and untreated wound tissues performed. The MICs of leaf extract of K. africana against test organisms were 2.5–7.5 mg/mL and stem bark extract were 2.25–7.5 mg/mL. The leaf extract of S. hispidus had MIC range of 2.5–7.5 mg/mL and 2.5–10 mg/mL for root extract. The IC50 of leaf and stem bark extracts of K. africana were 56.9 and 13.7 μg/mL, respectively and leaf and root of S. hispidus were 49.8 and 45.1 μg/mL, respectively. K. africana extracts (7.5% w/w showed significant ( wound contraction at day 7 with 72% of wound closure whiles significant ( wound contractions were observed on day 11 for stem bark of K. africana, leaf and root extracts of S. hispidus. Wound tissues treated with the extracts showed improved collagenation, re-epitheliazition and rapid granulation formation compared with untreated wound tissues. The extracts were found to contain alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and sapogenetic glycosides. The HPLC finger-printing of the extracts were developed. The leaf, stem bark and root extracts of K. africana and S. hispidus exhibited antimicrobial, antioxidant, and enhanced wound healing properties and these

  3. The antimicrobial action of resveratrol against Listeria monocytogenes in food-based models and its antibiofilm properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Susana; Domingues, Fernanda

    2016-10-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a natural phytoalexin synthesized by plants in response to stress. This compound has several beneficial documented properties, namely anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective and antimicrobial activities. In this study the antimicrobial activity of resveratrol against Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua was investigated. Resveratrol had a minimum inhibitory concentration of 200 µg mL(-1) for the tested strains, with time-kill curves demonstrating bacteriostatic activity. Inhibition of biofilm formation was also assessed, with resveratrol strongly inhibiting biofilm formation by both species even at subinhibitory concentrations. Overall, resveratrol showed antimicrobial properties on planktonic cells and on biofilm formation ability. Considering the potential use of resveratrol as a food preservative, the antimicrobial efficacy of resveratrol in food was studied in milk, lettuce leaf model and chicken juice. Resveratrol retained greater efficacy in both lettuce leaf model and chicken juice, but milk had a negative impact on its antilisterial activity, indicating a possible reduction of resveratrol availability in milk. This study reinforces resveratrol as an antimicrobial agent, pointing out its antibiofilm activity and its potential use as preservative in some food matrices. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of two endemic plants from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to the antioxidant activity of these plants, the total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were also measured in the extracts. ... that the extracts of A. scabriflorum and A. tchihatschewii possess antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and therefore, they can be used as a natural preservative ingredient in food

  5. Antimicrobial, Physicochemical, Mechanical, and Barrier Properties of Tapioca Starch Films Incorporated with Eucalyptus Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rojhan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Starch is found in abundance in nature and it is one of the raw materials used for food packagingbecause of the low price, biodegradability, good mechanical and barrier properties. The recycling ability ofcoating materials was significantly increased by using edible films and coating in comparison to traditionalpackaging and it could be an alternative for synthetic films. In this research, the effect of eucalyptus extract(Aqueous Extract was investigated on tapioca starch films. Tapioca starch films were prepared by castingmethod with addition of eucalyptus extract and a mixture of sorbitol/glycerol (weight ratio of 3 to 1 asplasticizers. Eucalyptus extract incorporated to the tapioca starch films were dried at different concentrations(0, 15, 25, and 35 of total solid under controlled conditions. Physicochemical properties such as waterabsorption capacity (WAC, water vapor permeability (WVP and mechanical properties of the films wereevaluated. Results showed that by increasing the concentration of eucalyptus extract, tensile strength wasincreased from 20.60 to 15.68 (MPa, also elongation was increased from 19.31 to 23.57 (% at break andYoung’s modulus was decreased from 800.31 to 500.32 (MPa. Also incorporation of eucalyptus extract in thestructure of biopolymer increased permeability of water vapor of starch films. Tapioca starch filmsincorporated with eucalyptus extract exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against E. Coli. In summary,eucalyptus extract improves functional properties of tapioca starch films and this types of films can be used infood packaging.

  6. Leaching and antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles loaded onto natural zeolite clinoptilolite by ion exchange and wet impregnation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Missengue, RNM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the leaching and antimicrobial properties of silver that was loaded onto the natural zeolite clinoptilolite by ion exchange and wet impregnation. Silver ions were reduced using sodium borohydride (NaBH(sub4...

  7. Biocomposites of nanofibrillated cellulose, polypyrrole, and silver nanoparticles with electroconductive and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bober, Patrycja; Liu, Jun; Mikkonen, Kirsi S; Ihalainen, Petri; Pesonen, Markus; Plumed-Ferrer, Carme; von Wright, Atte; Lindfors, Tom; Xu, Chunlin; Latonen, Rose-Marie

    2014-10-13

    In this work, flexible and free-standing composite films of nanofibrillated cellulose/polypyrrole (NFC/PPy) and NFC/PPy-silver nanoparticles (NFC/PPy-Ag) have been synthesized for the first time via in situ one-step chemical polymerization and applied in potential biomedical applications. Incorporation of NFC into PPy significantly improved its film formation ability resulting in composite materials with good mechanical and electrical properties. It is shown that the NFC/PPy-Ag composite films have strong inhibition effect against the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, e.g., Staphylococcus aureus. The electrical conductivity and strong antimicrobial activity makes it possible to use the silver composites in various applications aimed at biomedical treatments and diagnostics. Additionally, we report here the structural and morphological characterization of the composite materials with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques.

  8. Essential oil of the leaves of Eugenia uniflora L.: antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Francine Novack; Lenardão, Eder João; Savegnago, Lucielli; Perin, Gelson; Jacob, Raquel Guimarães; Alves, Diego; da Silva, Wladimir Padilha; da Motta, Amanda de Souza; Nascente, Patricia da Silva

    2012-08-01

    Essential oil (EO) of the leaves of Eugenia uniflora L. (Brazilian cherry tree) was evaluated for its antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal properties. The acute toxicity of the EO administered by oral route was also evaluated in mice. The EO exhibited antioxidant activity in the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays and reduced lipid peroxidation in the kidney of mice. The EO also showed antimicrobial activity against two important pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, and against two fungi of the Candida species, C. lipolytica and C. guilliermondii. Acute administration of the EO by the oral route did not cause lethality or toxicological effects in mice. These findings suggest that the EO of the leaves of E. uniflora may have the potential for use in the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid flow cytometry analysis of antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattuniemi, Maarit; Korhonen, Johanna; Jaakkola, Mari; Räty, Jarkko; Virtanen, Vesa

    2010-11-01

    Both nettle (Urtica dioica) and cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus) are widely known to have good influence on health. The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and monitor the growth of the bacteria by a rapid flow cytometry (FCM) method. For FCM measurements samples were stained with fluorescent dyes. The inhibitory effects of plant material on growth of E. coli were estimated by comparing the results of control sample (E. coli) to E. coli samples with plant material. FCM offers both a brilliant tool to investigate the kinetics of the growth of bacterium, since subsamples can be taken from the same liquid medium during the growing period and with fluorescent dyes a rapid method to investigate viability of the bacterium.

  10. Chimeric Peptides as Implant Functionalization Agents for Titanium Alloy Implants with Antimicrobial Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucesoy, Deniz T.; Hnilova, Marketa; Boone, Kyle; Arnold, Paul M.; Snead, Malcolm L.; Tamerler, Candan

    2015-04-01

    Implant-associated infections can have severe effects on the longevity of implant devices and they also represent a major cause of implant failures. Treating these infections associated with implants by antibiotics is not always an effective strategy due to poor penetration rates of antibiotics into biofilms. Additionally, emerging antibiotic resistance poses serious concerns. There is an urge to develop effective antibacterial surfaces that prevent bacterial adhesion and proliferation. A novel class of bacterial therapeutic agents, known as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), are receiving increasing attention as an unconventional option to treat septic infection, partly due to their capacity to stimulate innate immune responses and for the difficulty of microorganisms to develop resistance towards them. While host and bacterial cells compete in determining the ultimate fate of the implant, functionalization of implant surfaces with AMPs can shift the balance and prevent implant infections. In the present study, we developed a novel chimeric peptide to functionalize the implant material surface. The chimeric peptide simultaneously presents two functionalities, with one domain binding to a titanium alloy implant surface through a titanium-binding domain while the other domain displays an antimicrobial property. This approach gains strength through control over the bio-material interfaces, a property built upon molecular recognition and self-assembly through a titanium alloy binding domain in the chimeric peptide. The efficiency of chimeric peptide both in-solution and absorbed onto titanium alloy surface was evaluated in vitro against three common human host infectious bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli. In biological interactions such as occur on implants, it is the surface and the interface that dictate the ultimate outcome. Controlling the implant surface by creating an interface composed chimeric peptides may therefore

  11. Wound-healing and antimicrobial properties of dichloromethane fraction of Dialium guineense (Wild) fruit coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Nnadi Charles; Udeani, Theophilus Kc; Onyebuchi, Ugwu Linus

    2016-01-01

    This research established the scientific bases for the folkloric use of the neglected Dialium guineense fruit coat in wound and microbial infection management in Nigeria. The phytochemical analysis of the crude extract, fractions and sub-fractions was performed by standard methods. Agar well diffusion protocol was adopted for the antimicrobial assay while the wound healing properties was determined by full thickness skin excision wound model. Phytochemical analysis showed high relative proportion of alkaloids (6.05 ± 0.98 %), saponins (3.91 ± 0.02 %) and tannins (1.86 ± 0.05 %). The only active fraction (DF) and sub-fraction (DF-5) were effective against Gram-positive (inhibition zone diameters, IZDs, 8-10 mm and 11-15 mm) and Gram-negative (IZDs, 15-19 mm and 16-21 mm) bacteria and fungi (6-8 mm) compared with 20-24 mm and 18-19 mm of the standard (ciprofloxacin) respectively. Fifty mg/kg of the DF-5 showed nearly equal percentage wound healing post-surgery days to Cicatrin®. The 50 mg/kg dose of DF and DF-5 showed more than 50 % wound healing at 10(th) day post-surgery, 50 mg/kg crude extract showed 54 % on day 14 while distilled water showed 56 % wound healing on day 17 with no sign of infection in all animal groups. All the treatments were significantly (P<0.01) different from control (distilled water) in wound healing by the 10(th) and 17(th) post-surgery days. The studies revealed that the fruit coat, which hitherto was treated as wastes could be explored for antimicrobial and wound healing properties against the backdrop of continually emerging antibiotic resistant strains of microorganisms.

  12. Silver release and antimicrobial properties of PMMA films doped with silver ions, nano-particles and complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyutakov, O., E-mail: lyutakoo@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Goncharova, I. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Rimpelova, S. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Kolarova, K.; Svanda, J.; Svorcik, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-01

    Materials prepared on the base of bioactive silver compounds have become more and more popular due to low microbial resistance to silver. In the present work, the efficiency of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin films doped with silver ions, nanoparticles and silver–imidazole polymer complex was studied by a combination of AAS, XPS and AFM techniques. The biological activities of the proposed materials were discussed in view of the rate of silver releasing from the polymer matrix. Concentrations of Ag active form were estimated by its ability to interact with L-cysteine using electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy. Rates of the released silver were compared with the biological activity in dependence on the form of embedded silver. Antimicrobial properties of doped polymer films were studied using two bacterial strains: Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. It was found that PMMA films doped with Ag{sup +} had greater activity than those doped with nanoparticles and silver–imidazole polymeric complexes. However, the antimicrobial efficiency of Ag{sup +} doped films was only short-term. Contrary, the antimicrobial activity of silver–imidazole/PMMA films increased in time of sample soaking. - Highlights: • PMMA thin films doped with silver ions, nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver–imidazole helical complexes (AgIm) were studied. • Silver release from doped polymer films and its biological activity were estimated. • Antimicrobial properties of doped polymer films were also studied. • Ag ions doped films showed the strongest antimicrobial activity, which quickly disappeared. • AgIm and AgNPs doped films showed more stable antimicrobial properties. • AgIm complexes conserve their structure after addition into polymer and after leaching.

  13. Silver release and antimicrobial properties of PMMA films doped with silver ions, nano-particles and complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutakov, O.; Goncharova, I.; Rimpelova, S.; Kolarova, K.; Svanda, J.; Svorcik, V.

    2015-01-01

    Materials prepared on the base of bioactive silver compounds have become more and more popular due to low microbial resistance to silver. In the present work, the efficiency of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin films doped with silver ions, nanoparticles and silver–imidazole polymer complex was studied by a combination of AAS, XPS and AFM techniques. The biological activities of the proposed materials were discussed in view of the rate of silver releasing from the polymer matrix. Concentrations of Ag active form were estimated by its ability to interact with L-cysteine using electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy. Rates of the released silver were compared with the biological activity in dependence on the form of embedded silver. Antimicrobial properties of doped polymer films were studied using two bacterial strains: Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. It was found that PMMA films doped with Ag + had greater activity than those doped with nanoparticles and silver–imidazole polymeric complexes. However, the antimicrobial efficiency of Ag + doped films was only short-term. Contrary, the antimicrobial activity of silver–imidazole/PMMA films increased in time of sample soaking. - Highlights: • PMMA thin films doped with silver ions, nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver–imidazole helical complexes (AgIm) were studied. • Silver release from doped polymer films and its biological activity were estimated. • Antimicrobial properties of doped polymer films were also studied. • Ag ions doped films showed the strongest antimicrobial activity, which quickly disappeared. • AgIm and AgNPs doped films showed more stable antimicrobial properties. • AgIm complexes conserve their structure after addition into polymer and after leaching

  14. Hydrolates from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)--their chemical composition as well as aromatic, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusinowska, Renata; Śmigielski, Krzysztof; Stobiecka, Agnieszka; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina

    2016-01-01

    It was shown that the method for obtaining hydrolates from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) influences the content of active compounds and the aromatic, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the hydrolates. The content of volatile organic compounds ranged from 9.12 to 97.23 mg/100 mL of hydrolate. Lavender hydrolate variants showed low antimicrobial activity (from 0% to 0.05%). The radical scavenging activity of DPPH was from 3.6 ± 0.5% to 3.8 ± 0.6% and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(FL)) results were from 0 to 266 μM Trolox equivalent, depending on the hydrolate variant.

  15. Pectins filled with LDH-antimicrobial molecules: preparation, characterization and physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrasi, Giuliana; Bugatti, Valeria; Vittoria, Vittoria

    2012-06-05

    Nanohybrids of layered double hydroxide (LDH) with intercalated active molecules: benzoate, 2,4-dichlorobenzoate, para-hydroxybenzoate and ortho-hydroxybenzoate, were incorporated into pectins from apples through high energy ball milling in the presence of water. Cast films were obtained and analysed. X-ray diffraction analysis showed a complete destructuration of all nanohybrids in the pectin matrix. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a better thermal resistance of pectin in the presence of fillers, especially para-hydroxybenzoate and ortho-hydroxybenzoate. Mechanical properties showed an improvement of elastic modulus in particular for LDH-para-hydroxybenzoate nanohybrid, due probably to a better interaction between pectin matrix and nanohybrid layers. Barrier properties (sorption and diffusion) to water vapour showed improvement in the dependence on the intercalated active molecule, the best improvement was achieved for composites containing para-hydroxybenzoate molecules, suggesting that the interaction between the filler phase and the polymer plays an important role in sorption and diffusion phenomena. Incorporation of these active molecules gave antimicrobial properties to the composite films giving opportunities in the field of active packaging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties of poly(vinyl alcohol)/graphene oxide/starch/silver nanocomposites films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Adil; Hussain, Zakir; Riaz, Asim; Khan, Ahmad Nawaz

    2016-11-20

    In the present work, synthesis of poly(vinyl alcohol)/graphene oxide/starch/silver (PVA/GO/Starch/Ag) nanocomposites films is reported. Such films have been characterized and investigated for their mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties. The exfoliation of GO in the PVA matrix occurs owing to the non-covalent interactions of the polymer chains of PVA and hydrophilic surface of the GO layers. Presence of GO in PVA and PVA/starch blends were found to enhance the tensile strength of the nanocomposites system. It was found that the thermal stability of PVA as well as PVA/starch blend systems increased by the incorporation of GO where strong physical bonding between GO layers and PVA/starch blends is assumed to cause thermal barrier effects. Antimicrobial properties of the prepared films were investigated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results show enhanced antimicrobial properties of the prepared films where PVA-GO, PVA-Ag, PVA-GO-Ag and PVA-GO-Ag-Starch showed antimicrobial activity in ascending order. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial properties of novel double layer nanocomposite electrospun fibers for wound dressing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassiba AJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Alaa J Hassiba,1 Mohamed E El Zowalaty,2 Thomas J Webster,3–5 Aboubakr M Abdullah,6 Gheyath K Nasrallah,7 Khalil Abdelrazek Khalil,8 Adriaan S Luyt,6 Ahmed A Elzatahry1 1Materials Science and Technology Program, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 2School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; 3Department of Chemical Engineering, 4Department of Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 5Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 6Center for Advanced Materials, 7Department of Biomedical Science, College of Health Sciences, Biomedical Research Center, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 8Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates Abstract: Herein, novel hybrid nanomaterials were developed for wound dressing applications with antimicrobial properties. Electrospinning was used to fabricate a double layer nanocomposite nanofibrous mat consisting of an upper layer of poly(vinyl alcohol and chitosan loaded with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs and a lower layer of polyethylene oxide (PEO or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP nanofibers loaded with chlorhexidine (as an antiseptic. The top layer containing AgNPs, whose purpose was to protect the wound site against environmental germ invasion, was prepared by reducing silver nitrate to its nanoparticulate form through interaction with chitosan. The lower layer, which would be in direct contact with the injured site, contained the antibiotic drug needed to avoid wound infections which would otherwise interfere with the healing process. Initially, the upper layer was electrospun, followed sequentially by electrospinning the second layer, creating a bilayer nanofibrous mat. The morphology of the nanofibrous mats was studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, showing successful nanofiber

  18. Preparation, characterization and antimicrobial property of ag+- nano Chitosan/ZSM-5: novel Hybrid Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasoumeh Khatamiana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Binary hybrids of chitosan-zeolite have many interesting applications in separation and bacteriostatic activity. Materials and Methods: Template free ZSM-5 zeolite was synthesized by hydrothermal method, physical hydrogels of nano chitosan in the colloidal domain were obtained in the absence of toxic organic solvent and then nano chitosan/ZSM-5 hybrid composites with nano chitosan contents of 0.35%, 3.5%, 35% wt.% were prepared. The as prepared hybrid composites were ion-exchanged with Ag cations. Results: XRD and FT-IR results revealed a good crystalinity of as synthesized template frees ZSM-5 with BET surface area of 307 m2g-1. Presence of chitosan in composites was confirmed by XRD patterns and FT-IR spectroscopic analysis, the chitosan content in composite was obtained with TG analysis. SEM analysis of composites shows that chitosan particles were dispersed within the nanometer scale. The antimicrobial activity of different samples was investigated and the results showed that the Ag+-exchanged samples have the highest antibacterial properties. Cancer cell line A549 cell line were cultured in designated medium treated with Ag+-exchanged samples at the concentration of 0.01 to 0.5 mg/ml. After 24 and 48 hours incubation, the efficacy of Ag+-exchanged samples to treat cancer cell lines were measured by means of cell viability test via MTT assay. Concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 mg/ml of Ag+-exchanged samples induced a very low toxicity. Conclusion: These hybrid composite materials have potential applications on tissue engineering and antimicrobial food packaging.

  19. Virulence factors, serogroups and antimicrobial resistance properties of Escherichia coli strains in fermented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Farhad Safarpoor; Yazdani, Farshad; Mozafari, Jalal; Valizadeh, Yousef

    2014-04-07

    From a clinical perspective, it is essential to know the microbial safety of fermented dairy products. Doogh and kashk are fermented dairies. These products are used by millions of people but their microbial qualities are unknown. Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the most commonly detected pathogens in the cases of food poisoning and food-borne illnesses. The present investigation was carried out in order to study the molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance properties of STEC strains isolated from fermented dairy products. Six hundred fermented dairy samples were collected and immediately transferred to the laboratory. All samples were cultured immediately and those that were E. coli-positive were analyzed for the presence of O157 , O26, O103, O111, O145, O45, O91, O113, O121 and O128 STEC serogroups, tetA, tetB, blaSHV, CITM, cmlA, cat1, aadA1, dfrA1, qnr, aac (3)-IV, sul1 and ereA antibiotic resistance genes and stx1, stx2, eaeA, ehly, cnf1, cnf2, iutA, cdtB, papA, traT, sfaS and fyuA virulence factors using PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed also using disk diffusion methodology with Mueller-Hinton agar. Fifty out of 600 (8.33%) dairy samples harbored E. coli. In addition, yoghurt was the most commonly contaminated dairy. O157 (26%) and O26 (12%) were the most commonly detected serogroups. A significant difference was found between the frequency of Attaching and Effacing E. coli and Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (P Fermented dairy products can easily become contaminated by antibiotic resistant STEC strains. Our findings should raise awareness about antibiotic resistance in Iran. Clinicians should exercise caution when prescribing antibiotics, especially in veterinary treatments.

  20. A prawn core histone 4: derivation of N- and C-terminal peptides and their antimicrobial properties, molecular characterization and mRNA transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Gnanam, Annie J; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu; Harikrishnan, Ramaswamy; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the complete molecular characterization including bioinformatics characterization, gene expression, synthesis of N and C terminal peptides and their antimicrobial activity of the core histone 4 (H4) from freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). A cDNA encoding MrH4 was identified from the constructed cDNA library of M. rosenbergii during screening and the sequence was obtained using internal sequencing primers. The MrH4 coding region possesses a polypeptide of 103 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 11kDa and an isoelectric point of 11.5. The bioinformatics analysis showed that the MrH4 polypeptide contains a H4 signature at (15)GAKRH(19). Multiple sequence alignment of MrH4 showed that the N-terminal (21-42) and C-terminal (87-101) antimicrobial peptide regions and the pentapeptide or H4 signature (15-19) are highly conserved including in humans. The phylogenetic tree formed two separate clades of vertebrate and invertebrate H4, wherein MrH4 was located within the arthropod monophyletic clade of invertebrate H4 groups. Three-dimensional model of MrH4 was established using I-TASSER program and the model was validated using Ramachandran plot analysis. Schiffer-Edmundson helical wheel modeling was used to predict the helix propensity of N (21-42) and C (87-101) terminal derived Mr peptides. The highest gene expression was observed in gills and is induced by viral [white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV) and M. rosenbergii nodovirus (MrNV)] and bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) infections. The N and C terminal peptides were synthesized and their antimicrobial and hemolytic properties were examined. Both peptides showed activity against the tested Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria; however, the highest activity was noticed against Gram negative bacteria. Among the two peptides used in this study, C-terminal peptide yielded better results than the N-terminal peptide. Therefore, C terminal

  1. Effect of silver nanoparticles on the physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of an orthodontic adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Weidenbach DEGRAZIA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Orthodontic treatment with fixed brackets plays a major role on the formation of white spot lesions. Objective This study aimed to incorporate silver nanoparticle solutions (AgNP in an orthodontic adhesive and evaluate its physicochemical and antimicrobial properties. Material and Methods Silver nanoparticle solutions were added to a commercial adhesive in different concentrations (w/w: 0%, 0.11%, 0.18%, and 0.33%. Shear bond strength (SBS test was performed after bonding metal brackets to enamel. Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze in situ the degree of conversion (DC of the adhesive layer. The surface free energy (SFE was evaluated after the measurement of contact angles. Growth inhibition of Streptococcus mutans in liquid and solid media was determined by colony-forming unit count and inhibition halo, respectively. One-way ANOVA was performed for SBS, DC, SFE, and growth inhibition. Results The incorporation of AgNP solution decreased the SBS (p<0.001 and DC in situ (p<0.001 values. SFE decreased after addition of 0.18% and 0.33% AgNP. Growth inhibition of S. mutans in liquid media was obtained after silver addition (p<0.05. Conclusions The addition of AgNP solutions to Transbond™ XT adhesive primer inhibited S. mutans growth. SBS, DC, and SFE values decreased after incorporation up to 0.33% AgNP solution without compromising the chemical and physical properties of the adhesive.

  2. Enhanced antimicrobial properties, cytocompatibility, and corrosion resistance of plasma-modified biodegradable magnesium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Jamesh, Mohammed Ibrahim; Li, Wing Kan; Wu, Guosong; Wang, Chenxi; Zheng, Yufeng; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Chu, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are potential biodegradable materials and have received increasing attention due to their outstanding biological performance and mechanical properties. However, rapid degradation in the physiological environment and potential toxicity limit clinical applications. Recently, special magnesium-calcium (Mg-Ca) and magnesium-strontium (Mg-Sr) alloys with biocompatible chemical compositions have been reported, but the rapid degradation still does not meet clinical requirements. In order to improve the corrosion resistance, a rough, hydrophobic and ZrO(2)-containing surface film is fabricated on Mg-Ca and Mg-Sr alloys by dual zirconium and oxygen ion implantation. Weight loss measurements and electrochemical corrosion tests show that the corrosion rate of the Mg-Ca and Mg-Sr alloys is reduced appreciably after surface treatment. A systematic investigation of the in vitro cellular response and antibacterial capability of the modified binary magnesium alloys is performed. The amounts of adherent bacteria on the Zr-O-implanted and Zr-implanted samples diminish remarkably compared to the unimplanted control. In addition, significantly enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation are observed from the Zr-O-implanted sample. The results suggest that dual zirconium and oxygen ion implantation, which effectively enhances the corrosion resistance, in vitro biocompatibility and antimicrobial properties of Mg-Ca and Mg-Sr alloys, provides a simple and practical means to expedite clinical acceptance of biodegradable magnesium alloys. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preventing maritime transport of pathogens: the remarkable antimicrobial properties of silver-supported catalysts for ship ballast water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theologides, C P; Theofilou, S P; Anayiotos, A; Costa, C N

    2017-07-01

    Ship ballast water (SBW) antimicrobial treatment is considered as a priority issue for the shipping industry. The present work investigates the possibility of utilizing antimicrobial catalysis as an effective method for the treatment of SBW. Taking into account the well-known antimicrobial properties of ionic silver (Ag + ), five silver-supported catalysts (Ag/γ-Al 2 O 3 ) with various loadings (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1 wt%) were prepared and examined for the antimicrobial treatment of SBW. The bactericidal activity of the aforementioned catalysts was investigated towards the inhibition of Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Escherichia faecalis (Gram-positive) bacteria. Catalytic experiments were conducted in a three-phase continuous flow stirred tank reactor, used in a semi-batch mode. It was found that using the catalyst with the lowest metal loading, the inhibition of E. coli reached 95.8% after 30 minutes of treatment of an E. coli bacterial solution, while the inhibition obtained for E. faecalis was 76.2% after 60 minutes of treatment of an E. faecalis bacterial solution. Even better results (100% inhibition after 5 min of reaction) were obtained using the catalysts with higher Ag loadings. The results of the present work indicate that the prepared monometallic catalysts exert their antimicrobial activity within a short period of time, revealing, for the first time ever, that the field of antimicrobial heterogeneous catalysis using deposited ionic silver on a solid support may prove decisive for the disinfection of SBW.

  4. Synthesis, spectroscopic and antimicrobial properties of Co(II), Ni (II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial activity of novel Schiff base metal complexes. The resistance of micro-organisms to classical antimicrobial compounds poses a challenge to effective management and treatment of some diseases. In line with this, copper (II), nickel (II) and cobalt (II) complexes of ...

  5. Antimicrobial properties of nest volatiles in red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In social insects, antimicrobial secretions are often used collectively for the benefit of the whole colony, which is an important component in social immunity. Many ant species build nests in which air circulation can be controlled. Volatile antimicrobial agents would be ideal in implementing socia...

  6. Effects of Ultrasound Treatment on Physiochemical Properties and Antimicrobial Activities of Whey Protein-Totarol Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuang; Shi, Ce; Wang, Cuina; Guo, Mingruo

    2017-10-01

    Totarol is a natural antimicrobial compound extracted from the heartwood of Podocarpus totara, a conifer native to New Zealand. The effects of whey protein-totarol nanoparticles treated with ultrasound on the physiochemical properties and the growth of Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. The particle size of whey protein-totarol nanoparticles was reduced by ultrasound treatment from 31.24 ± 5.31 to 24.20 ± 4.02 nm, and the size distribution was also narrowed by the treatment. Viscosity and modulus data indicated that the flow behaviors of whey protein-totarol nanoparticles seemed to be Newtonian and exerted a typical viscoelastic fluid at protein content of 15% (w/v). Rheological properties were more insensitive to ultrasonic time. Time-killing assays, agar diffusion tests, the cell membrane damage analysis, and microstructure were exploited to study the antibacterial properties of whey protein-totarol nanoparticles. The MIC of whey protein-totarol nanoparticles after ultrasound treatment decreased from 4 to 2 μg/mL compared with that without ultrasound treatment. Whey protein-totarol nanoparticles treated with ultrasound resulted in a significant (P whey protein-totarol nanoparticles were 12 and 36 mm for untreated and treated with ultrasound, respectively. The cell membrane damages and the microstructure changes also proved that whey protein-totarol nanoparticles treated with ultrasound had strong antibacterial activities against S. aureus and that the antibacterial effectiveness enhanced with the increasing of ultrasonic time. These findings suggested that whey protein-totarol nanoparticles treated with ultrasound were more effective against S. aureus than untreated nanoparticles.

  7. Effects of allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud essential oils in edible apple films on physical properties and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, W-X; Olsen, C W; Avena-Bustillos, R J; McHugh, T H; Levin, C E; Friedman, Mendel

    2009-09-01

    Essential oils (EOs) derived from plants are rich sources of volatile terpenoids and phenolic compounds. Such compounds have the potential to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on contact and in the vapor phase. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing EOs can be used commercially to protect food against contamination by pathogenic bacteria. EOs from cinnamon, allspice, and clove bud plants are compatible with the sensory characteristics of apple-based edible films. These films could extend product shelf life and reduce risk of pathogen growth on food surfaces. This study evaluated physical properties (water vapor permeability, color, tensile properties) and antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes of allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud oils in apple puree film-forming solutions formulated into edible films at 0.5% to 3% (w/w) concentrations. Antimicrobial activities were determined by 2 independent methods: overlay of the film on top of the bacteria and vapor phase diffusion of the antimicrobial from the film to the bacteria. The antimicrobial activities against the 3 pathogens were in the following order: cinnamon oil > clove bud oil > allspice oil. The antimicrobial films were more effective against L. monocytogenes than against the S. enterica. The oils reduced the viscosity of the apple solutions and increased elongation and darkened the colors of the films. They did not affect water vapor permeability. The results show that apple-based films with allspice, cinnamon, or clove bud oils were active against 3 foodborne pathogens by both direct contact with the bacteria and indirectly by vapors emanating from the films.

  8. ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES «LIPIN» INHALATION USE IN CHILDREN WITH ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernusky V.G.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Problems of modern pharmacotherapy of bronchial asthma (BA in children is largely reduced to the establishment of effective dosage forms that provide the delivery of drugs in the bronchopulmonary system without affecting other organ systems. A promising area in addressing the causal treatment of asthma in children is the use of the formulation «Lipin», which is a liposome, arising by self-assembly of amphiphilic lipid complexes. Material & methods. The study of antimicrobial properties «Lipin» on microorganisms isolated from sputum in 135 children are hospitalized in the pulmonology department of GU «Children's Hospital road» Kharkiv about asthma in the period of exacerbation. Age was surveyed children from 5 to 14 years on average - 11 ± 0,12 years. The diagnosis of bronchial asthma (BA is set according to GINA guidelines. The treatment groups were representative, rondomizirovany by age, sex, severity of the disease. Patients with asthma in all forms (atopic, non-atopic, mixed and severity (mild, moderate, severe received basic asthma treatment according to the Ministry of Health of Ukraine № 4.01.12-8.1178 order dated 14.12.2009, which was supplemented by liposomal formulation «Lipin» inhalation through an ultrasonic nebulizer in age dosage. All drugs used in accordance with instructions for their use, approved by the Ministry of Health of Ukraine. Microbiological examination of sputum was performed by conventional methods: for seeding solid or liquid nutrient medium, followed by isolation and isolates microscopy, biochemical and serological identification. Identification of the isolates was performed according to the position of the Ministry of Health USSR order number 535 and respectively toksonomicheskih determination tests bacteria Burgi. The antimicrobial activity of the preparation «Lipin» was determined by the level of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC - twofold serial dilution method in medium Mueller

  9. Chemical synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antimicrobial properties of Cu and its oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshalagae Motlatle, Abesach, E-mail: AMotlatle@csir.co.za; Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani, E-mail: skpillai@csir.co.za; Rudolf Scriba, Manfred, E-mail: MRscriba@csir.co.za; Sinha Ray, Suprakas, E-mail: Rsuprakas@csir.co.za [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, DST/CSIR Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials (South Africa)

    2016-10-15

    Cu nanoparticles were synthesized using low-temperature aqueous reduction method at pH 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 in presence of ascorbic acid and polyvinylpyrrolidone. The nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. Results demonstrated a strong dependence of synthesis pH on the size, shape, chemical composition and structure of Cu nanoparticles. While lower pH conditions of 3 and 5 produced Cu{sup 0}, higher pH levels (more than 7) led to the formation of Cu{sub 2}O/CuO nanoparticles. The reducing capacity of ascorbic acid, capping efficiency of PVP and the resulting particle sizes were strongly affected by solution pH. The results of in vitro disk diffusion tests showed excellent antimicrobial activity of Cu{sub 2}O/CuO nanoparticles against a mixture of bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), indicating that the size as well as oxidation state of Cu contributes to the antibacterial efficacy. The results indicate that varying synthesis pH is a strategy to tailor the composition, structure and properties of Cu nanoparticles.

  10. Radiation-grafting of N-vinylimidazole onto silicone rubber for antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez-Ortiz, H. Iván; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Burillo, Guillermina; Magariños, Beatriz; Concheiro, Angel; Bucio, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    Poly(N-vinylimidazole) (PVIm) was grafted numbers onto silicone rubber (SR) with the aim of providing antimicrobial properties. The grafting was carried out by means of gamma rays using the direct method. The influence on the grafting yield of absorbed dose, monomer concentration, addition of FeSO4 salt, composition and type of solvent (H2O, MeOH, THF, and acetone) was investigated. Grafts onto SR between 10% and 90% were obtained at doses from 20 to 100 kGy and a dose rate 10.9 kGy h-1; grafting yield increased with monomer concentration and dose. The new graft copolymers were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) showed glass transition at 149 and 159 °C for 38% and 88% grafting respectively. Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) presented two decomposition temperatures for SR-g-VIm at 380 (PVIm) and 440 °C (SR). SR-g-VIm showed antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  11. Improved antimicrobial property and controlled drug release kinetics of silver sulfadiazine loaded ordered mesoporous silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Jangra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the loading of silver sulfadiazine into ordered mesoporous silica material by post-impregnation method and its effect on the in vitro release kinetics and antimicrobial property of the drug. The formulated SBA-15 silica material with rope-like morphology and SBA-15-silver sulfadiazine (SBA-AgSD were characterized by UV–visible spectrophotometer, small and wide-angle powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of SBA-AgSD revealed a high loading amount of 52.87%. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption analysis confirmed the drug entrapment into host material by revealing a reduced surface area (214 m2/g and pore diameter (6.7 nm of the SBA-AgSD. The controlled release of silver sulfadiazine drug from the mesoporous silica to simulated gastric, intestinal and body fluids was evaluated. The Korsmeyer–Peppas model fits the drug release data with the non-Fickian diffusion model and zero order kinetics of SBA-AgSD. The antibacterial performance of the SBA-AgSD was evaluated with respect to Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The controlled drug delivery of the SBA-AgSD revealed improved antibacterial activity, thus endorsing its applicability in effective wound dressing.

  12. Safety characterization and antimicrobial properties of kefir-isolated Lactobacillus kefiri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasi, Paula; Díaz, Mariángeles; Racedo, Silvia M; De Antoni, Graciela; Urdaci, María C; Serradell, María de los Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacilli are generally regarded as safe; however, certain strains have been associated with cases of infection. Our workgroup has already assessed many functional properties of Lactobacillus kefiri, but parameters regarding safety must be studied before calling them probiotics. In this work, safety aspects and antimicrobial activity of L. kefiri strains were studied. None of the L. kefiri strains tested caused α- or β-hemolysis. All the strains were susceptible to tetracycline, clindamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, erythromycin, kanamycin, and gentamicin; meanwhile, two strains were resistant to chloramphenicol. On the other hand, all L. kefiri strains were able to inhibit both Gram(+) and Gram(-) pathogens. Regarding the in vitro results, L. kefiri CIDCA 8348 was selected to perform in vivo studies. Mice treated daily with an oral dose of 10(8) CFU during 21 days showed no signs of pain, lethargy, dehydration, or diarrhea, and the histological studies were consistent with those findings. Moreover, no differences in proinflammatory cytokines secretion were observed between treated and control mice. No translocation of microorganisms to blood, spleen, or liver was observed. Regarding these findings, L. kefiri CIDCA 8348 is a microorganism isolated from a dairy product with a great potential as probiotic for human or animal use.

  13. Staphylokinase has distinct modes of interaction with antimicrobial peptides, modulating its plasminogen-activation properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Leonard T.; Vogel, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylokinase (Sak) is a plasminogen activator protein that is secreted by many Staphylococcus aureus strains. Sak also offers protection by binding and inhibiting specific antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here, we evaluate Sak as a more general interaction partner for AMPs. Studies with melittin, mCRAMP, tritrpticin and bovine lactoferricin indicate that the truncation of the first ten residues of Sak (SakΔN10), which occurs in vivo and uncovers important residues in a bulge region, improves its affinity for AMPs. Melittin and mCRAMP have a lower affinity for SakΔN10, and in docking studies, they bind to the N-terminal segment and bulge region of SakΔN10. By comparison, lactoferricin and tritrpticin form moderately high affinity 1:1 complexes with SakΔN10 and their cationic residues form several electrostatic interactions with the protein’s α-helix. Overall, our work identifies two distinct AMP binding surfaces on SakΔN10 whose occupation would lead to either inhibition or promotion of its plasminogen activating properties. PMID:27554435

  14. Staphylococcus haemolyticus as a potential producer of biosurfactants with antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and synergistic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, C C; Santos-Gandelman, J F; Barros, E M; Alvarez, V M; Laport, M S; Giambiagi-deMarval, M

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus haemolyticus is an opportunistic human pathogen that usually gains entry into the host tissue in association with medical device contamination. Biofilm formation is a key factor for the establishment of this bacterium and its arrangement and dynamics can be influenced by the synthesis of biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are structurally diverse amphiphilic molecules with versatile biotechnological applications, but information on their production by staphylococci is still scarce. In this work, two Staph. haemolyticus strains, showing high potential for biosurfactant production - as observed by four complementary methods - were investigated. Biosurfactant extracts were produced and studied for their capacity to inhibit the growth and biofilm formation by other bacterial human pathogens. The biosurfactant produced by the one of the strains inhibited the growth of most bacteria tested and subinhibitory concentrations of the biosurfactant were able to decrease biofilm formation and showed synergistic effects with tetracycline. Because these results were also positive when the biosurfactants were tested against the producing strains, it is likely that biosurfactant production by Staph. haemolyticus may be an unexplored virulence factor, important for competition and biofilm formation by the bacterium, in addition to the biotechnological potential. This work is the first to show the production of biosurfactants by Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains. Extracts showed antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and synergistic properties against a variety of relevant human pathogens, including the producing strains. In addition to the biotechnological potential, biosurfactants produced by Staph. haemolyticus are potentially undescribed virulence determinants in their producing strains. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. The Antimicrobial Properties of Silver Nanoparticles in Bacillus subtilis Are Mediated by Released Ag+ Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Lin, Kuen-Song; Ke, Wan-Ju; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Chiang, Chao-Lung; Tzou, Dong-Ying; Liu, Shih-Tung

    2015-01-01

    The superior antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are well-documented, but the exact mechanisms underlying Ag-NP microbial toxicity remain the subject of intense debate. Here, we show that Ag-NP concentrations as low as 10 ppm exert significant toxicity against Bacillus subtilis, a beneficial bacterium ubiquitous in the soil. Growth arrest and chromosomal DNA degradation were observed, and flow cytometric quantification of propidium iodide (PI) staining also revealed that Ag-NP concentrations of 25 ppm and above increased membrane permeability. RedoxSensor content analysis and Phag-GFP expression analysis further indicated that reductase activity and cytosolic protein expression decreased in B. subtilis cells treated with 10–50 ppm of Ag NPs. We conducted X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analyses to directly clarify the valence and fine structure of Ag atoms in B. subtilis cells placed in contact with Ag NPs. The results confirmed the Ag species in Ag NP-treated B. subtilis cells as Ag2O, indicating that Ag-NP toxicity is likely mediated by released Ag+ ions from Ag NPs, which penetrate bacterial cells and are subsequently oxidized intracellularly to Ag2O. These findings provide conclusive evidence for the role of Ag+ ions in Ag-NP microbial toxicity, and suggest that the impact of inappropriately disposed Ag NPs to soil and water ecosystems may warrant further investigation. PMID:26669836

  16. Physicochemical properties, antimicrobial activity and oil release of fish gelatin films incorporated with cinnamon essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiulin Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin gelatin films incorporated with various concentrations of cinnamon essential oil (CEO were prepared and characterized. The results showed that tensile strength (TS, elongation at break (EAB, and water content (WC of the gelatin based film decreased with the increasing concentrations of CEO, but water vapor permeability (WVP increased. Addition of CEO improved light barrier property of the film. The Scanning electron microscope (SEM showed that the heterogeneous surface and porous formation appeared in gelatin-CEO films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses (FTIR-ATR spectra indicated the interactions existed between gelatin and CEO. The gelatin-CEO films exhibited good inhibitory effects against the tested microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, and Paecilomyces varioti and their antifungal activity seemed to be more effective than the resistance to bacterial growth. In vitro release studies showed an initial burst effect of CEO release and that subsequently slowed down at 40 °C, but the initial burst release was not obvious at 4 °C. The obtained results suggested that incorporation of CEO as a natural antimicrobial agent into gelatin film has potential for developing as active food packaging.

