WorldWideScience

Sample records for positive work habits

  1. Habit formation, work ethics, and technological progress

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, João Ricardo; León-Ledesma, Miguel A.

    2002-01-01

    Work ethics affects labor supply. This idea is modeled assuming that work is habit forming. This paper introduces working habits in a neoclassical growth model and compares its outcomes with a model without habit formation. In addition, it analyzes the impact of different forms of technical progress. The findings are that i) labor supply in the habit formation case is higher than in the neoclassical case; ii) unlike in the neoclassical case, labor supply in the presence of habit formation wil...

  2. Analysis of the moral habitability of the nursing work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Elizabeth H; Macfarlane, Amy V; O'Brien-Pallas, Linda L

    2004-08-01

    Following health reform, nurses have experienced the tremendous stress of heavy workloads, long hours and difficult professional responsibilities. In recognition of these problems, a study was conducted that examined the impact of the working environment on the health of nurses. After conducting focus groups across Canada with nurses and others well acquainted with nursing issues, it became clear that the difficult work environments described had significant ethical implications. The aim of this paper is to report the findings of research that examined the moral habitability of the nursing working environment. A secondary analysis was conducted using the theoretical work of Margaret Urban Walker. Moral practices and responsibilities from Walker's perspective cannot be extricated from other social roles, practices and divisions of labour. Moral-social orders, such as work environments in this research, must be made transparent to examine their moral habitability. Morally habitable environments are those in which differently situated people experience their responsibilities as intelligible and coherent. They also foster recognition, cooperation and shared benefits. Four overarching categories were developed through the analysis of the data: (1) oppressive work environments; (2) incoherent moral understandings; (3) moral suffering and (4) moral influence and resistance. The findings clearly indicate that participants perceived the work environment to be morally uninhabitable. The social and spatial positioning of nurses left them vulnerable to being overburdened by and unsure of their responsibilities. Nevertheless, nurses found meaningful ways to resist and to influence the moral environment. We recommend that nurses develop strong moral identities, make visible the inseparability of their proximity to patients and moral accountability, and further identify what forms of collective action are most effective in improving the moral habitability of their work

  3. Anesthesiologists' perceptions of minimum acceptable work habits of nurse anesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinov, Ilana I; Dexter, Franklin; Hindman, Bradley J; Brull, Sorin J

    2017-05-01

    Work habits are non-technical skills that are an important part of job performance. Although non-technical skills are usually evaluated on a relative basis (i.e., "grading on a curve"), validity of evaluation on an absolute basis (i.e., "minimum passing score") needs to be determined. Survey and observational study. None. None. The theme of "work habits" was assessed using a modification of Dannefer et al.'s 6-item scale, with scores ranging from 1 (lowest performance) to 5 (highest performance). E-mail invitations were sent to all consultant and fellow anesthesiologists at Mayo Clinic in Florida, Arizona, and Minnesota. Because work habits expectations can be generational, the survey was designed for adjustment based on all invited (responding or non-responding) anesthesiologists' year of graduation from residency. The overall mean±standard deviation of the score for anesthesiologists' minimum expectations of nurse anesthetists' work habits was 3.64±0.66 (N=48). Minimum acceptable scores were correlated with the year of graduation from anesthesia residency (linear regression P=0.004). Adjusting for survey non-response using all N=207 anesthesiologists, the mean of the minimum acceptable work habits adjusted for year of graduation was 3.69 (standard error 0.02). The minimum expectations for nurse anesthetists' work habits were compared with observational data obtained from the University of Iowa. Among 8940 individual nurse anesthetist work habits scores, only 2.6% were habits scores were significantly greater than the Mayo estimate (3.69) for the minimum expectations; all Phabits of nurse anesthetists within departments should not be compared with an appropriate minimum score (i.e., of 3.69). Instead, work habits scores should be analyzed based on relative reporting among anesthetists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary habits among persons hired on shift work

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Strzemecka; Iwona Bojar; Ewa Strzemecka; Alfred Owoc

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Shift-work determinates irregular nutrition habits. The quality as well as the quantity of meals consumed by shift-workers can significantly affects their health. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary habits of people performing shift work in the Bogdanka mine. Material and Methods. The study was carried out in the Bogdanka mine in Leczna. The questionnaire, which was designed by the author of this dissertation, was conducted among 700 shift-workers,...

  5. Dietary habits among persons hired on shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzemecka, Joanna; Bojar, Iwona; Strzemecka, Ewa; Owoc, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Shift-work determinates irregular nutrition habits. The quality as well as the quantity of meals consumed by shift-workers can significantly affects their health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary habits of people performing shift work in the Bogdanka mine. The study was carried out in the Bogdanka mine in Leczna. The questionnaire, which was designed by the author of this dissertation, was conducted among 700 shift-workers, working underground. The results were subjected to statistical analysis based on STATISTICA v. 7.1 (StatSoft, Poland) software. Nearly half of respondents reported regular consumption of meals (40.0%) Interviewees admitted having warm meals during the day (81.4%). The most frequently consumed meal during the day was the hot one (50.9%), three meals and more were consumed the least frequently (8.1%). Almost half of respondents considered their eating habits as inappropriate (46.3%). Among those, nearly half (68.2%) stated that shift - work is the reason for their nutrition habits. More than half of respondents (66.0%) admitted that shift work hampers regular consumption of meals. Shift work makes nourishment and regular consumption difficult. It contributes to the limited amount of warm meals eaten during the day. In order to maintain preventive health care and the improvement of quality of life, shift workers should be provided with an easier access to meals (including warm one) at specified times of the day.

  6. Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, T W; Costa, Rui M

    2017-11-20

    What is a habit? One problem with the concept of habit has been that virtually everyone has their own ideas of what is meant by such a term. Whilst not eschewing folk psychology, it is useful to re-examine dictionary definitions of 'habit'. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines habit as "a settled or regular tendency or practice, especially one that is hard to give up" and also "an automatic reaction to a specific situation". The latter, reassuringly, is not too far from what has come to be known as stimulus-response theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary habits among persons hired on shift work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Strzemecka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Shift-work determinates irregular nutrition habits. The quality as well as the quantity of meals consumed by shift-workers can significantly affects their health. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary habits of people performing shift work in the Bogdanka mine. Material and Methods. The study was carried out in the Bogdanka mine in Leczna. The questionnaire, which was designed by the author of this dissertation, was conducted among 700 shift-workers, working underground. The results were subjected to statistical analysis based on STATISTICA v. 7.1 (StatSoft, Poland software. Results. Nearly half of respondents reported regular consumption of meals (40.0% Interviewees admitted having warm meals during the day (81.4%. The most frequently consumed meal during the day was the hot one (50.9%, three meals and more were consumed the least frequently (8.1%. Almost half of respondents considered their eating habits as inappropriate (46.3%. Among those, nearly half (68.2% stated that shift – work is the reason for their nutrition habits. More than half of respondents (66.0% admitted that shift work hampers regular consumption of meals. Conclusions. Shift work makes nourishment and regular consumption difficult. It contributes to the limited amount of warm meals eaten during the day. In order to maintain preventive health care and the improvement of quality of life, shift workers should be provided with an easier access to meals (including warm one at specified times of the day.

  8. Sex-Related Differences in the Effects of Sleep Habits on Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Seishu; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos M; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Poor sleep quality negatively affects memory performance, and working memory in particular. We investigated sleep habits related to sleep quality including sleep duration, daytime nap duration, nap frequency, and dream content recall frequency (DCRF). Declarative working memory can be subdivided into verbal working memory (VWM) and visuospatial working memory (VSWM). We hypothesized that sleep habits would have different effects on VWM and VSWM. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate differences between VWM and VSWM related to daytime nap duration, nap frequency, and DCRF. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that the effects of duration and frequency of daytime naps and DCRF on VWM and VSWM differed according to sex. We assessed 779 healthy right-handed individuals (434 males and 345 females; mean age: 20.7 ± 1.8 years) using a digit span forward and backward VWM task, a forward and backward VSWM task, and sleep habits scales. A correlation analysis was used to test the relationships between VWM capacity (VWMC) and VSWM capacity (VSWMC) scores and sleep duration, nap duration, nap frequency, and DCRF. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with VWMC and VSWMC scores and to identify sex-related differences. We found significant positive correlations between VSWMC and nap duration and DCRF, and between VWMC and sleep duration in all subjects. Furthermore, we found that working memory capacity (WMC) was positively correlated with nap duration in males and with sleep duration in females, and DCRF was positively correlated with VSWMC in females. Our finding of sex-related differences in the effects of sleep habits on WMC has not been reported previously. The associations between WMC and sleep habits differed according to sex because of differences in the underlying neural correlates of VWM and VSWM, and effectiveness of the sleep habits in males and females.

  9. Habit formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S; Graybiel, Ann M

    2016-03-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network.

  10. Habit formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network. PMID:27069378

  11. The Role of Work Habits in the Motivation of Food Safety Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsz, Verlin B.; Nickell, Gary S.; Park, Ernest S.

    2007-01-01

    The authors considered work habits within an integrated framework of motivated behavior. A distinction made between automatic and controlled action led to 2 measures of work habits: a habit strength measure reflecting the 4 characteristics of automaticity and a measure of work routines under conscious control. Workers at a turkey processing plant…

  12. More than Resisting Temptation: Beneficial Habits Mediate the Relationship between Self-Control and Positive Life Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Brian M.; Duckworth, Angela L.

    2015-01-01

    Why does self-control predict such a wide array of positive life outcomes? Conventional wisdom holds that self-control is used to effortfully inhibit maladaptive impulses, yet this view conflicts with emerging evidence that self-control is associated with less inhibition in daily life. We propose that one of the reasons individuals with better self-control use less effortful inhibition, yet make better progress on their goals is that they rely on beneficial habits. Across six studies (total N = 2,274), we found support for this hypothesis. In Study 1, habits for eating healthy snacks, exercising, and getting consistent sleep mediated the effect of self-control on both increased automaticity and lower reported effortful inhibition in enacting those behaviors. In Studies 2 and 3, study habits mediated the effect of self-control on reduced motivational interference during a work-leisure conflict and on greater ability to study even under difficult circumstances. In Study 4, homework habits mediated the effect of self-control on classroom engagement and homework completion. Study 5 was a prospective longitudinal study of teenage youth who participated in a five-day meditation retreat. Better self-control before the retreat predicted stronger meditation habits three months after the retreat, and habits mediated the effect of self-control on successfully accomplishing meditation practice goals. Finally, in Study 6, study habits mediated the effect of self-control on homework completion and two objectively measured long-term academic outcomes: grade point average and first-year college persistence. Collectively, these results suggest that beneficial habits--perhaps more so than effortful inhibition--are an important factor linking self-control with positive life outcomes. PMID:25643222

  13. More than resisting temptation: Beneficial habits mediate the relationship between self-control and positive life outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Brian M; Duckworth, Angela L

    2015-09-01

    Why does self-control predict such a wide array of positive life outcomes? Conventional wisdom holds that self-control is used to effortfully inhibit maladaptive impulses, yet this view conflicts with emerging evidence that self-control is associated with less inhibition in daily life. We propose that one of the reasons individuals with better self-control use less effortful inhibition, yet make better progress on their goals is that they rely on beneficial habits. Across 6 studies (total N = 2,274), we found support for this hypothesis. In Study 1, habits for eating healthy snacks, exercising, and getting consistent sleep mediated the effect of self-control on both increased automaticity and lower reported effortful inhibition in enacting those behaviors. In Studies 2 and 3, study habits mediated the effect of self-control on reduced motivational interference during a work-leisure conflict and on greater ability to study even under difficult circumstances. In Study 4, homework habits mediated the effect of self-control on classroom engagement and homework completion. Study 5 was a prospective longitudinal study of teenage youth who participated in a 5-day meditation retreat. Better self-control before the retreat predicted stronger meditation habits 3 months after the retreat, and habits mediated the effect of self-control on successfully accomplishing meditation practice goals. Finally, in Study 6, study habits mediated the effect of self-control on homework completion and 2 objectively measured long-term academic outcomes: grade point average and first-year college persistence. Collectively, these results suggest that beneficial habits-perhaps more so than effortful inhibition-are an important factor linking self-control with positive life outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The effect of training administered to working mothers on maternal anxiety levels and breastfeeding habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiftçi, Esra K; Arikan, Duygu

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of training administered to working mothers and its duration on maternal anxiety levels and breastfeeding habits. Within the scope of Health for All in the 21st Century project, a goal was set to increase the rate of infants fed exclusively by breastfeeding during the first six months of life to 80% by the year 2015. A randomised design with repeated measures. During collection of pretest data, a Personal Information Form, a Questionnaire Form and a State Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered to the mothers in the experimental and control groups. Five home visits were conducted starting two weeks before the date when mothers returned to work and ending when the infants became six months old. Breastfeeding techniques were taught to these mothers. Data were subjected to Proc MEAN, FREQ, anova and GENMOD procedures. The rate of natural feeding (breastfeeding exclusively) among trained mothers was greater than untrained mothers. The frequency of breastfeeding affects maternal anxiety levels; the anxiety level of mothers decreased with increasing frequency of breastfeeding. Educating working mothers about breastfeeding reduces their anxiety levels and influences positively their breastfeeding habits. With the support of health-care staff to increase awareness and knowledge on the value and sufficiency of breast milk, the rate and period of natural feeding increased significantly among working mothers. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Red-edge position of habitable exoplanets around M-dwarfs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Minagawa, Jun; Tamura, Motohide; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Narita, Norio

    2017-08-08

    One of the possible signs of life on distant habitable exoplanets is the red-edge, which is a rise in the reflectivity of planets between visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Previous studies suggested the possibility that the red-edge position for habitable exoplanets around M-dwarfs may be shifted to a longer wavelength than that for Earth. We investigated plausible red-edge position in terms of the light environment during the course of the evolution of phototrophs. We show that phototrophs on M-dwarf habitable exoplanets may use visible light when they first evolve in the ocean and when they first colonize the land. The adaptive evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis may eventually also use NIR radiation, by one of two photochemical reaction centers, with the other center continuing to use visible light. These "two-color" reaction centers can absorb more photons, but they will encounter difficulty in adapting to drastically changing light conditions at the boundary between land and water. NIR photosynthesis can be more productive on land, though its evolution would be preceded by the Earth-type vegetation. Thus, the red-edge position caused by photosynthetic organisms on habitable M-dwarf exoplanets could initially be similar to that on Earth and later move to a longer wavelength.

  16. Influence of the difference in women's style of working on the habit for healthyeating

    OpenAIRE

    石田貴士; 西山未真; 丸山敦史

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on four eating habits of households which will be closely related with economic participationof women outside the home, who typically take charge of food preparation at home in Japan, and examines themby using multivariate probit regressions with variables representing the working style of women and the socio-demographicof her and her households. Indicators of the four habits are a) increase in the opportunity to cook dinnerat home, b) increase in opportunity to have fast f...

  17. Associations of work-family conflicts with food habits and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Eva; Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Sirpa; Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero

    2007-03-01

    This study examines the relationship between family-work conflicts with food habits and physical activity, and whether the relationship is dependent on family structure and work-related factors. Cross-sectional postal surveys were carried out in 2001 and 2002 among employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, aged 40-60 years (n = 5346, response rate 66%; for women 70% and for men 60%). Dependent variables in logistic regression analyses were nationally recommended food habits and physical activity. Independent variables were work-family conflicts and family-work conflicts. Covariates included age, marital status, number of children, occupational class, working hours, time travelling to work, and physical and mental work load. Women reporting strong work-family conflicts were more likely to follow recommended food habits (odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals 1.49 (1.19-1.86)), but this relationship weakened when adjusting for work-related factors (OR 1.20 (0.93-1.55)). Women and men with strong family-work conflicts were less likely to report recommended food habits after adjusting for family structure and work-related factors (women OR 0.75 (0.61-0.92), men OR 0.57 (0.34-0.96)). Women and men with strong work-family conflicts were less likely to follow the recommended amount of physical activity (women OR 0.76 (0.60-0.96), men OR 0.54 (0.34-0.87)). Additionally, women with strong family-work conflicts were less likely to follow the recommended amount of physical activity (OR 0.77 (0.63-0.94)). Adjusting for family and work-related factors did not affect these associations. Conflicts between paid work and family life are likely to constitute barriers for a physically active lifestyle and possibly also for healthy food habits. Improving the balance between work and family may provide a route for promoting health-related behaviours.

  18. Do the Timeliness, Regularity, and Intensity of Online Work Habits Predict Academic Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Tomas; Jia, Miaoqing

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationship between students' online work habits and academic performance. We utilize data from logs recorded by a course management system (CMS) in two courses at a small liberal arts college in the U.S. Both courses required the completion of a large number of online assignments. We measure three aspects of students'…

  19. An inexpensive modification of the laboratory computer display changes emergency physicians' work habits and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinakis, Harry A; Zwemer, Frank L

    2003-02-01

    Little is known about how the availability of laboratory data affects emergency physicians' practice habits and satisfaction. We modified our clinical information system to display laboratory test status with continuous updates, similar to an airport arrival display. The objective of this study was to determine whether the laboratory test status display altered emergency physicians' work habits and increased satisfaction compared with the time period before implementation of laboratory test status. A retrospective analysis was performed of emergency physicians' actual use of the clinical information system before and after implementation of the laboratory test status display. Emergency physicians were retrospectively surveyed regarding the effect of laboratory test status display on their practice habits and clinical information system use. Survey responses were matched with actual use of the clinical information system. Data were analyzed by using dependent t tests and Pearson correlation coefficients. The study was conducted at a university hospital. Clinical information system use by 46 emergency physicians was analyzed. Twenty-five surveys were returned (71.4% of available emergency physicians). All emergency physicians perceived fewer clinical information system log ons per day after laboratory test status display. The actual average decrease was 19%. Emergency physicians who reported the greatest decrease in log ons per day tended to have the greatest actual decrease (r =-0.36). There was no significant correlation between actual and perceived total time logged on (r =0.08). In regard to effect on emergency physicians' practice habits, 95% reported increased efficiency, 80% reported improved satisfaction with data access, and 65% reported improved communication with patients. An inexpensive computer modification, laboratory test status display, significantly increased subjective efficiency, changed work habits, and improved satisfaction regarding data access

  20. Talent Development, Work Habits, and Career Exploration of Chinese Middle-School Adolescents: Development of the Career and Talent Development Self-Efficacy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Mantak; Gysbers, Norman C.; Chan, Raymond M. C.; Lau, Patrick S. Y.; Shea, Peter M. K.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development of an instrument--the "Career and Talent Development Self-Efficacy Scale (CTD-SES)"--for assessing students' self-efficacy in applying life skills essential for personal talent development, acquisition of positive work habits, and career exploration. In Study 1, data were obtained from a large…

  1. Pregnant women in vehicles: Driving habits, position and risk of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriault, F; Brandt, C; Chopin, A; Gadegbeku, B; Ndiaye, A; Balzing, M-P; Thollon, L; Behr, M

    2016-04-01

    This study proposed to broadly examine vehicle use by pregnant women in order to improve realism of accident simulations involving these particular occupants. Three research pathways were developed: the first consisted in a questionnaire survey examining the driving habits of 135 pregnant women, the second obtained measurements of 15 pregnant women driving position in their own vehicle from the 6th to the 9th month of pregnancy by measuring distances between body parts and vehicle parts, and the third examined car accidents involving pregnant occupants. Results obtained indicate that between 90% and 100% of pregnant women wore their seat belts whatever their stage of pregnancy, although nearly one third of subjects considered the seat belt was dangerous for their unborn child. The measurements obtained also showed that the position of the pregnant woman in her vehicle, in relation to the various elements of the passenger compartment, changed significantly during pregnancy. In the studied accidents, no correlation was found between the conditions of the accident and the resulting fetal injury. Results reveal that pregnant women do not modify significantly the seat setting as a function of pregnancy stage. Only the distance between maternal abdomen and steering wheel change significantly, from 16 cm to 12 cm at 6 and 9 month respectively. Pregnant women are mainly drivers before 8 months of pregnancy, passengers after that. Car use frequency falls down rapidly from 6 to 9 months of pregnancy. Real crashes investigations indicate a low rate of casualties, i.e. 342 car accidents involving pregnant women for a period of 9 years in an approximately 1.7 million inhabitants area. No specific injury was found as a function of stage of pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Sleep habits of medical students, physicians and nurses regarding age, sex, shift work and caffein consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecotić, Renata; Valić, Maja; Kardum, Goran; Sevo, Vana; Dogas, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep habits of nurses, medical students, and physicians and to explore whether they are influenced by age, sex, shift work, and caffeine consumption. The questionnaire was derived from the MEDSleep Survey. A total of 453 respondents were surveyed: second-year medical students (130); physicians at the postgraduate study program (68); specialists (162); nurses (93). Results of our study indicate that hours of sleep needed for feeling rested depends on age and gender. Younger respondents and women in the study need longer sleep to feel rested (7.5 hours and more) than older ones and males who need less than 7.5 hours of sleep. Among medical professionals a need for sleep differs related to work demands and work schedule. Nurses need more sleep than physicians (chi2 = 38.57, p trouble staying awake while listening to lectures or learning (chi2 = 9.37, p = 0.009), and while driving a car (chi2 = 14.56, p = 0.001). The results indicate that sleep habits are related to age, sex and caffeine consumption.

  3. Employee satisfaction: creating a positive work force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, M

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1990s, El Camino Hospital (ECH) streamlined its operations in order to remain competitive. In 1992, the hospital's District Board voted to turn the hospital's management over to a nonprofit company and it became an integrated delivery system (IDS). Hospital employees continued to suffer as their work and work schedules changed in ongoing efforts by the new administration to streamline. Finally, in early 1997, the IDS, Camino Healthcare, was dissolved. The director of radiology and radiation oncology services became aware of increasing employee problems, from high turnover rates and increased absenteeism, to morale and productivity issues. Employees also worried about job redesign, re-engineering and a lack of clear direction and expectations from department leadership. The director of the department created a task force to respond to the needs of staff members. With so much anger directed at department leadership, supervisory staff were not included in the task force. The task force worked first to identify rumors and innuendos and followed with a plan to resolve such issues. The second step was to agree to focus on issues that they could change and to let go of those they couldn't. They selected five priority issues or concerns. The group met weekly and made progress by replacing negative talk and attitudes with positive ones. Meanwhile, the director researched employee satisfaction issues so she would be prepared to discuss such issues and concerns with employees. She focused on a common theme, of having a personal mission or goal for one's self. She encouraged staff members to be aware of their own behavior when communicating with others. Although several informal surveys proved there was still much work to be done, there was positive response--a light at the end of the long tunnel.

  4. Work schedule influence on sleep habits in elementary and high school teachers according to chronotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Carla de Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of work schedule on sleep habits and quality, and daytime sleepiness according to individual preferences in sleep schedules was assessed in 131 elementary and high school teachers through questionnaires. Teachers who initiate classes around 7:00 hr wake up earlier and show more frequency of poor sleep quality than those who start classes in the afternoon. Between them, those who have a preference for intermediate or later hours for sleep are more irregular in their wake up schedules and increase their sleep duration on the weekend compared to those with earlier sleep preferences. On the other hand, working only in the afternoon seems to provide better sleep/awake conditions for teachers, because they keep the same sleep duration during the week and on the weekend, and they are diagnosed with less daytime sleepiness. Therefore, the discussion of school start times, originally proposed for adolescents, needs to be magnified to teachers, contributing to improvement of sleep habits and life quality in school environments.

  5. The relationships between phenylthiocarbamide taste perception and smoking, work out habits and susceptibility to depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Durna Daştan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC is known as phenylthiourea and it is an organic compound that has the phenyl ring. Ability to perceive the tastes of PTC chemical is related to the dominance of taste genes. There are a large number of population studies regarding the PTC taste perception and different personal characteristics or disease conditions. The purpose of this study is to reveal and compare the relation between the PTC taste perception and work-out habits, smoking, alcohol consumption and tendency to the depression of people. A total of 2500 adults were volunteered to be included in this study. PTC taste perception was measured by tasting with PTC solution (10 mg/L filtered in a paper. It showed that tasters were significantly more frequent (81.8% than nontasters (18.2% in all population. And in some parameters analyzed in this study, there are significant differences. The taste genetics show up with environmental factors and create the sense of taste, which develops the feeding behaviors. The taste perception resulting from food and beverages diversifies by genetic and environmental effects and the nervous system interprets this perception. This study is enlightening in terms of presenting that the taste perception of people affects their lifestyles and lead them to start and either continue or discontinue some habits.

  6. Encouraging Lifelong Healthy Habits for a Positive Body Image in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Christine

    This article discusses issues related to body image in adolescents, explaining what school practitioners can do to encourage lifelong healthy habits that enhance body image. Body image is the picture of physical self carried in the mind's eye. This impression can have little resemblance to how a teen actually looks. Body image culturalization is…

  7. Breaking Bad Habits: Teaching Effective PowerPoint Use to Working Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, Gretchen N.

    2004-01-01

    One interesting aspect of teaching students to use PowerPoint and similar graphics packages effectively is that graduate students who are already in the workforce often have bad presentation habits that they need to break. In this article, the author discusses ways of breaking these bad habits. Using storyboards is one way to keep students from…

  8. The promotion of unhealthy habits in gay, lesbian, and straight intimate partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Reczek, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    Health habits are linked to nearly half of U.S. and British deaths annually. While a legacy of research suggests that marriage has important positive consequences for health habits, recent work emphasizes that intimate ties can also deter from healthy habits and promote unhealthy habits. However, few studies examine the mechanisms through which unhealthy habits are promoted in marriage. Moreover, little research explores how unhealthy habits are promoted in intimate ties other than marriage—s...

  9. Total working period and other risk factors related to eating protein foods habits among civil pilots in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Imelda Hutabarat

    2017-07-01

    pilots in Indonesia. Methods: A cross-sectional study using secondary data from the survey of eating, drinking and physical exercise habits among civilian pilots in Indonesia 2016. Data collected were demographic characteristics, physical exercise habits, smoking habits, knowledge, body mass index and flight characteristics. Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the dominant factors associated with protein eating habits. Results: Among 528 pilots aged 19-64 years, 194 (36.74% pilots had excessive protein eating habits . Long working period and body mass index were the dominant risk factors associated with protein eating habit in pilots. Compared to pilots with 1-9 years working period, pilots with 10-40 years working period had 35% lower risk of excessive protein eating habits (RRA = 0.65; 95% CI 0:49 - 0.87. Compared to pilots with normal body mass index, overweight pilots had 34% lower risk of excessive protein eating habits (RRA = 0.66; 95% CI 0:47 - 0.93. Conclusion: Long working period and overweight were protective factors from the risk of excessive protein eating habits Keywords: protein eating habits, total working periode, body mass index, civilian pilots Indonesia

  10. 30 CFR 71.208 - Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.208 Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions. (a) Each... standard when quartz is present), respirable dust sampling of designated work positions shall begin on the...

  11. IMPACT. Family and Consumer Sciences, Fit Extension Working to Promote Healthy Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Gehrt, Karen Roth

    2009-01-01

    Combined, physical inactivity and unhealthy eating are second only to tobacco use as the primary cause of death in the United States. Conversely, regular physical activity and healthy eating habits improve quality of life, prevent chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer, and reduce health care costs for both the individual and society.

  12. The association between Colombian medical students' healthy personal habits and a positive attitude toward preventive counseling: cross-sectional analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duperly, John; Lobelo, Felipe; Segura, Carolina; Sarmiento, Francisco; Herrera, Deisy; Sarmiento, Olga L; Frank, Erica

    2009-01-01

    Background Physician-delivered preventive counseling is important for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Data from the U.S. indicates that medical students with healthy personal habits have a better attitude towards preventive counseling. However, this association and its correlates have not been addressed in rapidly urbanized settings where chronic disease prevention strategies constitute a top public health priority. This study examines the association between personal health practices and attitudes toward preventive counseling among first and fifth-year students from 8 medical schools in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods During 2006, a total of 661 first- and fifth-year medical students completed a culturally adapted Spanish version of the "Healthy Doctor = Healthy Patient" survey (response rate = 78%). Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between overall personal practices on physical activity, nutrition, weight control, smoking, alcohol use (main exposure variable) and student attitudes toward preventive counseling on these issues (main outcome variable), stratified by year of training and adjusting by gender and medical training-related factors (basic knowledge, perceived adequacy of training and perception of the school's promotion on each healthy habit). Results The median age and percentage of females for the first- and fifth-year students were 21 years and 59.5% and 25 years and 65%, respectively. After controlling for gender and medical training-related factors, consumption of ≥ 5 daily servings of fruits and/or vegetables, not being a smoker or binge drinker were associated with a positive attitude toward counseling on nutrition (OR = 4.71; CI = 1.6–14.1; p = 0.006 smoking (OR = 2.62; CI = 1.1–5.9; p = 0.022), and alcohol consumption (OR = 2.61; CI = 1.3–5.4; p = 0.009), respectively. Conclusion As for U.S. physician and medical students, a positive association was found between the personal health habits of

  13. Dietary habits among health professionals working in a district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyabonga H. Kunene

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The study showed poor eating habits among participants. Urgent health interventions are therefore indicated to highlight the importance of healthy eating habits among the entire population.

  14. Validity of using a work habits scale for the daily evaluation of nurse anesthetists' clinical performance while controlling for the leniencies of the rating anesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Ledolter, Johannes; Hindman, Bradley J

    2017-11-01

    Anesthesiologists can provide psychometrically reliable daily evaluations of certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) work habits for purposes of the mandatory ongoing professional practice evaluation (OPPE). Our goal was to evaluate the validity of assessing CRNA work habits. Observational study. Large teaching hospital. N=77 anesthesiologists evaluated work habits of N=67 CRNAs. The non-technical attribute of work habits was measured on a 6-item scale (e.g., 1="Only assumed responsibility when forced to, and failed to follow through consistently" versus 5="Consistently identified tasks and completed them efficiently and thoroughly"). One year of scores were used to assess validity. Each daily evaluation could also be accompanied by a written comment. Content analysis of comments was performed using two years of data. Statistical analyses were performed using mixed effects logistic regression, treating each anesthesiologist as a fixed effect to compensate for the leniency of their ratings. The N=77 anesthesiologists' response rate was 97.3%, obtained at a mean 2.93days after the request. The internal consistency of the scale was large: Cronbach's alpha 0.952. Controlling the false discovery rate at 5.0%, among the 67 CRNAs, 8 were significantly below average (each P≤0.0048) and 6 were above average (each P≤0.0018). During the 6months after CRNAs knew that their work habits scores would be used for OPPE, there were significant increases in the scores compared with the preceding 6months (odds ratio 1.93, Pwork habit scores or comments, were associated with greater odds of the CRNA's leniency-adjusted work habit scores equaling 5.00 (odds ratio 1.53, P=0.0004). Comments of negative sentiment made by the anesthesiologists were associated with greater odds of the leniency-adjusted work habit scores being work habits using the work habits scale, approximately half the comments of negative sentiment included the theme of work habits (92/153, 60.1%). Reporting

  15. Ergonomic solutions to support forced static positions at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suszyński Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the available ergonomic constructions used for the support of the musculoskeletal system during static, prolonged work performed in forced positions. Possible evaluation methods are presented as well as ergonomic considerations of work performed in inclined positions, where there is no possibility of influencing the working plane. As a result of the presented work, a set of criteria has been proposed and the requirements for methods which can be used to evaluate the technical constructions supporting the worker during tasks performed in forced and static positions.

  16. Host Star Evolution for Planet Habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Florian; Charbonnel, Corinne; Amard, Louis

    2016-11-01

    With about 2000 exoplanets discovered within a large range of different configurations of distance from the star, size, mass, and atmospheric conditions, the concept of habitability cannot rely only on the stellar effective temperature anymore. In addition to the natural evolution of habitability with the intrinsic stellar parameters, tidal, magnetic, and atmospheric interactions are believed to have strong impact on the relative position of the planets inside the so-called habitable zone. Moreover, the notion of habitability itself strongly depends on the definition we give to the term "habitable". The aim of this contribution is to provide a global and up-to-date overview of the work done during the last few years about the description and the modelling of the habitability, and to present the physical processes currently includes in this description.

  17. Analysis of the Pallet Clamping Conditions in Work Positioning

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Kolesnikov

    2016-01-01

    Pallets of automatic transfer lines serve as the technological and work-transfer equipment. However, their design is based on the general principles of designing machine accessories. Calculation of the basic design parameters of work based on their functioning features is fairly relevant.In pallet transfer movement over work positioning there is a mismatch between axes of the basic bushing of a pallet and the clamping locks of positioning. The paper identifies the factors influencing it, and ...

  18. Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, James F.

    1997-01-01

    This grant was entitled 'Planetary Habitability' and the work performed under it related to elucidating the conditions that lead to habitable, i.e. Earth-like, planets. Below are listed publications for the past two and a half years that came out of this work. The main thrusts of the research involved: (1) showing under what conditions atmospheric O2 and O3 can be considered as evidence for life on a planet's surface; (2) determining whether CH4 may have played a role in warming early Mars; (3) studying the effect of varying UV levels on Earth-like planets around different types of stars to see whether this would pose a threat to habitability; and (4) studying the effect of chaotic obliquity variations on planetary climates and determining whether planets that experienced such variations might still be habitable. Several of these topics involve ongoing research that has been carried out under a new grant number, but which continues to be funded by NASA's Exobiology program.

  19. Hazelnut factory workers in working in the evaluation of the frequency of obesity and healthy life habits

    OpenAIRE

    ilknur Aydin Avci; Tugba Kavalali Erdogan

    2015-01-01

    Aim:In this study, hazelnuts healthy lifestyle habits of workers in the factories and to evaluate the obesity situation is made in accordance with the principles of descriptive study. Method:This research was carried out between 01.06.2014-13.06.2014 nuts in a factory in Ordu. The scope of research targeted to participate in all but 19 of the 139 workers in this factory workers did not accept the research and the research was conducted with 120 people due to lack of work (86.33% of the popula...

  20. Hazelnut factory workers in working in the evaluation of the frequency of obesity and healthy life habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilknur Aydin Avci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim:In this study, hazelnuts healthy lifestyle habits of workers in the factories and to evaluate the obesity situation is made in accordance with the principles of descriptive study. Method:This research was carried out between 01.06.2014-13.06.2014 nuts in a factory in Ordu. The scope of research targeted to participate in all but 19 of the 139 workers in this factory workers did not accept the research and the research was conducted with 120 people due to lack of work (86.33% of the population.Has been adopted in this study is completely voluntary, workers who want to participate were excluded from the scope.The demographic characteristics of the data workers in the study, the questionnaire consists of questions including healthy lifestyle habits and by the Spring and friends adapted into Turkish in 2008, Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale II was collected through. Scale is also based on body mass index to assess obesity in the WHO classification of obesity (BMI is used. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 software package. To evaluate the data, descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA and correlation analysis was used by Mann Whitney U tests. Results:120 individuals participated in the study 16.7% male and 83.3% female.Their age is between the ages of 19-61, it was found that the average age was of 37.3 +/- 11.1. The average size of the individual 163.3 +/- 5.4 and the average weight was found to be 75.6 +/- 14.1. Considering the 24.2% of individuals of normal weight and body mass index, 42.5% overweight and 29.2% obese and morbidly obese has been found to be 4.2%. Responsibility of female health workers, nutrition, the scores obtained in the stress management and HPLP be higher than male workers and found the results to be statistically significant difference(p>0.01, p>0.05, p>0.05, p=0.01. When workers BMI According to a healthy lifestyle behaviors are examined, it was found as a result of all the dimensions of the scale of workers with normal

  1. Nutrition Habits and Health Outcomes of Breastfeeding HIV-positive mothers in the Dschang Health District, West Region Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanou Sobze, Martin; Kien-Atsu, Tsi; Djeunang Dongho, Bruna; Fotso, Jimmy Roger; TiotsiaTsapi, Armand; Azeufack Ngueko, Yannick; Ben Bechir, Sali; Pana, Augusto; Ercoli, Lucia; Colizzi, Vittorio; Russo, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Amongst the different at-risk periods for mother-to-child HIV transmission that is, during pregnancy, labor and delivery and breastfeeding, much care and attention needs to be given, not only to the child as concerns its feeding options, but also to the mother. The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional habits and health outcomes of HIV-positive breastfeeding mothers in the Dschang Health District, in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) activities. A cross-sectional study was carried out from September 2014 to February 2015, at the Dschang District Day Care Hospital. A standard questionnaire was administered by face-to-face interview to 56 breastfeeding HIV-positive mothers. Anthropometric parameters of the mothers were measured (weight and height), and a physical check-up performed, with examination of the mothers' conjunctiva and palms. Clinical status was determined by anemia test using the Tallquist hemoglobin test. Data collected were analyzed using Epi Info version 7.1.3.3 and Excel 2013. The mean age of participants was 33 years. Most women ate three meals per day (53.6%, n=30/56), while 26,8% (15/56) ate two. Staples (27.27%) and fruits (33.68%) were found to be the most consumed foods per week and green leafy and yellow vegetables the least consumed (13.74%). Body mass index was used to evaluate the nutritional status of participating women: 26.9% (n=14/52) were in the normal range of weight, slightly more than half were overweight (51.9%, n=27/52) and 21.2% (n=11/52) were obese. All mothers were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Recent CD4 count results were available for about half of the women and the mean was 293 cells/mmc (range 97-798). Physical checkup showed that 64.3% (n=36/56) and 67.9% (n=38/56) of women respectively had moderately colored conjunctiva and palms, while 10.7% (n=6/56) and 12.5% (n=7/56) respectively had pale conjunctiva and palms, considered to be clinical signs of anemia. About 74.1% (n=40

  2. HEALTH SURVEY AND LIFE HABITS OF NURSES WHO WORK AT THE MEDICAL FACULTY HOSPITAL AT AIBU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih DENIZ

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nursing is an occupation needed renunciation, patience and physical endurance. Nurses have to prevent their physical and mental health, because they can be more beneficial to patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on AIBU Duzce Medical School Nurses to determine health problems and nutritional habits. Materials and Methods: The questionnaires forms filled by 79 nurses(%86 and analysed the data using an statistical package programme. Results: Mean age of the study group was 23.5 ± 0.2(Standard Erroryears. The answer to ‘Do you satisfied in your life?’question was reported ‘fair’ in 39.7% of the group. 65.7% reported no physical activity. Skipped meals were 80.9%. The most frequent health problems were reported as low back pain (52.9%, back pain (48.5%, stomach pain (48.5%, shoulder pain (38.2% and neck pain (38.2%. Twenty-six and half percent of the group were not immunized against to Hepatitis B. Conclusion: Occupational health and safety unit must be established in workplace. Training about occupational risks and stress management must be given to nurses. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(2.000: 55-65

  3. Positive affect improves working memory: implications for controlled cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hwajin; Yang, Sujin; Isen, Alice M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of positive affect on working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM). Given that WM involves both storage and controlled processing and that STM primarily involves storage processing, we hypothesised that if positive affect facilitates controlled processing, it should improve WM more than STM. The results demonstrated that positive affect, compared with neutral affect, significantly enhanced WM, as measured by the operation span task. The influence of positive affect on STM, however, was weaker. These results suggest that positive affect enhances WM, a task that involves controlled processing, not just storage processing. Additional analyses of recall and processing times and accuracy further suggest that improved WM under positive affect is not attributable to motivational differences, but results instead from improved controlled cognitive processing.

  4. Group identity and positive deviance in work groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon Joung; Choi, Jin Nam

    2017-12-05

    This study examines why and how identity cognitions, including group identification and individual differentiation, influence the positive deviance of employees. We identify the risk-taking intention of employees as a critical psychological mechanism to overcome stigma-induced identity threat of positive deviance. The analysis of data collected from 293 members comprising 66 work teams reveals that the relationship between individual differentiation and positive deviance is partially mediated by risk-taking intention. The indirect effect of group identification on positive deviance through risk-taking intention is also significant and positive in groups with low conformity pressure, whereas the same indirect effect is neutralized in groups with high conformity pressure. The current analysis offers new insights into the way the group context and the identity cognition of members explain the development of positive deviance and workplace creativity.

  5. Analysis of the Pallet Clamping Conditions in Work Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Kolesnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pallets of automatic transfer lines serve as the technological and work-transfer equipment. However, their design is based on the general principles of designing machine accessories. Calculation of the basic design parameters of work based on their functioning features is fairly relevant.In pallet transfer movement over work positioning there is a mismatch between axes of the basic bushing of a pallet and the clamping locks of positioning. The paper identifies the factors influencing it, and defines the conditions to ensure the trouble-free clamping lock. The circular and rhombic clamping of pallet is simultaneous. Further, a clamping load is calculated from the pallet mass (together with the work-piece and the geometric parameters of the pallet clamping.The paper reveals three movement stages of the clamping lock in a vertical plane when setting the pallet in work positioning:- a clamping lock free play till it encounters with the location bushing;- a clamping lock play length when the lead-in chamfer contacts the bushing chamfer;- a clamping lock play length over the circular surface of bushing.The study of this process has allowed us to calculate the time of pallet clamping and dynamic loads acting on the clamping lock. These calculations made it possible to calculate the required diameter of the clamping lock. The presented calculations allow a reasonable assigning the main design parameters of work positioning for the pallet automatic lines.

  6. Habit, prisoner’s dilemma and Americans' welfare cost of working much more than Europeans

    OpenAIRE

    SCHIFF, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Europeans work much less than Americans. Some studies claim this is due to high taxes in Europe, which would benefit by adopting US tax rates and work time; others find that taxes have little or no impact on work time. I examine the hypothesis that Americans would benefit by reducing work time to Europe’s level. Empirical and experimental studies show utility falls as other people’s income rises. Due to its historical experience, Europe is able to internalize this and other negative externali...

  7. Situated navigational working memory: the role of positive mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Rogolino, Carmelo; D'Amico, Simonetta; Piccardi, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The perspective of situated cognition assumes that cognition is not separated from the context. In the present study, the issue if visuospatial memory and navigational working memory are situated was explored by manipulating participants' mood (positive, negative and neutral) while performing two different tasks. College students were randomly assigned to the group of positive, negative or neutral music. Participants filled out the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) before and after carrying out the Corsi Test and the Walking Corsi Test. Both tasks were performed forward and backward. Music was played throughout the memory tasks. Firstly, comparing pre-mood induction PANAS scores to post-mood induction PANAS scores, results showed that only positive affects were manipulated: After mood induction, the Positive Music Group produced higher scores, whereas the Negative Music Group produced lower scores than before mood induction; the Neutral Music Group produced no effect. Secondly, the Positive Music Group produced higher scores than Negative and Neutral Music Groups both at the Corsi Test and at the Walking Corsi Test. These results show that situational contexts that induce a specific mood can affect visuospatial memory and navigational working memory, and open to the idea that positive emotions may play a crucial role in enhancing navigational strategies.

  8. Physical Activity, Energy Expenditure, Nutritional Habits, Quality of Sleep and Stress Levels in Shift-Working Health Care Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Lena Johanna; Gärtner, Simone; Hannich, Hans Joachim; Steveling, Antje; Lerch, Markus M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Among health care personnel working regular hours or rotating shifts can affect parameters of general health and nutrition. We have investigated physical activity, sleep quality, metabolic activity and stress levels in health care workers from both groups. Methods We prospectively recruited 46 volunteer participants from the workforce of a University Medical Department of which 23 worked in rotating shifts (all nursing) and 21 non-shift regular hours (10 nursing, 13 clerical staff). All were investigated over 7 days by multisensory accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia® armband) and kept a detailed food diary. Physical activity and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured in metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Quality of sleep was assessed as Pittsburgh Sleeping Quality Index and stress load using the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress questionnaire (TICS). Results No significant differences were found for overall physical activity, steps per minute, time of exceeding the 3 METs level or sleep quality. A significant difference for physical activity during working hours was found between shift-workers vs. non-shift-workers (pshift-working nurses (median = 2.1 METs SE = 0.1) vs. non-shift-working clerical personnel (median = 1.5 METs SE = 0.07, pshift-working nurses had a significantly lower REE than the other groups (pshift-working nurses consumed significantly more carbohydrates (median = 46% SE = 1.4) than clerical staff (median = 41% SE = 1.7). Stress assessment by TICS confirmed a significantly higher level of social overload in the shift working group (pshift-working had no influence on overall physical activity. Lower physical activity during working hours appears to be compensated for during off-hours. Differences in nutritional habits and stress load warrant larger scale trials to determine the effect on implicit health-associated conditions. PMID:28081231

  9. Work stress among university teachers: gender and position differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slišković, Ana; Maslić Seršić, Darja

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to stress at work in university teachers and see if there were differences between men and women as well as between positions. The study was carried out online and included a representative sample of 1,168 teachers employed at universities in Croatia. This included all teaching positions: assistants (50%), assistant professors (18%), associate professors (17%), and full professors (15%). Fifty-seven percent of the sample were women. The participants answered a questionnaire of our own design that measured six groups of stressors: workload, material and technical conditions at work, relationships with colleagues at work, work with students, work organisation, and social recognition and status. Women reported greater stress than men. Assistant professors, associate professors, and full professors reported greater stress related to material and technical conditions of work and work organisation than assistants, who, in turn, found relationships with colleagues a greater stressor. Full professors, reported lower exposure to stress at work than associate professors, assistant professors, and assistants.

  10. Flourishing-at-Work: The Role of Positive Organizational Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelinghuys, Kleinjan; Rothmann, Sebastiaan; Botha, Elrie

    2018-01-01

    The first aim of the study was to investigate the effects of flourishing at work (as measured by the Flourishing-at-Work Scale-Short Form) on intention to leave, performance, and organizational citizenship behavior. The second aim was to determine the prevalence of workplace flourishing and to examine differences in the perceived flourishing levels of teachers based on the positive practices they experience in their organization. A sample of 258 secondary school educators in the Gauteng province of South Africa was used in the cross-sectional design. The Flourishing-at-Work Scale-Short Form, Turnover Intention Scale, In-Role Behavior Scale, Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale, and the Positive Practices Questionnaire were administered. The results showed acceptable psychometric properties for the short scale which measures flourishing. Workplace flourishing negatively predicted intention to leave, while positively predicting in-role performance and organizational citizenship behavior. A total of 44.19% of the population flourished, while 49.22% were moderately mentally healthy and 6.59% languished. Positive organizational practices were associated with flourishing at work.