  17. Diclofenac-Based Hydrazones and Spirothiazolidinones: Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabalkanlı, Ayşe; Cihan-Üstündağ, Gökçe; Naesens, Lieve; Mataracı-Kara, Emel; Nassozi, Mebble; Çapan, Gültaze

    2017-05-01

    We report here the synthesis, structural characterization, and biological evaluation of novel diclofenac-based hydrazone (4a-f) and spirothiazolidinone (5a-f, 6a-f) derivatives designed as potential antimicrobial agents. The compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antiviral activity against a wide spectrum of DNA and RNA viruses. They were further screened in vitro against different strains of bacteria and fungi. The hydrazone derivatives, 4a and 4c-f, were found to be active against herpesviruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, and HSV-1 TK - ), vaccinia virus, and Coxsackie B4 virus, with EC 50 values between 6.6 µg/mL and 14.7 μg/mL, and the selectivity index values were greater than 10 for 4a and 4f. The newly synthesized compounds (4-6) were inactive against the bacterial and the fungal strains tested, at levels below 2500, 1250, or 625 μg/mL. Interestingly, the key intermediate 3 with a free hydrazide moiety displayed antifungal properties against Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis at MIC values of 4.88 µg/mL and 78.12 μg/mL, respectively. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Physicochemical, antioxidant, DNA cleaving properties and antimicrobial activity of fisetin-copper chelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łodyga-Chruscińska, Elżbieta; Pilo, Maria; Zucca, Antonio; Garribba, Eugenio; Klewicka, Elżbieta; Rowińska-Żyrek, Magdalena; Symonowicz, Marzena; Chrusciński, Longin; Cheshchevik, Vitalij T

    2018-03-01

    Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) metal chelates are of interest as this plant polyphenol has revealed broad prospects for its use as natural medicine in the treatment of various diseases. Metal interactions may change or enhance fisetin biological properties so understanding fisetin metal chelation is important for its application not only in medicine but also as a food additive in nutritional supplements. This work was aimed to determine and characterize copper complexes formed in different pH range at applying various metal/ligand ratios. Fisetin and Cu(II)-fisetin complexes were characterized by potentiometric titrations, UV-Vis (Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy), EPR, ESI-MS, FTIR and cyclic voltammetry. Their effects on DNA were investigated by using circular dichroism, spectrofluorimetry and gel electrophoresis methods. The copper complex with the ratio of Cu(II)/fisetin 1/2 exhibited significant DNA cleavage activity, followed by complete degradation of DNA. The influence of copper(II) ions on antioxidant activity of fisetin in vitro has been studied using DPPH, ABTS and mitochondrial assays. The results have pointed out that fisetin or copper complexes can behave both as antioxidants or pro-oxidants. Antimicrobial activity of the compounds has been investigated towards several bacteria and fungi. The copper complex of Cu(II)/fisetin 1/2 ratio showed higher antagonistic activity against bacteria comparing to the ligand and it revealed a promising antifungal activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Antimicrobial Properties of Silver Nanoparticles in Bacillus subtilis Are Mediated by Released Ag+ Ions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Huang Hsueh

    Full Text Available The superior antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are well-documented, but the exact mechanisms underlying Ag-NP microbial toxicity remain the subject of intense debate. Here, we show that Ag-NP concentrations as low as 10 ppm exert significant toxicity against Bacillus subtilis, a beneficial bacterium ubiquitous in the soil. Growth arrest and chromosomal DNA degradation were observed, and flow cytometric quantification of propidium iodide (PI staining also revealed that Ag-NP concentrations of 25 ppm and above increased membrane permeability. RedoxSensor content analysis and Phag-GFP expression analysis further indicated that reductase activity and cytosolic protein expression decreased in B. subtilis cells treated with 10-50 ppm of Ag NPs. We conducted X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS analyses to directly clarify the valence and fine structure of Ag atoms in B. subtilis cells placed in contact with Ag NPs. The results confirmed the Ag species in Ag NP-treated B. subtilis cells as Ag2O, indicating that Ag-NP toxicity is likely mediated by released Ag+ ions from Ag NPs, which penetrate bacterial cells and are subsequently oxidized intracellularly to Ag2O. These findings provide conclusive evidence for the role of Ag+ ions in Ag-NP microbial toxicity, and suggest that the impact of inappropriately disposed Ag NPs to soil and water ecosystems may warrant further investigation.

  20. Safety Characterization and Antimicrobial Properties of Kefir-Isolated Lactobacillus kefiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Carasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli are generally regarded as safe; however, certain strains have been associated with cases of infection. Our workgroup has already assessed many functional properties of Lactobacillus kefiri, but parameters regarding safety must be studied before calling them probiotics. In this work, safety aspects and antimicrobial activity of L. kefiri strains were studied. None of the L. kefiri strains tested caused α- or β-hemolysis. All the strains were susceptible to tetracycline, clindamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, erythromycin, kanamycin, and gentamicin; meanwhile, two strains were resistant to chloramphenicol. On the other hand, all L. kefiri strains were able to inhibit both Gram(+ and Gram(− pathogens. Regarding the in vitro results, L. kefiri CIDCA 8348 was selected to perform in vivo studies. Mice treated daily with an oral dose of 108 CFU during 21 days showed no signs of pain, lethargy, dehydration, or diarrhea, and the histological studies were consistent with those findings. Moreover, no differences in proinflammatory cytokines secretion were observed between treated and control mice. No translocation of microorganisms to blood, spleen, or liver was observed. Regarding these findings, L. kefiri CIDCA 8348 is a microorganism isolated from a dairy product with a great potential as probiotic for human or animal use.

  1. Preparation of Ag/HBP/PAN Nanofiber Web and Its Antimicrobial and Filtration Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Rong Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To widen the application of nanofibers web in the field of medical health materials, a new Ag/amino-terminated hyperbranched polymer (HBP/polyacrylonitrile (PAN nanofiber web with excellent antimicrobial activity and filtration property was produced with Ag/HBP dispersion solution and PAN nanofiber. Ag/HBP dispersion solution was prepared with HBP as reducer and stabilizer, and Ag/HBP/PAN nanofiber was prepared by modifying electrospun PAN nanofiber with Ag/HBP aqueous solution. The characterization results showed that spherical Ag nanoparticles were prepared and they had a narrow distribution in HBP aqueous solution. The results of Ag/HBP/PAN nanofiber characterized with SEM and EDS showed that the content of silver nanoparticles on the surface of PAN nanofiber was on the increase when the treating temperature rose. The bacterial reduction rates of HBP-treated PAN nanofiber against S. aureus and E. coli were about 89%, while those of the Ag/HBP/PAN nanofiber against S. aureus and E. coli were 99.9% and 99.96%, respectively, due to the cooperative effects from the amino groups in HBP and Ag nanoparticles. Moreover, the small pores and high porosity in Ag/HBP/PAN nanofiber web resulted in high filtration efficiency (99.9% for removing smaller particles (0.1 μm~0.7 μm, which was much higher than that of the gauze mask.

  2. Surface properties and color stability of an acrylic resin combined with an antimicrobial polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pero

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of stomatitis is common since the surface characteristics of the dentures may act as reservoirs for microorganisms and have the potential to support biofilm formation. PURPOSE: To assess the surface properties (wettability/roughness and color stability of an acrylic resin combined with the antimicrobial polymer poly (2-tert-butylaminoethyl methacrylate (PTBAEMA. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Thirty disc-shaped specimens of an acrylic resin (Lucitone 550 were divided into three groups: 0% (control; 5% and 10% PTBAEMA. Surface roughness values (Ra were measured using a profilometer and wettability was determined through contact angle measurements using a goniometer and deionized water as a test liquid. Color data were measured with a spectrophotometer. Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test were used to compare roughness values. Wettability data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. Color data were compared using the Student's t-test and ∆E values were classified according to the National Bureau of Standards (NBS. All statistical analyses were performed considering α=.05. RESULT: Significant differences (p<.05 were detected among the groups for roughness, wettability and color stability. According to the NBS, the color changes obtained in the 5% and 10% PTBAEMA groups were "appreciable" and "much appreciable", respectively. CONCLUSION: It could be concluded that PTBAEMA incorporation in an acrylic resin increased the roughness and wettability of surfaces and produced color changes with clinical relevance.

  3. An evidence of C16 fatty acid methyl esters extracted from microalga for effective antimicrobial and antioxidant property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodbasha, MubarakAli; Edachery, Baldev; Nooruddin, Thajuddin; Lee, Sang-Yul; Kim, Jung-Wan

    2018-02-01

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) derived from lipids of microalgae is known to have wide bio-functional materials including antimicrobials. FAME is an ideal super-curator and superior anti-pathogenic. The present study evaluated the efficiency of FAME extracted from microalgae Scenedesmus intermedius as an antimicrobial agent against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Bacillus cereus) Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria and Fungi (Aspergillus parasiticus and Candida albicans). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the gram negative bacteria was determined as 12-24 μg mL -1 , whereas MIC for gram positive bacteria was 24-48 μg mL -1 . MIC for the fungi was as high as 60-192 μg mL -1 . The FAME profiles determined by gas chromatography showed 18 methyl esters. Among them, pharmacologically active FAME such as palmitic acid methyl ester (C16:0) was detected at high percentage (23.08%), which accounted for the bioactivity. FAME obtained in this study exhibited a strong antimicrobial activity at the lowest MIC than those of recent reports. This result clearly indicated that FAME of S. intermedius has a strong antimicrobial and antioxidant property and that could be used as an effective resource against microbial diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. The antimicrobial assessment of some Nigerian herbal soap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbeneghu, O A

    2013-01-01

    Twenty samples of herbal soaps were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeast of significance in skin infections with the aim to provide some justification for the continued use of the soaps in the management of superficial skin infections. All the soaps were found to possess antimicrobial activity in a concentration and organism dependent manner. The soaps were more active against the gram positive organisms than the Gram negative organisms while none of the soaps had activity against the tested yeasts. Only 35% of the soaps were appropriately packaged with adequate directions for use and storage. The study showed that the tested soaps possessed antimicrobial properties and they can contribute to the treatment and management of skin infections caused by bacteria if well prepared with the appropriate plant materials to target specific causative organisms and packaged with appropriate directions for use and storage.

  5. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Properties as Well as the Phenolic Content of the Extract from Hancornia speciosa Gomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uilson P Santos

    Full Text Available Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae is a fruit tree, popularly known as mangabeira, and it is widely distributed throughout Brazil. Several parts of the plant are used in folk medicine, and the leaf and bark extracts have anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial properties. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of the ethanolic extract of Hancornia speciosa leaves (EEHS and its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities as well as the mechanisms involved in cell death. The chemical compounds were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity of the EEHS was investigated using the method that involves the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals as well as the inhibition of oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation induced by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane in human erythrocytes. The antimicrobial activity was determined by calculating the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and zone of inhibition. Kasumi-1 leukemic cells were used to assess the cytotoxic activity and mechanisms involved in cell death promoted by the EEHS. The chemical compounds identified were quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, rutin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol-rutinoside, and catechin-pentoside. The EEHS demonstrated antioxidant activity via the sequestration of free radicals, inhibition of hemolysis, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes incubated with an oxidizing agent. The antimicrobial activity was observed against American Type Culture Collection (ATCC and hospital strains of bacteria and fungi, filamentous fungi and dermatophytes. The cytotoxic activity of the EEHS was induced by apoptosis, reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and activation of cathepsins. Together, these results indicate the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids

  6. Characterization and Antimicrobial Properties of Gamma Irradiated Starch/ Chitosan/ Ag Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, S.A.; Hassan, M.S.; Ali, N.M.

    2016-01-01

    Composites based on different ratios of starch and chitosan, in the presence of a constant amount of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), were prepared in the form of thin films by casting solutions. The gamma irradiated composites were characterized in terms of solution viscosity, FTIR, XRD, TGA and SEM. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the prepared composites against different microorganisms was investigated. The results showed that the increase of irradiation dose more than 5 kGy leads to a decrease in the composite solution viscosity, the overall crystallinity, thermal stability and antimicrobial activity of the prepared films. The prepared starch based composites were applied to cotton samples to demonstrate the antimicrobial finishing. Acceptable antimicrobial results against both the tested pathogenic bacteria and in burial test were obtained.

  7. Mechanical, barrier and antimicrobial properties of biodegradable poly(e-caprolactone) nanocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makhado, E

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available the potential to develop improved barrier packaging materials; however, increasing the antimicrobial activity on composite surfaces is needed for the development of PCL-based advanced packaging materials....

  8. Antimicrobial Peptide Trichokonin VI-Induced Alterations in the Morphological and Nanomechanical Properties of Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Hai-Nan; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Song, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Shi, Mei; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhao, Xian; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are promising alternative antimicrobial agents compared to conventional antibiotics. Understanding the mode of action is important for their further application. We examined the interaction between trichokonin VI, a peptaibol isolated from Trichoderma pseudokoningii, and Bacillus subtilis, a representative Gram-positive bacterium. Trichokonin VI was effective against B. subtilis with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 25 µM. Trichokonin VI exhibited a concentration- ...

  9. Antimicrobial Properties of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Therapeutic Potential for Cystic Fibrosis Infection, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan T. Sutton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is a genetic disease in which the battle between pulmonary infection and inflammation becomes the major cause of morbidity and mortality. We have previously shown that human MSCs (hMSCs decrease inflammation and infection in the in vivo murine model of CF. The studies in this paper focus on the specificity of the hMSC antimicrobial effectiveness using Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram negative bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive bacteria. Our studies show that hMSCs secrete bioactive molecules which are antimicrobial in vitro against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia, impacting the rate of bacterial growth and transition into colony forming units regardless of the pathogen. Further, we show that the hMSCs have the capacity to enhance antibiotic sensitivity, improving the capacity to kill bacteria. We present data which suggests that the antimicrobial effectiveness is associated with the capacity to slow bacterial growth and the ability of the hMSCs to secrete the antimicrobial peptide LL-37. Lastly, our studies demonstrate that the tissue origin of the hMSCs (bone marrow or adipose tissue derived, the presence of functional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR: human, Cftr: mouse activity, and response to effector cytokines can impact both hMSC phenotype and antimicrobial potency and efficacy. These studies demonstrate, the unique capacity of the hMSCs to manage different pathogens and the significance of their phenotype in both the antimicrobial and antibiotic enhancing activities.

  10. As-CATH1-6, novel cathelicidins with potent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties from Alligator sinensis, play pivotal roles in host antimicrobial immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Cai, Shasha; Qiao, Xue; Wu, Mali; Guo, Zhilai; Wang, Renping; Kuang, Yi-Qun; Yu, Haining; Wang, Yipeng

    2017-08-10

    Crocodilians are regarded as possessing a powerful immune system. However, the composition and action of the crocodilian immune system have remained unclear until now. Cathelicidins, the principal family of host defense peptides, play pivotal roles in vertebrate immune defense against microbial invasions. However, cathelicidins from crocodilians have not been extensively studied to date. In the present study, six novel cathelicidins (As-CATH1-6) were identified and characterized from the endangered Chinese alligator ( Alligator sinensis ). As-CATH1-6 exhibit no sequence similarity with any of the known cathelicidins. Structure analysis indicated that As-CATH1-3 adopt a random coil secondary conformation, whereas As-CATH4-6 were predicted to mainly adopt an amphipathic α-helix conformation. Among them, As-CATH4-6 exhibited potent, broad-spectrum and rapid antimicrobial activity by inducing the disruption of cell membrane integrity. They also exhibited strong ability to prevent the formation of bacterial biofilms and eradicate preformed biofilms. Furthermore, As-CATH4-6 exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in mouse peritoneal macrophages. They directly neutralized LPS toxicity and therefore inhibited the binding of LPS to the TLR4 receptor and the subsequent activation of inflammatory response pathways. In a peritonitis mice model, As-CATH2-6 provided effective protection against bacterial infection through enhanced immune cell recruitment. In the host Chinese alligator, As-CATH1-6 are mainly expressed in immune organs and epithelial tissues. Bacterial infection significantly enhances their expression, which implies an important role in host anti-infective response. Taken together, the diversity and multiple functions of As-CATH1-6 partially reveal the powerful immune system of the Chinese alligator. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland

  11. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of traditional green and purple "Napoletano" basil cultivars (Ocimum basilicum L.) from Campania region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Campiglia, Pietro; Ciampaglia, Roberto; Izzo, Luana; Novellino, Ettore

    2017-09-01

    The present study is the first effort to a comprehensive evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of 'Napoletano' green and purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) varieties. The results obtained revealed that the basil sample extracts were characterised by a generally higher polyphenolic concentration than those reported elsewhere for other more conventional and geographically different basil varieties. Napoletano purple basil revealed higher radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing capacities than the green one probably due to its relevant anthocyanin content. As regards the antimicrobial properties, both basil varieties exhibited activity against a broad spectrum of food-borne and human pathogenic micro-organisms, revealing not only a moderate to high natural preserving capacity, but also potentially beneficial influence on human health. Results indicated Napoletano green and purple basils as a good source of antioxidants of potential nutraceutical interest.

  12. Nucleation and Growth of Ordered Arrays of Silver Nanoparticles on Peptide Nanofibers: Hybrid Nanostructures with Antimicrobial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Elena; Sleep, Eduard; Rubert Pérez, Charles M; Lee, Sungsoo S; Tantakitti, Faifan; Stupp, Samuel I

    2016-05-04

    Silver nanoparticles have been of great interest as plasmonic substrates for sensing and imaging, catalysts, or antimicrobial systems. Their physical properties are strongly dependent on parameters that remain challenging to control such as size, chemical composition, and spatial distribution. We report here on supramolecular assemblies of a novel peptide amphiphile containing aldehyde functionality in order to reduce silver ions and subsequently nucleate silver metal nanoparticles in water. This system spontaneously generates monodisperse silver particles at fairly regular distances along the length of the filamentous organic assemblies. The metal-organic hybrid structures exhibited antimicrobial activity and significantly less toxicity toward eukaryotic cells. Metallized organic nanofibers of the type described here offer the possibility to create hydrogels, which integrate the useful functions of silver nanoparticles with controllable metallic content.

  13. Antimicrobial, antiparasitic and anticancer properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa (L.) and its phytochemicals: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sherif T S; Berchová, Kateřina; Šudomová, Miroslava

    In the last few decades, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae; H. sabdariffa) has gained much attention in research field because of its potentially useful bioactivity as well as a great safety and tolerability. For decades, microbial, parasitic and cancer diseases remain a serious threat to human health and animals as well. To treat such diseases, a search for new sources such as plants that provide various bioactive compounds useful in the treatment of several physiological conditions is urgently needed, since most of the drugs currently used in the therapy have several undesirable side effects, toxicity, and drug resistance. In this paper, we aim to present an updated overview of in vitro and in vivo studies that show the significant therapeutic properties of the crude extracts and phytochemicals derived from H. sabdariffa as antimicrobial, antiparasitic, and anticancer agents. The future directions of the use of H. sabdariffa in clinical trials will be discussed. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. antimicrobial agents cancer preventive agents antiparasitic drugs natural products.

  14. Physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of copaiba oil: implications on product quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Renata G; Barros, Francisco M; Apel, Miriam A; Poser, Gilsane L von; Andriolli, Jo O L; Filho, Pedro C Campos; Sousa, Dhierlate F; Lobo, Ivon P; Conceiç O, Aline O

    2015-01-01

    The copaiba oil is a common natural product used in cosmetic industry and as a nutraceutical product. However, lack of quality control and scarce knowledge about its antimicrobial activity is a point of concern. The proposal of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties and the antimicrobial activity of five commercial brands of copaiba oil. Acidity and ester index, refractory index, solubility in alcohol, and thin layer chromatography were performed to verify the physicochemical properties of five commercial copaiba oils sold in local pharmacies. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD/ESI-Q-TOF-MS) was used to investigate diterpene acids while the volatile compounds were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Antibacterial and antifungal activities were also evaluated by agar diffusion technique; and minimal inhibitory concentration and maximal bactericidal concentration were defined for each sample and bacteria. The physical-chemical analysis revealed heterogeneity between all samples analysed. The A1 sample showed characteristics of copaiba oil and was mainly composed by hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (29.95% β-bisabolene, 25.65% Z-α-bergamotene and 10.27% β-cariophyllene). Among diterpene acids, the UPLCDAD/ESI-Q-TOF-MS data are compatible with presence of copalic and/or kolavenic acid (m/z 305 [M + H]+). Candida albicans was sensitive to almost all samples at high concentration and Saccaromyces. Cerevisiae showed sensitivity to A1 sample at 100 mg/mL. Although variable, all samples showed antibacterial activity. Significant activity was seen for A3 (19.0 ±0 and 15.6 ±0.5 mm), A4 (16.6 ±0.5 and 15.6 ±0 mm), and A5 (17.1 ±0 and 17.1 ±0 mm) on Staphylococcus saprophyticus and S. aureus, respectively. All samples were active against Klebsiella pneumoniae showing ≥15 mm diameter halo inhibition; and only A

  15. A novel coping metal material CoCrCu alloy fabricated by selective laser melting with antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Ling [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Memarzadeh, Kaveh [Institute of Dentistry, Barts and The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Newark Street, London E1 2AT (United Kingdom); Zhang, Shuyuan; Sun, Ziqing; Yang, Chunguang [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Ren, Guogang [University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Allaker, Robert P., E-mail: r.p.allaker@qmul.ac.uk [Institute of Dentistry, Barts and The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Newark Street, London E1 2AT (United Kingdom); Yang, Ke, E-mail: kyang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to fabricate a novel coping metal CoCrCu alloy using a selective laser melting (SLM) technique with antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities and to investigate its microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Methods: Novel CoCrCu alloy was fabricated using SLM from a mixture of commercial CoCr based alloy and elemental Cu powders. SLM CoCr without Cu served as control. Antibacterial activity was analyzed using standard antimicrobial tests, and antibiofilm properties were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscope. Cu distribution and microstructure were determined using scanning electron microscope, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by potential dynamic polarization and biocompatibility measured using an MTT assay. Results: SLM CoCrCu alloys were found to be bactericidal and able to inhibit biofilm formation. Other factors such as microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility were similar to those of SLM CoCr alloys. Significance: The addition of appropriate amounts of Cu not only maintains normal beneficial properties of CoCr based alloys, but also provides SLM CoCrCu alloys with excellent antibacterial and antibiofilm capabilities. This material has the potential to be used as a coping metal for dental applications. - Highlights: • Novel CoCrCu alloys were fabricated by using selective laser melting (SLM). • SLM CoCrCu alloys showed satisfied antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities. • SLM CoCrCu alloys have no cytotoxic effect on normal cells. • Other properties of SLM CoCrCu alloys were similar to SLM CoCr alloys. • SLM CoCrCu alloys have the potential to be used as coping metals.

  16. A novel coping metal material CoCrCu alloy fabricated by selective laser melting with antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Ling; Memarzadeh, Kaveh; Zhang, Shuyuan; Sun, Ziqing; Yang, Chunguang; Ren, Guogang; Allaker, Robert P.; Yang, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to fabricate a novel coping metal CoCrCu alloy using a selective laser melting (SLM) technique with antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities and to investigate its microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Methods: Novel CoCrCu alloy was fabricated using SLM from a mixture of commercial CoCr based alloy and elemental Cu powders. SLM CoCr without Cu served as control. Antibacterial activity was analyzed using standard antimicrobial tests, and antibiofilm properties were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscope. Cu distribution and microstructure were determined using scanning electron microscope, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by potential dynamic polarization and biocompatibility measured using an MTT assay. Results: SLM CoCrCu alloys were found to be bactericidal and able to inhibit biofilm formation. Other factors such as microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility were similar to those of SLM CoCr alloys. Significance: The addition of appropriate amounts of Cu not only maintains normal beneficial properties of CoCr based alloys, but also provides SLM CoCrCu alloys with excellent antibacterial and antibiofilm capabilities. This material has the potential to be used as a coping metal for dental applications. - Highlights: • Novel CoCrCu alloys were fabricated by using selective laser melting (SLM). • SLM CoCrCu alloys showed satisfied antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities. • SLM CoCrCu alloys have no cytotoxic effect on normal cells. • Other properties of SLM CoCrCu alloys were similar to SLM CoCr alloys. • SLM CoCrCu alloys have the potential to be used as coping metals.

  17. Discovery of Nanomolar Desmuramylpeptide Agonists of the Innate Immune Receptor Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization Domain-Containing Protein 2 (NOD2) Possessing Immunostimulatory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobec, Martina; Tomašič, Tihomir; Štimac, Adela; Frkanec, Ruža; Trontelj, Jurij; Anderluh, Marko; Mlinarič-Raščan, Irena; Jakopin, Žiga

    2018-04-12

    Muramyl dipeptide (MDP), a fragment of bacterial peptidoglycan, has long been known as the smallest fragment possessing adjuvant activity, on the basis of its agonistic action on the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2). There is a pressing need for novel adjuvants, and NOD2 agonists provide an untapped source of potential candidates. Here, we report the design, synthesis, and characterization of a series of novel acyl tripeptides. A pivotal structural element for molecular recognition by NOD2 has been identified, culminating in the discovery of compound 9, the most potent desmuramylpeptide NOD2 agonist to date. Compound 9 augmented pro-inflammatory cytokine release from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in synergy with lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, it was able to induce ovalbumin-specific IgG titers in a mouse model of adjuvancy. These findings provide deeper insights into the structural requirements of desmuramylpeptides for NOD2-activation and highlight the potential use of NOD2 agonists as adjuvants for vaccines.

  18. Equatorenes: synthesis and properties of chiral naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, and pyrene possessing bis(1-adamantyl) groups at the peri-position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Koji; Oyamada, Naohiro; Xia, Sheng; Kobayashi, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Maeda, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Uchimaru, Tadafumi; Kwon, Eunsang

    2013-11-06

    Chiral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing bis(1-adamantyl) groups at the peri-positions, named equatorenes, were synthesized in optically pure form starting from optically pure 4,5-bis(1-adamantyl)-8-methoxy-1-naphthol. A sequential Diels-Alder reaction of furan and arynes generated from 1,2-bromotriflates provided tricyclic and tetracyclic epoxides, and acid-catalyzed aromatization gave phenanthrol and chrysenol. Deoxygenation reactions involving the hydrogenolysis of triflates gave 1,8-bis(1-adamantyl)naphthalene, 1,10-bis(1-adamantyl)phenanthrene, and 1,12-bis(1-adamantyl)chrysene. 3,4-Bis(1-adamantyl)pyrene was synthesized from phenanthrol by Sonogashira coupling and Pt-catalyzed cyclization. Essentially no racemization occurred during the synthesis. X-ray analysis indicated the distorted naphthalene moiety possessing the peri-diadamantyl groups and the flat structure of the other benzene rings. UV-vis analysis of the equatorenes showed considerable redshifts compared with that of the corresponding achiral arenes. Electrochemical analysis of the naphthalene and pyrene indicated that the distortion decreased the highest occupied molecular orbital stability with no marked effect on the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy level, and the origin was discussed on the basis of calculation results.

  19. Completely green synthesis of dextrose reduced silver nanoparticles, its antimicrobial and sensing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Sneha; Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi S; George, Soney C; Jayachandran, V P; Lewu, Francis B; Songca, Sandile P; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Thomas, Sabu

    2014-06-15

    We herein report the green synthesis of highly monodispersed, water soluble, stable and smaller sized dextrose reduced gelatin capped-silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) via an eco-friendly, completely green method. The synthesis involves the use of silver nitrate, gelatin, dextrose and water as the silver precursor, stabilizing agent, reducing agent and solvent respectively. By varying the reaction time, the temporal evolution of the growth, optical, antimicrobial and sensing properties of the as-synthesised Ag-NPs were investigated. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The absorption maxima of the as-synthesized materials at different reaction time showed characteristic silver surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak. The as-synthesised Ag-NPs show better antibacterial efficacy than the antibiotics; ciproflaxin and imipenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 6 μg/mL, and better efficacy than imipenem against Escherichia coli with MIC of 10 μg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the as-synthesised Ag-NPs is 12.5 μg/mL. The sensitivity of the dextrose reduced gelatin-capped Ag-NPs towards hydrogen peroxide indicated that the sensor has a very good sensitivity and a linear response over wide concentration range of 10(-1)-10(-6)M H2O2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface Modification of Titanium Using Anodization to Enhance Antimicrobial Properties and Osseointegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sakshi

    Titanium and its alloys are frequently used in dental and orthopedic implants because they have good mechanical strength, chemical stability and biocompatibility. These properties can be further improved by surface treatments such as anodization that are able to grow thicker and produce crystalline oxide layers with controlled morphological and physico-chemical properties. Both anatase (A) and rutile (R) crystalline phases of titanium oxide have been shown to promote bioactivity and antimicrobial effects. In a previous study in our laboratories, four electrolyte mixtures were optimized to produce anodized layers on commercially pure titanium consisting of specific anatase and rutile oxide ratios at an endpoint forming voltage of 180 V. In the present study, changes that occurred in the anodized layers with increasing forming voltage including crystallinity, thickness, surface morphology, surface roughness, surface chemistry, fractal dimension, shear strength, and corrosion resistance were determined for each of these electrolytes. The results showed the crystallinity, thickness, surface pore sizes, and surface roughness increased with increasing forming voltage. Incorporation of phosphorus into the anodized layers was shown in phosphoric acid containing electrolytes at higher forming voltages. Decreases in corrosion resistance were also shown at higher forming voltages in each electrolyte due to increased pore interconnectivity within the anodized layers. In addition, the apatite inducing ability of anodized layers in SBF was examined for selected forming voltages in each electrolyte. Anodization in phosphoric acid containing electrolytes was shown to be more favorable for apatite formation. The streptococcal and MRSA bacterial attachment before and after UV treatments was determined for selected forming voltages in each electrolyte. Additionally, the killing efficacy after 10-minute pre-irradiation with UVA or UVC treatments was determined. UVA treatments showed

  1. Development of a New Monomer for the Synthesis of Intrinsic Antimicrobial Polymers with Enhanced Material Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodkorb, Florian; Fischer, Björn; Kalbfleisch, Katrin; Robers, Oliver; Braun, Carina; Dohlen, Sophia; Kreyenschmidt, Judith; Lorenz, Reinhard; Kreyenschmidt, Martin

    2015-08-24

    The use of biocidal compounds in polymers is steadily increasing because it is one solution to the need for safety and hygiene. It is possible to incorporate an antimicrobial moiety to a polymer. These polymers are referred to as intrinsic antimicrobial. The biocidal action results from contact of the polymer to the microorganisms, with no release of active molecules. This is particularly important in critical fields like food technology, medicine and ventilation technology, where migration or leaching is crucial and undesirable. The isomers N-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-ethenyl-benzenamine and N-(1,1-dimethyl-ethyl)-3-ethenyl-benzenamine (TBAMS) are novel (Co-)Monomers for intrinsic anti-microbial polymers. The secondary amines were prepared and polymerized to the corresponding water insoluble polymer. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed by the test method JIS Z 2801:2000. Investigations revealed a high antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with a reduction level of >4.5 log10 units. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of E. coli. in contact with the polymer indicates a bactericidal action which is caused by disruption of the bacteria cell membranes, leading to lysis of the cells.

  2. Antibrowning and antimicrobial properties of sodium acid sulfate in apple slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuetong; Sokorai, Kimberly J B; Liao, Ching-Hsing; Cooke, Peter; Zhang, Howard Q

    2009-01-01

    -cut industry currently uses antibrowning agents to prevent discoloration. However, the antibrowning solutions can become contaminated with human pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, and washing of apple slices with the contaminated solutions can result in the transfer of pathogens to the product. It would be ideal if an antibrowning compound prevented the proliferation of human pathogens in solutions and minimized the growth of pathogens during storage. The study was conducted to investigate antibrowning and antimicrobial properties of sodium acid sulfate (SAS) in comparison with other common antibrowning agents on Granny Smith apples. Results showed that among the antimicrobial agents we tested, SAS was the most effective in inhibiting browning and microbial growth for 14 d at 4 degrees C. However, SAS caused some skin discoloration of apple slices. Overall, SAS can potentially be used to inhibit tissue browning while reducing the microbial growth on apple slices. The information is useful for the fresh-cut produce industry to enhance microbial safety of fresh-cut apples while minimizing browning, thus increasing the consumption of the health benefiting fresh fruit.

  3. A novel coping metal material CoCrCu alloy fabricated by selective laser melting with antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ling; Memarzadeh, Kaveh; Zhang, Shuyuan; Sun, Ziqing; Yang, Chunguang; Ren, Guogang; Allaker, Robert P; Yang, Ke

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to fabricate a novel coping metal CoCrCu alloy using a selective laser melting (SLM) technique with antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities and to investigate its microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Novel CoCrCu alloy was fabricated using SLM from a mixture of commercial CoCr based alloy and elemental Cu powders. SLM CoCr without Cu served as control. Antibacterial activity was analyzed using standard antimicrobial tests, and antibiofilm properties were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscope. Cu distribution and microstructure were determined using scanning electron microscope, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by potential dynamic polarization and biocompatibility measured using an MTT assay. SLM CoCrCu alloys were found to be bactericidal and able to inhibit biofilm formation. Other factors such as microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility were similar to those of SLM CoCr alloys. The addition of appropriate amounts of Cu not only maintains normal beneficial properties of CoCr based alloys, but also provides SLM CoCrCu alloys with excellent antibacterial and antibiofilm capabilities. This material has the potential to be used as a coping metal for dental applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The water extract of Liuwei dihuang possesses multi-protective properties on neurons and muscle tissue against deficiency of survival motor neuron protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Ting; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Liang, Wei-Fang; Chang, Fang-Rong; Lo, Yi-Ching

    2017-10-15

    Deficiency of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, which is encoded by the SMN1 and SMN2 genes, induces widespread splicing defects mainly in spinal motor neurons, and leads to spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Currently, there is no effective treatment for SMA. Liuwei dihuang (LWDH), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, possesses multiple therapeutic benefits against various diseases via modulation of the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. Previously, we demonstrated water extract of LWDH (LWDH-WE) protects dopaminergic neurons and improves motor activity in models of Parkinson's disease. This study aimed to investigate the potential protection of LWDH-WE on SMN deficiency-induced neurodegeneration and muscle weakness. The effects of LWDH-WE on SMN deficiency-induced neurotoxicity and muscle atrophy were examined by using SMN-deficient NSC34 motor neuron-like cells and SMA-like mice, respectively. Inducible SMN-knockdown NSC34 motor neuron-like cells were used to mimic SMN-deficient condition. Doxycycline (1 µg/ml) was used to induce SMN deficiency in stable NSC34 cell line carrying SMN-specific shRNA. SMAΔ7 mice were used as a severe type of SMA mouse model. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Apoptotic cells and neurite length were observed by inverted microscope. Protein expressions were examined by western blots. Muscle strength of animals was evaluated by hind-limb suspension test. LWDH-WE significantly increased SMN protein level, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell viability of SMN-deficient NSC34 cells. LWDH-WE attenuated SMN deficiency-induced down-regulation of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and up-regulation of cytosolic cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3. Moreover, LWDH-WE prevented SMN deficiency-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth and activation of Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA)/ Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK2)/ phospho

  5. The Glycine-Alanine Dipeptide Repeat from C9orf72 Hexanucleotide Expansions Forms Toxic Amyloids Possessing Cell-to-Cell Transmission Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Jen; Jeng, U-Ser; Chiang, Ya-Ling; Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Chen, Yun-Ru

    2016-03-04

    Hexanucleotide expansions, GGGGCC, in the non-coding regions of the C9orf72 gene were found in major frontotemporal lobar dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (C9FTD/ALS). In addition to possible RNA toxicity, several dipeptide repeats (DPRs) are translated through repeat-associated non-ATG-initiated translation. The DPRs, including poly(GA), poly(GR), poly(GP), poly(PR), and poly(PA), were found in the brains and spinal cords of C9FTD/ALS patients. Among the DPRs, poly(GA) is highly susceptible to form cytoplasmic inclusions, which is a characteristic of C9FTD/ALS. To elucidate DPR aggregation, we used synthetic (GA)15 DPR as a model system to examine the aggregation and structural properties in vitro. We found that (GA)15 with 15 repeats fibrillates rapidly and ultimately forms flat, ribbon-type fibrils evidenced by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The fibrils are capable of amyloid dye binding and contain a characteristic cross-β sheet structure, as revealed by x-ray scattering. Furthermore, using neuroblastoma cells, we demonstrated the neurotoxicity and cell-to-cell transmission property of (GA)15 DPR. Overall, our results show the structural and toxicity properties of GA DPR to facilitate future DPR-related therapeutic development. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Influence of temperature and packaging type on quality parameters and antimicrobial properties during Yateí honey storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Alejandro MARTÍNEZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tetragonisca fiebrigi, is a bee of the subfamily Meliponidae traditionally known as Yateí. Its honey differs from the honey produced by Apis mellifera because it is less viscous, more acidic, has sweetness and particular aromas. It is important to know the behavior of yatei honey in different storage conditions, in order to preserve the characteristics of the honey and ensure the product as harmless. The objective was to determine the influence of temperature, packaging type and storage time of Yateí honey on antimicrobial properties, microbial (Total Mesophilic Aerobic and Mold and Yeast Count and physicochemical parameters (pH, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, acidity, moisture content and diastase, with methodology of national and international standards. The antimicrobial effect was variable against strains of the genus Staphylococcus aureus. The most significant microbiological quality levels were Mold and Yeast counts (> 102 CFU / g. The physicochemical parameters with the most significant values were acidity (to: 42.5 meq acid/kg honey, moisture content (to: 26% and HMF (to: 3.8mg/kg honey. Storage at refrigeration temperature maintained standard values close to Apis mellifera honey during 180 days; whereas at room temperature it was better to maintain antimicrobial power. No significant difference was found between plastic storage containers vs. glass.

  7. Antimicrobial Activity – The Most Important Property of Probiotic and Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Kos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of industrially important lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures and probiotic bacteria is the main subject of this review. This activity has been attributed to the production of metabolites such as organic acids (lactic and acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, diacetyl, acetaldehyde, acetoine, carbon dioxide, reuterin, reutericyclin and bacteriocins. The potential of using bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria, primarily used as biopreservatives, represents a perspective, alternative antimicrobial strategy for continuously increasing problem with antibiotic resistance. Another strategy in resolving this problem is an application of probiotics for different gastrointestinal and urogenital infection therapies.

  8. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of the Essential Oil of Myrtus communis L. against Clinical Strains of Mycobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Zanetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiological agent of tuberculosis. The World Health Organization has estimated that 8 million of people develop active TB every year and the situation is complicated by an increase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to drugs used in antitubercular therapy: MDR and XDR-TB. Myrtle leaf extracts, used as an antiseptic in Sardinian traditional medicine, have strong antibacterial activity as several investigations showed. In this study we investigated the antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Myrtus communis against clinical strains of M. tuberculosis and M. paratuberculosis.

  9. Antimicrobial, Rheological, and Thermal Properties of Plasticized Polylactide Films Incorporated with Essential Oils to Inhibit Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Jasim; Hiremath, Nikhil; Jacob, Harsha

    2016-02-01

    Polylactide (PLA) is the most mature biobased and biodegradable polymer. Due to its inherent brittleness, the polymer cannot be used as a packaging material without plasticizer. An attempt was made to develop antimicrobial plasticized PLA film by incorporating polyethylene glycol (PEG) and 3 essential oils (EO), namely cinnamon, garlic, and clove by solvent casting method. Physical, thermal, and rheological properties of those films were evaluated for practical applications whereas the antimicrobial properties were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter jejuni-pathogens related to poultry industry. Both PEG and EOs led to the formation of flexible PLA/PEG/EO films with significant drop in the glass transition temperature (Tg ), and mechanical property. Time-temperature superposition (TTS) principle was employed to melt rheology of EO-based films at selected temperature, and rheological moduli superimposed well in an extended frequency range. Among EOs, cinnamon and clove oil-based films (PLA/PEG/CIN and PLA/PEG/CLO) exhibited a complete zone of inhibition against C. jejuni at the maximum concentration (1.6 mL per 2 g PLA/PEG blend) whereas the garlic oil-based film (PLA/PEG/GAR) had the lowest activity. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Effect of bee pollen supplement on antimicrobial, chemical, rheological, sensorial properties and probiotic viability of fermented milk beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Yerlikaya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, effect of bee pollen supplement on antimicrobial, chemical, rheological, sensorial properties and probiotic viability of fermented milk beverages was studied. Bee pollens were added in the rate of 2.5 mg•mL-1 (B, 5 mg•mL-1 (C, 7.5 mg•mL-1 (D, 10 mg•mL-1 (E, and 20 mg•mL-1 (F. Control sample (A was not supplemented with bee pollen. Control and supplemented milk samples were fermented by a commercial ABT1 starter culture (Chr. Hansen, Hørsholm, Denmark containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La 5, Bifidobacterium animalis subs. lactis Bb 12, and Streptococcus thermophilus. While no antimicrobial impact was observed against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, P. fluorescens, P. aeruginosa and A. hydrophilia upto 7.5 mg•mL-1 pollen addition, addition between 10 mg•mL-1 to 20 mg•mL-1 resulted in activity, and positive effect only in inhibition rates against bacteria such as S. thyphimurium and E. coli. Bee pollen supplements has shown a positive effect on probiotic viability and occurred on increase apparent viscosity, but their effect on sensorial properties was negative. Furthermore an improvement with increasing concentration of pollen addition that yielded no negative effect on physicochemical properties was detected.