  11. Communicating Truthfully and Positively in Appraising Work Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, C. Glenn; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Explores the issue of acceptable behavior for managers when giving feedback to their subordinates. Notes that feedback can be either truthful or untruthful, and can be communicated either positively or negatively. Describes the advantages and disadvantages for each feedback approach to work performance. (MM)

  12. Clustering of chronic disease risk factors with tobacco smoking habits among adults in the work place in Sousse, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia, Hmad; Jihene, Maatoug; Imed, Harrabi; Rim, Ghammem; Mylene, Belkacem; Mounir, Saadi; Souad, Amimi; Khaoula, Knani; Mustafa, Al'Absi; Harry, Lando; Najib, Mrizak; Hassen, Ghannem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore the major non-communicable risk factors (unhealthy diet, sedentarily, alcohol consumption) of smokers and nonsmokers in workplaces. A cross-sectional study was derived from an initial assessment in workplaces which was part of a community-based intervention to prevent chronic disease risk factors conducted in 2009 in the region of Sousse, Tunisia. The surveyed subjects were employees in six factories spread across three delegations in the region. Overall, 1770 of 2250 employees participated in the assessment. In this study, the clustering of non-communicable diseases risk factors with smoking habits was made only for male employees including in this study 1099 among 2250. Data were collected at worksites by a questionnaire, via interview or self-report. The main items assessed socio-demographics characteristics, smoking status, eating habits, level of physical activity and alcohol use of the participants. The percentage of male smokers was 54.0%(n=594). Their average age of daily smoking initiation was 19.22 (±4.24 years). The percentage of male smokers consuming 5 fruits and vegetables per day was significantly lower than nonsmokers (57.2% vs 63.5%, p=0.04). The proportion of male smokers consuming alcohol was about three times that of nonsmokers (16.5% vs 5.8%, p=0.001). The proportion of male employees who agree with anti-smoking laws in work places was higher for nonsmokers than for smokers. A strong association existed between smoking and risky lifestyles factors in the work place. Such findings are potentially useful in directing intervention efforts regarding smoking cessation in occupational settings.

  13. Physical Activity, Energy Expenditure, Nutritional Habits, Quality of Sleep and Stress Levels in Shift-Working Health Care Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskoden, Frederick Charles; Krüger, Janine; Vogt, Lena Johanna; Gärtner, Simone; Hannich, Hans Joachim; Steveling, Antje; Lerch, Markus M; Aghdassi, Ali A

    2017-01-01

    Among health care personnel working regular hours or rotating shifts can affect parameters of general health and nutrition. We have investigated physical activity, sleep quality, metabolic activity and stress levels in health care workers from both groups. We prospectively recruited 46 volunteer participants from the workforce of a University Medical Department of which 23 worked in rotating shifts (all nursing) and 21 non-shift regular hours (10 nursing, 13 clerical staff). All were investigated over 7 days by multisensory accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia® armband) and kept a detailed food diary. Physical activity and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured in metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Quality of sleep was assessed as Pittsburgh Sleeping Quality Index and stress load using the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress questionnaire (TICS). No significant differences were found for overall physical activity, steps per minute, time of exceeding the 3 METs level or sleep quality. A significant difference for physical activity during working hours was found between shift-workers vs. non-shift-workers (pworking nurses (median = 2.1 METs SE = 0.1) vs. non-shift-working clerical personnel (median = 1.5 METs SE = 0.07, pworking nurses had a significantly lower REE than the other groups (pworking nurses consumed significantly more carbohydrates (median = 46% SE = 1.4) than clerical staff (median = 41% SE = 1.7). Stress assessment by TICS confirmed a significantly higher level of social overload in the shift working group (pworking had no influence on overall physical activity. Lower physical activity during working hours appears to be compensated for during off-hours. Differences in nutritional habits and stress load warrant larger scale trials to determine the effect on implicit health-associated conditions.

  14. Daily fluctuations in positive affect positively co-vary with working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Annette; Lövdén, Martin; Schmiedek, Florian

    2014-02-01

    Positive affect is related to cognitive performance in multiple ways. It is associated with motivational aspects of performance, affective states capture attention, and information processing modes are a function of affect. In this study, we examined whether these links are relevant within individuals across time when they experience minor ups and downs of positive affect and work on cognitive tasks in the laboratory on a day-to-day basis. Using a microlongitudinal design, 101 younger adults (20-31 years of age) worked on 3 working memory tasks on about 100 occasions. Every day, they also reported on their momentary affect and their motivation to work on the tasks. In 2 of the 3 tasks, performance was enhanced on days when positive affect was above average. This performance enhancement was also associated with more motivation. Importantly, increases in task performance on days with above-average positive affect were mainly unrelated to variations in negative affect. This study's results are in line with between-person findings suggesting that high levels of well-being are associated with successful outcomes. They imply that success on cognitively demanding tasks is more likely on days when feeling happier. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Space Station Habitability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  16. Inquiry-based leading and learning : Inquiry-based working by school boards, school leaders and teachers and students’ inquiry habit of mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijk, E.

    2017-01-01

    Inquiry-based working is assumed to contribute to improving educational quality and to stimulate professional learning. It involves having an inquiry habit of mind, being data literate and creating a culture of inquiry in schools (based on Earl & Katz, 2006). The general aim of this study was to

  17. Psychosocial factors in GP work: the effects of taking a GP position or leaving GP work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Kouvonen, Anne; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Elovainio, Marko

    2013-06-01

    We examined the effects of leaving public sector general practitioner (GP) work and of taking a GP position on changes in work-related psychosocial factors, such as time pressure, patient-related stress, distress and work interference with family. In addition, we examined whether changes in time pressure and patient-related stress mediated the association of employment change with changes of distress and work interference with family. Participants were 1705 Finnish physicians (60% women) who responded to surveys in 2006 and 2010. Analyses of covariance were conducted to examine the effect of employment change to outcome changes adjusted for gender, age and response format. Mediational effects were tested following the procedures outlined by Baron and Kenny. Employment change was significantly associated with all the outcomes. Leaving public sector GP work was associated with substantially decreased time pressure, patient-related stress, distress and work interference with family. In contrast, taking a position as a public sector GP was associated with an increase in these factors. Mediation tests suggested that the associations of employment change with distress change and work interference with family change were partially explained by the changes in time pressure and patient-related stress. Our results showed that leaving public sector GP work is associated with favourable outcomes, whereas taking a GP position in the public sector is associated with adverse effects. Primary health-care organizations should pay more attention to the working conditions of their GPs, in particular, to time pressure and patient-related stress.

  18. Recollecting positive and negative autobiographical memories disrupts working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard J; Schaefer, Alexandre; Falcon, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The present article reports two experiments examining the impact of recollecting emotionally valenced autobiographical memories on subsequent working memory (WM) task performance. Experiment 1 found that negatively valenced recollection significantly disrupted performance on a supra-span spatial WM task. Experiment 2 replicated and extended these findings to a verbal WM task (digit recall), and found that both negative and positive autobiographical recollections had a detrimental effect on verbal WM. In addition, we observed that these disruptive effects were more apparent on early trials, immediately following autobiographical recollection. Overall, these findings show that both positive and negative affect can disrupt WM when the mood-eliciting context is based on autobiographical memories. Furthermore, these results indicate that the emotional disruption of WM can take place across different modalities of WM (verbal and visuo-spatial). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Everett L; Holland, Melanie E

    2007-12-01

    A framework is proposed for a quantitative approach to studying habitability. Considerations of environmental supply and organismal demand of energy lead to the conclusions that power units are most appropriate and that the units for habitability become watts per organism. Extreme and plush environments are revealed to be on a habitability continuum, and extreme environments can be quantified as those where power supply only barely exceeds demand. Strategies for laboratory and field experiments are outlined that would quantify power supplies, power demands, and habitability. An example involving a comparison of various metabolisms pursued by halophiles is shown to be well on the way to a quantitative habitability analysis.

  20. Retrospective study of factors affecting intrauterine insemination pregnancy outcome: The impact of male habits and working environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheswari Govindarajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study is aimed at determining the prognostic factors influencing successful pregnancy following intrauterine insemination (IUI. Settings and design: Retrospective analysis. Materials and Methods: A total of 2123 cycles undergone by 871 couples during the period of 5 years (2011–2015 were retrospectively studied. Statistical Analysis Used: Each of the factors was compared with pregnancy outcome (PO using statistical analysis with a confidence interval of 95% in SPSS software version 19. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis method were used to determine the significance of each factor with the PO. Results: Among the various factors included in our study population, male habits (P = 0.004, male occupational environment (P = 0.025, male age (P = 0.002, and female age (P = 0.001 were found to significantly influence the PO following IUI. Conclusion: Our results indicate that avoiding smoking and alcohol consuming prior and during the IUI treatment along with working in low-heat-generating environment might lead to better success following the treatment.

  1. Hygiene habits through time

    OpenAIRE

    Kalan, Petra

    2013-01-01

    In this work I did a research about hygiene habits of people and their home environment. The work presents how the hygiene habits changed in people home environment through time. The work presents changes of the body hygiene standards adopted by people from the middle ages onward. Todays customs are quite different from the ones we had some time ago. Moreover, hygiene of living environment has also changes which resulted into lower death rate and death illness related to bad hygiene among pop...

  2. Challenges of work-life balance for women physicians/mothers working in leadership positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2012-08-01

    Female leadership in medicine is still disproportionately small, which might be due to the barriers of combining work and family. The aim of this study was, first, to perform a strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis and, second, to create a strategic concept for career development. In this study, all women in leadership positions in the health care system in Vienna, Austria, with at least 1 child (n = 8), were interviewed about the advantages and disadvantages of gender with regard to career development, the strengths and weaknesses of female leadership, and their work-life balance. Different factors that influenced the work-life balance were specified, and career strategies to realize adequate solutions were developed. The sporadic focus on career advancement, time-consuming child care, responsibility for family life, and a woman's tendency toward understatement were barriers to career development. Work-family enrichment has a positive spillover effect that spreads positive energy and helps to balance the work-life relationship. For each individual, the allocation and interaction of different resources such as time, money, scope of decision making, and physical, emotional, and social resources, were essential to maintain the individual work-life balance. In addition to the existing "glass ceiling," the predominant responsibility for child care is still borne by the woman. However, mentoring programs, coaching, networking, and support of the partner or of other people help to strengthen female "soft" skills and achieve a work-life balance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Working time intervals and total work time on nursing positions in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Kunecka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the last few years a topic of overwork on nursing posts has given rise to strong discussions. The author has set herself a goal of answering the question if it is a result of real overwork of this particular profession or rather commonly assumed frustration of this professional group. The aim of this paper is to conduct the analysis of working time on chosen nursing positions in relation to measures of time being used as intervals in the course of conducting standard professional activities during one working day. Material and Methods: Research material consisted of documentation of work time on chosen nursing workplaces, compiled between 2007–2012 within the framework of a nursing course at the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. As a method of measurement a photograph of a working day has been used. Measurements were performed in institutions located in 6 voivodeships in Poland. Results: Results suggest that only 6.5% of total of surveyed representatives of nurse profession spends proper amount of time (meaning: a time set by the applicable standards on work intervals during a working day. Conclusions: The scale of the phenomenon indicates excessive workload for nursing positions, which along with a longer period of time, longer working hours may cause decrease in efficiency of work and cause a drop in quality of provided services. Med Pr 2015;66,(2:165–172

  4. The promotion of unhealthy habits in gay, lesbian, and straight intimate partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczek, Corinne

    2012-09-01

    Health habits are linked to nearly half of U.S. and British deaths annually. While a legacy of research suggests that marriage has important positive consequences for health habits, recent work emphasizes that intimate ties can also deter from healthy habits and promote unhealthy habits. However, few studies examine the mechanisms through which unhealthy habits are promoted in marriage. Moreover, little research explores how unhealthy habits are promoted in intimate ties other than marriage-such as in gay and lesbian cohabiting relationships. The present study analyzes the mechanisms through which gay, lesbian, and straight long-term partners (N = 120) contribute to one another's unhealthy habits. Three distinct mechanisms emerge. First, respondents identify a process of unilateral health habit diffusion wherein one partner's health habits directly influence the other partners' habits. Second, respondents describe bilateral unhealthy habit diffusion, wherein both partner's unhealthy habits are reinforced via mutual pleasure seeking or mutual failed motivation. Third, respondents describe a discourse of personal responsibility, wherein both partners purposefully fail to deter one another's unhealthy habits. Analysis further illustrates how these mechanisms operate differently for men and women in gay, lesbian, and straight relationships. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Community Work Programme has positive and negative effects on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-03

    Aug 3, 2016 ... ... has positive and negative effects on social bonds in South African communities ... to contribute to positive social cohesion and to prevent violence. ... including shared values and identity, feelings of belonging, civic pa.

  6. Habitable Trinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Dohm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Habitable Trinity is a newly proposed concept of a habitable environment. This concept indicates that the coexistence of an atmosphere (consisting largely of C and N, an ocean (H and O, and a landmass (supplier of nutrients accompanying continuous material circulation between these three components driven by the Sun is one of the minimum requirements for life to emerge and evolve. The life body consists of C, O, H, N and other various nutrients, and therefore, the presence of water, only, is not a sufficient condition. Habitable Trinity environment must be maintained to supply necessary components for life body. Our Habitable Trinity concept can also be applied to other planets and moons such as Mars, Europa, Titan, and even exoplanets as a useful index in the quest for life-containing planetary bodies.

  7. Work Stress and Depressive Symptoms in Fishermen With a Smoking Habit: A Mediator Role of Nicotine Dependence and Possible Moderator Role of Expressive Suppression and Cognitive Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongjuan; Li, Sailan; Yang, Juan

    2018-01-01

    This study examined pathways of influence between work stress, depressive symptoms, nicotine dependence, expressive suppression, and cognitive reappraisal in fishermen with smoking habits in Qionghai, Hainan province, China (N = 1068). These fishermen responded to multiple assessments a week before leaving on a deep-sea fishing trip, including a Mental Stressor Investigation Questionnaire (MSIQ), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Russell Reason for Smoking Questionnaire (RRSQ), and an Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses of the collected data in Mplus 7 showed that work stress and nicotine dependence were independent predictors of depressive symptoms. The relationship between work stress and depressive symptoms was found to be partially mediated by nicotine dependence and be moderated by cognitive reappraisal. The evidence suggests it advantageous to examine the need of work stress, nicotine dependence, and cognitive reappraisal when attempting to understand depressive symptoms in fishermen with a smoking habit. These findings suggest that improving nicotine dependence through work stress management and training in cognitive reappraisal could be utilized as effective modalities for improving depressive symptoms.

  8. Positive effect of social work-related values on work outcomes: the moderating role of age and work situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Dannii Y; Fung, Helene H; Chan, Darius K-S

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of social work-related values on job performance through job satisfaction and tested whether age and work situation would moderate such associations. This study consists of two parts: Part 1 is a cross-sectional survey among 299 Chinese clerical employees aged 19-60 years and Part 2 is a 14-day experience sampling study in a subsample of Part 1 (N = 67). Part 1 revealed that age moderated the effect of social work-related values on job performance through job satisfaction, with a stronger positive effect in older workers than in younger workers. Part 2 demonstrated that the moderating effect of age shown in Part 1 also varied across work situations. In particular, holding momentary social work-related values was beneficial to the task performance of older workers, and the effect was significantly stronger when they were in social situations than in nonsocial situations, whereas the effect remained weak among younger workers regardless of work context. Moreover, the moderating effect of age could be accounted for by future time perspective. This study supports socioemotional selectivity theory that goal orientation shifts toward the emphasis of interpersonal closeness when one perceives future time as increasingly limited. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The positive group affect spiral : a dynamic model of the emergence of positive affective similarity in work groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, F.; Bruch, H.

    This conceptual paper seeks to clarify the process of the emergence of positive collective affect. Specifically, it develops a dynamic model of the emergence of positive affective similarity in work groups. It is suggested that positive group affective similarity and within-group relationship

  10. Race, Gender, and Reseacher Positionality Analysed Through Memory Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke; Myong, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Drawing upon feminist standpoint theory and memory work, the authors analyse racial privilege by investigating their own racialized and gendered subjectifications as academic researchers. By looking at their own experiences within academia, they show how authority and agency are contingent upon...

  11. Community Work Programme has positive and negative effects on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    3 août 2016 ... Image. Report cover. Malose Langa, Themba Masuku, David Bruce and Hugo van der Merwe. IDRC-supported research has found that while South Africa's Community Work Programme (CWP) has reduced violence and poverty in some communities, in others it has exacerbated tensions and increased ...

  12. Researcher-participant positioning and the discursive work of categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringer, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on methodological experiences from an ethnographic study in psychiatric institutions in Denmark. Drawing on a poststructural framework and newer discussions within qualitative research that view methodological problems as sources of data, the paper analyzes how the challenges...... positions in between. At the same time, it is shown that the patients find ways to resist the objectifying practices of the researcher as well as of the mental health services. The conclusions are discussed against recent attempts within the mental health services to promote a more patient-centered approach...

  13. Types of work-family interface: well-being correlates of negative and positive spillover between work and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Ulla; Feldt, Taru; Geurts, Sabine; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the structure of the work-family interface measure, which was intended to take into account both the positive and negative spillover between work and family demands in both directions. In addition, the links among the types of work-family spillover and the subjects' general and domain-specific well-being were examined. The sample (n = 202) consisted of Finnish employees, aged 42, who had a spouse/partner. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a four-factor model, including negative work-to-family spillover, negative family-to-work spillover, positive work-to-family spillover, and positive family-to-work spillover, was superior compared to the other factor models examined. Path analysis showed, as hypothesized, that the negative work-to-family spillover was most strongly related to low well-being at work (job exhaustion) and next strongly to low general well-being (psychological distress), whereas the negative family-to-work spillover was associated with low well-being in the domain of family (marital dissatisfaction). Positive work-to-family spillover was positively related both to well-being at work and general well-being. Inconsistent with our expectations, positive family-to-work spillover was not directly related to any of the well-being indicators examined.

  14. Habit persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther Møller, Stig

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses an iterated GMM approach to estimate and test the consumption based habit persistence model of Campbell and Cochrane (1999) on the US stock market. The empirical evidence shows that the model is able to explain the size premium, but fails to explain the value premium. Further...

  15. How to reduce turnover by creating a positive work climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushell, R E

    1979-08-01

    Despite company attempts to reduce employee turnover by offering attractive salaries and benefits, Kushell notes that attrition continues at an alarming rate. He states that more than one of every three employees will change jobs over the next five years, a transition that will take its toll on company morale and productivity. The underlying factor, according to the author, is the quality of the working environment. A 1969 University of Michigan survey of 1,533 workers, at every occupation level, reported that all respondents ranked interesting work and authority to get the job done far ahead of good pay and job security. Sources of employee frustration include a stifling bureaucracy, excessive job expectations, and unsuitable jobs. The author suggests that top managers ask themselves whether they are missing out on or losing talented employees. If this is the case, there are several guidelines management should follow: improve communication between employees and top management; define expectations of the employee; and promote candor in the job interview. Kushell concludes that top executives can have an impact on turnover by paying attention to what employees really want rather than what management thinks they want.

  16. Patient education combined in a music and habit-forming intervention for adherence to continuous positive airway (CPAP) prescribed for sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carol E; Dauz, Emily; Clements, Faye; Werkowitch, Marilyn; Whitman, Robert

    2009-02-01

    As many as 50% of patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea stop adhering to the prescribed medical treatment of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) within 1-3 weeks of onset. Thus, a theory-based intervention using music to support habit formation was designed to improve CPAP adherence at onset. The intervention materials included directions for CPAP nightly use, a diary for recording nightly use and writing about CPAP benefits or problems. In addition, an audiotape with softly spoken instructions for placing the CPAP mask comfortably, using deep breathing and muscle relaxation along with the slowly decreasing music tempo was provided to listen to at bedtime each night. Effects of this music intervention were tested in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 97 patients with 53 males (55%) and 44 females (45%). Moderate to severe apnea/hyponea scores (per sleep laboratory data) and medical diagnosis of OSA were required for study inclusion. Compared to placebo controls, a greater proportion of experimental patients were adhering (chi(2)=14.67, peffect for improving adherence to CPAP at 1 month. Adherence at the onset of treatment is critical and the audio music intervention was easily administered. Other interventions that target problems interfering with longer-term CPAP adherence are needed.

  17. Prevalence and association of refractive anisometropia with near work habits among young schoolchildren: The evidence from a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei Lee

    Full Text Available Lifestyle behaviour may play a role in refractive error among children, but the association between near work habits and refractive anisometropia remains unclear.We estimated the prevalence of refractive anisometropia and examined its association with near work activities among 23,114 children in the Myopia Investigation Study in Taipei who were grade 2 elementary school students at baseline in 2013 and 2014. Baseline data on demographics, medical history, parental history and near work habits were collected by parent-administered questionnaire survey. Refractive status was determined by cycloplegic autorefraction. Refractive anisometropia was defined as the spherical equivalent difference ≥ 1.0 diopter between eyes.The prevalence of refractive anisometropia was 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.0% to 5.6%. The prevalence and severity of refractive anisometropia increased with both myopic and hyperopic refractive error. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that refractive anisometropia was significantly associated with myopia (odds ratio [OR], 2.98; 95% CI, 2.53-3.51, hyperopia (OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.98-2.83, degree of astigmatism (OR, 1.005; 95% CI, 1.005-1.006, amblyopia (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 2.06-3.12, male gender (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.78-0.99 and senior high school level of maternal education (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52-0.92. Though anisometropic children were more likely to spend more time on near work (crude OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.29 and to have less eye-to-object distance in doing near work (crude OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.01-1.30, these associations became insignificant after additional adjustment for ocular, demographic and parental factors.The present study provides large-scale, population-based evidence showing no independent association between refractive anisometropia and near work habits, though myopia is associated with refractive anisometropia.

  18. Position Paper: Designing Complex Systems to Support Interdisciplinary Cognitive Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Melissa T.; Papalambros, Panos Y.; Mcgowan, Anna-Maria R.

    2016-01-01

    The paper argues that the field we can call cognitive science of interdisciplinary collaboration is an important area of study for improving design of Large-Scale Complex Systems (LaCES) and supporting cognitive work. The paper mostly raised questions that have been documented in earlier qualitative analysis studies, and provided possible avenues of exploration for addressing them. There are likely further contributions from additional disciplines beyond those mentioned in this paper that should be considered and integrated into such a cognitive science framework. Knowledge and awareness of various perspectives will help to inform the types of interventions available for improving LaCES design and functionality. For example, a cognitive interpretation of interdisciplinary collaborations in LaCES elucidated the need for a "translator" or "mediator" in helping subject matter experts to transcend language boundaries, mitigate single discipline bias, support integrative activities, and correct misaligned objectives. Additional research in this direction is likely to uncover similar gaps and opportunities for improvements in practice.

  19. Workaholism, work engagement and work-home outcomes: exploring the mediating role of positive and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Malissa A; Michel, Jesse S; Stevens, Gregory W; Howell, Julia W; Scruggs, Ross S

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the mechanisms through which workaholism and work engagement impact work-home conflict and enrichment, respectively. Specifically, we examine the mediating role of positive and negative emotions (e.g. joviality and guilt) in the relationship between workaholism, work engagement and work-home outcomes. Results, based on a sample of 340 working adults participating in a two-wave study, indicate that negative emotions-particularly anxiety, anger and disappointment-mediate the relationship between workaholism and work-home conflict and positive emotions-particularly joviality and self-assurance-mediate the relationship between work engagement and work-home enrichment. These results provide further evidence that workaholism and work engagement are related to distinct sets of emotional variables and disparate work and home outcomes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Green positive guidance and green positive life counseling for decent work and decent lives:Some empirical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria eDi Fabio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses green positive guidance and green positive life counseling for decent work and decent lives. From a green guidance perspective, the connectedness to nature construct is important both in terms of the meaning of work and life construction. The study discussed in this article analyzed the relationship between empathy and connectedness to nature, controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. In this connection, the Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM, the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI were administered to 144 Italian high school students. The study revealed that connecteness to nature was not associated with fluid intelligence and was only moderately associated with personality traits. It was empathy that showed the highest association with connectedness to nature. The results open new opportunities for future research and interventions in green positive guidance/life counseling and green positive decent work.

  1. Types of work-family interface: well-being correlates of negative and positive spillover between work and family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinnunen, U.; Feldt, T.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Pulkkinen, L.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the structure of the work-family interface measure, which was intended to take into account both the positive and negative spillover between work and family demands in both directions. In addition, the links among the types of work-family spillover and the

  2. A Sex Work Research Symposium: Examining Positionality in Documenting Sex Work and Sex Workers’ Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Lowthers; Magdalena Sabat; Elya M. Durisin; Kamala Kempadoo

    2017-01-01

    Historically, academic literature on sex work has documented the changing debates, policies, and cultural discourse surrounding the sex industry, and their impact on the rights of sex workers worldwide. As sex work scholars look to the future of sex workers’ rights, however, we are also in a critical moment of self-reflection on how sex work scholarship engages with sex worker communities, produces knowledge surrounding sex work, and represents the lived experiences of sex workers’ rights, or...

  3. Associations between dietary habits and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in a Hong Kong Chinese working population--the "Better Health for Better Hong Kong" (BHBHK) health promotion campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gary T C; Chan, Juliana C N; Tong, Spencer D Y; Chan, Amy W Y; Wong, Patrick T S; Hui, Stanley S C; Kwok, Ruby; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2007-01-01

    Diet and nutritional status have been shown to play pivotal roles in the occurrence of many chronic diseases. In this study, we examined the patterns of dietary habits and their relationships with risk factors for cardiovascular and chronic diseases in Hong Kong working populations. In April 2000, a 5-year territory-wide health promotion campaign supported by the Li Ka Shing Foundation was launched in Hong Kong by the Health InfoWorld of Hospital Authority. Between July 2000 and March 2002, 4841 Chinese subjects [2375 (49.1%) men and 2466 (50.9%) women, mean age: 42.4 +/- 8.9 years (median: 43.0 years, range: 17-83 years)] from the general working class were recruited. Subjects were randomly selected using computer generated codes according to the distribution of occupational groups. A dietary questionnaire was used to assess 6 core dietary habits: daily fruit intake, vegetable intake, fluid intake, sugary drinks, regularity of daily meals and number of dining out each day. Overall, men had a worse cardiovascular risk profile and less desirable dietary habits than women. Those who had more unhealthy dietary habits were more likely to be obese and current smokers. Using logistic regression analysis with the dietary habits as independent variables, we found that obesity, smoking and constipation were independently associated with various unhealthy dietary patterns. In conclusion, there were close associations between dietary habits and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in Hong Kong. More effective community education about healthy lifestyle is required in Hong Kong.

  4. Exoplanet habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Sara

    2013-05-03

    The search for exoplanets includes the promise to eventually find and identify habitable worlds. The thousands of known exoplanets and planet candidates are extremely diverse in terms of their masses or sizes, orbits, and host star type. The diversity extends to new kinds of planets, which are very common yet have no solar system counterparts. Even with the requirement that a planet's surface temperature must be compatible with liquid water (because all life on Earth requires liquid water), a new emerging view is that planets very different from Earth may have the right conditions for life. The broadened possibilities will increase the future chances of discovering an inhabited world.

  5. [Does work have a meaning? Basis for a positive work culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapelli, G

    2010-01-01

    From the anthropological point of view work is the expression and fulfilment of the absolute spirit in the finite sense and is, by its essence, cooperation. This obliges us to reverse the question: "does work have a meaning?", to: "does work have a meaning for workers? Does it allow self-fulfilment?" Work has a meaning if the worker's psychophysical integrity is safeguarded, if by working the individual achieves self-fulfilment as a person, if it has a sense of community. Man as an "actor" achieves self-fulfilment through technical and professional competence, thereby overcoming organizational and social conflicts. Today reducing human and social relations to an economic transaction will lead to the destruction of the meaning of life and work. The study of suicide cases in France Telecom shows that a human being inserted in the working environment wants most of all to obtain recognition. He or she will accept praise or even punishment if this is done with transparency, because the person will acknowledge in such decisions a recognition of his/herself. Many enterprises and consequently many personnel managers do not, in their essence, perceive of any meaning of work, but consider only the instrumental element. The workforce cannot be considered as a commodity, work is embodied in human beings. So either people aim at self-fulfilment or fall into anomie and depression, even to the point of the destructive impulse of elimination. The re-humanization of work and the treatment of enterprises (which are "ill" because they no longer possess any meaning of work) is the challenge that awaits us.

  6. Examining the "Neglected Side of the Work-Family Interface": Antecedents of Positive and Negative Family-to-Work Spillover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Daphne Pedersen; Minnotte, Krista Lynn; Mannon, Susan E.; Kiger, Gary

    2007-01-01

    This study extends previous research by Dilworth by examining antecedents of both positive and negative family-to-work spillover--a long-neglected area of research. It also uses an extended definition of domestic labor that includes emotion work and status enhancement. Using data from a random sample of dual-earner couples, the study found gender…

  7. The Joy of Social Work Administration: An Exploratory Qualitative Study of Human Service Administrators' Positive Perceptions of Their Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Larry D.; Hoefer, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Positive organizational psychology suggests that researchers should focus on the rewarding elements of work life, yet those in the fields of social work and nonprofit administration have not conducted research in line with this admonition. Indeed, the current focus on administrative challenges and problems may be part of the reason there is…

  8. Engaging in Work Even When It Is Meaningless: Positive Affective Disposition and Meaningful Work Interact in Relation to Work Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Michael F.; Littman-Ovadia, Hadassah; Miller, Michal; Menger, Lauren; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2013-01-01

    The central aim of the present study was to assess the predictive value of affective disposition and meaningful work on employee engagement. Specifically, it was proposed that meaningful work moderates the relationship between affective disposition and engagement. Questionnaires were completed by 252 white-collar employees, working in a variety of…

  9. Daily positive spillover and crossover from mothers' work to youth health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Katie M; Davis, Kelly D; McHale, Susan M; Hammer, Leslie B; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2014-12-01

    Prior research shows that employees' work experiences can "spill over" into their family lives and "cross over" to affect family members. Expanding on studies that emphasize negative implications of work for family life, this study examined positive work-to-family spillover and positive and negative crossover between mothers and their children. Participants were 174 mothers in the extended care (nursing home) industry and their children (ages 9-17), both of whom completed daily diaries on the same 8 consecutive evenings. On each workday, mothers reported whether they had a positive experience at work, youth reported on their mothers' positive and negative mood after work, and youth rated their own mental (positive and negative affect) and physical health (physical health symptoms, sleep quality, sleep duration). Results of 2-level models showed that mothers' positive mood after work, on average, was directly related to youth reports of more positive affect, better sleep quality, and longer sleep duration. In addition, mothers with more positive work experiences, on average, displayed less negative mood after work, and in turn, adolescents reported less negative affect and fewer physical health symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of daily family system dynamics.

  10. Daily Positive Spillover and Crossover from Mothers’ Work to Youth Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Katie M.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research shows that employees’ work experiences can “spill over” into their family lives and “cross over” to affect family members. Expanding on studies that emphasize negative implications of work for family life, this study examined positive work-to-family spillover and positive and negative crossover between mothers and their children. Participants were 174 mothers in the extended care (nursing home) industry and their children (ages 9-17), both of whom completed daily diaries on the same, eight, consecutive evenings. On each workday, mothers reported whether they had a positive experience at work, youth reported on their mothers’ positive and negative mood after work, and youth rated their own mental (positive and negative affect) and physical health (physical health symptoms, sleep quality, sleep duration). Results of two-level models showed that mothers’ positive mood after work, on average, was directly related to youth reports of more positive affect, better sleep quality, and longer sleep duration. In addition, mothers with more positive work experiences, on average, displayed less negative mood after work, and in turn, adolescents reported less negative affect and fewer physical health symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of daily family system dynamics. PMID:25243577

  11. Daily Positive Spillover and Crossover from Mothers’ Work to Youth Health

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Katie M.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research shows that employees’ work experiences can “spill over” into their family lives and “cross over” to affect family members. Expanding on studies that emphasize negative implications of work for family life, this study examined positive work-to-family spillover and positive and negative crossover between mothers and their children. Participants were 174 mothers in the extended care (nursing home) industry and their children (ages 9-17), both of whom completed daily diaries on the...

  12. Smoking habits of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jacka

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available There is little debate as to the harmful effects of cigarette smoking on health. Most health workers advise their patients to cease the practice. The impact of the advice is however diluted if it is seen to be ignored by the professionals themselves. As nurses play an increasing role in all levels of health care a survey was undertaken to investigate the smoking habits of two groups of nurses - those operating within the community and those working in institutions.

  13. Probiotic-enriched foods and dietary supplement containing SYNBIO positively affects bowel habits in healthy adults: an assessment using standard statistical analysis and Support Vector Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvi, Stefania; Verdenelli, M Cristina; Cecchini, Cinzia; Coman, M Magdalena; Bernabei, M Simonetta; Rosati, Jessica; De Leone, Renato; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study assessed in healthy adults how daily consumption of the probiotic combination SYNBIO®, administered in probiotic-enriched foods or in a dietary supplement, affected bowel habits. Primary and secondary outcomes gave the overall assessment of bowel well-being, while a Psychological General Well-Being Index compiled by participants estimated the health-related quality of life as well as the gastrointestinal tolerance determined with the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. Support Vector Machine models for classification problems were used to validate the total outcomes on bowel well-being. SYNBIO® consumption improved bowel habits of volunteers consuming the probiotic foods or capsules, while the same effects were not registered in the control groups. The recovery of probiotic bacteria from the faeces of a cohort of 100 subjects for each supplemented group showed the persistence of strains in the gastrointestinal tract.

  14. Positive feelings facilitate working memory and complex decision making among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Stephanie M; Peters, Ellen; Västfjäll, Daniel; Isen, Alice M

    2013-01-01

    The impact of induced mild positive feelings on working memory and complex decision making among older adults (aged 63-85) was examined. Participants completed a computer administered card task in which participants could win money if they chose from "gain" decks and lose money if they chose from "loss" decks. Individuals in the positive-feeling condition chose better than neutral-feeling participants and earned more money overall. Participants in the positive-feeling condition also demonstrated improved working-memory capacity. These effects of positive-feeling induction have implications for affect theory, as well as, potentially, practical implications for people of all ages dealing with complex decisions.

  15. Investigating positive leadership, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life in a chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tersia Nel

    2015-11-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether perceived positive leadership behaviour could predict psychological empowerment, work engagement, and satisfaction with life of employees in a chemical organisation in South Africa and whether positive leadership behaviour has an indirect effect on employees work engagement and satisfaction with life by means of psychological empowerment. Motivation for the study: The motivation for this study arose from the evident gap in academic literature as well as in terms of practical implications for the chemical industry regarding positive leadership behaviour, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life of employees. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample (n = 322. Structural equation modelling (SEM was used to examine the structural relationships between the constructs. Main findings: Statistically significant relationships were found between positive leadership behaviour, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life of employees. Positive leadership has an indirect effect on work engagement and satisfaction with life via psychological empowerment. Practical/managerial implications: This study adds to the lack of literature in terms of positive leadership, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life within a chemical industry. It can also assist managers and personnel within the chemical industry to understand and perhaps further investigate relationships that exist between the above mentioned concepts. Contribution/value-add: It is recommended that leadership discussions, short training programs and individual coaching about positive leadership and particularly psychological empowerment take place.

  16. Verbal makes it positive, spatial makes it negative: working memory biases judgments, attention, and moods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin; Watson, Philip

    2014-12-01

    Prior research has suggested that emotion and working memory domains are integrated, such that positive affect enhances verbal working memory, whereas negative affect enhances spatial working memory (Gray, 2004; Storbeck, 2012). Simon (1967) postulated that one feature of emotion and cognition integration would be reciprocal connectedness (i.e., emotion influences cognition and cognition influences emotion). We explored whether affective judgments and attention to affective qualities are biased by the activation of verbal and spatial working memory mind-sets. For all experiments, participants completed a 2-back verbal or spatial working memory task followed by an endorsement task (Experiments 1 & 2), word-pair selection task (Exp. 3), or attentional dot-probe task (Exp. 4). Participants who had an activated verbal, compared with spatial, working memory mind-set were more likely to endorse pictures (Exp. 1) and words (Exp. 2) as being more positive and to select the more positive word pair out of a set of word pairs that went 'together best' (Exp. 3). Additionally, people who completed the verbal working memory task took longer to disengage from positive stimuli, whereas those who completed the spatial working memory task took longer to disengage from negative stimuli (Exp. 4). Interestingly, across the 4 experiments, we observed higher levels of self-reported negative affect for people who completed the spatial working memory task, which was consistent with their endorsement and attentional bias toward negative stimuli. Therefore, emotion and working memory may have a reciprocal connectedness allowing for bidirectional influence.

  17. Positive Gain Spirals at Work: From Job Resources to Work Engagement, Personal Initiative and Work-Unit Innovativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakanen, Jari J.; Perhoniemi, Riku; Toppinen-Tanner, Salla

    2008-01-01

    The present cross-lagged panel study aimed to investigate the energizing power of job resources and related gain spirals. Drawing on Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources (COR) theory's rarely tested assumptions of cumulative resource gains and gain spirals a reciprocal process was expected: (1) job resources lead to work engagement and work…

  18. Positive organisation:  the role of leader behaviour in work engagement and retention

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Fallen; Stander, Marius W.

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: The positive organisation creates a framework in which its elements can be investigated in relation to the retention of talent. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate if leader empowering behaviour can positively impact on role clarity, psychological empowerment and work engagement, with the final outcome being the retention of talent. Motivation for the study: In the ever changing work environment organisations place great emphasis on their human ...

  19. Positive Emotional Effects of Leisure in Green Spaces in Alleviating Work-Family Spillover in Working Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Ju; Bae, So Young

    2017-07-11

    Studies have shown that family and work spillover affects well-being and that leisure activities can alleviate the negative effects of work-related stress on health. However, few studies have focused on investigating the effects of specific leisure activities among specific populations. To examine whether leisure activities in green spaces can promote individual recovery processes and alleviate the effects of work and family spillover on positive emotions, this study applied the effort-recovery model to a population of working mothers. Through online and paper questionnaires, sample data were collected from 221 working mothers in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to test the experimental hypothesis, and mediation analysis was used to determine whether leisure in green spaces is a mediating factor. The results indicated that leisure in green spaces is a mediator of the relationship of negative work and family spillover with positive emotions. In addition, strolls and park visits were found to provide greater psychological benefits to working mothers, compared with picnics.

  20. Harsh Working Conditions and Poor Eating Habits: Health-Related Concerns of Female Head Porters (Kayayei) in the Mallam Atta Market, Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Samuel Harrenson; Tahiru, Abdul Majeed

    2018-01-01

    The kaya business is known to pose significant health-related risks to female migrants. This study sought to explore the health-related concerns of female head porters in the Mallam Atta market, Accra, Ghana. A qualitative study was conducted in which twenty female head porters at the Mallam Atta market in Accra were interviewed. A thematic analysis was performed and the emerging themes were presented and supported with quotations from the respondents. Poor accommodation and eating habits, harsh working conditions, and lack of knowledge about health conditions exposed the respondents to several health-related concerns like neck pains, skin rashes, malaria, cholera, and stomach ache among other infections. The popular means of seeking health care was through purchasing drugs from pharmacies or drug peddlers instead of health facilities. Financial constraints, lack of faith in the National Health Insurance Scheme, and long waiting periods at the health facilities militated against seeking appropriate health care at the hospitals and clinics. Political willpower needs to be strengthened for poverty reduction strategies such as training of hairdressing, dress and soap making, and shea butter processing for women from the Northern regions in order to ameliorate their livelihoods and/or reduce migration to the south.

  1. Harsh Working Conditions and Poor Eating Habits: Health-Related Concerns of Female Head Porters (Kayayei in the Mallam Atta Market, Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Harrenson Nyarko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The kaya business is known to pose significant health-related risks to female migrants. This study sought to explore the health-related concerns of female head porters in the Mallam Atta market, Accra, Ghana. Methods. A qualitative study was conducted in which twenty female head porters at the Mallam Atta market in Accra were interviewed. A thematic analysis was performed and the emerging themes were presented and supported with quotations from the respondents. Results. Poor accommodation and eating habits, harsh working conditions, and lack of knowledge about health conditions exposed the respondents to several health-related concerns like neck pains, skin rashes, malaria, cholera, and stomach ache among other infections. The popular means of seeking health care was through purchasing drugs from pharmacies or drug peddlers instead of health facilities. Financial constraints, lack of faith in the National Health Insurance Scheme, and long waiting periods at the health facilities militated against seeking appropriate health care at the hospitals and clinics. Conclusion. Political willpower needs to be strengthened for poverty reduction strategies such as training of hairdressing, dress and soap making, and shea butter processing for women from the Northern regions in order to ameliorate their livelihoods and/or reduce migration to the south.

  2. Counselors and Special Educators in Rural Schools Working Together to Create a Positive School Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Frank

    2018-01-01

    School counselors and special educators in rural areas working together can be a powerful team to help schools create a positive school community. In one rural school community, they partnered with faculty and staff to implement a School Wide Positive Behavior support program to improve student outcomes. The counselor and special educator, through…

  3. Single Black Working Mothers' Perceptions: The Journey to Achieve Leadership Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglin, Sherrell

    2017-01-01

    Single Black working mothers faced significant challenges in achieving high-level or senior-level leadership positions. The purpose of this qualitative narrative study was to collect, analyze and code the stories told by 10 participants to understand the perceptions and insights of the challenges and barriers single Black working mothers faced in…

  4. Work-family culture, work-family interference and well-being at work : iIs it possible to distinguish between a positive and a negative process?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.C.W.; Wattez, C.; Demerouti, E.; Regt, de W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether work-family (WF) interference functions as an explaining mechanism in the link between work-family culture and well-being, hereby distinguishing between a negative and a positive process. The negative, energy depleting process initiates from

  5. Positive well-being and work-life balance among UK railway staff

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Jialin; Smith, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Failure to manage the well-being and work-life balance of railway workers\\ud may result in an increased risk to train safety and employees’ health. This article\\ud reports the findings of a study that measured positive well-being and\\ud work-life balance, and identified the factors affecting these among UK railway\\ud staff. On the whole, staff who perceived high levels of control and support had\\ud a better work-life balance and an increased sense of well-being. A positive\\ud personality was ...

  6. Effective Physics Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with ideas pertaining to the most effective techniques needed to help students improve their physics study skills. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. In the presentation, focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the student who conscientiously uses the methods of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the student, but the efficiency and quality of actions. This work is supported by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education as part of IMPACTSEED grant.

  7. Effectiveness of Positive Thinking Training Program on Nurses' Quality of Work Life through Smartphone Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamed-Jahromi, Mohadeseh; Fereidouni, Zhila; Dehghan, Azizallah

    2017-01-01

    Job stress is a part of nurses' professional life that causes the decrease of the nurses' job satisfaction and quality of work life. This study aimed to determine the effect of positive thinking via social media applications on the nurses' quality of work life. This was a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study design with a control group. The samples were selected among the nurses in two hospitals in Fasa University of Medical Sciences and divided randomly into two interventional ( n = 50) and control ( n = 50) groups. Positive thinking training through telegrams was sent to the intervention group during a period of 3 months. Data were collected by using Brooks and Anderson's questionnaire of work life quality and analyzed by SPSS 18. The mean total scores of pretest and posttest in the intervention group improved noticeably and there were significant differences between mean scores of quality of work life in pretest and posttest scores in interventional groups ( p work life quality, home life ( p work design ( p work context ( p work world ( p = 0.003). This study concluded that positive thinking training via social media application enhanced nurses' quality of work life. This study is necessary to carry out on a larger sample size for generalizing findings better.

  8. Healthy working days: The (positive) effect of work effort on occupational health from a human capital approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtasun, Ainhoa; Nuñez, Imanol

    2018-04-01

    The neoclassic economic rationale has taken for granted that the effect of effort on health is negative. However, several studies in the field of occupational health and medicine claim that working is clearly better for health than non-working or being unemployed, as some psychological and physical condition may improve with work effort. This paper analyzes the effect of work effort on occupational health. The proposed human capital approach builds upon the classic economic perspective, that assumes a negative effect of effort on health, and extends it by allowing positive effects, as suggested by occupational researchers. Using a sample from 2010 of 20,000 European workers we find that, under adequate working conditions, the level of effort (measured in working hours) at which health starts to deteriorate is very high (120 h per week). However, if working conditions are not adequate, even a moderate effort (35 h per week) can harm workers health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Positive organisation: The role of leader behaviour in work engagement and retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallen Mendes

    2011-05-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate if leader empowering behaviour can positively impact on role clarity, psychological empowerment and work engagement, with the final outcome being the retention of talent. Motivation for the study: In the ever changing work environment organisations place great emphasis on their human capital. The positive organisation utilises specific elements to optimise human capital’s potential. It is therefore important to identify the elements contributing to a positive organisation as well as the elements which lead to the retention of talent. Research design, approach and method: A survey research design was used. A convenience sample (n = 179 was taken from a business unit in a chemical organisation. The Leader Empowering Behaviour Questionnaire, Measures of Role Clarity and Ambiguity Questionnaire, Measuring Empowerment Questionnaire, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Intention to Leave Scale were administered. Main findings: Leader empowering behaviour, role clarity and psychological empowerment predicted work engagement. Role clarity interacted with competence to affect employees’ dedication and interacted with the development of employees to affect absorption. Work engagement predicted employees’ intention to leave. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should foster the elements of a positive organisation if they want to retain their talent. Contribution/value-add: The results of this research contribute to scientific knowledge about the effects of a positive organisation on retention.

  10. The Influence of Ethical Ideologies on Promotive Extra Role Behaviors and Positive Work Behavior of Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl Mendeş Pekdemir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the previous studies on ‘extra-role behavior’, this study focuses especially on ‘promotive extra-role behavior’ as well as ‘positive work behavior’, and explores of ethical ideologies on them. On that framework, this paper aims to achieve the effect of ‘ethical ideologies’ (idealism and relativism on promotive extra-role behaviors (helping and voice and positive work behavior. Moreover, we examine the impact of being high and low idealist personality as well as high and low relativist personality on level of ‘helping extra-role behavior’, ‘voice behavior’, ‘extra-role behavior’, and ‘positive work behaviors’ that individuals exhibit. This paper also aims to explore the influence of demographic variables on helping, voice, and positive work behavior. In order to achieve the goals mentioned, we collected data from 356 MBA students, and used the ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results indicate that idealism significantly correlates to helping, voice, and positive work behavior.

  11. Employees' negative and positive work-home interaction and their association with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzsche, Anika; Jung, Julia; Pfaff, Holger; Driller, Elke

    2013-05-01

    Depression is the leading cause of disability and high costs worldwide. One possibility for preventing depression in the workplace, which has received little consideration so far, is the promotion of a successful balance between work and personal life. The aim of this study was to investigate employees' negative and positive work-home interaction and their association with depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the micro- and nanotechnology sector in Germany. A stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using data from N = 213 employees. The results suggest that while negative work-home interaction is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms, positive work-home interaction is correlated with a lower risk. Neither positive nor negative interaction in the home-to-work direction demonstrated a significant association with depressive symptoms. When attempting to prevent mental illnesses, such as depression, it is important to develop strategies aimed at reducing conflict between work and personal life and promoting a positive exchange between these two domains. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Working with LGBT Individuals: Incorporating Positive Psychology into Training and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Megan C.; Vaughan, Michelle D.; Rodriguez, Eric M.; Shmerler, David L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how positive psychology principles can be incorporated into clinical training and practice to work with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) clients. LGBT psychology literature has all too often relied on heterosexual and cisgender reference groups as the norm with respect to psychological health, primarily framing the experiences of LGBT individuals through the lens of psychopathology. As a result, strengths that could be ascribed to the LGBT experience have been overlooked within training and practice. While positive psychology is actively being incorporated into clinical and counseling psychology curricula, broadening the paradigm to include LGBT individuals has generally not been included in the discussion. Specific recommendations for training psychologists to incorporate and foster positive social institutions, positive subjective experiences and character strengths when working with LGBT clients and celebrating their unique experiences are provided. PMID:25544947

  13. Food Habits and Future Time: An Exploratory Study of Age-Appropriate Food Habits Among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifflett, Peggy A.; McIntosh, William A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined future time perspective and its association with change in food habits among elderly persons (N=805). Findings suggest that the elderly change food habits and that there is an association of positive or negative food habit changes with a positive or negative future time perspective. (Author/NB)

  14. Work-Family facilitation: a positive psychological perspective on role combination

    OpenAIRE

    Steenbergen, Elianne Florence van

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation provides a balanced picture of the experiences that individuals can have in the combination of their work and family roles. Extending the common focus in previous literature on experiences of role conflict (and their detrimental consequences), the present research also addresses the positive side of role combination and reveals the different ways in which work and family roles can facilitate each other (energy-based, time-based, behavioral, and psychological facilitation). T...

  15. Correlation between working positions and lactic acid levels with musculoskeletal complaints among dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiory Dioptis Putriwijaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal complaints have been common for dentists since their body is unknowingly often in inappropriate positions when caring for patients. For example, they bend towards patients, suddenly move, and then rotate from one side to another. The repetitive movements are done in long term. High activities and sufficient recovery time can cause a buildup of lactic acid in their blood leading to obstruction of the energy intake from the aerobic system in their muscle cells, resulting in fatigue. As a result, such conditions trigger decreased muscle performances. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the correlation between working positions and lactic acid levels with the risk of musculoskeletal disorders among dentists at Public Health Centers in Surabaya. Method: This research was an analytical observational research using cross sectional approach. Sampling technique used in this research was cluster random sampling with nineteen samples. To evaluate the working positions of those samples, a rapid entire body assessment (REBA method was used. Meanwhile, to observe the musculoskeletal disorders of those samples, a Nordic body map was used. Data obtained then were analyzed using Pearson correlation test with a significance level (p<0.05. Result: Results of data analysis using the Pearson correlation test showed that the significance value obtained was 0.036. It indicates that there was a correlation between the working positions and the lactic acid levels with the musculoskeletal disorders in those dentists. The results of the Pearson correlation test also revealed that there was a correlation between the working positions and the lactic acid levels among those dentists with a significance value of 0.025. Conclusion: It may be concluded that the wrong body positions during working can increase lactic acid level in the body of dentists. The increased level of lactic acid then can affect their muscles, leading to the high risk of

  16. SETI and SEH (Statistical Equation for Habitables)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    . The (average) distancebetween any two nearby habitable planets in the Galaxy may be shown to be inversely proportional to the cubic root of NHab. Then, in our approach, this distance becomes a new random variable. We derive the relevant probability density function, apparently previously unknown and dubbed "Maccone distribution" by Paul Davies in 2008. Data Enrichment Principle. It should be noticed that ANY positive number of random variables in the SEH is compatible with the CLT. So, our generalization allows for many more factors to be added in the future as long as more refined scientific knowledge about each factor will be known to the scientists. This capability to make room for more future factors in the SEH we call the "Data Enrichment Principle", and we regard it as the key to more profound future results in the fields of Astrobiology and SETI. A practical example is then given of how our SEH works numerically. We work out in detail the case where each of the ten random variables is uniformly distributed around its own mean value as given by Dole back in 1964 and has an assumed standard deviation of 10%. The conclusion is that the average number of habitable planets in the Galaxy should be around 100 million±200 million, and the average distance in between any couple of nearby habitable planets should be about 88 light years±40 light years. Finally, we match our SEH results against the results of the Statistical Drake Equation that we introduced in our 2008 IAC presentation. As expected, the number of currently communicating ET civilizations in the Galaxy turns out to be much smaller than the number of habitable planets (about 10,000 against 100 million, i.e. one ET civilization out of 10,000 habitable planets). And the average distance between any two nearby habitable planets turns out to be much smaller than the average distance between any two neighboring ET civilizations: 88 light years vs. 2000 light years, respectively. This means an ET average

  17. Teacher Motivation, Work Satisfaction, and Positive Psychological Capital: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viseu, João; Neves de Jesus, Saul; Rus, Claudia; Canavarro, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Teacher motivation is vital for the educational system. For teachers to be motivated their work satisfaction and positive psychological capital are crucial. The state-of-the-art on teacher motivation requires a literature review regarding the studies that relate teacher motivation and the above mentioned constructs. In this paper, through…

  18. Do positive psychology exercises work? A replication of Seligman et al. (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongrain, Myriam; Anselmo-Matthews, Tracy

    2012-04-01

    The current work replicated a landmark study conducted by Seligman and colleagues (2005) that demonstrated the long-term benefits of positive psychology exercises (PPEs). In the original study, two exercises administered over 1 week ("Three Good Things" and "Using your Signature Strengths in a New Way") were found to have long-lasting effects on depression and happiness (Seligman, Steen, Park, & Peterson, 2005). These exercises were tested here using the same methodology except for improvements to the control condition, and the addition of a second "positive placebo" to isolate the common factor of accessing positive, self-relevant constructs. This component control design was meant to assess the effect of expectancies for success (expectancy control), as well the cognitive access of positive information about the self (positive placebo). Repeated measures analyses showed that the PPEs led to lasting increases in happiness, as did the positive placebo. The PPEs did not exceed the control condition in producing changes in depression over time. Brief, positive psychology interventions may boost happiness through a common factor involving the activation of positive, self-relevant information rather than through other specific mechanisms. Finally, the effects of PPEs on depression may be more modest than previously assumed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Experiences of work among people with disabilities who are HIV-positive in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njelesani, Janet; Nixon, Stephanie; Cameron, Deb; Parsons, Janet; Menon, Anitha

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on accounts of how having a disability and being HIV-positive influences experiences of work among 21 people (12 women, 9 men) in Lusaka, Zambia. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in English, Bemba, Nyanja, or Zambian sign language. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted. Three major themes were generated. The first, a triple burden, describes the burden of having a disability, being HIV-positive, and being unemployed. The second theme, disability and HIV is not inability, describes participants' desire for work and their resistance to being regarded as objects of charity. Finally, how work influences HIV management, describes the practicalities of working and living with HIV. Together these themes highlight the limited options available to persons with disabilities with HIV in Lusaka, not only secondary to the effects of HIV influencing their physical capacity to work, but also because of the attendant social stigma of being a person with a disability and HIV-positive.

  20. Occupational position, work stress and depressive symptoms: a pathway analysis of longitudinal SHARE data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoven, H; Wahrendorf, M; Siegrist, J

    2015-05-01

    Several studies tested whether stressful work mediates the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. Although providing moderate support, evidence is still inconclusive, partly due to a lack of theory-based measures of SEP and work stress, and because of methodological limitations. This contribution aims at overcoming these limitations. We conduct pathway analysis and investigate indirect effects of SEP on mental health via stressful work. Data are derived from the first two waves of the 'Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe' (SHARE) with information from employed men and women aged 50-64 across 11 European countries (N=2798). SEP is measured according to two alternative measures of occupational position: occupational class (focus on employment relations) and occupational status (focus on prestige). We assess work stress according to the effort-reward imbalance and the demand-control model (wave 1), and we use newly occurring depressive symptoms as health outcome (wave 2). Effort-reward imbalance and, less consistently, low control mediate the effect of occupational class and occupational status on depressive symptoms. Our findings point to two important aspects of work stress (effort-reward imbalance and low control) in explaining socioeconomic differences in health. Further, we illustrate the significance of two alternative dimensions of occupational position, occupational class and occupational status. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  2. Habitable Planets for Man

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dole, Stephen H

    2007-01-01

    ..., and discusses how to search for habitable planets. Interestingly for our time, he also gives an appraisal of the earth as a planet and describes how its habitability would be changed if some of its basic properties were altered...

  3. Alpha-Band Activity Reveals Spontaneous Representations of Spatial Position in Visual Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Joshua J; Bsales, Emma M; Jaffe, Russell J; Awh, Edward

    2017-10-23

    An emerging view suggests that spatial position is an integral component of working memory (WM), such that non-spatial features are bound to locations regardless of whether space is relevant [1, 2]. For instance, past work has shown that stimulus position is spontaneously remembered when non-spatial features are stored. Item recognition is enhanced when memoranda appear at the same location where they were encoded [3-5], and accessing non-spatial information elicits shifts of spatial attention to the original position of the stimulus [6, 7]. However, these findings do not establish that a persistent, active representation of stimulus position is maintained in WM because similar effects have also been documented following storage in long-term memory [8, 9]. Here we show that the spatial position of the memorandum is actively coded by persistent neural activity during a non-spatial WM task. We used a spatial encoding model in conjunction with electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements of oscillatory alpha-band (8-12 Hz) activity to track active representations of spatial position. The position of the stimulus varied trial to trial but was wholly irrelevant to the tasks. We nevertheless observed active neural representations of the original stimulus position that persisted throughout the retention interval. Further experiments established that these spatial representations are dependent on the volitional storage of non-spatial features rather than being a lingering effect of sensory energy or initial encoding demands. These findings provide strong evidence that online spatial representations are spontaneously maintained in WM-regardless of task relevance-during the storage of non-spatial features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rearing a reading habit

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the importance and ways of inculcating reading habit in children at the right age, describes the five reading phases in children along with interest and the material to satiate the need, explains how four deterministic factors affect the reading habit of children, enlists motivations that are behind the reading process with tips to improve reading habit of children.

  5. Pointing movements both impair and improve visuospatial working memory depending on serial position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro

    2017-08-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of pointing movements on the item and order recall of random, horizontal, and vertical arrays consisting of 6 and 7 squares (Experiment 1) or 8 and 9 squares (Experiment 2). In the encoding phase, participants either viewed the items passively (passive-view condition) or pointed towards them (pointing condition). Then, after a brief interval, they were requested to recall the locations of the studied squares in the correct order of presentation. The critical result was that, for all types of arrays, the effects of the encoding condition varied as a function of serial position: for the initial and central positions accuracy was higher in the passive-view than in the pointing condition (confirming the standard inhibitory effect of pointing movements on visuospatial working memory), whereas the reverse pattern occurred in the final positions-showing a significant advantage of the pointing condition over the passive-view condition. Findings are interpreted as showing that pointing can have two simultaneous effects on the recall of spatial locations, a positive one due to the addition of a motor code and a negative one due to the attentional requirements of hand movements, with the net impact on serial recall depending on the amount of attention resources needed for the encoding of each position. Implications for the item-order hypothesis and the perceptual-gestural account of working memory are also discussed.

  6. Group intervention: A way to improve working teams' positive psychological capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Bo; Gustafsson, John-Anders; Björkdahl, Ann; Möller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychological capital is reported to have positive effects on people's well-being and attitudes to their working lives. The objective of this study was to investigate if it is possible to increase the level of positive psychological capital by two group intervention programs. The research design was a controlled study with 2 × 2 experimental groups and two control groups. Two of the experimental groups received intervention I (IG I), the other two experimental groups received intervention II (IG II). Assessments were made before and after the intervention programs, with a follow-up at six months post-intervention. Instruments measuring the fundamentals of psychological capital: self-efficacy, hope, optimism, as well as health and job satisfaction were used. The results show that it is possible to increase the level of positive emotions, self-efficacy and job satisfaction of members of a working team by using group intervention methods. The positive changes observed at the end of the program remained six months after the intervention, with the exception of job satisfaction in IG II. It seems that the intervention had a greater influence on those persons who at the start of the study reported a low level of self-enhancement. The results were more pronounced in intervention group I where reinforcement of the resources and positive aspects of the work place environment were provided. A 10-week group intervention program that focused on learned optimism proved to be successful in increasing levels of self-efficacy and job satisfaction. While improvement was maintained six months post-intervention the small sample size and the attrition rate are limitations. Results are promising and further research is warranted.

  7. Computerized working memory training has positive long-term effect in very low birthweight preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewaldt, Kristine Hermansen; Skranes, Jon; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Lähaugen, Gro C C

    2016-02-01

    Working memory deficits are frequently found in children born preterm and have been linked to learning disabilities, and cognitive and behavioural problems. Our aim was to evaluate if a computerized working memory training program has long-term positive effects on memory, learning, and behaviour in very-low-birthweight (VLBW) children at age 5 to 6 years. This prospective, intervention study included 20 VLBW preschool children in the intervention group and 17 age-matched, non-training VLBW children in the comparison group. The intervention group trained with the Cogmed JM working memory training program daily for 5 weeks (25 training sessions). Extensive neuropsychological assessment and parental questionnaires were performed 4 weeks after intervention and at follow-up 7 months later. For most of the statistical analyses, general linear models were applied. At follow-up, higher scores and increased or equal performance gain were found in the intervention group than the comparison group on memory for faces (p=0.012), narrative memory (p=0.002), and spatial span (p=0.003). No group differences in performance gain were found for attention and behaviour. Computerized working memory training seems to have positive and persisting effects on working memory, and visual and verbal learning, at 7-month follow-up in VLBW preschool children. We speculate that such training is beneficial by improving the ability to learn from the teaching at school and for further cognitive development. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  8. Work-Family Enrichment: the Positive Side of Roles of Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadma Maia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at understand up how the interaction can promote work-family enrichment in the roles developed by the Executive Secretaries of a public university. The approach used was the qualitative analysis research and data collection technique employed a semi-structured interview, applied to twenty executive secretaries, employed at the public universities. For the data interpretation, we used the technique of content analysis. The analytical results identified the existence of enrichment in this interaction. The learning opportunity to was mentioned as one of the most enriching element of the work, besides the family values as family enriching element. The family support and experience emerged as enrichment phenomena common to both domains. Regarding the implications of work-family interaction, the most perceived implications by respondents were: increased knowledge and skills, material and psychological benefits, improved quality of life and personal and professional fulfillment. The conclusion is that one should not emphasize the negative side of the work-family interaction if there are favorable resources to enrich this relationship. One should also value the positive side of the interaction to seek a balance between the demands of work and the ones of family is equally important, since the participation of Secretaries in family and work roles proved to be necessary and challenging and it can provide enrichment to the executive secretary roles in their work place.

  9. Positive Psychology and Disaster Mental Health: Strategies for Working with Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernberg, Eric M; Hambrick, Erin P; Cho, Bridget; Hendrickson, Michelle L

    2016-12-01

    Positive psychology concepts and principles can be incorporated into preparedness, crisis response, and recovery phases of disaster mental health efforts to address the needs of children, adolescents, and families. This article articulates general developmental considerations for applying positive psychology in disaster mental health contexts and discusses how 5 essential elements of immediate and midterm mass trauma intervention identified by Hobfoll et al. (2007) may be infused in applications of positive psychology for children and adolescents. Specific strategies for working with children, adolescents, and their families in home, community, and school contexts are drawn in part from disaster mental health resources developed jointly by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, including the Psychological First Aid Field Operations Guide (Brymer et al., 2006), the Skills for Psychological Recovery Field Operations Guide (Berkowitz et al., 2010), and the Psychological First Aid for Schools Field Operations Manual (Brymer et al., 2012). Two case examples illustrate the use of positive psychology principles. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Habitability: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, C S; Bush, T; Bryce, C; Direito, S; Fox-Powell, M; Harrison, J P; Lammer, H; Landenmark, H; Martin-Torres, J; Nicholson, N; Noack, L; O'Malley-James, J; Payler, S J; Rushby, A; Samuels, T; Schwendner, P; Wadsworth, J; Zorzano, M P

    2016-01-01

    Habitability is a widely used word in the geoscience, planetary science, and astrobiology literature, but what does it mean? In this review on habitability, we define it as the ability of an environment to support the activity of at least one known organism. We adopt a binary definition of "habitability" and a "habitable environment." An environment either can or cannot sustain a given organism. However, environments such as entire planets might be capable of supporting more or less species diversity or biomass compared with that of Earth. A clarity in understanding habitability can be obtained by defining instantaneous habitability as the conditions at any given time in a given environment required to sustain the activity of at least one known organism, and continuous planetary habitability as the capacity of a planetary body to sustain habitable conditions on some areas of its surface or within its interior over geological timescales. We also distinguish between surface liquid water worlds (such as Earth) that can sustain liquid water on their surfaces and interior liquid water worlds, such as icy moons and terrestrial-type rocky planets with liquid water only in their interiors. This distinction is important since, while the former can potentially sustain habitable conditions for oxygenic photosynthesis that leads to the rise of atmospheric oxygen and potentially complex multicellularity and intelligence over geological timescales, the latter are unlikely to. Habitable environments do not need to contain life. Although the decoupling of habitability and the presence of life may be rare on Earth, it may be important for understanding the habitability of other planetary bodies.

  11. Military Personnel: Improvements Needed to Increase Effectiveness of DOD's Programs to Promote Positive Working Relationships between Reservists and Their Employers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farrell, Brenda S; Schmitt, David; Anderson, Bonita; Brown, Renee; Cantin, Janine; Chatlos, Rudy; Harms, Nicole; McMurdie, Tobin; Richardson, Terry; Wallace, Shana; Williams, Tracy; Young, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    .... As demobilized reservists return to civilian life and their civilian employment, the difficulties some face in maintaining positive working relationships with their employers is an area of interest...

  12. The Influences of Quantum Coherence on the Positive Work and the Efficiency of Quantum Heat Engine with Working Substance of Two-Qubit Heisenberg XXX Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hu-Ping; Fang, Mao-Fa; Yu, Min; Zou, Hong-Mei

    2018-03-01

    We study the influences of quantum coherence on the positive work and the efficiency of quantum heat engine (QHE) based on working substance of two-qubit Heisenberg model under a constant external magnetic field. By using analytical and numerical solution, we give the relation expressions for both the positive work and the efficiency with quantum coherence, and in detail discuss the effects of the quantum coherence on the positive work and the efficiency of QHE in the absence or presence of external magnetic field, respectively.

  13. The Influences of Quantum Coherence on the Positive Work and the Efficiency of Quantum Heat Engine with Working Substance of Two-Qubit Heisenberg XXX Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hu-Ping; Fang, Mao-Fa; Yu, Min; Zou, Hong-Mei

    2018-06-01

    We study the influences of quantum coherence on the positive work and the efficiency of quantum heat engine (QHE) based on working substance of two-qubit Heisenberg model under a constant external magnetic field. By using analytical and numerical solution, we give the relation expressions for both the positive work and the efficiency with quantum coherence, and in detail discuss the effects of the quantum coherence on the positive work and the efficiency of QHE in the absence or presence of external magnetic field, respectively.

  14. Factors That Were Found to Influence Ghanaian Adolescents’ Eating Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Mawusi Amos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to find out whether factors such as parental, peer, and media influences predict Ghanaian adolescent students’ eating habits. A random selection of 150 students from a population of senior high school students in Ghana were asked to complete the Eating Habits Questionnaire for Adolescents. Data were analyzed by the use of bivariate correlation, t test, and multiple regression analytical techniques using SPSS version 16. The findings revealed a significant positive relationship between peer influence and eating habits suggesting that the higher the peer pressure, the more unhealthy the students’ eating habits. Counterintuitively, parental and media influences did not significantly correlate with students’ eating habits. Gender difference in eating habits suggested that girls had more unhealthy eating habits than boys. Finally, multiple regression analysis revealed that peer influence was a better predictor of students’ eating habits than parental and media influences. The findings were discussed and recommendations were given in light of the study’s limitations.

  15. Positive mental health among health professionals working at a psychiatric hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Picco

    Full Text Available Positive mental health (PMH is a combination of emotional, psychological and social well-being that is necessary for an individual to be mentally healthy. The current study aims to examine the socio-demographic differences of PMH among mental health professionals and to explore the association between job satisfaction and total PMH.Doctors, nurses and allied health staff (n = 462 completed the online survey which included the multidimensional 47-item PMH instrument as well as a single item job satisfaction question. Associations of PMH with job satisfaction were investigated via linear regression models.Significant differences in PMH total and domain specific scores were observed across socio-demographic characteristics. Age and ethnicity were significantly correlated with PMH total scores as well as various domain scores, while gender, marital and residency status and the staff's position were only significantly correlated with domain specific scores. Job satisfaction was also found to be a significantly associated with total PMH.The workplace is a key environment that affects the mental health and well-being of working adults. In order to promote and foster PMH, workplaces need to consider the importance of psychosocial well-being and the wellness of staff whilst providing an environment that supports and maintains overall health and work efficiency.

  16. Socio-economic position, family demands and reported health in working men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Enrique; Pascual, Cruz; de la Fuente, Luis; Santos, Juana M; Astasio, Paloma; Ortega, Paloma

    2011-02-01

    This study evaluates the extent to which domestic workload explains socio-economic differences in poor self-reported health in women and men. In total, 6284 men and women who were employed and living with a partner were selected from the 2003 Spanish Health Interview Survey. The indicators of family demands investigated were person responsible for housework, number of persons in the household and the presence of at least one child under 15 years of age in the household. The measures of socio-economic position were educational level and household income, and the measures of health status were poor perceived health and limitation of activity due to disease. Household size and presence of a child under 15 in the home were not related with the measures of health status. The indicator about the person who does the housework was related with poor perceived health and with activity limitation. Specifically, the worst health status was seen in respondents who lived in homes where the partner or other family members did the housework. In general, the relation between indicators of socio-economic position and measures of health status was not modified after taking into account the person who does the housework. Among working people with a partner, persons who work and do their own housework do not have poorer perceived health than those living in homes where other people do the housework. This indicator of family demands does not explain the socio-economic differences in self-reported health.

  17. Positive experiences of volunteers working in deployable laboratories in West Africa during the Ebola outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfroid, Evelien; Mollers, Madelief; Smit, Pieter W; Hulscher, Marlies; Koopmans, Marion; Reusken, Chantal; Timen, Aura

    2018-01-01

    The largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease ever started in West Africa in December 2013; it created a pressing need to expand the workforce dealing with it. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of volunteers from the European Union who worked in deployable laboratories in West Africa during the outbreak. This study is part of the EMERGE project. We assessed the experiences of 251 volunteers with a 19-item online questionnaire. The questions asked about positive aspects of volunteering such as learning new skills, establishing a new path in life, and changing life values. Other questionnaire subjects were the compliance to follow-up measures, the extent to which volunteers felt these measures restricted their daily activities, the fear of stigmatization, and worries about becoming infected or infecting their families. The volunteers reported positive effects that reached far beyond their daily work, such as changes in life priorities and a greater appreciation of the value of their own lives. Although the volunteers did not feel that temperature monitoring restricted their daily activities, full compliance to temperature monitoring and reporting it to the authorities was low. The volunteers did not fear Ebola infection for themselves or their families and were not afraid of stigmatization. With respect to the burden on the families, 50% reported that their family members were worried that the volunteer would be infected with Ebola virus. Altogether, the positive experiences of the volunteers in this study far outweigh the negative implications and constitute an important argument for inspiring people who intend to join such missions and for motivating the hesitant ones.

  18. Positive experiences of volunteers working in deployable laboratories in West Africa during the Ebola outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Belfroid

    Full Text Available The largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease ever started in West Africa in December 2013; it created a pressing need to expand the workforce dealing with it. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of volunteers from the European Union who worked in deployable laboratories in West Africa during the outbreak. This study is part of the EMERGE project. We assessed the experiences of 251 volunteers with a 19-item online questionnaire. The questions asked about positive aspects of volunteering such as learning new skills, establishing a new path in life, and changing life values. Other questionnaire subjects were the compliance to follow-up measures, the extent to which volunteers felt these measures restricted their daily activities, the fear of stigmatization, and worries about becoming infected or infecting their families. The volunteers reported positive effects that reached far beyond their daily work, such as changes in life priorities and a greater appreciation of the value of their own lives. Although the volunteers did not feel that temperature monitoring restricted their daily activities, full compliance to temperature monitoring and reporting it to the authorities was low. The volunteers did not fear Ebola infection for themselves or their families and were not afraid of stigmatization. With respect to the burden on the families, 50% reported that their family members were worried that the volunteer would be infected with Ebola virus. Altogether, the positive experiences of the volunteers in this study far outweigh the negative implications and constitute an important argument for inspiring people who intend to join such missions and for motivating the hesitant ones.

  19. Positive aging in demanding workplaces: The gain cycle between job satisfaction and work engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Guglielmi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays organizations have to cope with two related challenges: maintaining an engaged and highly performing workforce and, at the same time, protecting and increasing employees’ well-being and job satisfaction under conditions of a generalized increase of job overload, in an increasingly growing older population. According to the motivational process of the JD-R model, a work environment with many organizational resources will foster work engagement, which in turn will increase the likelihood of positive personal and organizational outcomes, such as job satisfaction, performance, and intention to stay. However, it is not clear how this motivational process could work in different age cohorts, as older workers may have different priorities to those of younger colleagues. Postulating the existence of a gain-cycle in the relationship between work engagement and outcomes, in this study we tested a longitudinal moderated mediation model in which job satisfaction increases over time through an increment in work engagement. We hypothesized that this process is moderated by job workload and aging. We collected data in public administrations in Northern Italy in order to measure work engagement and job satisfaction. 556 workers aged between 50 to 64 replied to the survey twice (the first time and eight months later. The findings confirmed a moderated mediation model, in which job satisfaction at time 1 increased work engagement, which in turn fostered job satisfaction eight months later, confirming the hypothesized gain-cycle. This relationship was shown to be moderated by the joint influence of job demand intensity and age: higher job demands and younger age are related to the maximum level of level gain cycle, while the same high level of job demands, when associated with older age, appears unable to stimulate a similar effect. The results confirm that, on one hand, older workers cannot be seen as a homogeneous group and, on the other hand, the

  20. Positive Aging in Demanding Workplaces: The Gain Cycle between Job Satisfaction and Work Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Dina; Avanzi, Lorenzo; Chiesa, Rita; Mariani, Marco G; Bruni, Ilaria; Depolo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays organizations have to cope with two related challenges: maintaining an engaged and highly performing workforce and, at the same time, protecting and increasing employees' well-being and job satisfaction under conditions of a generalized increase of job demand, in an increasingly growing older population. According to the motivational process of the JD-R model, a work environment with many organizational resources will foster work engagement, which in turn will increase the likelihood of positive personal and organizational outcomes, such as job satisfaction, performance, and intention to stay. However, it is not clear how this motivational process could work in different age cohorts, as older workers may have different priorities to those of younger colleagues. Postulating the existence of a gain-cycle in the relationship between work engagement and outcomes, in this study we tested a longitudinal moderated mediation model in which job satisfaction increases over time through an increment in work engagement. We hypothesized that this process is moderated by job demand and aging. We collected data in public administrations in Northern Italy in order to measure work engagement and job satisfaction. 556 workers aged between 50 and 64 replied to the survey twice (the first time and 8 months later). The findings confirmed a moderated mediation model, in which job satisfaction at time 1 increased work engagement, which in turn fostered job satisfaction 8 months later, confirming the hypothesized gain-cycle. This relationship was shown to be moderated by the joint influence of job demand intensity and age: higher job demands and younger age are related to the maximum level of level gain cycle, while the same high level of job demands, when associated with older age, appears unable to stimulate a similar effect. The results confirm that, on one hand, older workers cannot be seen as a homogeneous group and, on the other hand, the importance of considering the role

  1. Old, down and out? Appearance, body work and positive ageing among elderly South Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfving-Hwang, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    This article offers an as yet unexplored dimension of our current understanding of the ageing body in the context of contemporary South Korea. Drawing on interviews with twenty elderly women living in the greater Seoul metropolitan area, this article explores the role of appearance, body work, and the presentation of self in the women's everyday lived experiences. Existing research on the ageing female body in South Korea has primarily focused on the so-called noin munjae ('the elderly issue') discourse, within which the ageing body is framed as passive, undesirable, or out-of-control. Contrary to this, the elderly women's own narratives of everyday beauty practices suggest that the act of sustaining well-ordered appearance in later life allows for the enforcing of positive selves in the context of personal beauty and body work. Maintaining a positive appearance was shown to play an important part of their everyday lives, and functioned as a ritual of not only presenting an appearance that signified control over the ageing body, but to continue to enjoy it. The carefully calculated engagement with various non-surgical and surgical beauty practices also emerged as an embodied practice of mediating intersubjective social encounters through which self-esteem was engendered by evidencing the self's efforts to show respect to others. The findings of this study challenge dominant discourses in the west which present body work on the ageing female body as primarily self-indulgent, or driven by anxiety about the body's inability to fit within existing youthful beauty ideals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [The standard of position of physician-stomatologist-therapeutist in the conditions of working together with assistant-stomatological].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalininskaya, A A; Mescheryakov, D G; Ildarov, R B

    2013-01-01

    The article presents scope of work, algorithms of labor operations, standardization of work of stomatologist-therapeutist in the conditions of working together with assistant-stomatological in four hands. The calculations are given concerning the standard numbers of positions of stomatologist in new conditions of work.

  3. Canadian government's framing of ageing at work and older workers: Echoing positive ageing models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagacé, Martine; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac; Laplante, Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Public representations of ageing can influence how individuals perceive their own experience of ageing. Results of studies on the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development)'s governmental messages on older workers suggest that they are mainly constructed around economic productivity and personal responsibility. The goal of this study is to examine how the Canadian government frames issues around ageing, work and older workers. Canada is facing a rapidly ageing workforce, hence the importance of examining how the government discusses ageing at work. A thematic content analysis was conducted on a total of 154 government web pages. Results revealed that predominant themes revolve around economic challenges resulting from an ageing workforce. Older workers are depicted as a key component for the (economic) management of an ageing workforce. More specifically, older workers who intend to continue working are highly valued in the government's messages which present them as productive citizens and role models for "ageing well". Canada's response to the challenges of an ageing workforce echoes the underlying standards of positive ageing models, which may generate, perhaps inadvertently, a new form of ageism by creating intra-and intergenerational divides in the workplace.

  4. Working memory load reduces the late positive potential and this effect is attenuated with increasing anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Ferri, Jamie; Hajcak, Greg

    2011-09-01

    Emotion regulation decreases the processing of arousing stimuli, as indexed by the late positive potential (LPP), an electrocortical component that varies in amplitude with emotional arousal. Emotion regulation increases activity in the prefrontal areas associated with cognitive control, including the dosolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The present study manipulated working memory load, known to activate the DLPFC, and recorded the LPP elicited by aversive and neutral IAPS pictures presented during the retention interval. The LPP was larger on low-load compared to high-load trials, and on trials with aversive compared to neutral pictures. These LPP data suggest that emotional content and working memory load have opposing effects on attention to distracting stimuli. State anxiety was associated with reduced modulation of the LPP by working memory load. Results are discussed in terms of competition for attention between emotion and cognition and suggest a relationship between DLPFC activation and the allocation of attentional resources to distracting visual stimuli-a relationship that may be disrupted with increasing anxiety.

  5. On the Habitability of Aquaplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Rolando Cardenas; Noel Perez; Jesus Martinez-Frias; Osmel Martin

    2014-01-01

    An Aquatic Habitability Index is proposed, based on Quantitative Habitability Theory, and considering a very general model for life. It is a primary habitability index, measuring habitability for phytoplankton in the first place. The index is applied to some case studies, such as the habitability changes in Earth due to environmental perturbations caused by asteroid impacts.

  6. On the Habitability of Aquaplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Cardenas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An Aquatic Habitability Index is proposed, based on Quantitative Habitability Theory, and considering a very general model for life. It is a primary habitability index, measuring habitability for phytoplankton in the first place. The index is applied to some case studies, such as the habitability changes in Earth due to environmental perturbations caused by asteroid impacts.

  7. Your Child's Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... older. For those who don't, simple behavior modification can help them break the habit. However, for those who start hair pulling as ... in your mirror. Do you bite your nails? Studies suggest that nail biting may ... kids engage in habits to attract attention or to manipulate their parents. ...

  8. Can't control yourself? Monitor those bad habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jeffrey M; Pascoe, Anthony; Wood, Wendy; Neal, David T

    2010-04-01

    What strategies can people use to control unwanted habits? Past work has focused on controlling other kinds of automatic impulses, especially temptations. The nature of habit cuing calls for certain self-control strategies. Because the slow-to-change memory trace of habits is not amenable to change or reinterpretation, successful habit control involves inhibiting the unwanted response when activated in memory. In support, two episode-sampling diary studies demonstrated that bad habits, unlike responses to temptations, were controlled most effectively through spontaneous use of vigilant monitoring (thinking "don't do it," watching carefully for slipups). No other strategy was useful in controlling strong habits, despite that stimulus control was effective at inhibiting responses to temptations. A subsequent experiment showed that vigilant monitoring aids habit control, not by changing the strength of the habit memory trace but by heightening inhibitory, cognitive control processes. The implications of these findings for behavior change interventions are discussed.

  9. Prevalence and consequences of positive blood alcohol levels among patients injured at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin A Foster

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to characterize positive blood alcohol among patients injured at work, and to compare the severity of injury and outcome of blood alcohol concentration (BAC positive and negative patients. Settings and Design: A retrospective cohort study was performed at a Level 1 academic trauma center. Patients injured at work between 01/01/07 and 01/01/12 and admitted with positive (BAC+ vs negative (BAC- blood alcohol were compared using bivariate analysis. Results: Out of 823, 319 subjects were tested for BAC (38.8%, of whom 37 were BAC+ (mean 0.151 g/dL, range 0.015-0.371 g/dL. Age (41 years, sex (97.2% men, race, intensive care unit (ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS, and mortality were similar between groups. Nearly half of BAC+ cases were farming injuries (18, 48.6%: Eight involved livestock, five involved all-terrain vehicles (ATVs, three involved heavy equipment, one fell, and one had a firearm injury. Eight (21.6% were construction site injuries involving falls from a roof or scaffolding, five (13.5% were semi-truck collisions, four (10.8% involved falls from a vehicle in various settings, and two (5.4% were crush injuries at an oilfield. BAC+ subjects were less likely to be injured in construction sites and oilfields, including vehicle-related falls (2.3 vs 33.9%, P < 0.0001. Over half of BAC+ (n = 20, 54% subjects were alcohol dependent; three (8.1% also tested positive for cocaine on admission. No BAC+ subjects were admitted to rehabilitation compared to 33 (11.7% of BAC- subjects. Workers′ compensation covered a significantly smaller proportion of BAC+ patients (16.2 vs 61.0%, P < 0.0001. Conclusions: Alcohol use in the workplace is more prevalent than commonly suspected, especially in farming and other less regulated industries. BAC+ is associated with less insurance coverage, which probably affects resources available for post-discharge rehabilitation and hospital reimbursement.

  10. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding...... consequences. Since the decision is made quite automatically and only one choice alternative is considered (the habitually chosen one), behaviour guided by habit is difficult to change. The implications of car use habits for converting drivers to commuters using public transportation is analysed based...... to do so, car use habit, and the interaction between the two, confirms the theory-derived hypothesis that car use habits act as an obstacle to the transformation of intentions to commute by public transportation into action....

  11. Coaching positively influences the effects of working memory training on visual working memory as well as mathematical ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelwan, M.; Vissers, C.T.W.M.; Kroesbergen, E.H.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to test whether the amount of coaching influenced the results of working memory training on both visual and verbal working memory. Additionally, the effects of the working memory training on the amount of progress after specific training in mathematics were

  12. The nature and position of processing determines why forgetting occurs in working memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrold, Christopher; Tam, Helen; Baddeley, Alan D; Harvey, Caroline E

    2010-12-01

    The effect of potentially distracting processing within working memory was examined by varying the nature and position of processing across conditions of a Brown-Peterson-like task. Separate groups of participants carried out verbal or visuospatial processing operations on identical stimuli, while retaining lists of to-be-remembered words. The number of words presented either before or after the processing interval was varied systematically. Results showed that although verbal processing was no more demanding than visuospatial processing, it led to greater forgetting. However, forgetting was confined to items presented prior to processing, and the difference in degree of forgetting shown by the two groups was maximal when four items occurred before processing. Temporal isolation effects were more marked in the verbal processing group. These findings indicate that individuals can keep active a limited number of items in primary memory during processing, unless processing blocks rehearsal, in which case retrieval occurs from secondary memory.

  13. How Positivity Links With Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Findings on the Mediating Role of Work-Life Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkibi, Hod; Brandt, Yaron Ilan

    2015-01-01

    The positive characteristics that can help people juggle their work and personal roles and experience greater job satisfaction are attracting increased research attention. This study presents a conceptual model to account for the association between employees’ positive orientation (i.e., the tendency to evaluate self, life, and the future in a positive way) and their job satisfaction (N = 108). As theorized, the results indicate that employees’ ability to manage their work-life balance fully mediates the relation between their positive orientation and job satisfaction. This suggests that a positive orientation serves as an adaptive personal resource that can facilitate employees’ ability to balance work and non-work demands and hence can foster job satisfaction. The practical implications for positive psychological interventions in organizational settings are discussed. PMID:27247666

  14. How Positivity Links With Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Findings on the Mediating Role of Work-Life Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkibi, Hod; Brandt, Yaron Ilan

    2015-08-01

    The positive characteristics that can help people juggle their work and personal roles and experience greater job satisfaction are attracting increased research attention. This study presents a conceptual model to account for the association between employees' positive orientation (i.e., the tendency to evaluate self, life, and the future in a positive way) and their job satisfaction (N = 108). As theorized, the results indicate that employees' ability to manage their work-life balance fully mediates the relation between their positive orientation and job satisfaction. This suggests that a positive orientation serves as an adaptive personal resource that can facilitate employees' ability to balance work and non-work demands and hence can foster job satisfaction. The practical implications for positive psychological interventions in organizational settings are discussed.

  15. How Positivity Links With Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Findings on the Mediating Role of Work-Life Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hod Orkibi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The positive characteristics that can help people juggle their work and personal roles and experience greater job satisfaction are attracting increased research attention. This study presents a conceptual model to account for the association between employees’ positive orientation (i.e., the tendency to evaluate self, life, and the future in a positive way and their job satisfaction (N = 108. As theorized, the results indicate that employees’ ability to manage their work-life balance fully mediates the relation between their positive orientation and job satisfaction. This suggests that a positive orientation serves as an adaptive personal resource that can facilitate employees’ ability to balance work and non-work demands and hence can foster job satisfaction. The practical implications for positive psychological interventions in organizational settings are discussed.

  16. Coaching positively influences the effects of working memory training on visual working memory as well as mathematical ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelwan, Michel; Vissers, Constance; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H

    2018-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to test whether the amount of coaching influenced the results of working memory training on both visual and verbal working memory. Additionally, the effects of the working memory training on the amount of progress after specific training in mathematics were evaluated. In this study, 23 children between 9 and 12 years of age with both attentional and mathematical difficulties participated in a working memory training program with a high amount of coaching, while another 25 children received no working memory training. Results of these groups were compared to 21 children who completed the training with a lower amount of coaching. The quality of working memory, as well as mathematic skills, were measured three times using untrained transfer tasks. Bayesian statistics were used to test informative hypotheses. After receiving working memory training, the highly coached group performed better than the group that received less coaching on visual working memory and mathematics, but not on verbal working memory. The highly coached group retained their advantage in mathematics, even though the effect on visual working memory decreased. However, no added effect of working memory training was found on the learning curve during mathematical training. Moreover, the less-coached group was outperformed by the group that did not receive working memory training, both in visual working memory and mathematics. These results suggest that motivation and proper coaching might be crucial for ensuring compliance and effects of working memory training, and that far transfer might be possible. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Visual Statistical Learning Works after Binding the Temporal Sequences of Shapes and Spatial Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Watanabe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The human visual system can acquire the statistical structures in temporal sequences of object feature changes, such as changes in shape, color, and its combination. Here we investigate whether the statistical learning for spatial position and shape changes operates separately or not. It is known that the visual system processes these two types of information separately; the spatial information is processed in the parietal cortex, whereas object shapes and colors are detected in the temporal pathway, and, after that, we perceive bound information in the two streams. We examined whether the statistical learning operates before or after binding the shape and the spatial information by using the “re-paired triplet” paradigm proposed by Turk-Browne, Isola, Scholl, and Treat (2008. The result showed that observers acquired combined sequences of shape and position changes, but no statistical information in individual sequence was obtained. This finding suggests that the visual statistical learning works after binding the temporal sequences of shapes and spatial structures and would operate in the higher-order visual system; this is consistent with recent ERP (Abla & Okanoya, 2009 and fMRI (Turk-Browne, Scholl, Chun, & Johnson, 2009 studies.

  18. How Positivity Links With Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Findings on the Mediating Role of Work-Life Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Orkibi, Hod; Brandt, Yaron Ilan

    2015-01-01

    The positive characteristics that can help people juggle their work and personal roles and experience greater job satisfaction are attracting increased research attention. This study presents a conceptual model to account for the association between employees’ positive orientation (i.e., the tendency to evaluate self, life, and the future in a positive way) and their job satisfaction (N = 108). As theorized, the results indicate that employees’ ability to manage their work-life balance fully ...

  19. Serial position markers in space: visuospatial priming of serial order working memory retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya De Belder

    Full Text Available Most general theories on serial order working memory (WM assume the existence of position markers that are bound to the to-be-remembered items to keep track of the serial order. So far, the exact cognitive/neural characteristics of these markers have remained largely underspecified, while direct empirical evidence for their existence is mostly lacking. In the current study we demonstrate that retrieval from verbal serial order WM can be facilitated or hindered by spatial cuing: begin elements of a verbal WM sequence are retrieved faster after cuing the left side of space, while end elements are retrieved faster after cuing the right side of space. In direct complement to our previous work--where we showed the reversed impact of WM retrieval on spatial processing--we argue that the current findings provide us with a crucial piece of evidence suggesting a direct and functional involvement of space in verbal serial order WM. We outline the idea that serial order in verbal WM is coded within a spatial coordinate system with spatial attention being involved when searching through WM, and we discuss how this account can explain several hallmark observations related to serial order WM.

  20. Habitable Zones in the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, G.

    2005-01-01

    Habitability varies dramatically with location and time in the universe. This was recognized centuries ago, but it was only in the last few decades that astronomers began to systematize the study of habitability. The introduction of the concept of the habitable zone was key to progress in this area. The habitable zone concept was first applied to the space around a star, now called the Circumstellar Habitable Zone. Recently, other, vastly broader, habitable zones have been proposed. We review...

  1. Work-to-Family Conflict, Positive Spillover, and Boundary Management: A Person-Environment Fit Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Powell, Gary N.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2009-01-01

    This study adopted a person-environment fit approach to examine whether greater congruence between employees' preferences for segmenting their work domain from their family domain (i.e., keeping work matters at work) and what their employers' work environment allowed would be associated with lower work-to-family conflict and higher work-to-family…

  2. [Self-efficacy and self management of healthy habits in fibromyalgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Velasco, María; Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by general chronic pain, together with other symptoms such as fatigue, sleep disorders, anxiety and depression. To analyze, in FM patients, the effects of a multi-component intervention program (nursing+cognitive-behavioural therapy, focused on improving resting habits, physical exercise, and family relationships, working simultaneously on empowerment and patient self-efficacy. A quasi-experimental design was used following-up 5 women diagnosed with fibromyalgia. An analysis was performed on their daily habits, self-efficacy for chronic pain, pain perception, functional limitation, and affect. The intervention was composed by 8 group sessions: Six of them aimed at health education and self-management of healthy habits (nursing), and two sessions dedicated to increasing self-efficacy (cognitive-behavioural therapy). Follow-up consisted of five individual sessions (nursing) so as to consolidate the newly acquired habits, maintain self-management and self-efficacy based on observing compliance. Statistically significant improvements were observed (pre-, pos-) in habit modification and in self-efficacy, as well as for positive and negative affect. Also, statistically significant differences were found pre-follow up for functional limitation. The role of nursing has to be considered within multi-component programs, in particular during follow-up, for changing habits and for self-efficacy, in response to some of the current limitations of interventions with these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of underground mine workings with the use of global positioning system technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canty, G.A.; Everett, J.W. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science; Sharp, M. [Oklahoma Conservation Commission, Oklahoma City, OK (United States). Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program

    1998-12-31

    Identification of underground mine workings for well drilling is a difficult task given the limited resources available and lack of reliable information. Relic mine maps of questionable accuracy and difficulty in correlating the subsurface to the surface, make the process of locating wells arduous. With the development of global positioning system (GPS), specific locations on the earth can be identified with the aid of satellites. This technology can be applied to mine workings identification given a few necessary, precursory details. For an abandoned mine treatment project conducted by the University of Oklahoma, in conjunction with the Oklahoma Conservation Commission, a Trimble ProXL 8 channel GPS receiver was employed to locate specific points on the surface with respect to a mine map. A 1925 mine map was digitized into AutoCAD version 13 software. Surface features identified on the map, such as mine adits, were located and marked in the field using the GPS receiver. These features were than imported into AutoCAD and referenced with the same points drawn on the map. A rubber sheeting program, Multric, was used to tweak the points so the map features correlated with the surface points. The correlation of these features allowed the map to be geo-referenced with the surface. Specific drilling points were located on the digitized map and assigned a latitude and longitude. The GPS receiver, using real time differential correction, was used to locate these points in the field. This method was assumed to be relatively accurate, to within 5 to 15 feet.

  4. Identification of underground mine workings with the use of global positioning system technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canty, G.A.; Everett, J.W.; Sharp, M.