  11. Porous CS based membranes with improved antimicrobial properties for the treatment of infected wound in veterinary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonda-Turo, C.; Ruini, F.; Argentati, M.; Di Girolamo, N.; Robino, P.; Nebbia, P.; Ciardelli, G.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been given to the use of innovative solution for the treatment of infected wounds in animals. Current applied treatments are often un-effective leading to infection propagation and animal death. Novel engineered membranes based on chitosan (CS) can be prepared to combine local antimicrobial effect, high flexibility and easy manipulation. In this work, CS crosslinked porous membranes with improved antimicrobial properties were prepared via freeze-drying technique to promote wound healing and to reduce the bacterial proliferation in infected injuries. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gentamicin sulfate (GS) were incorporated into the CS matrices to impart antibacterial properties on a wild range of strains. CS based porous membranes were tested for their physicochemical, thermal, mechanical as well as swelling and degradation behavior at physiological condition. Additionally, GS release profile was investigated, showing a moderate burst effect in the first days followed by a decreasing release rate which it was maintained for at least 56 days. Moreover, porous membranes loaded with GS or AgNPs showed good bactericidal activity against both of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The bacterial strains used in this work were collected in chelonians after carapace injuries to better mimic the environment after trauma. - Highlights: • Innovative scaffolds for wound healing in veterinary applications • Novel engineered membranes based on chitosan with improved antibacterial properties • Highly flexible and versatile membranes for infected wounds

  12. Porous CS based membranes with improved antimicrobial properties for the treatment of infected wound in veterinary applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonda-Turo, C., E-mail: chiara.tondaturo@polito.it [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129, Turin (Italy); Ruini, F. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129, Turin (Italy); Argentati, M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129, Turin (Italy); Clinic for Exotic Animals, CVS, Via Sandro Giovannini 53, 00137 Rome (Italy); Di Girolamo, N. [Clinic for Exotic Animals, CVS, Via Sandro Giovannini 53, 00137 Rome (Italy); Robino, P.; Nebbia, P. [Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Turin, Largo Braccini 2, 10095 Grugliasco, Turin (Italy); Ciardelli, G. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129, Turin (Italy)

    2016-03-01

    Recently, much attention has been given to the use of innovative solution for the treatment of infected wounds in animals. Current applied treatments are often un-effective leading to infection propagation and animal death. Novel engineered membranes based on chitosan (CS) can be prepared to combine local antimicrobial effect, high flexibility and easy manipulation. In this work, CS crosslinked porous membranes with improved antimicrobial properties were prepared via freeze-drying technique to promote wound healing and to reduce the bacterial proliferation in infected injuries. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gentamicin sulfate (GS) were incorporated into the CS matrices to impart antibacterial properties on a wild range of strains. CS based porous membranes were tested for their physicochemical, thermal, mechanical as well as swelling and degradation behavior at physiological condition. Additionally, GS release profile was investigated, showing a moderate burst effect in the first days followed by a decreasing release rate which it was maintained for at least 56 days. Moreover, porous membranes loaded with GS or AgNPs showed good bactericidal activity against both of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The bacterial strains used in this work were collected in chelonians after carapace injuries to better mimic the environment after trauma. - Highlights: • Innovative scaffolds for wound healing in veterinary applications • Novel engineered membranes based on chitosan with improved antibacterial properties • Highly flexible and versatile membranes for infected wounds.

  13. The Effect of UV Aging on Antimicrobial and Mechanical Properties of PLA Films with Incorporated Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizielińska, Małgorzata; Kowalska, Urszula; Jarosz, Michał; Sumińska, Patrycja; Landercy, Nicolas; Duquesne, Emmanuel

    2018-04-18

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of accelerated UV-aging on the activity against chosen microorganisms and the mechanical properties of poly-lactic acid (PLA) films enhanced with ZnO nanoparticles. The pure PLA films and tri-layered PLAZnO1%/PLA/PLAZnO1% films of 150 µm thickness were extruded. The samples were treated with UV-A and Q-SUN irradiation. After irradiation the antimicrobial activity and mechanical properties of the films were analyzed. The results of the study demonstrated that PLA films did not inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus cereus , Escherichia coli , Bacillus atrophaeus , and Candida albicans cells. PLA films with incorporated zinc oxide nanoparticles decreased the number of analyzed microorganisms. Accelerated UV aging had no negative effect on the activity of the film containing nano-ZnO against Gram-positive bacteria, but it influenced the activity against Gram-negative cells and C. albicans . Q-SUN irradiation decreased the antimicrobial effect of films with incorporated nanoparticles against B. cereus . UV-A and Q-UV irradiation did not influence the mechanical properties of PLA films containing incorporated ZnO nanoparticles.

  14. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Moltkia petraea (Tratt.) Griseb. flower, leaf and stem infusions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Končić, M. Z.; Kremer, D.; Grúz, Jiří; Strnad, Miroslav; Biševac, G.; Kosalec, I.; Šamec, D.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.; Karlović, K.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 6 (2010), s. 1537-1542 ISSN 0278-6915 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Moltkia petraea * Antioxidant activity * Antimicrobial activity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2010

  15. Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Properties of Flavonoids from Heliotropium subulatum Exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bharat; Sharma, Ram A

    2015-01-01

    Heliotropium subulatum is an erect or procumbent perennial herb; leaves contain foliar trichomes and its resinous exudate is used in traditional medicine. The anti-inflammatory activity of dichloromethane fraction and isolated flavonoids was evaluated by using carrageenan and CFA-induced paw oedema models. Similarly, the disc diffusion and microdilution methods were used for the assessment of antimicrobial activity. Five isolated flavonoids were investigated for their antiinflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Eriodictyol demonstrated maximum anti-inflammatory activity (53.09%) at 30.0 mg/kg dose on 6(th) h and similarly, it inhibited the CFA-induced arthritis swelling (41.84%) with 30.0 mg/kg dose on 8(th) day respectively. As per disc diffusion and microdilution methods used for antimicrobial activity determination, the pinocembrin was found to be most active against Staphylococcus aureus (IZ=27±0.7 mm, 08 μg/ml dose) and Candida albicans (IZ=17±0.9 mm; 12 μg/ml dose). These investigated results revealed that the eriodictyol and pinocembrin showed significant anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Further studies which aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of these isolated flavonoids in the treatment of inflammations and various types of infections have been initiated.

  16. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Mentha longifolia (L. Huds. essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Nikšić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Present study describes the antimicrobial activity and free radical scavenging capacity (RSC of essential oil from Mentha longifolia (L. Huds. Aim of this study to investigate the quality, antimicrobial andantioxidant activity of wild species Mentha longifolia essential oil from Bosnia and Herzegovina.Methods: The chemical profi le of essential oil was evaluated by the means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and thin-layer chromatography (TLC. Antimicrobial activity was tested against 6bacterial strains. RSC was assessed by measuring the scavenging activity of essential oils on 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH.Results: The main constituents of the essential oil of M. longifoliae folium were oxygenated monoterpenes,piperitone oxide (63.58% and 1,8-cineole (12.03%. Essential oil exhibited very strong antibacterial activity.The most important antibacterial activity essential oil was expressed on Gram negative strains: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerginosa and Salmonella enterica. subsp.enterica serotype ABONY. Antioxidant activity was evaluated as a RSC. Investigated essential oil was able to reduce DPPH radicals into the neutral DPPHH form (IC50=10.5 μg/ml and this activity was dose –dependent.Conclusion: The study revealed signifi cant antimicrobial activity of the investigated essential oil. The examined oil exhibited high RSC, which was found to be in correlation to the content of mainly monoterpeneketones and aldehydes. These results indicate that essential oils could serve as safe antioxidant and antiseptic supplements in pharmaceuticals.

  17. Physical and antimicrobial properties of anise oil loaded nanoemulsions on the survival of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Osman Kadir; Özvural, Emin Burçin; Zhao, Qin; Huang, Qingrong; Chikindas, Michael; Gölükçü, Muharrem

    2016-07-15

    The purpose of this research was to investigate antimicrobial effects of nano emulsions of anise oil (AO) on the survival of common food borne pathogens, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Series of emulsions containing different level of anise oil as potential antimicrobial delivery systems were prepared. Antimicrobial activities of bulk anise oil and its emulsions (coarse and nano) was tested by the minimum inhibitory concentration and time kill assay. Our results showed that bulk anise oil reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes by 1.48 and 0.47 log cfu/ml respectively after 6 h of contact time. However, under the same condition anise oil nanoemulsion (AO75) reduced E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes count by 2.51 and 1.64 log cfu/ml, respectively. Physicochemical and microbial analyses indicated that both nano and coarse emulsions of anise oil showed better and long-term physicochemical stability and antimicrobial activity compared to bulk anise oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Histone 2B-GFP Label-Retaining Prostate Luminal Cells Possess Progenitor Cell Properties and Are Intrinsically Resistant to Castration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingxiao Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of slow-cycling luminal cells in the prostate has been suggested, but their identity and functional properties remain unknown. Using a bigenic mouse model to earmark, isolate, and characterize the quiescent stem-like cells, we identify a label-retaining cell (LRC population in the luminal cell layer as luminal progenitors. Molecular and biological characterizations show that these luminal LRCs are significantly enriched in the mouse proximal prostate, exhibit relative dormancy, display bipotency in both in vitro and in vivo assays, and express a stem/progenitor gene signature with resemblance to aggressive prostate cancer. Importantly, these LRCs, compared with bulk luminal cells, maintain a lower level of androgen receptor (AR expression and are less androgen dependent and also castration resistant in vivo. Finally, analysis of phenotypic markers reveals heterogeneity within the luminal progenitor cell pool. Our study establishes luminal LRCs as progenitors that may serve as a cellular origin for castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  19. Chilean berry Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit and leaves extracts with interesting antioxidant, antimicrobial and tyrosinase inhibitory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Bustos, Fernanda; Valenzuela, Ximena; López-Carballo, Gracia; Vilariño, Jose M; Galotto, Maria Jose

    2017-12-01

    The knowledge of the biological properties of fruits and leaves of murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) has been owned by native Chilean culture. The present study investigated the phenolic content, the antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-tyrosinase activities of different murta fruit and leaves extracts to approach their uses on future food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Extractions of murta fruit and leaves were carried out under water, ethanol and ethanol 50%. Phenolic content of these extracts was measured through Folin Ciocalteu test and the antioxidant power by four different antioxidant systems (ORAC, FRAP, DPPH and TEAC assays) owing to elucidate the main mechanism of antioxidant. Some flavonoids, such as rutin, isoquercitrin and quercitrin hydrate were identified and quantified through HPLC analysis. Antimicrobial activity was determined measuring minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values against Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes, and the effect of these extracts on L. monocytogenes was confirmed by flow cytometry. Highest contents of polyphenol compounds were obtained in hydroalcoholic extracts (28±1mggallicacid/g dry fruit, and 128±6mggallicacid/g dry leaves). The same trend was found for the values of biological properties: hydroalcoholic extracts showed the strongest activities. Leaves presented higher antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-tyrosinase properties than murta fruit. Highest antioxidant activity values according to ORAC, FRAP, TEAC and DPPH were 80±8mgTrolox/g, 70±2mgTrolox/g, 87±8mgTrolox/g and 110±12mgTrolox/g, respectively, for murta fruit samples, and 280±10mgTrolox/g, 192±4mgTrolox/g, 286±13mgTrolox/g and 361±13mgTrolox/g, respectively, for murta leaves. These activities were confirmed by HPLC analysis that revealed highest presence of analyzed compounds on leaves hydroalcoholic extract. Regarding to antimicrobial analysis, hydroalcoholic leaves extract presented the

  20. Effect of stereochemistry, chain length and sequence pattern on antimicrobial properties of short synthetic β-sheet forming peptide amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Zhan Yuin; Cheng, Junchi; Huang, Yuan; Xu, Kaijin; Ji, Zhongkang; Fan, Weimin; Yang, Yi Yan

    2014-01-01

    In the face of mounting global antibiotics resistance, the identification and development of membrane-active antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as an alternative class of antimicrobial agent have gained significant attention. The physical perturbation and disruption of microbial membranes by the AMPs have been proposed to be an effective means to overcome conventional mechanisms of drug resistance. Recently, we have reported the design of a series of short synthetic β-sheet folding peptide amphiphiles comprised of recurring (X1Y1X2Y2)n-NH2 sequences where X: hydrophobic amino acids, Y: cationic amino acids and n: number of repeat units. In efforts to investigate the effects of key parameters including stereochemistry, chain length and sequence pattern on antimicrobial effects, systematic d-amino acid substitutions of the lead peptides (IRIK)2-NH2 (IK8-all L) and (IRVK)3-NH2 (IK12-all L) were performed. It was found that the corresponding D-enantiomers exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities with minimal or no change in hemolytic activities, hence translating very high selectivity indices of 407.0 and >9.8 for IK8-all D and IK12-all D respectively. IK8-all D was also demonstrated to be stable to degradation by broad spectrum proteases trypsin and proteinase K. The membrane disrupting bactericidal properties of IK8-all D effectively prevented drug resistance development and inhibited the growth of various clinically isolated MRSA, VRE, Acinetobacter baumanni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cryptococcus. neoformans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Significant reduction in intracellular bacteria counts was also observed following treatment with IK8-all D in the Staphylococcus. aureus infected mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the d-amino acids substituted β-sheet forming peptide IK8-all D with its enhanced antimicrobial activities and improved protease stability, is a promising therapeutic candidate with potential to combat

  1. Antimicrobial activity of different hydroxyapatites; Atividade antimicrobiana de diferentes hidroxiapatitas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitosa, G.T.; Santos, M.V.B.; Barreto, H.M.; Osorio, L.R.; Osajima, J.A.; Silva Filho, E.C. da, E-mail: edsonfilho@ufpi.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Piaui (LIMAV/CCN/UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Natureza. Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Materiais Avancados

    2014-07-01

    Among the applications of ceramics in the technological context, hydroxyapatite (HAp) stands out in the scientific community due to chemical biocompatibility and molecular similarity to the structures of bone and dental tissues. Such features are added to the antimicrobial properties that this brings. This work aimed at the synthesis of hydroxyapatite by two different routes, hydrothermal (HD HAp) and co-precipitation (CP HAp), as well as verification of the antimicrobial properties of these through direct contact of the powders synthesized tests with Staphylococcus aureus (SA10) and Escherichia coli (EC7) bacteria. The materials was characterized by XRD, Raman and TEM, and Antimicrobial tests showed inhibitory efficacy of 97% and 9.5% of CP HAp for SA10 and EC7, respectively. The HD HAp had inhibitory effect of 95% and 0% for EC7 and SA10, respectively. The inhibitory effect on SA10 is based on the hydrophilicity that the material possesses. (author)

  2. Characterization of antimicrobial properties on the growth of S. aureus of novel renewable blends of gliadins and chitosan of interest in food packaging and coating applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Saiz, P; Lagaron, J M; Hernandez-Muñoz, P; Ocio, M J

    2008-05-10

    The biocide properties of chitosan-based materials have been known for many years. However, typical antimicrobial formulations of chitosan, mostly chitosonium salts, are known to be very water sensitive materials which may impair their use in many application fields such as food packaging or food coating applications. This first work reports on the development and characterization of the antimicrobial properties of novel fully renewable blends of chitosan with more water-resistant gliadin proteins isolated from wheat gluten. Chitosan release to the nutrient broth from a wide range of blends was studied making use of the ninhydrin method. The results indicated that both pure chitosan and its blends with gliadins presented significant antimicrobial activity, which increased with increasing the amount of chitosan in the composite formulation as expected. The gliadins-chitosan blends showed good transparency and film-forming properties and better water resistance than pure chitosan. The release tests revealed that dissolution of the biocide glucosamine groups, i.e. the chitosan water soluble fractions, also increased with the amount of chitosan present in the formulation. The release of these groups was for the first time directly correlated with the antimicrobial properties exhibited by the blends. Thus, incorporation of chitosan into an insoluble biopolymer matrix was revealed as a very feasible strategy to generate novel chitosan-based antimicrobial materials with potential advantages, for instance active food packaging applications.

  3. Formation, thermodynamic properties, microstructures and antimicrobial activity of mixed cationic/non-ionic surfactant microemulsions with isopropyl myristate as oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Soumik; Kundu, Kaushik; Das, Sajal; Poddar, Madhumita; Saha, Swapan K; Paul, Bidyut K

    2014-09-15

    Modification of the interface by blending of surfactants produces considerable changes in the elastic rigidity of the interface, which in turn affects the physicochemical properties of w/o microemulsions. Hence, it could be possible to tune the thermodynamic properties, microstructures and antimicrobial activity of microemulsions by using ionic/non-ionic mixed surfactants and polar lipophilic oil, which are widely used in biologically relevant systems. The present report was aimed at precise characterization of mixed cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether microemulsions stabilized in 1-pentanol (Pn) and isopropyl myristate at different physicochemical conditions by employing phase studies, the dilution method, conductivity, DLS, FTIR (with HOD probing) and (1)H NMR measurements. Further, microbiological activities at different compositions were examined against two bacterial strains Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli at 303 K. The formation of mixed surfactant microemulsions was found to be spontaneous at all compositions, whereas it was endothermic at equimolar composition. FTIR and (1)H NMR measurements showed the existence of bulk-like, bound and trapped water molecules in confined environments. Interestingly, composition dependence of both highest and lowest inhibitory effects was observed against the bacterial strains, whereas similar features in spontaneity of microemulsion formation were also evidenced. These results suggested a close relationship between thermodynamic stability and antimicrobial activities. Such studies on polar lipophilic oil derived mixed surfactant microemulsions have not been reported earlier. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Antimicrobial Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon/Silver Nanocomposite Thin Films Deposited on Textiles: Towards Smart Bandages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Juknius

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current work, a new antibacterial bandage was proposed where diamond-like carbon with silver nanoparticle (DLC:Ag-coated synthetic silk tissue was used as a building block. The DLC:Ag structure, the dimensions of nanoparticles, the silver concentration and the silver ion release were studied systematically employing scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Antimicrobial properties were investigated using microbiological tests (disk diffusion method and spread-plate technique. The DLC:Ag layer was stabilized on the surface of the bandage using a thin layer of medical grade gelatin and cellulose. Four different strains of Staphylococcus aureus extracted from humans’ and animals’ infected wounds were used. It is demonstrated that the efficiency of the Ag+ ion release to the aqueous media can be increased by further RF oxygen plasma etching of the nanocomposite. It was obtained that the best antibacterial properties were demonstrated by the plasma-processed DLC:Ag layer having a 3.12 at % Ag surface concentration with the dominating linear dimensions of nanoparticles being 23.7 nm. An extra protective layer made from cellulose and gelatin with agar contributed to the accumulation and efficient release of silver ions to the aqueous media, increasing bandage antimicrobial efficiency up to 50% as compared to the single DLC:Ag layer on textile.

  5. Silver nanoparticle-loaded chitosan-starch based films: Fabrication and evaluation of tensile, barrier and antimicrobial properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoksan, Rangrong; Chirachanchai, Suwabun

    2010-01-01

    The fabrication of silver nanoparticles was accomplished by γ-ray irradiation reduction of silver nitrate in a chitosan solution. The obtained nanoparticles were stable in the solution for more than six months, and showed the characteristic surface plasmon band at 411 nm as well as a positively charged surface with 40.4 ± 2.0 mV. The silver nanoparticles presented a spherical shape with an average size of 20-25 nm, as observed by TEM. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against E. coli, S. aureus and B. cereus of the silver nanoparticles dispersed in the γ-ray irradiated chitosan solution was 5.64 μg/mL. The silver nanoparticle-loaded chitosan-starch based films were prepared by a solution casting method. The incorporation of silver nanoparticles led to a slight improvement of the tensile and oxygen gas barrier properties of the polysaccharide-based films, with diminished water vapor/moisture barrier properties. In addition, silver nanoparticle-loaded films exhibited enhanced antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus and B. cereus. The results suggest that silver nanoparticle-loaded chitosan-starch based films can be feasibly used as antimicrobial materials for food packaging and/or biomedical applications.

  6. Antimicrobial Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon/Silver Nanocomposite Thin Films Deposited on Textiles: Towards Smart Bandages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juknius, Tadas; Ružauskas, Modestas; Tamulevičius, Tomas; Šiugždinienė, Rita; Juknienė, Indrė; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Jurkevičiūtė, Aušrinė; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2016-01-01

    In the current work, a new antibacterial bandage was proposed where diamond-like carbon with silver nanoparticle (DLC:Ag)-coated synthetic silk tissue was used as a building block. The DLC:Ag structure, the dimensions of nanoparticles, the silver concentration and the silver ion release were studied systematically employing scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Antimicrobial properties were investigated using microbiological tests (disk diffusion method and spread-plate technique). The DLC:Ag layer was stabilized on the surface of the bandage using a thin layer of medical grade gelatin and cellulose. Four different strains of Staphylococcus aureus extracted from humans’ and animals’ infected wounds were used. It is demonstrated that the efficiency of the Ag+ ion release to the aqueous media can be increased by further RF oxygen plasma etching of the nanocomposite. It was obtained that the best antibacterial properties were demonstrated by the plasma-processed DLC:Ag layer having a 3.12 at % Ag surface concentration with the dominating linear dimensions of nanoparticles being 23.7 nm. An extra protective layer made from cellulose and gelatin with agar contributed to the accumulation and efficient release of silver ions to the aqueous media, increasing bandage antimicrobial efficiency up to 50% as compared to the single DLC:Ag layer on textile. PMID:28773494

  7. Chitosan films incorporated with nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extract-loaded nanoliposomes: I. Physicochemical characterisation and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghju, Sara; Beigzadeh, Sara; Almasi, Hadi; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2016-07-17

    The objective of this study was to characterise and compare physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties of chitosan-based films, containing free or nanoencapsulated nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extract (NE) at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% w/w. Nanoliposomes were prepared using soy-lecithin by thin-film hydration and sonication method to generate an average size of 107-136 nm with 70% encapsulation efficiency. The information on FT-IR reflected that some new interaction have occurred between chitosan and nanoliposomes. Despite the increasing yellowness and decreasing whiteness indexes, the nanoliposomes incorporation improved the thermal properties and mechanical stiffness and caused to decrease water vapour permeability (WVP), moisture uptake and water solubility. The possible antimicrobial activity of the films containing NE-loaded nanoliposomes against Staphylococcus aureus was decreased in comparison to free NE-incorporated films, which could be due to the inhibition effect of the encapsulation that prevents the release of NE from the matrix.

  8. Antimicrobial properties of two novel peptides derived from Theobroma cacao osmotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcao, Loeni L; Silva-Werneck, Joseilde O; Ramos, Alessandra de R; Martins, Natalia F; Bresso, Emmanuel; Rodrigues, Magali A; Bemquerer, Marcelo P; Marcellino, Lucilia H

    2016-05-01

    The osmotin proteins of several plants display antifungal activity, which can play an important role in plant defense against diseases. Thus, this protein can be useful as a source for biotechnological strategies aiming to combat fungal diseases. In this work, we analyzed the antifungal activity of a cacao osmotin-like protein (TcOsm1) and of two osmotin-derived synthetic peptides with antimicrobial features, differing by five amino acids residues at the N-terminus. Antimicrobial tests showed that TcOsm1 expressed in Escherichia coli inhibits the growth of Moniliophthora perniciosa mycelium and Pichia pastoris X-33 in vitro. The TcOsm1-derived peptides, named Osm-pepA (H-RRLDRGGVWNLNVNPGTTGARVWARTK-NH2), located at R23-K49, and Osm-pepB (H-GGVWNLNVNPGTTGARVWARTK-NH2), located at G28-K49, inhibited growth of yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C and Pichia pastoris X-33) and spore germination of the phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium f. sp. glycines and Colletotrichum gossypi. Osm-pepA was more efficient than Osm-pepB for S. cerevisiae (MIC=40μM and MIC=127μM, respectively), as well as for P. pastoris (MIC=20μM and MIC=127μM, respectively). Furthermore, the peptides presented a biphasic performance, promoting S. cerevisiae growth in doses around 5μM and inhibiting it at higher doses. The structural model for these peptides showed that the five amino acids residues, RRLDR at Osm-pepA N-terminus, significantly affect the tertiary structure, indicating that this structure is important for the peptide antimicrobial potency. This is the first report of development of antimicrobial peptides from T. cacao. Taken together, the results indicate that the cacao osmotin and its derived peptides, herein studied, are good candidates for developing biotechnological tools aiming to control phytopathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Brazilian samples of bee samples pollen: palynological origin, phenolic content, antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Arruda, Vanilda Aparecida Soares de; Santos, Alexandre V. dos; Figueiredo, Davi; Meira, Sampaio; Estevinho, Leticia M.; Barth, Ortrud M.; Freitas, Alex da Silva de; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia Bicudo

    2012-01-01

    Total phenolic and flavonoids phytochemical concentration was measured in bee pollen samples, Appis Mellifera , as well as their botanical origin, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity. Pollen loads were washed with 70% ethanol and identified using a 400x magnification. The content of total polyphenols and flavonoids was measured spectrophotometrically with gallic acid and quercetin as standard. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the linking capacity of (i)the fre...

  10. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF THREE ESSENTIAL OILS FROM PORTUGUESE FLORA

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, M. Rosário; Tinoco, M. Teresa; Almeida, A. S.; Cruz-Morais, J.

    2012-01-01

    The present work reports on the evaluation of chemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils of three aromatic herbs, growing wild in the south of Portugal, used in traditional food preparations: Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha spicata and Rosmarinus officinalis. The principal components of essential oils were anethole (41.2%) for F. vulgare, carvone (41.1%) for M. spicata and myrcene (23.7%) for R. officinalis. Essential oils showed antioxidant activity eit...

  11. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of different basil essential oils chemotypes from Togo

    OpenAIRE

    Koffi Koba; P.W. Poutouli; Christine Raynaud; Jean-Pierre Chaumont; Komla Sanda

    2009-01-01

    The aerial parts essential oils of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) from Togo were steam-distilled and investigated for their percentage composition (GC and GC/MS) and in vitro antimicrobial activities. Five oil chemotypes were identified and classified as follows in line with their principal components: estragole type; linalool/estragole type; methyleugenol type; methyleugenol/t-anethole type; t-anethole type. The in vitro microbiological experiments revealed that only the methyleugenol and meth...

  12. An ORMOSIL-Containing Orthodontic Acrylic Resin with Concomitant Improvements in Antimicrobial and Fracture Toughness Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Niu, Li-na; Mettenberg, Donald; Yiu, Cynthia K. Y.; Blizzard, John D.; Wu, Christine D.; Mao, Jing; Drisko, Connie L.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2012-01-01

    Global increase in patients seeking orthodontic treatment creates a demand for the use of acrylic resins in removable appliances and retainers. Orthodontic removable appliance wearers have a higher risk of oral infections that are caused by the formation of bacterial and fungal biofilms on the appliance surface. Here, we present the synthetic route for an antibacterial and antifungal organically-modified silicate (ORMOSIL) that has multiple methacryloloxy functionalities attached to a siloxane backbone (quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate, or QAMS). By dissolving the water-insoluble, rubbery ORMOSIL in methyl methacrylate, QAMS may be copolymerized with polymethyl methacrylate, and covalently incorporated in the pressure-processed acrylic resin. The latter demonstrated a predominantly contact-killing effect on Streptococcus mutans ATCC 36558 and Actinomyces naselundii ATCC 12104 biofilms, while inhibiting adhesion of Candida albicans ATCC 90028 on the acrylic surface. Apart from its favorable antimicrobial activities, QAMS-containing acrylic resins exhibited decreased water wettability and improved toughness, without adversely affecting the flexural strength and modulus, water sorption and solubility, when compared with QAMS-free acrylic resin. The covalently bound, antimicrobial orthodontic acrylic resin with improved toughness represents advancement over other experimental antimicrobial acrylic resin formulations, in its potential to simultaneously prevent oral infections during appliance wear, and improve the fracture resistance of those appliances. PMID:22870322

  13. Surface modification and properties of Bombyx mori silk fibroin films by antimicrobial peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Liqiang; Zhu Liangjun; Min Sijia; Liu Lin; Cai Yurong; Yao Juming

    2008-01-01

    The Bombyx mori silk fibroin films (SFFs) were modified by a Cecropin B (CB) antimicrobial peptide, (NH 2 )-NGIVKAGPAIAVLGEAAL-CONH 2 , using the carbodiimide chemistry method. In order to avoid the dissolution of films during the modification procedure, the SFFs were first treated with 60% (v/v) ethanol aqueous solution, resulting a structural transition from unstable silk I to silk II. The investigation of modification conditions showed that the surface-modified SFFs had the satisfied antimicrobial activity and durability when they were activated by EDC.HCl/NHS solution followed by a treatment in CB peptide/PBS buffer (pH 6.5 or 8) solution at ambient temperature for 2 h. Moreover, the surface-modified SFFs showed the smaller contact angle due to the hydrophilic antimicrobial peptides coupled on the film surface, which is essential for the cell adhesion and proliferation. AFM results indicated that the surface roughness of SFFs was considerably increased after the modification by the peptides. The elemental composition analysis results also suggested that the peptides were tightly coupled to the surface of SFFs. This approach may provide a new option to engineer the surface-modified implanted materials preventing the biomaterial-centered infection (BCI)

  14. Surface modification and properties of Bombyx mori silk fibroin films by antimicrobial peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai Liqiang [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials and Textile, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Xiasha Higher Education Park, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhu Liangjun; Min Sijia [College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Liu Lin; Cai Yurong [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials and Textile, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Xiasha Higher Education Park, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Yao Juming [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials and Textile, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Xiasha Higher Education Park, Hangzhou 310018 (China)], E-mail: yaoj@zstu.edu.cn

    2008-03-15

    The Bombyx mori silk fibroin films (SFFs) were modified by a Cecropin B (CB) antimicrobial peptide, (NH{sub 2})-NGIVKAGPAIAVLGEAAL-CONH{sub 2}, using the carbodiimide chemistry method. In order to avoid the dissolution of films during the modification procedure, the SFFs were first treated with 60% (v/v) ethanol aqueous solution, resulting a structural transition from unstable silk I to silk II. The investigation of modification conditions showed that the surface-modified SFFs had the satisfied antimicrobial activity and durability when they were activated by EDC.HCl/NHS solution followed by a treatment in CB peptide/PBS buffer (pH 6.5 or 8) solution at ambient temperature for 2 h. Moreover, the surface-modified SFFs showed the smaller contact angle due to the hydrophilic antimicrobial peptides coupled on the film surface, which is essential for the cell adhesion and proliferation. AFM results indicated that the surface roughness of SFFs was considerably increased after the modification by the peptides. The elemental composition analysis results also suggested that the peptides were tightly coupled to the surface of SFFs. This approach may provide a new option to engineer the surface-modified implanted materials preventing the biomaterial-centered infection (BCI)

  15. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of kaff maryam (Anastatica hierochuntica) and doum palm (Hyphaene thebaica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, A. A.; Khalil, A. A.; El-Beltagi, H. E. S.

    2010-07-01

    The widespread use of medicinal plants for health purposes has increased dramatically due to their great importance to public health. In this study, the levels of phenolic, flavonoid, {beta}-carotene and lycopene compounds of Accent's hierochuntica and Hyphaene thebaica were determined. The plant extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activities using various antioxidant methodologies: (i) scavenging of free radicals using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, (ii) metal ion chelating capacity, and (iii) scavenging of superoxide anion radical. The antimicrobial activity of both plant extracts was evaluated against a panel of microorganisms using the agar disc diffusion method. The total phenolic content (51.97 and 64.9 mg/g dry weight in A. hierochuntica and H. thebaica, respectively) was significantly (p <0.05) different. The antioxidant activity increased with an increase in concentration. The plant extracts were more active against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. Also, the antimicrobial activity of H. thebaica was higher than that of A. hierochuntica methanolic extracts. This study reveals that the consumption of these plants would exert several beneficial effects by virtue of their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. (Author) 44 refs.

  16. Antimicrobial property of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil against pathogenic bacteria isolated from pet turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, B C J; Jung, Won-Gi; Hossain, Sabrina; Wimalasena, S H M P; Pathirana, H N K S; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2017-06-01

    The usage of essential oils as antimicrobial agents is gaining attention. Besides, pet turtles were known to harbor a range of pathogenic bacteria while the turtle keeping is a growing trend worldwide.The current study examined the antimicrobial activity of lemon grass oil (LGO) against seven species of Gram negative bacteria namely; Aeromonas hydrophila , A. caviae , Citrobacter freundii , Salmonella enterica , Edwardsiella tarda , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Proteus mirabilis isolated from three popular species of pet turtles. Along with the results of disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC and MBC) tests, LGO was detected as effective against 6 species of bacteria excluding P. aeruginosa . MIC of LGO for the strains except P. aeruginosa ranged from 0.016 to 0.5% (V/V). The lowest MIC recorded in the E. tarda strain followed by A. hydrophilla , C. freundii , P. mirabilis , and S. enterica . Interestingly, all the bacterial species except E. tarda were showing high multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) index values ranging from 0.36 to 0.91 upon the 11 antibiotics tested although they were sensitive to LGO.

  17. Antimicrobial properties of black grape (Vitis vinifera L.) peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Devbrat; Kumar, Arvind; Kumar, Pramod; Mishra, Diwaker

    2015-01-01

    Black grape peel possesses a substantial amount of polyphenolic antimicrobial compounds that can be used for controlling the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to assess antibacterial and antifungal activity of black grape peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds, respectively. Peel of grape was subjected to polyphenolic extraction using different solvents viz., water, ethanol, acetone, and methanol. Antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli were screened for the antibacterial activity of different grape extracts. Antibacterial activity was analyzed using agar well diffusion method. Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus versicolor were screened for the antifungal activity. Antifungal activity was determined by counting nongerminated spores in the presence of peel extracts. As compared to other solvent extracts, methanol extracts possessed high antibacterial and antifungal activity. S. typhimurium and E. coli showed complete resistance against antibacterial action at screened concentrations of grape peel extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition was found in case of S. aureus, i.e., 22 mm followed by E. faecalis and E. aerogenes, i.e., 18 and 21 mm, respectively, at 1080 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE)/ml. The maximum and minimum percent of growth inhibition was shown by P. expansum and A. niger as 73% and 15% at 1080 TAE/ml concentration of grape peel extract, respectively. Except S. typhimurium and E. coli, growth of all bacterial and mold species were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by all the solvent extracts.

  18. Antioxidant, electrochemical, thermal, antimicrobial and alkane oxidation properties of tridentate Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Gökhan; Çelik, Cumali; Uruş, Serhan; Demirtaş, İbrahim; Elmastaş, Mahfuz; Tümer, Mehmet

    2011-10-01

    In this study, two Schiff base ligands (HL 1 and HL 2) and their Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Pd(II) and Ru(III) metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by the analytical and spectroscopic methods. Alkane oxidation activities of the metal complexes were studied on cyclohexane as substrate. The ligands and their metal complexes were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Corynebacterium xerosis, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Enterococcus faecalis (as Gram-positive bacteria) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Klebsiella fragilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans (as Gram-negative bacteria). The antioxidant properties of the Schiff base ligands were evaluated in a series of in vitro tests: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH rad ) free radical scavenging and reducing power activity of superoxide anion radical generated non-enzymatic systems. Electrochemical and thermal properties of the compounds were investigated.

  19. Characterization of plasma-polymerized 4-vinyl pyridine with silver nanoparticies on poly(ethylene terephthalate) film for anti-microbial properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, J.; Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; Kjær, Erik Michael

    2006-01-01

    scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Different thicknesses Of poly(4-vinyl pyridine) coating under different plasma polymerization conditions were studied. Silver nanoparticles with diameter around 50nm deposit were precipitated...... on the poly(4-vinyl pyridine) coating by UV irradiation in Silver nitride water solution, in order to enhance the anti-microbial properties. Different kinds of modified PET films were tested for anti-microbial properties against yeast (Debaryomyces hansenii) by using microbiological analyser mu-4200...

  20. Study of phytochemical, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer properties of Allium wallichii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Jaya; Muhammad, BushraTaj; Thapa, Pratiksha; Shrestha, Bhupal Govinda

    2017-02-08

    There is growing interest in the use of plants for the treatment and prevention of cancer. Medicinal plants are currently being evaluated as source of promising anticancer agents. In this paper, we have investigated the anticancer potential of plant Allium wallichii, a plant native to Nepal and growing at elevations of 2300-4800 m. This is the first study of its kind for the plant mentioned. The dried plant was extracted in aqueous ethanol. Phytochemical screening, anti-microbial assay, anti-oxidant assay, cytotoxicity assay and the flow-cytometric analysis were done for analyzing different phytochemicals present, anti-microbial activity, anti-oxidant activity and anti-cancer properties of Allium wallichii. We observed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, reducing sugars and glycosides in the plant extract and the plant showed moderate anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity. The IC 50 values of Allium wallichii in different cancer cell lines are 69.69 μg/ml for Prostate cancer (PC3) cell line, 55.29 μg/ml for Breast Cancer (MCF-7) cell line and 46.51 μg/ml for cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line as compared to Doxorubicin (0.85 μg/ml). The cell viability assay using FACS showed that the IC 50 value of Allium wallichii for Burkitt's lymphoma (B-Lymphoma) cell line was 3.817 ± 1.99 mg/ml. Allium wallichii can be an important candidate to be used as an anticancer agent. Separation of pure compounds with bioassay guided extraction, spectrometric analysis and subsequent cytotoxicity assay of the pure bioactive compounds from Allium wallichii is highly recommended as the crude extract itself showed promising cytotoxicity.

  1. Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Properties of a Common Brand of Black Tea (Camellia sinensis Marketed in Nigerian Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olosunde O. Funmilayo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study is aimed at determining chemical constituents and antimicrobial activities of a common brand of black tea (Lipton® in Nigeria. Methods: Standard methods were employed for testing carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids and terpenes in the tea. Antimicrobial activities of methanolic and aqueous extracts of the tea on four standard strains of organisms: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis were also determined by standard methods. Results: Results showed that the tea contains tannin and reducing sugar. Concentrations of 1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% aqueous and methanolic extract of black tea were prepared and their zones of inhibition determined against the four test organisms using the cup plate method. This was compared with zones for standard disc Gentamicin (10 μg and Erythromycin (15 μg. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to 2% to 10% aqueous extracts and intermediate to 6%, 8% and 10% methanolic extracts. E. coli was intermediately sensitive to 6%, 8% and 10% aqueous extract and 2% to 10% methanolic extracts. B. subtilis was intermediately sensitive to 4%, 6% and 8% aqueous extract and 4% to 10% methanolic extract but sensitive to 10% aqueous extract. Staph.aureus was intermediately sensitive to 4% to 10% aqueous extracts and 2% to 10% methanolic extracts. B. subtilis had the lowest MIC values of both aqueous and methanolic extracts. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study has shown that Lipton® has antimicrobial properties on E.coli, Staph.aureus, B.subtilis and Ps.aeruginosa and contains tannin and reducing sugar.

  2. Photocatalytic properties and selective antimicrobial activity of TiO{sub 2}(Eu)/CuO nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michal, Robert [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia); Dworniczek, Ewa [Department of Microbiology, Wroclaw Medical University, 50368 Wroclaw (Poland); Caplovicova, Maria [STU Centre for Nanodiagnostics, Slovak University of Technology, 81243 Bratislava (Slovakia); Monfort, Olivier [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia); Lianos, Panagiotis [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); Caplovic, Lubomir [Institute of Materials Science, Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Slovak University of Technology, 91724 Trnava (Slovakia); Plesch, Gustav, E-mail: plesch@fns.uniba.sk [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Nanocomposites composed of Eu-doped anatase grafted with CuO. • Increase in photocatalytic hydrogen production due to CuO acting as electrons sink. • CuO in composites decreasing the photoinduced total mineralization of phenol. • Selective photoinduced antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus species. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2}(Eu)/CuO nanocomposites were prepared by precipitation method. The anatase nanocrystallites with a size of 26 nm exhibited well crystallized and characteristical dipyramidal morphology and {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} faceting. Transmission electron microscopy photographs with atomic resolution showed that the Eu(III) dopants were bounded on surface of titania. In the composites, the CuO nanocrystals exhibiting a monoclinic tenorite structure with a size in the range from 2 to 5 nm were grafted to the surface of titania. The influence of copper(II) oxide led to distinct selectivity in the photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties of the investigated TiO{sub 2}(Eu)/CuO nanocomposites. While the presence of CuO nanocrystals strongly increased the photocatalytic production of hydrogen by ethanol reforming, it decreased the activity in photoinduced total mineralization of phenol comparing with non-modified TiO{sub 2}(Eu). In investigated TiO{sub 2}(Eu)/CuO powders, the photoinduced antimicrobial activity against membranes of Enterococcus species was influenced by the selective binding of CuO to the surface of the microorganism leading to distinct selectivity in their action. The activity against Enterococcus faecalis was higher than against Enterococcus faecium.

  3. Effect of Addition of Curcumin Nanoparticles on Antimicrobial Property and Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Composite to Bovine Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Baghaeian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study sought to assess the effect of curcumin nanoparticles (curcNPs on antimicrobial property and shear bond strength (SBS of orthodontic composite to bovine enamel.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro, experimental study, 1%, 5% and 10% curcNPs were added to Transbond XT composite. Stainless steel brackets were bonded to 48 sound bovine incisors in four groups (n=12 using composite containing 0% (control, 1%, 5% and 10% curcNPs. The bracket-tooth SBS was measured by a universal testing machine. The adhesive remnant index (ARI score was calculated after debonding using a stereomicroscope. Also, 180 discs were fabricated of the four composites; 108 were subjected to eluted component test, 36 were used for disc diffusion test and 36 were used for biofilm test to assess their antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus acidophilus.Results: The highest and lowest SBS belonged to control and 10% curcNP groups, respectively. The difference in SBS was significant among the four groups (P=0.008. The SBS of control group was significantly higher than that of 10% curcNPs (P=0.006. The four groups were not significantly different in terms of ARI score (P>0.05. Growth inhibition zones were not seen in any group. In biofilm test, the colony counts of all bacteria significantly decreased by an increase in percentage of curcNPs. Colony count significantly decreased only at 30 days.Conclusions: At 1% concentration, curcNPs have significant antimicrobial activity against cariogenic bacteria with no adverse effect on SBS. However, insolubility of curcNPs remains a major drawback.Keywords: Curcumin; Nanoparticles; Shear Strength; Composite Resins; Orthodontic Brackets; Anti-Bacterial Agents

  4. Surface topography of silicon nitride affects antimicrobial and osseointegrative properties of tibial implants in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masahiro; de Mesy Bentley, Karen L; McEntire, Bryan J; Bal, B Sonny; Schwarz, Edward M; Xie, Chao

    2017-12-01

    While silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) is an antimicrobial and osseointegrative orthopaedic biomaterial, the contribution of surface topography to these properties is unknown. Using a methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), this study evaluated Si 3 N 4 implants in vitro utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with colony forming unit (CFU) assays, and later in an established in vivo murine tibia model of implant-associated osteomyelitis. In vitro, the "as-fired" Si 3 N 4 implants displayed significant reductions in adherent bacteria versus machined Si 3 N 4 (2.6 × 10 4 vs. 8.7 × 10 4 CFU, respectively; p SEM imaging demonstrated that MRSA cannot directly adhere to native as-fired Si 3 N 4 . Subsequently, a cross-sectional study was completed in which sterile or MRSA contaminated as-fired and machined Si 3 N 4 implants were inserted into the tibiae of 8-week old female Balb/c mice, and harvested on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, or 14 post-operatively for SEM. The findings demonstrated that the antimicrobial activity of the as-fired implants resulted from macrophage clearance of the bacteria during biofilm formation on day 1, followed by osseointegration through the apparent recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells on days 3-5, which differentiated into osteoblasts on days 7-14. In contrast, the antimicrobial behavior of the machined Si 3 N 4 was due to repulsion of the bacteria, a phenomenon that also limited osteogenesis, as host cells were also unable to adhere to the machined surface. Taken together, these results suggest that the in vivo biological behavior of Si 3 N 4 orthopaedic implants is driven by critical features of their surface nanotopography. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 3413-3421, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Cholinesterase Inhibitory and Antimicrobial Properties of Mentha longifolia subsp. noeana and Its Secondary Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulselam Ertaş

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical structures of the isolated compounds, the essential oil and fatty acid compositions of Mentha longifolia subsp. noeana with their biological activities. Ursolic acid (1, u vaol (2, stigmast-5-ene-3 b -yl formate (3, stigmast-5-en-3-one (4, b -sitosterol (5, bis(2-ethylhexyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate (6,hexacosyl (E-ferulate (7 and 5-hydroxy-6,7,3',4'-tetramethoxy flavone (8 were obtained from the aerial parts. The compounds (2-4, 6, 7 were isolated for the first time from a Mentha species. Palmitic acid (40.8% was the major component of the non-polar fraction obtained from the petroleum ether extract. Pulegone (32.3% was the main constituent of the essential oil which exhibited strong butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (77.36 ± 0.29%, moderate antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. The methanol extract showed 80% inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and the acetone extract possessed moderate DPPH free radical scavenging activity (60% inhibition at 100 m g/mL.

  6. In vitro antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils thymus vulgaris, cymbopogon citratus and laurus nobilis against five important foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Farias Millezi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Several essential oils of condiment and medicinal plants possess proven antimicrobial activity and are of important interest for the food industry. Therefore, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC of those oils should be determined for various bacteria. MIC varies according to the oil used, the major compounds, and the physiology of the bacterium under study. In the present study, the essential oils of the plants Thymus vulgaris (time, Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass and Laurus nobilis (bay were chemically quantified, and the MIC was determined on the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117, Salmonella enterica Enteritidis S64, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The essential oil of C. citratus demonstrated bacterial activity at all concentrations tested and against all of the bacteria tested. The majority of essential oil compounds were geranial and neral. The major constituent of T. vulgaris was 1.8-cineol and of L. nobilis was linalool, which presented lower antibacterial activity, followed by 1.8-cineol. The Gram-negative bacteria demonstrated higher resistance to the use of the essential oils tested in this study. E. coli was the least sensitive and was inhibited only by the oils of C. citratus and L. nobilis.

  7. Identification of Endophytic Fungi of Medicinal Herbs of Lauraceae and Rutaceae with Antimicrobial Property

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    Min-Yuan Ho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine taxonomical features and antimicrobial activities of 156 isolates of endophytic fungi collected from twigs of medicinal plants of Lauraceae (67 isolates and Rutaceae (89 isolates in central and northern Taiwan. The 156 isolates of fungi were classified into 35 genera in 19 families based on morphological characteristics of mycelia and asexual/sexual spores, as well as molecular phylogenetic analysis of rDNA LSU D1/D2 and ITS regions. The most common endophytes were in the taxa of Colletotrichum, Guignardia, Hypoxylon, Nigrospora, Phomopsis and Xylaria, and the most common hosts were Citrus and Zanthoxylum of Rutaceae and Cinnamomum of Lauraceae. Molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that xylariaceous isolates could be separated into Xylaria and Hypoxylon groups based on rDNA of LSU D1/D2 and ITS regions. Four isolates of endophytic fungi including Lasmenia sp. isolate CB10, Ophioceras tenuisporum isolate CI02, Xylaria cubensis isolate LA04 and Cyanodermella sp. isolate TR09 were tested for antimicrobial activities using a dual culture method and Lasmenia sp. isolate CB10 and Cyanodermella sp. isolate TR09 showed better antimicrobial activity against 12 plant pathogens including 9 fungi and 3 bacteria. Spraying Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa plants with culture filtrates of the endophytic fungus Lasmenia sp. isolate CB10 significantly reduced severity of anthracnose of Chinese cabbage caused by Colletotrichum higginsianum under greenhouse conditions. This study suggests that the Lasmenia sp. isolate CB10 may be of potential for management of anthracnose of Chinese cabbage.

  8. Antimicrobial Properties of Copper Nanoparticles and Amino Acid Chelated Copper Nanoparticles Produced by Using a Soya Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAlba-Montero, I.; Morales-Sánchez, Elpidio; Araujo-Martínez, Rene

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a comparison of the antibacterial properties of copper-amino acids chelates and copper nanoparticles against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. These copper-amino acids chelates were synthesized by using a soybean aqueous extract and copper nanoparticles were produced using as a starting material the copper-amino acids chelates species. The antibacterial activity of the samples was evaluated by using the standard microdilution method (CLSI M100-S25 January 2015). In the antibacterial activity assays copper ions and copper-EDTA chelates were included as references, so that copper-amino acids chelates can be particularly suitable for acting as an antibacterial agent, so they are excellent candidates for specific applications. Additionally, to confirm the antimicrobial mechanism on bacterial cells, MTT assay (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was carried out. A significant enhanced antimicrobial activity and a specific strain were found for copper chelates over E. faecalis. Its results would eventually lead to better utilization of copper-amino acids chelate for specific application where copper nanoparticles can be not used. PMID:28286459

  9. Immunogenic properties of the human gut-associated archaeon Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis and its susceptibility to antimicrobial peptides.

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    Corinna Bang

    Full Text Available The methanogenic archaeon Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis strain B10T was isolated from human feces just a few years ago. Due to its remarkable metabolic properties, particularly the degradation of trimethylamines, this strain was supposed to be used as "Archaebiotic" during metabolic disorders of the human intestine. However, there is still no data published regarding adaptations to the natural habitat of M. luminyensis as it has been shown for the other two reported mucosa-associated methanoarchaea. This study aimed at unraveling susceptibility of M. luminyensis to antimicrobial peptides as well as its immunogenicity. By using the established microtiter plate assay adapted to the anaerobic growth requirements of methanogenic archaea, we demonstrated that M. luminyensis is highly sensitive against LL32, a derivative of human cathelicidin (MIC = 2 μM. However, the strain was highly resistant against the porcine lysin NK-2 (MIC = 10 μM and the synthetic antilipopolysaccharide peptide (Lpep (MIC>10 μM and overall differed from the two other methanoarchaea, Methanobrevibacter smithii and Methanosphaera stadtmanae in respect to AMP sensitivity. Moreover, only weak immunogenic potential of M. luminyensis was demonstrated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs by determining release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Overall, our findings clearly demonstrate that the archaeal gut inhabitant M. luminyensis is susceptible to the release of human-derived antimicrobial peptides and exhibits low immunogenicity towards human immune cells in vitro-revealing characteristics of a typical commensal gut microbe.

  10. Antimicrobial properties of single-donor-derived, platelet-leukocyte fibrin for fistula occlusion: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiuwen; Ren, Jianan; Yuan, Yujie; Luan, Jianfeng; Yao, Genhong; Li, Jieshou

    2013-01-01

    Fibrin glue is a promising alternative for low-output enterocutaneous fistula closure. Bacterial flora colonizing inside the fistula tract, however, may limit the glue application. Single-donor-derived, platelet-rich materials were hypothesized in this study to have antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative microorganisms. Platelet-leukocyte fibrin (PLF), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) were obtained from healthy volunteers. The amounts of platelet, leukocyte, and complement/antibody were determined. In vitro laboratory susceptibility to PLF and plasmas was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method. Antimicrobial activity of PLF, PRP, and PPP against three Gram-negative ATCC strains was determined in a bacterial kill assay. Levels of complement and antibody did not significantly differ among PLF, PRP, and PPP (p > 0.05), while platelet and leukocyte counts in platelet-rich biomaterials were significantly higher than those in PPP (p platelets and leukocytes may play an important role in bacterial defense. This is the first study to demonstrate the antibacterial properties of single-unit PLF for fistula closure, presenting a new opportunity for glue sealing.

  11. Chemical compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. essential oils collected from different parts of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Yasser

    2017-10-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate chemical compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oils (ZEOs) collected from four provinces in western Iran (Ilam, Lorestan, Kermanshah and Kurdestan). Carvacrol was the most abundant constituent in the flower, stem and leaf oil samples of Ilam, Lorestan and Kermanshah regions by 73.12-74.29%, 66.47-66.89% and 65.11-65.32%, respectively. The most abundant components in Kurdestan sample were thymol (55.32-55.60%), followed by γ -terpinene (24.45-24.56%), p -cymene (10.21-10.25%) and α -terpinene (2.75-2.77%). The ZEO inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes , Salmonella typhimurium , Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus subtilis , Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus at MIC values between 0.03 and 0.04%. Kermanshah oil sample had a higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (0.30-0.31 mg/ml), ability to prevent the bleaching of β-carotene (0.09-0.1 mg/ml), ferric reducing power (0.40-0.42 mg/ml) and thiobarbituric acid (0.004-0.006 Meq of malondialdehyde/g) values than that of ZEOs from Ilam, Kurdestan and Lorestan. The strong in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities supports the traditional use of ZEO in the treatments of gastrointestinal diseases.

  12. Kainari, a Unique Greek Traditional Herbal Tea, from the Island of Lesvos: Chemical Analysis and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties

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    Evangelia Bampali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, as well as the total phenolic content (TPC and the potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, of three Kainari-herbal tea samples from different areas of Lesvos Island (Greece was evaluated. The rich aroma of the mixtures was studied through GC-MS, as well as through Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME/GC-MS analyses. Cinnamon, clove, nutmeg, pepper, and ginger were identified as main ingredients, while, throughout the chemical analysis of the volatiles of one selected sample, several secondary metabolites have been isolated and identified on the basis of GC-MS as well as spectral evidence as eugenol, cinnamic aldehyde and myristicin, cinnamyl alcohol, alpha-terpinyl acetate, and β-caryophyllene. Furthermore, two food dyes, azorubine and amaranth, were also isolated and identified from the infusions. The total phenolic content was estimated and the free radical scavenging activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays and the antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested showing a very interesting profile against all the assayed microorganisms. Due to its very pleasant aroma and taste properties as well as to its bioactivities, Kainari-herbal tea could be further proposed as functional beverage.

  13. Production and properties of artificial antimicrobial marble; Jushikei zinzo dairiseki no kokin kako

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Ryozo; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki [INAX Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    There are many cases in which they are suitable for the growth of the microorganism on bathrooms and lavatories, kitchens, etc., which are the place where the artificial marble product is installed. Therefore, the generation of the fouling of the microorganism by the aberrant growth is also abounding. Then, it developed the antimicrobe artificial marble for the purpose of suppressing growth of bacteria in the surface of the product. Here, this paper describes the gist in doing antimicrobial treatment in the resin systems artificial marble product. (NEDO)

  14. The comparison of antimicrobial packaging properties with different applications incorporation method of active material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, R. W.; Sugiarto; Warsiki, E.

    2018-03-01

    Contamination after the processing of products during storage, distribution and marketing is one of the main causes of food safety issues. Handling of food products after processing can be done during the packaging process. Antimicrobial (AM) active packaging is one of the concept of packaging product development by utilize the interaction between the product and the packaging environment that can delay the bacterial damage by killing or reducing bacterial growth. The active system is formed by incorporating an antimicrobial agent against a packaging matrix that will function as a carrier. Many incorporation methods have been developed in this packaging-making concept which were direct mixing, polishing, and encapsulation. The aims of this research were to examine the different of the AM packaging performances including its stability and effectiveness of its function that would be produced by three different methods. The stability of the packaging function was analyzed by looking at the diffusivity of the active ingredient to the matrix using SEM. The effectiveness was analyzed by the ability of the packaging to prevent the growing of the microbial. The results showed that different incorporation methods resulted on different characteristics of the AM packaging.

  15. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the flavonoid extract from Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Pham Thi Kim; Nguyet, Nguyen Thi Minh; Dao, Dong Thi Anh

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of flavonoid extract from white radish roots (Raphanus sativus L.). Antimicrobial activity was determined by agar diffusion method against 4 strains: Bacillus cereus, Staphylococus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. Antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS* radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The constituent elements of flavonoid extract were identified by LC-MS. Results showed that the flavonoid extract from Raphanus sativus L. had antibacterial activity against to all four tested bacteria strains with antibacterial ring diameters in the range 8 - 20 mm in the test concentrations from 100 to 1600 mg/ml. Minimum concentration to inhibit (MIC) in the range 20 - 40 mg/ml. In addition, the extract also has the ability to eliminate ABTS* free radical with IC50 = 7.074 µg/ml. The total antioxidant capacity of extract at concentration of 100 µg/ml was 3.424 ± 0.043 mg ascorbic acid/mg. In the extract, there are three flavonoids were found: rutin, quercetin and narigenin. This is the first time narigenin was found in Raphanus sativus L. extract.

  16. One-pot fabrication and antimicrobial properties of novel PET nonwoven fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Song; Wang Zheng; Qi Jiancheng; Wu Jinhui; Tian Tao; Hao Limei; Yang Jingquan; Hou Lili

    2011-01-01

    Recently, with the ever-growing demand for healthy living, more and more research is focused on materials capable of killing harmful microorganisms around the world. It is believed that designing such protective materials for hygienic and biomedical applications can benefit people in professional areas and daily life. Thus, in this paper, one novel kind of antibacterial poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven fabrics was conveniently one-pot prepared, with the combined immobilization of two biological antimicrobial agents, i.e. ε-polylysine and natamycin, by using the soft methacrylate nonwoven fabrics adhesives. Then, the antimicrobial activities of the functional fabrics were investigated by using the standard shaking-flask method, showing excellent antibacterial efficiency (AE) against both Escherichia coli (8099) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) (AE > 99.99%) compared with untreated PET nonwoven fabrics. The anti-bioaerosol tests also showed similar trends. Meantime, scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that the bacteria on the antibacterial PET appeared to be partly bacteriolyzed and showed much less viability than those on the pristine ones. Moreover, the long residual biocidal action of such modified PET fabrics was also evaluated, and the antibacterial activity of antibacterial fibers was unaffected by the 3 month artificially accelerated aging.

  17. INVESTIGATION ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIOXIDANT, AND CYTOTOXIC PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM DRACOCEPHALUM KOTSCHYI BOISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Behnam; Ramak, Parvin; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Talei, Gholam Reza

    2017-01-01

    Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss is a herb with wide-spread applications. Lorestan traditional healers have applied it for the treatment of rheumatoid diseases and stomach disorders. Hydrodistillation process was used for essential oil extraction, the extracted essential oil was then analyzed through combination of capillary GC-FID, GC-MS and RI. The in vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of this essential oil were examined. Results indicate that the essential oil has a broad range of anti-microbial activity against all of the tested microorganisms. The 50% of cytotoxic concentrations was 26.4 μg/ml and 4266.7 μg/ml for Hela cells and human lymphocytes, respectively. The oil cytotoxicity against the human tumor cell line was far higher than the amount required for human healthy cells. Conversely, the essential oil's IC 50 value of 49.2 μg/ml in the DPPH assay, could be regarded as its strong antioxidant potential. According to the data obtained, it can be concluded that D. kotschyi essential oil could be applied as a safe antibacterial and antioxidant agent for food and pharmaceutical purposes.

  18. Identification of Phenolic Compounds and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Euphorbia Tirucalli L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keline Medeiros de Araújo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds extracted from natural sources can benefit human health. The aim of this work was to determine total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L. followed by identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds, as well as their antibacterial activities. Antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH and ABTS•+ assay. Identification of phenolic compounds was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and antimicrobial activities were verified by agar dilution methods and MIC values. Total phenolic content ranged from 7.73 to 30.54 mg/100 g gallic acid equivalent. Extracts from dry plants showed higher antioxidant activities than those from fresh ones. The DPPH EC50 values were approximately 12.15 μg/mL and 16.59 μg/mL, respectively. Antioxidant activity measured by the ABTS method yielded values higher than 718.99 μM trolox/g for dry plants, while by the Rancimat® system yielded protection factors exceeding 1 for all extracts, comparable to synthetic BHT. Ferulic acid was the principal phenolic compound identified and quantified through HPLC-UV in all extracts. The extracts proved effective inhibitory potential for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. These results showed that extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L. have excellent antioxidant capacity and moderate antimicrobial activity. These can be attributed to the high concentration of ferulic acid.

  19. Antimicrobial and probiotic properties of yeast: from fundamental to novel applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatoum eRima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The yeasts constitute a large and heterogeneous group of microorganisms that are currently attracting increased attention from scientists and industry. Numerous and diverse biological activities make them promising candidates for a wide range of applications not limited to the food sector. In addition to their major contribution to flavor development in fermented foods, their antagonistic activities toward undesirable bacteria and fungi are now widely known. These activities are associated with their competitiveness for nutrients, acidification of their growth medium, their tolerance of high concentrations of ethanol, and release of antimicrobial compounds such as antifungal killer toxins or mycocins and antibacterial compounds. While the design of foods containing probiotics (microorganisms that confer health benefits has focused primarily on Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii has long been known effective for treating gastroenteritis. In this review, the antimicrobial activities of yeasts are examined. Mechanisms underlying this antagonistic activity as well as recent applications of these biologically active yeasts in both the medical and veterinary sectors are described.

  20. One-pot fabrication and antimicrobial properties of novel PET nonwoven fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Song; Wang Zheng; Qi Jiancheng; Wu Jinhui; Tian Tao; Hao Limei; Yang Jingquan [Institute of Medical Equipment, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Tianjin 300161 (China); Hou Lili, E-mail: yjq789@sohu.com [National Bio-protection Engineering Center, Tianjin 300161 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Recently, with the ever-growing demand for healthy living, more and more research is focused on materials capable of killing harmful microorganisms around the world. It is believed that designing such protective materials for hygienic and biomedical applications can benefit people in professional areas and daily life. Thus, in this paper, one novel kind of antibacterial poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven fabrics was conveniently one-pot prepared, with the combined immobilization of two biological antimicrobial agents, i.e. {epsilon}-polylysine and natamycin, by using the soft methacrylate nonwoven fabrics adhesives. Then, the antimicrobial activities of the functional fabrics were investigated by using the standard shaking-flask method, showing excellent antibacterial efficiency (AE) against both Escherichia coli (8099) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) (AE > 99.99%) compared with untreated PET nonwoven fabrics. The anti-bioaerosol tests also showed similar trends. Meantime, scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that the bacteria on the antibacterial PET appeared to be partly bacteriolyzed and showed much less viability than those on the pristine ones. Moreover, the long residual biocidal action of such modified PET fabrics was also evaluated, and the antibacterial activity of antibacterial fibers was unaffected by the 3 month artificially accelerated aging.

  1. Effect of Storage in Distilled Water for Three Months on the Antimicrobial Properties of Poly(methyl methacrylate Denture Base Material Doped with Inorganic Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Chladek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The colonization of poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA denture base materials by pathogenic microorganisms is a major problem associated with the use of prostheses, and the incorporation of antimicrobial fillers is a method of improving the antimicrobial properties of these materials. Numerous studies have demonstrated the initial in vitro antimicrobial effectiveness of this type of material; however, reports demonstrating the stability of these fillers over longer periods are not available. In this study, silver sodium hydrogen zirconium phosphate was introduced into the powder component of a PMMA denture base material at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4%, and 8% (w/w. The survival rates of the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and yeast-type fungus Candida albicans were established after fungal or bacterial suspensions were incubated with samples that had been previously stored in distilled water. Storage over a three-month period led to the progressive reduction of the initial antimicrobial properties. The results of this study suggest that additional microbiological tests should be conducted for materials that are treated with antimicrobial fillers and intended for long-term use. Future long-term studies of the migration of silver ions from the polymer matrix and the influence of different media on this ion emission are required.

  2. Evaluation of the antimicrobial and physical properties of an orthodontic photo-activated adhesive modified with an antiplaque agent: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanjyot Singh

    2013-01-01

    Results: The findings indicated that (1 addition of chlorhexidine to the orthodontic composite resin enhanced its antimicrobial properties, (2 there was no significant difference between the bond strengths of the control and the experimental resins tested after 24 h and 25 days and (3 maximum release of chlorhexidine from the modified resin was much higher than the minimum inhibitory concentration level.

  3. [BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES FROM CHICKENS THROMBOCYTES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sycheva, M V; Vasilchenko, A S; Rogozhin, E A; Pashkova, T M; Popova, L P; Kartashova, O L

    2016-01-01

    Isolation and study of biological activity of antimicrobial peptides from chickens thrombocytes. Peptides from chickens thrombocytes, obtained by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with stepped and linear gradients of concentration increase of the organic solvent were used in the study. Their antimicrobial activity was determined by microtitration method in broth; mechanism of biological effect--by using fluorescent spectroscopy method with DNA-tropic dyes. Individual fractions of peptides were isolated from chickens thrombocytes, that possess antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus P209 and Escherichia coli K12. A disruption of integrity of barrier structures of microorganisms under the effect of thrombocyte antimicrobial peptides and predominance of cells with damaged membrane in the population of E. coli was established. The data obtained on antimicrobial activity and mechanism of bactericidal effect of the peptide fractions from chickens thrombocytes isolated for the first time expand the understanding of functional properties of chickens thrombocytes and open a perspective for their further study with the aim of use as antimicrobial means.

  4. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of different basil essential oils chemotypes from Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi Koba

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts essential oils of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae from Togo were steam-distilled and investigated for their percentage composition (GC and GC/MS and in vitro antimicrobial activities. Five oil chemotypes were identified and classified as follows in line with their principal components: estragole type; linalool/estragole type; methyleugenol type; methyleugenol/t-anethole type; t-anethole type. The in vitro microbiological experiments revealed that only the methyleugenol and methyleugenol/t-anethole chemotypes were active against tested fungi and bacteria. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC ranged from 80 to 150 µl.l-1 and from 200 to 500 µl.l-1 respectively. Likewise, on tested bacteria the MIC varied from 200 µl.l-1 to 400 µl.l-1 and from 250 to 500 µl.l-1 respectively. These findings are supportive of the potential of both basil oil chemotypes for use as active ingredients in natural antibiotic drugs.

  5. SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF 8-BENZYLIDENHYDRAZINO-1-n-PROPYLTHEOBROMINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Ivanchenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide application of brand-new instruments, continuous improvements in surgical treatment and application of up-to-date antiseptics and disinfectants within the last decade,a risk of infectious complications inhip and knee jointsendoprosthesis replacementstill remains.The most efficient results in post-surgery implant-related infection (IRI treatment are attained when combining surgical interference with long-term etiotropic therapy, its efficiency being evaluated via balanced selection of antimicrobialagents. “Perfect” antibacterial drug for surgical infection treatment must reveal bactericidal effect against specific infectious agents, form high concentrations in bones, joints and soft tissues and have high safety profile. The challenge is that currently for most part of antibiotics there is no convincing evidence in regards to their application for implant-related infection (IRI. At present it is generally accepted that the leading role of S. Aureus and S. Epidermidis in IRI etiology is largely due to their ability to generate multi-level microbial biofilms quickly at the artificial implants surface. Pathogens’ presence in biofilms makes IRI diagnostics more complicated and significantly reduces the efficiency of antimicrobial therapy. Earlier it has been determined that 1.8-disubstituted of theobromine show rather high diuretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic and antimicrobial activity. Thus, the problem of discovering new highly efficient antimicrobial agents which might be applied in IRI treatment remains relevant and long-termissue. Aim of the work is to develop simple laboratory methods to synthesize 8- benzylidenhydrazino-1-n-propyltheobromines and study biological activity of synthesized compounds. Materials and Methods of Research Themeltingpointhasbeendeterminedwiththehelpofanopencapillary methodwithTAPdevice(M.Elementalanalysishasbeenperformedwiththe help of the instrument ElementarVario L

  6. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of different basil essential oils chemotypes from Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi Koba

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts essential oils of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae from Togo were steam-distilled and investigated for their percentage composition (GC and GC/MS and in vitro antimicrobial activities. Five oil chemotypes were identified and classified as follows in line with their principal components: estragole type; linalool/estragole type; methyleugenol type; methyleugenol/t-anethole type; t-anethole type. The in vitro microbiological experiments revealed that only the methyleugenol and methyleugenol/t-anethole chemotypes were active against tested fungi and bacteria. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC ranged from 80 to 150 µl.l-1 and from 200 to 500 µl.l-1 respectively. Likewise, on tested bacteria the MIC varied from 200 µl.l-1 to 400 µl.l-1 and from 250 to 500 µl.l-1 respectively. These findings are supportive of the potential of both basil oil chemotypes for use as active ingredients in natural antibiotic drugs.

  7. Effectiveness of Disinfectants on Antimicrobial and Physical Properties of Dental Impression Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demajo, Jean Karl; Cassar, Valter; Farrugia, Cher; Millan-Sango, David; Sammut, Charles; Valdramidis, Vasilis; Camilleri, Josette

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of chemical disinfectants on alginate and silicone impression materials. The effect of chemical disinfectants on the dimensional stability of the impression materials was also assessed. For the microbiologic assessment, impressions of the maxillary arch were taken from 14 participants, 7 using alginate and 7 using an addition silicone. The impressions were divided into three sections. Each section was subjected to spraying with MD 520 or Minuten or no disinfection (control), respectively. Antimicrobial action of the chemical disinfectants was assessed by measuring microbial counts in trypticase soy agar (TSA) media and expressing the results in colony-forming units/cm2. The surface area of the dental impressions was calculated by scanning a stone cast using computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture and analyzing the data using a custom computer program. The dimensional stability of the impression materials after immersion in disinfectants was assessed by measuring the linear displacement of horizontally restrained materials using a traveling microscope. The percent change in length over 3 hours was thus determined. Alginate exhibited a higher microbial count than silicone. MD 520 eliminated all microbes as opposed to Minuten. The bacterial growth after Minuten disinfection was almost twice as much for alginate than for addition silicone impressions. The chemical disinfectants affected the alginate dimensional stability. Minuten reduced the shrinkage sustained by alginate during the first hour of storage. Alginate harbors three times more microorganisms than silicone impression material. Chemical disinfection by glutaraldehyde-based disinfectant was effective in eliminating all microbial forms for both alginate and silicone without modifying the dimensional stability. Alcohol-based disinfectants, however, reduced the alginate shrinkage during the first 90 minutes of setting. The current studies

  8. Antimicrobial Activity and Physicochemical Properties of Calcium Hydroxide Pastes Used as Intracanal Medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zancan, Rafaela Fernandes; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci; Milanda Lopes, Marcelo Ribeiro; Weckwerth, Paulo Henrique; de Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda; Ponce, José Burgos; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pH, calcium release, solubility, and antimicrobial action against biofilms of calcium hydroxide + saline solution, Calen (SS White Artigos Dentários Ltd, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) (CH/P), Calen camphorated paramonochlorophenol (CMCP) (CH/CMPC), and calcium hydroxide + chlorhexidine (CH/CHX) pastes. The pH of the pastes was determined with a calibrated pH meter placed in direct contact with each paste. The root canals of acrylic teeth (N = 10) were filled with the previously mentioned intracanal dressings and immersed in ultrapure water to measure hydroxyl (pH meter) and calcium ion release (atomic absorption spectrophotometer) at time intervals of 3, 7, 15, and 30 days. To assess solubility, the root canals of acrylic teeth (N = 10) were filled with the previously mentioned pastes and scanned by micro-computed tomographic imaging before (initial) and after 7, 15, and 30 days of immersion in ultrapure water. The solubility of each specimen was the difference between the initial and final volume scanning. For antimicrobial analysis, monospecies and dual-species biofilms were in vitro induced on dentin blocks (N = 20). Afterward, they were treated with the pastes for 7 days. Live/dead dye and a confocal microscope were used to measure the percentage of living cells. Data were statistically compared (P calcium hydroxide + saline solution, CH/P, and CH/CMCP pastes to kill bacterial cells in the biofilms studied. Chlorhexidine added to CH favored greater effectiveness against the previously mentioned bacterial biofilms. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioprotective properties of Dragon's blood resin: In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rajinder K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food preservation is basically done to preserve the natural characteristics and appearance of the food and to increase the shelf life of food. Food preservatives in use are natural, chemical and artificial. Keeping in mind the adverse effects of synthetic food preservatives, there is a need to identify natural food preservatives. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Dragon's blood resin obtained from Dracaena cinnabari Balf f., with a view to develop safer food preservatives. Methods In this study, three solvents of varying polarity were used to extract and separate the medium and high polarity compounds from the non-polar compounds of the Dragon's blood resin. The extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against the food borne pathogens. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were assessed using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging, FRAP, metal chelating and reducing power assays. Total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols of extracts were also estimated using the standard methods. Results Phytochemical analysis of extracts revealed high phenolic content in CH2Cl2 extract of resin. Free radical scavenging of CH2Cl2 extract was found to be highest which is in good correlation with its total phenolic content. All test microorganisms were also inhibited by CH2Cl2 extract. Conclusions Our result provide evidence that CH2Cl2 extract is a potential source of natural antioxidant compounds and exhibited good inhibitory activity against various food borne pathogens. Thus, CH2Cl2 extract of Dragon's blood resin could be considered as possible source of food preservative.

  10. Physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of Trichosanthes anguina and Swietenia mahagoni seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida I. Muhamad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The core objective of this research was to determine the characteristics of oils, nutritional composition and antimicrobial activities of T. anguina and S. mahagoni seeds. Physicochemical characteristics of oils implied higher degree of unsaturation in T. anguina whereas, S. mahagoni oil contained appreciable level of unsaturation. Tri-acyl-glycerols and neutral lipids were found to be most abounded components recorded to 86.2 and 91.3% for T. anguina and 87.0 and 89.4% for S. mahagoni, respectively. GLC analysis showed the presence of fatty acids from series C16:0 to C18:3 for T. anguina and C16:0 to C20:0 for S. mahagoni in which principal fatty acids accounted as punicic (45.1% in T. anguina and linoleic (30.1% in S. mahagoni seed oils. Of the major energy producing nutrients, the seed samples contained large amounts of lipid (36.1% in T. anguina and 57.9% in S. mahagoni and protein (20.9% in T. anguina and 13.0% in S. mahagoni and potentially useful amounts of other nutrients. The knowledge from the nutritional analysis could be important to its appropriate industrial use and for improvement in the nutritional value. Assessment of the anti-microbial studies reported herein revealed the crude extracts of T. anguina and S. mahagoni seeds were not significantly inhibition against most of the tested bacteria and fungi. This study may lead to further ethno-pharmacognostic investigations to identify new compounds with therapeutic promise.

  11. Effect of surface properties of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by dc thermal plasma route on antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, S. V.; Ekambe, P. S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.

    2018-05-01

    The present work reports the role of surface properties of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles on the antimicrobial activity. The NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by gas phase condensation and chemical co-precipitation route. These nanoparticles were extensively investigated using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electro-kinetic property measurements. The HRTEM was used to analyze surface morphology of nickel ferrite nanoparticles obtained by two different routes. Electro-kinetic properties of the nanoparticles under investigation were recorded, analyzed and correlated with the antimicrobial properties. It was observed that nickel ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by thermal plasma route (NFOTP) formed highly stable colloidal solution as compared to chemically synthesized (NFOCP), as the later tends to agglomerate due to low surface charge. The antimicrobial activity of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were investigated on two Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, two Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium and one fungal species Candida albicans. It was noted that the surface properties of NiFe2O4 particles have revealing effect on the antimicrobial activity. The NFOTP nanoparticles showed significant activity for gram negative E. coli bacteria however no activity was observed for other bacteria's and fungi under study. Moreover NFOCP particles did not show any significant activity for both bacteria's and fungi. Further, antimicrobial activity of nickel ferrite nanoparticles were studied even for different concentration to obtain the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC).

  12. Antimicrobial properties of zeolite-X and zeolite-A ion-exchanged with silver, copper, and zinc against a broad range of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Selami; Ustaoğlu, Zeynep; Yılmazer, Gonca Altın; Sahin, Fikrettin; Baç, Nurcan

    2014-02-01

    Zeolites are nanoporous alumina silicates composed of silicon, aluminum, and oxygen in a framework with cations, water within pores. Their cation contents can be exchanged with monovalent or divalent ions. In the present study, the antimicrobial (antibacterial, anticandidal, and antifungal) properties of zeolite type X and A, with different Al/Si ratio, ion exchanged with Ag(+), Zn(2+), and Cu(2+) ions were investigated individually. The study presents the synthesis and manufacture of four different zeolite types characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The ion loading capacity of the zeolites was examined and compared with the antimicrobial characteristics against a broad range of microorganisms including bacteria, yeast, and mold. It was observed that Ag(+) ion-loaded zeolites exhibited more antibacterial activity with respect to other metal ion-embedded zeolite samples. The results clearly support that various synthetic zeolites can be ion exchanged with Ag(+), Zn(2+), and Cu(2+) ions to acquire antimicrobial properties or ion-releasing characteristics to provide prolonged or stronger activity. The current study suggested that zeolite formulations could be combined with various materials used in manufacturing medical devices, surfaces, textiles, or household items where antimicrobial properties are required.

  13. Individual ball possession in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Link

    Full Text Available This paper describes models for detecting individual and team ball possession in soccer based on position data. The types of ball possession are classified as Individual Ball Possession (IBC, Individual Ball Action (IBA, Individual Ball Control (IBC, Team Ball Possession (TBP, Team Ball Control (TBC und Team Playmaking (TPM according to different starting points and endpoints and the type of ball control involved. The machine learning approach used is able to determine how long the ball spends in the sphere of influence of a player based on the distance between the players and the ball together with their direction of motion, speed and the acceleration of the ball. The degree of ball control exhibited during this phase is classified based on the spatio-temporal configuration of the player controlling the ball, the ball itself and opposing players using a Bayesian network. The evaluation and application of this approach uses data from 60 matches in the German Bundesliga season of 2013/14, including 69,667 IBA intervals. The identification rate was F = .88 for IBA and F = .83 for IBP, and the classification rate for IBC was κ = .67. Match analysis showed the following mean values per match: TBP 56:04 ± 5:12 min, TPM 50:01 ± 7:05 min and TBC 17:49 ± 8:13 min. There were 836 ± 424 IBC intervals per match and their number was significantly reduced by -5.1% from the 1st to 2nd half. The analysis of ball possession at the player level indicates shortest accumulated IBC times for the central forwards (0:49 ± 0:43 min and the longest for goalkeepers (1:38 ± 0:58 min, central defenders (1:38 ± 1:09 min and central midfielders (1:27 ± 1:08 min. The results could improve performance analysis in soccer, help to detect match events automatically, and allow discernment of higher value tactical structures, which is based on individual ball possession.

  14. Silver Nanoparticles Complexed with Bovine Submaxillary Mucin Possess Strong Antibacterial Activity and Protect against Seedling Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarovsky, Daria; Fadeev, Ludmila; Salam, Bolaji Babajide; Zelinger, Einat; Matan, Ofra; Inbar, Jacob; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Gozin, Michael; Burdman, Saul

    2018-02-15

    A simple method for the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) of silver (Ag) in a matrix of bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) was reported previously by some of the authors of this study. Based on mucin characteristics such as long-lasting stability, water solubility, and surfactant and adhesive characteristics, we hypothesized that these compounds, named BSM-Ag NPs, may possess favorable properties as potent antimicrobial agents. The goal of this study was to assess whether BSM-Ag NPs possess antibacterial activity, focusing on important plant-pathogenic bacterial strains representing both Gram-negative ( Acidovorax and Xanthomonas ) and Gram-positive ( Clavibacter ) genera. Growth inhibition and bactericidal assays, as well as electron microscopic observations, demonstrate that BSM-Ag NPs, at relatively low concentrations of silver, exert strong antimicrobial effects. Moreover, we show that treatment of melon seeds with BSM-Ag NPs effectively prevents seed-to-seedling transmission of Acidovorax citrulli , one of the most threatening pathogens of cucurbit production worldwide. Overall, our findings demonstrate strong antimicrobial activity of BSM-Ag NPs and their potential application for reducing the spread and establishment of devastating bacterial plant diseases in agriculture. IMPORTANCE Bacterial plant diseases challenge agricultural production, and the means available to manage them are limited. Importantly, many plant-pathogenic bacteria have the ability to colonize seeds, and seed-to-seedling transmission is a critical route by which bacterial plant diseases spread to new regions and countries. The significance of our study resides in the following aspects: (i) the simplicity of the method of BSM-Ag NP synthesis, (ii) the advantageous chemical properties of BSM-Ag NPs, (iii) the strong antibacterial activity of BSM-Ag NPs at relatively low concentrations of silver, and (iv) the fact that, in contrast to most studies on the effects of metal NPs on plant pathogens

  15. Mechanical, physico-chemical, and antimicrobial properties of gelatin-based film incorporated with catechin-lysozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawdkuen Saroat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial activity is a primary cause of deterioration in many foods and is often responsible for reduced quality and safety. Food-borne illnesses associated with E. coli O157:H7, S. aureus, S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes are a major public health concern throughout the world. A number of methods have been employed to control or prevent the growth of these microorganisms in food. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the most promising active packaging systems for effectively retarding the growth of food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical, physico-chemical properties and inhibitory effects of the fish gelatin films against selected food spoilage microorganisms when incorporated with catechin-lysozyme. Results The effect of the catechin-lysozyme combination addition (CLC: 0, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, w/v on fish gelatin film properties was monitored. At the level of 0.5% addition, the CLC showed the greatest elongation at break (EAB at 143.17% with 0.039 mm thickness, and the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP at 6.5 x 10−8 g·mm·h-1·cm-2·Pa-1, whereas the control showed high tensile strength (TS and the highest WVP. Regarding color attributes, the gelatin film without CLC addition gave the highest lightness (L* 91.95 but lowest in redness (a*-1.29 and yellowness (b* 2.25 values. The light transmission of the film did not significantly decrease and nor did film transparency (p>0.05 with increased CLC. Incorporating CLC could not affect the film microstructure. The solubility of the gelatin based film incorporated with CLC was not affected, especially at a high level of addition (p>0.05. Inhibitory activity of the fish gelatin film against E.coli, S.aureus, L. innocua and S. cerevisiae was concentration dependent. Conclusions These findings suggested that CLC incorporation can improve mechanical, physico-chemical, and antimicrobial properties of the resulting films

  16. Copper complexes containing thiosemicarbazones derived from 6-nitropiperonal: Antimicrobial and biophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckford, Floyd A.; Webb, Kelsey R.