    1998-01-01

    Identification of underground mine workings for well drilling is a difficult task given the limited resources available and lack of reliable information. Relic mine maps of questionable accuracy and difficulty in correlating the subsurface to the surface, make the process of locating wells arduous. With the development of global positioning system (GPS), specific locations on the earth can be identified with the aid of satellites. This technology can be applied to mine workings identification given a few necessary, precursory details. For an abandoned mine treatment project conducted by the University of Oklahoma, in conjunction with the Oklahoma Conservation Commission, a Trimble ProXL 8 channel GPS receiver was employed to locate specific points on the surface with respect to a mine map. A 1925 mine map was digitized into AutoCAD version 13 software. Surface features identified on the map, such as mine adits, were located and marked in the field using the GPS receiver. These features were than imported into AutoCAD and referenced with the same points drawn on the map. A rubber sheeting program, Multric, was used to tweak the points so the map features correlated with the surface points. The correlation of these features allowed the map to be geo-referenced with the surface. Specific drilling points were located on the digitized map and assigned a latitude and longitude. The GPS receiver, using real time differential correction, was used to locate these points in the field. This method was assumed to be relatively accurate, to within 5 to 15 feet

  5. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  6. Habitability: CAMELOT 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alequin, W.; Barragan, A.; Carro, M.; Garcia, F.; Gonzalez, I.; Mercado, J. A.; Negron, N.; Lopez, D.; Rivera, L. A.; Rivera, M.

    1990-01-01

    During 1988 to 1989 the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program sponsored research and design efforts aimed at developing habitability criteria and at defining a habitability concept as a useful tool in understanding and evaluating dwellings for prolonged stays in extraterrestrial space. The Circulating Auto sufficient Mars-Earth Luxurious Orbital Transport (CAMELOT) was studied as a case in which the students would try to enhance the quality of life of the inhabitants by applying architectural design methodology. The study proposed 14 habitability criteria considered necessary to fulfill the defined habitability concept, which is that state of equilibrium that results from the interaction between components of the Individual Architecture Mission Complex, which allows a person to sustain physiological homeostatis, adequate performance, and acceptable social relationships. Architecture, design development, refinements and revisions to improve the quality of life, new insights on artificial gravity, form and constitution problems, and the final design concept are covered.

  7. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  8. Habitability and the Multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandora, M. E.

    2017-11-01

    Are the laws of physics set to maximize the habitability of the universe? We study how plate tectonics, core and mantle composition, homochirality, photosynthesis, and planet size depend on physics, and make predictions for where life will be found.

  9. Food Habits Database (FHDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Food Habits Database has two major sources of data. The first, and most extensive, is the standard NEFSC Bottom Trawl Surveys Program. During these...

  10. The Force of Habit: Creating and Sustaining a Wellness Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Patricia B; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Merlo, David M

    2015-09-01

    Regardless of an individual's mental health status, habits are difficult to establish and/or eliminate. Given the importance of good habits to overall health and wellness, nurses and other mental health service providers need to understand the force of habits (positive and negative), factors that make habit change difficult, and approaches that are likely to facilitate building and maintaining good habits. The current article provides a cursory overview of several factors (i.e., motivation, will-power, and rewards) that impact habit formation. Relevant theories and research are presented. Habit formation can be fostered through a careful analysis of current behaviors, specific and measurable short-term goals or objectives, and a detailed action plan. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. A Review of Habit Reversal with Childhood Habit Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Douglas W.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper first reviews four classes of habit disorders in children: motor and vocal tics, nervous habits, stuttering, and Tourette's disorder. It then describes the habit reversal procedure and reviews the literature on its use and variations to treat each of the four classes of habit disorders. Emphasis is on simplified versions of the original…

  12. Eating habits of students

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyer, Silvestra; Zupančič, Andreja

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with eating habits of students. Its purpose was to ascertaineating habits of students living outside their primary home and are under different forms of stress. Methods: the pattern is represented by students living in student homer where they can cook and prepare their own meals. In the research, 81 students living in the students home on Cesta v Mestni log in Ljubljana. The inquiry was composed from 34 questions. The data were processed with Microsoft Excel. Body mass inde...

  13. Giving Work a Rain Check: Relationship Between Soldiering and Positive Work Outcomes Within the Job Demands-Resources Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Baran Metin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soldiering is defined as engaging behaviourally or cognitively into non-work-related activities during working hours with no intention of harming the employer, co-workers, and/or clients. The present study will investigate this phenomenon using the Job-Demands Resources Model. The proposed model will consider the influence of job demands and resources on soldiering, as well as the relationship of soldiering with employee wellbeing and performance. The data, collected via online questionnaires across seven European countries, will be analysed using structural equation modelling in order to explore the goodness-of-fit of the proposed model as well as its potential cross cultural variations.

  14. Condylar position analysis with a new electronic condylar position measuring instrument E-CPM: influence of different examiners and a working bite on reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahle-Hinz, K; Rybczynski, A; Jakstat, H; Ahlers, M O

    2009-01-01

    Condylar position analysis facilitates a quantitative comparison of the condylar position with and without a bite record, different records and changed influencing factors. Handling by the examiner when positioning the model is a significant factor with regard to the accuracy of the examination. Measurement accuracy could be improved when positioning the models by using special working bites, hence the objective of the experiments described in this study consisted in examining the extent to which the measuring results are influenced by different examiners and by using working bites. In the first trial, one examiner performed ten measurements without and with an interposed working bite for five model pairs in each case. In the second trial, nine examiners (three specialized dentists, three dental assistants, three students) performed ten measurements in each case without and with an interposed working bite. The three-dimensional position was read digitally with the E-CPM (Gamma Dental, Klosterneuburg/Vienna, Austria), recorded by means of spreadsheet software (Microsoft Excel) and diagnostic software (CMDfact, CMD3D module, dentaConcept, Hamburg), and evaluated with graphing software (Sigma Plot, Systat Software, USA). In the first trial, it was shown that the reproducibility of mounting was improved markedly (p <0.01) by using bite records in the form of working bites. In the second trial, it was shown that the mean error increased significantly (p <0.01) when several examiners performed the measurements compared with the results of one examiner alone. No significantly different results occurred (p < 0.01) in the comparison of the different groups of examiners with different educational and training backgrounds. This applied for the mounting methods without and with working bite. On the other hand, the reproducibility of mounting improved distinctly (p<0.01) in every group of examiners when working bites were used. Reproducibility of condylar position analysis was

  15. Managing away bad habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldroop, J; Butler, T

    2000-01-01

    We've all worked with highly competent people who are held back by a seemingly fatal personality flaw. One person takes on too much work; another sees the downside in every proposed change; a third pushes people out of the way. At best, people with these "bad habits" create their own glass ceilings, which limit their success and their contributions to the company. At worst, they destroy their own careers. Although the psychological flaws of such individuals run deep, their managers are not helpless. In this article, James Waldroop and Timothy Butler--both psychologists--examine the root causes of these flaws and suggest concrete tactics they have used to help people recognize and correct the following six behavior patterns: The hero, who always pushes himself--and subordinates--too hard to do too much for too long. The meritocrat, who believes that the best ideas can and will be determined objectively and ignores the politics inherent in most situations. The bulldozer, who runs roughshod over others in a quest for power. The pessimist, who always worries about what could go wrong. The rebel, who automatically fights against authority and convention. And the home run hitter, who tries to do too much too soon--he swings for the fences before he's learned to hit singles. Helping people break through their self-created glass ceilings is the ultimate win-win scenario: both the individual and the organization are rewarded. Using the tactics introduced in this article, managers can help their brilliantly flawed performers become spectacular achievers.

  16. Habitability Assessment of International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess habitability during the International Space Station 1-year mission, and subsequent 6-month missions, in order to better prepare for future long-duration spaceflights to destinations such as Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) and Mars, which will require crewmembers to live and work in a confined spacecraft environment for over a year. Data collected using Space Habitability Observation Reporting Tool (iSHORT), crew-collected videos, questionnaires, and PI conferences will help characterize the current state of habitability for the ISS. These naturalistic techniques provide crewmembers with the opportunity to self-report habitability and human factors observations in near real-time, which is not systematically done during ISS missions at present.

  17. Habitability Assessment at Gale Crater: Implications from Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Archer, D.; Atreya, S.; Blake, D.; Coll, P.; delaTorre, M.; Edgett, K.; Eigenbrode, J.; Fisk, M.; Freissent, C.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory has made measurements that contribute to our assessment of habitability potential at Gale Crater. Campaign organization into a consistent set of measurable parameters allows us to rank the relative habitability potential of sites we study, ultimately laying a foundation for a global context inclusive of past and future Mars mission observations. Chemical, physical, geological and geographic attributes shape environments. Isolated measurements of these factors may be insufficient to deem an environment habitable, but the sum of measurements can help predict locations with greater or lesser habitability potential. Metrics for habitability assessment based on field work at sites sharing features analogous to Mars have previously been suggested. Grouping these metrics helps us to develop an index for their application to habitability assessment. The index is comprised of the weighted values for four groups of parameters, the habitability threshold for each is to be determined.

  18. Military experience can influence Women's eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Jessica Y; Donalson, Rosemary; Nevedal, Andrea; Dinh, Julie V; Maguen, Shira

    2017-11-01

    Disordered eating, ranging from occasional binge eating or restriction to behaviors associated with eating disorder diagnoses, is common among military personnel and veterans. However, there is little information on how military service affects eating habits. To describe possible pathways between military service and disordered eating among women veterans, a high risk group. Twenty women veterans who reported changing eating habits in response to stress participated in audio-recorded focus groups or dyadic interviews between April 2013 and October 2014. We used thematic analysis of transcripts to identify and understand women's self-reported eating habits before, during, and after military service. Participants reported entering the military with varied eating habits, but little disordered eating. Participants described several ways military environments affected eating habits, for example, by promoting fast, irregular, binge-like eating and disrupting the reward value of food. Participants believed military-related stressors, which were often related to gender, also affected eating habits. Such stressors included military sexual trauma and the need to meet military weight requirements in general and after giving birth. Participants also reported that poor eating habits continued after military service, often because they remained under stress. For some women, military service can result in socialization to poor eating habits, which when combined with exposure to stressors can lead to disordered eating. Additional research is needed, including work to understand possible benefits associated with providing support in relation to military weight requirements and the transition out of military service. Given the unique experiences of women in the military, future work could also focus on health services surrounding pregnancy-related weight change and the stress associated with being a woman in predominantly male military environments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. A comprehensive study on the relationship between meaning and spirituality at work with job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Golparvar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Positive affectivity and affective management are among important issues for the most desirable effectiveness of employees in the workplace. Accordingly, in this research, the role of meaning and spirituality at workplace is considered for job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction. To this end, within a correlation study, with the selection of two hundred and four employees of two custom organizations in Esfahan and Tehran, in Iran, who answer meaning and spirituality at work, job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction questionnaires, the research hypotheses have been tested through Pearson's correlation and structural equation modeling. The results show that there were significant relationships between meaning and spirituality at work, job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction. Results of structure equation modeling reveal that during two chain models, at first meaning and spirituality at work are linked to job happiness and positive effect. Then job happiness and positive effect cause reinforcement of job satisfaction. The results of this study showed that meaning and spirituality at work cause positive affective spillover from job happiness and positive affect to job satisfaction.

  20. Exploring the interplay between work stress and socioeconomic position in relation to common health complaints: the role of interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, Susanna

    2011-10-01

    This study explored the interplay between work stress and socioeconomic position and investigated if the interaction of work stress and low socioeconomic position is associated with poorer health. A representative sample of the Swedish working population, including 2,613 employees (48.7% women) aged 19-64 years, was analyzed. The health outcomes were poor self-rated health, psychological distress, and musculoskeletal pain. Work stress was operationalized as job strain and effort-reward imbalance, and socioeconomic position as occupational class. Interaction analysis was based on departure from additivity as criterion, and a synergy index (SI) was applied, using odds ratios (ORs) from logistic regressions for women and men. In fully adjusted models, work stress, and in a lesser extent also socioeconomic position, was associated with higher odds for the three health complaints. The prevalence of poorer health was highest among those individuals jointly exposed to high work stress and low occupational class, with ORs ranging from 1.94 to 6.77 (95%CI 1.01-18.65) for poor self-rated health, 2.42-8.44 (95%CI 1.28-27.06) for psychological distress and 1.93-3.93 (95%CI 1.11-6.78) for musculoskeletal pain. The joint influence of work stress and low socioeconomic position on health was additive rather than multiplicative. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. POSITIVE CLINICAL INTERVENTIONS: WHY ARE THEY IMPORTANT AND HOW DO THEY WORK?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Bohlmeijer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss positive clinical psychology as an emerging field within clinical psychology. Positive clinical psychology is based on research demonstrating that mental health is more than the absence of mental illness, on research showing that wellbeing has buffering effects on the incidence of psychopathology and mental illnesses and on studies demonstrating that positive characteristics, such as positive emotions and gratitude, can predict pathology beyond the predictive power of negative characteristics. In this paper we present three distinct forms of well-being: emotional, psychological and social. In addition we review three types of positive clinical interventions: well-being therapy, positive psychotherapy and acceptance and commitment therapy. The paper ends with a call for a transformation of mental health care in which illness oriented treatments are complemented with well-being oriented treatments.

  2. Group Work in the MBA Classroom: Improving Pedagogical Practice and Maximizing Positive Outcomes with Part-Time MBA Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Patricia D.

    2013-01-01

    This article forms part of an exploration into how graduate students experience group work. A single case, embedded study was completed in 2011, which reveals insight and understanding into the manner in which part-time MBA students experience group work assignments and how these experiences contribute to their perception of positive group work…

  3. Studying habit acquisition with an avoidance learning task

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Amanda; Cobos-Cano, Pedro Luis; López-Gutiérrez, Francisco José; Andrades, Ainhoa; Vervliet, Bram

    2015-01-01

    The study of habit acquisition and expression is considered relevant to improve our understanding of mental disorders characterised by the presence of compulsive or incontrollable behaviours. Most studies on habit learning, both in animals and in humans, are based on positive reinforcement paradigms. However, the compulsions and habits involved in some mental disorders may be better understood as avoidance behaviours, which involve some peculiarities such as anxiety states that have been show...

  4. The Supergalactic Habitable Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Habitability in the local universe is examined. Constrained by metal abundance and exposure to sterilizing events, life as we know it requires significantly long periods of stable environmental conditions. Planets within galaxies undergoing major mergers, active AGN, starburst episodes, and merging black holes pose serious threats to long-term habitability. Importantly, the development of several layers of protection from high-energy particles such as a thick atmosphere, a strong planetary magnetic field, an astrosphere, and a galactic magnetic field is of great benefit. Factors such as star type and activity, planet type and composition, the location of a planet within its host galaxy, and even the location within a supercluster of galaxies can affect the potential habitability of planets. We discuss the concept of the Supergalactic Habitable Zone introduced by Mason and Biermann in terms of habitability in the local universe and find that galaxies near the center of the Virgo cluster, for example, have a much lower probability for the development of life as we know it as compared to locations in the Milky Way.

  5. Positive and negative spillover from work to home : The role of organizational culture and supportive arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sok, J.; Blomme, R.J.; Tromp, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    For today's managers, striking a sound work-home balance is an important matter. In this paper we investigate the relationship between organizational culture and work-to-home spillover. Two types of organizational culture, supportive and innovative, were compared with regard to work-to-home

  6. Quantum size correction to the work function and the centroid of excess charge in positively ionized simple metal clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Payami

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available  In this work, we have shown the important role of the finite-size correction to the work function in predicting the correct position of the centroid of excess charge in positively charged simple metal clusters with different values . For this purpose, firstly we have calculated the self-consistent Kohn-Sham energies of neutral and singly-ionized clusters with sizes in the framework of local spin-density approximation and stabilized jellium model (SJM as well as simple jellium model (JM with rigid jellium. Secondly, we have fitted our results to the asymptotic ionization formulas both with and without the size correction to the work function. The results of fittings show that the formula containing the size correction predict a correct position of the centroid inside the jellium while the other predicts a false position, outside the jellium sphere.

  7. Quantum size correction to the work function and centroid of excess charge in positively ionized simple metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payami, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we have shown the important role of the finite-size correction to the work function in predicting the correct position of the centroid of excess charge in positively charged simple metal clusters with different r s values (2≤ r s ≥ 7). For this purpose, firstly we have calculated the self-consistent Kohn-Sham energies of neutral and singly-ionized clusters with sizes 2≤ N ≥100 in the framework of local spin-density approximation and stabilized jellium model as well as simple jellium model with rigid jellium. Secondly, we have fitted our results to the asymptotic ionization formulas both with and without the size correction to the work function. The results of fittings show that the formula containing the size correction predict a correct position of the centroid inside the jellium while the other predicts a false position, outside the jellium sphere

  8. Positive clinical interventions : Why are they important and how do they work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohlmeijer, E. T.; Bolier, L.; Lamers, S. M.A.; Westerhof, G. J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss positive clinical psychology as an emerging field within clinical psychology. Positive clinical psychology is based on research demonstrating that mental health is more than the absence of mental illness, on research showing that well-being has buffering effects on the

  9. Promoting Positive Citizenship: Priming Youth for Action. CIRCLE Working Paper 05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaff, Jonathon F.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Michelsen, Erik; Eccles, Jacquelynne

    2003-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that programs to promote positive citizenship should begin with an opportunity for adolescents to participate in civic activities, such as community service or political volunteering. In this report, authors expand this theoretical perspective by arguing that programs to promote positive citizenship may need to begin by…

  10. Positive work environments of early-career registered nurses and the correlation with physician verbal abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Carol S; Kovner, Christine T; Obeidat, Rana F; Budin, Wendy C

    2013-01-01

    Verbal abuse in the workplace is experienced by registered nurses (RNs) worldwide; physicians are one of the main sources of verbal abuse. To examine the relationship between levels of physician verbal abuse of early-career RNs and demographics, work attributes, and perceived work environment. Fourth wave of a mailed national panel survey of early career RNs begun in 2006. RNs' perception of verbal abuse by physicians was significantly associated with poor workgroup cohesion, lower supervisory and mentor support, greater quantitative workload, organizational constraints, and nurse-colleague verbal abuse, as well as RNs' lower job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intent to stay. RNs working in unfavorable work environments experience more physician abuse and have less favorable work attitudes. Causality is unclear: do poor working conditions create an environment in which physicians are more likely to be abusive, or does verbal abuse by physicians create an unfavorable work environment? Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigating Habits: Strategies, Technologies, and Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Stephen Smith

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding habits at a biological level requires a combination of behavioral observations and measures of ongoing neural activity. Theoretical frameworks as well as definitions of habitual behaviors emerging from classic behavioral research have been enriched by new approaches taking account of the identification of brain regions and circuits related to habitual behavior. Together, this combination of experimental and theoretical work has provided key insights into how brain circuits underlying action-learning and action-selection are organized, and how a balance between behavioral flexibility and fixity is achieved. New methods to monitor and manipulate neural activity in real time are allowing us to have a first look ‘under the hood’ of a habit as it is formed and expressed. Here we discuss ideas emerging from such approaches. We pay special attention to the unexpected findings that have arisen from our own experiments suggesting that habitual behaviors likely require the simultaneous activity of multiple distinct components, or operators, seen as responsible for the contrasting dynamics of neural activity in both cortico-limbic and sensorimotor circuits recorded concurrently during different stages of habit learning. The neural dynamics identified thus far do not fully meet expectations derived from traditional models of the structure of habits, and the behavioral measures of habits that we have made also are not fully aligned with these models. We explore these new clues as opportunities to refine an understanding of habits.

  12. Static respiratory muscle work during immersion with positive and negative respiratory loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N A; Morrison, J B

    1999-10-01

    Upright immersion imposes a pressure imbalance across the thorax. This study examined the effects of air-delivery pressure on inspiratory muscle work during upright immersion. Eight subjects performed respiratory pressure-volume relaxation maneuvers while seated in air (control) and during immersion. Hydrostatic, respiratory elastic (lung and chest wall), and resultant static respiratory muscle work components were computed. During immersion, the effects of four air-delivery pressures were evaluated: mouth pressure (uncompensated); the pressure at the lung centroid (PL,c); and at PL,c +/-0.98 kPa. When breathing at pressures less than the PL,c, subjects generally defended an expiratory reserve volume (ERV) greater than the immersed relaxation volume, minus residual volume, resulting in additional inspiratory muscle work. The resultant static inspiratory muscle work, computed over a 1-liter tidal volume above the ERV, increased from 0.23 J. l(-1), when subjects were breathing at PL,c, to 0.83 J. l(-1) at PL,c -0.98 kPa (P work was minimal. When breathing at PL,c +0.98 kPa, subjects adopted an ERV less than the immersed relaxation volume, minus residual volume, resulting in 0.36 J. l(-1) of expiratory muscle work. Thus static inspiratory muscle work varied with respiratory loading, whereas PL,c air supply minimized this work during upright immersion, restoring lung-tissue, chest-wall, and static muscle work to levels obtained in the control state.

  13. The effects of positive versus negative impact reflection on change in job performance and work-life conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, M Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Research on task significance and relational job design suggests that information from beneficiaries of one's work fosters perceptions of impact, and thus improved work outcomes. This paper presents results from a longitudinal field experiment examining the effect of another strategy for fostering perceptions of impact - engaging employees in regular reflection about how their work benefits others. With a sample of professionals from multiple organizations, this longitudinal study examined the effect on job performance and work-life conflict of both positive and negative impact reflection. Results show that negative impact reflection had a pronounced negative effect on job performance, but no effect on work-life conflict. Positive impact reflection had a weak positive effect on work-life conflict, but no significant effect on job performance. The direction of effects seen in the no intervention condition mirrored that of the negative impact reflection condition, suggesting a possible buffering effect for positive impact reflection. This research provides empirical and theoretical contributions to the literatures on relational job design and task significance.

  14. Empowering School Social Work Practices for Positive Youth Development: Hong Kong Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Siu-ming

    2007-01-01

    Empowerment has become a popular concept in working with adolescents in recent years. It challenges the deficit model of youth work and focuses on creating a facilitative climate in which young people can make maximum use of the opportunity to learn and grow. While many practitioners have adopted the empowerment approach in youth services,…

  15. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress and Positive Affect: A Prospective, Multilevel Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Live Bakke Finne

    Full Text Available Occupational health research has mainly addressed determinants of negative health effects, typically employing individual-level self-report data. The present study investigated individual- and department-level (means of each work unit effects of psychological/social work factors on mental distress and positive affect. Employees were recruited from 63 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 4158 employees, in 918 departments, responded at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Multilevel linear regressions estimated individual- and department-level effects simultaneously, and accounted for clustering of data. Baseline exposures and average exposures over time ([T1+T2]/2 were tested. All work factors; decision control, role conflict, positive challenge, support from immediate superior, fair leadership, predictability during the next month, commitment to organization, rumors of change, human resource primacy, and social climate, were related to mental distress and positive affect at the individual and department level. However, analyses of baseline exposures adjusted for baseline outcome, demonstrated significant associations at the individual level only. Baseline "rumors of change" was related to mental distress only and baseline "predictability during the next month" was not a statistical significant predictor of either outcome when adjusted for outcome at baseline. Psychological and social work factors were generally related to mental distress and positive affect in a mirrored way. Impact of exposures seemed most pervasive at the individual level. However, department-level relations were also discovered. Supplementing individual-level measures with aggregated measures may increase understanding of working conditions influence on employees`health and well-being. Organizational improvements focusing on the work factors in the current study should be able to reduce distress and enhance positive affect

  16. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress and Positive Affect: A Prospective, Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finne, Live Bakke; Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health research has mainly addressed determinants of negative health effects, typically employing individual-level self-report data. The present study investigated individual- and department-level (means of each work unit) effects of psychological/social work factors on mental distress and positive affect. Employees were recruited from 63 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 4158 employees, in 918 departments, responded at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Multilevel linear regressions estimated individual- and department-level effects simultaneously, and accounted for clustering of data. Baseline exposures and average exposures over time ([T1+T2]/2) were tested. All work factors; decision control, role conflict, positive challenge, support from immediate superior, fair leadership, predictability during the next month, commitment to organization, rumors of change, human resource primacy, and social climate, were related to mental distress and positive affect at the individual and department level. However, analyses of baseline exposures adjusted for baseline outcome, demonstrated significant associations at the individual level only. Baseline "rumors of change" was related to mental distress only and baseline "predictability during the next month" was not a statistical significant predictor of either outcome when adjusted for outcome at baseline. Psychological and social work factors were generally related to mental distress and positive affect in a mirrored way. Impact of exposures seemed most pervasive at the individual level. However, department-level relations were also discovered. Supplementing individual-level measures with aggregated measures may increase understanding of working conditions influence on employees`health and well-being. Organizational improvements focusing on the work factors in the current study should be able to reduce distress and enhance positive affect. Furthermore, both

  17. Cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping: associations with working memory, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety/depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Charissa; Thigpen, Jennifer E; Dunn, Madeleine J; Watson, Kelly; Potts, Jennifer; Reising, Michelle M; Robinson, Kristen E; Rodriguez, Erin M; Roubinov, Danielle; Luecken, Linda; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relations of measures of cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping with working memory abilities, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in young adults (N=124). Results indicate significant relations between working memory abilities and reports of secondary control coping and between reports of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal. Associations were also found between measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal and positive and negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Further, the findings suggest that reports of cognitive reappraisal may be more strongly predictive of positive affect whereas secondary control coping may be more strongly predictive of negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Overall, the results suggest that current measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal capture related but distinct constructs and suggest that the assessment of working memory may be more strongly related to secondary control coping in predicting individual differences in distress.

  18. Alcohol-related memory associations in positive and negative affect situations: drinking motives, working memory capacity, and prospective drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemink, Elske; Wiers, Reinout W

    2014-03-01

    Although studies on explicit alcohol cognitions have identified positive and negative reinforcing drinking motives that are differentially related to drinking indices, such a distinction has received less attention in studies on implicit cognitions. An alcohol-related Word-Sentence Association Task was used to assess implicit alcohol-related memory associations in positive and negative affect situations in 92 participants. Results revealed that enhancement motives were specifically associated with the endorsement of alcohol words in positive affect situations and coping motives were associated with the endorsement of alcohol words in negative affect situations. Furthermore, alcohol associations in positive affect situations predicted prospective alcohol use and number of binges, depending on levels of working memory capacity. The current findings shed more light on the underpinnings of alcohol use and suggest that implicit memory processes and working memory capacity might be important targets for intervention.

  19. A comprehensive study on the relationship between meaning and spirituality at work with job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Golparvar; Hassan Abedini

    2014-01-01

    Positive affectivity and affective management are among important issues for the most desirable effectiveness of employees in the workplace. Accordingly, in this research, the role of meaning and spirituality at workplace is considered for job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction. To this end, within a correlation study, with the selection of two hundred and four employees of two custom organizations in Esfahan and Tehran, in Iran, who answer meaning and spirituality at work, job h...

  20. The Positive Effect of Resilience on Stress and Business Outcomes in Difficult Work Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatté, Andrew; Perlman, Adam; Smith, Brad; Lynch, Wendy D

    2017-02-01

    To examine whether resilience has a protective effect in difficult work environments. A survey of 2063 individuals measured individual resilience, stress, burnout, sleep problems, likelihood of depression, job satisfaction, intent to quit, absences, and productivity. It also measured work characteristics: job demands, job influence, and social support. Multivariate and logistic regression models examined the main effects and interactions of resilience and job characteristics. High strain work environments (high demand, low influence, and low support) have an unfavorable effect on all outcomes. Resilience has a protective effect on all outcomes. For stress, burnout, and sleep, higher resilience has a more protective effect under low-strain conditions. For depression, absence and productivity, resilience has a more protective effect when job strain is high. Workers with high resilience have better outcomes in difficult work environments.

  1. A Comparison of Holistic versus Decomposed Rating of Position Analysis Questionnaire Work Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephanie K.; Harvey, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Examined technique for improving cost-effectiveness of Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) in job analysis. Professional job analysts, industrial psychology graduate students familiar with PAQ, and PAQ-unfamiliar undergraduates made direct holistic ratings of PAQ dimensions for four familiar jobs. Comparison of holistic ratings with decomposed…

  2. From Positive Orientation to Job performance : The Role of Work Engagement and Self-efficacy Beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessandri, Guido; Borgogni, Laura; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Consiglio, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the validity of a conceptual model that explains the mechanisms linking positive orientation (P-OR) to future job performance in a sample of 388 male security agents. The relationship between P-OR and job performance as rated by three supervisors, each with different

  3. [Preference Changes Regarding Future Work Area and Intended Position Among German Residents after Four Years of Residency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Stine; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Römer, Farina; Krause-Solberg, Lea; Scherer, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Introduction  We investigated the preferences of medical residents in Germany with regard to future working place (hospital or private practice) and position (employment/self-employment in private practice; resp. specialist/senior or chief physician in the hospital). This is analysed in a gender comparative perspective, including the influence of parenthood. Methods  Annual postal surveys among graduates of seven medical faculties in Germany from their last year ("Practical Year") until after four years of postgraduate training. The return rate at baseline was 48 % and the four surveys after reached rates from 85 % up. In all samples about two thirds were women, which corresponds to the actual gender differentiation in under- and postgraduate training. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were performed. Results  Compared to private practice the hospital is clearly preferred, although the attraction of hospital jobs decreased over the years. The decision for or against the hospital is connected to the discipline. Working in private practice is seen as possibility for part time work. Men prefer self-employment whereas women prefer to work under an employment contract. In the hospital, male doctors prefer to work in leading positions. Those positions are associated with full-time work. Leadership training especially takes place in university hospitals. Discussion  Three trends are recognized: Reluctance against leading positions, growing interest for part time work and rising popularity of work as an employee in private practice. Those trends can be understood as a rejection of traditional professional role models. The realization of these preferences is easily feasible because of the current labour market situation. Therefore, emerging problems have to be faced in another way. A change of gender-typical role models was rarely detected. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Youth work in the registered religious communities from the positive youth development perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Snoj, Emilija

    2016-01-01

    This Master’s Thesis presents the theory behind a contemporary perspective called positive youth development. This perspective, paradigm, approach or concept touches different fields and draws from interdisciplinary research, philosophy, policy formation, Youth program description and others. Its theoretical background consists of developmental system theories combined with the idea that the fundamental process of development is marked by mutually influential relations between the developing ...

  5. Militant career, professional position and working as a journalist in Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Petrarca, Fernanda Rio; Universidade Federal de Pelotas

    2009-01-01

    This article presents results from a study of the mechanisms and modes through which diverse social resources are converted into professional positions. More specifically, we attempt to demonstrate how resources coming from political and political party militancy, participation in social movements and professional associations can become professional resources. Our research has on the one hand made it possible to identify political militancy as a major basis of professional ...

  6. The impact of taxing working memory on negative and positive memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, I.M.; van Uijen, S.L.; Van den Hout, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have shown that horizontal eye movement (EM) during retrieval of a negative memory reduces its vividness and emotionality. This may be due to both tasks competing for working memory (WM) resources. This study examined whether playing the computer game "Tetris" also blurs

  7. Positive experiences of volunteers working in deployable laboratories in West Africa during the Ebola outbreak.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, Evelien; Mollers, Madelief; Smit, Pieter W; Hulscher, Marlies; Koopmans, Marion; Reusken, Chantal; Timen, Aura

    2018-01-01

    The largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease ever started in West Africa in December 2013; it created a pressing need to expand the workforce dealing with it. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of volunteers from the European Union who worked in deployable laboratories in

  8. Positive experiences of volunteers working in deployable laboratories in West Africa during the Ebola outbreak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, E. (Evelien); Mollers, M. (Madelief); Smit, P.W. (Pieter W.); M.E.J.L. Hulscher (Marlies); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); A. Timen (Aura)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThe largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease ever started in West Africa in December 2013; it created a pressing need to expand the workforce dealing with it. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of volunteers from the European Union who worked in deployable

  9. Work-Family facilitation : a positive psychological perspective on role combination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, Elianne Florence van

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation provides a balanced picture of the experiences that individuals can have in the combination of their work and family roles. Extending the common focus in previous literature on experiences of role conflict (and their detrimental consequences), the present research also addresses

  10. Fostering Positive Youth Development through Work-Based Learning: The Cristo Rey Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bempechat, Janine; Kenny, Maureen; Blustein, David L.; Seltzer, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents findings of a three-year longitudinal study of academic motivation and school engagement among low-income high school students enrolled in a corporate work-study program. Our findings demonstrate ways in which the workplace functioned for students as a conduit of emotional resources, offering instrumental support from caring…

  11. Teachers' and Students' Work-Culture Variables Associated with Positive School Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Orna D.; Nutt, Roberta L.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates whether goodness of fit between teachers' and students' backgrounds is associated with subjective grading and objective achievement at school. One hundred one seventh graders and twenty of their teachers completed the Self-Report Family Inventory. Similarity between teachers' and students' work-culture variables was associated with…

  12. Positive and negative aspects of the work of information technology personnel : an exploratory analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andries, F.; Rijckevorsel, J.L.A. van; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.

    2000-01-01

    In information technology, the confrontation of commercial demands with recently introduced techniques and methods creates working conditions characterized by stress and strain. The present paper re-analyses data gathered in a research project dating from 1989 among Dutch information technology

  13. Position, Possession or Process? Understanding Objective and Subjective Employability during University-to-Work Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay-Somerville, Belgin; Scholarios, Dora

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to understand predictors of objective (i.e. job offers, employment status and employment quality) and subjective (i.e. perceived) graduate employability during university-to-work transitions. Using survey data from two cohorts of graduates in the UK (N = 293), it contrasts three competing theoretical approaches to employability:…

  14. Positive and negative effects of family involvement on work-related burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelhuis, Lieke L. ten; Lippe, Tanja van der; Kluwer, Esther S.; Flap, Henk

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to explain the influence of family involvement on feelings of burnout among employees who combine work and family tasks. As proxies for family involvement, we used the family structure (partner, number and age of children) and family tasks (e.g. hours spent on household chores). We compared

  15. The Odyssey: School to Work Transitions, Serendipity and Position in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Liz

    2017-01-01

    Little work on the significance and implications of decision-making has been undertaken since that led by Hodkinson in the 1990s, and the experiences of young people on vocational programmes and their reasons for undertaking them remain under-theorised and poorly understood. Drawing on two narratives from a study exploring young people's…

  16. Further Analysis of the Effects of Positive Reinforcement on Working Memory in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltruschat, Lisa; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Tarbox, Jonathan; Dixon, Dennis R.; Najdowski, Adel C.; Mullins, Ryan D.; Gould, Evelyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often exhibit impaired executive function (EF) performance, including difficulty with working memory (WM), in particular. While research has documented the existence of these deficits, surprisingly little research exists that evaluates potential treatment strategies for improving EF or WM. One…

  17. How Work Positions Affect the Research Activity and Information Behaviour of Laboratory Scientists in the Research Lifecycle: Applying Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Nahyun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of research and information activities of laboratory scientists in different work positions throughout a research lifecycle. Activity theory was applied as the conceptual and analytical framework. Method: Taking a qualitative research approach, in-depth interviews and field…

  18. The Role of Ethnic Culture in Work-Family Balance among Armenian Women in Leadership Positions in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Hasmig

    2012-01-01

    In contemporary society women leaders in education have struggled to balance work and family. While some women have succeeded in finding that balance, many others are still struggling. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of three Armenian women in senior-level leadership positions in higher education in the United…

  19. Positive Emotional Effects of Leisure in Green Spaces in Alleviating Work–Family Spillover in Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Ju Chang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that family and work spillover affects well-being and that leisure activities can alleviate the negative effects of work-related stress on health. However, few studies have focused on investigating the effects of specific leisure activities among specific populations. To examine whether leisure activities in green spaces can promote individual recovery processes and alleviate the effects of work and family spillover on positive emotions, this study applied the effort-recovery model to a population of working mothers. Through online and paper questionnaires, sample data were collected from 221 working mothers in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to test the experimental hypothesis, and mediation analysis was used to determine whether leisure in green spaces is a mediating factor. The results indicated that leisure in green spaces is a mediator of the relationship of negative work and family spillover with positive emotions. In addition, strolls and park visits were found to provide greater psychological benefits to working mothers, compared with picnics.

  20. Positive Emotional Effects of Leisure in Green Spaces in Alleviating Work–Family Spillover in Working Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Ju; Bae, So Young

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that family and work spillover affects well-being and that leisure activities can alleviate the negative effects of work-related stress on health. However, few studies have focused on investigating the effects of specific leisure activities among specific populations. To examine whether leisure activities in green spaces can promote individual recovery processes and alleviate the effects of work and family spillover on positive emotions, this study applied the effort-recovery model to a population of working mothers. Through online and paper questionnaires, sample data were collected from 221 working mothers in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to test the experimental hypothesis, and mediation analysis was used to determine whether leisure in green spaces is a mediating factor. The results indicated that leisure in green spaces is a mediator of the relationship of negative work and family spillover with positive emotions. In addition, strolls and park visits were found to provide greater psychological benefits to working mothers, compared with picnics. PMID:28696388

  1. Visual-spatial processing and working-memory load as a function of negative and positive psychotic-like experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Akel, A; Reniers, R L E P; Wood, S J

    2016-09-01

    Patients with schizophrenia show impairments in working-memory and visual-spatial processing, but little is known about the dynamic interplay between the two. To provide insight into this important question, we examined the effect of positive and negative symptom expressions in healthy adults on perceptual processing while concurrently performing a working-memory task that requires the allocations of various degrees of cognitive resources. The effect of positive and negative symptom expressions in healthy adults (N = 91) on perceptual processing was examined in a dual-task paradigm of visual-spatial working memory (VSWM) under three conditions of cognitive load: a baseline condition (with no concurrent working-memory demand), a low VSWM load condition, and a high VSWM load condition. Participants overall performed more efficiently (i.e., faster) with increasing cognitive load. This facilitation in performance was unrelated to symptom expressions. However, participants with high-negative, low-positive symptom expressions were less accurate in the low VSWM condition compared to the baseline and the high VSWM load conditions. Attenuated, subclinical expressions of psychosis affect cognitive performance that is impaired in schizophrenia. The "resource limitations hypothesis" may explain the performance of the participants with high-negative symptom expressions. The dual-task of visual-spatial processing and working memory may be beneficial to assessing the cognitive phenotype of individuals with high risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  2. Trajectories of martian habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S

    2014-02-01

    Beginning from two plausible starting points-an uninhabited or inhabited Mars-this paper discusses the possible trajectories of martian habitability over time. On an uninhabited Mars, the trajectories follow paths determined by the abundance of uninhabitable environments and uninhabited habitats. On an inhabited Mars, the addition of a third environment type, inhabited habitats, results in other trajectories, including ones where the planet remains inhabited today or others where planetary-scale life extinction occurs. By identifying different trajectories of habitability, corresponding hypotheses can be described that allow for the various trajectories to be disentangled and ultimately a determination of which trajectory Mars has taken and the changing relative abundance of its constituent environments.

  3. Habit and context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    , but like the influence of context, quantification of its importance is lacking. To contribute to a closing of this gap, we analyse food dairy data from 100+ New Zealand consumers quantitatively with a variance component analysis. Food diaries, recording the eating occasion, beverages and meal food...... was used to examine the contribution of context factors (eating occasion, where, with whom), habit (share of beverage in consumption portfolio) and socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age) to explain the binary choice of seven main beverage types (water, hot beverages, milk, carbonated beverages...... predictor for its consumption likelihood. The impact of this measure for habit differed across beverages, for instance it played a larger role for hot beverages and water than for the consumption of beer and wine. Eating occasions and its interaction with place of consumption had highest explanatory power...

  4. Social work in oncology-managing vicarious trauma-the positive impact of professional supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Lynette; Hocking, Alison; Hampson, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study focused on the experience and management of vicarious trauma in a team of social workers (N = 16) at a specialist cancer hospital in Melbourne. Respondents completed the Traumatic Stress Institute Belief Scale (TSIBS), the Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL), and participated in four focus groups. The results from the TSIBS and the ProQol scales confirm that there is a stress associated with the social work role within a cancer service, as demonstrated by the high scores related to stress. However at the same time the results indicated a high level of satisfaction which acted as a mitigating factor. The study also highlighted the importance of supervision and management support. A model for clinical social work supervision is proposed to reduce the risks associated with vicarious trauma.

  5. Stereotype threat as a determinant of burnout or work engagement. Mediating role of positive and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Stereotype threat as an example of serious interpersonal strain at workplace can lead either to impaired work engagement or it can motivate workers to strengthen their efforts to disconfirm a stereotype and can result in excessive work engagement. Thus, the basic aim of the study was to examine whether stereotype threat is related to burnout or to work engagement. The mediating role of the negative and positive emotions were also tested in the classical approach. Mediational analysis revealed a linear relation of stereotype threat and burnout, mediated by negative emotions and a quadratic relationship between stereotype threat and work engagement. In the latter analysis none of the mediators were significant. Therefore, the results showed that both burnout and work engagement are associated with stereotype threat at the workplace, probably depending on the stage of response to the stereotype threat. Further research should confirm these associations in a longitudinal study.

  6. The relationship of positive work environments and workplace injury: evidence from the National Nursing Assistant Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Deirdre; McGhan, Gwen; Walsh, Erin M; Rathert, Cheryl; Belue, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    With estimates of a 51% growth in the number of nursing assistants needed by 2016, there is a critical need to examine workplace factors that negatively contribute to the recruitment and retention of nursing assistants. Studies have shown that high demands, physical stress, and chronic workforce shortages contribute to a working environment that fosters one of the highest workforce injury rates in the United States. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between nursing assistant injury rates and key outcomes, such as job satisfaction and turnover intent, while exploring workplace environment factors, such as injury prevention training, supervisor support, and employee engagement, that can decrease the rates of workplace injury. Data from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey were used to examine the negative effects of workplace injury on nursing assistants and the workplace environment factors that are related to the rate of worker injury. Nursing assistants who experience job-related injuries have lower levels of job satisfaction, increased turnover intentions, and are less likely to recommend their facility as a place to work or seek care services. It was also found that nursing assistant injury rates are related to employee ratings of injury prevention training, supervisor support, and employee engagement. NAs with multiple injuries (>2) were 1.3-1.6 times more likely to report being injured at work than NAs who had not been injured when supervisor support, employee engagement, and training ratings were low. Evidence that health care organizations can use to better understand how workplace injuries occur and insight into ways to reduce the current staggering rate of on-the-job injuries occurring in health care workplaces were offered in this study. The findings also offer empirical support for an extension of the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety/National Occupational Research Agenda Work Organization Framework for

  7. Progressive resistance training in elderly hiv-positive patients: does it work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Maria Loiola de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elderly people present alterations in body composition and physical fitness, compromising their quality of life. Chronic diseases, including HIV/AIDS, worsen this situation. Resistance exercises are prescribed to improve fitness and promote healthier and independent aging. Recovery of strength and physical fitness is the goal of exercise in AIDS wasting syndrome. OBJECTIVE: This study describes a case series of HIV-positive elderly patients who participated in a progressive resistance training program and evaluates their body composition, muscular strength, physical fitness and the evolution of CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts. METHODS: Subjects were prospectively recruited for nine months. The training program consisted of three sets of 8-12 repetitions of leg press, seated row, lumbar extension and chest press, performed with free weight machines hts, twice/week for one year. Infectious disease physicians followed patients and reported all relevant clinical data. Body composition was assessed by anthropometric measures and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry before and after the training program. RESULTS: Fourteen patients, aged 62-71 years old, of both genders, without regular physical activity who had an average of nine years of HIV/AIDS history were enrolled. The strengths of major muscle groups increased (74%-122%, p=0.003-0.021 with a corresponding improvement in sit-standing and walking 2.4 m tests (p=0.003. There were no changes in clinical conditions and body composition measures, but triceps and thigh skinfolds were significantly reduced (p=0.037. In addition, there were significant increases in the CD4+ counts (N=151 cells; p=0.008 and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio (0.63 to 0.81, p=0.009. CONCLUSION: Resistance training increased strength, improved physical fitness, reduced upper and lower limb skinfolds, and were associated with an improvement in the CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ counts in HIV positive elderly patients without significant side effects.

  8. Prevalence of Suicidal Ideation and Its Association with Positive Affect in Working Women: A Day Reconstruction Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Yang, Ying; Yang, Huijing; Huebner, E Scott

    2017-01-01

    The suicide rate for females in China is the second highest worldwide, and China is the only country in the world in which the rate of suicides is higher for women than men. Affective instability has been shown to be a strong predictor of suicidal ideation, particularly among women. However, prior research has mainly focused on the impact of women's negative affect on suicidal ideation, ignoring the influence of positive affect on suicidal ideation. Studies have revealed that hopelessness, which is 1.3 times more important than depression for explaining suicidal ideation, is driven more by low levels of positive affect than by high levels of negative affect. Although positive affect has also been found to be related to suicidal ideation, and it demonstrates independent, beneficial effects on mental health, much remains to be learned about the association between positive affective instability and suicidal ideation. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Chinese working women and explored the differences between working women with and without suicidal ideation in the intensity and daily variability of positive affect. A total of 222 young working women of ages 22-36 years ( M = 27.64, SD = 3.73) were recruited from a free weekend psychology lecture. The women subsequently completed a daily diary Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) as well as a suicidal ideation questionnaire. We used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to analyze the data, and the results showed that: (1) 10.81% of participates reported suicidal ideation, the intensity of positive affect (happiness, warmth/friendliness, interest and relaxation/calmness) was significantly lower for women with suicidal ideation compared to women without suicidal ideation; (2) differing diurnal patterns of positive emotions were observed between women with and without suicidal ideation; women with suicidal ideation demonstrated a significantly lower trend of growth and a higher volatility in

  9. Cardiometabolic risk in Canada: a detailed analysis and position paper by the cardiometabolic risk working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Lawrence A; Fitchett, David H; Gilbert, Richard E; Gupta, Milan; Mancini, G B John; McFarlane, Philip A; Ross, Robert; Teoh, Hwee; Verma, Subodh; Anand, Sonia; Camelon, Kathryn; Chow, Chi-Ming; Cox, Jafna L; Després, Jean-Pierre; Genest, Jacques; Harris, Stewart B; Lau, David C W; Lewanczuk, Richard; Liu, Peter P; Lonn, Eva M; McPherson, Ruth; Poirier, Paul; Qaadri, Shafiq; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Rabkin, Simon W; Sharma, Arya M; Steele, Andrew W; Stone, James A; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tobe, Sheldon; Ur, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of "cardiometabolic risk," "metabolic syndrome," and "risk stratification" overlap and relate to the atherogenic process and development of type 2 diabetes. There is confusion about what these terms mean and how they can best be used to improve our understanding of cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention. With the objectives of clarifying these concepts and presenting practical strategies to identify and reduce cardiovascular risk in multiethnic patient populations, the Cardiometabolic Working Group reviewed the evidence related to emerging cardiovascular risk factors and Canadian guideline recommendations in order to present a detailed analysis and consolidated approach to the identification and management of cardiometabolic risk. The concepts related to cardiometabolic risk, pathophysiology, and strategies for identification and management (including health behaviours, pharmacotherapy, and surgery) in the multiethnic Canadian population are presented. "Global cardiometabolic risk" is proposed as an umbrella term for a comprehensive list of existing and emerging factors that predict cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Health behaviour interventions (weight loss, physical activity, diet, smoking cessation) in people identified at high cardiometabolic risk are of critical importance given the emerging crisis of obesity and the consequent epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Vascular protective measures (health behaviours for all patients and pharmacotherapy in appropriate patients) are essential to reduce cardiometabolic risk, and there is growing consensus that a multidisciplinary approach is needed to adequately address cardiometabolic risk factors. Health care professionals must also consider risk factors related to ethnicity in order to appropriately evaluate everyone in their diverse patient populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A New Measure for Neural Compensation Is Positively Correlated With Working Memory and Gait Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lanxin; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Hawkins, Keith A; Steffens, David C; Guo, Hua; Wang, Lihong

    2018-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest that older adults may compensate for declines in brain function and cognition through reorganization of neural resources. A limitation of prior research is reliance on between-group comparisons of neural activation (e.g., younger vs. older), which cannot be used to assess compensatory ability quantitatively. It is also unclear about the relationship between compensatory ability with cognitive function or how other factors such as physical exercise modulates compensatory ability. Here, we proposed a data-driven method to semi-quantitatively measure neural compensation under a challenging cognitive task, and we then explored connections between neural compensation to cognitive engagement and cognitive reserve (CR). Functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired for 26 healthy older adults during a face-name memory task. Spatial independent component analysis (ICA) identified visual, attentional and left executive as core networks. Results show that the smaller the volumes of the gray matter (GM) structures within core networks, the more networks were needed to conduct the task ( r = -0.408, p = 0.035). Therefore, the number of task-activated networks controlling for the GM volume within core networks was defined as a measure of neural compensatory ability. We found that compensatory ability correlated with working memory performance ( r = 0.528, p = 0.035). Among subjects with good memory task performance, those with higher CR used fewer networks than subjects with lower CR. Among poor-performance subjects, those using more networks had higher CR. Our results indicated that using a high cognitive-demanding task to measure the number of activated neural networks could be a useful and sensitive measure of neural compensation in older adults.