    2017-08-01

    A series of four thiosemicarbazones from 6-nitropiperonal along with the corresponding copper complexes were synthesized. The biophysical characteristics of the complexes were investigated by the binding to DNA and human serum albumin. The binding to DNA is moderate; the binding constants run from (0.49-7.50) × 104 M- 1. In relation to HSA, the complexes interact strongly with binding constants on the order of 105 M- 1. The complexes also display antioxidant behavior as determined by the ability to scavenge diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (dpph) and nitric oxide radicals. The antimicrobial profiles of the compounds, tested against a panel of microbes including five of the ESKAPE pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, MDR, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two yeasts (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii), are also described. The compounds contain a core moiety that is similar to oxolinic acid, a quinolone antibiotic that targets DNA gyrase and topoisomerase (IV). The binding interaction between the complexes and these important antibacterial targets were studied by computational methods, chiefly docking studies. The calculated dissociation constants for the interaction with DNA gyrase B (from Staphylococcus aureus) range from 4.32 to 24.65 μM; the binding was much stronger to topoisomerase IV, with dissociation constants ranging from 0.37 to 1.27 μM.

  17. Synthesis, surface properties and antimicrobial activity of some germanium nonionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Mohamed F; Tawfik, Salah M

    2014-01-01

    Esterification reaction between different fatty acid namely; lauric, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids and polyethylene glycol-400 were performed. The produced polyethylene glycol ester were reacted with p-amine benzoic acid followed by condensation reaction with germanium dioxide in presence of sodium carbonate to form desired germinate surfactants. The chemical structures of the synthesized surfactants were determined using different spectra tools. The surface parameter including: the critical micelle concentration (CMC), effectiveness (π(cmc)), efficiency (Pc20), maximum surface excess (Γ(max)) and minimum surface area (A(min)), were calculated from the surface tension measurements. The synthesized surfactants showed higher surface activity. The thermodynamic parameters showed that adsorption and micellization processes are spontaneous. It is clear that the synthesized nonionic surfactants showed their tendency towards adsorption at the interfaces and also micellization in the bulk of their solutions. The synthesized surfactants were tested against different strain of bacteria using inhibition zone diameters. The synthesized surfactants showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms including Gram positive, Gram negative as well as fungi. The promising inhibition efficiency of these compounds against the sulfate reducing bacteria facilitates them to be applicable as new categories of sulfate reducing bacteria biocides.

  18. Antimicrobial peptide KSL-W promotes gingival fibroblast healing properties in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Jin; Salem, Mabrouka; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Leung, Kai P; Rouabhia, Mahmoud

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the effect of synthetic antimicrobial decapeptide KSL-W (KKVVFWVKFK) on normal human gingival fibroblast growth, migration, collagen gel contraction, and α-smooth muscle actin protein expression. Results show that in addition to promoting fibroblast adhesion by increasing F-actin production, peptide KSL-W promoted cell growth by increasing the S and G2/M cell cycle phases, and enhanced the secretion of metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-2 by upregulating MMP inhibitors, such as tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 in fibroblasts. An in vitro wound healing assay confirmed that peptide KSL-W promoted fibroblast migration and contraction of a collagen gel matrix. We also demonstrated a high expression of α-smooth muscle actin by gingival fibroblasts being exposed to KSL-W. This work shows that peptide KSL-W enhances gingival fibroblast growth, migration, and metalloproteinase secretion, and the expression of α-smooth muscle actin, thus promoting wound healing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spectroscopic properties and antimicrobial activity of dioxomolybdenum(VI complexes with heterocyclic S,S’-ligands

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    Sovilj Sofija P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five new dioxomolybdenum(VI complexes of the general formula[MoO2(Rdtc2], 1-5, where Rdtc-refer to piperidine- (Pipdtc, 4-morpholine-(Morphdtc, 4-thiomorpholine-(Timdtc, piperazine- (Pzdtc or Nmethylpiperazine- (N-Mepzdtc dithiocarbamates, respectively, have been prepared. Elemental analysis, conductometric measurements, electronic, IR and NMR spectroscopy have been employed to characterize them. Complexes 1-5 contain a cis-MoO2 group and are of an octahedral geometry. Two dithiocarbamato ions join as bidentates with both the sulphur atoms to the molybdenum atom. The presence of different heteroatom in the piperidinо moiety influences the v(C----N and v(C----S vibrations, which decrease in the order of the complexes with: Pipdtc > N-Mepipdtc > Morphdtc > Pzdtc > Timdtc ligands. On the basis of spectral data, molecular structures of complexes 1-5 were optimized on semiempirical molecular-orbital level, and the geometries, as obtained from calculations, described. Antimicrobial activity was tested against nine different laboratory control strains of bacteria and two strains of yeast Candida albicans. All tested strains were sensitive. Complexes bearing heteroatom in position 4 of piperidine moiety are significantly more potent against bacteria tested comparing to corresponding ligands.

  20. Antimicrobial Properties of an Oxidizer Produced by Burkholderia cenocepacia P525

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compound with both oxidizing properties and antibiotic properties was extracted and purified from broth cultures of Burkholderia cenocepacia strain P525. A four step purification procedure was used to increase its specific activity ~ 400 fold and to yield a HPLC- UV chromatogram containing a sing...

  1. Ferulaldehyde and lupeol as direct and indirect antimicrobial compounds from Cordia gilletii (Boraginaceae) root barks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okusa, Philippe N; Stévigny, Caroline; Névraumont, Marie; Gelbcke, Michel; Van Antwerpen, Pierre; Braekman, Jean Claude; Duez, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Cordia gilletii De Wild (Boraginaceae), a medicinal plant used against infectious diseases in the Democratic Republic of Congo, was investigated for direct and indirect antimicrobial properties. On one hand, the methanol extract is active against many pathogenic bacteria, including resistant strains. Its bio-guided fractionation led to the isolation of ferulaldehyde; this compound showed antimicrobial and antioxidant properties that may support the activity we observed for the methanol extract and some of the traditional uses of C. gilletii. On the other hand, the n-hexane extract of root barks possesses indirect antimicrobial properties, enhancing the activity of antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of lupeol, which decreases the minimum inhibitory concentration of several antibiotics (4 to 8 fold) against MRSA and contributes to the effects observed for the raw n-hexane extract.

  2. Helicobacter pylori in Vegetables and Salads: Genotyping and Antimicrobial Resistance Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Yahaghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From a clinical and epidemiological perspective, it is important to know which genotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns are present in H. pylori strains isolated from salads and vegetables. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to find this purpose. Three hundred eighty washed and unwashed vegetable samples and fifty commercial and traditional salad samples were collected from Isfahan, Iran. Samples were cultured and those found positive for H. pylori were analyzed using PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion method. Seven out of 50 (14% salad and 52 out of 380 (13.68% vegetable samples harbored H. pylori. In addition, leek, lettuce, and cabbage were the most commonly contaminated samples (30%. The most prevalent virulence genes were oipA (86.44% and cagA (57.625. VacA s1a (37.28% and iceA1 (47.45% were the most prevalent genotypes. Forty different genotypic combinations were recognized. S1a/cagA+/iceA1/oipA+ (33.89%, s1a/cagA+/iceA2/oipA (30.50%, and m1a/cagA+/iceA1/oipA+ (28.81% were the most prevalent combined genotypes. Bacterial strains had the highest levels of resistance against metronidazole (77.96%, amoxicillin (67.79%, and ampicillin (61.01%. High similarity in the genotyping pattern of H. pylori among vegetable and salad samples and human specimens suggests that vegetable and salads may be the sources of the bacteria.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of Diospyros melanoxylon bark from Similipal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... However, very limited studies on medicinal plants in general and antimicrobial ..... Recio MC (1989). A review of some antimicrobial compounds isolated ... Rwandese medicinal plants for antimicrobial and antiviral properties.

  4. Antimicrobial properties of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana: a focus on drug resistance with particular reference to quorum sensing-mediated bacterial biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Ratul; Mondal, Chaitali; Bera, Rammohan; Chakraborty, Sumon; Barik, Rajib; Roy, Paramita; Kumar, Alekh; Yadav, Kirendra K; Choudhury, Jayanta; Chaudhary, Sushil K; Samanta, Samir K; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Das, Satadal; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Sen, Tuhinadri

    2015-07-01

    This study attempts to investigate the antimicrobial properties of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana with a particular reference to quorum sensing (QS)-mediated biofilm formation. The methanol extract of K. blossfeldiana leaves (MEKB) was evaluated for antimicrobial properties including QS-controlled production of biofilm (including virulence factor, motility and lactone formation) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methanol extract of K. blossfeldiana was also evaluated for anti-cytokine (tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1 beta) properties in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Methanol extract of K. blossfeldiana exhibited antimicrobial effect on clinical isolates, as well as standard reference strains. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposed to MEKB (subminimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)) displayed reduced biofilm formation, whereas supra-MIC produced destruction of preformed biofilms. Methanol extract of K. blossfeldiana reduced the secretion of virulence factors (protease and pyoverdin) along with generation of acyl homoserine lactone (AHL). Confocal laser scanning microscopy images indicate reduction of biofilm thickness. The extract also reduced cytokine formation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated PBMC. Kalanchoe blossfeldiana was found to interfere with AHL production, which in turn may be responsible for downregulating QS-mediated production of biofilm and virulence. This first report on the antibiofilm and anticytokine properties of this plant may open up new vistas for future exploration of this plant for combating biofilm-related resistant infections. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF HYDROXYAPATITE COATINGS CONTAINING OF CHITOSAN AND SILVER ON TITANIUM SUBSTRATES IN RELATION TO MICROORGANISMS E.COLI ATCC 25922

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhodub LB

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work it was studied the antibacterial properties of coatings based on HA, with Chitosan and silver ions additions, produced by substrates termodeposition method from aqueous solutions with varying concentrations of Chitosan (0.025 and 0.1 g/l and silver (1 mg/l as the antimicrobial components as well as three-part cover, consisting of a film of Chitosan, HA and silver. Study on antibacterial properties of composite coatings on the pathogen E.coli ATCC 25922 was held by Spectrophotometric measurement and analysis of optical density of suspensions, containing samples. 3 series of measurements data were averaged. The results showed that the concentration of antimicrobial components have indicated a bacteriostatic effect of coatings on the culture of E. coli AS ATCC 25922 in physiological solution at a temperature of 37 °C. The most effective was the three-part cover consisting of a film of chitosan, HA and silver.

  6. Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cell (GMSC) Delivery System Based on RGD-Coupled Alginate Hydrogel with Antimicrobial Properties: A Novel Treatment Modality for Peri-Implantitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Ivana M A; Chen, Chider; Ansari, Sahar; Zadeh, Homayoun H; Moshaverinia, Maryam; Chee, Daniel; Marques, Márcia M; Shi, Songtao; Moshaverinia, Alireza

    2016-02-01

    Peri-implantitis is one of the most common inflammatory complications in dental implantology. Similar to periodontitis, in peri-implantitis, destructive inflammatory changes take place in the tissues surrounding a dental implant. Bacterial flora at the failing implant sites resemble the pathogens in periodontal disease and consist of Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa). Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of a silver lactate (SL)-containing RGD-coupled alginate hydrogel scaffold as a promising stem cell delivery vehicle with antimicrobial properties. Gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) or human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) were encapsulated in SL-loaded alginate hydrogel microspheres. Stem cell viability, proliferation, and osteo-differentiation capacity were analyzed. Our results showed that SL exhibited antimicrobial properties against Aa in a dose-dependent manner, with 0.50 mg/ml showing the greatest antimicrobial properties while still maintaining cell viability. At this concentration, SL-containing alginate hydrogel was able to inhibit Aa growth on the surface of Ti discs and significantly reduce the bacterial load in Aa suspensions. Silver ions were effectively released from the SL-loaded alginate microspheres for up to 2 weeks. Osteogenic differentiation of GMSCs and hBMMSCs encapsulated in the SL-loaded alginate microspheres were confirmed by the intense mineral matrix deposition and high expression of osteogenesis-related genes. Taken together, our findings confirm that GMSCs encapsulated in RGD-modified alginate hydrogel containing SL show promise for bone tissue engineering with antimicrobial properties against Aa bacteria in vitro. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  7. Modulating the properties of sunflower oil based novel emulgels using castor oil fatty acid ester: prospects for topical antimicrobial drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, B; Biswal, D; Uvanesh, K; Srivastava, A K; Bhattacharya, Mrinal K; Paramanik, K; Pal, K

    2015-04-01

    The current study describes the effect of polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) on the properties of sunflower oil and span-40 based emulgels. The prepared emulgels contained PGPR in varied concentrations. The microstructure of the emulgels was characterized by bright-field microscopy. The molecular interactions amongst the components of the emulgels were studied using FTIR spectroscopy. The flow and mechanical behaviors of the emulgels were studied using cone-and-plate viscometer and static mechanical tester, respectively. The efficiency of the metronidazole-loaded emulgels as antimicrobial formulations was tested in vitro. E. coli was used as the model microorganism for the antimicrobial study. The emulgels were also explored for iontophoretic delivery applications. The biocompatibility of the emulgels was tested using human keratinocytes (HaCaT). The microscopic evaluation of the emulgels indicated formation of biphasic formulations. FTIR studies suggested a decrease in the hydrogen bonding amongst the components of the emulgels as the concentration of the PGPR was increased. Viscosity studies indicated shear-thinning property of the emulgels. An increase in the PGPR concentration resulted in the reduction in the mechanical properties of the emulgels. Incorporation of PGPR resulted in the decrease in the drug released (both passive and iontophoresis) from the emulgels. The emulgels were found to be cytocompatible in the presence of keratinocytes. The drug loaded emulgels showed good antimicrobial activity against E. coli. In gist, the developed emulgels can be tried for controlled delivery of antimicrobial drugs. The physical and the release properties of the emulgels can be modulated by incorporating PGPR in varied proportions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Luminescence, Electrochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Bis(salamo-Based Co(II Complex

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    Li Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A newly designed Co(II complex, [Co3(L(OAc2(CH3OH2]·CH3OH, by the reaction of a bis(salamo-type tetraoxime ligand (H4L with Co(II acetate tetrahydrate was synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, UV-vis spectra and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The UV-vis titration experiment manifested that a trinuclear (L:M = 1:3 complex was formed. It is worth noting that the two terminal Co(II (Co1 and Co3 atoms of the Co(II complex have different coordination modes and geometries unreported earlier. Furthermore, through intermolecular interactions (C–H···O, C–H···π and O–H···O, a 2D layer-like network is constructed. In addition, the fluorescence behaviors, antimicrobial activities and electrochemical properties of H4L and its Co(II complex were investigated.

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... least 10 countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Japan, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden and the United Kingdom ... plan Global report on surveillance Country situation analysis Policy to combat antimicrobial resistance More on antimicrobial resistance ...

  10. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can prevent and manage antimicrobial resistance. It is collaborating with partners to strengthen the evidence base and ... on the global action plan. WHO has been leading multiple initiatives to address antimicrobial resistance: World Antibiotic ...

  11. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzagh Mahmoudi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plant can be considered as a great source of new antimicrobial agents due to their enormous therapeutic potential and limited side effects. Nettle (Urtica dioica L. is a widespread and common medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potency of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica on some gram positive and negative bacteria and also a particular type of fungi and analyzes the extracts to find the active ingredients by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS method. Results from disc diffusion assay indicated that water extract of root, leaf and stalk had the highest antimicrobial activity respectively and caused significant inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, L. monocytogenes and K. pneumoniae cultures. Antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts was higher in root extract which caused high growth inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus cultures. MBC and MIC experiments of the ethanol extract illustrated that the most powerful antimicrobial effect was related to the stem organ extract on K. pnuomonae and S. aureus bacteria. Highest level of antibacterial effects in root can be due to its higher concentration of contents compared to other organs. Based on these results it can be suggested that Urtica dioica and its water and ethanol extracts have noticeable antimicrobial effects against gram negative, positive and Candida albicans fungi that may be applicable as a prophylactic or therpeutic antimicrobial agent in both human and animals.

  12. Acanthus montanus: An experimental evaluation of the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunological properties of a traditional remedy for furuncles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwoye Anthonia C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acanthus montanus (Nees T. Anderson (Acanthaceae is a shrub widespread in Africa, the Balkans, Romania, Greece and Eastern Mediterranean. It is used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of urogenital infections, urethral pain, endometritis, urinary disease, cystitis, leucorrhoea, aches and pains. In southeastern Nigeria, the root is popular and acclaimed highly effective in the treatment of furuncles. This study was undertaken to experimentally evaluate the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of the root extract as well as its effect on phagocytosis and specific cell-mediated immune response which may underlie the usefulness of the roots in treatment of furuncles. Methods The aqueous root extract (obtained by hot water maceration of the root powder was studied for effects on the growth of clinically isolated strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using acute topical edema of the mouse ear induced by xylene, acute paw edema induced by agar in rats, formaldehyde arthritis in rats, vascular permeability induced by acetic acid in mice and heat- and hypotonicity-induced haemolysis of ox red blood cells (RBCs. Also evaluated were the effects on in vivo leukocyte migration induced by agar, phagocytic activity of macrophages on Candida albicans and specific cell-mediated immune responses (delayed type hypersensitivity reaction (DTHR induced by sheep red blood cell (SRBC. The acute toxicity and lethality (LD50 in mice and phytochemical constituents of the extract were also determined. Results The extract moderately inhibited the growth of the test organisms and significantly (P P P P C. albicans at 800 mg/kg dose, and significantly (P 50 greater than 5,000 mg/kg. Conclusion The effectiveness of the root of A. montanus in the treatment of furuncles may largely derive from mobilization of leukocytes to the site of the infection and activation

  13. Antimicrobials Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosinos, Eleftherios H.; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.; Mataragas, Marios

    The use of antimicrobials is a common practice for preservation of foods. Incorporation, in a food recipe, of chemical antimicrobials towards inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms results in the compositional modification of food. This treatment is nowadays undesirable for the consumer, who likes natural products. Scientific community reflecting consumers demand for natural antimicrobials has made efforts to investigate the possibility to use natural antimicrobials such us bacteriocins and essential oils of plant origin to inhibit microbial growth.

  14. Antimicrobial effect of lactobacillus and bacillus derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the screening, production, extraction of biosurfactants from Lactobacillus and Bacillus bacteria and their antimicrobial properties against causal microorganisms of food borne infections (food borne pathogens). The biosurfactants were investigated for potential antimicrobial activity using disk diffusion.

  15. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, toxicity and analgesic properties of ethanol extract of Solena amplexicaulis root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Golam Kabir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was subjected to investigate different pharmacological properties of ethanol extract ofSolena amplexicaulis root. RESULTS: The extract contains flavonoid, alkaloid, saponin and steroid compounds. The extract exhibited excellent antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging activity. The extract also showed potent activity in brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The LC50 value was found to 44.677 µg/ml. The extract showed better anti-bacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria. In antifungal assay, the maximum 79.31% of anti-mycotic activity was observed against Aspergillus ochraceus while minimum 44.2% against Rhizopus oryzae. MIC value ranged between 1500 - 3000 µg/ml. The extract was found moderately toxic with a 24-hr LD50 value of 81.47 mg/kg in Swiss albino mice. The degree of inhibition by the ethanolic extract of the root was found less than that of standard analgesic drug diclofenac sodium. The extract also showed moderate anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity and anti-diabetic property. Reducing power of the extract was comparable with standard ascorbic acid. Moderate in vitro thrombolytic activity, lipid peroxidation inhibition property, metal chelating ability and stress-protective activity was also observed. CONCLUSION: Ethanol extract of Solena amplexicaulis root can be valuable for treatment of different diseases.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance challenged with metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Aziz, Alaa S; Agatemor, Christian; Etkin, Nola

    2017-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance threatens the achievements of science and medicine, as it deactivates conventional antimicrobial therapeutics. Scientists respond to the threat by developing new antimicrobial platforms to prevent and treat infections from these resistant strains. Metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules are emerging as an alternative to conventional platforms because they combine multiple mechanisms of action into one platform due to the distinctive properties of metals. For example, metals interact with intracellular proteins and enzymes, and catalyse various intracellular processes. The macromolecular architecture offers a means to enhance antimicrobial activity since several antimicrobial moieties can be conjugated to the scaffold. Further, these macromolecules can be fabricated into antimicrobial materials for contact-killing medical implants, fabrics, and devices. As volatilization or leaching out of the antimicrobial moieties from the macromolecular scaffold is reduced, these medical implants, fabrics, and devices can retain their antimicrobial activity over an extended period. Recent advances demonstrate the potential of metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules as effective platforms that prevent and treat infections from resistant strains. In this review these advances are thoroughly discussed within the context of examples of metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules, their mechanisms of action and biocompatibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Antimicrobial Properties of Nano Quinolone with its Microscale Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, G. Rezaie; Sadr, M. Hossaini; Nabipour, H.; Behbahani, H. Rezaei; Vahedpour, M.; Barzegar, L.

    2013-06-01

    Nano nalidixic acid was prepared by ultrasonic method in carbon tetrachloride. Nano nalidixic acid (quinolone antibiotic) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The antibacterial activities of nano nalidixic acid were tested against microorganisms and compared with the microscale drug. The results show that nano nalidixic acid has good inhibitory properties against two Gram-positive species, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Nano nalidixic acid also showed good antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Nano nalidixic acid can be injected into the human body as a decontaminating agent to prevent the growth of harmful microorganisms more effectively than the micro-sized drug.

  18. Chemical analysis, antimicrobial and anti-oxidative properties of Daucus gracilis essential oil and its mechanism of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem El Kolli

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: D. gracilis EO showed potent antimicrobial and anti-oxidative activities and had acted on the cytoplasm membrane. These activities could be exploited in the food industry for food preservation.

  19. Amphiphilic Peptide Interactions with Complex Biological Membranes : Effect of peptide properties on antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    With increasing problem of resistance development in bacteria against conventional antibiotics, as well as problems associated with diseases either triggered or enhanced by infection, there is an urgent need to identify new types of effective therapeutics for the treatment of infectious diseases and its consequences. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory peptides have attracted considerable interest as potential new antibiotics in this context. While antimicrobial function of such peptides is b...

  20. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Razzagh Mahmoudi; Kiumars Amini; Omid Fakhri; Mahsa Alem

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plant can be considered as a great source of new antimicrobial agents due to their enormous therapeutic potential and limited side effects. Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a widespread and common medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potency of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica on some gram positive and negative bacteria and also a particular type of fungi and analyzes the extracts to find the active ingredie...

  1. Physicochemical, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Chitosan Films Incorporated with Carvacrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia E. Burruel-Ibarra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan films (CF with carvacrol (CAR [0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% v/v] were prepared by the emulsion method. The retained CAR, water solubility, water vapor permeability (WVP, optical, mechanical properties, antibacterial and antioxidant capacity of films were analyzed. The results indicate that the retention of CAR in the CF was ≈50%. The incorporation of CAR to CF decreased the water solubility, the WVP, the yellowing and transparency and the tensile strength, but increased the stiffness. Microcapsules with diameters of 2 to 7 µm were found on the surface CF-CAR. The CF-CAR with highest CAR concentrations showed antibacterial activity against S. typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7. The CF-CAR had higher antioxidant capacity and an increased protective effect against oxidation of erythrocytes in different grades. These results suggest potential applications of CF-CAR as active packaging to preserve food products.

  2. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of dried Portuguese apple variety (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Bravo de Esmolfe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Tânia C S P; Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Alves, Maria José; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2018-02-01

    Malus domestica Borkh apples are one of the most consumed fruits in the world, due to their sweetness and flavour. Herein, 'Bravo de Esmolfe' apple fruits were characterized regarding their nutritional value, chemical composition and bioactive properties. Besides nutrients, flavan-3-ols (i.e., epicatechin and B-type procyanidins) as also hydroxycinnamoyl-quinic acids and phloretin derivatives were identified in the samples. Extracts prepared from 'Bravo de Esmolfe' also proved to have antioxidant activity and antibacterial effects against Gram-positive bacteria, namely methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis, and against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli (ESBL) (producing extended spectrum β-lactamases) and Morganella morganii. There is very little information about 'Bravo de Esmolfe' apple, so this study is important to inform consumers about an alternative source of nutritional and bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Incorporation of silver nanoparticles on the surface of orthodontic microimplants to achieve antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Adith; Muthuchamy, Nallal; Tejani, Harsh; Gopalan, Anantha-Iyengar; Lee, Kwang-Pill; Lee, Heon-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Objective Microbial aggregation around dental implants can lead to loss/loosening of the implants. This study was aimed at surface treating titanium microimplants with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to achieve antibacterial properties. Methods AgNP-modified titanium microimplants (Ti-nAg) were prepared using two methods. The first method involved coating the microimplants with regular AgNPs (Ti-AgNP) and the second involved coating them with a AgNP-coated biopolymer (Ti-BP-AgNP). The topologies, microstructures, and chemical compositions of the surfaces of the Ti-nAg were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Disk diffusion tests using Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were performed to test the antibacterial activity of the Ti-nAg microimplants. Results SEM revealed that only a meager amount of AgNPs was sparsely deposited on the Ti-AgNP surface with the first method, while a layer of AgNP-coated biopolymer extended along the Ti-BP-AgNP surface in the second method. The diameters of the coated nanoparticles were in the range of 10 to 30 nm. EDS revealed 1.05 atomic % of Ag on the surface of the Ti-AgNP and an astounding 21.2 atomic % on the surface of the Ti-BP-AgNP. XPS confirmed the metallic state of silver on the Ti-BP-AgNP surface. After 24 hours of incubation, clear zones of inhibition were seen around the Ti-BP-AgNP microimplants in all three test bacterial culture plates, whereas no antibacterial effect was observed with the Ti-AgNP microimplants. Conclusions Titanium microimplants modified with Ti-BP-AgNP exhibit excellent antibacterial properties, making them a promising implantable biomaterial. PMID:28127534

  4. The qualified possession turn into ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Possession is prima facie evidence of ownership. Possession is ninetents of the law, means that possession is good against all other, except the true owner. The possession ripens into ownership if it is qualified and by effluxion of time. In Serbian law there are two kinds of adverse possession ripens into ownership. The first one is named ordinary and second one extraordinary adverse possession. Ordinary possession need to be legal, conscientious and genuine. Extraordinary possession is only conscientious, but in a wide sense. Adverse possession destroys the title of the owner and vests it in possessor. An occupation of land inconsistent with the right of the true owner: the possession of those against whom a right action has accured to the true owner. It is actual possession in the absence of possession by the rightful owner and without lawful title. If the adverse possession continues, the effect at the expiration of the prescribed period is that not only the remedy but the title of former owner is extinguished. The person in adverse possession gains a new possessory title which cannot, normally exceed in extent of duration the interest of the former owner.

  5. Alginate edible films containing microencapsulated lemongrass oil or citral: effect of encapsulating agent and storage time on physical and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Moyano, Jessica K; Bustos, Rubén O; Herrera, María Lidia; Matiacevich, Silvia B

    2017-08-01

    Active edible films have been proposed as an alternative to extend shelf life of fresh foods. Most essential oils have antimicrobial properties; however, storage conditions could reduce their activity. To avoid this effect the essential oil (EO) can be microencapsulated prior to film casting. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the type of encapsulating agent (EA), type of EO and storage time on physical properties and antimicrobial activity of alginate-based films against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Trehalose (TH), Capsul ® (CAP) and Tween 20 (Tw20) were used as EA. Lemongrass essential oil (LMO) and citral were used as active agents. The results showed that the type of EA affected the stability of the film forming-emulsions as well as the changes in opacity and colour of the films during storage but not the antimicrobial activity of them. Both microencapsulated EOs showed a prolonged release from the alginate films during the 28 days of storage. Trehalose was selected to encapsulate both active compounds because the films made with this microencapsulated EA showed the greatest physical stability and the lowest color variation among all the films studied.

  6. [The study of antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles in the form of a colloidal solution in the matrix of finely dispersed silica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchak, G I; Surmasheva, E V; Mikhienkova, A I; Nikonova, N A; Romanenko, L I; Oliĭnyk, Z A; Gorval', A K; Rosada, M A

    2012-01-01

    In the experimental study obtained with chemical method colloid solution of nanoparticles (NPs) of silver (Ag) and a composite on his base in the matrix of finely dispersed silica with particle size of 8-12 nm and NPs concentration in basic solution of 0,0016% (0,016 mg/cm3) were established to exhibit high antimicrobial activity against the test organisms: E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. Aureus and C. Albicans, which depended on a set of factors. Antibacterial properties of tissue impregnated with Ag-NPs were studied. As stabilizing substances a mixture of surface-active substance sodium dodecyl sulfate and polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone was used Before the beginning of the study effective neutralizer was tailored. Times of preservation of antimicrobial activity of test samples have been established, and also their stability throughout long term of supervision (24 months) has been shown. Effect of organic pollution on antimicrobal activity of the samples has been studied. Based on obtained results the algorithm of the study of antimicrobial properties of nanopreparations has been elaborated.

  7. Influence of Cu–Ti thin film surface properties on antimicrobial activity and viability of living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcieszak, Damian; Kaczmarek, Danuta; Antosiak, Aleksandra; Mazur, Michal; Rybak, Zbigniew; Rusak, Agnieszka; Osekowska, Malgorzata; Poniedzialek, Agata; Gamian, Andrzej; Szponar, Bogumila

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes properties of thin-film coatings based on copper and titanium. Thin films were prepared by co-sputtering of Cu and Ti targets in argon plasma. Deposited coatings consist of 90 at.% of Cu and 10 at.% of Ti. Characterization of the film was made on the basis of investigations of microstructure and physicochemical properties of the surface. Methods such as scanning electron microscopy, x-ray microanalysis, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, optical profilometry and wettability measurements were used to assess the properties of deposited thin films. An impact of Cu–Ti coating on the growth of selected bacteria and viability of the living cells (line L929, NCTC clone 929) was described in relation to the structure, surface state and wettability of the film. It was found that as-deposited films were amorphous. However, in such surroundings the nanocrystalline grains of 10–15 nm and 25–35 nm size were present. High surface active area with a roughness of 8.9 nm, had an effect on receiving relatively high water contact angle value (74.1°). Such wettability may promote cell adhesion and result in an increase of the probability of copper ion transfer from the film surface into the cell. Thin films revealed bactericidal and fungicidal effects even in short term-contact. High activity of prepared films was directly related to high amount (ca. 51 %) of copper ions at 1+ state as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results have shown. - Graphical abstract: Bactericidal and fungicidal effects of time contact with surface of Cu–Ti thin films. - Highlights: • Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic effect (viability of L929 cell line) of metallic Cu–Ti films • Thin films were prepared by co-sputtering of Cu and Ti. • As-deposited Cu–Ti films were amorphous and homogenous. • Bactericidal and fungicidal effects even in short term-contact were observed

  8. Influence of Cu–Ti thin film surface properties on antimicrobial activity and viability of living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcieszak, Damian, E-mail: damian.wojcieszak@pwr.edu.pl [Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wroclaw (Poland); Kaczmarek, Danuta [Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wroclaw (Poland); Antosiak, Aleksandra [Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53-114 Wrocław (Poland); Mazur, Michal [Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wroclaw (Poland); Rybak, Zbigniew; Rusak, Agnieszka; Osekowska, Malgorzata [Department for Experimental Surgery and Biomaterials Research, Wroclaw Medical University, Poniatowskiego 2, 50-326 Wroclaw (Poland); Poniedzialek, Agata [Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wroclaw (Poland); Gamian, Andrzej; Szponar, Bogumila [Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53-114 Wrocław (Poland)

    2015-11-01

    The paper describes properties of thin-film coatings based on copper and titanium. Thin films were prepared by co-sputtering of Cu and Ti targets in argon plasma. Deposited coatings consist of 90 at.% of Cu and 10 at.% of Ti. Characterization of the film was made on the basis of investigations of microstructure and physicochemical properties of the surface. Methods such as scanning electron microscopy, x-ray microanalysis, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, optical profilometry and wettability measurements were used to assess the properties of deposited thin films. An impact of Cu–Ti coating on the growth of selected bacteria and viability of the living cells (line L929, NCTC clone 929) was described in relation to the structure, surface state and wettability of the film. It was found that as-deposited films were amorphous. However, in such surroundings the nanocrystalline grains of 10–15 nm and 25–35 nm size were present. High surface active area with a roughness of 8.9 nm, had an effect on receiving relatively high water contact angle value (74.1°). Such wettability may promote cell adhesion and result in an increase of the probability of copper ion transfer from the film surface into the cell. Thin films revealed bactericidal and fungicidal effects even in short term-contact. High activity of prepared films was directly related to high amount (ca. 51 %) of copper ions at 1+ state as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results have shown. - Graphical abstract: Bactericidal and fungicidal effects of time contact with surface of Cu–Ti thin films. - Highlights: • Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic effect (viability of L929 cell line) of metallic Cu–Ti films • Thin films were prepared by co-sputtering of Cu and Ti. • As-deposited Cu–Ti films were amorphous and homogenous. • Bactericidal and fungicidal effects even in short term-contact were observed.

  9. Antimicrobial role of human meibomian lipids at the ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam

    2014-10-14

    Human meibomian lipids form the outermost lipid layer of the tear film and serve many important functions to maintain its integrity. Although not investigated earlier, these lipids may have antimicrobial properties that help in strengthening the innate host defense of tears at the ocular surface. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial role of human meibomian lipids. Ocular pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus 31, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 19, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 20, and Serratia marcescens 35, were grown in the presence and absence of human meibomian lipids in an artificial tear solution at the physiological temperature. Viable counts were obtained to note the number of bacteria surviving the treatment with meibomian lipids. Bacterial cells were imaged using scanning electron microscopy to observe the damages caused by meibomian lipids. Viable count results showed that in the presence of meibomian lipids, growth of all bacteria was considerably lower. Scanning electron microscopy showed that meibomian lipids caused extensive cellular damage to bacteria as manifested in smaller size, loss of aggregation, abnormal phenotype, cellular distortion, damaged cell wall, and cell lysis. This is the first-ever report of the antimicrobial role of human meibomian lipids. These lipids possess antimicrobial properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and are involved in the innate host defense of tears in protecting the ocular surface against microbial pathogens. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  10. Anti-corrosive and anti-microbial properties of nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghupathy, Y.; Natarajan, K.A.; Srivastava, Chandan, E-mail: csrivastava@materials.iisc.ernet.in

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrodeposition yielded phase-segregated, nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings. • Ni-Ag alloys exhibited smaller Ni crystals compared to pure Ni. • Ultra fine Ni grains of size 12–14 nm favoured Ni-Ag solid solution. • Nanocrystalline Ag resisted bio-fouling by Sulphate Reducing bacteria. • Ni-Ag outperformed pure Ni in corrosion and bio-corrosion tests. - Abstract: Anti-corrosive and anti-bacterial properties of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings are illustrated. Pure Ni, Ni-7 at.% Ag, & Ni-14 at.% Ag coatings were electrodeposited on Cu substrate. Coating consisted of Ni-rich and Ag-rich solid solution phases. With increase in the Ag content, the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ag coating initially increased and then decreased. The initial increase was due to the Ni-Ag solid solution. The subsequent decrease was due to the increased galvanic coupling between the Ag-rich and Ni-rich phases. For all Ag contents, the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ag coating was higher than the pure Ni coating. Exposure to Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) revealed that the extent of bio-fouling decreased with increase in the Ag content. After 2 month exposure to SRB, the Ni-Ag coatings demonstrated less loss in corrosion resistance (58% for Ni-7 at.% Ag and 20% for Ni-14 at.% Ag) when compared pure Ni coating (115%).

  11. Characterization and antimicrobial properties of food packaging methylcellulose films containing stem extract of Ginja cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Débora; Piccirillo, Clara; Pullar, Robert C; Castro, Paula Ml; Pintado, Maria M E

    2014-08-01

    Food contamination and spoilage is a problem causing growing concern. To avoid it, the use of food packaging with appropriate characteristics is essential; ideally, the packaging should protect food from external contamination and exhibit antibacterial properties. With this aim, methylcellulose (MC) films containing natural extracts from the stems of Ginja cherry, an agricultural by-product, were developed and characterized. The antibacterial activity of films was screened by the disc diffusion method and quantified using the viable cell count assay. The films inhibited the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains (Listeria innocua, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli). For the films with lower extract content, effectiveness against the microorganisms depended on the inoculum concentration. Scanning electron microscope images of the films showed that those containing the extracts had a smooth and continuous structure. UV-visible spectroscopy showed that these materials do not transmit light in the UV. This study shows that MC films containing agricultural by-products, in this case Ginja cherry stem extract, could be used to prevent food contamination by relevant bacterial strains and degradation by UV light. Using such materials in food packaging, the shelf life of food products could be extended while utilizing an otherwise wasted by-product. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Antimicrobial and thermal properties of metal complexes of grafted fabrics with acrylic acid by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.S.; Attia, R.M.; Zohdy, M.H.; Khalil, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Cotton, cotton/ ET blend and PET fabrics were treated against microbial effect by radiation -induced grafting of acrylic acid followed by metal complexation with some divalent transition metal ions like Co (l l), Ni(l l) and Cu(l l).The microbial resistance was evaluated by testing the mechanical properties of the treated fabrics after burring for one and two weeks in a moist soil reach with microorganisms. Also, the structural damage of the fabrics caused by biodegradation was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Moreover, the effect of this treatment on the thermal decomposition behaviour was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). On the basis of microbial studies, it was found that the metal complexation of the grafted fabrics with acrylic acid enhanced the microbial resistance of the fabrics and the microbial resistance could be arranged according to the complexed metal ions as follows: copper> nickel> cobalt. Also, the thermal stability of different fabrics could be arranged as follow: grafted fabrics complexes with Cu (l l) grafted fabrics complexes with Co (l l)

  13. Metal Removal and Antimicrobial Properties of Watermelon rind modified with clove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current rapid development of industrial activity indirectly discharged pollutant into the local water stream. One of the harmful industrial wastes that enter public drainage is heavy metal owing to its toxic, non-biodegradable and persistent in nature. Improper treatment of domestic waste also will discharged high amount of microbial. Various types of technology were developed for removing pollutant in wastewater, but most of the technology employed to address on removing organic content in wastewater. Other pollutant namely, heavy metals and microbial indirectly treated at low concentration of pollutant loading. Among various available technologies for water treatment adsorption process is considered a promising technology as compared to other methods because of convenience, easy operational and low cost of treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate potential used of local fruit rind modified with herb as adsorbent material. The rind present strong potential due to its high content of cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose and lignin as active binding sites for metal sorption. Modified rind improves absorption by having anti microbial properties to kill pathogenic organisms. The concentration of heavy metal ions was analysed using ICP-MS. E. coli and total colifrm were plated out using chromocult agar. The results showed significant reductions of heavy metals and microbial concentration after wastewater was treated with clove modified rind.

  14. Tetracycline compounds with non-antimicrobial organ protective properties: possible mechanisms of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Michael O.; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Tetracyclines were developed as a result of the screening of soil samples for antibiotics. The firstt of these compounds, chlortetracycline, was introduced in 1947. Tetracyclines were found to be highly effective against various pathogens including rickettsiae, as well as both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, thus becoming the first class of broad spectrum antibiotics. Many other interesting properties, unrelated to their antibiotic activity, have been identified for tetracyclines which have led to widely divergent experimental and clinical uses. For example, tetracyclines are also an effective anti-malarial drug. Minocycline, which can readily cross cell membranes, is known to be a potent anti-apoptotic agent. Another tetracycline, doxycycline is known to exert anti-protease activities. Doxycycline can inhibit matrix metalloproteinases which contribute to tissue destruction activities in diseases such as periodontitis. A large body of literature has provided additional evidence for the “beneficial” actions of tetracyclines, including their ability to act as reactive oxygen species scavengers and anti-inflammatory agents. This review provides a summary of tetracycline’s multiple mechanisms of action as a means to understand their beneficial effects. PMID:20951211

  15. Chemical composition, antimicrobial properties and toxicity evaluation of the essential oil of Cupressus lusitanica Mill. leaves from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teke, Gerald Ngo; Elisée, Kemadjou Nana; Roger, Kuiate Jules

    2013-06-13

    The leaves of Cupressus lusitanica Mill. are used in the western highlands of Cameroon for their medicinal property. The leaves of this species were collected in the West Region of Cameroon in August 2010 and subjected to hydrodistillation to obtain the essential oil. The oil was fractionated using adsorption column chromatography. The chemical composition of this oil and its fractions was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil and fractions were tested for antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial species and six species of Candida by the agar diffusion method. Macrodilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibition concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal and/or fungicidal concentrations (MBCs and MFCs). The toxicity profile of the oil was studied using Swiss mice and Wistar albino rats. Forty-nine compounds were identified in the essential oil. The main components were germacrene D (18.5%), epi-zonarene (8.2%), cis-calamenene (8.2%), terpinen-4-ol (6.3%), linalool (6.0%) and umbellulone (6.0%). Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans were most susceptible to the oil (MICs of 1.25 and 0.16% for bacteria and fungi respectively). The estimated oral LD50 was 6.33 g/kg. There was an increase in sera ALT and AST activities while the blood cells and protein levels decreased in treated animals. The results obtained from this study support the ethnomedicinal use of C. lusitanica leaf oil in the treatment of whooping cough and skin infections though it should be used with care. This plant oil could be useful in the standardisation of phytomedicine.