  11. Person-organization fit and organizational identification as predictors of positive and negative work-home interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Merecz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the presented research was to explore the links between complementary and supplementary dimensions of Person-Organization fit (P-O fit, organizational identification (OI and negative (WHI- versus positive (WHI+ work-home interactions. It was assumed that both complementary and supplementary P-O fit and OI were positively related to WHI+ and negatively to WHI-. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on a large sample of Polish blue and white collar workers. The subjects were interviewed by means of questionnaires measuring: supplementary and complementary dimensions of P-O fit, OI and WHI. General work ability and demographic variables were also controlled in the study, and statistical analysis of ANOVA, pairwise comparison as well as regression were performed. Results: P-O fit and OI differentiated the subjects in terms of WHI. For women supplementary fit was a significant predictor of WHI- and explained 12% of its variance, for men it was complementary fit with the number of working days per week and the level of education, which explained 22% of variance. Supplementary fit and OI explained 16% of WHI+ variance in women; OI, tenure at the main place of employment and the level of education explained 8% of WHI+ variance in men. Conclusions: It has been proven that not only are the effects of P-O fit and OI limited to the work environment but they also permeate boundaries between work and home and influence private life - good level of P-O fit and good OI play facilitating role in the positive spillover between work and home. Gender differences in the significance and predictive values of P-O fit and OI for WHI were also found. The innovative aspect of the work is the inclusion of P-O fit and OI in the range of significant predictors of work-home interaction. The results can serve as rationale for employers that improvement of P-O fit and employees' organizational identification should be included in work

  12. Person-organization fit and organizational identification as predictors of positive and negative work-home interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merecz, Dorota; Andysz, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the presented research was to explore the links between complementary and supplementary dimensions of Person-Organization fit (P-O fit), organizational identification (OI) and negative (WHI(-)) versus positive (WHI(+)) work-home interactions. It was assumed that both complementary and supplementary P-O fit and OI were positively related to WHI(+) and negatively to WHI(-). The study was conducted on a large sample of Polish blue and white collar workers. The subjects were interviewed by means of questionnaires measuring: supplementary and complementary dimensions of P-O fit, OI and WHI. General work ability and demographic variables were also controlled in the study, and statistical analysis of ANOVA, pairwise comparison as well as regression were performed. P-O fit and OI differentiated the subjects in terms of WHI. For women supplementary fit was a significant predictor of WHI(-) and explained 12% of its variance, for men it was complementary fit with the number of working days per week and the level of education, which explained 22% of variance. Supplementary fit and OI explained 16% of WHI(+) variance in women; OI, tenure at the main place of employment and the level of education explained 8% of WHI(+) variance in men. It has been proven that not only are the effects of P-O fit and OI limited to the work environment but they also permeate boundaries between work and home and influence private life - good level of P-O fit and good OI play facilitating role in the positive spillover between work and home. Gender differences in the significance and predictive values of P-O fit and OI for WHI were also found. The innovative aspect of the work is the inclusion of P-O fit and OI in the range of significant predictors of work-home interaction. The results can serve as rationale for employers that improvement of P-O fit and employees' organizational identification should be included in work-life balance programs.

  13. Working Memory Load and Negative Picture Processing: Neural and Behavioral Associations With Panic, Social Anxiety, and Positive Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Jackson, T Bryan; Fitzgerald, Jacklynn M; Hajcak, Greg; Phan, K Luan

    2018-04-22

    Internalizing disorders such as anxiety may be characterized by an imbalance between bottom-up (stimulus-driven) and top-down (goal-directed) attention. The late positive potential (LPP) can be used to assess these processes when task-irrelevant negative and neutral pictures are presented within a working memory paradigm. Prior work using this paradigm has found that working memory load reduces the picture-elicited LPP across participants; however, anxious individuals showed a reduced effect of working memory load on the LPP, suggesting increased distractibility. The current study assessed transdiagnostic associations between specific symptom dimensions of anxiety, the LPP, and behavior in a clinically representative, heterogeneous group of 76 treatment-seeking patients with internalizing disorders, who performed a working memory task interspersed with negative and neutral pictures. As expected, negative pictures enhanced the LPP, and working memory load reduced the LPP. Participants with higher social anxiety showed increased LPPs to negative stimuli during early and late portions of picture presentation. Panic symptoms were associated with reduced LPPs to negative pictures compared with neutral pictures as well as a reduced effect of working memory load on the LPP during the late time window. Reduced positive affect was associated with greater behavioral interference from negative pictures. Hypervigilance for negative stimuli was uniquely explained by social anxiety symptoms, whereas panic symptoms were associated with the opposing effect-blunted processing/avoidance of these stimuli. Panic symptoms were uniquely associated with reduced top-down control. Results reveal distinct associations between neural reactivity and anxiety symptom dimensions that transcend traditional diagnostic boundaries. Copyright © 2018 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Experiences of working from a freestanding position as a case manager when supporting clients in the Swedish welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockmo, Carolina; Marnetoft, Sven-Uno

    2016-06-01

    The Swedish state uses a case management function known as Personligt Ombud (PO). The role as PO differs from the traditional professional roles. It has a freestanding position in the welfare system. The aim of this study was to investigate POs' experiences of working from a freestanding position when supporting clients. Telephone interviews were conducted with 22 POs across Sweden. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by latent qualitative content analysis. The findings were reflected in three categories - freedom-promoted flexibility, surfing through a complex welfare system, and working for legitimacy. POs developed a holistic view to both the client as well as to the welfare system. POs experienced solely representing the client, which is a positive feature because part of the POs' role is advocating for the clients rights. The PO service differs from the PO service from other existing case management models and may need to develop strategies for decision-making and support in their own role. For example, they may use group supervision teams or 'reflective teams'. The freestanding position may also entail problems in terms of lack of legitimacy. It is important for POs to develop good platforms with the surrounding actors among others things to improve the co-ordination process. It could be interesting if the PO model would be tested in other countries that have a fragmented welfare system. The PO model may also be useful to other 'target groups' who are in need of co-ordinated rehabilitation services.

  15. The Power of Positive Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español The Power of Positive Emotions KidsHealth / For Teens / The Power ... great one. 2. Practice Positivity Every Day Building habits that encourage us to feel more positive emotions ...

  16. The effect of working position on trunk posture and exertion for routine nursing tasks: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Sonja; Seddouki, Rachida; Dulon, Madeleine; Kersten, Jan Felix; Larsson, Tore J; Nienhaus, Albert

    2014-04-01

    To examine the influence of the two following factors on the proportion of time that nurses spend in a forward-bending trunk posture: (i) the bed height during basic care activities at the bedside and (ii) the work method during basic care activities in the bathroom. A further aim was to examine the connection between the proportion of time spent in a forward-bending posture and the perceived exertion. Twelve nurses in a geriatric nursing home each performed a standardized care routine at the bedside and in the bathroom. The CUELA (German abbreviation for 'computer-assisted recording and long-term analysis of musculoskeletal loads') measuring system was used to record all trunk inclinations. Each participant conducted three tests with the bed at different heights (knee height, thigh height, and hip height) and in the bathroom, three tests were performed with different work methods (standing, kneeling, and sitting). After each test, participants rated their perceived exertion on the 15-point Borg scale (6 = no exertion at all and 20 = exhaustion). If the bed was raised from knee to thigh level, the proportion of time spent in an upright position increased by 8.2% points. However, the effect was not significant (P = 0.193). Only when the bed was raised to hip height, there was a significant increase of 19.8% points (reference: thigh level; P = 0.003) and 28.0% points (reference: knee height; P nursing personnel work in an upright position, the less strenuous they perceive the work to be. Raising the bed to hip height and using a stool in the bathroom significantly increase the proportion of time that nursing personnel work in an upright position. Nursing staff can spend a considerably greater proportion of their time in an ergonomic posture if stools and height-adjustable beds are provided in healthcare institutions.

  17. Computer codes for evaluation of control room habitability (HABIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stage, S.A.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Computer Codes for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability (HABIT). HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic chemicals or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel. HABIT is an integrated package of several programs that previously needed to be run separately and required considerable user intervention. This report discusses the theoretical basis and physical assumptions made by each of the modules in HABIT and gives detailed information about the data entry windows. Sample runs are given for each of the modules. A brief section of programming notes is included. A set of computer disks will accompany this report if the report is ordered from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center. The disks contain the files needed to run HABIT on a personal computer running DOS. Source codes for the various HABIT routines are on the disks. Also included are input and output files for three demonstration runs

  18. Multiple socio-economic circumstances and healthy food habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, T; Laaksonen, M; Rahkonen, O; Roos, E; Lahelma, E

    2007-06-01

    To examine associations between seven indicators of socio-economic circumstances and healthy food habits, while taking into account assumed temporal order between these socio-economic indicators. Data were derived from cross-sectional postal questionnaires in 2000-2002. Socio-economic circumstances were assessed by parental education, childhood economic difficulties, own education, occupational class, household income, home ownership and current economic difficulties. Healthy food habits were measured by an index consisting of consumption of fresh vegetables, fruit or berries, rye bread, fish and choosing vegetable fats on bread and oil in cooking. Sequential logistic regression models were used, adjusting for age and marital status. Employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n=8960, aged 40-60 years). Healthy food habits were reported by 28% of women and by 17% of men. Own education, occupational class, household income, home ownership and current economic difficulties were associated with healthy food habits. These associations were attenuated but mainly remained after mutual adjustments for the socio-economic indicators. Among women, a pathway was found suggesting that part of the effects of education on food habits were mediated through occupational class. Employees in higher and lower socio-economic positions differ in their food habits, and those in lower positions and economically disadvantaged are less likely to report healthy food habits. Health promotion programmes and food policies should encourage healthier food choices among those in lower socio-economic positions and among those with economic difficulties in particular.

  19. Smoking habits and obesity in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimlichman, Eyal; Kochba, Ilan; Mimouni, Francis B; Shochat, Tzippora; Grotto, Itamar; Kreiss, Yitshak; Mandel, Dror

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the association between obesity and smoking habits in young adults. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that obesity does not prevent young adults from smoking and conversely smoking does not protect against obesity. Trained nurses interviewed participants concerning demographic data and health behaviors such as smoking. At the time of the interview, weight and height were measured. Data were analyzed retrospectively. A representative sample of Israel Defense Force (IDF) personnel upon discharge from compulsory service, usually at the age of 20-21 years. Overall, 29 745 participants were included during the 13-year study (16,363 males and 13,382 females). Smoking rates were higher among obese participants than among overweight and non-obese participants (34.9%, 37.1%, 43.6% for non-obese, overweight and obese, respectively; P < 0.001). Mean number of cigarettes smoked per day were also higher among smokers that were obese and overweight compared to the non-obese (15.2 +/- 9.2, 15.6 +/- 10.7, 18.0 +/- 9.8, respectively; P < 0.001). Overweight and obesity were associated with the father's lower academic educational level. In logistic regression analysis, obesity, year of study and parental academic education were correlated independently with smoking (P < 0.001). The positive association between obesity and smoking suggests that obesity is not a deterrent to smoking and also that smoking does not help to prevent obesity.

  20. Plate tectonics, habitability and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The role of plate tectonics in defining habitability of terrestrial planets is being increasingly discussed (e.g., Elkins-Tanton, 2015). Plate tectonics is a significantly evolved concept with a large variety of aspects. In the present context, cycling of material between near surface and mantle reservoirs is most important. But increased heat transport through mixing of cold lithosphere with the deep interior and formation of continental crust may also matter. An alternative mechanism of material cycling between these reservoirs is hot-spot volcanism combined with crust delamination. Hot-spot volcanism will transport volatiles to the atmosphere while delamination will mix crust, possibly altered by sedimentation and chemical reactions, with the mantle. The mechanism works as long as the stagnant lithosphere plate has not grown thicker than the crust and as long as volcanic material is added onto the crust. Thermal evolution studies suggest that the mechanism could work for the first 1-2 Ga of planetary evolution. The efficiency of the mechanism is limited by the ratio of extrusive to intrusive volcanism, which is thought to be less than 0.25. Plate tectonics would certainly have an advantage by working even for more evolved planets. A simple, most-used concept of habitability requires the thermodynamic stability of liquid water on the surface of a planet. Cycling of CO2between the atmosphere, oceans and interior through subduction and surface volcanism is an important element of the carbonate-silicate cycle, a thermostat feedback cycle that will keep the atmosphere from entering into a runaway greenhouse. Calculations for a model Earth lacking plate tectonics but degassing CO2, N, and H2O to form a surface ocean and a secondary atmosphere (Tosi et al, 2016) suggest that liquid water can be maintained on the surface for 4.5Ga. The model planet would then qualify as habitable. It is conceivable that the CO2 buffering capability of its ocean together with silicate

  1. Position of document holder and work related risk factors for neck pain among computer users: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambusam, S; Baharudin, O; Roslizawati, N; Leonard, J

    2015-01-01

    Document holder is used as a remedy to address occupational neck pain among computer users. An understanding on the effects of the document holder along with other work related risk factors while working in computer workstation requires attention. A comprehensive knowledge on the optimal location of the document holder in computer use and associated work related factors that may contribute to neck pain reviewed in this article. A literature search has been conducted over the past 14 years based on the published articles from January 1990 to January 2014 in both Science Direct and PubMed databases. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords for search were neck muscle OR head posture OR muscle tension' OR muscle activity OR work related disorders OR neck pain AND/OR document location OR document holder OR source document OR copy screen holder.Document holder placed lateral to the screen was most preferred to reduce neck discomfort among occupational typists. Document without a holder was placed flat on the surface is least preferred. The head posture and muscle activity increases when the document is placed flat on the surface compared to when placed on the document holder. Work related factors such as static posture, repetitive movement, prolong sitting and awkward positions were the risk factors for chronic neck pain. This review highlights the optimal location for document holder for computer users to reduce neck pain. Together, the importance of work related risk factors for to neck pain on occupational typist is emphasized for the clinical management.

  2. A Prospective Longitudinal Study on Implant Prosthetic Rehabilitation in Controlled HIV-Positive Patients with 1-Year Follow-Up: The Role of CD4+ Level, Smoking Habits, and Oral Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherlone, Enrico F; Capparé, Paolo; Tecco, Simona; Polizzi, Elisabetta; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Grusovin, Maria Gabriella

    2016-10-01

    A recent study showed that implant-prosthetic rehabilitation in well-controlled HIV patients gave slightly worse results than in an healthy population, and failures were all linked to infection. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the success of implant-prosthetic treatment and systemic CD4+ level, smoking habits, and oral hygiene. This mono-centric study included HIV patients with a stable disease and good oral hygiene requiring implant rehabilitation. Each patient received at least one dental implant. Prosthesis were delivered after 90 days in the upper jaw and 60 days in the lower jaw. Primary outcome measures were prosthetic failures, implant failures, peri-implant marginal bone level changes, and biological complications (peri-implantitis, pus, pain, paresthesia). The possible association with CD4 count, smoking habits, and oral hygiene was analyzed. Sixty-eight patients received 194 implants, and 66 patients (190 implants) were followed for 1 year. No significant associations were found between CD4+ count, oral hygiene-associated variables, and any of the outcome measures. If compared with nonsmoking/light smoking patients, patients who smoked >10 cigarettes/day suffered a statistically significant greater number of implant failures (p ≤ .005), presented a comparatively higher number of peri-implantitis (p 10 cigarettes/day) demonstrated an increased risk of early implant failure, peri-implantitis, episodes of pus, and self-reported pain. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... habits. Clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces at home, work or school, especially when someone is ill. Get plenty of sleep, be physically active, manage your stress, drink plenty of fluids, and eat nutritious food. ...

  4. SMEs’ Purchasing Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre S. Ozmen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although micro companies overpower the small and medium enterprise (SME segment, generalizations are often with medium size companies, and therefore, there are many unknowns, especially when it comes to its buying behavior. Conformist studies and industry practices assume SMEs to be “normative” or “conservative” buyers; however, this hypothesis is untested. This article aims to scrutinize the reality, and proposes a unified model that rejects pre-containerization in buying behavior typologies, as well as selectiveness in terms of audience type, whether it is corporate, SME, or consumer. While replacing researchers’ perceptions with the audience’s, the model yields actual knowledge that can lead to audience’s beliefs in lieu of the opposite, which is used to mislead stakeholders. The study shows that SMEs also buy like individuals and spend in a similar way to consumers’, including not only “normative” and “conservative” but also “negligent” and “impulse” zones. From the research-implications perspective, future studies by behaviorists can explore why SMEs purchase in this way. Marketers may benefit from the finding that SMEs buy like individuals. In addition, SMEs may want to be conscious of their purchasing habits, and—utilizing the newly introduced “risk score” frontier—policymakers should assess the consequences of these habits at the macro level.

  5. Socioeconomic position and work, travel, and recreation-related physical activity in Japanese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Munehiro; Harada, Kazuhiro; Arao, Takashi

    2015-09-18

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between socioeconomic position and the domains of physical activity connected with work, travel, and recreation in Japanese adults. A total of 3269 subjects, 1651 men (mean ± standard deviation; 44.2 ± 8.1 years) and 1618 women (44.1 ± 8.1 years), responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey. Data on socioeconomic (household income, educational level) and demographic variables (age, size of household, and household motor vehicles) were obtained. To examine the associations between socioeconomic position and physical activity, logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI) for "active" domains of physical activity. Men with a household income of ≥ 7 million yen had significantly lower work-related physical activity than the lowest income group (OR 0.51; 95 % CI, 0.35-0.75), but significantly greater travel-related (OR 1.37; 1.02-1.85), recreational (OR 2.00; 1.46-2.73) and total physical activity (OR 1.56; 1.17-2.08). Women with a household income of ≥ 7 million yen had significantly greater recreational physical activity (OR 1.43; 1.01-2.04) than the lowest income group. Their total physical activity was borderline significant, with slightly more activity in the high-income group (OR 1.36; 1.00-1.84), but no significant differences for work- and travel-related physical activity. Men with higher educational level (4-year college or higher degree) had significantly lower work-related (OR 0.62; 0.46-0.82), and greater travel-related physical activity (OR 1.33; 1.04-1.71) than the lowest educated group, but there were no significant differences in recreational and total physical activity. Women with a 4-year college or higher degree had significantly greater travel-related physical activity than the lowest educated group (OR 1.49; 1.12-1.97), but there were no significant differences in any other physical activity. There was no relation between

  6. Experiments for habitation-related technologies in closed system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Tsuyoshi; Tako, Yasuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary habitation experiments, including facility implementation tests, investigation of work load and psychological and physiological effect of human subjects, environmental monitoring tests, and integrated implementation tests were performed in Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). Results showed insufficient ability of CO 2 separator, issues of overtime work of subjects and inadequate communication between subjects and supporting staff outside the modules. Countermeasures for these issues were developed. Results show that habitation experiments from fiscal year 2005 on the CEEF were judged to be feasible. (author)

  7. Measuring Study Habits in Higher Education: The Way Forward?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitkov-Norris, E D; Yeghiazarian, A

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews existing study habit measurement instruments and discusses their drawbacks, in the light of new evidence from neuroscience on the workings of the brain. It is suggested that in addition to traditional frequency based past behavioural measures, the predictive accuracy of study habit measurement instruments could be improved by including measures of habit strength that take into account behaviour automaticity and efficacy, such as the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) developed by [1]. The SRHI has shown high reliability and internal validity in a wide range of contexts and its applicability and validity in the context of learning and higher education as an enhancement to study habit measurement instruments is as yet to be tested

  8. The Feeding Habits of Mesosauridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rivaldo R.; Ferigolo, Jorge; Bajdek, Piotr; Piñeiro, Graciela

    2017-03-01

    Mesosauridae comprises the oldest known aquatic amniotes which lived in Gondwana during the Early Permian. Previous work in the Uruguayan mesosaur-bearing Mangrullo Formation suggested that mesosaurids lived in an inland water body, inferred as moderately hypersaline, with exceptional preservational conditions that justified describing these strata as a Fossil-Lagerstätte. Exquisitely preserved articulated mesosaur skeletons, including gastric content and associated coprolites, from the Brazilian Iratí Formation in the State of Goiás (central-western Brazil) indicate excellent conditions of preservation, extending the Konservat-Lagerstätte designation to both units in the Paraná Basin. The near-absence of more resistant fossil remains, like actinopterygian and temnospondyl bones, demonstrates the faunistic poverty of the mesosaur-bearing “salty sea”. Our studies of the alimentary habits of mesosaurids through the use of stereoscopic microscopy, light and electronic microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry suggest that the diet of mesosaurids was predominantly composed of pygocephalomorph crustaceans (possibly not exceeding 20 mm in length). However, the presence of bones and bone fragments of small mesosaurs in the gastric content, cololites, coprolites, and possible regurgitalites may also indicate cannibalistic and/or scavenging habits. Cannibalism is relatively common among vertebrates, particularly during conditions of environmental stress, like food shortage. Likewise, the apparent abundance of pygocephalomorph crustacean fossils in the Iratí and Mangrullo Formations, outside and within the studied gastric, cololite, and coprolite contents, might have to do with environmental stress possibly caused by volcanic activity, in particular ash spread into the basin during the Early Permian. In this context, casual necrophagy on the dead bodies of small mesosaurs and large pygocephalomorphs might have been an alternative alimentary behavior adopted for survival

  9. Positive Impacts of Social Media at Work: Job Satisfaction, Job Calling, and Facebook Use among Co-Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Brittany

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of Facebook users grew rapidly since its conception. Within today’s workplace, employees are increasingly connecting with each other on Facebook for interpersonal reasons. Due to sensational reports by media outlets of inappropriate social media use, many organizations are taking extreme measures about how their employees who utilize Facebook to connect with colleagues. Contrary to the negative assumptions, McAfee [1] states that social media within the workplace can promote positive dynamics. The present study uses McAfee’s argument to examine if a positive connection exists between colleagues who use Facebook to connect with each other. An online survey with questions involving Facebook use with co-workers, job satisfaction, and perceived job calling was completed by employees (N=70 at two high-tech companies in Northern California, USA. Results revealed that job satisfaction is positively correlated with intensity of Facebook use among co-workers. Furthermore, feeling called to one’s line of work was statistically significantly higher for the group of employees who spent the most amount of time interacting on Facebook with their co-workers than the group that spent the least amount of time. These results suggest that companies could begin to explore the positive benefits of social media use within the workplace.

  10. Root distribution and its association with bean growth habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS P.S. VELHO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Associations between root distribution and bean growth habit may contribute to the selection of genotypes adapted to restrictive environments. The present work aimed to relate and compare root distribution with the growth habit in beans. 10 bean genotypes of different growth habits (I, II and III were evaluated for root distribution in two agricultural years (2014/15 and 2015/16. The genotypes responded similarly for the trait root distribution throughout the agricultural years, without any simple effect of the genotype x year interaction. The factors genotype and years were significant for the trait. The genotypes of a determinate habit showed significant differences compared to other genotypes (II and III, which were ascribed to their poor performance in the average of years. They include the Carioca Precoce, which showed a behavior similar to the other habits. It could be considered a “plastic” genotype under restrictive conditions. The contrasts revealed significant differences between the growth habits II vs I (2.87 and III vs I (3.64 for root distribution. The differences were also significant for grain yield. Thus, genotypes of indeterminate growth habit show greater root distribution than those of a determinate habit, regardless of the agricultural years. Therefore, they are promising for use in blocks of crosses, when the purpose is the selection of cultivars adapted to low input environments.

  11. Exomoon Habitability Constrained by Illumination and Tidal Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The detection of moons orbiting extrasolar planets (“exomoons”) has now become feasible. Once they are discovered in the circumstellar habitable zone, questions about their habitability will emerge. Exomoons are likely to be tidally locked to their planet and hence experience days much shorter than their orbital period around the star and have seasons, all of which works in favor of habitability. These satellites can receive more illumination per area than their host planets, as the planet reflects stellar light and emits thermal photons. On the contrary, eclipses can significantly alter local climates on exomoons by reducing stellar illumination. In addition to radiative heating, tidal heating can be very large on exomoons, possibly even large enough for sterilization. We identify combinations of physical and orbital parameters for which radiative and tidal heating are strong enough to trigger a runaway greenhouse. By analogy with the circumstellar habitable zone, these constraints define a circumplanetary “habitable edge.” We apply our model to hypothetical moons around the recently discovered exoplanet Kepler-22b and the giant planet candidate KOI211.01 and describe, for the first time, the orbits of habitable exomoons. If either planet hosted a satellite at a distance greater than 10 planetary radii, then this could indicate the presence of a habitable moon. Key Words: Astrobiology—Extrasolar planets—Habitability—Habitable zone—Tides. Astrobiology 13, 18–46. PMID:23305357

  12. The Life of Meaning: A Model of the Positive Contributions to Well-Being from Veterinary Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cake, Martin A; Bell, Melinda A; Bickley, Naomi; Bartram, David J

    2015-01-01

    We present a veterinary model of work-derived well-being, and argue that educators should not only present a (potentially self-fulfilling) stress management model of future wellness, but also balance this with a positive psychology-based approach depicting a veterinary career as a richly generative source of satisfaction and fulfillment. A review of known sources of satisfaction for veterinarians finds them to be based mostly in meaningful purpose, relationships, and personal growth. This positions veterinary well-being within the tradition of eudaimonia, an ancient concept of achieving one's best possible self, and a term increasingly employed to describe well-being derived from living a life that is engaging, meaningful, and deeply fulfilling. The theory of eudaimonia for workplace well-being should inform development of personal resources that foster resilience in undergraduate and graduate veterinarians.

  13. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    Based on calls for innovative ways of reducing car traffic and research indicating that car driving is often the result of habitual decision-making and choice processes, this paper reports on a field experiment designed to test a tool aimed to entice drivers to skip the habitual choice of the car...... and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  14. Interrelationships Between Job Resources, Vigor, Exercise Habit, and Serum Lipids in Japanese Employees: a Multiple Group Path Analysis Using Medical Checkup Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Otsuka, Yasumasa; Inoue, Akiomi; Sakurai, Kenji; Ui, Akiko; Nakata, Akinori

    2016-08-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the major risk factors for dyslipidemia and coronary heart disease. Job resources have been identified as determinants of employees' vigor and physical activity habits. Our first purpose was to comprehensively analyze the series of relationships of job resources, through vigor and exercise habit (i.e., one aspect of physical activity), to serum lipid levels in a sample of Japanese employees in a manufacturing company. Our second purpose was to investigate sex differences in these relationships using a multiple-group path analysis. Data were collected from 4543 employees (men = 4018, women = 525) during a medical checkup conducted in February and March 2012. Job resources (job control, skill utilization, suitable jobs, and meaningfulness of work), vigor, exercise habit, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured cross-sectionally. Job resources and vigor were positively associated with exercise habit in both sexes. Exercise habit was inversely associated with triglyceride (-0.03 in men and -0.01 in women, ps jobs and meaningfulness of work. Higher levels of job resources were associated with greater vigor, leading to exercise habit, which in turn, improved serum lipid levels. Longitudinal studies are required to demonstrate causality.

  15. Do factors in the psychosocial work environment mediate the effect of socioeconomic position on the risk of myocardial infarction? Study from the Copenhagen Centre for Prospective Population Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I; Burr, H; Kristensen, T S

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether the effect of socioeconomic position on risk of myocardial infarction (MI) is mediated by differential exposure or differential susceptibility to psychosocial work environment....

  16. Habits in perioperative nursing culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindwall, Lillemor; von Post, Iréne

    2008-09-01

    This study focuses on investigating habits in perioperative nursing culture, which are often simply accepted and not normally considered or discussed. A hermeneutical approach was chosen as the means of understanding perioperative nurses' experiences of and reflections on operating theatre culture. Focus group discussions were used to collect data, which was analysed using hermeneutical text analysis. The results revealed three main categories of habits present in perioperative nursing culture: habits that promote ethical values (by temporary friendship with patients, showing respect for each other, and spending time on reflection on ethics and caring); habits that hinder progress (by seeing the patient as a surgical case, not acknowledging colleagues, and not talking about ethics); and habits that set the cultural tone (the hidden power structure and achieving more in less time).

  17. Health Habit: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalinski, Andra S; Weglicki, Linda S; Gropper, Sareen S

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide clarity of the concept of health habit. Using Walker and Avant's (1983; 2010) method for conducting a concept analysis, the authors identify the attributes and characteristics of health habit, its theoretical and practical application to nursing, and sample cases to further illustrate the concept. Empirical and conceptual literature was used to inform this concept analysis. Articles and one book from 1977 to 2014 were reviewed from PsycINFO, Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing Health Literature (CINAHL), Science Direct, EBSCOhost and Web of Science. Offering a clear definition and conceptual model of health habit provide the foundation to identify/develop appropriate measures of the concept and guide further investigation of understanding the development and sustainability of healthy habits. Additional research is needed to test the conceptual relationships between health habits and outcome variables as they apply to different groups across the age continuum. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. No Snowball on Habitable Tidally Locked Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checlair, Jade; Menou, Kristen; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2017-08-01

    The TRAPPIST-1, Proxima Centauri, and LHS 1140 systems are the most exciting prospects for future follow-up observations of potentially inhabited planets. All of the planets orbit nearby M-stars and are likely tidally locked in 1:1 spin–orbit states, which motivates the consideration of the effects that tidal locking might have on planetary habitability. On Earth, periods of global glaciation (snowballs) may have been essential for habitability and remote signs of life (biosignatures) because they are correlated with increases in the complexity of life and in the atmospheric oxygen concentration. In this paper, we investigate the snowball bifurcation (sudden onset of global glaciation) on tidally locked planets using both an energy balance model and an intermediate-complexity global climate model. We show that tidally locked planets are unlikely to exhibit a snowball bifurcation as a direct result of the spatial pattern of insolation they receive. Instead, they will smoothly transition from partial to complete ice coverage and back. A major implication of this work is that tidally locked planets with an active carbon cycle should not be found in a snowball state. Moreover, this work implies that tidally locked planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone with low CO2 outgassing fluxes will equilibrate with a small unglaciated substellar region rather than cycling between warm and snowball states. More work is needed to determine how the lack of a snowball bifurcation might affect the development of life on a tidally locked planet.

  19. No Snowball on Habitable Tidally Locked Planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Checlair, Jade; Abbot, Dorian S. [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Menou, Kristen, E-mail: jadecheclair@uchicago.edu [Centre for Planetary Sciences, Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2017-08-20

    The TRAPPIST-1, Proxima Centauri, and LHS 1140 systems are the most exciting prospects for future follow-up observations of potentially inhabited planets. All of the planets orbit nearby M-stars and are likely tidally locked in 1:1 spin–orbit states, which motivates the consideration of the effects that tidal locking might have on planetary habitability. On Earth, periods of global glaciation (snowballs) may have been essential for habitability and remote signs of life (biosignatures) because they are correlated with increases in the complexity of life and in the atmospheric oxygen concentration. In this paper, we investigate the snowball bifurcation (sudden onset of global glaciation) on tidally locked planets using both an energy balance model and an intermediate-complexity global climate model. We show that tidally locked planets are unlikely to exhibit a snowball bifurcation as a direct result of the spatial pattern of insolation they receive. Instead, they will smoothly transition from partial to complete ice coverage and back. A major implication of this work is that tidally locked planets with an active carbon cycle should not be found in a snowball state. Moreover, this work implies that tidally locked planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone with low CO{sub 2} outgassing fluxes will equilibrate with a small unglaciated substellar region rather than cycling between warm and snowball states. More work is needed to determine how the lack of a snowball bifurcation might affect the development of life on a tidally locked planet.

  20. No Snowball on Habitable Tidally Locked Planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Checlair, Jade; Abbot, Dorian S.; Menou, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    The TRAPPIST-1, Proxima Centauri, and LHS 1140 systems are the most exciting prospects for future follow-up observations of potentially inhabited planets. All of the planets orbit nearby M-stars and are likely tidally locked in 1:1 spin–orbit states, which motivates the consideration of the effects that tidal locking might have on planetary habitability. On Earth, periods of global glaciation (snowballs) may have been essential for habitability and remote signs of life (biosignatures) because they are correlated with increases in the complexity of life and in the atmospheric oxygen concentration. In this paper, we investigate the snowball bifurcation (sudden onset of global glaciation) on tidally locked planets using both an energy balance model and an intermediate-complexity global climate model. We show that tidally locked planets are unlikely to exhibit a snowball bifurcation as a direct result of the spatial pattern of insolation they receive. Instead, they will smoothly transition from partial to complete ice coverage and back. A major implication of this work is that tidally locked planets with an active carbon cycle should not be found in a snowball state. Moreover, this work implies that tidally locked planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone with low CO 2 outgassing fluxes will equilibrate with a small unglaciated substellar region rather than cycling between warm and snowball states. More work is needed to determine how the lack of a snowball bifurcation might affect the development of life on a tidally locked planet.

  1. The role of habit in different phases of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E; Meldrum, John T; Spence, John C

    2017-09-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate how habit strength in a preparatory and performance phase predicts exercise while accounting for intention. The secondary purpose was to determine the strength of potential habit antecedents (affective judgement, perceived behavioural control, consistency, and cues) in both exercise phases. This was a prospective study with measures collected at baseline and week 6. Participants (n = 181) were a sample of adults (18-65) recruited across nine gyms and recreation centres who completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires after 6 weeks. Intention (β = .28, p = .00) and habit preparation (β = .20, p = .03), predicted exercise, and change of exercise with coefficients of β = .25, (p = .00) and β = .18, (p = .04), respectively, across 6 weeks but not habit performance (p>.05). This study highlighted the distinction between the two phases of exercise and the importance of preparatory habit in predicting behaviour. Focusing on a consistent preparatory routine could be helpful in establishing an exercise habit. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? A recent meta-analysis found habit to correlate r = .43 with behaviour (Gardner, de Bruijn, & Lally, ). Verplanken and Melkevik () propose that habit in exercise should be measured in separate components. Phillips and Gardner () interpreted this as habitual instigation (thought) to exercise and execution. What does this study add? Extended pervious work and identified two distinct behavioural phases (preparation and performance) for exercise. Habit model revealed that temporal consistency was the strongest predictor in both phases of exercise. Intention and habit of preparatory behaviour predicted exercise fluctuations in gym members. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Work characteristics, socioeconomic position and health: a systematic review of mediation and moderation effects in prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoven, Hanno; Siegrist, Johannes

    2013-09-01

    Social inequalities in health persist in modern societies. The contribution of adverse work and employment conditions towards their explanation is analysed by two approaches, mediation and moderation. Yet the relative significance of each approach remains unclear in respective research. We set out to study this question by conducting a systematic literature review. We included all original papers based on prospective observational studies of employed cohorts that were published between January 1980 and October 2012 meeting our search criteria, by using major databases and by observing established quality criteria. 26 reports were included after quality assessment. 17 studies examined the mediation hypothesis and nine studies tested the moderation hypothesis. Moderate support was found for the mediation hypothesis where OR or HR of health according to socioeconomic position (SEP) were reduced in a majority of analyses after introducing work characteristics in multivariate models. Evidence in favour of the moderation hypothesis was found in some studies, demonstrating stronger effects of adverse work on health among people with low SEP. Despite some support in favour of the two hypotheses future research should aim at reducing the heterogeneity in defining and measuring core variables and at applying advanced statistical analyses. Policy recommendations would benefit from a higher degree of consistency of respective research evidence.

  3. Vehicle Net Habitable Volume (NHV) and Habitability Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this study is to assess habitability on the International Space Station (ISS) in order to better prepare for long-duration spaceflight missions of the...

  4. Habitability Concept Models for Living in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrino, M.

    2002-01-01

    As growing trends show, living in "space" has acquired new meanings, especially considering the utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) with regard to group interaction as well as individual needs in terms of time, space and crew accommodations. In fact, for the crew, the Spaced Station is a combined Laboratory-Office/Home and embodies ethical, social, and cultural aspects as additional parameters to be assessed to achieve a user centered architectural design of crew workspace. Habitability Concept Models can improve the methods and techniques used to support the interior design and layout of space architectures and at the same time guarantee a human focused approach. This paper discusses and illustrates some of the results obtained for the interior design of a Habitation Module for the ISS. In this work, two different but complementary approaches are followed. The first is "object oriented" and based on Video Data (American and Russian) supported by Proxemic methods (Edward T. Hall, 1963 and Francesca Pregnolato, 1998). This approach offers flexible and adaptive design solutions. The second is "subject oriented" and based on a Virtual Reality environment. With this approach human perception and cognitive aspects related to a specific crew task are considered. Data obtained from these two approaches are used to verify requirements and advance the design of the Habitation Module for aspects related to man machine interfaces (MMI), ergonomics, work and free-time. It is expected that the results achieved can be applied to future space related projects.

  5. Are "Habitable" Exoplanets Really Habitable? -A perspective from atmospheric loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C.; Huang, Z.; Jin, M.; Lingam, M.; Ma, Y. J.; Toth, G.; van der Holst, B.; Airapetian, V.; Cohen, O.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2017-12-01

    In the last two decades, the field of exoplanets has witnessed a tremendous creative surge. Research in exoplanets now encompasses a wide range of fields ranging from astrophysics to heliophysics and atmospheric science. One of the primary objectives of studying exoplanets is to determine the criteria for habitability, and whether certain exoplanets meet these requirements. The classical definition of the Habitable Zone (HZ) is the region around a star where liquid water can exist on the planetary surface given sufficient atmospheric pressure. However, this definition largely ignores the impact of the stellar wind and stellar magnetic activity on the erosion of an exoplanet's atmosphere. Amongst the many factors that determine habitability, understanding the mechanisms of atmospheric loss is of paramount importance. We will discuss the impact of exoplanetary space weather on climate and habitability, which offers fresh insights concerning the habitability of exoplanets, especially those orbiting M-dwarfs, such as Proxima b and the TRAPPIST-1 system. For each case, we will demonstrate the importance of the exoplanetary space weather on atmospheric ion loss and habitability.

  6. Habitability Designs for Crew Exploration Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    NASA's space human factors team is contributing to the habitability of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), which will take crews to low Earth orbit, and dock there with additional vehicles to go on to the moon's surface. They developed a task analysis for operations and for self-sustenance (sleeping, eating, hygiene), and estimated the volumes required for performing the various tasks and for the associated equipment, tools and supplies. Rough volumetric mockups were built for crew evaluations. Trade studies were performed to determine the size and location of windows. The habitability analysis also contributes to developing concepts of operations by identifying constraints on crew time. Recently completed studies provided stowage concepts, tools for assessing lighting constraints, and approaches to medical procedure development compatible with the tight space and absence of gravity. New work will be initiated to analyze design concepts and verify that equipment and layouts do meet requirements.

  7. Effects of surface condition on the work function and valence-band position of ZnSnN2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, Amanda M.; Tolstova, Yulia; Lewis, Nathan S.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2017-12-01

    ZnSnN2 is an emerging wide band gap earth-abundant semiconductor with potential applications in photonic devices such as solar cells, LEDs, and optical sensors. We report the characterization by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of reactively radio-frequency sputtered II-IV-nitride ZnSnN2 thin films. For samples transferred in high vacuum, the ZnSnN2 surface work function was 4.0 ± 0.1 eV below the vacuum level, with a valence-band onset of 1.2 ± 0.1 eV below the Fermi level. The resulting band diagram indicates that the degenerate bulk Fermi level position in ZnSnN2 shifts to mid-gap at the surface due to band bending that results from equilibration with delocalized surface states within the gap. Brief (< 10 s) exposures to air, a nitrogen-plasma treatment, or argon-ion sputtering caused significant chemical changes at the surface, both in surface composition and interfacial energetics. The relative band positioning of the n-type semiconductor against standard redox potentials indicated that ZnSnN2 has an appropriate energy band alignment for use as a photoanode to effect the oxygen-evolution reaction.

  8. Exomoon habitability constrained by illumination and tidal heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René; Barnes, Rory

    2013-01-01

    The detection of moons orbiting extrasolar planets ("exomoons") has now become feasible. Once they are discovered in the circumstellar habitable zone, questions about their habitability will emerge. Exomoons are likely to be tidally locked to their planet and hence experience days much shorter than their orbital period around the star and have seasons, all of which works in favor of habitability. These satellites can receive more illumination per area than their host planets, as the planet reflects stellar light and emits thermal photons. On the contrary, eclipses can significantly alter local climates on exomoons by reducing stellar illumination. In addition to radiative heating, tidal heating can be very large on exomoons, possibly even large enough for sterilization. We identify combinations of physical and orbital parameters for which radiative and tidal heating are strong enough to trigger a runaway greenhouse. By analogy with the circumstellar habitable zone, these constraints define a circumplanetary "habitable edge." We apply our model to hypothetical moons around the recently discovered exoplanet Kepler-22b and the giant planet candidate KOI211.01 and describe, for the first time, the orbits of habitable exomoons. If either planet hosted a satellite at a distance greater than 10 planetary radii, then this could indicate the presence of a habitable moon.

  9. Work of breathing using different interfaces in spontaneous positive pressure ventilation: helmet, face-mask, and endotracheal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Shinya; Otaki, Kei; Yashima, Nozomi; Kurota, Misato; Matsushita, Sachiko; Kumasaka, Airi; Kurihara, Hutaba; Kawamae, Kaneyuki

    2016-08-01

    Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) using a helmet is expected to cause inspiratory trigger delay due to the large collapsible and compliant chamber. We compared the work of breathing (WOB) of NPPV using a helmet or a full face-mask with that of invasive ventilation by tracheal intubation. We used a lung model capable of simulating spontaneous breathing (LUNGOO; Air Water Inc., Japan). LUNGOO was set at compliance (C) = 50 mL/cmH2O and resistance (R) = 5 cmH2O/L/s for normal lung simulation, C = 20 mL/cmH2O and R = 5 cmH2O/L/s for restrictive lung, and C = 50 mL/cmH2O and R = 20 cmH2O/L/s for obstructive lung. Muscle pressure was fixed at 25 cmH2O and respiratory rate at 20 bpm. Pressure support ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure were performed with each interface placed on a dummy head made of reinforced plastic that was connected to LUNGOO. We tested the inspiratory WOB difference between the interfaces with various combinations of ventilator settings (positive end-expiratory pressure 5 cmH2O; pressure support 0, 5, and 10 cmH2O). In the normal lung and restrictive lung models, WOB decreased more with the face-mask than the helmet, especially when accompanied by the level of pressure support. In the obstructive lung model, WOB with the helmet decreased compared with the other two interfaces. In the mixed lung model, there were no significant differences in WOB between the three interfaces. NPPV using a helmet is more effective than the other interfaces for WOB in obstructive lung disease.

  10. [Occupational stress, coping styles and eating habits among Polish employees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocka, Adrianna; Mościcka, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze potential relations between occupational stress, coping styles and ing habits. Questionnaires administered to 160 public administration employees allowed for assessing eating habits, occupational stress and coping styles. The eating habits correlated with work stress (ro-Spearman's = 0.17-0.29). More unhealthy eating patterns were observed in employees characterized by a higher level of stress. Such stressors as overload, lack of control over work and inappropriate work organization were especially related to poorer eating habits. Among the analyzed coping styles, focusing on emotions (ro-S = 0.19) and searching for emotional support most significantly correlated with poorer eating behaviors (ro-S = 0.16). There were statistically significant differences in eating habits, depending on the level of job stress (U = 1583.50, p stress had a stronger tendency to habitual and emotional eating more than those with a medium level of job stress. The relationship between subjective assessment of job stress, coping and eating habits has been confirmed. Taking into account the role of stress and coping, as the potential determinants of eating patterns in humans, more attention should be paid to education and promotion of knowledge about the relationship between stress and human eating behaviors to prevent obesity and eating disorders.

  11. Northern Fur Seal Food Habits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on northern fur seal rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1987 to present....

  12. Healthy Habits Can Lengthen Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2018 Print this issue Health Capsule Healthy Habits Can Lengthen Life Send us your comments Physical activity is one of five healthy lifestyle factors that can lower your risk for several diseases and lengthen ...

  13. Make peak flow a habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma - make peak flow a habit; Reactive airway disease - peak flow; Bronchial asthma - peak flow ... 2014:chap 55. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program website. How to use a peak flow meter. ...