  16. The release properties of silver ions from Ag-nHA/TiO{sub 2}/PA66 antimicrobial composite scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Xia; Li Jidong; Wang Li; Huang Di; Zuo Yi; Li Yubao, E-mail: nic7504@scu.edu.c [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2010-08-01

    Implant-associated bacterial infection can jeopardize the clinical success of implants and result in loss of supporting bone. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel porous scaffold with long-term antibacterial activity for bone repair or regeneration. Porous nano-hydroxyapatite/titania/polyamide66 scaffolds containing different amounts of silver ions (Ag-nHA/TiO{sub 2}/PA66) were prepared by a phase inversion technique. The release of silver ions from the porous scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) and in the F12 cell culture medium was evaluated via atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that the release of Ag{sup +} was time and concentration dependent, increasing with the immersion time and the silver content in the scaffolds. On the other hand, the release property of Ag{sup +} was also influenced by the immersion medium. The cumulative Ag{sup +} release in the F12 medium with time increase parabolically, different from the linear increase or the zero-order release kinetics in the SBF medium. Compared to the slight fluctuation of the Ag{sup +} release rate in SBF during the whole immersion period, the initial fast release rate and the later sustained release rate of Ag{sup +} in the F12 medium could be more helpful for preventing implant-associated infection. Since the Ag-nHA/TiO{sub 2} particles were embedded in the PA66 matrix, the long-term-sustained release should be related both to the relaxation of PA macromolecular chains due to the penetration of water and to the slow release of the substituted Ag{sup +} ions in the HA lattice. The sustained Ag{sup +} release with time indicates that the composite scaffold is suitable for a long-term antimicrobial application during the scaffold-assisted bone repair or regeneration.

  17. The role of copper nanoparticles in an etch-and-rinse adhesive on antimicrobial activity, mechanical properties and the durability of resin-dentine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Mario F; Malaquias, Pamela; Hass, Viviane; Matos, Thalita P; Lourenço, Lucas; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Farago, Paulo Vitor

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of addition of copper nanoparticles at different concentrations into an etch-and-rinse adhesive (ER) on antimicrobial activity, Knoop microhardness (KHN), in vitro and in situ degree of conversion (DC), as well as the immediate (IM) and 2-year (2Y) resin-dentine bond strength (μTBS) and nanoleakage (NL). Seven experimental ER adhesives were formulated according to the amount of copper nanoparticles incorporated into the adhesives (0 [control], 0.0075 to 1wt.%). We tested the antimicrobial activity of adhesives against Streptococcus mutans using agar diffusion assay after IM and 2Y. The Knoop microhardness and in vitro DC were tested after IM and 2Y. The adhesives were applied to flat occlusal dentine surfaces after acid etching. After resin build-ups, specimens were longitudinally sectioned to obtain beam-like resin-dentine specimens (0.8mm 2 ), which were used for evaluation of μTBS and nanoleakage at the IM and 2Y periods. In situ DC was evaluated at the IM period in these beam-like specimens. Data were submitted to appropriate statistical analyses (α=0.05). The addition of copper nanoparticles provided antimicrobial activity to the adhesives only in the IM evaluation and slightly reduced the KHN, the in vitro and in situ DC (copper concentrations of 1wt.%). However, KHN increase for all concentrations after 2Y. After 2Y, no significant reductions of μTBS (0.06 to 1% wt.%) and increases of nanoleakage were observed for copper containing adhesives compared to the control group. Copper nanoparticles addition up to 0.5wt.% may provide antimicrobial properties to ER adhesives and prevent the degradation of the adhesive interface, without reducing the mechanical properties of the formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alternative Antimicrobial Approach: Nano-Antimicrobial Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurit Beyth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous existing potent antibiotics and other antimicrobial means, bacterial infections are still a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the need to develop additional bactericidal means has significantly increased due to the growing concern regarding multidrug-resistant bacterial strains and biofilm associated infections. Consequently, attention has been especially devoted to new and emerging nanoparticle-based materials in the field of antimicrobial chemotherapy. The present review discusses the activities of nanoparticles as an antimicrobial means, their mode of action, nanoparticle effect on drug-resistant bacteria, and the risks attendant on their use as antibacterial agents. Factors contributing to nanoparticle performance in the clinical setting, their unique properties, and mechanism of action as antibacterial agents are discussed in detail.

  19. Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Sadredinamin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are extensive group of molecules that produced by variety tissues of invertebrate, plants, and animal species which play an important role in their immunity response. AMPs have different classifications such as; biosynthetic machines, biological sources, biological functions, molecular properties, covalent bonding patterns, three dimensional structures, and molecular targets.These molecules have multidimensional properties including antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, antifungal activity, anti-parasite activity, biofilm control, antitumor activity, mitogens activity and linking innate to adaptive immunity that making them promising agents for therapeutic drugs. In spite of this advantage of AMPs, their clinical developments have some limitation for commercial development. But some of AMPs are under clinical trials for the therapeutic purpose such as diabetic foot ulcers, different bacterial infections and tissue damage. In this review, we emphasized on the source, structure, multidimensional properties, limitation and therapeutic applications of various antimicrobial peptides.

  20. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat in Iran: serogroups, virulence factors, and antimicrobial resistance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Hassan; Jamshidi, Alireza

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the virulence factors, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance properties of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat samples. A total of 422 chicken meat samples were collected from 5 townships of Iran. Specimens were immediately transferred to the laboratory in a cooler with an ice pack. Samples were cultured, and the positive culture samples were analyzed by PCR assays. Finally, the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed using the disk diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton agar. According to the results, out of 422 samples, 146 (34.59%) were confirmed to be E. coli positive and among E. coli-positive samples, 51 (34.93%) and 31 (21.23%) were from attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) subgroups, respectively. All of the EHEC-positive samples had all stx1, eaeA, and ehly virulence genes, whereas only 5 (9.80%) of AEEC subgroup had all stx1, stx2, and eaeA genes. As the data revealed, O157 was the most prevalent and O111 was the least prevalent strains in the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) population. Among STEC strains, sulI and blaSHV had the highest and lowest incidence rate, respectively. There was a high resistance to tetracycline (76.82%), followed by chloramphenicol (73.17%) and nitrofurantoin (63.41%), but there was low resistance to cephalotine (7.31%) antibiotics in isolated strains. Results shows that the PCR technique has a high performance for detection of serogroups, virulence genes, and antibiotic resistance genes in STEC strains. This study is the first prevalence report of detection of virulence genes, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance properties of STEC strains isolated from chicken meat samples in Iran. Based on the results, chicken meat is one of the main sources of STEC strains and its virulence factors in Iran, so an accurate meat inspection would reduce disease outbreaks.

  1. Cytotoxic, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of red sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. Llanerón extracts: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Raybaudi-Massilia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic and aqueous extracts were obtained from red sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. by different methodologies to evaluate their cytotoxic, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Alcoholic extracts (MFP, MSd, SFP, SDP, SSd from fresh red sweet pepper (FP and dry pulp (DP and seed (Sd were obtained by maceration (M and Soxhlet (S equipment using methanol as extraction solvent; whereas aqueous extracts (LFP, LSd were obtained by decoction followed by lyophilization (L. Human tumoral cell lines from breast (MCF-7 and SKBr3, prostate (PC3 and cervix (HeLa, and fibroblasts (as control were used to determine the cytotoxic properties by the MTT assay. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were determined by DPPH and disc diffusion method, respectively. The extracts SDP and SFP showed the higher cytotoxic activity. The SDP extract had a significant (P < 0.05 in-vitro effect on HeLa (1.9 ± 1.4 µg/mL and PC3 (< 1 µg/mL cells with a moderated impact on fibroblasts (26.1 ± 1.2 µg/mL; whereas, SFP had a significant (p < 0.05 effect on MCF-7 cell line (2.1 ± 1.2 µg/mL with a moderated impact on fibroblasts (25.9 ± 1.0 µg/mL. The higher antioxidant activity was found for MFP (80.3 ± 0.2% and SFP extracts (75.5 ± 0.5%. Mild antimicrobial activity was only observed for alcoholic extracts. The results showed the potential of red sweet pepper (C. annuum L. as a source of antioxidant and cytotoxic compounds, and suggest the need of further studies to isolate and characterize the bioactive compounds that impart those properties.

  2. Editorial of the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Francolini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The special issue “Antimicrobial Polymers” includes research and review papers concerning the recent advances on preparation of antimicrobial polymers and their relevance to industrial settings and biomedical field. Antimicrobial polymers have recently emerged as promising candidates to fight microbial contamination onto surfaces thanks to their interesting properties. In this special issue, the main strategies pursued for developing antimicrobial polymers, including polymer impregnation with antimicrobial agents or synthesis of polymers bearing antimicrobial moieties, were discussed. The future application of these polymers either in industrial or healthcare settings could result in an extremely positive impact not only at the economic level but also for the improvement of quality of life.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge, which has accelerated by the overuse of antibiotics worldwide. Increased antimicrobial resistance is the cause of severe infections, complications, longer hospital stays and increased mortality. Overprescribing of antibiotics......-the-counter sale of antibiotics, the use of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, the active participation of clinicians in audits, the utilization of valid rapid point-of-care tests, the promotion of delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies, the enhancement of communication skills with patients with the aid...

  4. Phytochemical Characterization of Veronica officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz from Romania and Their Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Mocan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerial parts of Veronica species are used in Romanian traditional medicine for the treatment of various conditions like kidney diseases, cough, and catarrh, and are known for their wound-healing properties. In the present study, the phenolic and sterolic content and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of three Veronica species (Plantaginaceae, V. officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz, were studied. The identification and quantification of several phenolic compounds and phytosterols were performed using LC/MS techniques and the main components were p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, luteoline, hispidulin and β-sitosterol. More than that, hispidulin, eupatorin and eupatilin were detected for the first time in the Veronica genus. Nevertheless, representatives of the Veronica genus were never investigated in terms of their phytosterol content. The antioxidant potential investigated by Trolox equivelents antioxidant capacity (TEAC and EPR spectroscopy revealed that V. officinalis and V. orchidea extracts presented similar antioxidant capacities, whilst the values registered for V. teucrium extract are lower. Regarding the antimicrobial activity of the investigated species, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii were the most sensitive strains with MIC values between 3.9 and 15.62 mg/mL. The results obtained by this study may serve to promote better use of representatives from the genus Veronica as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

  5. Antimicrobial properties and death-inducing mechanisms of saccharomycin, a biocide secreted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branco, Patrícia; Francisco, Diana; Monteiro, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    . cerevisiae strains also secrete natural biocide fractions during alcoholic fermentation, although at different levels, which correlates with the antagonistic effect exerted against non-Saccharomyces yeasts. We, therefore, term this biocide saccharomycin. The native AMPs were purified by gel......-filtration chromatography and its antimicrobial activity was compared to that exhibited by chemically synthesized analogues (AMP1 and AMP2/3). Results show that the antimicrobial activity of the native AMPs is significantly higher than that of the synthetic analogues (AMP1 and AMP2/3), but a conjugated action of the two...... species during alcoholic fermentations....

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  7. Promising approaches to optimize the biological properties of the antimicrobial peptide esculentin-1a(1-21)NH2: Amino acids substitution and conjugation to nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciaro, Bruno; Cappiello, Floriana; Cacciafesta, Mauro; Mangoni, Maria Luisa

    2017-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent an interesting class of molecules with expanding biological properties which make them a viable alternative for the development of future antibiotic drugs. However, for this purpose, some limitations must be overcome: (i) the poor biostability due to enzymatic degradation; (ii) the cytotoxicity at concentrations slightly higher than the therapeutic dosages; and (iii) the inefficient delivery to the target site at effective concentrations. Recently, a derivative of the frog skin esculentin-1a, named esculentin-1a(1-21)NH2, [Esc(1-21): GIFSKLAGKKIKNLLISGLKG-NH2] has been found to have a potent activity against the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a slightly weaker activity against Gram-positive bacteria and interesting immunomodulatory properties. With the aim to optimize the antimicrobial features of Esc(1-21) and to circumvent the limitations described above, two different approaches were followed: (i) substitutions by non-coded amino acids, i.e. α-aminoisobutyric acid or D-amino acids; and (ii) peptide conjugation to gold nanoparticles. In this mini-review, we summarized the structural and functional properties of the resulting Esc(1-21)-derived compounds. Overall, our data may assist researchers in the rational design and optimization of AMPs for the development of future drugs to fight the worldwide problem of antibiotic resistance.

  8. Promising Approaches to Optimize the Biological Properties of the Antimicrobial Peptide Esculentin-1a(1-21)NH2: Amino Acids Substitution and Conjugation to Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciaro, Bruno; Cappiello, Floriana; Cacciafesta, Mauro; Mangoni, Maria Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent an interesting class of molecules with expanding biological properties which make them a viable alternative for the development of future antibiotic drugs. However, for this purpose, some limitations must be overcome: (i) the poor biostability due to enzymatic degradation; (ii) the cytotoxicity at concentrations slightly higher than the therapeutic dosages; and (iii) the inefficient delivery to the target site at effective concentrations. Recently, a derivative of the frog skin AMP esculentin-1a, named esculentin-1a(1-21)NH 2 , [Esc(1-21): GIFSKLAGKKIKNLLISGLKG-NH 2 ] has been found to have a potent activity against the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa ; a slightly weaker activity against Gram-positive bacteria and interesting immunomodulatory properties. With the aim to optimize the antimicrobial features of Esc(1-21) and to circumvent the limitations described above, two different approaches were followed: (i) substitutions by non-coded amino acids, i.e., α-aminoisobutyric acid or d-amino acids; and (ii) peptide conjugation to gold nanoparticles. In this mini-review, we summarized the structural and functional properties of the resulting Esc(1-21)-derived compounds. Overall, our data may assist researchers in the rational design and optimization of AMPs for the development of future drugs to fight the worldwide problem of antibiotic resistance.

  9. The effect of radiopacifiers agents on pH, calcium release, radiopacity, and antimicrobial properties of different calcium hydroxide dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; García-Godoy, Franklin; Moldauer, Bertram Ivan; Gagliardi Minotti, Paloma; Tercília Grizzo, Larissa; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, pH level, calcium ion release, and radiopacity of calcium hydroxide pastes associated with three radiopacifying agents (iodoform, zinc oxide, and barium sulfate). For the pH and calcium release tests, 45 acrylic teeth were utilized and immersed in ultrapure water. After 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days the solution was analyzed by using a pH meter and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Polyethylene tubes filled with the pastes were used to perform the radiopacity test. For the antimicrobial test, 25 dentin specimens were infected intraorally in order to induce the biofilm colonization and treated with the pastes for 7 days. The Live/Dead technique and a confocal microscope were used to obtain the ratio of live cells. Parametric and nonparametric statistical tests were performed to show differences among the groups (P calcium release test on the 7th day (P > 0.05). The calcium hydroxide/iodoform samples had the highest radiopacity and antimicrobial activity against the biofilm-infected dentin in comparison to the other pastes (P Calcium hydroxide mixed with 17% iodoform and 35% propylene glycol into a paste had the highest pH, calcium ion release, radiopacity, and the greatest antimicrobial action versus similar samples mixed with BaSO4 or ZnO. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Chemical content and antimicrobial properties of three different extracts of Mentha pulegium leaves from Mugla Region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan-Güvensen, Nur; Keskin, Dilek

    2016-11-01

    The extract of ethanol, methanol and DMSO of pennyroyal leaves from Mugla Region (Turkey) were tested for antimicrobial activity against eleven bacterial and one yeast strain by disc diffusion method. Among the extracts assayed, the methanol extract of pennyroyal leaves exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus with 20 mm diameter inhibition zone. The DMSO extract of pennyroyal leaves displayed significant activity against S.aureus (19 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (21mm) showing inhibition zone of 19 mm and 21 mm diameter, while the ethanolic extract showed significant antimicrobial activity against S.aureus (17mm) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (20mm) inhibition zones.? On comparint the MIC value of ethanol, methanol and DMSO leaf extract, methanolic extract of pennyroyal presented best activity (MIC 8 mg ml-1) against S. typhimurium CCM 583 and S.aureus ATCC 6538/P. Analyses of GC/MS determined eleven compounds viz., neophytadiene (69.95%), Pulejon 7.85%, Pinane 4.81%, Bicyclo (3.1.1 Heptane 2.6.6.6 trimethyl) 4.68%. In conclusion, methanolic extracts of M. pulegium showed antimicrobial activity because of high neophytadiene content.

  11. Antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties of polypropylene meshes coated with metal-containing DLC thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazalini, Elisa M; Miyakawa, Walter; Teodoro, Guilherme R; Sobrinho, Argemiro S S; Matieli, José E; Massi, Marcos; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Y

    2017-06-01

    A promising strategy to reduce nosocomial infections related to prosthetic meshes is the prevention of microbial colonization. To this aim, prosthetic meshes coated with antimicrobial thin films are proposed. Commercial polypropylene meshes were coated with metal-containing diamond-like carbon (Me-DLC) thin films by the magnetron sputtering technique. Several dissimilar metals (silver, cobalt, indium, tungsten, tin, aluminum, chromium, zinc, manganese, tantalum, and titanium) were tested and compositional analyses of each Me-DLC were performed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Antimicrobial activities of the films against five microbial species (Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis) were also investigated by a modified Kirby-Bauer test. Results showed that films containing silver and cobalt have inhibited the growth of all microbial species. Tungsten-DLC, tin-DLC, aluminum-DLC, zinc-DLC, manganese-DLC, and tantalum-DLC inhibited the growth of some strains, while chromium- and titanium-DLC weakly inhibited the growth of only one tested strain. In-DLC film showed no antimicrobial activity. The effects of tungsten-DLC and cobalt-DLC on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation were also assessed. Tungsten-DLC was able to significantly reduce biofilm formation. Overall, the experimental results in the present study have shown new approaches to coating polymeric biomaterials aiming antimicrobial effect.

  12. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Teucrium arduini L. (Lamiaceae) flower and leaf infusions (Teucrium arduini L. antioxidant capacity)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šamec, D.; Grúz, Jiří; Strnad, Miroslav; Kremer, D.; Kosalec, I.; Grubešić, R. J.; Karlović, K.; Lucic, A.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2010), s. 113-119 ISSN 0278-6915 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Teucrium arduini L * Antioxidant activity * Antimicrobial activity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2010

  13. Antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and chemical composition of seaweeds collected from Saudi Arabia (Red Sea and Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine M.S. Moubayed

    2017-01-01

    FTIR Infrared Spectrometer analysis together with the high performance liquid chromatography provided a detailed description of the possible functional constituents and the major chemical components present in marine macroalgae particularly in brown seaweeds to be mainly of phenolic nature to which the potent antimicrobial activity is being attributed.

  14. Effect of hydrocarbon stapling on the properties of alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides isolated from the venom of hymenoptera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chapuis, Hubert Jean; Slaninová, Jiřina; Bednárová, Lucie; Monincová, Lenka; Buděšínský, Miloš; Čeřovský, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2012), s. 2047-2058 ISSN 0939-4451 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : antimicrobial peptides * stapled peptides * amphipathic helix * CD spectroscopy Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.914, year: 2012

  15. Studies of South African medicinal plants: Pt. 2. Caespitin, a new phloroglucinol derivative with antimicrobial properties from Helichrysum caespititium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekker, T.G.; Fourie, T.G.; Snyckers, F.O.; Van der Schyf, C.J. (Central Research Laboratory, Noristan Ltd., Silverton, South Africa)

    1983-12-01

    Extracts from Helichrysum caespititium were found to have antimicrobial activity. Structure elucidation of the active compound, 2-(4-methylpentanoyl)-4-(3-methylbuten-2-yl)-phloroglucinol (caespitin), by means of spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic analyses, is described.

  16. The rhizospheres of traditional medicinal plants in Panxi, China, host a diverse selection of actinobacteria with antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke; Penttinen, Petri; Chen, Qiang; Guan, Tongwei; Lindström, Kristina; Ao, Xiaoling; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2012-06-01

    Actinobacteria are a prolific source of antibiotics. Since the rate of discovery of novel antibiotics is decreasing, actinobacteria from unique environments need to be explored. In particular, actinobacterial biocontrol strains from medicinal plants need to be studied as they can be a source of potent antibiotics. We combined culture-dependent and culture-independent methods in analyzing the actinobacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of seven traditional medicinal plant species from Panxi, China, and assessed the antimicrobial activity of the isolates. Each of the plant species hosted a unique set of actinobacterial strains. Out of the 64 morphologically distinct isolates, half were Streptomyces sp., eight were Micromonospora sp., and the rest were members of 18 actinobacterial genera. In particular, Ainsliaea henryi Diels. hosted a diverse selection of actinobacteria, although the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence identity ranges of the isolates and of the 16S rRNA gene clone library were not congruent. In the clone library, 40% of the sequences were related to uncultured actinobacteria, emphasizing the need to develop isolation methods to assess the full potential of the actinobacteria. All Streptomyces isolates showed antimicrobial activity. While the antimicrobial activities of the rare actinobacteria were limited, the growth of Escherichia coli, Verticillium dahliae, and Fusarium oxysporum were inhibited only by rare actinobacteria, and strains related to Saccharopolyspora shandongensis and Streptosporangium roseum showed broad antimicrobial activity.

  17. Isolation and identification of local bacteria endophyte and screening of its antimicrobial property against pathogenic bacteria and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikri, Ahmad Syairazie Ibrahim; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md; Hamzah, Ainon

    2018-04-01

    Endophytes are organisms, often fungi and bacteria that live in living plant cells. These organisms reside in the living tissues of the host plant in a variety of relationships, ranging from symbiotic to slightly pathogenic. The endophytes may produce a plethora of substances that have potential to be used in modern medicine, agriculture and industry. The aims of this study are to isolate, identify and screening antimicrobial activity of bacterial endophytes. The endophytes were isolated using nutrient agar, incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Identification of the isolates were done based on morphological characteristics, biochemical tests and 16S rDNA molecular analysis. Disk diffusion method was used to screen for antimicrobial activity of metabolites from endophytes against pathogenic bacteria. Screening for antifungal activity of selected endophytes was done using dual culture method againts pathogenic fungi followed by Kirby-Bauer method. Results showed endophytes designated as B2c and B7b have positive antimicrobial activity. The metabolites from isolate B2c showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis, while isolate B7b have positive activities againts MRSA, S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Isolates B2c displayed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Phytophthora palmivora and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Identification using biochemical tests and 16S rDNA sequences identified isolate B2c as Pseudomonas resinovorans with 97% homology and isolate B7b as Bacillus subtilis with 98% homology.

  18. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Carlos E.; Badillo-Corona, Jesus A.; Ramírez-Sotelo, Guadalupe; Oliver-Salvador, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application. PMID:25815307

  19. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application.

  20. Preparation and characterization of antimicrobial nano-hydroxyapatite composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Juhong [The Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials and Textiles, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Chu, Xiaobing [The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Cai, Yurong [The Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials and Textiles, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Tong, Peijian [The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Yao, Juming, E-mail: yaoj@zstu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials and Textiles, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Deep infection of prosthesis is one of the most frequent complications after joint replacement. One of the most effective ways is to introduce directly some antibiotics in the local site of the surgery. In the present study, an antimicrobial composite has been fabricated using nano-hydroxyapatite particles as carriers for the antimicrobial drug of vancomycin hydrochloride (VAN) and the mixture of oxidation sodium alginate (OSA) and gelatin (GT) as a sticky matrix. Samples have been characterized using X-ray diffraction instrument (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) methods, the rotational rheometer and the texture analyzer. The release of VAN from nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAP) particles was detected by the ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectrophotometer and then bactericidal property of the composite was evaluated using the Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) as a bacterial model. Experimental results showed that the composite possessed an adhesive property derived from the gel of OSA and GT, which implied that the composite could bond directly to the fracture surface of bones in surgery. Furthermore, VAN was loaded efficiently on the surface of nHAP particles and could be released slowly from these particles, which endowed the composite with an obvious and continuous antimicrobial performance. The sticky and antimicrobial composite may has a potential application in arthroplasty to overcome deep infection in a simple and direct manner. - Highlights: • A sticky and antimicrobial composite has been designed to overcome deep infection. • The composite was composed of antibiotic, antibiotic carrier and a viscous matrix. • The sticky matrix was obtained by blending of oxidation sodium alginate and gelatin. • Hydroxyapatite nanoparticle could be used as carrier to control release of antibiotic.

  1. Preparation and characterization of antimicrobial nano-hydroxyapatite composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Juhong; Chu, Xiaobing; Cai, Yurong; Tong, Peijian; Yao, Juming

    2014-01-01

    Deep infection of prosthesis is one of the most frequent complications after joint replacement. One of the most effective ways is to introduce directly some antibiotics in the local site of the surgery. In the present study, an antimicrobial composite has been fabricated using nano-hydroxyapatite particles as carriers for the antimicrobial drug of vancomycin hydrochloride (VAN) and the mixture of oxidation sodium alginate (OSA) and gelatin (GT) as a sticky matrix. Samples have been characterized using X-ray diffraction instrument (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) methods, the rotational rheometer and the texture analyzer. The release of VAN from nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAP) particles was detected by the ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectrophotometer and then bactericidal property of the composite was evaluated using the Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) as a bacterial model. Experimental results showed that the composite possessed an adhesive property derived from the gel of OSA and GT, which implied that the composite could bond directly to the fracture surface of bones in surgery. Furthermore, VAN was loaded efficiently on the surface of nHAP particles and could be released slowly from these particles, which endowed the composite with an obvious and continuous antimicrobial performance. The sticky and antimicrobial composite may has a potential application in arthroplasty to overcome deep infection in a simple and direct manner. - Highlights: • A sticky and antimicrobial composite has been designed to overcome deep infection. • The composite was composed of antibiotic, antibiotic carrier and a viscous matrix. • The sticky matrix was obtained by blending of oxidation sodium alginate and gelatin. • Hydroxyapatite nanoparticle could be used as carrier to control release of antibiotic

  2. Reaction of bis[(2-chlorocarbonylphenyl] Diselenide with Phenols, Aminophenols, and Other Amines towards Diphenyl Diselenides with Antimicrobial and Antiviral Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Giurg

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A reaction of bis[(2-chlorocarbonylphenyl] diselenide with various mono and bisnucleophiles such as aminophenols, phenols, and amines have been studied as a convenient general route to a series of new antimicrobial and antiviral diphenyl diselenides. The compounds, particularly bis[2-(hydroxyphenylcarbamoyl]phenyl diselenides and reference benzisoselenazol-3(2H-ones, exhibited high antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacterial species (Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and some compounds were also active against Gram-negative E. coli and fungi (Candida spp., A. niger. The majority of compounds demonstrated high activity against human herpes virus type 1 (HHV-1 and moderate activity against encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV, while they were generally inactive against vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV.

  3. Synthesis, crystal structures, spectral, thermal and antimicrobial properties of new Zn(II) 5-iodo- and 5-bromosalicylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košická, Petra; Győryová, Katarína; Smolko, Lukáš; Gyepes, Róbert; Hudecová, Daniela

    2018-03-01

    Two new analogous zinc(II) complexes containing 5-iodo- and 5-bromosalicylate ligands, respectively, were prepared in single-crystal form and characterized by IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and elemental analysis. The solid-state structures of prepared complexes were determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Both complexes are isostructural and their crystal structures composed of neutral molecules [Zn(5-Xsal)2(H2O)2] (where X = Br, I, sal = salicylato). Central Zn(II) atom is in both complexes coordinated by six oxygen atoms, four of which are from two chelate bonded 5-halosalicylates and remaining two from coordinated water molecules. The found chelate binding mode is in line with the Δ values calculated from IR spectral data. Antimicrobial activity of prepared complexes was studied against selected bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi. Obtained results indicate that 5-iodosalicylate complex is more antimicrobially active than its 5-bromo substituted analogue.

  4. Evaluation of antimicrobial properties from the mangrove Rhizophora apiculata and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza of Burmanallah coast, South Andaman, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajendra Seepana; Karthick Perumal; Narayana Murthy Kada; Ramesh Chatragadda; Mohanraju Raju; VijayakumarAnnamalai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of partially purified leaf, bark and root extracts obtained from two mangrove species Rhizophora apiculata and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza from South Andaman against clinical bacterial and fungal pathogens. Methods: Roots, bark and leaves were dried in the shade and subjected to organic solvent extraction. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were performed by agar well diffusion technique. Column purified extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography for compound identification. Results: Results of the partially purified extracts were analyzed by column chromatography. Fractions collected by high performance liquid chromatography exhibited a wide range of antimicrobial activities against several bacterial and fungal pathogens. Fungal pathogen Aspergillus niger (25 mm) was found to be more sensitive against the mangrove extracts as compared with Klebsiella pneumoniae (23 mm), Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi (22 mm). Active fractions were identified as tannin compounds based on the peaks obtained by high performance liquid chromatography. Conclusions: Present findings reveal that mangrove bark, roots, and leaves contain valuable metabolites, which have significant importance in the pharmacological industries. Hence, this study suggests that these two mangrove plants Rhizophora apiculata and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza are potential candidates for discovering antimicrobial compounds against clinical pathogens.

  5. Effects of the Buffer Layers on the Adhesion and Antimicrobial Properties of the Amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Pai-Tsung; Chen, Guo-Ju; Jian, Sheng-Rui; Shih, Yung-Hui

    2011-06-01

    To extend the practical applications of the bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the preparation of the metallic glass coatings on various substrates becomes an important research issue. Among the interfacial properties of the coatings, the adhesion between films and substrates is the most crucial. In this study, amorphous Zr61Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5Si4 (ZrAlNiCuSi) thin films were deposited on SUS304 stainless steel at various sputtering powers by DC sputtering. According to the scratch tests, the introduction of the Cr and Ti buffer layers effectively improves the adhesion between the amorphous thin films and substrate without changing the surface properties, such as roughness and morphology. The antimicrobial results show that the biological activities of these microbes, except Acinetobacter baumannii, are effectively suppressed during the test period.

  6. 50 CFR 648.164 - Possession restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Atlantic Bluefish Fishery § 648.164 Possession restrictions. (a) No person shall possess more than 15 bluefish in, or harvested from, the EEZ unless that person is the owner or operator of a fishing vessel issued a bluefish commercial permit or is issued a bluefish dealer permit. Persons aboard a vessel that...

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video) Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation of ...

  8. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulates pesticides under the statutory authority of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). The registration requirements for antimicrobial pesticides differ somewhat from those of other pesticides. Find out more.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity and Toxicity of Zhumeria Majdae Essential Oil and its Capsulated Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahil Emami

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: It was found that in some cases, encapsulation could lead to better antimicrobial property and less toxicity. Because of high antimicrobial activity, both EO and EFEO of Zhumeria majdae may be used as powerfully antimicrobial agents.

  10. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Properties and Phenolics of Different Solvent Extracts from Bark, Leaves and Seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. Alkharfy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%, leaves (11.42% and seeds (21.51% of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80. Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtained with aqueous methanol, exhibited greater levels of total phenolics [6.94 g GAE/100 g dry weight (DW], total flavonoids (3.44 g CE/100 g DW, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (69.23% and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 value, 3.21 μg/mL, followed by leaves and seeds extracts. Bark extract tested against a set of bacterial and fungal strains also revealed the strongest antimicrobial activity with the largest inhibition zone and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. HPLC analysis of aqueous methanol extracts from bark, leaves and seeds indicated the presence of protocatechuic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids in bark (1.50–6.70 mg/100 g DW; sorbic, ferulic, gallic, salicylic and p-coumaric acids in leaves (1.18–4.71 mg/100 g DW; vanillic, gallic and tannic acids in seeds (0.52–0.65 mg/100 g DW as the main phenolic acids. The present investigation concludes that the tested parts of P. pinnata, in particular the bark, have strong potential for the isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for functional food and pharmaceutical uses.

  11. Antimicrobial Properties of Selected Copper Alloys on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in Different Simulations of Environmental Conditions: With vs. without Organic Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Różańska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital equipment made from copper alloys can play an important role in complementing traditional methods of disinfection. Aims of the study: The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of the antimicrobial properties of selected copper alloys in different simulations of environmental conditions (with organic contamination vs. without organic contamination, and to test alternatives to the currently used testing methods. Materials and Methods: A modification of Japanese standard JIS Z 2801 as well as Staphylococcus aureus (SA and Escherichia coli (EC suspended in NaCl vs. tryptic soy broth (TSB were used in tests performed on seven commonly used copper alloys, copper, and stainless steel. Results: A much faster reduction of the bacterial suspension was observed for the inoculum prepared in NaCl than in TSB. A faster reduction for EC than for SA was observed in the inoculum prepared in NaCl. The opposite results were found for the inoculum based on TSB. A significant correlation between the copper concentration in the copper alloys and the time and degree of bacterial suspension reduction was only observed in the case of EC. Conclusions: This study confirmed the antimicrobial properties of copper alloys, and additionally showed that Staphylococcus aureus was more resistant than Escherichia coli in the variant of the experiment without organic contamination. However, even for SA, a total reduction of the bacterial inoculum’s density took no longer than 2 h. Under conditions simulating organic contamination, all of the tested alloys were shown to have bactericidal or bacteriostatic properties, which was contrary to the results from stainless steel.

  12. Antimicrobial Properties of Selected Copper Alloys on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in Different Simulations of Environmental Conditions: With vs. without Organic Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różańska, Anna; Chmielarczyk, Agnieszka; Romaniszyn, Dorota; Sroka-Oleksiak, Agnieszka; Bulanda, Małgorzata; Walkowicz, Monika; Osuch, Piotr; Knych, Tadeusz

    2017-07-20

    Background: Hospital equipment made from copper alloys can play an important role in complementing traditional methods of disinfection. Aims of the study: The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of the antimicrobial properties of selected copper alloys in different simulations of environmental conditions (with organic contamination vs. without organic contamination), and to test alternatives to the currently used testing methods. Materials and Methods: A modification of Japanese standard JIS Z 2801 as well as Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Escherichia coli (EC) suspended in NaCl vs. tryptic soy broth (TSB) were used in tests performed on seven commonly used copper alloys, copper, and stainless steel. Results: A much faster reduction of the bacterial suspension was observed for the inoculum prepared in NaCl than in TSB. A faster reduction for EC than for SA was observed in the inoculum prepared in NaCl. The opposite results were found for the inoculum based on TSB. A significant correlation between the copper concentration in the copper alloys and the time and degree of bacterial suspension reduction was only observed in the case of EC. Conclusions: This study confirmed the antimicrobial properties of copper alloys, and additionally showed that Staphylococcus aureus was more resistant than Escherichia coli in the variant of the experiment without organic contamination. However, even for SA, a total reduction of the bacterial inoculum's density took no longer than 2 h. Under conditions simulating organic contamination, all of the tested alloys were shown to have bactericidal or bacteriostatic properties, which was contrary to the results from stainless steel.

  13. Effect of annealing temperature on antimicrobial and structural properties of bio-synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles using flower extract of Anchusa italica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Susan; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Bahadoran, Azadeh; Bayat, Saadi; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Ariff, Arbakariya; Saad, Wan Zuhainis

    2016-08-01

    The use of nontoxic biological compounds in the synthesis of nanomaterials is an economic and eco-friendly approach. The present work was undertaken to develop zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) by a green method using simple precursor from the solution consisting of zinc acetate and the flower extract of Anchusa italica (A. italica). Effect of annealing temperature on structural and antimicrobial properties was investigated. The crystalline structure of ZnO-NPs was shown using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed that ZnO-NPs are hexagonal in shapes with mean particle size of ~8 and ~14nm at 100°C and 200°C annealing temperatures respectively. The optical band gap was increased from 3.27eV to 3.30eV with the decreasing of the particle size. The antimicrobial activity of ZnO-NPs towards Gram positive (Bacillus megaterium and Stapphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) pathogens decreased with the increasing of the heat treating temperature. In vitro cytotoxicity studies on Vero cells, a dose dependent toxicity with non-toxic effect of concentration below 142μg/mL was shown. The results indicated that A. italica is an appropriate reaction media to prepare ZnO-NPs for cosmetic and bio-medical productions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Biocide immobilized OMMT-carbon dot reduced Cu2O nanohybrid/hyperbranched epoxy nanocomposites: Mechanical, thermal, antimicrobial and optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Bibekananda; Gupta, Kuldeep; Mandal, Manabendra; Karak, Niranjan

    2015-11-01

    The present work demonstrated a transparent thermosetting nanocomposite with antimicrobial and photoluminescence attributes. The nanocomposites are fabricated by incorporation of different wt.% (1, 2 and 3) of a biocide immobilized OMMT-carbon dot reduced Cu2O nanohybrid (MITH-NH) in the hyperbranched epoxy matrix. MITH-NH is obtained by immobilization of 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one hydrochloride (MITH) at room temperature using sonication on OMMT-carbon dot reduced Cu2O nanohybid. The nanohybrid is prepared by reduction of cupric acetate using carbon dot as the reducing agent in the presence of OMMT at 70°C. The significant improvements in tensile strength (~2 fold), elongation at break (3 fold), toughness (4 fold) and initial thermal degradation temperature (30°C) of the pristine hyperbranched epoxy system are achieved by incorporation of 3wt.% of MITH-NH in it. The nanocomposites exhibit strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria and Candida albicans, a fungus. The nanocomposite also shows significant activity against biofilm formation compared to the pristine thermoset. Further, the nanocomposite films emit different colors on exposure of different wavelengths of UV light. The properties of these nanocomposites are also compared with the same nanohybrid without OMMT. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Preparation, thermodynamic property and antimicrobial activity of some rare-earth (III) complexes with 3-bromo-5-iodobenzoic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing-Yu [Testing and Analysis Center, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Ren, Ning [Department of Chemistry, Handan College, Handan 056005 (China); Zhang, Jian-Jun, E-mail: jjzhang6@126.com [Testing and Analysis Center, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Zhang, Cun-Ying [No.1 High School of Shijiazhuang, Shijiazhuang 050011 (China)

    2013-10-20

    Graphical abstract: Four new rare-earth complexes of general formula [Ln(3-Br-5-IBA){sub 3}phen]{sub 2} [Ln = Er (1), Tb (2), Dy (3) and Ho (4); 3-Br-5-IBA = 3-bromo-5-iodobenzoate; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline] were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV and TG/DSC-FTIR technology. Heat capacities of the four complexes were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were tested using disc diffusion method. - Highlights: • Four new complexes [Ln(3-Br-5-IBA){sub 3}phen]{sub 2} were synthesized and characterized. • The non-isothermal kinetics of the first stage for the complexes was studied. • The heat capacities of the complexes were measured by differential scanning calorimeter. • The antimicrobial activities for these complexes were tested. • The fluorescence properties of the complexes 2 and 3 were studied. - Abstract: Four new rare-earth complexes of general formula [Ln(3-Br-5-IBA){sub 3}phen]{sub 2} (Ln(III) = Er (1), Tb (2), Dy (3) and Ho (4); 3-Br-5-IBA = 3-bromo-5-iodobenzoate; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) were synthesized by solution-precipitation method, and investigated using elemental analysis, infrared spectra, ultraviolet spectra and TG/DSC-FTIR technology. The non-isothermal kinetics of the first stage for the complexes was studied by using non-linear integral isoconversional method and double equal-double steps method. The heat capacities of the complexes were measured between 263.15 and 485.55 K by means of differential scanning calorimeter, and the values of the experimental heat capacities were fitted to a polynomial equation with the least-squares method. And the thermodynamic functions [H{sub T} − H{sub 298.15}], [S{sub T} − S{sub 298.15}] and [G{sub T} − G{sub 298.15}] were also derived based on the fitted polynomials and thermodynamic relationships with temperature interval of 10 K. Moreover, the

  16. Possessive Pronouns in European Portuguese and Old French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Miguel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to bring European Portuguese (EP data into light, showing that, in spite of the lack of morphological evidence, the syntactic behaviour of possessives, across EP dialects, shows evidences for a tripartite possessive system (Cardinaletti, 1998; Cardinaletti & Starke, 1999. It will be argued that the syntactic position of possessives parallels the positions assumed for EP sentential subjects in non interrogative contexts: [Spec, AgrsP], [Spec, TP] and [Spec, VP]. As a matter of fact, depending on their syntactic properties and assuming, as null hypothesis, that the nominal head moves to Numb'º', possessives may occur in [Spec, AgrsNP], [Spec, NumbP] and [Spec, NP]. Furthermore, would it be so, this dialectal variation would be useful in order to understand the changes that have occurred in other romance languages in previous stages. It might be the case that the loss of weak possessive forms (“mien” in French parallels, among other things, the lack of sentential subjects in [Spec, TP].