  14. Relationships of adolescent's dietary habits with personality traits and food neophobia according to family meal frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Mi Sook; Kim, Miseon

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND A higher frequency of family meals is associated with good dietary habits in young people. This study focused on the relationships of family meal frequency with food neophobia and personality traits in adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHOD For this purpose, we administered a survey to 495 middle school students in Seoul metropolitan city, after which the data were analyzed using the SPSS (18.0) program. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationships among dietary habits, personality traits, and food neophobia according to frequency of family meals. RESULTS Dietary habits, personality traits, and food neophobia all showed significant differences according to the frequency of family meals. Further, eating regular family meals was associated with good dietary habits (P food neophobia (P habits and food neophobia showed a negative correlation (P habits and personality traits showed a positive correlation (P food neophobia showed a negative correlation (P habits, personality traits, and food neophobia in adolescents. PMID:25110570

  15. [Habitability and life support systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, Iu G; Adamovich, B A

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses various aspects of space vehicle habitability and life support systems. It describes variations in the chemical and microbial composition of an enclosed atmosphere during prolonged real and simulated flights. The paper gives a detailed description of life support systems and environmental investigations onboard the Mir station. It also outlines the development of space vehicle habitability and life support systems as related to future flights.

  16. Associations between food consumption habits with meal intake behaviour in Spanish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kristin; Rodríguez López, Santiago; Carmenate Moreno, M Margarita; Acevedo Cantero, Paula

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the contribution of different types of meal intake behaviour on a healthy diet and seeks to find associations with food consumption habits. A cross-sectional survey with data from 1332 Spanish adults aged between 20 and 79 years was conducted. The survey was carried out during the cardiovascular health event 'Semanas del Corazon 2008' in four Spanish cities. Several food consumption habits such as the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, as well as the regular consumption of fatty and salty food and ready-made meals, were used as dependent variables in logistic regression. We evaluated different meal intake behaviour such as the type of meals, snacking, and drinks taken with a meal. Our survey revealed that snacking is positively associated with the regular consumption of salty and fatty food, and having sugary drinks with meals was positively associated with the regular consumption of ready-made meals. Having a forenoon meal is positively associated with the consumption of two or more portions of milk and dairy products and vegetables, and taking an afternoon meal with the recommended intake of milk and dairy products and fruits. Drinking water during a meal increases the probability of consuming two or more portions of fruits and vegetables. Our results enhance the understanding of the contribution that meal intake behaviour makes to a healthy diet based on food consumption habits. This work provides an insight into eating behaviour and would make a useful contribution to interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating habits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relative Contribution of Obesity, Sedentary Behaviors and Dietary Habits to Sleep Duration Among Kuwaiti Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haifi, Ahmad A; AlMajed, Hana Th; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Arab, Mariam A; Hasan, Rasha A

    2015-05-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether body mass index (BMI), eating habits and sedentary behaviours were associated with sleep duration among Kuwaiti adolescents. The study is part of the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS), which is a school-based cross-sectional multi-center collaborative study. A sample of 906 adolescents (boys and girls) aged 14-19 years was randomly selected from 6 Kuwaiti Governances using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. The findings revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 50.5% in boys and 46.5% in girls. The majority of boys (76%) and of girls (74%) fell into the short sleep duration category (6 hours/day or less). Sleep duration were found to be negatively associated with BMI (girls only). Watching television (boys and girls) and working on computers (boys only) were also negatively associated with sleep duration. While the consumption of breakfast (both genders) and milk (boys only) was positively associated with sleep duration (pgenders), sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets (boys only) potatoes (girls only) were negatively associated with sleep duration (peating habits and more sedentary behaviors. The findings also suggest gender differences in these associations. Therefore, adequate sleep is an important modifiable risk factor to prevent obesity and was positively associated with some unhealthy lifestyle habits.

  18. NRC study of control room habitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, J.J. Jr.; Muller, D.R.; Gammill, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1980, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) has held several meetings with the NRC staff to discuss the subject of control room habitability. Several meetings between the ACRS and the staff have resulted in ACRS letters that express specific concerns, and the staff has provided responses in reports and meetings. In June of 1983, the NRC Executive Director for Operations directed the Offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and Inspection and Enforcement to develop a plan to handle the issues raised by the ACRS and to report to him specific proposed courses of action to respond to the ACRS's concerns. The NRC control room habitability working group has reviewed the subject in such areas as NRR review process, transformation of control room habitability designs to as-built systems, and determination of testing protocol. The group has determined that many of the ACRS concerns and recommendations are well founded, and has recommended actions to be taken to address these as well as other concerns which were raised independent of the ACRS. The review has revealed significant areas where the approach presently utilized in reviews should be altered

  19. The quantitative modelling of human spatial habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, James A.

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical model for evaluating human spatial habitability (HuSH) in the proposed U.S. Space Station is developed. Optimizing the fitness of the space station environment for human occupancy will help reduce environmental stress due to long-term isolation and confinement in its small habitable volume. The development of tools that operationalize the behavioral bases of spatial volume for visual kinesthetic, and social logic considerations is suggested. This report further calls for systematic scientific investigations of how much real and how much perceived volume people need in order to function normally and with minimal stress in space-based settings. The theoretical model presented in this report can be applied to any size or shape interior, at any scale of consideration, for the Space Station as a whole to an individual enclosure or work station. Using as a point of departure the Isovist model developed by Dr. Michael Benedikt of the U. of Texas, the report suggests that spatial habitability can become as amenable to careful assessment as engineering and life support concerns.

  20. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, Jack S.; Palmer, Paul I. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S., E-mail: j.s.yates@ed.ac.uk [Centre for Exoplanet Science, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-20

    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. To illustrate our model, we use a cool Y dwarf atmosphere, such as WISE J085510.83–0714442.5, whose 4.5–5.2 μ m spectrum shows absorption features consistent with water vapor and clouds. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment, we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Based on a previously defined statistical approach, we infer that there are of the order of 10{sup 9} cool Y brown dwarfs in the Milky Way, and likely a few tens of these objects are within 10 pc from Earth. Our work also has implications for exploring life in the atmospheres of temperate gas giants. Consideration of the habitable volumes in planetary atmospheres significantly increases the volume of habitable space in the galaxy.

  1. COMPARATIVE HABITABILITY OF TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole, E-mail: rory@astro.washington.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 951580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass–radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions.

  2. COMPARATIVE HABITABILITY OF TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass–radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions

  3. Habit versus choice: the process of decision-making in health-related behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbladh, Eva; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus

    2002-08-01

    Social differences in the role of habits in health-related behaviour are explored within both sociology and economics, where we define habits as non-reflective, repetitive behaviour. The corresponding theoretical perspectives are the habitus theory, the theory of individualization, and habits as rational decision rules. Sixteen thematically structured interviews are analysed using qualitative methodology. Three aspects of habits emerged from the narrative: the association between habits and preferences, habits as a source of utility, and the relationship between habits and norms. We find that people in lower social positions are more inclined to rely on their habits and are accordingly less likely to change their behaviour. These differences are reinforced as not only the disposition to maintain habits but also the tendency to conceive of the habitual as something good seems to be strengthened in lower social positions. We also note that the intensified individualization that characterizes current society erodes the basis for habit-governed behaviour, which may also contribute to social differences in well-being. Finally, we find that the scientific dialogue has enriched both scientific paradigms, and suggest as a tentative hypothesis that the traditional economic rational-actor model may be relatively less applicable to those with limited resources.

  4. Ensemble clustering in visual working memory biases location memories and reduces the Weber noise of relative positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Timothy F; Vul, Edward

    2015-01-01

    People seem to compute the ensemble statistics of objects and use this information to support the recall of individual objects in visual working memory. However, there are many different ways that hierarchical structure might be encoded. We examined the format of structured memories by asking subjects to recall the locations of objects arranged in different spatial clustering structures. Consistent with previous investigations of structured visual memory, subjects recalled objects biased toward the center of their clusters. Subjects also recalled locations more accurately when they were arranged in fewer clusters containing more objects, suggesting that subjects used the clustering structure of objects to aid recall. Furthermore, subjects had more difficulty recalling larger relative distances, consistent with subjects encoding the positions of objects relative to clusters and recalling them with magnitude-proportional (Weber) noise. Our results suggest that clustering improved the fidelity of recall by biasing the recall of locations toward cluster centers to compensate for uncertainty and by reducing the magnitude of encoded relative distances.

  5. Habitable worlds with no signs of life

    OpenAIRE

    Cockell, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Most habitable worlds in the cosmos will have no remotely detectable signs of life’ is proposed as a biological hypothesis to be tested in the study of exoplanets. Habitable planets could be discovered elsewhere in the Universe, yet there are many hypothetical scenarios whereby the search for life on them could yield negative results. Scenarios for habitable worlds with no remotely detectable signatures of life include: planets that are habitable, but have no biosphere (Uninhabited Habitable...

  6. Tidal locking of habitable exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rory

    2017-12-01

    Potentially habitable planets can orbit close enough to their host star that the differential gravity across their diameters can produce an elongated shape. Frictional forces inside the planet prevent the bulges from aligning perfectly with the host star and result in torques that alter the planet's rotational angular momentum. Eventually the tidal torques fix the rotation rate at a specific frequency, a process called tidal locking. Tidally locked planets on circular orbits will rotate synchronously, but those on eccentric orbits will either librate or rotate super-synchronously. Although these features of tidal theory are well known, a systematic survey of the rotational evolution of potentially habitable exoplanets using classic equilibrium tide theories has not been undertaken. I calculate how habitable planets evolve under two commonly used models and find, for example, that one model predicts that the Earth's rotation rate would have synchronized after 4.5 Gyr if its initial rotation period was 3 days, it had no satellites, and it always maintained the modern Earth's tidal properties. Lower mass stellar hosts will induce stronger tidal effects on potentially habitable planets, and tidal locking is possible for most planets in the habitable zones of GKM dwarf stars. For fast-rotating planets, both models predict eccentricity growth and that circularization can only occur once the rotational frequency is similar to the orbital frequency. The orbits of potentially habitable planets of very late M dwarfs ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]) are very likely to be circularized within 1 Gyr, and hence, those planets will be synchronous rotators. Proxima b is almost assuredly tidally locked, but its orbit may not have circularized yet, so the planet could be rotating super-synchronously today. The evolution of the isolated and potentially habitable Kepler planet candidates is computed and about half could be tidally locked. Finally, projected TESS planets

  7. From good intentions to healthy habits: towards integrated computational models of goal striving and habit formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirolli, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Computational models were developed in the ACT-R neurocognitive architecture to address some aspects of the dynamics of behavior change. The simulations aim to address the day-to-day goal achievement data available from mobile health systems. The models refine current psychological theories of self-efficacy, intended effort, and habit formation, and provide an account for the mechanisms by which goal personalization, implementation intentions, and remindings work.

  8. When the dark ones gain power : perceived position power strengthens the effect of supervisor Machiavellianism on abusive supervision in work teams.

    OpenAIRE

    Wisse, B.; Sleebos, E.

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has focused on the potential maladaptive consequences of the Dark Triad personality traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism) in organizational contexts. This research builds upon this work, examining the influence of supervisor position power on the relationship between supervisor Dark Triad traits and abusive supervision in teams. Regression analysis on the data of 225 teams revealed that supervisor Machiavellianism is positively related to abusive supervisi...

  9. Correlation between Health Perception, Body Image, and Eating Habits in High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ichsan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental disorders, including eating disorders, mostly begin during youth. Moreover, negative body image is found to cause unhealthy eating habits in the context of several cross-cultural settings. This study aimed to examine the correlation between health perception and body image with eating habits among high school students. Methods: A structured, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to students of a private high school in Bandung, Indonesia in June-October 2014. The questionnaire included questions about health perception, body image, eating habits, body weight and height, and also other demographic parameters. The school was selected as the study object through purposive sampling, and 140 high school students (72 male and 68 female were ramdomly selected. Results: Male and female did not show considerable differences in health perceptions. Out of 13 statements, 12 statements of male respondents showed better body image than female. While in eating habits statements, female respondents seemed to maintain healthier eating habits than male respondents. No significant correlation was observed between body image and eating habits (r=-0.015, p=0.858. There was significant correlation between health perception and eating habits (r=0.374, p<0.001. Correlation between sex and eating habits was found (p=0.020, there was not significant relationship between eating habits and Body Mass Index (BMI (p=0.368. Conclusions: The negative relationship between body image and eating habits is not significant. However there was a significant positive relationship between health perception and eating habits. Furthermore, there was correlation between sex and eating habits, while the positive relationship between eating habits and BMI was still not found.

  10. Eating habits and behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your chance of success. Keep healthy snacks at work. Pack healthy lunches that you make at home. Pay attention to your feelings of hunger. Learn the difference between physical hunger and habitual eating or eating as a response to stress or boredom.

  11. ESC Working Group on Valvular Heart Disease position paper--heart valve clinics: organization, structure, and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Rosenhek, Raphael; Pibarot, Philippe; Iung, Bernard; Otto, Catherine M; Tornos, Pilar; Donal, Erwan; Prendergast, Bernard; Magne, Julien; La Canna, Giovanni; Piérard, Luc A; Maurer, Gerald

    2013-06-01

    With an increasing prevalence of patients with valvular heart disease (VHD), a dedicated management approach is needed. The challenges encountered are manifold and include appropriate diagnosis and quantification of valve lesion, organization of adequate follow-up, and making the right management decisions, in particular with regard to the timing and choice of interventions. Data from the Euro Heart Survey have shown a substantial discrepancy between guidelines and clinical practice in the field of VHD and many patients are denied surgery despite having clear indications. The concept of heart valve clinics (HVCs) is increasingly recognized as the way to proceed. At the same time, very few centres have developed such expertise, indicating that specific recommendations for the initial development and subsequent operating requirements of an HVC are needed. The aim of this position paper is to provide insights into the rationale, organization, structure, and expertise needed to establish and operate an HVC. Although the main goal is to improve the clinical management of patients with VHD, the impact of HVCs on education is of particular importance: larger patient volumes foster the required expertise among more senior physicians but are also fundamental for training new cardiologists, medical students, and nurses. Additional benefits arise from research opportunities resulting from such an organized structure and the delivery of standardized care protocols. The growing volume of patients with VHD, their changing characteristics, and the growing technological opportunities of refined diagnosis and treatment in addition to the potential dismal prognosis if overlooked mandate specialized evaluation and care by dedicated physicians working in a specialized environment that is called the HVC.

  12. Identification and management of cardiometabolic risk in Canada: a position paper by the cardiometabolic risk working group (executive summary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Lawrence A; Fitchett, David H; Gilbert, Richard E; Gupta, Milan; Mancini, G B John; McFarlane, Philip A; Ross, Robert; Teoh, Hwee; Verma, Subodh; Anand, Sonia; Camelon, Kathryn; Chow, Chi-Ming; Cox, Jafna L; Després, Jean-Pierre; Genest, Jacques; Harris, Stewart B; Lau, David C W; Lewanczuk, Richard; Liu, Peter P; Lonn, Eva M; McPherson, Ruth; Poirier, Paul; Qaadri, Shafiq; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Rabkin, Simon W; Sharma, Arya M; Steele, Andrew W; Stone, James A; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tobe, Sheldon; Ur, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    With the objectives of clarifying the concepts related to "cardiometabolic risk," "metabolic syndrome" and "risk stratification" and presenting practical strategies to identify and reduce cardiovascular risk in multiethnic patient populations, the Cardiometabolic Working Group presents an executive summary of a detailed analysis and position paper that offers a comprehensive and consolidated approach to the identification and management of cardiometabolic risk. The above concepts overlap and relate to the atherogenic process and development of type 2 diabetes. However, there is confusion about what these terms mean and how they can best be used to improve our understanding of cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention. The concepts related to cardiometabolic risk, pathophysiology, and strategies for identification and management (including health behaviours, pharmacotherapy, and surgery) in the multiethnic Canadian population are presented. "Global cardiometabolic risk" is proposed as an umbrella term for a comprehensive list of existing and emerging factors that predict cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Health behaviour interventions (weight loss, physical activity, diet, smoking cessation) in people identified at high cardiometabolic risk are of critical importance given the emerging crisis of obesity and the consequent epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Vascular protective measures (health behaviours for all patients and pharmacotherapy in appropriate patients) are essential to reduce cardiometabolic risk, and there is growing consensus that a multidisciplinary approach is needed to adequately address cardiometabolic risk factors. Health care professionals must also consider ethnicity-related risk factors in order to appropriately evaluate all individuals in their diverse patient populations. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Orbital Dynamics and Habitability of Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitrick, Russell J.

    With the discoveries of thousands of extra-solar planets, a handful of which are terrestrial in size and located within the "habitable zone" of their host stars, the discovery of another instance of life in the universe seems increasingly within our grasp. Yet, a number of difficulties remain--with current and developing technologies, the full characterization of a terrestrial atmosphere and, hence, the detection of biosignatures will be extraordinarily difficult and expensive. Furthermore, observations will be ambiguous, as recent developments have shown that there is no "smoking gun" for the presence of life. Ultimately, the interpretation of observations will depend heavily upon our understanding of life's fundamental properties and the physical context of a planet's observed properties. This thesis is devoted to a development of the latter quantity, physical context, focusing on a topic oft-neglected in theoretical works of habitability: orbital dynamics. I show a number of ways in which orbital dynamics can affect the habitability of exoplanets. This work highlights the crucial role of stability, mutual inclinations, and resonances, demonstrating how these properties influence atmospheric states. Studies of exoplanetary systems tend to assume that the planets are coplanar, however, the large mutual inclination of the planets orbiting upsilon Andromedae suggests that coplanarity is not always a valid assumption. In my study of this system, I show that the large inclination between planets c and d and their large eccentricities lead to dramatic orbital variations. Though there is almost certainly no habitable planet orbiting upsilon And, the existence of this system demonstrates that we should expect other such dynamically "hot" planetary systems, some of which may contain potentially habitable planets. Minute variations in a planet's orbit can lead to changes in the global temperature, and indeed, these variations seem to be intimately connected to Earth

  14. Positive benefits of caring on nurses' motivation and well-being: a diary study about the role of emotional regulation abilities at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, Luis Manuel Blanco; Demerouti, Evangelia; Garrosa Hernández, Eva; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Carmona Cobo, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    Recent research reveals that not all job demands have negative effects on workers' well-being and suggests that the negative or positive effects of specific job demands depend on the occupational sector. Specifically, emotional job demands form the heart of the work for nurses and for this reason they can be interpreted by nurses as a challenge that promotes motivation and well-being among these professionals, especially if personal and job resources become available. The study had two objectives. First, to examine whether daily emotional demands within a nursing work context have a positive effect on nurses' daily motivation at work (vigour) and well-being at home (vitality and positive affect). Second, to explore whether this positive effect could be enhanced by nurses' emotional regulation abilities. This research used a diary design to explore daily experiences and to analyze how variations in specific job or personal characteristics can affect levels of motivation and well-being across days. Fifty-three nurses working in different Spanish hospitals and primary health care centres completed a general questionnaire and a diary booklet over 5 consecutive working days in two different moments, after work and at night (N=53 participants and N=265 observations). In line with our hypotheses, multi-level analyses revealed that, on the one hand, day-level emotional demands at work had a positive effect on vigour at work and on vitality at home. On the other hand, analyses showed that nurses with higher emotional regulation abilities have more motivation at work and well-being at home when they have to face high emotional demands at work, showing a spill over effect after work. These findings support the idea that emotional demands from the nursing profession can act as challenges which promote motivation and well-being, especially if internal emotional resources become available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Role of the Five Factor Model of Personality in the Perceptions of Negative and Positive Forms of Work-Nonwork Spillover: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jesse S.; Clark, Malissa A.; Jaramillo, David

    2011-01-01

    The present meta-analysis examines the relationships between the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality and negative and positive forms of work-nonwork spillover (e.g., work-family conflict and facilitation). Results, based on aggregated correlations drawn from 66 studies and 72 independent samples (Total N = 28,127), reveal that the FFM is…

  16. When the dark ones gain power: Perceived position power strengthens the effect of supervisor Machiavellianism on abusive supervision in work teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, B.; Sleebos, E.

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has focused on the potential maladaptive consequences of the Dark Triad personality traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism) in organizational contexts. This research builds upon this work, examining the influence of supervisor position power on the relationship

  17. Fifteen to Twenty Seconds of Eye Movements Have No Effect on Believability of Positive Personal Verbal Statements : Results From a Working Memory Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijssen, S.J.M.A.; van den Hout, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    According to working memory theory, a task that taxes working memory during simultaneous focus on a memory will tend to reduce memory vividness and emotional intensity. Results have been found for both negative and positive memories. Some studies have shown the necessity of modality-specific tasks,

  18. Socioeconomic position, psychosocial work environment and disability in an ageing workforce: a longitudinal analysis of SHARE data from 11 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jan D; Wahrendorf, Morten; Siegrist, Johannes

    2013-03-01

    Prevention of disability in the ageing workforce is essential for sustaining economic growth in Europe. In order to provide information on entry points for preventive measures, it is important to better understand sociodemographic, socioeconomic and work-related determinants of disability in older employees. We aimed to test the hypothesis that low socioeconomic position and exposure to a stressful psychosocial work environment at baseline contribute to later disability. We further assumed that the association of socioeconomic position with disability is partly mediated by exposure to adverse working conditions. We studied longitudinal data from the first two waves of the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe comprising 11 European countries. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic and work-related factors (low control, effort-reward imbalance) and baseline disability of 2665 male and 2209 female employees aged between 50 and 64 years were used to predict disability 2 years later. Following the International Classification of Functioning (ICF), disability was subdivided into the components 'impairment' and 'restriction in activities and participation'. Two multilevel Poisson regressions were fitted to the data. After adjusting for baseline disability and relevant confounding variables, low socioeconomic position and chronic stress at work exerted significant effects on disability scores 2 years later. We found some support for the hypothesis that the association of socioeconomic position with disability is partly mediated by work stress. Investing in reduction of work stress and reducing social inequalities in health functioning are relevant entry points of policies that aim at maintaining work ability in early old age.

  19. 37 CFR 201.20 - Methods of affixation and positions of the copyright notice on various types of works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., device, fixed, machine, motion picture, pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works, and their variant forms...-readable copies (such as magnetic tapes or disks, punched cards, or the like, from which the work cannot.... (i) Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works. The following constitute examples of acceptable methods...

  20. Interaction Effects of Social Isolation and Peripheral Work Position on Risk of Disability Pension: A Prospective Study of Swedish Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Klas; Marklund, Staffan; Aronsson, Gunnar; Wikman, Anders; Floderus, Birgitta

    2015-01-01

    The study examines various combinations of levels of social isolation in private life and peripheral work position as predictors of disability pension (DP). A second aim was to test the potential interaction effects (above additivity) of social isolation and peripheral work position on the future risk of DP, and to provide results for men and women by age. The study was based on a sample of 45567 women and men from the Swedish population who had been interviewed between 1992 and 2007. Further information on DP and diagnoses was obtained from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency's database (1993-2011). The studied predictors were related to DP using Cox's proportional hazard regression. The analyses were stratified on sex and age (20-39 years, 40-64 years), with control for selected confounders. Increased risks of DP were found for most combinations of social isolation and peripheral work position in all strata. The hazard ratios (HRs) for joint exposure to high degree of social isolation and a peripheral work position were particularly strong among men aged 20-39 (HR 5.70; CI 95% 3.74-8.69) and women aged 20-39 (HR 4.07; CI 2.99-5.56). An interaction effect from combined exposure was found for women in both age groups as well as a tendency in the same direction among young men. However, after confounder control the effects did not reach significance. Individuals who were socially isolated and in a peripheral work position had an increased risk of future DP. The fact that an interaction effect was found among women indicates that a combination of social isolation and peripheral work position may reinforce adverse health effects. There was no evidence that a peripheral work position can be compensated by a high degree of social intergration in private life.

  1. 7 Habits of Developmental Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Gibson; Shimon, Jane

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how coaches can apply principles of athlete growth and development to the learning and performance of motor skills. They present 7 habits that lead to well-rounded athletes who experience increased enjoyment, self-motivation, skill improvement, and ultimately more success on the playing field. (Contains 1…

  2. Domestic work and psychological distress--what is the importance of relative socioeconomic position and gender inequality in the couple relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Harryson

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether the relation between responsibility for domestic work and psychological distress was influenced by perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship and relative socioeconomic position.In the Northern Swedish Cohort, all pupils who studied in the last year of compulsory school in a northern Swedish town in 1981 have been followed regularly until 2007. In this study, participants living with children were selected (n = 371 women, 352 men. The importance of relative socioeconomic position and perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship in combination with domestic work for psychological distress was examined through logistic regression analysis.Two combinations of variables including socioeconomic position ('having less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and partner higher socioeconomic position' and 'having more than half the responsibility for domestic work and equal socioeconomic position' were related to psychological distress. There were also higher ORs for psychological distress for the combinations of having 'less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship' and 'more than half the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship'. Having a lower socioeconomic position than the partner was associated with higher ORs for psychological distress among men.This study showed that domestic work is a highly gendered activity as women tend to have a greater and men a smaller responsibility. Both these directions of inequality in domestic work, in combination with experiencing the couple relationship as gender-unequal, were associated with psychological distress There is a need for more research with a relational approach on inequalities in health in order to capture the power relations within couples in various settings.

  3. Is Hedging a Habit? Hedging Ratio Determination of Cotton Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorfman, J.H.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the role that habit plays when producers determine their hedge ratio. Data were collected from U.S. cotton growers in which they indicated their hedging position in 2001 and 2002 as well as their perceived profitability, land ownership structure, and income. To account for heterogeneity,

  4. Stability and change in alcohol habits of different socio-demographic subgroups--a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydén, Lovisa; Wennberg, Peter; Forsell, Yvonne; Romelsjö, Anders

    2014-05-29

    Stability in alcohol habits varies over time and in subgroups, but there are few longitudinal studies assessing stability in alcohol habits by socio-demographic subgroups and potential predictors of stability and change. The aim was to study stability and change in alcohol habits by sex, age, and socio-economic position (SEP). Data derived from two longitudinal population based studies in Sweden; the PART study comprising 19 457 individuals aged 20-64 years in 1998-2000, and the Stockholm Public Health Cohort (SPHC) with 50 067 individuals aged 18-84 years in 2002. Both cohorts were followed-up twice; PART 2000-2003 and 2010, and SPHC 2007 and 2010. Alcohol habits were measured with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and with normal weekly alcohol consumption (NWAC). Stability in alcohol habits was measured with intraclass correlation. Odds ratios were estimated in multinomial logistic regression analysis to predict stability in alcohol habits. For the two drinking measures there were no consistent patterns of stability in alcohol habits by sex or educational level. The stability was higher for older age groups and self-employed women. To be a man aged 30-39 at baseline predicted both increase and decrease in alcohol habits. The findings illustrate higher stability in alcohol habits with increasing age and among self-employed women with risky alcohol habits. To be a man and the age 30-39 predicted change in alcohol habits. No conclusive pattern of socio-economic position as predictor of change in alcohol habits was found and other studies of potential predictors seem warranted.

  5. Habitability in Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lobkowicz, Ysaline; de Crombrugghe, Guerric; Le Maire, Victor; Jago, Alban; Denies, Jonathan; van Vynckt, Delphine; Reydams, Marc; Mertens, Alexandre

    A manned space mission could be perfectly prepared in terms of sciences and technologies, but without a good habitat, a place where the needs of the crew are respected, this isolation and confinement can turn into a nightmare. There is the limitation of engineering: it is more than important to take care about architecture, when human lives are part of the experiment. The goal of the research is the analysis of the hard life of isolation and confinement in Mars' hostile environment and how architecture is a way to improve it. The objective is to place the human in the middle of the analysis. What does a person really need? Therefore Maslow's idea, the pyramid of primary needs, gives us the hierarchy to follow: first survival, food and beverage, then sleep, and only then protection, social activities and work. [1] No more luxury. If all these aspects are respected, a human is able to survive, like it did since so many years. The idea is that each of these main activities has to be related to a different type of space, to provide variability in this close environment. For example, work and relaxing areas have to be separated; a human being needs time for himself, without concentration. A workspace and a relaxing area have a different typology, different colours and lighting, dimensions, furniture. This has also to be respected in a spacecraft. For this research, different sources are used, mainly in the psychological aspect, which is the most important. [2] Therefore questionnaires, interviews, diaries of past expeditions are full of treasures. We do not have to search too far: on earth; polar expeditions, submarines, military camps, etc., give a lot of information. Some very realistic simulations, as on the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), will also be used as material: a good analysis of the defaults and well-organized part of the station can conduct to important conclusions. [3] A found analysis and a well-designed habitat are considerable keys for the success

  6. Habit in Personality and Social Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy

    2017-11-01

    Habits are largely absent from modern social and personality psychology. This is due to outdated perspectives that placed habits in conflict with goals. In modern theorizing, habits are represented in memory as implicit context-response associations, and they guide responding in conjunction with goals. Habits thus have important implications for our field. Emerging research shows that habits are an important mechanism by which people self-regulate and achieve long-term goals. Also, habits change through specific interventions, such as changes in context cues. I speculate that understanding of habits also holds promise for reducing intergroup discrimination and for understanding lay theories of the causes for action. In short, by recognizing habit, the field gains understanding of a central mechanism by which actions persist in daily life.

  7. Smoking habits among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori; Kimura, Masafumi

    1992-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation made a research through mailing, the smoking habits among the A-bomb survivors in 1978-79. Statistic analysis was made on the smoking habits and radiation doses. (J.P.N.)

  8. The rules of coherence and other habits

    OpenAIRE

    Solis, M. R. C.

    2003-01-01

    Physics and mathematics are difficult enough without the aditional burden of bad habits. In this article, we examine some helpful habits that tend to be underemphasized by many physics teachers (mainly because they seem so obvious!).

  9. Understanding moral habitability: a framework to enhance the quality of the clinical environment as a workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderheide, Rebecca; Moss, Cheryle; Lee, Susan

    2013-08-01

    There is compelling evidence in the nursing literature that the workplace is experienced as morally uninhabitable for many nurses and yet the concept of moral habitability remains underdeveloped. An integrative review on moral habitability in nursing was undertaken. The findings reveal that the primary concepts by which nurses write and research aspects of moral habitability are moral climate, moral agency, moral sensitivity and moral distress. It is revealed that nurses in their clinical work experience adversity and moral distress through relational challenges and contextual difficulties that can challenge habitability and inhibit nurses' capacity to provide morally sensitive patient care. The primary concepts identified provide a framework for further development of the concept of moral habitability within nursing practice. The related data within the integrative review also highlights the need for further research into enhancing and sustaining morally habitable workplaces for nurses.

  10. Oral Habits That Cause Malocclusion Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Joelijanto, Rudy

    2012-01-01

    Oral habits that place pressure on the teeth may slowly move the teeth out of place. The aim of this study was to review the literature for articles referring the most common oral habits that cause malocclusion. The oral bad habits that cause malocclussion problems include: Thumb sucking, It is a normal habit for babies, but causes serious orthodontic problems if it continues long after the eruption of permanent teeth. Prolonged thumb sucking can create crowded, crooked teeth, or bite problem...

  11. Beyond the principle of plentitude: a review of terrestrial planet habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, E; Deschenes, B; Dundon, L; Fagan, K; Menviel-Hessler, L; Moskovitz, N; Workman, M

    2005-04-01

    We review recent work that directly or indirectly addresses the habitability of terrestrial (rocky) planets like the Earth. Habitability has been traditionally defined in terms of an orbital semimajor axis within a range known as the habitable zone, but it is also well known that the habitability of Earth is due to many other astrophysical, geological, and geochemical factors. We focus this review on (1) recent refinements to habitable zone calculations; (2) the formation and orbital stability of terrestrial planets; (3) the tempo and mode of geologic activity (e.g., plate tectonics) on terrestrial planets; (4) the delivery of water to terrestrial planets in the habitable zone; and (5) the acquisition and loss of terrestrial planet carbon and nitrogen, elements that constitute important atmospheric gases responsible for habitable conditions on Earth's surface as well as being the building blocks of the biosphere itself. Finally, we consider recent work on evidence for the earliest habitable environments and the appearance of life itself on our planet. Such evidence provides us with an important, if nominal, calibration point for our search for other habitable worlds.

  12. Mars Habitability, Biosignature Preservation, and Mission Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2014-01-01

    Our work has elucidated a new analog for the formation of giant polygons on Mars, involving fluid expulsion in a subaqueous environment. That work is based on three-dimensional (3D) seismic data on Earth that illustrate the mud volcanoes and giant polygons that result from sediment compaction in offshore settings. The description of this process has been published in the journal Icarus, where it will be part of a special volume on Martian analogs. These ideas have been carried further to suggest that giant polygons in the Martian lowlands may be the signature of an ancient ocean and, as such, could mark a region of enhanced habitability. A paper describing this hypothesis has been published in the journal Astrobiology.

  13. Resting venous plasma adrenalin in 70-year-old men correlated positively to survival in a population study: the significance of the physical working capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Juel; Schultz-Larsen, K

    1994-01-01

    in a comprehensive medical examination. INTERVENTIONS. Plasma NA and A were measured in blood samples collected after the subjects had rested in the supine position for 15 min. The subjects have now been followed for 7 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Seven years later, 115 men and 63 women had died. RESULTS. Cox...... of physical working capacity was included in the Cox regression analysis, both plasma NA and plasma A became insignificant, whereas a strong positive correlation appeared between physical working capacity and survival (P

  14. nutritional status, functional ability and food habits of institutionalised

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-05-05

    May 5, 2004 ... Objective: To determine nutritional status, food habits and functional abilities of the institutionalised ... with special family work such as caring for young children, food ... The ability to get around in one' s environment is a basic ...

  15. Shape Your Family's Habits: Helping Kids Make Healthy Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kids to be active. When it comes to food and physical activity, what you say and do around your children can have a lasting effect. Work ... Choices Help Kids Form Healthy Habits Be a role model. Eat healthy family meals together. Walk or ride ...

  16. Factors Affecting the Habitability of Earth-like Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Victoria; NAI-Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team

    2014-03-01

    parameters and the gravitational influence of other planets in the system. A thorough assessment of a planet's environment and its potential habitability is a necessary first step in the search for biosignatures. Targeted environmental characteristics include surface temperature and pressure (e.g. Misra et al., 2013), a census of bulk and trace atmospheric gases, and whether there are signs of liquid water on the planetary surface (e.g. Robinson et al., 2010). The robustness of a planetary biosignature is dependent on being able to characterize the environment sufficiently well, and to understand likely star-planet interactions, to preclude formation of a biosignature gas via abiotic processes such as photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2007; Domagal-Goldman et al., 2011; Grenfell et al., 2012). Here we also discuss potential false positives for O2 and O3, which, in large quantities, are often considered robust biosignatures for oxygenic photosynthesis. There is clearly significant future work required to better identify and understand the key environmental processes and interactions that allow a planet to support life, and to distinguish life's global impact on an environment from the environment itself.

  17. Exercise and smoking habits among Swedish postmenopausal women.

    OpenAIRE

    Frisk, J; Brynhildsen, J; Ivarsson, T; Persson, P; Hammar, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess exercise habits and their relation to smoking habits and social and medical factors in postmenopausal women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a questionnaire to all 1324 55-56 year old women in Linköping, Sweden. RESULTS: Response rate was 85%. About a third of the women took part in some kind of quite strenuous exercise for at least one hour a week. After a quarter worked out once a week; fewer did swimming and jogging. One in four women smoked. Women who used hormo...

  18. Who are the objects of positive and negative gossip at work? A social network perspective on workplace gossip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellwardt, Lea; Labianca, Giuseppe (Joe); Wittek, Rafael

    Gossip is informal talking about colleagues. Taking a social network perspective, we argue that group boundaries and social status in the informal workplace network determine who the objects of positive and negative gossip are. Gossip networks were collected among 36 employees in a public child care

  19. Alcohol-related memory associations in positive and negative affect situations: Drinking motives, working memory capacity, and prospective drinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    Although studies on explicit alcohol cognitions have identified positive and negative reinforcing drinking motives that are differentially related to drinking indices, such a distinction has received less attention in studies on implicit cognitions. An alcohol-related Word-Sentence Association Task

  20. Socio-economic circumstances and food habits in Eastern, Central and Western European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Sinéad; Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero; Pikhart, Hynek; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Kubinova, Ruzena; Bragina, Oksana; Stepaniak, Urszula; Gillis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Simonova, Galina; Peasey, Anne; Bobak, Martin

    2011-04-01

    To assess the relationship between several socio-economic indicators and frequency of consumption of seven predefined healthy foods (consumption of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain bread, vegetable-fat spread, vegetable cooking fat, low-fat milk and low-fat cheese) in populations from Eastern, Central and Western Europe. Analysis of baseline data collected in two cross-sectional cohort studies between 2000 and 2005: the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study and the Finnish Helsinki Health Study (HHS). Urban populations in the Czech Republic, Russia, Poland and Finland. In the HAPIEE study, random samples of men and women aged 45-69 years were drawn from population registers and electoral lists of selected cities. In the HHS, men and women aged 40-60 years employed by the City of Helsinki were recruited. Data on 21,326 working subjects from both cohorts were analysed. Healthy food habits were, in general, positively associated with higher education, occupational position and fewer economic difficulties, but there were differences in the strength of the gradient by food and country. Fruit consumption showed the most consistent gradients, especially in relation to socio-economic status among men (country-specific relative index of inequality (RII)=2.02-5.17) and women (RII=2.09-3.57). The associations between socio-economic indicators and healthy food habits showed heterogeneity between countries. Future studies of dietary behaviours should consider multiple measures of socio-economic position.

  1. Habits, aspirations and endogenous fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Fanti

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the increasing literature on endogenous preferences as well as on endogenous fertility, this paper investigates the implications of the interaction of the endogenous determination of the number of children with habit and aspiration formation in an OLG model. In contrast with the previous literature, we show that greater aspirations may lead to higher savings, and more interestingly, always increase the neoclassical economic growth.

  2. Drug Advertising and Health Habit

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiaki Iizuka; Ginger Zhe Jin

    2005-01-01

    We examine the effect of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of drug treatment on an important health habit, physical exercise. By learning the existence of a new drug treatment via DTCA, rational consumers may become careless about maintaining healthy lifestyles. Using the National Health Insurance Survey (NHIS) and MSA-level DTCA data, we find that the DTCA related to four chronic conditions -- diabetes, high cholesterol, over weight, and hypertension -- reduce the likelihood of engaging ...

  3. I wonder if robots will take care of me when I am old: Positive aging representations of professionals working in health promotion services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, Catrinel; Flick, Uwe

    2016-12-01

    How the social and institutional context is structured and represented by its actors has an impact on positive aging representations. This qualitative study explores professionals' views on positive aging, how they promote positive aging in their practice and what disparities occur between their discourses and the actual practice of promoting positive aging. Interviews were conducted with professionals from different active aging promotion services and analyzed with thematic coding. Findings show professionals hold negative views on aging while trying to promote positive views in their work, illustrating an existing theory-practice gap. Strategies used in practice can be integrated in existing agency models and inform interventions and active aging policies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Widen the belt of habitability!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhlmann, D

    2012-06-01

    Among the key-parameters to characterize habitability are presence or availability of liquid water, an appropriate temperature range, and the time scale of reference. These criteria for habitability are discussed and described from the point of view of water- and ice-physics, and it is shown that liquid water may exist in the sub-surfaces of planetary bodies like Mars, and possibly of inner asteroids and internally heated ice-moons. Water can remain fluid there also at temperatures far below the "canonical" 0 °C. This behaviour is made possible as a consequence of the freezing point depression due to salty solutes in water or "brines", as they can be expected to exist in nature more frequently than pure liquid water. On the other hand, low temperatures cause a slowing down of chemical processes, as can be described by Arrhenius's relation. The resulting smaller reaction rates probably will have the consequence to complicate the detection of low-temperature life processes, if they exist. Furthermore, the adaptation potential of life is to be mentioned in this context as a yet partially unknown process. Resulting recommendations are given to improve the use of criteria to characterize habitable conditions.

  5. Review on the Role of Planetary Factors on Habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kereszturi, A; Noack, L

    2016-11-01

    In this work various factors on the habitability were considered, focusing on conditions irrespective of the central star's radiation, to see the role of specific planetary body related effects. These so called planetary factors were evaluated to identify those trans-domain issues where important information is missing but good chance exit to be filled by new knowledge that might be gained in the next decade(s). Among these strategic knowledge gaps, specific issues are listed, like occurrence of radioactive nucleides in star forming regions, models to estimate the existence of subsurface liquid water from bulk parameters plus evolutionary context of the given system, estimation on the existence of redox gradient depending on the environment type etc. These issues require substantial improvement of modelling and statistical handling of various cases, as "planetary environment types". Based on our current knowledge it is probable that subsurface habitability is at least as frequent, or more frequent than surface habitability. Unfortunately it is more difficult from observations to infer conditions for subsurface habitability, but specific argumentation might help with indirect ways, which might result in new methods to approach habitability in general.

  6. The habitability of planets orbiting M-dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Aomawa L.; Ballard, Sarah; Johnson, John Asher

    2016-12-01

    The prospects for the habitability of M-dwarf planets have long been debated, due to key differences between the unique stellar and planetary environments around these low-mass stars, as compared to hotter, more luminous Sun-like stars. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made by both space- and ground-based observatories to measure the likelihood of small planets to orbit in the habitable zones of M-dwarf stars. We now know that most M dwarfs are hosts to closely-packed planetary systems characterized by a paucity of Jupiter-mass planets and the presence of multiple rocky planets, with roughly a third of these rocky M-dwarf planets orbiting within the habitable zone, where they have the potential to support liquid water on their surfaces. Theoretical studies have also quantified the effect on climate and habitability of the interaction between the spectral energy distribution of M-dwarf stars and the atmospheres and surfaces of their planets. These and other recent results fill in knowledge gaps that existed at the time of the previous overview papers published nearly a decade ago by Tarter et al. (2007) and Scalo et al. (2007). In this review we provide a comprehensive picture of the current knowledge of M-dwarf planet occurrence and habitability based on work done in this area over the past decade, and summarize future directions planned in this quickly evolving field.

  7. Mineral water 222 Rn activity decrease due to consumption habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipriani, Moacir; Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da

    2001-01-01

    Mineral waters from the Pocos de Caldas Plateau springs, an elevated region with high natural radioactivity, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, have significant 222 Rn concentration on site. The highest concentration in the waters are from: Fonte Villela - Aguas da Prata (∼ 1000 Bql -1 ); Fonte Grande Hotel - Pocinhos do Rio Verde (∼ 400 Brq -1 ) and Fonte CNEN Lab - Pocos de Caldas (∼ 290 Bql -1 ). These waters are used by the population as drinking water and due to consumption habits, can lead to internal doses above accepted limits for the public. This work deals with the decrease of 222 Rn activity in mineral waters fro two different popular consumption habits, and with the adult effective dose equivalent reduction due to water consumption habits. It has been found that the estimated dose based on the biokinetic Crawford-Brown model, can be one fourth of dose based on 222 Rn activity on site. (author)

  8. [Significance of bad habits in orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarján, Ildikó

    2002-08-01

    The author is concerned with the etiological role of bad habits in the development. Disturbances caused by pacifier habits, finger sucking, various forms of swallowing habits and their therapeutical possibilities are discussed. The role of mouth breathing, nail biting, bruxism and self-mutilation in development of anomalies and their therapy are also mentioned. The attention is called to the fact that dentists have responsibility and task to diagnose as early as can be the oral bad habits and that the adequate therapy in time in co-operation with other specialists helping the child get out of bad habits, preventing the development of severe anomaly.

  9. The rocky road to prosocial behavior at work: The role of positivity and organizational socialization in preventing interpersonal strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, Stefano; Theodorou, Annalisa; Rullo, Marika; Cinque, Luigi; Alessandri, Guido

    2018-01-01

    Among relevant consequences of organizational socialization, a key factor is the promotion of organizational citizenship behaviors toward individuals (i.e. OCBI). However, the relation between organizational socialization and OCBI has received little attention. This study tests the validity of a moderated mediation model in which we examine the mediating effect of a decreased interpersonal strain on the relationship between organizational socialization and OCBI, and the moderation role of a positive personal resource in reducing interpersonal strain when an unsuccessful socialization subsists. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 765 new recruits of the Guardia di Finanza-a military Police Force reporting to the Italian Minister of Economy. Findings confirm our hypothesis that interpersonal strain mediates the relationship between organizational socialization and OCBI. The index of moderated mediation results significant, showing that this effect exists at different levels of positivity. Theoretical and practical implications for promoting pro-organizational behaviors are discussed.

  10. The rocky road to prosocial behavior at work: The role of positivity and organizational socialization in preventing interpersonal strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Annalisa; Rullo, Marika; Cinque, Luigi; Alessandri, Guido

    2018-01-01

    Among relevant consequences of organizational socialization, a key factor is the promotion of organizational citizenship behaviors toward individuals (i.e. OCBI). However, the relation between organizational socialization and OCBI has received little attention. This study tests the validity of a moderated mediation model in which we examine the mediating effect of a decreased interpersonal strain on the relationship between organizational socialization and OCBI, and the moderation role of a positive personal resource in reducing interpersonal strain when an unsuccessful socialization subsists. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 765 new recruits of the Guardia di Finanza–a military Police Force reporting to the Italian Minister of Economy. Findings confirm our hypothesis that interpersonal strain mediates the relationship between organizational socialization and OCBI. The index of moderated mediation results significant, showing that this effect exists at different levels of positivity. Theoretical and practical implications for promoting pro-organizational behaviors are discussed. PMID:29494621

  11. Flexibility trap – the effects of flexible working on the position of female professionals and managers within a corporate environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Formánková, Lenka; Křížková, Alena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2015), s. 225-238 ISSN 1754-2413 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP404/10/0021 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Gender stereotypes * Flexible working * Gender discrimination Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/GM-03-2014-0027

  12. Secondary Chemistry School Teachers Working in Tertiary Education Chemistry Departments; Critical Reflections on the Positives and Negatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, S. R.; Harrison, T. G.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    Several UK University Chemistry Departments have former secondary school chemistry teachers employed as School Teacher Fellows (STF) who are heavily involved in outreach work and a range of teaching responsibilities. This study looks at the outreach role from the point of view of several of the STFs; the benefits, and the barriers and how this…

  13. Executive Well-Being: Updating of Positive Stimuli in Working Memory Is Associated with Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pe, Madeline Lee; Koval, Peter; Kuppens, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A growing literature shows that the ability to control affective information in working memory (WM) plays an important role in emotional functioning. Whereas most studies have focused on executive processes relating to emotion dysregulation and mood disorders, few, if any, have looked at such processes in association with happiness. In this study,…

  14. Positive benefits from caring on nurses' motivation and well-being : a diary study about the role of emotional regulation abilities at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco-Donoso, L.M.; Demerouti, E.; Hernández, E.G.; Moreno-Jiménez, B.; Cobo, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent research reveals that not all job demands have negative effects on workers’ well-being and suggests that the negative or positive effects of specific job demands depend on the occupational sector. Specifically, emotional job demands form the heart of the work for nurses and for

  15. Improving Evaluation to Address the Unintended Consequences of Health Information Technology:. a Position Paper from the Working Group on Technology Assessment & Quality Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magrabi, F.; Ammenwerth, E.; Hyppönen, H.; de Keizer, N.; Nykänen, P.; Rigby, M.; Scott, P.; Talmon, J.; Georgiou, A.

    2016-01-01

    With growing use of IT by healthcare professionals and patients, the opportunity for any unintended effects of technology to disrupt care health processes and outcomes is intensified. The objectives of this position paper by the IMIA Working Group (WG) on Technology Assessment and Quality

  16. Using School Lunch Programs To Promote Positive Dietary Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Mary E.

    2002-01-01

    The variety of school lunch foods available has dramatically expanded as school food managers strive to increase sales and generate revenue. Though lunchtime offerings are often based on student preferences versus nutritional value, with a small investment of effort and commitment to student well-being, schools can create lunch programs that…

  17. Does the threshold for reporting musculoskeletal pain or the probability of attributing work-relatedness vary by socioeconomic position or sex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlum, Ingrid Sivesind; Kristensen, Petter; Veiersted, Kaj Bo; Wærsted, Morten; Punnett, Laura

    2013-08-01

    To examine the effect of sex and socioeconomic position (SEP) on individuals' perceptions of pain and its work-relatedness. We compared self-reported pain in neck-shoulder or arm with clinical diagnoses and workers' judgments of work-relatedness with physicians' assessments based on specific criteria, between sexes and high- and low-SEP participants in the Oslo Health Study (n = 217). Clinical diagnoses were more frequent in low-SEP subjects than high-SEP subjects with pain and generally higher in women than in men. Pain attributed to work was more frequently assessed as work-related by the physicians in low-SEP subjects than high-SEP subjects and in men than in women of low SEP. The threshold for reporting pain seemed higher in low-SEP subjects and among women. Physicians were more likely to agree with low-SEP workers about work-relatedness.

  18. Planning to break unwanted habits: habit strength moderates implementation intention effects on behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2009-09-01

    Implementation intention formation promotes effective goal striving and goal attainment. However, little research has investigated whether implementation intentions promote behaviour change when people possess strong antagonistic habits. Experiment 1 developed relatively habitual responses that, after a task switch, had a detrimental impact on task performance. Forming an if-then plan reduced the negative impact of habit on performance. However, the effect of forming implementation intentions was smaller among participants who possessed strong habits as compared to participants who had weaker habits. Experiment 2 provided a field test of the role of habit strength in moderating the relationship between implementation intentions and behaviour in the context of smoking. Implementation intentions reduced smoking among participants with weak or moderate smoking habits, but not among participants with strong smoking habits. In summary, habit strength moderates the effectiveness of if-then plan formation in breaking unwanted habits.

  19. American Nurses Association position statement on elimination of manual patient handling to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to establish a safe environment for nurses and patients, the American Nurses Association (ANA) supports actions and policies that result in the elimination of manual patient handling. Patient handling, such as lifting, repositioning, and transferring, has conventionally been performed by nurses. The performance of these tasks exposes nurses to increased risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. With the development of assistive equipment, such as lift and transfer devices, the risk of musculoskeletal injury can be significantly reduced. Effective use of assistive equipment and devices for patient handling creates a safe healthcare environment by separating the physical burden from the nurse and ensuring the safety, comfort, and dignity of the patient.

  20. How Can Interdisciplinarity Of food, Design, Architecture, Engineering And Pedagogy Affect Children's Eating Habits And Food Preferences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hermanssdottir, Sunna; Rasmussen, Mai

    Meals in day-care centers have for many children a crucial influence on the total experience of the stay. Research already suggests, that the meal situation should not be delimited to the nutritional meaning only, but has to be seen in a broad holistic perspective (Rasmussen and Smidt, 2001). In ...... and pedagogy can create solutions that positively affect eating habits and food preferences among children, and furthermore if this aspect can strengthen innovation in the food sector and create valuable solutions related to health benefits among children.......). In our research, regarding children’s eating habits and food preferences, we collaborated interdisciplinary, working holistically, involving appropriate disciplines, where knowledge from different fields was involved. The importance of working interdisciplinary in food innovation can be seen......, that affect children’s eating habits and food preferences. In order to make evidence in the field, an interdisciplinary team consisting of food specialists, designers, engineers, architects and pedagogues, created a carrot pavilion and appurtenant carrot activities. The aim was to influence the children...

  1. Intrinsic rewards, fruit and vegetable consumption, and habit strength: a three-wave study testing the associative-cybernetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Amelie U; Gardner, Benjamin; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2014-03-01

    Habit formation is thought to lead to long-term maintenance of fruit and vegetable consumption. Habits develop through context-dependent repetition, but additional variables such as intrinsic reward of behaviour may influence habit strength. Drawing upon the Associative-Cybernetic Model, this exploratory study tested different pathways by which intrinsic reward may influence fruit and vegetable consumption habit strength. In a three-wave study of fruit and vegetable intake in adults (N = 127) from the general population, intrinsic reward, intention, and self-efficacy were assessed at baseline, fruit and vegetable consumption and intrinsic reward two weeks later, and habit strength another two weeks later. Direct, indirect, and moderation effects of intrinsic reward on habit strength were tested simultaneously in a moderated mediation model. Intrinsic reward had a positive indirect effect on habit strength through its influence on the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption. Further, the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and habit was stronger where consumption was considered more intrinsically rewarding. Findings highlight the potential relevance of intrinsic reward to habit. We suggest that intrinsic rewards from behaviour may not only facilitate habit via behaviour frequency, but also reinforce the relationship between behavioural repetition and habit strength. © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  2. Habitability in long-term space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Frances E.

    1987-01-01

    The research (both in progress and completed) conducted for the U.S. Space Station in relation to the crew habitability and crew productivity is discussed. Methods and tasks designed to increase the data base of the man/system information are described. The particular research areas discussed in this paper include human productivity, on-orbit maintenance, vewing requirements, fastener types, and crew quarters. This information (along with data obtained on human interaction with command/control work station, anthropometic factors, crew equipment, galley/wardroom, restraint systems, etc) will be integrated into the common data base for the purpose of assisting the design of the Space Station and other future manned space missions.

  3. Influence of the Level of the Development of Skills on Labour Potential, its Implementation and Choice of Work Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniya Aleksandrovna Ustinova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the sociological assessment of the skills level and identification of its influence on some aspects of labour activity: the realization of labour potential, choice of the scope of activity, position and occupation. It suggests an approach based on the subjective evaluation of the population as an instrument of the skills level assessment. The received results are compared with the indirect estimates allowing to characterize some particular components of labour potential which are similar to the considered skills. A specific feature of the research is not only the determination of the professional sphere, occupation and position on the skills level, but also the accounting of the reverse effect. The methodological tools including the methods for the assessment of skills level, labour potential and extent of its implementation in a labour activity have been approved in the Vologda region. The study revealed that, at the present time, the most developed skills are the teamwork, communication and mutual understanding while the least developed ones are the initiative and creativity as well as ability to be retrained and readiness to increase the professional level. It shows that the employees of socially oriented spheres and also the representatives of state structures have more developed skills. At the same time, the development of innovative skills not only leads to the growth of labour potential, but also creates conditions for the employment in workplaces with higher skills requirements. The paper shows that higher skills level along with higher skills requirements leads to more complete implementation of cumulative potential in the labour activity. The received results can be used by regional authorities for the development of the analytical system of labour market, the development of labour force and the labour potential of the population.

  4. Smoking habit and gastritis histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiot, A; Kemona, A; Namiot, Z

    2007-01-01

    Long-term cigarette smoking may increase the risk of digestive tract pathologies, however, what is the influence smoking habit on gastric mucosa histology is still poorly elicited. The aim of the study was to compare histological evaluation of gastritis in smoker and non-smoker groups. A total of 236 patients of various H. pylori status (109 infected, 127 non-infected), clinical diagnosis (107 duodenal ulcer disease, 129 dyspepsia), and smoking habit (92 smokers, 144 non-smokers) were included. Subjects were classified as smokers if they smoked 5 or more cigarettes per day for at least 3 years. A histological examination of endoscopically obtained samples was performed by two experienced pathomorphologists blinded to the diagnoses and smoking habit. Microscopic slices of the gastric mucosa were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Giemsa. Apart from histological diagnosis, H. pylori status was additionally confirmed by an urease test (CLO-test) at least in one of two gastric locations (antrum or corpus). In the H. pylori infected population, H. pylori density, neutrophils, and mononuclear cells infiltration in the gastric corpus mucosa were lower in smokers than non-smokers, while in the antrum the differences were not significant. In the non-infected population, no significant differences in neutrophils and mononuclear cells infiltration between smokers and non-smokers were found. Since the significant differences in studied parameters of chronic gastritis between smokers and non-smokers were found in the corpus mucosa of H. pylori infected subjects, smoking should be taken into account when a histological evaluation of the gastric mucosa in the H. pylori infected population is performed.

  5. Earth as an Exoplanet: Lessons in Recognizing Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Victoria; Robinson, Tyler; Misra, Amit; Ennico, Kimberly; Sparks, William B.; Claire, Mark; Crisp, David; Schwieterman, Edward; Bussey, D. Ben J.; Breiner, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Earth will always be our best-studied example of a habitable world. While extrasolar planets are unlikely to look exactly like Earth, they may share key characteristics, such as oceans, clouds and surface inhomogeneity. Earth's globally-averaged characteristics can therefore help us to recognize planetary habitability in data-limited exoplanet observations. One of the most straightforward ways to detect habitability will be via detection of 'glint', specular reflectance from an ocean (Robinson et al., 2010). Other methods include undertaking a census of atmospheric greenhouse gases, or attempting to measure planetary surface temperature and pressure, to determine if liquid water would be feasible on the planetary surface. Here we present recent research on detecting planetary habitability, led by the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team. This work includes a collaboration with the NASA Lunar Science Institute on the detection of ocean glint and ozone absorption using Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Earth observations (Robinson et al., 2014). This data/model comparison provides the first observational test of a technique that could be used to determine exoplanet habitability from disk-integrated observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. We find that the VPL spectral Earth model is in excellent agreement with the LCROSS Earth data, and can be used to reliably predict Earth's appearance at a range of phases relevant to exoplanet observations. Determining atmospheric surface pressure and temperature directly for a potentially habitable planet will be challenging due to the lack of spatial-resolution, presence of clouds, and difficulty in spectrally detecting many bulk constituents of terrestrial atmospheres. Additionally, Rayleigh scattering can be masked by absorbing gases and absorption from the underlying surface. However, new techniques using molecular dimers of oxygen (Misra et al., 2014) and nitrogen

  6. Humanizing outer space: architecture, habitability, and behavioral health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Albert A.

    2010-03-01

    Space architecture is the theory and practice of designing and building environments for humans in outer space. In our present century professional astronauts and cosmonauts will remain a focus for space architects, but new designs must better accommodate passengers (tourists and industrial workers) and settlers who set forth to establish off-world societies. Psychologists and architects can work together to assure good spaceflight behavioral health, defined by a lack of neuropsychiatric dysfunction, and the presence of high levels of personal adjustment, cordial interpersonal relations, and positive interactions with the physical and social environments. By designing and constructing facilities that are occupant centered and activity oriented, architects increase habitability thereby decreasing environmental challenges to behavioral health. Simulators and spaceflight-analogous environments make it possible to test design solutions prior to their deployment in space. This paper concludes with suggestions for increasing collaboration between architects and psychologists. These include increased sharing of hypotheses and data, articulating complementary research styles, and mutual advocacy for early, potent, and sustained involvement in mission planning and execution.

  7. Profile analysis of rural and urban schoolchildren: life style and postural habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Dalla Pria Bankoff

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the profile of 7-to-14-year-old male and female schoolchildren with regard to their life style and postural habits. It was carried out through a specific protocol for this project, including open and close questions. The analysis of the results led to the following conclusions: a parents need to be clarified about their children’s necessity of leisure time; b the schoolchildren studied spend too little time on sports practice and physical activies; c their postural habits revealed a predominance of fetal sleeping position on foam rubber mattresses, the use of backpacks to carry their school materials and the sitting position at the desk with flexed legs and the feet touching the floor; d rural schoolchildren have less leisure time available to practice sports and other specific physical activities because after school time they work with their parents in the fields; e a high rate of spine radiographies was detected.

  8. Development of a rotary clap mechanism for positive-displacement rotary pumps: Kinematic analysis and working principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Sung Bo; Kim, Kyeong Uk; Park, Young Jun; Kim, Jong Mun

    2015-01-01

    A five-bar spatial mechanism named as a rotary clap mechanism is developed as a pumping device for positive displacement rotary pumps. The mechanism comprises a driving crank, a shaft link with two pins and two gears mounted on the middle and both ends, two rotors with jaws equally spaced along their circumferences, and two fixed internal gears. As the crank rotates, the gear pin-jointed to the crank rotates about the crank pin and at the same time rotates about the center of the fixed internal gears like a hypo-cyclic gear train. The gear-attached shaft link also rotates about the crank pin and about the fixed internal gears at the same time. This motion of the shaft link makes the pins rotate about the center of the fixed internal gears with a periodically varying radius. Therefore, two rotors driven by the pins rotate with different angular velocities. One rotor alternately leads and lags relative to the other rotor. These lead-lag motions between the two jaws of the rotors, which result in suction and discharge required for pumping, resemble hand clapping from which the mechanism was named. Construction and design parameters of the rotary clap mechanism are introduced, and kinematic analysis of this mechanism is performed. The relationships among design parameters, inherent constraints, and effects of design parameters on the is placement of mechanism are also presented.

  9. Nuclear power station main control room habitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschal, W.B.; Knous, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    The main control room at a nuclear power station must remain habitable during a variety of plant conditions and postulated events. The control room habitability requirement and the function of the heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and air treatment system are to control environmental factors, such as temperature, pressure, humidity, radiation, and toxic gas. Habitability requirements provide for the safety of personnel and enable operation of equipment required to function in the main control room. Habitability as an issue has been gaining prominence with the Advisor Committee of Reactor Safeguards and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission since the incident at Three Mile Island. Their concern is the ability of the presently installed habitability systems to control the main control room environment after an accident. This paper discusses main control room HVAC systems; the concern, requirements, and results of NRC surveys and notices; and an approach to control room habitability reviews

  10. The Impact of Internet and Social Media on Kids’ and Parents’ Game Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akdag

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet, already a part of our lives far surpassing its limits as a means of communication, seems to have shaped most fields in human life and changed most of our daily habits and as a consequence the digital natives are observed to be completely living in Internet culture. One of the reflections of this culture and arenas in the Internet, social media has substantial impacts on gaming habits of digital natives. Up to the period in which Internet has interfered in man’s life, the games played by parents were passed from older generations to the new ones as a tradition, so generations used to play the same games; when the children of a previous era became parents they described the games they used to play to their kids thus paving the way to the sustainability of this game tradition. While different generations used to play the same games, today with the dissemination of Internet and social media caused a change of format in the traditionally played games and street games started to give their places to those played on the computers. Therefore, children started to play games on the Internet, an endless space whether negative or positive. The fact that parents are alienated from this arena, enabled the children to play violent games without any boundaries and to take place in social media arenas that could have negative impact on children’s worldly and spiritual well-being. The study is highly important in the sense that it clarifies the extent to which Internet and social media, which is actually the agent of change in children’s gaming habits, environments changed parents’ gaming habits among themselves and with their children. Surveys are conducted to the parents of primary school students as a field work to identify the changes originating from Internet and social media. According to research results, social media and Internet are found to be altering gaming habits of parents with their children. It is identified that parents keep

  11. Dynamical habitability of planetary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Rudolf; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Bois, Eric; Schwarz, Richard; Funk, Barbara; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Lammer, Helmut; Léger, Alain; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Selsis, Frank; Schneider, Jean; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The problem of the stability of planetary systems, a question that concerns only multiplanetary systems that host at least two planets, is discussed. The problem of mean motion resonances is addressed prior to discussion of the dynamical structure of the more than 350 known planets. The difference with regard to our own Solar System with eight planets on low eccentricity is evident in that 60% of the known extrasolar planets have orbits with eccentricity e > 0.2. We theoretically highlight the studies concerning possible terrestrial planets in systems with a Jupiter-like planet. We emphasize that an orbit of a particular nature only will keep a planet within the habitable zone around a host star with respect to the semimajor axis and its eccentricity. In addition, some results are given for individual systems (e.g., Gl777A) with regard to the stability of orbits within habitable zones. We also review what is known about the orbits of planets in double-star systems around only one component (e.g., gamma Cephei) and around both stars (e.g., eclipsing binaries).

  12. Habitability from Tidally Induced Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Diana; Tan, Vivian Yun Yan; Zajac, Zachary

    2018-04-01

    The stability of Earth’s climate on geological timescales is enabled by the carbon–silicate cycle that acts as a negative feedback mechanism stabilizing surface temperatures via the intake and outgassing of atmospheric carbon. On Earth, this thermostat is enabled by plate tectonics that sequesters outgassed CO2 back into the mantle via weathering and subduction at convergent margins. Here we propose a separate tectonic mechanism—vertical recycling—that can serve as the vehicle for CO2 outgassing and sequestration over long timescales. The mechanism requires continuous tidal heating, which makes it particularly relevant to planets in the habitable zone of M stars. Dynamical models of this vertical recycling scenario and stability analysis show that temperate climates stable over timescales of billions of years are realized for a variety of initial conditions, even as the M star dims over time. The magnitude of equilibrium surface temperatures depends on the interplay of sea weathering and outgassing, which in turn depends on planetary carbon content, so that planets with lower carbon budgets are favored for temperate conditions. The habitability of planets such as found in the Trappist-1 system may be rooted in tidally driven tectonics.

  13. TIDAL LIMITS TO PLANETARY HABITABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Rory; Jackson, Brian; Greenberg, Richard; Raymond, Sean N.

    2009-01-01

    The habitable zones (HZs) of main-sequence stars have traditionally been defined as the range of orbits that intercept the appropriate amount of stellar flux to permit surface water on a planet. Terrestrial exoplanets discovered to orbit M stars in these zones, which are close-in due to decreased stellar luminosity, may also undergo significant tidal heating. Tidal heating may span a wide range for terrestrial exoplanets and may significantly affect conditions near the surface. For example, if heating rates on an exoplanet are near or greater than that on Io (where tides drive volcanism that resurfaces the planet at least every 1 Myr) and produce similar surface conditions, then the development of life seems unlikely. On the other hand, if the tidal heating rate is less than the minimum to initiate plate tectonics, then CO 2 may not be recycled through subduction, leading to a runaway greenhouse that sterilizes the planet. These two cases represent potential boundaries to habitability and are presented along with the range of the traditional HZ for main-sequence, low-mass stars. We propose a revised HZ that incorporates both stellar insolation and tidal heating. We apply these criteria to GJ 581 d and find that it is in the traditional HZ, but its tidal heating alone may be insufficient for plate tectonics.

  14. Long-term risks of kidney living donation: review and position paper by the ERA-EDTA DESCARTES working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, Umberto; Budde, Klemens; Heemann, Uwe; Hilbrands, Luuk; Oberbauer, Rainer; Oniscu, Gabriel C; Pascual, Julio; Schwartz Sorensen, Soren; Viklicky, Ondrej; Abramowicz, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Two recent matched cohort studies from the USA and Norway published in 2014 have raised some concerns related to the long-term safety of kidney living donation. Further studies on the long-term risks of living donation have since been published. In this position paper, Developing Education Science and Care for Renal Transplantation in European States (DESCARTES) board members critically review the literature in an effort to summarize the current knowledge concerning long-term risks of kidney living donation to help physicians for decision-making purposes and for providing information to the prospective live donors. Long-term risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) can be partially foreseen by trying to identify donors at risk of developing ‘de novo’ kidney diseases during life post-donation and by predicting lifetime ESRD risk. However, lifetime risk may be difficult to assess in young donors, especially in those having first-degree relatives with ESRD. The study from Norway also found an increased risk of death after living donor nephrectomy, which became visible only after >15 years of post-donation follow-up. However, these findings are likely to be largely the result of an overestimation due to the confounding effect related to a family history of renal disease. DESCARTES board members emphasize the importance of optimal risk–benefit assessment and proper information to the prospective donor, which should also include recommendations on health-promoting behaviour post-donation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  15. ESC Working Group on Valvular Heart Disease Position Paper: assessing the risk of interventions in patients with valvular heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhek, Raphael; Iung, Bernard; Tornos, Pilar; Antunes, Manuel J.; Prendergast, Bernard D.; Otto, Catherine M.; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Stepinska, Janina; Kaden, Jens J.; Naber, Christoph K.; Acartürk, Esmeray; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa

    2012-01-01

    Aims Risk scores provide an important contribution to clinical decision-making, but their validity has been questioned in patients with valvular heart disease (VHD), since current scores have been mainly derived and validated in adults undergoing coronary bypass surgery. The Working Group on Valvular Heart Disease of the European Society of Cardiology reviewed the performance of currently available scores when applied to VHD, in order to guide clinical practice and future development of new scores. Methods and results The most widely used risk scores (EuroSCORE, STS, and Ambler score) were reviewed, analysing variables included and their predictive ability when applied to patients with VHD. These scores provide relatively good discrimination, i.e. a gross estimation of risk category, but cannot be used to estimate the exact operative mortality in an individual patient because of unsatisfactory calibration. Conclusion Current risk scores do not provide a reliable estimate of exact operative mortality in an individual patient with VHD. They should therefore be interpreted with caution and only used as part of an integrated approach, which incorporates other patient characteristics, the clinical context, and local outcome data. Future risk scores should include additional variables, such as cognitive and functional capacity and be prospectively validated in high-risk patients. Specific risk models should also be developed for newer interventions, such as transcatheter aortic valve implantation. PMID:21406443

  16. OPTIMIZING THE PLACEMENT OF A WORK-PIECE AT A MULTI-POSITION ROTARY TABLE OF TRANSFER MACHINE WITH VERTICAL MULTI-SPINDLE HEAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Guschinski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of minimizing the weight of transfer machine with a multi-position rotary table by placing of a work-piece at the table for processing of homogeneous batch of work-pieces is considered. To solve this problem the mathematical model and heuristic particle swarm optimization algorithm are proposed. The results of numerical experiments for two real problems of this type are given. The experiments revealed that the particle swarm optimization algorithm is more effective for the solution of the problem compared to the methods of random search and LP-search.

  17. Habitability and the Possibility of Extraterrestrial Life in the Early Telescope Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Early telescopic observations of the Moon and planets prompted great interest in the already-existing debate about the possibility of life on the Moon and other worlds. New observations of the lunar surface, revealing an apparently Earth-like terrain and possibly the presence of bodies of water, were often considered in relation to their implications for the existence of lunar inhabitants. This depended upon establishing what constituted the fundamental requirements for life and the boundaries of habitability. The growing support for the heliocentric Copernican astronomy was also changing perceptions of the relationships between the Earth, the Moon, and the planets. Works such as Johannes Kepler’s Somnium and John Wilkins’ The Discovery of a World in the Moone presented views of extraterrestrial life that were shifting from the supernatural to the natural, in correspondence with the celestial bodies’ new positions in the cosmos. This paper considers how these and other works from the early telescope era reveal changes in the nature of astronomical speculation about extraterrestrial life and the conditions construed as “habitability,” and what significance that history has for us today in the new era of extrasolar planet discovery.

  18. ISS Habitability Data Collection and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Sherry (Principal Investigator); Greene, Maya; Schuh, Susan; Williams, Thomas; Archer, Ronald; Vasser, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Habitability is the relationship between an individual and their surroundings (i.e. the interplay of the person, machines, environment, and mission). The purpose of this study is to assess habitability and human factors on the ISS to better prepare for future long-duration space flights. Scheduled data collection sessions primarily require the use of iSHORT (iPad app) to capture near real-time habitability feedback and analyze vehicle layout and space utilization.

  19. Social determinants of dietary habits in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse; Brøndsted, L.

    2001-01-01

    significantly associated with the intake of fruit and vegetables. Conclusions: Education seems to be the most important social variable to explain social differences in dietary habits. Additional variables are needed to explain dietary habits of women. Differences are seen for both foods and nutrients....... Sponsorship: The data analysis was financially supported by the Health Insurance Fund. Descriptors: socioeconomic status; education; dietary habits; diet surveys, E%; fat, fruit and vegetables....

  20. The habitable zone and extreme planetary orbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Stephen R; Gelino, Dawn M

    2012-10-01

    The habitable zone for a given star describes the range of circumstellar distances from the star within which a planet could have liquid water on its surface, which depends upon the stellar properties. Here we describe the development of the habitable zone concept, its application to our own solar system, and its subsequent application to exoplanetary systems. We further apply this to planets in extreme eccentric orbits and show how they may still retain life-bearing properties depending upon the percentage of the total orbit which is spent within the habitable zone. Key Words: Extrasolar planets-Habitable zone-Astrobiology.

  1. Constraints on Alternate Universes: Stars and habitable planets with different fundamental constants

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Fred C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops constraints on the values of the fundamental constants that allow universes to be habitable. We focus on the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ and the gravitational structure constant $\\alpha_G$, and find the region in the $\\alpha$-$\\alpha_G$ plane that supports working stars and habitable planets. This work is motivated, in part, by the possibility that different versions of the laws of physics could be realized within other universes. The following constraints are enforce...

  2. Relation between nitrate and nitrite food habits with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Laleh; Koohdani, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoon; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Moslemi, Daryoush; Safari, Farid

    2012-01-01

    Nitrites, a probable human carcinogen, generate reactive nitrogen species that may cause damage to the lung. We evaluated the association between nutritional habits related to nitrite and nitrate intake and risk of lung cancer in Mazandaran, Northern Province of Iran. In this case-control study the two groups were matched for gender and age (+/- 5 years). A semi -quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect dietary data about nutritional habits related to nitrate, nitrite, vitamins E and C intake, from 40 lung cancer cases and 40 control subjects admitted at Mazanaran hospitals. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of lung cancer using logistic regression. Mean score of nutritional habits in case group was significantly lower than that in control group (P less than or equal 0.001). We observed a positive association between animal sources of nitrate and nitrite intake (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 0.13-0.96) and risk of lung cancer. Decreased risk of lung cancer was also observed with fruit intake (OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 1.3-11). Our results indicate a probable association between nutritional habits related to animal sources of nitrate and nitrite intake and the risk of lung cancer that requires to be confirmed by other studies.

  3. Positive attitudes and preserved high level of motor performance are important factors for return to work in younger persons after stroke: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Britta; Röding, Jenny; Sundelin, Gunnevi

    2009-09-01

    Significant numbers of younger persons with stroke should be given the opportunity to return to work. The aim of this study was to investigate factors of importance for return to work among persons after first ever stroke, in the age range 18-55 years. A questionnaire was sent to all persons who had experienced a first ever stroke, 18-55 years of age, registered in the Swedish national quality register for stroke care, Riks-Stroke. Of the 1068 who answered the questionnaire, 855 (539 men and 316 women) were in paid employment before their stroke, and were included in this study. Sixty-five percent returned to work and, of these, an equal proportion were men and women. Significant factors associated with return to work were the perceived importance of work (odds ratio (OR) 5.10), not perceiving themselves as a burden on others (OR 3.33), support from others for return to work (OR 3.66), retaining the ability to run a short distance (OR 2.77), and higher socioeconomic codes (OR 2.12). A negative association was found between those rehabilitated in wards intended for younger persons and return to work (OR 0.37). External support from others, and positive attitudes towards return to work, were factors associated with successful return to work after stroke. Contrary to what was expected, independence in personal activities of daily living and cognitive factors were not associated with return to work to the same extent as persistent higher level of physical functions, such as ability to run a short distance.

  4. Intertemporal Asset Allocation with Habit Formation in Preferences: An Approximate Analytical Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    In this paper we derive an approximate analytical solution to the optimal con- sumption and portfolio choice problem of an infinitely-lived investor with power utility defined over the difference between consumption and an external habit. The investor is assumed to have access to two tradable......-linearized surplus consumption ratio. The "difference habit model" implies that the relative risk aversion is time-varying which is in line with recent ev- idence from the asset pricing literature. We show that accounting for habit a¤ects both the myopic and intertemporal hedge component of optimal asset demand......, and introduces an additional component that works as a hedge against changes in the investor's habit level. In an empirical application, we calibrate the model to U.S. data and show that habit formation has significant effects on both the optimal consumption and portfolio choice compared to a standard CRRA...

  5. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  6. A genealogical map of the concept of habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandiaran, Xabier E; Di Paolo, Ezequiel A

    2014-01-01

    The notion of information processing has dominated the study of the mind for over six decades. However, before the advent of cognitivism, one of the most prominent theoretical ideas was that of Habit. This is a concept with a rich and complex history, which is again starting to awaken interest, following recent embodied, enactive critiques of computationalist frameworks. We offer here a very brief history of the concept of habit in the form of a genealogical network-map. This serves to provide an overview of the richness of this notion and as a guide for further re-appraisal. We identify 77 thinkers and their influences, and group them into seven schools of thought. Two major trends can be distinguished. One is the associationist trend, starting with the work of Locke and Hume, developed by Hartley, Bain, and Mill to be later absorbed into behaviorism through pioneering animal psychologists (Morgan and Thorndike). This tradition conceived of habits atomistically and as automatisms (a conception later debunked by cognitivism). Another historical trend we have called organicism inherits the legacy of Aristotle and develops along German idealism, French spiritualism, pragmatism, and phenomenology. It feeds into the work of continental psychologists in the early 20th century, influencing important figures such as Merleau-Ponty, Piaget, and Gibson. But it has not yet been taken up by mainstream cognitive neuroscience and psychology. Habits, in this tradition, are seen as ecological, self-organizing structures that relate to a web of predispositions and plastic dependencies both in the agent and in the environment. In addition, they are not conceptualized in opposition to rational, volitional processes, but as transversing a continuum from reflective to embodied intentionality. These are properties that make habit a particularly attractive idea for embodied, enactive perspectives, which can now re-evaluate it in light of dynamical systems theory and complexity research.

  7. A genealogical map of the concept of habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier E Barandiaran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The notion of information processing has dominated the study of the mind for over six decades. However, before the advent of cognitivism, one of the most prominent theoretical ideas was that of Habit. This is a concept with a rich and complex history, which is again starting to awaken interest, following recent embodied, enactive critiques of computationalist frameworks. We offer here a very brief history of the concept of habit in the form of a genealogical network-map. This serves to provide an overview of the richness of this notion and as a guide for further re-appraisal. We identify 77 thinkers and their influences, and group them into seven schools of thought. Two major trends can be distinguished. One is the associationist trend, starting with the work of Locke and Hume, developed by Hartley, Bain and Mill to be later absorbed into behaviourism through pioneering animal psychologists (Morgan and Thorndike. This tradition conceived of habits atomistically and as automatisms (a conception later debunked by cognitivism. Another historical trend we have called organicism inherits the legacy of Aristotle and develops along German idealism, French spiritualism, pragmatism, and phenomenology. It feeds into the work of continental psychologists in the early 20th century, influencing important figures such as Merleau-Ponty, Piaget, and Gibson. But it has not yet been taken up by mainstream cognitive neuroscience and psychology. Habits, in this tradition, are seen as ecological, self-organizing structures that relate to a web of predispositions and plastic dependencies both in the agent and in the environment. In addition, they are not conceptualized in opposition to rational, volitional processes, but as transversing a continuum from reflective to embodied intentionality. These are properties that make habit a particularly attractive idea for embodied, enactive perspectives, which can now re-evaluate it in light of dynamical systems theory and

  8. HIV, gender, race, sexual orientation, and sex work: a qualitative study of intersectional stigma experienced by HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    2011-11-01

    HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender) described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal), meso (social/community), and macro (organizational/political) realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro), social networks and support groups (meso), and challenging stigma (macro). HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being--as well as opportunities for coping--in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the deleterious effects of stigma and discrimination

  9. HIV, gender, race, sexual orientation, and sex work: a qualitative study of intersectional stigma experienced by HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal, meso (social/community, and macro (organizational/political realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro, social networks and support groups (meso, and challenging stigma (macro.HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being--as well as opportunities for coping--in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the deleterious effects of stigma and

  10. Exoplanets Detection, Formation, Properties, Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, John W

    2008-01-01

    This edited, multi-author volume will be an invaluable introduction and reference to all key aspects in the field of exoplanet research. The reviews cover: Detection methods and properties of known exoplanets, Detection of extrasolar planets by gravitational microlensing. The formation and evolution of terrestrial planets in protoplanetary and debris disks. The brown dwarf-exoplanet connection. Formation, migration mechanisms and properties of hot Jupiters. Dynamics of multiple exoplanet systems. Doppler exoplanet surveys. Searching for exoplanets in the stellar graveyard. Formation and habitability of extra solar planets in multiple star systems. Exoplanet habitats and the possibilities for life. Moons of exoplanets: habitats for life. Contributing authors: •Rory Barnes •David P. Bennett •Jian Ge •Nader Haghighipour •Patrick Irwin •Hugh Jones •Victoria Meadows •Stanimir Metchev •I. Neill Reid •George Rieke •Caleb Scharf •Steinn Sigurdsson

  11. Disrupting the habit of interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Honan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the growing domain of ‘post-qualitative’ research and experiments with a new (representational form to move away from traditional and clichéd descriptions of research methods. In this paper, I want to interrogate the category of interview, and the habit of interviewing, to disrupt the clichés, so as to allow thinking of different ways of writing/speaking/representing the interactions between researcher and researched that will breathe new life into qualitative inquiries. I will attempt to flatten and shred, destabilise and disrupt our common-sense ideas about interview, including those held most sacred to the qualitative community, that of anonymity and confidentiality, as well as the privilege of the ‘transcript’ in re-presenting interview data.

  12. Possible Habitability of Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Lena; Höning, Dennis; Bredehöft, Jan H.; Lammer, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade, the number of detected exoplanets has increased to over thousand confirmed planets and more as yet unconfirmed planet candidates. The scientific community mainly concentrates on terrestrial planets (up to 10 Earth masses) in the habitable zone, which describes the distance from the host star where liquid water can exist at the surface (Kasting et al., 1993). Another target group of interest are ocean worlds, where a terrestrial-like body (i.e. with an iron core and a silicate mantle) is covered by a thick water-ice layer - similar to the icy moons of our solar system but with several Earth masses (e.g. Grasset et al., 2009). When an exoplanet is detected and confirmed as a planet, typically the radius and the mass of it are known, leading to the mean density of the planet that gives hints to possible interior structures. A planet with a large relative iron core and a thick ocean on top of the silicate mantle for example would have the same average planet density as a planet with a more Earth-like appearance (where the main contributor to the mass is the silicate mantle). In this study we investigate how the radius and mass of a planet depend on the amount of water, silicates and iron present (after Wagner et al., 2011) the occurence of high-pressure-ice in the water-ice layer (note: we only consider surface temperatures at which liquid water exists at the surface) if the ocean layer influences the initiation of plate tectonics We assume that ocean worlds with a liquid ocean layer (and without the occurence of high-pressure ice anywhere in the water layer) and plate tectonics (especially the occurence of subduction zones, hydrothermal vents and continental formation) may be called habitable (Class III/IV habitats after Lammer et al., 2009). References: Kasting, J.F., Whitmire, D.P., and Reynolds, R.T. (1993). Habitable Zones around Main Sequence Stars. Icarus 101, 108-128. Grasset, O., Schneider, J., and Sotin, C. (2009). A study of the accuracy

  13. Habitability Properties of Circumbinary Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Ivan I.

    2017-06-01

    It is shown that several habitability conditions (in fact, at least seven such conditions) appear to be fulfilled automatically by circumbinary planets of main-sequence stars (CBP-MS), whereas on Earth, these conditions are fulfilled only by chance. Therefore, it looks natural that most of the production of replicating biopolymers in the Galaxy is concentrated on particular classes of CBP-MS, and life on Earth is an outlier, in this sense. In this scenario, Lathe’s mechanism for the tidal “chain reaction” abiogenesis on Earth is favored as generic for CBP-MS, due to photo-tidal synchronization inherent to them. Problems with this scenario are discussed in detail.

  14. Does exercise habit strength moderate the relationship between emotional distress and short-term memory in Malaysian primary school children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol, Nurul Ain; Hashim, Hairul Anuar

    2015-01-01

    We examined the moderating effects of exercise habit strength on the relationship between emotional distress and short-term memory in primary school children. The sample consisted of 165 primary school students (10-12 years old). Participants completed measures of emotional distress, exercise habit strength, and the Digit Span Test. Mid-year exam results were used as an indicator of academic performance. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to analyse the data. The results of SEM revealed an acceptable fit for the hypothesised model. Exercise habit was positively associated with short-term memory, and better short-term memory was associated with better academic performance. However, although an inverse relationship was found between emotional distress and short-term memory, a positive association was found between exercise habit strength and emotional distress. The findings indicate that exercise habit is positively associated with cognitive ability and mediates the negative effect of distress.

  15. Human Research Program: Space Human Factors and Habitability Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2007-01-01

    The three project areas of the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element work together to achieve a working and living environment that will keep crews healthy, safe, and productive throughout all missions -- from Earth orbit to Mars expeditions. The Advanced Environmental Health (AEH) Project develops and evaluates advanced habitability systems and establishes requirements and health standards for exploration missions. The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project s goal is to ensure a safe and productive environment for humans in space. With missions using new technologies at an ever-increasing rate, it is imperative that these advances enhance crew performance without increasing stress or risk. The ultimate goal of Advanced Food Technology (AFT) Project is to develop and deliver technologies for human centered spacecraft that will support crews on missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  16. Inculcating reading habits among Nigerian secondary schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks at reading habit as process of imbibing a culture of educating, informing and enlightening people. Inculcating reading habit is very essential for the academic achievement of children and this is made possible with the help of trained and qualified teachers who help in guiding children in developing the right ...

  17. 24 CFR 203.673 - Habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Habitability. 203.673 Section 203.673 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Servicing Responsibilities Occupied Conveyance § 203.673 Habitability. (a) For...

  18. Bringing Exoplanet Habitability Investigations to High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Mary Anne; Sohl, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Habitability, a.k.a. habitat suitability, is a topic typically discussed in Biology class. We present here a curriculum unit that introduces the topic of global-scale planetary habitability in a Physics classroom, allowing students to emulate the process of doing cutting-edge science and re-framing an otherwise "typical" physics unit in a more engaging and interactive way.

  19. Tides and the evolution of planetary habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rory; Raymond, Sean N; Jackson, Brian; Greenberg, Richard

    2008-06-01

    Tides raised on a planet by the gravity of its host star can reduce the planet's orbital semi-major axis and eccentricity. This effect is only relevant for planets orbiting very close to their host stars. The habitable zones of low-mass stars are also close in, and tides can alter the orbits of planets in these locations. We calculate the tidal evolution of hypothetical terrestrial planets around low-mass stars and show that tides can evolve planets past the inner edge of the habitable zone, sometimes in less than 1 billion years. This migration requires large eccentricities (>0.5) and low-mass stars ( less or similar to 0.35 M(circle)). Such migration may have important implications for the evolution of the atmosphere, internal heating, and the Gaia hypothesis. Similarly, a planet that is detected interior to the habitable zone could have been habitable in the past. We consider the past habitability of the recently discovered, approximately 5 M(circle) planet, Gliese 581 c. We find that it could have been habitable for reasonable choices of orbital and physical properties as recently as 2 Gyr ago. However, when constraints derived from the additional companions are included, most parameter choices that indicate past habitability require the two inner planets of the system to have crossed their mutual 3:1 mean motion resonance. As this crossing would likely have resulted in resonance capture, which is not observed, we conclude that Gl 581 c was probably never habitable.

  20. Unsuccessful Study Habits in Foreign Language Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Phillip D.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    This study determined which study habits would distinguish successful from unsuccessful foreign language learners. Participants were 219 college students from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds enrolled in either Spanish, French, German, or Japanese classes. The students completed the Study Habits Inventory and the Background Demographic Form.…

  1. SMOKING HABITS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SMOKING HABITS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SELECTED DISTRICTS IN ZIMBABWE. ... Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ... Objective To examine the relationship between smoking habits and indicators of socioeconomic status, the urban/rural dimension and gender among secondary ...

  2. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Eating Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)…

  3. Real Business-cycle Model with Habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the ability of a real business-cycle model with nonseparabilities in consumption and leisure and external habits both in consumption and leisure to fit the postwar US data. The results indicate a strong but fast-dying habit in leisure, and a somewhat weaker...

  4. The Online Reading Habits of Malaysian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mohammad Jafre Bin Zainol; Pourmohammadi, Majid; Varasingam, Nalini A/P; Lean, Ooi Choon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to ascertain the differences in online reading habits between genders and investigate the relationship between socio-economic status and online reading habits. Using a questionnaire, a quantitative approach was administered to 240 Form-Four students from four secondary schools in Penang Island, Malaysia. Findings…

  5. A model of habitability within the Milky Way galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowanlock, M G; Patton, D R; McConnell, S M

    2011-11-01

    We present a model of the galactic habitable zone (GHZ), described in terms of the spatial and temporal dimensions of the Galaxy that may favor the development of complex life. The Milky Way galaxy was modeled using a computational approach by populating stars and their planetary systems on an individual basis by employing Monte Carlo methods. We began with well-established properties of the disk of the Milky Way, such as the stellar number density distribution, the initial mass function, the star formation history, and the metallicity gradient as a function of radial position and time. We varied some of these properties and created four models to test the sensitivity of our assumptions. To assess habitability on the galactic scale, we modeled supernova rates, planet formation, and the time required for complex life to evolve. Our study has improved on other literature on the GHZ by populating stars on an individual basis and modeling Type II supernova (SNII) and Type Ia supernova (SNIa) sterilizations by selecting their progenitors from within this preexisting stellar population. Furthermore, we considered habitability on tidally locked and non-tidally locked planets separately and studied habitability as a function of height above and below the galactic midplane. In the model that most accurately reproduces the properties of the Galaxy, the results indicate that an individual SNIa is ∼5.6× more lethal than an individual SNII on average. In addition, we predict that ∼1.2% of all stars host a planet that may have been capable of supporting complex life at some point in the history of the Galaxy. Of those stars with a habitable planet, ∼75% of planets are predicted to be in a tidally locked configuration with their host star. The majority of these planets that may support complex life are found toward the inner Galaxy, distributed within, and significantly above and below, the galactic midplane.

  6. The Effects of the Sustained Silent Reading Program on Cultivating Students' Habits and Attitudes in Reading Books for Leisure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Siah Poh

    2008-01-01

    The author examines the effects of the sustained silent reading program on cultivating students' habits and attitudes in reading books for leisure. The author used a time-series design and measured students' reading habits and attitudes three times in twelve months. It was expected that if the program created positive effects on cultivating…

  7. Giant Planets: Good Neighbors for Habitable Worlds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Nikolaos; Eggl, Siegfried; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian

    2018-04-01

    The presence of giant planets influences potentially habitable worlds in numerous ways. Massive celestial neighbors can facilitate the formation of planetary cores and modify the influx of asteroids and comets toward Earth analogs later on. Furthermore, giant planets can indirectly change the climate of terrestrial worlds by gravitationally altering their orbits. Investigating 147 well-characterized exoplanetary systems known to date that host a main-sequence star and a giant planet, we show that the presence of “giant neighbors” can reduce a terrestrial planet’s chances to remain habitable, even if both planets have stable orbits. In a small fraction of systems, however, giant planets slightly increase the extent of habitable zones provided that the terrestrial world has a high climate inertia. In providing constraints on where giant planets cease to affect the habitable zone size in a detrimental fashion, we identify prime targets in the search for habitable worlds.

  8. Dietary Habits in Adolescence Related to Sociodemographic Factors, Physical Activity and Self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Henningsen, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Unhealthy eating during adolescence has shown to have multiple negative consequences. The aim of this paper is to acquire knowledge of dietary habits in adolescence and consider how this behaviour varies across different groups of adolescents. Correlations between dietary habits, age and gender have several times been found, in terms of girls eating healthier than boys, and the intake of healthy food decreasing with age. Additionally, adolescents of low socioeconomic position are at higher ri...

  9. Computer Workstations: Good Working Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety and Health Program Recommendations It's the Law Poster REGULATIONS Law and Regulations Standard Interpretations Training Requirements ... page requires that javascript be enabled for some elements to function correctly. Please contact the OSHA Directorate ...

  10. Swedish nurses encounter barriers when promoting healthy habits in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungkrona-Falk, Lena; Brekke, Hilde; Nyholm, Maria

    2014-12-01

    To increase the understanding of difficulties in promoting healthy habits to parents, we explore barriers in health-care provision. The aim of this study is to describe nurses' perceived barriers when discussing with parents regarding healthy food habits, physical activity and their child's body weight. A mixed method approach was chosen. Nurses (n = 76) working at 29 different Child Health Care Centers' in an area in west Sweden were included in the study. Three focus group interviews were conducted and 17 nurses were selected according to maximum variation. Data were categorized and qualitative content analysis was the chosen analysis method. In the second method, data were obtained from a questionnaire distributed to all 76 nurses. The latent content was formulated into a theme: even with encouragement and support, the nurses perceive barriers of both an external and internal nature. The results identified four main barriers: experienced barriers in the workplace-internal and external; the nurse's own fear and uncertainty; perceived obstacles in nurse-parent interactions and modern society impedes parents' ability to promote healthy habits. The nurses' perceived barriers were confirmed by the results from 62 of the nurses who completed the questionnaire. Despite education and professional support, the health professionals perceived both external and internal barriers in promoting healthy habits to parents when implementing a new method of health promotion in primary care. Further qualitative studies are needed to gain deeper understanding of the perceived barriers when promoting healthy habits to parents. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Temporomandibular disorders and parafunctional oral habits: an anamnestic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa de Oliveira Melchior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency and severity of the signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD, the frequency of parafunctional oral habits and the correlation between the variables by means of the patients' perception regarding their problem. METHODS: One hundred patients diagnosed with TMD, through a clinical examination of their masticatory system, answered the questions of a previously published protocol concerning the signs and symptoms most frequently reported in the literature. RESULTS: According to the results from the non parametric statistical analysis, the frequency for the following signs and symptoms was significant: Fatigue and muscle pain, joint sounds, tinnitus, ear fullness, headache, chewing impairment and difficulty to yawn (p<0.01 and otalgia (p<0.05. As to the parafunctional oral habits, there was a significant presence of teeth clenching during the day and night (p<0.01 and teeth grinding at night (p<0.05. The variable correlation analysis showed that there was a positive correlation between symptom frequency and severity; age was correlated with the presence of otalgia, cervical pain and teeth sensitivity, besides being correlated with muscle and joint pain severity. Habit frequency was negatively correlated with age. TMD duration was also positively correlated with the symptoms of tinnitus, ear fullness, muscle and joint pain. CONCLUSION: The study results showed that the anamnestic assessment using ProDTMMulti can predict the severity of the TMD case.