  17. POSSESSION, REVIEW FROM CULTURAL AND PSYCHIATRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Sri Diniari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Possession is a culture related syndrome, commonly found in Indonesia including Bali. We can see this event in religion and cultural ceremony and at other times at school, home, and in society. This syndrome consist of temporary loss of self identification and environment awareness; in several events a person acts as if he/she was controlled by other being, magic force, spirit or ‘other forces’. There are still several different opinions about trance-possession, whether it is related to certain culture or is a part of mental disorder. DSM-IV-TR and PPDGJ-III defined trance-possession as mental disorder (dissociative for involuntary possession, if it is not a common activity, and if it is not a part of religion or cultural event. (MEDICINA 2012;43:37-40.

  18. Subself theory and reincarnation/possession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2004-12-01

    A subself model of the mind is used to account for multiple personality, possession, the spirit controls of mediums, reincarnation, and the auditory hallucinations of schizophrenics, with suggestions for empirical research.

  19. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. A general approach for the preparation of water-soluble sulfonamides incorporating polyamino-polycarboxylate tails and of their metal complexes possessing long-lasting, topical intraocular pressure-lowering properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scozzafava, Andrea; Menabuoni, Luca; Mincione, Francesco; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2002-03-28

    Reaction of polyamino-polycarboxylic acids or their dianhydrides with aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides possessing a free amino/imino/hydrazino/hydroxy group afforded mono- and bis-sulfonamides containing polyamino-polycarboxylic acid moieties in their molecule. The acids/anhydrides used in synthesis included IDA, NTA, EDDA, EDTA and EDTA dianhydride, DTPA and DTPA dianhydride, EGTA and EGTA dianhydride, and EDDHA, among others. All the newly prepared derivatives showed strong affinity toward isozymes I, II, and IV of carbonic anhydrase (CA). Metal complexes of the new compounds have also been prepared. Metal ions used in such preparations included di- and trivalent main-group and transition cations, such as Zn(II), Cu(II), Al(III), etc. Some of the new sulfonamides/disulfonamides obtained in this way, as well as their metal complexes, behaved as nanomolar CA inhibitors against isozymes II and IV, being slightly less effective in inhibiting isozyme I. Some of these sulfonamides as well as their metal complexes strongly lowered intraocular pressure (IOP) when applied topically, directly into the normotensive/glaucomatous rabbit eye, as 1-2% water solutions/suspensions. The good water solubility of these sulfonamide CA inhibitors, correlated with the neutral pH of their water solutions used in the ophthalmologic applications and the long duration of action of the IOP-lowering effect, makes them interesting candidates for developing novel types of antiglaucoma drugs devoid of serious topical side effects.

  20. The Impact of Banning Juvenile Gun Possession.

    OpenAIRE

    Marvell, Thomas B

    2001-01-01

    A 1994 federal law bans possession of handguns by persons under 18 years of age. Also in 1994, 11 states passed their own juvenile gun possession bans. Eighteen states had previously passed bans, 15 of them between 1975 and 1993. These laws were intended to reduce homicides, but arguments can be made that they have no effect on or that they even increase the homicide rate. This paper estimates the laws' impacts on various crime measures, primarily juvenile gun homicide victimizations and suic...

  1. Low cytotoxic trace element selenium nanoparticles and their differential antimicrobial properties against S. aureus and E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Phong A; Biswas, Dhee P; O’Connor, Andrea J; O’Brien-Simpson, Neil; Reynolds, Eric C; Pantarat, Namfon

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents that have no or low cytotoxicity and high specificity are desirable to have no or minimal side effects. We report here the low cytotoxicity of polyvinyl alcohol-stabilized selenium (Se) nanoparticles and their differential effects on growth of S. aureus, a gram-positive bacterium and E. coli, a gram-negative bacterium. The nanoparticles were synthesised through redox reactions in an aqueous environment at room temperature and were characterised using UV visible spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The nanoparticles showed low toxicity toward fibroblasts which remained more than 70% viable at Se concentrations as high as 128 ppm. The nanoparticles also exhibited very low haemolysis with only 18% of maximal lysis observed at a Se concentration of 128 ppm. Importantly, the nanoparticles showed strong growth inhibition toward S. aureus at a concentration as low as 1 ppm. Interestingly, growth of E. coli was unaffected at all concentrations tested. This study therefore strongly suggests that these nanoparticles should be investigated further to understand this differential effect as well as for potential advanced antimicrobial applications such as S. aureus infection—resisting, non-cytotoxic coatings for medical devices. (paper)

  2. Antimicrobial Properties of Plant Essential Oils against Human Pathogens and Their Mode of Action: An Updated Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallappa Kumara Swamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs have been explored for their essential oils in the past few decades. Essential oils are complex volatile compounds, synthesized naturally in different plant parts during the process of secondary metabolism. Essential oils have great potential in the field of biomedicine as they effectively destroy several bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. The presence of different types of aldehydes, phenolics, terpenes, and other antimicrobial compounds means that the essential oils are effective against a diverse range of pathogens. The reactivity of essential oil depends upon the nature, composition, and orientation of its functional groups. The aim of this article is to review the antimicrobial potential of essential oils secreted from MAPs and their possible mechanisms of action against human pathogens. This comprehensive review will benefit researchers who wish to explore the potential of essential oils in the development of novel broad-spectrum key molecules against a broad range of drug-resistant pathogenic microbes.

  3. Antimicrobial polycaprolactone/polyethylene glycol embedded lysozyme coatings of Ti implants for osteoblast functional properties in tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visan, A.; Cristescu, R.; Stefan, N.; Miroiu, M.; Nita, C.; Socol, M.; Florica, C.; Rasoga, O.; Zgura, I.; Sima, L. E.; Chiritoiu, M.; Chifiriuc, M. C.; Holban, A. M.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Socol, G.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, coatings based on lysozyme embedded into a matrix of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polycaprolactone (PCL) were fabricated by two different methods (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation - MAPLE and Dip Coating) for obtaining antimicrobial coatings envisaged for long term medical applications. Coatings with different PEG:PCL compositions (3:1; 1:1; 1:3) were synthesized in order to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of lysozyme embedded into the polymeric matrix. The main surface features, such as roughness and wettability, with impact on the microbial adhesion as well as on the eukaryote cell function were measured. The obtained composite coatings exhibited a significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus strains. As well, specific blended coatings showed appropriate viability, good spreading and normal cell morphology of SaOs2 human osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). These investigations highlight the suitability of biodegradable composites as implant coatings for decreasing the risk of bacterial contamination associated with prosthetic procedures.

  4. Antimicrobial Properties of Plant Essential Oils against Human Pathogens and Their Mode of Action: An Updated Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) have been explored for their essential oils in the past few decades. Essential oils are complex volatile compounds, synthesized naturally in different plant parts during the process of secondary metabolism. Essential oils have great potential in the field of biomedicine as they effectively destroy several bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. The presence of different types of aldehydes, phenolics, terpenes, and other antimicrobial compounds means that the essential oils are effective against a diverse range of pathogens. The reactivity of essential oil depends upon the nature, composition, and orientation of its functional groups. The aim of this article is to review the antimicrobial potential of essential oils secreted from MAPs and their possible mechanisms of action against human pathogens. This comprehensive review will benefit researchers who wish to explore the potential of essential oils in the development of novel broad-spectrum key molecules against a broad range of drug-resistant pathogenic microbes. PMID:28090211

  5. A split-body, randomized, blinded study to evaluate the efficacy of a topical spray composed of essential oils and essential fatty acids from plant extracts with antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensignor, Emmanuel; Fabriès, Lionel; Bailleux, Lucie

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial pyoderma is a frequent presentation in dogs. Despite the widespread availability of effective systemic and topical antimicrobial products, good clinical practice currently recommends avoidance of long-term use to mitigate the development of bacterial resistance. To evaluate the speed of resolution of clinical signs of bacterial pyoderma in dogs treated with a systemic antimicrobial agent with or without the use of an adjunctive spray with antimicrobial properties. Twelve dogs with superficial bacterial pyoderma. In this controlled and blinded study, all dogs were treated with oral cefalexin and a topical spray (PYOClean Spray) for 4 weeks. The spray was applied to one half of each dog's body, whereas a placebo spray was applied to the other half. Twelve dogs completed the study. Mean clinical scores were significantly reduced on spray-treated sites, for test product and placebo (respectively), by 47% and 34% at Week 1, 83% and 60% at Week 2, 95% and 82% at Week 3, and 100% and 96% at Week 4. Fifty percent of treated sites were considered clinically and cytologically cured at Week 2, 83% at Week 3, and 100% at Week 4 compared to 8%, 50% and 83% for the placebo sites, respectively. These results demonstrate that use of a topical spray which contains plant-derived essential oils and fatty acids, and compounds with antimicrobial properties (Manuka oil and N-acetyl cysteine) may help to speed resolution of pyoderma and may allow for shorter antimicrobial treatment time. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  6. Antimicrobial activities and toxicity of crude extract of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extract of the Psophocarpus tetragonolobus pods has been tested for antimicrobial activity in a disk diffusion assay on eight human pathogenic bacteria and two human pathogenic yeasts. The extracts of P. tetragonolobus possessed antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. The ethanolic extract of P.

  7. In-vitro study of copper doped SiO{sub 2}-CaO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} system for bioactivity and antimicrobial properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Kulwinder; Singh, K. J., E-mail: kanwarjitsingh@yahoo.com; Anand, Vikas [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar-143005 (India); Kaur, Harpreet; Arora, Daljit Singh [Department of Microbiology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar-143005 (India)

    2015-08-28

    Samples of the xCuO-(45-x)CaO-10P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-45SiO{sub 2} system (x varies from 0 to 4 mole%) have been synthesized for application as biomaterials to slow or inhibit the growth of living organisms (fungi and other pathogenic microorganisms) by the combination of sol-gel and co-precipitation processes. Prepared samples have been characterized by X-Ray Diffraction, Fourier Transform Infra-Red and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy techniques before and after immersion in simulated body fluid. Antimicrobial activity of samples has been investigated against Staphylococcus aureus. Releasing of Cu{sup 2+}and other ions in the simulated body fluid has been determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy to ensure the use of prepared material as biomaterial with good antibacterial properties.

  8. In-vitro study of copper doped SiO2-CaO-P2O5 system for bioactivity and antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kulwinder; Singh, K. J.; Anand, Vikas; Kaur, Harpreet; Arora, Daljit Singh

    2015-08-01

    Samples of the xCuO-(45-x)CaO-10P2O5-45SiO2 system (x varies from 0 to 4 mole%) have been synthesized for application as biomaterials to slow or inhibit the growth of living organisms (fungi and other pathogenic microorganisms) by the combination of sol-gel and co-precipitation processes. Prepared samples have been characterized by X-Ray Diffraction, Fourier Transform Infra-Red and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy techniques before and after immersion in simulated body fluid. Antimicrobial activity of samples has been investigated against Staphylococcus aureus. Releasing of Cu2+and other ions in the simulated body fluid has been determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy to ensure the use of prepared material as biomaterial with good antibacterial properties.

  9. Current state of a dual behaviour of antimicrobial peptides-Therapeutic agents and promising delivery vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Urszula; Sobczak, Marcin; Oledzka, Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Micro-organism resistance is an important challenge in modern medicine due to the global uncontrolled use of antibiotics. Natural and synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) symbolize a new family of antibiotics, which have stimulated research and clinical interest as new therapeutic options for infections. They represent one of the most promising antimicrobial substances, due to their broad spectrum of biological activity, against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, yeast and even tumour cells. Besides, being antimicrobial, AMPs have been shown to bind and neutralize bacterial endotoxins, as well as possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, angiogenic and antitumour properties. In contrast to conventional antibiotics, which have very defined and specific molecular targets, host cationic peptides show varying, complex and very rapid mechanisms of actions that make it difficult to form an effective antimicrobial defence. Importantly, AMPs display their antimicrobial activity at micromolar concentrations or less. To do this, many peptide-based drugs are commercially available for the treatment of numerous diseases, such as hepatitis C, myeloma, skin infections and diabetes. Herein, we present an overview of the general mechanism of AMPs action, along with recent developments regarding carriers of AMPs and their potential applications in medical fields. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Chromatographic Characterization and GC-MS Evaluation of the Bioactive Constituents with Antimicrobial Potential from the Pigmented Ink of Loligo duvauceli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girija, Smiline; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Kuppusamy, Pandi Suba; Gajendran, Hariprasad; Rajagopal, Raghuraman

    2014-01-01

    Chromatographic characterization and the GC-MS evaluation of the black pigmented ink of Loligo duvauceli in the present study have yielded an array of bioactive compounds with potent antimicrobial property. Facing an alarm of antimicrobial resistance globally, a need for elucidating antimicrobial agents from natural sources will be the need for the hour. In this view, this study is aimed at characterizing the black pigmented ink of the Indian squid L. duvauceli. The squid ink was subjected to crude solvent extraction and was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography. TLC and HPTLC profiles were recorded. Antimicrobial bioassay of the squid ink fractions was done by agar well diffusion method. The antimicrobial fraction was then characterized using GC-MS analysis. The results showed that the n-hexane extract upon column fractionation yielded a total of 8 fractions with the mobile phase of Hex/EtOAc in different gradients. TLC and HPTLC profiles showed a single spot with a retention factor of 0.76. Fraction 1 showed significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Lactobacillus acidophilus and a promising antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The antimicrobial fraction upon GC-MS analysis of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP) possesses the highest percentage of area normalisation (91%) with other few minor constituents. The study is concluded by stating that the antimicrobial efficacy of the squid ink might be due to the synergistic effects of the phthalate derivative and the other minor volatile compounds analysed in the squid ink.

  11. The effect of nanoparticles size on photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties of Ag-Pt/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielińska-Jurek, Anna, E-mail: annjurek@pg.gda.pl [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Wei, Zhishun [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, N21, W10, 001-0021, Sapporo (Japan); Wysocka, Izabela [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Szweda, Piotr [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Kowalska, Ewa [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, N21, W10, 001-0021, Sapporo (Japan)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light for bimetallic Ag-Pt/TiO{sub 2} was observed. • Phenol was removed efficiently after 60 min irradiation under Vis. • Most active sample contains fine Pt (1–3 nm) on TiO{sub 2}. • Ag/TiO{sub 2}, Ag-Pt/TiO{sub 2} revealed antimicrobial activity. - Abstract: Ag-Pt-modified TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were synthesized using the sol–gel method. Bimetallic modified TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles exhibited improved photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation, better than monometallic Ag/TiO{sub 2} and Pt/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs). All modified powders showed localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in visible region. The photocatalysts’ characteristics by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption (BET method for specific surface area) showed that sample with the highest photocatalytic activity had anatase structure, about 93 m{sup 2}/g specific surface area, maximum plasmon absorption at ca. 420 nm and contained small NPs of silver of 6 nm and very fine platinum NPs of 3 nm. The photocatalytic activity was estimated by measuring the decomposition rate of phenol in 0.2 mM aqueous solution under Vis and UV/vis light irradiation. It was found that size of platinum was decisive for the photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation, i.e., the smaller Pt NPs were, the higher was photocatalytic activity. While, antimicrobial activities, estimated for bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and pathogenic fungi belonging to Candida family, were only observed for photocatalysts containing silver, i.e., Ag/TiO{sub 2} and Ag-Pt/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites.

  12. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial properties of silver-containing hydroxyapatite prepared via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Michiyo, E-mail: ap-honda@newkast.or.jp [Aizawa “Next-generation Bioceramics” Project, Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Kawanobe, Yusuke [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Ishii, Ken [Aizawa “Next-generation Bioceramics” Project, Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Konishi, Toshiisa [Aizawa “Next-generation Bioceramics” Project, Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Mizumoto, Minori [Aizawa “Next-generation Bioceramics” Project, Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Kanzawa, Nobuyuki [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Matsumoto, Morio [Aizawa “Next-generation Bioceramics” Project, Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); and others

    2013-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp), with its high biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, readily absorbs proteins, amino acids and other substances, which in turn favor the adsorption and colonization of bacteria. To prevent bacterial growth and biofilm formation on HAp discs, silver-containing (1–20 mol%) HAp (Ag-HAp) powders were synthesized using an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USSP) technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks were very broad, indicating low crystallinity, and this induced the release of Ag{sup +} ions from Ag-HAp powders. In addition, a gradual increase in Ca{sup 2+} ion release was observed. These results suggest that dissolution of Ca{sup 2+} ion in Ag-HAp triggered the release of Ag{sup +} ions. The antimicrobial efficacy of Ag-HAp disc was tested against Staphylococcus aureus. Samples with Ag contents of more than 5 mol% were found to be highly effective against bacterial colonization and biofilm formation in vitro. In vivo antibacterial tests using bioluminescent strains also showed reductions in the viability of bacteria with Ag-HAp (5 mol%) discs. Biocompatibility tests using a modified Transwell® insert method showed that Ag-HAp (5 mol%) discs have negative effects on osteoblast proliferation. These results indicate that Ag-HAp (5 mol%) has effective antibacterial activity and good biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo together with good biocompatibility, thus confirming its utility as a bactericidal material. - Highlights: • Ag-HAp powders were synthesized by an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. • Ag-HAp powders with low crystallinity induced the release of Ag{sup +} ions. • Ag{sup +} ion was released from Ag-HAp powders over the course of 30 days. • Ag-HAp discs greatly affected antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo. • Optimal Ag content (5 mol%) did not affect osteoblastic cell proliferation.

  13. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial properties of silver-containing hydroxyapatite prepared via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Michiyo; Kawanobe, Yusuke; Ishii, Ken; Konishi, Toshiisa; Mizumoto, Minori; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Morio

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp), with its high biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, readily absorbs proteins, amino acids and other substances, which in turn favor the adsorption and colonization of bacteria. To prevent bacterial growth and biofilm formation on HAp discs, silver-containing (1–20 mol%) HAp (Ag-HAp) powders were synthesized using an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USSP) technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks were very broad, indicating low crystallinity, and this induced the release of Ag + ions from Ag-HAp powders. In addition, a gradual increase in Ca 2+ ion release was observed. These results suggest that dissolution of Ca 2+ ion in Ag-HAp triggered the release of Ag + ions. The antimicrobial efficacy of Ag-HAp disc was tested against Staphylococcus aureus. Samples with Ag contents of more than 5 mol% were found to be highly effective against bacterial colonization and biofilm formation in vitro. In vivo antibacterial tests using bioluminescent strains also showed reductions in the viability of bacteria with Ag-HAp (5 mol%) discs. Biocompatibility tests using a modified Transwell® insert method showed that Ag-HAp (5 mol%) discs have negative effects on osteoblast proliferation. These results indicate that Ag-HAp (5 mol%) has effective antibacterial activity and good biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo together with good biocompatibility, thus confirming its utility as a bactericidal material. - Highlights: • Ag-HAp powders were synthesized by an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. • Ag-HAp powders with low crystallinity induced the release of Ag + ions. • Ag + ion was released from Ag-HAp powders over the course of 30 days. • Ag-HAp discs greatly affected antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo. • Optimal Ag content (5 mol%) did not affect osteoblastic cell proliferation

  14. Possession divestment by sales in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekerdt, David J; Addington, Aislinn

    2015-08-01

    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers' capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential relocation. Among this group, three-quarters of the households downsized by selling some belongings. Informal sales seemed the least fraught of all strategies, estate sales had mixed reviews, and garage sales were recalled as laborious. Sellers' efforts were eased by social relations and social networks as helpers and buyers came forward. As selling proceeded, sentiment about possessions waned as their materiality and economic value came to the fore, easing their detachment from the household. Possession selling is challenging because older adults are limited in the knowledge, skills, and efforts that they can apply to the recommodification of their belongings. Selling can nonetheless be encouraged as a divestment strategy as long as the frustrations and drawbacks are transparent, and the goal of ridding is kept in view. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Failed Image and the Possessed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This article asks if the recurrent queries regarding the value of images in visual anthropology could find new answers by exploring responses to visual media in neo-orthodox Islam. It proposes that the visual display of the photographic image shares a curious resemblance to the bodies of people...... possessed by invisible spirits called jinn. The image as a failed example or model of reality works like the possessed body as an amplifier of invisibility pointing towards that which cannot be seen, depicted visually, or represented in writing. This suggests a negative epistemology in which images obtain...

  16. Antimicrobial polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anjali; Duvvuri, L Sailaja; Farah, Shady; Beyth, Nurit; Domb, Abraham J; Khan, Wahid

    2014-12-01

    Better health is basic requirement of human being, but the rapid growth of harmful pathogens and their serious health effects pose a significant challenge to modern science. Infections by pathogenic microorganisms are of great concern in many fields such as medical devices, drugs, hospital surfaces/furniture, dental restoration, surgery equipment, health care products, and hygienic applications (e.g., water purification systems, textiles, food packaging and storage, major or domestic appliances etc.) Antimicrobial polymers are the materials having the capability to kill/inhibit the growth of microbes on their surface or surrounding environment. Recently, they gained considerable interest for both academic research and industry and were found to be better than their small molecular counterparts in terms of enhanced efficacy, reduced toxicity, minimized environmental problems, resistance, and prolonged lifetime. Hence, efforts have focused on the development of antimicrobial polymers with all desired characters for optimum activity. In this Review, an overview of different antimicrobial polymers, their mechanism of action, factors affecting antimicrobial activity, and application in various fields are given. Recent advances and the current clinical status of these polymers are also discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Digital possessions after a romantic break up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herron, Daniel; Moncur, Wendy; van den Hoven, Elise

    2016-01-01

    With technology becoming more pervasive in everyday life, it is common for individuals to use digital media to support the enactment and maintenance of romantic relationships. Partners in a relationship may create digital possessions frequently. However, after a relationship ends, individuals

  18. POSSESSION VERSUS POSITION: STRATEGIC EVALUATION IN AFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M. O'Shaughnessy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In sports like Australian Rules football and soccer, teams must battle to achieve possession of the ball in sufficient space to make optimal use of it. Ultimately the teams need to score, and to do that the ball must be brought into the area in front of goal - the place where the defence usually concentrates on shutting down space and opportunity time. Coaches would like to quantify the trade-offs between contested play in good positions and uncontested play in less promising positions, in order to inform their decision-making about where to put their players, and when to gamble on sending the ball to a contest rather than simply maintain possession. To evaluate football strategies, Champion Data has collected the on-ground locations of all 350,000 possessions and stoppages in the past two seasons of AFL (2004, 2005. By following each chain of play through to the next score, we can now reliably estimate the scoreboard "equity" of possessing the ball at any location, and measure the effect of having sufficient time to dispose of it effectively. As expected, winning the ball under physical pressure (through a "hard ball get" is far more difficult to convert into a score than winning it via a mark. We also analyse some equity gradients to show how getting the ball 20 metres closer to goal is much more important in certain areas of the ground than in others. We conclude by looking at the choices faced by players in possession wanting to maximise their likelihood of success

  19. Multifunctional biosynthesized silver nanoparticles exhibiting excellent antimicrobial potential against multi-drug resistant microbes along with remarkable anticancerous properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Diksha; Thiruveedula, Prasanna Kumar; Pathak, Rajiv; Kumar, Bipul; Gautam, Hemant K; Agnihotri, Shrish; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep

    2017-11-01

    This study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which were biosynthesized using the extracts of Citrus maxima plant. Characterization through UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) confirmed the formation of AgNps in nano-size range. These nanoparticles exhibited enhanced antioxidative activity and showed commendable antimicrobial activity against wide range of microbes including multi-drug resistant bacteria that were later confirmed by TEM. These particles exhibited minimal toxicity when cytotoxicity study was performed on normal human lung fibroblast cell line as well as human red blood cells. It was quite noteworthy that these particles showed remarkable cytotoxicity on human fibrosarcoma and mouse melanoma cell line (B16-F10). Additionally, the apoptotic topographies of B16-F10 cells treated with AgNps were confirmed by using acridine orange and ethidium bromide dual dye staining, caspase-3 assay, DNA fragmentation assay followed by cell cycle analysis using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Taken together, these results advocate promising potential of the biosynthesized AgNps for their use in therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ag nanoparticles-decorated ZnO nanorod array on a mechanical flexible substrate with enhanced optical and antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Tse, Wai Hei; Chen, Longyan; Zhang, Jin

    2015-03-01

    Heteronanostructured zinc oxide nanorod (ZnO NR) array are vertically grown on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through a hydrothermal method followed by an in situ deposition of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) through a photoreduction process. The Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorods on PDMS are measured with an average diameter of 160 nm and an average length of 2 μm. ZnO NRs measured by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) shows highly crystalline with a lattice fringe of 0.255 nm, which corresponds to the (0002) planes in ZnO crystal lattice. The average diameter of the Ag NPs in situ deposited on the ZnO NRs is estimated at 22 ± 2 nm. As compared to the bare ZnO NRs, the heterostructured Ag-ZnO nanorod array shows enhanced ultraviolet (UV) absorption at 440 nm, and significant emission in the visible region (λem = 542 nm). In addition, the antimicrobial efficiency of Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorod array shows obvious improvement as compared to bare ZnO nanorod array. The cytotoxicity of ZnO nanorod array with and without Ag NPs was studied by using 3 T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. No significant toxic effect is imposed on the cells.

  1. EFFECT OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES ON THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PLANT OILS AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Minarchenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to investigate the influence of silver nanoparticles on the physical and chemical features of plant oils of dogrose, flax, cedar, amaranth and watermelon and their antimicrobial activity. Plant oils were saturated with silver nanoparticles using electron-beam technology for depositing a molecular stream of metal in a vacuum. To characterize the rancidity of plant oils, the acid, iodine, peroxide, ester and saponification values were determined. A sharp drop in the iodine number and an increase in the peroxide number in oils saturated with silver nanoparticles were observed, as compared to pure oils, indicating a decrease in the number of unsaturated bonds in fatty acids and the formation of peroxides in oils. All pure plant oils and a separate sample of silver nanoparticles suppressed the growth of only E. faecalis colonies. Plant oils that were saturated with silver nanoparticles delayed the growth of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. faecalis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans; the greatest delay in the growth of colonies was caused by flaxseed oil. Thus, the features of the plant oils under study essentially changed after they are aturated with silver nanoparticles. It can be assumed that the metal acted as a catalyst for peroxide oxidation of lipids in the investigated plant oil samples, the products of which caused toxic effects on cultures of bacteria and fungi in the experiment.

  2. Evaluation of the Acetone and Aqueous Extracts of Mature Stem Bark of Sclerocarya birrea for Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoline F. Tanih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We assayed the antimicrobial activity of acetone and aqueous extracts of the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea on some selected bacteria and fungi species including; Streptococcus pyogenes, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella typhimurium, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida glabrata, Trichosporon mucoides, and Candida krusei using both agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assays. Based on the levels of activity, the acetone extract was examined for total polyphenolic content, radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Total phenols of the extract were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH, ABTS and reducing power. All the bacteria and fungi species were susceptible to the plant extracts. The acetone extract was the most active for the bacterial species with MIC (0.156–0.625 mg/mL while the aqueous extract was the most active for the fungi species with MIC (0.3125–1.25 mg/mL. The polyphenolic compounds were found as 27.2 mg/g tannic acid equivalent, 25.2 mg/g quercetin equivalent, 9.1 mg/g quercetin equivalent for phenols, flavonoid and flavonols respectively. The acetone extract exhibited a remarkable ability to scavenge radicals, strong reducing ability and a potential source of natural antioxidants. Both the acetone and aqueous extracts of S. birrea may provide a target for drug discovery.

  3. Solvent-Free Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Polyphenols from Olive Tree Leaves: Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Selin; Samli, Ruya; Tan, Ayşe Seher Birteksöz; Barba, Francisco J; Chemat, Farid; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Lorenzo, José M

    2017-06-24

    Response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural networks (ANN) were evaluated and compared in order to decide which method was the most appropriate to predict and optimize total phenolic content (TPC) and oleuropein yields in olive tree leaf ( Olea europaea ) extracts, obtained after solvent-free microwave-assisted extraction (SFMAE). The SFMAE processing conditions were: microwave irradiation power 250-350 W, extraction time 2-3 min, and the amount of sample 5-10 g. Furthermore, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the olive leaf extracts, obtained under optimal extraction conditions, were assessed by several in vitro assays. ANN had better prediction performance for TPC and oleuropein yields compared to RSM. The optimum extraction conditions to recover both TPC and oleuropein were: irradiation power 250 W, extraction time 2 min, and amount of sample 5 g, independent of the method used for prediction. Under these conditions, the maximal yield of oleuropein (0.060 ± 0.012 ppm) was obtained and the amount of TPC was 2.480 ± 0.060 ppm. Moreover, olive leaf extracts obtained under optimum SFMAE conditions showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis , with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 1.25 mg/mL.

  4. Solvent-Free Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Polyphenols from Olive Tree Leaves: Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Şahin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM and artificial neural networks (ANN were evaluated and compared in order to decide which method was the most appropriate to predict and optimize total phenolic content (TPC and oleuropein yields in olive tree leaf (Olea europaea extracts, obtained after solvent-free microwave-assisted extraction (SFMAE. The SFMAE processing conditions were: microwave irradiation power 250–350 W, extraction time 2–3 min, and the amount of sample 5–10 g. Furthermore, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the olive leaf extracts, obtained under optimal extraction conditions, were assessed by several in vitro assays. ANN had better prediction performance for TPC and oleuropein yields compared to RSM. The optimum extraction conditions to recover both TPC and oleuropein were: irradiation power 250 W, extraction time 2 min, and amount of sample 5 g, independent of the method used for prediction. Under these conditions, the maximal yield of oleuropein (0.060 ± 0.012 ppm was obtained and the amount of TPC was 2.480 ± 0.060 ppm. Moreover, olive leaf extracts obtained under optimum SFMAE conditions showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value of 1.25 mg/mL.

  5. A highly bioactive poly (amido amine)/70S30C bioactive glass hybrid with photoluminescent and antimicrobial properties for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Dourbash, Fakhraddin; Alizadeh, Parvin; Nazari, Shahram; Farasat, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    The field of tissue engineering constantly calls for novel biomaterials that possess intrinsically multifunctional properties such as bioactivity, bioimaging ability and antibacterial properties. In this paper, poly (amido amine) generation 5/bioactive glass inorganic-organic hybrids have been developed through direct hybridization by 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) as coupling agent. Results indicated that the degree of covalent coupling by GPTMS and the weight percent of inorganic and organic constituents highly influence hybrids properties. It was found that nanoscale integration of inorganic and organic chains by GPTMS significantly endows hybrids with high thermal stability. Furthermore, hybrids exhibited photoluminescent ability (emission 400-600nm and 700nm) without incorporating of any organic dyes or quantum dots. In addition, hydrophilicity of our hybrids indicated good cell/material interaction. The biological apatite was formed on the surface of calcium containing hybrids when soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1week. Hybrids also showed linear biodegradation behavior in SBF that could be controlled by the degree of covalent crosslinking which was indicative of their stable biodegradation ability. High inherent antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus was also observed from poly (amido amine)/silica hybrids. No adverse cytotoxicity for human gingival fibroblast cell lines (HGF) was detected after 4days. It is envisaged that our novel multifunctional hybrid system will confer intriguing potential in advancing the field of tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ag85A-specific CD4+ T cell lines derived after boosting BCG-vaccinated cattle with Ad5-85A possess both mycobacterial growth inhibition and anti-inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Hannah J; Biffar, Lucia; Steinbach, Sabine; Guzman, Efrain; Connelley, Tim; Morrison, Ivan; Vordermeier, H Martin; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo

    2018-05-11

    There is a need to improve the efficacy of the BCG vaccine against human and bovine tuberculosis. Previous data showed that boosting bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-vaccinated cattle with a recombinant attenuated human type 5 adenovirally vectored subunit vaccine (Ad5-85A) increased BCG protection and was associated with increased frequency of Ag85A-specific CD4 + T cells post-boosting. Here, the capacity of Ag85A-specific CD4 + T cell lines - derived before and after viral boosting - to interact with BCG-infected macrophages was evaluated. No difference before and after boosting was found in the capacity of these Ag85A-specific CD4 + T cell lines to restrict mycobacterial growth, but the secretion of IL-10 in vitro post-boost increased significantly. Furthermore, cell lines derived post-boost had no statistically significant difference in the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-12, IFNγ or TNFα) compared to pre-boost lines. In conclusion, the protection associated with the increased number of Ag85A-specific CD4 + T cells restricting mycobacterial growth may be associated with anti-inflammatory properties to limit immune-pathology. Copyright © 2018 Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Micro-encapsulation of ozonated red pepper seed oil with antimicrobial activity and application to nonwoven fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyildiz, F; Karagönlü, S; Basal, G; Uzel, A; Bayraktar, O

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, functional fabrics possessing antimicrobial activity have drawn significant interest because antibiotic resistance is becoming widespread among pathogenic micro-organisms. The aim of this study was to produce microcapsules incorporating ozonated red pepper seed oil (ORPSO) with antimicrobial properties and apply them to nonwoven fabrics to prepare functional textiles. Red pepper seed oil (RPSO) was ozonated and micro-encapsulated via a complex coacervation method using gelatin (GE) and gum arabic (GA) as wall materials. While micro-encapsulation yield and oil loading decreased with increases in the amount of surfactant, the mean particle size increased. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was tested via the disc diffusion method. The microcapsules were also tested using the agar well method. While RPSO had no effect on the test micro-organisms, the ORPSO and microcapsules containing ORPSO were found to be active against the test micro-organisms. The microcapsules were then applied to nonwoven fabric using the padding method to produce a disposable functional textile. The microcapsule-impregnated functional fabrics provided a 5 log decrease in 1 h. It is therefore possible to functionalize nonwoven fabrics to have antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant micro-organisms, using microcapsules containing ORPSO. This is the first report on the antimicrobial action of RPSO after ozonation process. These findings suggest that ozonated red pepper seed oil (ORPSO) may be a useful and effective antimicrobial agent against the micro-organisms with antibiotic resistance. Therefore, as a natural product, RPSO represents a sustainable alternative to the use of synthetic antimicrobial agents. To our knowledge, this is also the first time that ORPSO has been micro-encapsulated for the preparation of functional textile material with significant antimicrobial activity. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Behaviour of laser metal deposited Ti6Al4V/ Cu composites in Hank’s solution in terms of biocompatibility properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erinosho, MF

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti6Al4V alloy is a well-known material for biomedical application due to the very excellent corrosion resistance it possessed. Cu has an excellent antimicrobial property and stabilizes the immune system of the body activities. In this present study...

  9. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of crude extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bark and wood parts of the root of Terminalia mollis was investigated for its phytochemical and antimicrobial properties. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of tannins and resins as the major secondary metabolites. Test for antimicrobial activity of the plant crude extracts using the agar diffusion method ...

  10. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of roots of Murraya koenigii (Linn. Spreng. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Vats

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Murraya koenigii, family Rutaceae, commonly known as Curry leaf plant is a highly valued plant for its medicinal value and characteristic aroma. The plant is a rich source of carbazole alkaloids. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of roots of the plant were screened for phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids and flavonoids in the root extracts of the plant. The study shows that all the extracts possess remarkable antibacterial activity. Additionally, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts also had antifungal activity.

  11. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers.

  12. Taking Possession: Rituals, Space and Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mara DeSilva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In early modern Europe authority over communities, both people and spaces, was visualized through ritual gestures and processions. Communities gathered to witness ceremonial entries that drew on accepted forms of gestures and speech identifying individuals and articulating their place in the urban power relationship. Ceremonial entries by rulers, ambassadors, bishops, and other office-holders drew on ritual acts projecting messages of possession in order to establish reputations of prestige and authority. This introductory essay draws on cultural anthropology and recent historiography to build a framework for understanding rituals of possession that went beyond the tradition triumphal entry to incorporate substitutes, new modes of prestigious display, and attend to conflicts. By “taking possession” of communities, offices, and spaces using accepted ritual forms, early moderns initiated conversations about authority and power that were far more flexible in their scope, practice, and participants than expected.

  13. Statistical metamodeling for revealing synergistic antimicrobial interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang Chia Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Many bacterial pathogens are becoming drug resistant faster than we can develop new antimicrobials. To address this threat in public health, a metamodel antimicrobial cocktail optimization (MACO scheme is demonstrated for rapid screening of potent antibiotic cocktails using uropathogenic clinical isolates as model systems. With the MACO scheme, only 18 parallel trials were required to determine a potent antimicrobial cocktail out of hundreds of possible combinations. In particular, trimethoprim and gentamicin were identified to work synergistically for inhibiting the bacterial growth. Sensitivity analysis indicated gentamicin functions as a synergist for trimethoprim, and reduces its minimum inhibitory concentration for 40-fold. Validation study also confirmed that the trimethoprim-gentamicin synergistic cocktail effectively inhibited the growths of multiple strains of uropathogenic clinical isolates. With its effectiveness and simplicity, the MACO scheme possesses the potential to serve as a generic platform for identifying synergistic antimicrobial cocktails toward management of bacterial infection in the future.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of Nigerian medicinal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Madubuike Umunna; Okoye, Rosemary Chinazam

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently one of the major threats facing mankind. The emergence and rapid spread of multi- and pan-drug-resistant organisms (such as vancomycin-, methicillin-, extended-spectrum β-lactam-, carbapenem- and colistin-resistant organisms) has put the world in a dilemma. The health and economic burden associated with AMR on a global scale are dreadful. Available antimicrobials have been misused and are almost ineffective with some of these drugs associated with dangerous side effects in some individuals. Development of new, effective, and safe antimicrobials is one of the ways by which AMR burden can be reduced. The rate at which microorganisms develop AMR mechanisms outpaces the rate at which new antimicrobials are being developed. Medicinal plants are potential sources of new antimicrobial molecules. There is renewed interest in antimicrobial activities of phytochemicals. Nigeria boasts of a huge heritage of medicinal plants and there is avalanche of researches that have been undertaken to screen antimicrobial activities of these plants. Scientific compilation of these studies could provide useful information on the antimicrobial properties of the plants. This information can be useful in the development of new antimicrobial drugs. This paper reviews antimicrobial researches that have been undertaken on Nigerian medicinal plants. PMID:28512606

  15. Production of Antimicrobial Agent by Streptomyces violachromogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Arwa A.

    2007-01-01

    The isolation of antibiotics from microorganisms improved the discovery of novel antibiotics, which is relatively easy as compared to chemical synthesis of antimicrobial agents. This study starts from isolation and purification of the antimicrobial producing Sterptomycetes obtained from soil habitat of Yemen. The good antimicrobial producing Sterptomycetes isolate was selected from a batch of Sterptomycetes isolates then identified. This isolate has bioactivity against some G+ve and G-ve bacteria. The antimicrobial agent isolated from Streptomyces violachromogenes (isolate no.YA118) was extracted with ethyl acetate at pH 3. The residue was applied to a silica gel column chromatography and eluted stepwise with many solvent systems. The active fractions were tested with B. subtilis NCTC10400. The purification of the antibiotic has been carried out by thin layer chromatography then the physical and chemical properties were studied to identify the antimicrobial agent. The isolated antimicrobial agent is an antibiotic belonging to the neomycin group. (author)

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial ...

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over ...

  20. Development and characterization of novel antimicrobial bilayer films based on Polylactic acid (PLA)/Pickering emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun-You; Tang, Chuan-He; Yin, Shou-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2018-02-01

    Biodegradable food packaging is sustainable and has a great application prospect. PLA is a promising alternative for petroleum-derived polymers. However, PLA packaging suffers from poor barrier properties compared with petroleum-derived ones. To address this issue, we designed bilayer films based on PLA and Pickering emulsions. The formed bilayer films were compact and uniform and double layers were combined firmly. This strategy enhanced mechanical resistance, ductility and moisture barrier of Pickering emulsion films, and concomitantly enhanced the oxygen barrier for PLA films. Thymol loadings in Pickering emulsion layer endowed them with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The release profile of thymol was well fitted with Fick's second law. The antimicrobial activity of the films depended on film types, and Pickering emulsion layer presented larger inhibition zone than PLA layer, hinting that the films possessed directional releasing role. This study opens a promising route to fabricate bilayer architecture creating synergism of each layer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System ... If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  4. Effect of oregano and marjoram essential oils on the physical and antimicrobial properties of chitosan based systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedlaříková, J.; Doležalová, M.; Egner, P.; Pavlačková, J.; Krejčí, J.; Rudolf, O.; Peer, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 2017 (2017), č. článku 2593863. ISSN 1687-9422 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : antioxidant * Structural properties * carvacrol * thyme Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.077, year: 2016 https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijps/2017/2593863/

  5. Cellulose nanocrystals from Actinidia deliciosa pruning residues combined with carvacrol in PVA_CH films with antioxidant/antimicrobial properties for packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzi, Francesca; Fortunati, Elena; Giovanale, Geremia; Mazzaglia, Angelo; Torre, Luigi; Balestra, Giorgio Mariano

    2017-11-01

    Kiwi Actinidia deliciosa pruning residues were here used for the first time as precursors for the extraction of high performing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) by applying a bleaching treatment followed by an acidic hydrolysis. The resultant cellulosic nanostructures, obtained by an optimize extraction procedure (0.7% wt/v two times of sodium chlorite NaClO 2 ) followed by an hydrolysis step, were then used as reinforcements phases in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blended with natural chitosan (CH) based films and also combined, for the first time, with carvacrol used here as active agent. Morphological and optical characteristics, mechanical response, thermal and migration properties, moisture content and antioxidant and antimicrobial assays were conducted. The morphological, optical and colorimetric results underlined that no particular alterations were induced on the transparency and color of PVA and PVA_CH blend by the presence of CNC and carvacrol, while they were able to modulate the mechanical responses, to induce antioxidant activities maintaining the migration levels below the permitted limits and suggesting the possible application in industrial sectors. Finally, inhibitions on bacterial development were detected for multifunctional systems, suggesting their protective function against microorganisms contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating the antimicrobial, apoptotic, and cancer cell gene delivery properties of protein-capped gold nanoparticles synthesized from the edible mycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma crassum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arpita; Ray, Sarmishtha; Chowdhury, Supriyo; Sarkar, Arnab; Mandal, Deba Prasad; Bhattacharjee, Shamee; Kundu, Surekha

    2018-05-01

    Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles of distinct geometric shapes with highly functional protein coats without additional capping steps is rarely reported. This study describes green synthesis of protein-coated gold nanoparticles for the first time from the edible, mycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma crassum (Berk.) Sacc . The nanoparticles were of the size range 5-25 nm and of different shapes. Spectroscopic analysis showed red shift of the absorption maxima with longer reaction period during production and blue shift with increase in pH. These were characterized with spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, AFM, XRD, and DLS. The particle size could be altered by changing synthesis parameters. These had potent antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and multi-drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. These also had inhibitory effect on the growth kinetics of bacteria and germination of fungal spores. These showed apoptotic properties on eukaryotic cells when tested with comet assays. Moreover, the particles are capped with a natural 40 kDa protein which was utilized as attachment sites for genes to be delivered into sarcoma cancer cells. The present work also attempted at optimizing safe dosage of these nanoparticles using hemolysis assays, for application in therapy. Large-scale production of the nanoparticles in fermentors and other possible applications of the particles have been discussed.

  7. Effect of Maillard reaction products on the physical and antimicrobial properties of edible films based on ε-polylysine and chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Liu, Fuguo; Liang, Chunxuan; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2014-11-01

    Edible films based on Maillard reaction products (MRPs) of ε-polylysine and chitosan, without the use of any plasticiser, were prepared by solution casting. The effect of Maillard reaction parameters (reaction time and the ratio of polylysine/chitosan) of ε-polylysine and chitosan on the structure, moisture content, water solubility, total colour difference and mechanical properties of edible films formed by MRPs were systematically evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that edible films prepared by the MRPs of ε-polylysine and chitosan through the Maillard reaction exhibited a more compact and dense structure than those from the mixture of biopolymers without the presence of MRPs. The tensile strength and % elongation values of films from the mixture were decreased significantly with the rise of ε-polylysine (P Maillard reaction, whereas water solubility was decreased and total colour difference was increased significantly (P Maillard reaction time. In addition, antimicrobial activity of chitosan films against E. coli and S. aureus. could be achieved by incorporating ε-polylysine into chitosan. These films can ensure food quality and safety, especially for coating highly perishable foods, such as meat products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Antimicrobial Activities and Time-Kill Kinetics of Extracts of Selected Ghanaian Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Appiah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid rise of antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide problem. This has necessitated the need to search for new antimicrobial agents. Mushrooms are rich sources of potential antimicrobial agents. This study investigated the antimicrobial properties of methanol extracts of Trametes gibbosa, Trametes elegans, Schizophyllum commune, and Volvariella volvacea. Agar well diffusion, broth microdilution, and time-kill kinetic assays were used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts against selected test organisms. Preliminary mycochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, anthraquinones, and alkaloids in the extracts. Methanol extracts of T. gibbosa, T. elegans, S. commune, and V. volvacea showed mean zone of growth inhibition of 10.00±0.0 to 21.50±0.84, 10.00±0.0 to 22.00±1.10, 9.00±0.63 to 21.83±1.17, and 12.00±0.0 to 21.17±1.00 mm, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration of methanol extracts of T. gibbosa, T. elegans, S. commune, and V. volvacea ranged from 4.0 to 20, 6.0 to 30.0, 8.0 to 10.0, and 6.0 to 20.0 mg/mL, respectively. Time-kill kinetics studies showed that the extracts possess bacteriostatic action. Methanol extracts of T. gibbosa, T. elegans, S. commune, and V. volvacea exhibited antimicrobial activity and may contain bioactive compounds which may serve as potential antibacterial and antifungal agents.

  9. Subsurface Endospore-Forming Bacteria Possess Bio-Sealant Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Sreenivasulu; Lingamgunta, Lakshman Kumar; Kannali, Jayakumar; Gajula, Swarna Kumari; Bandikari, Ramesh; Dasari, Sreenivasulu; Dalavai, Veena; Chinthala, Paramageetham; Gundala, Prasada Babu; Kutagolla, Peera; Balaji, Vinodh Kumar

    2018-04-24

    Concrete is a strong and fairly inexpensive building substance, but has several disadvantages like cracking that allows corrosion, thus reducing its lifespan. To mitigate these complications, long-lasting microbial self-healing cement is an alternative that is eco-friendly and also actively repairs cracks. The present paper describes the detailed experimental investigation on compressive strength of cement mortars, mixed with six alkaliphilic bacteria, isolated from subsurface mica mines of high alkalinity. The experiments showed that the addition of alkaliphilic isolates at different cell concentrations (10 4 and 10 6 cells/ml) enhanced the compressive strength of cement mortar, because the rapid growth of bacteria at high alkalinity precipitates calcite crystals that lead to filling of pores and densifying the concrete mix. Thus, Bacillus subtilis (SVUNM4) showed the highest compressive strength (28.61%) of cement mortar at 10 4 cells/ml compared to those of other five alkaliphilic isolates (Brevibacillus sp., SVUNM15-22.1%; P. dendritiformis, SVUNM11-19.9%; B. methylotrophicus, SVUNM9-16%; B. licheniformis, SVUNM14-12.7% and S. maltophilia, SVUNM13-9.6%) and controlled cement mortar as well. This method resulted in the filling of cracks in concrete with calcite (CaCO 3 ), which was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Our results showed that the alkaliphilic bacterial isolates used in the study are effective in self-healing and repair of concrete cracks.

  10. Antimicrobial Drugs in Fighting against Antimicrobial Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Guyue; Dai, Menghong; Ahmed, Saeed; Hao, Haihong; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of antimicrobial resistance, together with the lack of newly developed antimicrobial drugs, represents an alarming signal for both human and animal healthcare worldwide. Selection of rational dosage regimens for traditional antimicrobial drugs based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles as well as development of novel antimicrobials targeting new bacterial targets or resistance mechanisms are key approaches in tackling AMR. In addition to the cellular level resistance (i....

  11. Properties of halogenated and sulfonated porphyrins relevant for the selection of photosensitizers in anticancer and antimicrobial therapies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pucelik

    Full Text Available The impact of substituents on the photochemical and biological properties of tetraphenylporphyrin-based photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy of cancer (PDT as well as photodynamic inactivation of microorganisms (PDI was examined. Spectroscopic and physicochemical properties were related with therapeutic efficacy in PDT of cancer and PDI of microbial cells in vitro. Less polar halogenated, sulfonamide porphyrins were most readily taken up by cells compared to hydrophilic and anionic porphyrins. The uptake and PDT of a hydrophilic porphyrin was significantly enhanced with incorporation in polymeric micelles (Pluronic L121. Photodynamic inactivation studies were performed against Gram-positive (S. aureus, E. faecalis, Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. marcescens and fungal yeast (C. albicans. We observed a 6 logs reduction of S. aureus after irradiation (10 J/cm2 in the presence of 20 μM of hydrophilic porphyrin, but this was not improved with incorporation in Pluronic L121. A 2-3 logs reduction was obtained for E. coli using similar doses, and a decrease of 3-4 logs was achieved for C. albicans. Rational substitution of tetraphenylporphyrins improves their photodynamic properties and informs on strategies to obtain photosensitizers for efficient PDT and PDI. However, the design of the photosensitizers must be accompanied by the development of tailored drug formulations.

  12. Comparative study of anthocyanin composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdulis, Deividas; Sarkinas, Antanas; Jasutiené, Ina; Stackevicené, Elicija; Nikolajevas, Laurynas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous comparison of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) fruits for their anthocyanin composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity is reported. The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare anthocyanin composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity in bilberry and blueberry fruits and their skins. The investigations revealed that the highest amount of total anthocyanins was observed in fruits skins of blueberry cultivars. The results, obtained by chromatographic analysis, indicated that cyanidin is a dominant anthocyanidin in bilberry and malvidin in blueberry samples. Extracts of "Herbert", "Coville", "Toro" blueberry cultivars and bilberry fruits revealed antimicrobial properties. Citrobacter freundii (ATCC 8090) and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212) were the most sensitive among eight tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Significant differences between berry and skin extracts were not established. Studies with fruits showed that the strongest antioxidant activity possesses blueberry cultivar "Berkeley" (82.13 +/- 0.51%). Meanwhile, the amount of quenched free radicals in bilberry samples was 63.72 +/- 1.11%, respectively. The lowest antioxidant activity was estimated in blueberry cultivar "Coville". Accordingly, the strongest antiradical properties were estimated in blueberry cultivar "Ama" fruit skins. Bilberry fruit skin samples possess strong antiradical activity as well (82.69 +/- 0.37%).

  13. Antimalarial activity of abietane ferruginol analogues possessing a phthalimide group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Miguel A; Clark, Julie; Connelly, Michele; Rivas, Fatima

    2014-11-15

    The abietane-type diterpenoid (+)-ferruginol, a bioactive compound isolated from New Zealand's Miro tree (Podocarpus ferruginea), displays relevant pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial, cardioprotective, anti-oxidative, anti-plasmodial, leishmanicidal, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Herein, we demonstrate that ferruginol (1) and some phthalimide containing analogues 2-12 have potential antimalarial activity. The compounds were evaluated against malaria strains 3D7 and K1, and cytotoxicity was measured against a mammalian cell line panel. A promising lead, compound 3, showed potent activity with an EC50 = 86 nM (3D7 strain), 201 nM (K1 strain) and low cytotoxicity in mammalian cells (SI>290). Some structure-activity relationships have been identified for the antimalarial activity in these abietane analogues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical Profiling and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti-Microbial Properties of Selected Commercial Essential Oils: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Luís

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The last decades have seen an increased awareness by the scientific community of the extent of resistance to conventional antibiotics, particularly with respect to the emerging multidrug-resistant pathogenic microbes. Additionally, natural antioxidants have received significant attention among food professionals and consumers because of their assumed safety and potential therapeutic value. The aim of this work was to assess the antioxidant activities of eight selected commercial essential oils (EOs, together with the evaluation of their antibacterial and anti-quorum sensing properties. Methods: The chemical profiling of the EOs was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. The antioxidant properties of the EOs were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay and by β-carotene bleaching test. Disc diffusion assays were employed to evaluate the anti-bacterial and anti-quorum sensing activities of the EOs. Results: It was observed that EOs from three Eucalyptus species are rich in eucalyptol. Generally, linalool is abundant in EOs from four Lavandula species. The oil of Cymbopogon citratus is the one with the best capacity to scavenge the DPPH free radicals and presented great antibacterial activity. Conclusions: The geographical origins of the plant species are determinant factors in the EO composition and in the corresponding biological activities.

  15. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A.brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product – natural preservatives in yoghurt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojkovic, D.S.; Reis, F.S.; Glamoclija, J.; Ciric, A.; Barros, L.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R.; Sokovic, M.

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic

  16. Cyclodextrins: A Weapon in the Fight Against Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chew Ee; Dolzhenko, Anton V.; Lee, Sui Mae; Young, David James

    Antimicrobial resistance poses one of the most serious global challenges of our age. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are widely utilized excipients in formulations because of their solubilizing properties, low toxicity, and low inflammatory response. This review summarizes recent investigations of antimicrobial agents involving CDs and CD-based antimicrobial materials. CDs have been employed for antimicrobial applications either through formation of inclusion complexes or by chemical modification of their hydroxyl groups to tailor pharmaceutically active compounds. Applications of these CD inclusion complexes include drug delivery, antimicrobial coatings on materials (e.g., biomedical devices and implants) and antimicrobial dressings that help to prevent wound infections. There are relatively limited studies of chemically modified CDs with antimicrobial activity. The mechanism of action of antimicrobial CD inclusion complexes and derivatives needs further elucidation, but activity of CDs and their derivatives is often associated with their interaction with bacterial cell membranes.

  17. Male homosexuality and spirit possession in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, P

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between male homosexuality and the Afro-Brazilian possession cults in Belém do Parà. After a discussion of the literature follows a description of the cults' beliefs, rites and social organization. Male sex roles are then discussed and the two categories, bicha and man, analyzed. It is noted that there is no term which is equivalent to the western category of "homosexual" in this taxonomic system. After putting forward folk explanations for the presence of many bichas in the cults, an analysis is put forward of the social rewards available to bichas within these cults, and the structural relationship between homosexuality and these regions in terms of their congruent marginality vis-à-vis "normal society."

  18. Study on chemical, bioactive and food preserving properties of Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Jovana; Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Barros, Lillian; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr. was studied to determine the nutritional value, bioactive compounds, in vitro antioxidants, and antimicrobial and antitumor activities. The studied mushroom is a rich source of carbohydrates and proteins. Mannitol and trehalose were the main free sugars. In addition, the polyunsaturated fatty acids α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols were found. Oxalic and citric acids were the most abundant organic acids; cinnamic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids were quantified in the methanolic extract and could be related to the antioxidant properties. It was the polysaccharidic extract that exhibited higher antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, indicating that the compounds present in this extract possess stronger bioactivity. Only the polysaccharidic extract revealed antiproliferative activity in human tumor cell lines. In addition, a suitable model system with chicken pâté was developed to test the antimicrobial preserving properties of L. sulphureus. The methanolic extract was used to examine in situ preserving properties against Aspergillus flavus and demonstrated excellent preserving potential.

  19. Predicative possession in Medieval Slavic Bible translations Predicative Possession in Early Biblical Slavic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia McAnallen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Late Proto-Slavic (LPS had an inventory of three constructions for expressing predicative possession. Using the earliest Slavic Bible translations from Old Church Slavic (OCS, and to a lesser degree Old Czech, a number of conclusions can be drawn about the status of predicative possession for LPS. The verb iměti ‘have’ was the most frequent and least syntactically and semantically restricted predicative possessive construction (PPC. Existential PPCs with a dative possessor appear primarily with kinship relations, abstract possessums, and in a number of other fixed construction types; existential PPCs with the possessor in an u + genitive prepositional phrase primarily appear with concrete and countable possessums. Both existential PPCs call for an animate, most often pronominal, possessor. The u + genitive was the rarest type of PPC in LPS, though it had undoubtedly grammaticalized as a PPC.

  20. 50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird wounded by hunting and reduced to possession by the hunter shall be immediately killed...

  1. Silver nanoparticle-enriched diamond-like carbon implant modification as a mammalian cell compatible surface with antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelanny, Christian; Kmeth, Ralf; Obermeier, Andreas; Bauer, Alexander T.; Halter, Natalia; Kümpel, Katharina; Schneider, Matthias F.; Wixforth, Achim; Gollwitzer, Hans; Burgkart, Rainer; Stritzker, Bernd; Schneider, Stefan W.

    2016-01-01

    The implant-bone interface is the scene of competition between microorganisms and distinct types of tissue cells. In the past, various strategies have been followed to support bony integration and to prevent bacterial implant-associated infections. In the present study we investigated the biological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) surfaces containing silver nanoparticles. DLC is a promising material for the modification of medical implants providing high mechanical and chemical stability and a high degree of biocompatibility. DLC surface modifications with varying silver concentrations were generated on medical-grade titanium discs, using plasma immersion ion implantation-induced densification of silver nanoparticle-containing polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer solutions. Immersion of implants in aqueous liquids resulted in a rapid silver release reducing the growth of surface-bound and planktonic Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Due to the fast and transient release of silver ions from the modified implants, the surfaces became biocompatible, ensuring growth of mammalian cells. Human endothelial cells retained their cellular differentiation as indicated by the intracellular formation of Weibel-Palade bodies and a high responsiveness towards histamine. Our findings indicate that the integration of silver nanoparticles into DLC prevents bacterial colonization due to a fast initial release of silver ions, facilitating the growth of silver susceptible mammalian cells subsequently. PMID:26955791

  2. Characterization and Antimicrobial Property of Poly(Acrylic Acid Nanogel Containing Silver Particle Prepared by Electron Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Bae Choi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a one step process to synthesize nanogel containing silver nanoparticles involving electron beam irradiation. Water-soluble silver nitrate powder is dissolved in the distilled water and then poly(acrylic acid (PAAc and hexane are put into this silver nitrate solution. These samples are irradiated by an electron beam to make the PAAc nanogels containing silver nanoparticles (Ag/PAAc nanogels. The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. In addition, the particle size and zeta-potential were confirmed by a particle size analyzer (PSA. The antibacterial properties of the nanogels were evaluated by paper diffusion test. The Ag/PAAc nanogels had an antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The nanogels also demonstrated a good healing effect against diabetic ulcer. The size of the Ag/PAAc nanogels decreased with increasing irradiation doses, and the absolute value of the zeta potential increased with increasing irradiation doses. Also, the Ag/PAAc nanogels exhibited good antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In in vivo wound healing, the Ag/PAAc nanogels have a good healing effect.

  3. Diversity and Antimicrobial Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Rhizosphere of Olive Trees and Desert Truffles of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imene Fhoula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 119 lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated, by culture-dependant method, from rhizosphere samples of olive trees and desert truffles and evaluated for different biotechnological properties. Using the variability of the intergenic spacer 16S-23S and 16S rRNA gene sequences, the isolates were identified as the genera Lactococcus, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Weissella, and Enterococcus. All the strains showed proteolytic activity with variable rates 42% were EPS producers, while only 10% showed the ability to grow in 9% NaCl. In addition, a low rate of antibiotic resistance was detected among rhizospheric enterococci. Furthermore, a strong antibacterial activity against plant and/or pathogenic bacteria of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas savastanoi, the food-borne Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes was recorded. Antifungal activity evaluation showed that Botrytis cinerea was the most inhibited fungus followed by Penicillium expansum, Verticillium dahliae, and Aspergillus niger. Most of the active strains belonged to the genera Enterococcus and Weissella. This study led to suggest that environmental-derived LAB strains could be selected for technological application to control pathogenic bacteria and to protect food safety from postharvest deleterious microbiota.

  4. Synthesis, characterization, photoluminescent properties and antimicrobial activities of two novel polymeric silver(I) complexes with diclofenac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamci Alisir, Sevim; Sariboga, Bahtiyar; Caglar, Sema; Buyukgungor, Orhan

    2017-02-01

    Two novel silver(I) complexes with diclofenac, ({2-(2,6-dicholoroanilino)phenylacetic acid} = dicl) namely [Ag(dicl)]n (1) and [Ag(dicl)(bipy)]n (2) (bipy: 4,4'-bipyridine), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. X-ray crystallographic data of 1 revealed that dicl anion adopts a μ3-η1,η2 coordinated mode link three Ag atoms generate 1D infinite chain structure. In 2, dicl ligand plays crucial role to form double-ladder chain structure, clamping two neighboring [Ag(μ-bipy)]∞ chains by using carboxylate oxygen atoms (O1, O2). The most interesting structural feature of 2 is the presence of strong π···π interactions between aromatic phenyl rings of dicl placed in the adjacent 1D chains, leads to forming 2D slab structure. The coordination modes of dicl in the title complexes are supported by using IR spectroscopy. Thermal stabilities of 1 and 2 have been determined by TG/DTA/DTG techniques. The luminescent properties of complex 1 and 2 have been investigated in the solid state at room temperature. Furthermore, the title complexes have been tested for their in vitro antibacterial activities and are determined to be highly effective for antibacterial activity against Gram(+) and Gram(-) pathogenic bacteria cells. 1 and 2 showed activity on Fungi, as well.

  5. Application of 1D and 2D MFR reactor technology for the isolation of insecticidal and anti-microbial properties from pyrolysis bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad M; Scott, Ian M; Berruti, Franco; Briens, Cedric

    2016-12-01

    Valuable chemicals can be separated from agricultural residues by chemical or thermochemical processes. The application of pyrolysis has already been demonstrated as an efficient means to produce a liquid with a high concentration of desired product. The objective of this study was to apply an insect and microorganism bioassay-guided approach to separate and isolate pesticidal compounds from bio-oil produced through biomass pyrolysis. Tobacco leaf (Nicotianata bacum), tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum), and spent coffee (Coffea arabica) grounds were pyrolyzed at 10°C/min from ambient to 565°C using the mechanically fluidized reactor (MFR). With one-dimensional (1D) MFR pyrolysis, the composition of the product vapors varied as the reactor temperature was raised allowing for the selection of the temperature range that corresponds to vapors with a high concentration of pesticidal properties. Further product separation was performed in a fractional condensation train, or 2D MFR pyrolysis, thus allowing for the separation of vapor components according to their condensation temperature. The 300-400°C tobacco and tomato bio-oil cuts from the 1D MFR showed the highest insecticidal and anti-microbial activity compared to the other bio-oil cuts. The 300-350 and 350-400°C bio-oil cuts produced by 2D MFR had the highest insecticidal activity when the bio-oil was collected from the 210°C condenser. The tobacco and tomato bio-oil had similar insecticidal activity (LC 50 of 2.1 and 2.2 mg/mL) when the bio-oil was collected in the 210°C condenser from the 300-350°C reactor temperature gases. The 2D MFR does concentrate the pesticidal products compared to the 1D MFR and thus can reduce the need for further separation steps such as solvent extraction.

  6. Antimicrobial Properties and Cytotoxicity of Sulfated (1,3)-β-D-Glucan from the Mycelium of the Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan-Mohtar, Wan Abd Al Qadr Imad; Young, Louise; Abbott, Gráinne M; Clements, Carol; Harvey, Linda M; McNeil, Brian

    2016-06-28

    Ganoderma lucidum BCCM 31549 has a long established role for its therapeutic activities. In this context, much interest has focused on the possible functions of the (1,3)-β-D-glucan (G) produced by these cultures in a stirred-tank bioreactor and extracted from their underutilized mycelium. In the existing study, we report on the systematic production of G, and its sulfated derivative (GS). The aim of this study was to investigate G and its GS from G. lucidum in terms of their antibacterial properties and cytotoxicity spectrum against human prostate cells (PN2TA) and human caucasian histiocytic lymphoma cells (U937). (1)H NMR for both G and GS compounds showed β-glycosidic linkages and structural similarities when compared with two standards (laminarin and fucoidan). The existence of characteristic absorptions at 1,170 and 867 cm(-1) in the FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) for GS demonstrated the successful sulfation of G. Only GS exhibited antimicrobial activity against a varied range of test bacteria of relevance to foodstuffs and human health. Moreover, both G and GS did not show any cytotoxic effects on PN2TA cells, thus helping demonstrate the safety of these polymers. Moreover, GS showed 40% antiproliferation against cancerous U937 cells at the low concentration (60 μg/ ml) applied in this study compared with G (10%). Together, this demonstrates that sulfation clearly improved the solubility and therapeutic activities of G. The water-soluble GS demonstrates the potential multifunctional effects of these materials in foodstuffs.

  7. Antimicrobial applications of nanotechnology: methods and literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seil JT

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Justin T Seil, Thomas J WebsterLaboratory for Nanomedicine Research, School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: The need for novel antibiotics comes from the relatively high incidence of bacterial infection and the growing resistance of bacteria to conventional antibiotics. Consequently, new methods for reducing bacteria activity (and associated infections are badly needed. Nanotechnology, the use of materials with dimensions on the atomic or molecular scale, has become increasingly utilized for medical applications and is of great interest as an approach to killing or reducing the activity of numerous microorganisms. While some natural antibacterial materials, such as zinc and silver, possess greater antibacterial properties as particle size is reduced into the nanometer regime (due to the increased surface to volume ratio of a given mass of particles, the physical structure of a nanoparticle itself and the way in which it interacts with and penetrates into bacteria appears to also provide unique bactericidal mechanisms. A variety of techniques to evaluate bacteria viability, each with unique advantages and disadvantages, has been established and must be understood in order to determine the effectiveness of nanoparticles (diameter ≤100 nm as antimicrobial agents. In addition to addressing those techniques, a review of select literature and a summary of bacteriostatic and bactericidal mechanisms are covered in this manuscript.Keywords: nanomaterial, nanoparticle, nanotechnology, bacteria, antibacterial, biofilm

  8. Antimicrobial applications of nanotechnology: methods and literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seil, Justin T; Webster, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    The need for novel antibiotics comes from the relatively high incidence of bacterial infection and the growing resistance of bacteria to conventional antibiotics. Consequently, new methods for reducing bacteria activity (and associated infections) are badly needed. Nanotechnology, the use of materials with dimensions on the atomic or molecular scale, has become increasingly utilized for medical applications and is of great interest as an approach to killing or reducing the activity of numerous microorganisms. While some natural antibacterial materials, such as zinc and silver, possess greater antibacterial properties as particle size is reduced into the nanometer regime (due to the increased surface to volume ratio of a given mass of particles), the physical structure of a nanoparticle itself and the way in which it interacts with and penetrates into bacteria appears to also provide unique bactericidal mechanisms. A variety of techniques to evaluate bacteria viability, each with unique advantages and disadvantages, has been established and must be understood in order to determine the effectiveness of nanoparticles (diameter ≤ 100 nm) as antimicrobial agents. In addition to addressing those techniques, a review of select literature and a summary of bacteriostatic and bactericidal mechanisms are covered in this manuscript.

  9. The Acetone Extract of Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) Possesses Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Potential against Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines (MCF-7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanih, Nicoline Fri; Ndip, Roland Ndip

    2013-01-01

    Interesting antimicrobial data from the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea, which support its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases, have been delineated. The current study was aimed to further study some pharmacological and toxicological properties of the plant to scientifically justify its use. Anticancer activity of water and acetone extracts of S. birrea was evaluated on three different cell lines, HT-29, HeLa, and MCF-7 using the cell titre blue viability assay in 96-well plates. Apoptosis was evaluated using the acridine orange and propidium iodide staining method, while morphological structure of treated cells was examined using SEM. The acetone extract exhibited remarkable antiproliferative activities on MCF-7 cell lines at dose- and time-dependent manners (24 h and 48 h of incubation). The extract also exerted apoptotic programmed cell death in MCF-7 cells with significant effect on the DNA. Morphological examination also displayed apoptotic characteristics in the treated cells, including clumping, condensation, and culminating to budding of the cells to produce membrane-bound fragmentation, as well as formation of apoptotic bodies. The acetone extract of S. birrea possesses antiproliferative and apoptotic potential against MCF-7-treated cells and could be further exploited as a potential lead in anticancer therapy. PMID:23576913

  10. Antimicrobial synergism and cytotoxic properties of Citrus limon L., Piper nigrum L. and Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden and Betche) Cheel essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Miloš M; Jovanović, Katarina K; Marković, Tatjana Lj; Marković, Dejan Lj; Gligorijević, Nevenka N; Radulović, Siniša S; Kostić, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina M; Soković, Marina D

    2017-11-01

    The chemical composition, antimicrobial and synergistic effect, and cytotoxic activity of Citrus limon (lemon), Piper nigrum (green pepper) and Melaleuca alternifoila (tea tree) essential oils (EOs) were investigated. Chemical analyses of essential oils were tested by GC-FID and GC-MS spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity assay was conducted using microdilution method against several oral bacteria and Candida spp. originating from the humans with oral disorders. The synergistic antimicrobial activity was evaluated using checkerboard method. The cytotoxicity evaluation of EOs was assessed using MTT test. Limonene (37.5%) and β-pinene (17.9%) were the major compounds in C. limon oil, β-pinene (34.4%), δ-3-carene (19.7%), limonene (18.7%) and α-pinene (10.4%) in P. nigrum oil and terpinen-4-ol (38.6%) and γ-terpinene (21.7%) in M. alternifolia oil. The broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity was achieved by tested three EOs, with C. limon oil being the strongest against bacteria and M. alternifolia oil strongest against fungi. The EOs demonstrated synergism; their combined application revealed an increase in antimicrobial activity. All tested essential oils showed lower cytotoxic activity in comparison with the positive control, and the obtained results confirmed a dose-dependent activity. The results of this study encourage use of tested EOs in development of a novel agent intended for prevention or therapy of corresponding oral disorders. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Antimicrobial Peptides for Therapeutic Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsogbadrakh Mishig-Ochir

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have been considered as potential therapeutic sources of future antibiotics because of their broad-spectrum activities and different mechanisms of action compared to conventional antibiotics. Although AMPs possess considerable benefits as new generation antibiotics, their clinical and commercial development still have some limitations, such as potential toxicity, susceptibility to proteases, and high cost of peptide production. In order to overcome those obstacles, extensive efforts have been carried out. For instance, unusual amino acids or peptido-mimetics are introduced to avoid the proteolytic degradation and the design of short peptides retaining antimicrobial activities is proposed as a solution for the cost issue. In this review, we focus on small peptides, especially those with less than twelve amino acids, and provide an overview of the relationships between their three-dimensional structures and antimicrobial activities. The efforts to develop highly active AMPs with shorter sequences are also described.

  12. Designing, synthesis, and antimicrobial action of oxazoline and thiazoline derivatives of fatty acid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anis; Ahmad, Aiman; Sudhakar, Raja; Varshney, Himani; Subbarao, Naidu; Ansari, Saba; Rauf, Abdul; Khan, Asad U

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a novel series of oxazoline and thiazoline were designed as inhibitors of cytochrome P450 14 alpha-sterol demethylase (CYP51) from Candida albicans and peptide deformylase (PDF) of Escherichia coli. The long chain dibromo derivative of fatty acid esters on reaction with urea and thiourea gave their corresponding oxazolines and thiazolines, respectively. All the compounds were characterized by their spectral data (IR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and MS) and tested for antibacterial and antifungal activity by disk diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method against gram-positive and gram-negative strains of bacteria as well as fungus strains. The investigation into antimicrobial screening revealed that all the compounds were found to be potent antimicrobial agents. After calculating likeness drug properties of the compounds by Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances software, ADMET-related descriptors were computed to predict the pharmacokinetic properties for the active and bioavailable compounds by discovery studio 2.5. Molecular docking studies have been performed on PDF of E. coli and CYP 450-14DM of C. albicans to understand the mode of binding of the molecules in the active site of the receptor. Compounds (2-amino-5-(carbomethoxyoctyl)-1,3-oxazoline, 2-amino-5-(carbomethoxyoctyl)-1,3-thiazoline and 2-amino-4-pentyl-5-[(8'R)-8' hydroxy (carbomethoxydecyl)-1,3-oxazoline) showed excellent antimicrobial activity nearly equivalent to the control compounds and compounds, 2-amino-4-octyl-5-(carbomethoxyheptyl)-1,3-oxazolin, 2-amino-4-(2'R)(2'-hydroxy octyl)-5-(carbomethoxyheptyl)-1,3-oxazoline and 2-amino-4-pentyl-5-[(8'R)-8'-hydroxy(carbomethoxy decyl)-1,3-oxazolineshowed vasodilation and antihypertensive properties. Furthermore, a computational analysis of physicochemical parameters revealed that the most of the compounds possessed drug-like attributes. Using Bioinformatics approach, we found a correlation

  13. Antimicrobial activity of camwood (Baphia nitida) dyes on common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-29

    Mar 29, 2012 ... on common human pathogens. O. K. Agwa*, C. I. ... and have antimicrobial properties (Egharevba and. Ikhatua, 2008). ... properties. Antibiotic susceptibility is used to determine the efficacy of these plants for use as antibiotics. The most basic laboratory measurement of the activity of an antimicrobial agent ...

  14. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses antiinflammatory activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the leaves of tomato plant that contained several active compounds including alkaloid, steroid and flavanoid has been used for the treatment of variety of diseases and as anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-gout. Although, a number of pharmacological properties have already been demonstrated, the ...

  15. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Root Extracts of Abitulon indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Rao MORTHA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activity of Abitulon indicum roots was studied against seven pathogenic bacteria and three fungal strains by agar well diffusion method. Antimicrobial activity was recorded for hexane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Alcohol (ethanol and methanol extracts exhibited the highest degree of antimicrobial activity compared to aqueous, chloroform and hexane extracts. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was turned out to be the most susceptible bacterium to the crude root chemical constituents, using the standard Tetracycline and Clotrimazole. Minimum inhibition concentration values of hexane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts were determined by the agar dilution method and ranged between 62.5 and 1,000 µg. The study suggested that the root extracts possess bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity against the tested bacteria and fungi, revealing a significant scope to develop a novel broad spectrum of antimicrobial drug formulation from Abitulon indicum.

  16. Antimicrobial hyperbranched poly(ester amide)/polyaniline nanofiber modified montmorillonite nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramanik, Sujata [Advanced Polymer and Nanomaterial Laboratory, Department of Chemical Sciences, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028 (India); Bharali, Pranjal; Konwar, B.K. [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028 (India); Karak, Niranjan, E-mail: karakniranjan@yahoo.com [Advanced Polymer and Nanomaterial Laboratory, Department of Chemical Sciences, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028 (India)

    2014-02-01

    There has been growing interest in the use of nanomaterials featuring potent of antimicrobial activity in the biomedical domain. It still remains a challenge for the researchers to develop an efficient nanocomposite possessing antimicrobial efficacy against broad spectrum microbes including bacteria, fungi as well as algal consortium, posing serious challenges for the human survival. In addressing the above problem, we report the fabrication of bio-based hyperbranched poly(ester amide) (HBPEA)/polyaniline nanofiber modified montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites by an ex-situ polymerization technique at varied weight percentages (1, 2.5, 5 wt.%) of the modified MMT (nanohybrid). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the structural changes upon interaction of the nanohybrid with HBPEA. A probable mechanism is proposed for the formation of nanocomposites with partially exfoliated nanoplatelet structure, which was further confirmed from the high resolution transmission electron microscopic analyses. The prepared nanocomposites exhibited potent efficacy against gram positive bacteria like Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus as compared to the gram negative ones like Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The nanocomposites showed significant antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Coleotricum capcii and antialgal activity against algal consortium comprising of Chlorella, Hormidium and Cladophorella species. The formation of thermosetting nanocomposites resulted in the acceptable improvement of desired physico-chemical and mechanical properties including thermostability. Thus pronounced antimicrobial activity of the nanocomposites against a spectrum of bacterial and fungal strains as well as a consortium of algal species along with other desired performance vouched them as potent antimicrobial materials in the realm of health and biomedical industry. - Highlights: • A possible approach for fabrication of the

  17. Antimicrobial hyperbranched poly(ester amide)/polyaniline nanofiber modified montmorillonite nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramanik, Sujata; Bharali, Pranjal; Konwar, B.K.; Karak, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the use of nanomaterials featuring potent of antimicrobial activity in the biomedical domain. It still remains a challenge for the researchers to develop an efficient nanocomposite possessing antimicrobial efficacy against broad spectrum microbes including bacteria, fungi as well as algal consortium, posing serious challenges for the human survival. In addressing the above problem, we report the fabrication of bio-based hyperbranched poly(ester amide) (HBPEA)/polyaniline nanofiber modified montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites by an ex-situ polymerization technique at varied weight percentages (1, 2.5, 5 wt.%) of the modified MMT (nanohybrid). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the structural changes upon interaction of the nanohybrid with HBPEA. A probable mechanism is proposed for the formation of nanocomposites with partially exfoliated nanoplatelet structure, which was further confirmed from the high resolution transmission electron microscopic analyses. The prepared nanocomposites exhibited potent efficacy against gram positive bacteria like Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus as compared to the gram negative ones like Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The nanocomposites showed significant antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Coleotricum capcii and antialgal activity against algal consortium comprising of Chlorella, Hormidium and Cladophorella species. The formation of thermosetting nanocomposites resulted in the acceptable improvement of desired physico-chemical and mechanical properties including thermostability. Thus pronounced antimicrobial activity of the nanocomposites against a spectrum of bacterial and fungal strains as well as a consortium of algal species along with other desired performance vouched them as potent antimicrobial materials in the realm of health and biomedical industry. - Highlights: • A possible approach for fabrication of the

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search Popular ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will ...

  19. Antimicrobial Treatments and Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    To limit exposure to indoor biological contamination a risk-management approach which employs various antimicrobial treatments can effectively control contaminants and reduce exposure. Antimicrobial treatment of biological contaminants, especially mold in buildings, it is often n...

  20. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Go to Information for Researchers ► Credit: ... and infectious diseases. Why Is the Study of Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance a Priority for NIAID? Over time, ...

  1. Antimicrobial property, cytocompatibility and corrosion resistance of Zn-doped ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} coatings on Ti6Al4V implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruoyun; He, Xiaojing; Gao, Yuee; Zhang, Xiangyu; Yao, Xiaohong, E-mail: xhyao@tyut.edu.cn; Tang, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Zn-doped ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} porous coatings (Zn-ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}) were prepared on the surface of titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) by a hybrid approach of magnetron sputtering and micro-arc oxidation (MAO). The microstructures, phase constituents and elemental states of the coating were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results demonstrate that the Zn-ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} coatings are porous and its thickness is approximately 13 μm. The major phases in the oxidation coating are tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} (t-ZrO{sub 2}), cubic ZrO{sub 2} (c-ZrO{sub 2}) and rutile TiO{sub 2}. XPS result reveals that Zn exists as ZnO in the Zn-ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} coatings. The biological experiments indicate that Zn-ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} coatings exhibit not only excellent antibacterial property against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), but also favorable cytocompatibility. In addition, the corrosion resistance of the coating is also appreciably improved in the simulated body fluids (SBF), which can ensure better biocompatibility in body fluids. - Highlights: • The porous Zn-ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} coatings were successfully prepared by a novel duplex-treatment technique. • Zn-ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} coatings possess superior corrosion resistance and excellent antibacterial ability against S. aureus. • Zn-ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} coatings can enhance in vitro angiogenesis activity of osteoblastic cells.

  2. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    S. mahagoni seeds were tested against 6 pathogenic bacteria and fungi each by the ... almost near to the reported values 29.1% [29] and 47.5% [6], respectively. ..... The results were compared with those of kanamycin as a standard antibiotic. ... fungi. Methanol extract did not show any activity against Trichoderma viride and ...

  3. Possession States: Approaches to Clinical Evaluation and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. McCormick

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The fields of anthropology and sociology have produced a large quantity of literature on possession states, physicians however rarely report on such phenomena. As a result clinical description of possession states has suffered, even though these states may be more common and less deviant than supposed. Both ICD-10 and DSM-IV may include specific criteria for possession disorders. The authors briefly review Western notions about possession and kindred states and present guidelines for evaluation and classification.

  4. Assessment of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of lignin from corn stover residue pretreated with low-moisture anhydrous ammonia and enzymatic hydrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    To improve the economic viability of biofuel production from biomass resources, it is increasingly important to develop value-added lignin co-products from this process. The main objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the lignin extracts obtained b...

  5. Screening of commercial and pecan shell-extracted liquid smoke agents as natural antimicrobials against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loo, Ellen J; Babu, D; Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C

    2012-06-01

    Liquid smoke extracts have traditionally been used as flavoring agents, are known to possess antioxidant properties, and serve as natural alternatives to conventional antimicrobials. The antimicrobial efficacies of commercial liquid smoke samples may vary depending on their source and composition and the methods used to extract and concentrate the smoke. We investigated the MICs of eight commercial liquid smoke samples against Salmonella Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli . The commercial liquid smoke samples purchased were supplied by the manufacturer as water-based or concentrated extracts of smoke from different wood sources. The MICs of the commercial smokes to inhibit the growth of foodborne pathogens ranged from 0.5 to 6.0% for E. coli, 0.5 to 8.0% for Salmonella, and 0.38 to 6% for S. aureus. The MIC for each liquid smoke sample was similar in its effect on both E. coli and Salmonella. Solvent-extracted antimicrobials prepared using pecan shells displayed significant differences between their inhibitory concentrations depending on the type of solvent used for extraction. The results indicated that the liquid smoke samples tested in this study could serve as effective natural antimicrobials and that their inhibitory effects depended more on the solvents used for extraction than the wood source.

  6. The Genus Artemisia: A 2012–2017 Literature Review on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pooja

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012–2017) on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia. Regarding the antimicrobial and insecticidal properties we have only described here efficacy of essential oils against plant pathogens and insect pests. The literature revealed that 1, 8-cineole, beta-pinene, thujone, artemisia ketone, camphor, caryophyllene, camphene and germacrene D are the major components in most of the essential oils of this plant species. Oils from different species of genus Artemisia exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens and insecticidal activity against insect pests. However, only few species have been explored for antioxidant activity. PMID:28930281

  7. The Genus Artemisia: a 2012–2017 Literature Review on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay K. Pandey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012–2017 on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia. Regarding the antimicrobial and insecticidal properties we have only described here efficacy of essential oils against plant pathogens and insect pests. The literature revealed that 1, 8-cineole, beta-pinene, thujone, artemisia ketone, camphor, caryophyllene, camphene and germacrene D are the major components in most of the essential oils of this plant species. Oils from different species of genus Artemisia exhibited strong antimicrobial ac