  12. Postural habits of young adults and possibilities of modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Czupryna, Krzysztof; Bąk, Krzysztof; Wróblewska, Ewa; Rottermund, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess postural habits in young, healthy people, identify correlations between postural errors and pain and attempt to modify bad habits. 144 people, aged 18-23 were enrolled. The intervention consisted of 4 stages: Stage 1 - identification of postural habits, description of responses to stress, back pain frequency and intensity (Jackson & Moskowitz); Stage 2 - correction of habitual position with the help of a physiotherapist, briefing about ergonomic everyday behaviours and consequences of continued non-ergonomic behaviours, Stage 3 - follow-up examination: self-assessment of changes, evaluation of the effects of modifications, determination of causes for discontinuing the behaviour modification programme, where applicable; and Stage 4 - final examination, assessment of results. Correlations were sought between inappropriate postural behaviour in various positions and between non-ergonomic postural behaviour and pain location and response to stress. Statistical analysis was carried out with Excel and Statistica v. 7.1. A non-parametric χ(2) test was used at phabit. 3. An attempt to modify non-ergonomic postural behaviours usually results in pain, which may act as a demotivating factor. 4. Discomfort associated with the modification of habitual postural behaviours is reduced after 3-4 months of regular training.

  13. URGENSI STRATEGI DISPOSITION HABITS OF MIND MATEMATIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bety Miliyawati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kebiasaan berpikir (habits of mind memiliki peranan penting dalam proses pembelajaran dan perkembangan individu dalam membantu memecahkan masalah. Habits Of Mind (HOM adalah kebiasaan berpikir secara fleksibel, mengelola secara empulsif, mendengarkan dengan empati, membiasakan mengajukan pertanyaan, kebiasaan menyelesaikan masalah secara efektif, membiasakan menggunakan pengetahuan masa lalu untuk situasi baru, membiasakan berkomunikasi, berpikir jernih dengan tepat, menggunakan semua indera ketika mengumpulkan informasi, mencoba cara berbeda dan menghasilkan ide-ide yang baru, kebiasaan untuk merespon, kebiasaan untuk mengambil resiko, biasa bertanggung jawab, memiliki rasa humor, membiasakan berpikir interaktif dengan orang lain, bersikap terbuka dan mencoba terus-menerus. Hal ini sejalan dengan tujuan Kurikulum 2013, yaitu mempersiapkan generasi bangsa agar memiliki kemampuan hidup sebagai pribadi dan warga negara yang produktif, kreatif, inovatif, dan afektif. Artikel ini dikaji didasarkan atas analisis terhadap: (1 karakteristik matematika, (2 habits of mind matematis, dan (3 disposition contoh strategi HOM dalam pembelajaran matematika yang dikembangkan pada siswa. Kata Kunci    : Pembelajaran, Karakteristik Matematika, Habits of Mind Matematis   ABSTRACT Habits of mind have an important role in the learning process and the development of individuals in helping to solve the problem. Habits Of Mind (HOM is the habit of thinking flexibly, manage empulsif, listening with empathy, get used to ask questions, solve problems effectively habit, the habit of using past knowledge to new situations, to get used to communicate, think clearly, precisely, using all the senses when gathering information, trying different ways and generate new ideas, habits to respond, the habit to take risks, the usual charge, have a sense of humor, familiarize interactive thinking with others, be open and try constantly. This is in line with the curriculum

  14. Relations Between Exercise Habit and Visual Attentional Ability in Older Adult Community Dwellers: Evidences From the Yakumo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hatta

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relation between mild everyday exercise and cognitive ability in healthy older people was examined using cohort study database. Methods: Individually calculated linear regression coefficients in digit cancelation task performances for 11 years age from 65 to 75 years were compared between mild exercise habit holders and non-holders. Results: Exercise habit holders showed significantly smaller age-related decline than non-holders, irrespective of task difficulty. Discussion: The results suggested that even mild exercise habit for long years possesses benefits on sustaining cognitive function in older people as well as the physical activities such as programmed in a sport gym. It also becomes clear that it is difficult for ordinary older adult to continue exercising habits for many years. Therefore, more substantial ways are required for local health officials to advertise the effectiveness of mild exercise habits and to devise the necessary work to become a habit.

  15. Thumb Sucking: Help Your Child Break the Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... older kids who continue to suck their thumbs, peer pressure at school usually ends the habit. Remember, though, ... an incredibly difficult habit to break. Remember, though, peer pressure typically leads kids to stop daytime sucking habits ...

  16. Breaking Bad Habits | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Bad Habits Breaking Bad Habits: Why It's So Hard to Change Past Issues / ... News in Health ( http://newsinhealth.nih.gov/ ) Break Bad Habits Avoid temptations. If you always stop for a ...

  17. Interventions for the cessation of non-nutritive sucking habits in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrie, Felicity R P; Bearn, David R; Innes, Nicola P T; Iheozor-Ejiofor, Zipporah

    2015-03-31

    Comforting behaviours, such as the use of pacifiers (dummies, soothers), blankets and finger or thumb sucking, are common in babies and young children. These comforting habits, which can be referred to collectively as 'non-nutritive sucking habits' (NNSHs), tend to stop as children get older, under their own impetus or with support from parents and carers. However, if the habit continues whilst the permanent dentition is becoming established, it can contribute to, or cause, development of a malocclusion (abnormal bite). A diverse variety of approaches has been used to help children with stopping a NNSH. These include advice, removal of the comforting object, fitting an orthodontic appliance to interfere with the habit, application of an aversive taste to the digit or behaviour modification techniques. Some of these interventions are easier to apply than others and less disturbing for the child and their parent; some are more applicable to a particular type of habit.  The primary objective of the review was to evaluate the effects of different interventions for cessation of NNSHs in children. The secondary objectives were to determine which interventions work most quickly and are the most effective in terms of child and parent- or carer-centred outcomes of least discomfort and psychological distress from the intervention, as well as the dental measures of malocclusion (reduction in anterior open bite, overjet and correction of posterior crossbite) and cost-effectiveness. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 8 October 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 9), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 8 October 2014), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 8 October 2014), PsycINFO via OVID (1980 to 8 October 2014) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1937 to 8 October 2014), the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (Clinical Trials.gov) (to 8 October 2014) and the WHO

  18. Self-injurious behavior as a habit and its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orian, C

    1989-10-01

    The definition of self-injurious behavior applies to persons who hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation. The different aspects of self-injurious behavior and the theories explaining them are reviewed. For 5 years a young, intelligent woman had inflicted injuries upon herself with sharp instruments while ostensibly caring for her face and legs. The short-term hypnobehavioral treatment included keeping daily reports of her self-inflicted injuries and of her thoughts while executing them, finding alternative activities to replace her habit, and practicing self-hypnosis once a day. Increasing the level of understanding of her inner conflict and accenting ways of breaking the habit by means of positive autosuggestion proved very effective. The treatment was successful after 13 sessions.

  19. The Role of Habitability Studies in Space Facility and Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Constance M.

    1999-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation which reviews the role of the space architect in designing a space vehicle with habitability as a chief concern. Habitability is composed of the qualities of the environment or system which support the crew in working and living. All the impacts from habitability are interdependent; i.e., impacts to well-being can impact performance, safety or efficiency. After reviewing the issues relating to habitability the presentation discusses the application of these issues in two case studies. The first studies the Bio-Plex Hab chamber which includes designs of the living and working areas. The second case study is the ISS-TransHab which is being studied as a prototype for Mars transit.

  20. Do Family Responsibilities and a Clinical Versus Research Faculty Position Affect Satisfaction with Career and Work-Life Balance for Medical School Faculty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Laurel; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Howell, Lydia Pleotis; Villablanca, Amparo C

    2015-06-01

    Balancing career and family obligations poses challenges to medical school faculty and contributes to dissatisfaction and attrition from academics. We examined the relationship between family setting and responsibilities, rank, and career and work-life satisfaction for faculty in a large U.S. medical school. Baseline faculty surveys were analyzed from the first year of a 4-year National Institutes of Health-funded study to evaluate awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and use of family friendly policies and career satisfaction. The study focus was on the impact of family responsibilities and characteristics of the faculty position (rank, clinical vs. nonclinical, and academic series) in multivariate comparisons between primary predictors and outcomes of interest. Both clinical and family responsibilities for children under 18 play a major and interacting role in satisfaction with career and work-life balance. Clinical faculty respondents without children at home reported significantly greater career satisfaction and better work-life balance than their nonclinical counterparts. Nonclinical faculty respondents with children reported greater satisfaction and better balance than counterparts without family responsibilities. However, the advantage in career satisfaction and work-life balance for clinical faculty respondents disappeared for those with responsibility for young children. No gender-based differences were noted in the results or across faculty rank for respondents; however, for women, reaching associate professor resulted in greater career satisfaction. This study suggests that both work-related factors and family responsibilities influence satisfaction with career and work-life balance, but the predictors appear to interact in complex and nuanced ways. Further research is needed to delineate more clearly these interactions and to explore other factors that may play important additional roles.

  1. HABEBEE: habitability of eyeball-exo-Earths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerhausen, Daniel; Sapers, Haley; Citron, Robert; Bergantini, Alexandre; Lutz, Stefanie; Queiroz, Luciano Lopes; da Rosa Alexandre, Marcelo; Araujo, Ana Carolina Vieira

    2013-03-01

    Extrasolar Earth and super-Earth planets orbiting within the habitable zone of M dwarf host stars may play a significant role in the discovery of habitable environments beyond Earth. Spectroscopic characterization of these exoplanets with respect to habitability requires the determination of habitability parameters with respect to remote sensing. The habitable zone of dwarf stars is located in close proximity to the host star, such that exoplanets orbiting within this zone will likely be tidally locked. On terrestrial planets with an icy shell, this may produce a liquid water ocean at the substellar point, one particular "Eyeball Earth" state. In this research proposal, HABEBEE: exploring the HABitability of Eyeball-Exo-Earths, we define the parameters necessary to achieve a stable icy Eyeball Earth capable of supporting life. Astronomical and geochemical research will define parameters needed to simulate potentially habitable environments on an icy Eyeball Earth planet. Biological requirements will be based on detailed studies of microbial communities within Earth analog environments. Using the interdisciplinary results of both the physical and biological teams, we will set up a simulation chamber to expose a cold- and UV-tolerant microbial community to the theoretically derived Eyeball Earth climate states, simulating the composition, atmosphere, physical parameters, and stellar irradiation. Combining the results of both studies will enable us to derive observable parameters as well as target decision guidance and feasibility analysis for upcoming astronomical platforms.

  2. Constraining Exoplanet Habitability with HabEx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler

    2018-01-01

    The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging mission, or HabEx, is one of four flagship mission concepts currently under study for the upcoming 2020 Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics. The broad goal of HabEx will be to image and study small, rocky planets in the Habitable Zones of nearby stars. Additionally, HabEx will pursue a range of other astrophysical investigations, including the characterization of non-habitable exoplanets and detailed observations of stars and galaxies. Critical to the capability of HabEx to understand Habitable Zone exoplanets will be its ability to search for signs of surface liquid water (i.e., habitability) and an active biosphere. Photometry and moderate resolution spectroscopy, spanning the ultraviolet through near-infrared spectral ranges, will enable constraints on key habitability-related atmospheric species and properties (e.g., surface pressure). In this poster, we will discuss approaches to detecting signs of habitability in reflected-light observations of rocky exoplanets. We will also present initial results for modeling experiments aimed at demonstrating the capabilities of HabEx to study and understand Earth-like worlds around other stars.

  3. Healthy eating habits protect against temptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Wood, Wendy; Monterosso, John

    2016-08-01

    Can healthy food-choice habits protect people against temptations of consuming large portion sizes and unhealthy foods? In two studies, we show that the answer is yes, good habits serve this protective role, at least in contexts in which people are not deliberating and thus fall back on habitual responses. In the first study, participants trained with unhealthy habits to approach eating chocolate, but not those trained with healthy habits, succumbed to temptation and ate more chocolates when their self-control resources were depleted. Study 2 extended and clarified these findings by demonstrating the role of environmental cues in eliciting healthy habits when self-control resources are depleted. Participants who had been trained to choose carrots habitually to a pictorial stimulus (i.e., habit cue) subsequently resisted choosing M&Ms as long as the cue was present. This effect of habit cues on healthy food choices suggests the usefulness of manipulating such cues as a means of meeting self-regulatory goals such as portion control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Smoking habit and benign breast disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziewulska-Bokiniec, A.

    1995-01-01

    The possible association between cigarette smoking and the risk of benign breast disease (BBD) was assessed in a case-control study conducted in Gdansk, Poland, between 1990 and 1994. The study compared 160 women with newly diagnosed BBD admitted to the Gdansk Cancer Outpatients Clinic and 160 controls, women from outpatients clinics at the Medical University of Gdansk. There was no convincing evidence of an association, either positive or negative, between various indicators of smoking habit (smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day, duration of smoking) and the risk of BBD. Slightly lower relative risk (RRs) of BBD in ex-smokers of 10 or more cigarettes per day (RR = 0.9; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.4-2.2), and with duration of smoking >= (RR = 0.1-3.4), were also observed in current smokers (RR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.4-1.5), and (RR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.1-3.4), but these findings were not statistically significant. (author)

  5. Functional neuroimaging of avoidance habits in OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Claire M; Apergis-Schoute, Annemieke M; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Sule, Akeem; Fineberg, Naomi A; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to determine the neural correlates of excessive habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We aimed to (i) test for neurobiological convergence with the known pathophysiology of OCD and (ii) infer, based on abnormalities in brain activation, whether these habits arise from dysfunction in the goal-directed or habit system. Method Thirty-seven OCD patients and 33 controls learned to avoid shocks while undergoing a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan. Following 4 blocks of training, we tested if the avoidance response had become a habit by removing the threat of shock and measuring continued avoidance. We tested for task-related differences in brain activity in 3 ROIs, the caudate, putamen and medial orbitofrontal cortex at a statistical threshold of phabit formation in OCD patients, which was associated with hyper-activation in the caudate. Activation in this region was also associated with subjective ratings of increased urge to perform habits. The OCD group, as a whole, showed hyper-activation in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) during the acquisition of avoidance, however this did not relate directly to habit formation. Conclusions OCD patients exhibited excessive habits that were associated with hyper-activation in a key region implicated in the pathophysiology of OCD, the caudate nucleus. Prior studies suggest that this region is important for goal-directed behavior, suggesting that habit-forming biases in OCD may be a result of impairments in this system, rather than differences in the build up of stimulus-response habits themselves. PMID:25526600

  6. HIV, Gender, Race, Sexual Orientation, and Sex Work: A Qualitative Study of Intersectional Stigma Experienced by HIV-Positive Women in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H.; James, LLana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R.

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. Methods and Findings We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender) described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal), meso (social/community), and macro (organizational/political) realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro), social networks and support groups (meso), and challenging stigma (macro). Conclusions HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being—as well as opportunities for coping—in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the

  7. [Measuring the positive dimensions among health care workers: a contribution to the Italian validation of the UWES--Utrecht Work Engagement Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanti, R; Paplomatas, A; Bertini, M

    2008-01-01

    Engagement is defined as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. The main purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES). Data from a sample of health care workers (N=948) were used to test four propositions concerning dimensionality, internal consistency and construct validity. The UWES Italian version and the Multidimensional Organizational Health Questionnaire (MOHQ) were administered to the subjects (a subsample of 225 health care workers also completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory). The factorial structure has been examined through a series of Explorative Factor Analysis (AFE) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). As in the original version, we found a three factor solution. Internal consistency indexes were satisfactory. In addition, the correlations between UWES, MOHQ and MBI revealed a good construct validity. It is concluded that the Italian Version of the UWES has acceptable psychometric properties and that the instrument can be used in studies on positive organizational behavior.

  8. The Habitable Zone Gallery and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelino, Dawn M.; Kane, S. R.

    2012-05-01

    The Habitable Zone Gallery (www.hzgallery.org) is a service to the exoplanet community which provides Habitable Zone (HZ) information for each of the exoplanetary systems with known planetary orbital parameters. The service includes a sortable table, a plot with the period and eccentricity of each of the planets with respect to their time spent in the HZ, a gallery of known systems which plot the orbits and the location of the HZ with respect to those orbits, and orbital movies. Here we discuss various educational and scientific applications of the site such as target selection, exploring planets with eccentric orbits, and investigating habitability.

  9. An audit to investigate the impact of false positive breast screening results and diagnostic work-up on re-engagement with subsequent routine screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nightingale, Julie M.; Borgen, Rita; Porter-Bennett, Lisa; Szczepura, Katy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Women attending breast screening may have suspicious mammographic findings that are subsequently found at assessment clinic to be normal (false positive, FP). A false positive diagnosis is not harmless, with short and long term negative psychosocial consequences reported. Women are at increased relative risk of breast cancer therefore their attendance at subsequent screening is essential. Aims: To assess the impact of FP breast screening diagnosis and diagnostic work-up on re-attendance rates across four consecutive screening rounds at a typical breast screening centre. Method: Diagnostic interventions and screening re-attendance rates at one prior and two consecutive rounds were analysed for women receiving an FP diagnosis between 2004 and 2006. Results: 397 women (5.57%) were referred for further assessment, including 228 (57.43%) false positives. 34 eligible women failed to re-attend routine screening (+3 years), with 17 failing to re-attend subsequently (+6 years). 70.6% (24/34) of non-attenders had attended at least two screening rounds prior to FP assessment. 75% of FP women had an imaging-only assessment with 17.5% (30/171) failing to re-attend, and 25% received a biopsy, with 7% (4/57) failing to re-attend subsequently. Conclusion: This study is unique as it follows FP women through four consecutive screening rounds. FP non-attendance rates were considerably lower compared to the general screening population, with diagnostic work-up having limited influence. FP non-attendance may appear insignificant in comparison to total screened population, but these women are at greater risk of subsequent cancer so should be actively encouraged to re-engage with the screening programme

  10. [Nutrition habits of students of University of Economics in Wroclaw].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of a paper was an assessment of Wroclaw University of Economics students nutritional habits. Purposeful sample group selection was opted in this surrey. The method Ch2 was used to analyses questionnaire data. Obtained results confirm, that most of student don't nourish properly. Irregular breakfast before leaving home is the most frequent incorrectness, as well as irregular second breakfast or resignation from second breakfast at work or on classes breaks. Dinners consumption for large group of polled was irregular too. Lack of proper nutrition habits among young people is the cause of this state. Young people haste and limited finance causing that most of polled. Students consume only one course meal, mostly preparing by themselves. Basic foodstuffs i.e. meat, fishes, poultry, dairy products and fruits and vegetables or more often. Large group of students (especially women) declared eating sweets to often.

  11. Organizing physics teacher professional education around productive habit development: A way to meet reform challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Etkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extant literature on teacher preparation suggests that preservice teachers learn best when they are immersed in a community that allows them to develop dispositions, knowledge, and practical skills and share with the community a strong vision of what good teaching entails. However, even if the requisite dispositions, knowledge, and skills in pursuing the shared vision of good teaching are developed, the professional demands on a teacher’s time are so great out of, and so complex during class time that if every decision requires multiple considerations and deliberations with oneself, the productive decisions might not materialize. We argue that the link between intentional decision making and actual teaching practice are teacher’s habits (spontaneous responses to situational cues. Teachers unavoidably develop habits with practical experience and under the influence of knowledge and belief structures that in many ways condition the responses of teachers in their practical work. To steer new teachers away from developing unproductive habits directed towards “survival” instead of student learning, we propose that teacher preparation programs (e.g., in physics strive to develop in preservice teachers strong habits of mind and practice that will serve as an underlying support structure for beginning teachers. We provide examples of physics teacher habits that are to be developed during the program, propose mechanisms for the development of such habits, and outline possible future research agendas around habits.

  12. Organizing physics teacher professional education around productive habit development: A way to meet reform challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etkina, Eugenia; Gregorcic, Bor; Vokos, Stamatis

    2017-06-01

    Extant literature on teacher preparation suggests that preservice teachers learn best when they are immersed in a community that allows them to develop dispositions, knowledge, and practical skills and share with the community a strong vision of what good teaching entails. However, even if the requisite dispositions, knowledge, and skills in pursuing the shared vision of good teaching are developed, the professional demands on a teacher's time are so great out of, and so complex during class time that if every decision requires multiple considerations and deliberations with oneself, the productive decisions might not materialize. We argue that the link between intentional decision making and actual teaching practice are teacher's habits (spontaneous responses to situational cues). Teachers unavoidably develop habits with practical experience and under the influence of knowledge and belief structures that in many ways condition the responses of teachers in their practical work. To steer new teachers away from developing unproductive habits directed towards "survival" instead of student learning, we propose that teacher preparation programs (e.g., in physics) strive to develop in preservice teachers strong habits of mind and practice that will serve as an underlying support structure for beginning teachers. We provide examples of physics teacher habits that are to be developed during the program, propose mechanisms for the development of such habits, and outline possible future research agendas around habits.

  13. Customer habits and the Datourway strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talabos István

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The different funds of European Union - ISPA, PHARE, SAPARD - ensured the possibility not only to work out developing projects, but also they provided possibility to realize them. These funds' aim was rural development, spatial development, development of economy but tourism has never been nominated. After the year of 2004 tourism received attention and several funds of European Union aimed at development of infrastructure for tourism, development of thematic routes, development of accommodation, etc. There were several strategies prepared for the Danube, and the Datourway project had its special name: Transnational Strategy for the Sustainable Territorial Development of the Danube Area with special regard to Tourism. The Danube is undervalued from the tourism point of view. In the participating countries the capitals, seaside, beaches, mountains are considered real attractions and it means that the tourism strategy for the Danube is a challenging task. The final and main outcome is not only the strategy for tourism considering the customer habits, but an Investment Guide Book pointing out the common values of destination and attraction development together with 'best practices' common projects for the different types of regions too, in order to serve the development of Danube Region.

  14. CASH 2021: Commercial access and space habitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Ferretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frédéric; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J. Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

    2002-07-01

    Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed.

  15. Did a brief nap break have positive benefits on information processing among nurses working on the first 8-h night shift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-San; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Lu, Mei Rou; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Hsu, Chin

    2015-05-01

    Shift workers frequently experience acute sleep deprivation on first night shift. This study compared the efficacy of 30-min nap (between 2 and 3 a.m.) on the visual attention ability of the nurses working at first 8-h night shift at the time of maximum fatigue (between 3 and 4 a.m.). In addition, we measured cognitive function (between 9 and 10 a.m.) in nurses working on daytime shift, which we defined as baseline wakefulness. The results showed that working on the night shift groups was associated with sleep loss, leading to a decrease in visual attention performance compared to the daytime shift group. There was no statistically significant difference in the visual attention performance between those taking and not taking a nap during the night shift, however the effect size was medium in the information process. It was still needed increase sample size to draw the conclusion regarding a 30-min nap break have positive benefits on perceptual speed during the first night shift. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Parallel editing, multi-positionality and maximalism – cosmopolitan effects as explored in some art works by Melanie Jackson and Vivienne Dick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Garfield

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Garfield produces a critique of minimalist art practice by demonstrating how the artist Melanie Jackson’s Some things you are not allowed to send around the world (2003 and 2006 and the experimental film-maker Vivienne Dick’s Liberty’s booty (1980 – neither of which can be said to be about feeling ‘at home’ in the world, be it as a resident or as a nomad – examine global humanity through multi-positionality, excess and contingency, and thereby begin to articulate a new cosmopolitan relationship with the local – or, rather, with many different localities – in one and the same maximalist sweep of the work. ‘Maximalism’ in Garfield’s coinage signifies an excessive overloading (through editing, collage, and the sheer density of the range of the material that enables the viewer to insert themselves into the narrative of the work. In the art of both Jackson and Dick Garfield detects a refusal to know or to judge the world; instead, there is an attempt to incorporate the complexities of its full range into the singular vision of the work, challenging the viewer to identify what is at stake.

  17. Comparing two methods to record maximal voluntary contractions and different electrode positions in recordings of forearm extensor muscle activity: Refining risk assessments for work-related wrist disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Camilla; Nordander, Catarina; Granqvist, Lothy; Forsman, Mikael; Hansson, Gert-Åke

    2018-01-01

    Wrist disorders are common in force demanding industrial repetitive work. Visual assessment of force demands have a low reliability, instead surface electromyography (EMG) may be used as part of a risk assessment for work-related wrist disorders. For normalization of EMG recordings, a power grip (hand grip) is often used as maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the forearm extensor muscles. However, the test-retest reproducibility is poor and EMG amplitudes exceeding 100% have occasionally been recorded during work. An alternative MVC is resisted wrist extension, which may be more reliable. To compare hand grip and resisted wrist extension MVCs, in terms of amplitude and reproducibility, and to examine the effect of electrode positioning. Twelve subjects participated. EMG from right forearm extensors, from four electrode pairs, was recorded during MVCs, on three separate occasions. The group mean EMG amplitudes for resisted wrist extension were 1.2-1.7 times greater than those for hand grip. Resisted wrist extension showed better reproducibility than hand grip. The results indicate that the use of resisted wrist extension is a more accurate measurement of maximal effort of wrist extensor contractions than using hand grip and should increase the precision in EMG recordings from forearm extensor muscles, which in turn will increase the quality of risk assessments that are based on these.

  18. Evaluation of the pre-service Turkish teachers’ attitudes towards reading habit according to some variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ÖZBAY

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkish teachers’ attitudes towards reading habit have an important influence on their students in acquiring reading habit. Thus, the variables affecting the in-service and preservice Turkish teachers’ attitudes towards reading must be investigated. The purpose of this study is to determine if pre-service Turkish teachers’ attitudes towards reading habit show difference depending on various variables. The data were gathered from, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th graders studying at the Department of Turkish Education in Gazi Education Faculty at Gazi University. Likert type attitude scale was used for gathering data in this research. Independent-Samples T-test, Scheffe Test, One Way ANOVA are used for analyzing the data. The findings of the research assert that pre-service Turkish teachers’ attitudes towards reading habit are influenced by gender, reading frequency, and whether they read periodicals. In this study it is proposed that students at all grades of education must be given activities which have positive influence on attitudes towards reading habits. And, also, the school libraries and public libraries must be arranged to support positive attitudes through reading habits.

  19. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N_2–CO_2–H_2O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO_2 outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H_2 can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N_2–CO_2–H_2O–H_2) can be sustained as long as volcanic H_2 output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H_2 warming is reduced in dense H_2O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H_2 atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  20. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa, E-mail: rmr277@cornell.edu [Carl Sagan Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO{sub 2} outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H{sub 2} can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O–H{sub 2}) can be sustained as long as volcanic H{sub 2} output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H{sub 2} warming is reduced in dense H{sub 2}O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H{sub 2} atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  1. Earth's Paleomagnetosphere and Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarduno, J. A.; Blackman, E. G.; Oda, H.; Bono, R. K.; Carroll-Nellenback, J.; Cottrell, R. D.; Nimmo, F.

    2017-12-01

    The geodynamo is thought to play an important role in protecting Earth's hydrosphere, vital for life as we know it, from loss due to the erosive potential of the solar wind. Here we consider the mechanisms and history of this shielding. A larger core dynamo magnetic field strength provides more pressure to abate the solar wind dynamic pressure, increasing the magnetopause radius. However, the larger magnetopause also implies a larger collecting area for solar wind flux during phases of magnetic reconnection. The important variable is not mass capture but energy transfer, which does not scale linearly with magnetosphere size. Moreover, the ordered field provides the magnetic topology for recapturing atmospheric components in the opposite hemisphere such that the net global loss might not be greatly affected. While a net protection role for magnetospheres is suggested, forcing by the solar wind will change with stellar age. Paleomagnetism utilizing the single silicate crystal approach, defines a relatively strong field some 3.45 billion years ago (the Paleoarchean), but with a reduced magnetopause of 5 Earth radii, implying the potential for some atmospheric loss. Terrestrial zircons from the Jack Hills (Western Australia) and other localities host magnetic inclusions, whose magnetization has now been recorded by a new generation of ultra-sensitive 3-component SQUID magnetometer (U. Rochester) and SQUID microscope (GSJ/AIST). Paleointensity data suggest the presence of a terrestrial dynamo and magnetic shielding for Eoarchean to Hadean times, at ages as old as 4.2 billion years ago. However, the magnetic data suggest that for intervals >100,000 years long, magnetopause standoff distances may have reached 3 to 4 Earth radii or less. The early inception of the geodynamo, which probably occurred shortly after the lunar-forming impact, its continuity, and an early robust hydrosphere, appear to be key ingredients for Earth's long-term habitability.

  2. Scratching the Surface of Martian Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.

    2014-01-01

    Earth and Mars, though formed at the same time from the same materials, look very different today. Early in their histories they evolved through some of the same processes, but at some point their evolutionary paths diverged, sending them in perhaps irrevocably different directions. Knowledge of the factors that contributed to such different outcomes will help to determine how planets become habitable and how common habitable planets may be. The Mars surface environment is harsh today, but in situ measurements of ancient sedimentary rock by Mars Science Laboratory reveal chemical and mineralogical evidence of past conditions that might have been more favorable for life to exist. But chemistry is only part of what is required to make an environment habitable. Physical conditions constrain the chemical reactions that underlie life processes; the chemical and physical characteristics that make planets habitable are thus entangled.

  3. GIS Technology: Resource and Habitability Assessment Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are applying Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to new orbital data sets for lunar resource assessment and the identification of past habitable environments on...

  4. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Food Habits Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on Steller sea lion rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1985 to present....

  5. An evaluation of Skylab habitability hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, J.

    1974-01-01

    For effective mission performance, participants in space missions lasting 30-60 days or longer must be provided with hardware to accommodate their personal needs. Such habitability hardware was provided on Skylab. Equipment defined as habitability hardware was that equipment composing the food system, water system, sleep system, waste management system, personal hygiene system, trash management system, and entertainment equipment. Equipment not specifically defined as habitability hardware but which served that function were the Wardroom window, the exercise equipment, and the intercom system, which was occasionally used for private communications. All Skylab habitability hardware generally functioned as intended for the three missions, and most items could be considered as adequate concepts for future flights of similar duration. Specific components were criticized for their shortcomings.

  6. Human Factors and Habitability Assessment Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The major accomplishment for FY2012 was successful testing of the iPad-based Space Habitability Observation Reporting Tool (iSHORT) during NEEMO 16. iSHORT is an...

  7. Marine Mammal Food Habits Reference Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Food Habits Reference Collection, containing over 8000 specimens of cephalopod beaks and fish bones and otoliths, is...

  8. Setting the Stage for Habitable Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Gonzalez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the processes that are relevant to the formation and maintenance of habitable planetary systems is advancing at a rapid pace, both from observation and theory. The present review focuses on recent research that bears on this topic and includes discussions of processes occurring in astrophysical, geophysical and climatic contexts, as well as the temporal evolution of planetary habitability. Special attention is given to recent observations of exoplanets and their host stars and the theories proposed to explain the observed trends. Recent theories about the early evolution of the Solar System and how they relate to its habitability are also summarized. Unresolved issues requiring additional research are pointed out, and a framework is provided for estimating the number of habitable planets in the Universe.

  9. Setting the Stage for Habitable Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the processes that are relevant to the formation and maintenance of habitable planetary systems is advancing at a rapid pace, both from observation and theory. The present review focuses on recent research that bears on this topic and includes discussions of processes occurring in astrophysical, geophysical and climatic contexts, as well as the temporal evolution of planetary habitability. Special attention is given to recent observations of exoplanets and their host stars and the theories proposed to explain the observed trends. Recent theories about the early evolution of the Solar System and how they relate to its habitability are also summarized. Unresolved issues requiring additional research are pointed out, and a framework is provided for estimating the number of habitable planets in the Universe. PMID:25370028

  10. Overview of Human Factors and Habitability at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Janis; Arch, M.; Kaiser, Mary

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the ongoing work on human factors and habitability in the development of the Constellation Program. The focus of the work is on how equipment, spacecraft design, tools, procedures and nutrition be used to improve the health, safety and efficiency of the crewmembers. There are slides showing the components of the Constellation Program, and the conceptual designs of the Orion Crew module, the lunar lander, (i.e., Altair) the microgravity EVA suit, and the lunar surface EVA suit, the lunar rover, and the lunar surface system infrastructure.

  11. Discussion on control room habitability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bing; Chen Yingying; Xiao Jun; Yang Duanjie; Cui Hao

    2014-01-01

    The discussion on control room envelope integrity, source term analysis in habitability assessments and other impact factors for dose consequence is provided combined with regulatory requirements and the current status of domestic NPPs. Considering that the infiltration is an important factor for control room habitability assessment, CRE integrity test should be performed to demonstrate the CRE's infiltration characteristics. The consequence assessment should be performed based on different DBAs and different pathways, such as pathways internal to the plant. (authors)

  12. Determinants of Smoking Habit among Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Virendra Vikram; Singh, Zile; Banerjee, A; Basannar, DR

    2003-01-01

    A cross sectional study of smoking habits among medical students was carried out to find out the prevalence of smoking and its association with certain factors such as parental smoking, peer pressure, use of alcohol and other drugs. Prevalence of smoking was 46%. There was significant association of smoking with parental smoking habit, peer pressure, use of alcohol and other drugs. Strategies to counter these social determinants have been discussed.

  13. The Habitable Zone and Extreme Planetary Orbits

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Stephen R.; Gelino, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    The habitable zone for a given star describes the range of circumstellar distances from the star within which a planet could have liquid water on its surface, which depends upon the stellar properties. Here we describe the development of the habitable zone concept, its application to our own solar system, and its subsequent application to exoplanetary systems. We further apply this to planets in extreme eccentric orbits and show how they may still retain life-bearing properties depending upon...

  14. [Bad habits and dysgnathia: epidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, G; Lo Giudice, G; Dolci, E; Romeo, U; Lafronte, G

    1989-01-01

    The authors refer about an epidemiological survey in 651 children in the school-age. The aim of study is to investigate about the frequency of the bad habits and the pathogenetic relations between these and the development of the dento-maxillo-facial deformities. They point out an incidence of these bad habits in the 35,48% with a predominance of mouth breathers (45,45%). After they discuss the necessity of an early detection of anomalous neuromuscular attitudes.

  15. Qualitative study of eating habits in Bruneian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talip, Tajidah; Serudin, Rajiah; Noor, Salmah; Tuah, Nik

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health issue globally and poor eating habits are an important contributing factor. This study aimed to explore the perceptions, practices and attitudes towards healthy eating in Bruneian primary school children. A qualitative study was conducted among 40 subjects involving 18 children (aged 9-10 years old), 12 parents and 10 teachers, who were recruited from two primary schools using convenience sampling. Five focus group discussion sessions were conducted, and recorded discussions were translated. The transcripts were entered into NVivo10 and thematic analysis was conducted. All participants had differing perceptions of the term 'healthy eating'. Children reported 'healthy eating' by identifying foods or food groups they perceived as healthy and unhealthy. Only a few mentioned fruits and vegetables as essential to a healthy diet. Parents mainly perceived 'healthy eating' as consuming 'any quality food' that contains 'vitamins and minerals'. Teachers described a healthy diet as including balanced and varied dietary practices, having breakfast and eating regularly at the right, set times. They also associated eating healthily with traditional, home-grown and home-cooked food. All participants had positive attitudes towards healthy eating, however most children demonstrated unhealthy eating habits and frequently consumed unhealthy foods. The Bruneian primary school children reported favourable knowledge despite having poor healthy eating habits. The factors influencing participants eating behavior included food preferences, familial factors (parental style and parenting knowledge), food accessibility and availability, time constraints, as well as convenience. These factors hindered them from adopting healthy eating practices.

  16. Corresponding Habits of Mind and Mathematical Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwirahayu, G.; Kustiawati, D.; Bidari, I.

    2017-09-01

    Objective of learning process regarding system of Indonesia government should be consist of knowledge, attitudes, and skills, or in general we call cognitive, affective and psychomotor. These objective are apply to mathematics education also. Attitude in mathematics known as habits of mind. The teacher should create a learning objective which including all, cognitive, affective and psychomotor. In general, math teachers in Indonesia pay attention to aspects of knowledge, and they ignore other aspects. Habits of mind is term which means the tendency to behave intellectually or intelligently when faced with problems which is immediately known solution. This article examines the math teacher’s attention to students’ habits of mind. The research done by survey method to 38 students at Islamic School 32 Jakarta academic year 2015/2016 from April to May 2016. Habits of mind are observed in this research restricted to persisting, thinking about thinking, thinking flexible and applying past knowledge to new situation. Based on survey, conclude that teacher, without realizing, they have to improve students’ habits of mind, as long as teaching and learning only persisting and thinking about thinking are already well developed, while flexible thinking and applying past knowledge to new situation has not well developed. We hope, math teacher can pay attention not only cognitive aspect but habits of mind also.

  17. Characterizing Exoplanet Habitability with Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler

    2018-01-01

    Results from NASA’s Kepler mission and other recent exoplanet surveys have demonstrated that potentially habitable exoplanets are relatively common, especially in the case of low-mass stellar hosts. The next key question that must be addressed for such planets is whether or not these worlds are actually habitable, implying they could sustain surface liquid water. Only through investigations of the potential habitability of exoplanets and through searches for biosignatures from these planets will we be able to understand if the emergence of life is a common phenomenon in our galaxy. Emission spectroscopy for transiting exoplanets (sometimes called secondary eclipse spectroscopy) is a powerful technique that future missions will use to study the atmospheres and surfaces of worlds orbiting in the habitable zones of nearby, low-mass stars. Emission observations that span the mid-infrared wavelength range for potentially habitable exoplanets provide opportunities to detect key habitability and life signatures, and also allow observers to probe atmospheric and surface temperatures. This presentation will outline the case for using emission spectroscopy to understand if an exoplanet can sustain surface liquid water, which is believed to be a critical precursor to the origin of life.

  18. Habitable worlds with no signs of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S

    2014-04-28

    'Most habitable worlds in the cosmos will have no remotely detectable signs of life' is proposed as a biological hypothesis to be tested in the study of exoplanets. Habitable planets could be discovered elsewhere in the Universe, yet there are many hypothetical scenarios whereby the search for life on them could yield negative results. Scenarios for habitable worlds with no remotely detectable signatures of life include: planets that are habitable, but have no biosphere (Uninhabited Habitable Worlds); planets with life, but lacking any detectable surface signatures of that life (laboratory examples are provided); and planets with life, where the concentrations of atmospheric gases produced or removed by biota are impossible to disentangle from abiotic processes because of the lack of detailed knowledge of planetary conditions (the 'problem of exoplanet thermodynamic uncertainty'). A rejection of the hypothesis would require that the origin of life usually occurs on habitable planets, that spectrally detectable pigments and/or metabolisms that produce unequivocal biosignature gases (e.g. oxygenic photosynthesis) usually evolve and that the organisms that harbour them usually achieve a sufficient biomass to produce biosignatures detectable to alien astronomers.

  19. Architecture in context: habits of seeing, knowing and working

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Architecture is a project and endeavour that takes place over time, is generally lengthy in duration, has a lifespan, yet is also “of time”—holding potential to be amended, added to, presenting an openness of the unfinished and potential that is essential to past, present, and future life of (the) building. Building, as both noun and verb, has permanence and visibility as the outcome and process of a defined project, yet also has a less visibly evidenced dimension in relation to the life of u...

  20. The power of habits: unhealthy snacking behaviour is primarily predicted by habit strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Aukje A C; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Evers, Catharine; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2012-11-01

    Although increasing evidence shows the importance of habits in explaining health behaviour, many studies still rely solely on predictors that emphasize the role of conscious intentions. The present study was designed to test the importance of habit strength in explaining unhealthy snacking behaviour in a large representative community sample (N= 1,103). To test our hypothesis that habits are crucial when explaining unhealthy snacking behaviour, their role was compared to the 'Power of Food', a related construct that addresses sensitivity to food cues in the environment. Moreover, the relation between Power of Food and unhealthy snacking habits was assessed. A prospective design was used to determine the impact of habits in relation to intention, Power of Food and a number of demographic variables. One month after filling out the questionnaire, including measures of habit strength and Power of Food, participants reported their unhealthy snacking behaviour by means of a 7-day snack diary. Results showed that habit strength was the most important predictor, outperforming all other variables in explaining unhealthy snack intake. The findings demonstrate that snacking habits provide a unique contribution in explaining unhealthy snacking behaviour, stressing the importance of addressing habit strength in further research and interventions concerning unhealthy snacking behaviour. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Position statement: Gender dysphoria in childhood and adolescence. Working Group on Gender Identity and Sexual Development of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (GIDSEEN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteva de Antonio, Isabel; Asenjo Araque, Nuria; Hurtado Murillo, Felipe; Fernández Rodríguez, María; Vidal Hagemeijer, Ángela; Moreno-Pérez, Oscar; Lucio Pérez, María Jesús; López Siguero, Juan Pedro

    2015-10-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) in childhood and adolescence is a complex condition where early detection and comprehensive treatment are essential to improve quality of life, decrease mental comorbidity, and improve GD. In this position statement, the Working Group on Gender Identity and Sexual Development of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (GIDSEEN), consisting of specialists in Endocrinology, Psychology, Psychiatry, Pediatrics and Sociology, sets out recommendations for evaluation and treatment of GD in children and adolescents. Interdisciplinary management of GD should be carried out at specialized units (UTIGs), considering that any clinical intervention should follow the principles of scientific rigor, experience, ethical and deontological principles, and the necessary caution in front of chronic, aggressive, and irreversible treatments. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Maintaining positive

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Gh. IONESCU; Adina Letitia NEGRUSA

    2004-01-01

    Maintaining positive work-force relationships includes in effective labor-management relations and making appropriate responses to current employee issues. Among the major current employee issues are protection from arbitrary dismissal, drug and alcohol abuse, privacy rights and family maters and they impact work. In our paper we discus two problems: first, the meanings of industrial democracy; second, the three principal operational concepts of industrial democracy (1) industrial democracy t...

  3. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, B; Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E

    1996-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental factors that influence children to smoke, and to understand the reasons why children smoke. The results of this study may help lead to the development of more effective smoking prevention programs. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of all students in grades 6 to 11 (ages: 11 to 17 years) in two high schools in the Jerusalem area, using an anonymous self-completion questionnaire. The students were asked questions regarding the age at which they began smoking, initiation, their smoking habits, their reasons for smoking, and their views on children who smoke. In addition, they were asked about the smoking status of their parents, siblings, and friends. Finally they were asked about the health hazards of smoking. Of the 847 students who answered the questionnaire, 35% stated that they had smoked at least once and 14% stated that they were currently smoking. The percentage of students who were currently smoking increased gradually with age to 36%. There was a sharp increase in experimental smoking after seventh grade (ages 12 to 13 years). Having a friend who smoked substantially increased the likelihood of smoking, whereas parental smoking or having a sibling who smoked did not increase the likelihood of smoking. The most common reason for starting to smoke was "to try something new" (55%). There was a significant difference between the views of students with different smoking statuses regarding children who smoke: nonsmoking children associated more negative characteristics to smoking. All of the children studied were well aware of the health hazards of cigarette smoking. Smoking is highly prevalent among schoolchildren in Jerusalem. The increase in the rate of smoking at the age of 12

  4. Force of habit: shrubs, trees and contingent evolution of wood anatomical diversity using Croton (Euphorbiaceae) as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, Rafael; van Ee, Benjamin W; Riina, Ricarda; Berry, Paul E; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C

    2017-03-01

    Wood is a major innovation of land plants, and is usually a central component of the body plan for two major plant habits: shrubs and trees. Wood anatomical syndromes vary between shrubs and trees, but no prior work has explicitly evaluated the contingent evolution of wood anatomical diversity in the context of these plant habits. Phylogenetic comparative methods were used to test for contingent evolution of habit, habitat and wood anatomy in the mega-diverse genus Croton (Euphorbiaceae), across the largest and most complete molecular phylogeny of the genus to date. Plant habit and habitat are highly correlated, but most wood anatomical features correlate more strongly with habit. The ancestral Croton was reconstructed as a tree, the wood of which is inferred to have absent or indistinct growth rings, confluent-like axial parenchyma, procumbent ray cells and disjunctive ray parenchyma cell walls. The taxa sampled showed multiple independent origins of the shrub habit in Croton , and this habit shift is contingent on several wood anatomical features (e.g. similar vessel-ray pits, thick fibre walls, perforated ray cells). The only wood anatomical trait correlated with habitat and not habit was the presence of helical thickenings in the vessel elements of mesic Croton . Plant functional traits, individually or in suites, are responses to multiple and often confounding contexts in evolution. By establishing an explicit contingent evolutionary framework, the interplay between habit, habitat and wood anatomical diversity was dissected in the genus Croton . Both habit and habitat influence the evolution of wood anatomical characters, and conversely, the wood anatomy of lineages can affect shifts in plant habit and habitat. This study hypothesizes novel putatively functional trait associations in woody plant structure that could be further tested in a variety of other taxa. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company 2017. This work is

  5. Habitability research priorities for the International Space Station and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M; Adolf, J A; Woolford, B J

    2000-09-01

    Advanced technology and the desire to explore space have resulted in increasingly longer manned space missions. Long Duration Space Flights (LDSF) have provided a considerable amount of scientific research on the ability of humans to adapt and function in microgravity environments. In addition, studies conducted in analogous environments, such as winter-over expeditions in Antarctica, have complemented the scientific understanding of human performance in LDSF. These findings indicate long duration missions may take a toll on the individual, both physiologically and psychologically, with potential impacts on performance. Significant factors in any manned LDSF are habitability, workload and performance. They are interrelated and influence one another, and therefore necessitate an integrated research approach. An integral part of this approach will be identifying and developing tools not only for assessment of habitability, workload, and performance, but also for prediction of these factors as well. In addition, these tools will be used to identify and provide countermeasures to minimize decrements and maximize mission success. The purpose of this paper is to identify research goals and methods for the International Space Station (ISS) in order to identify critical factors and level of impact on habitability, workload, and performance, and to develop and validate countermeasures. Overall, this approach will provide the groundwork for creating an optimal environment in which to live and work onboard ISS as well as preparing for longer planetary missions.

  6. Magnetic Fields of Extrasolar Planets: Planetary Interiors and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, T. Joseph

    2018-06-01

    Ground-based observations showed that Jupiter's radio emission is linked to its planetary-scale magnetic field, and subsequent spacecraft observations have shown that most planets, and some moons, have or had a global magnetic field. Generated by internal dynamos, magnetic fields are one of the few remote sensing means of constraining the properties of planetary interiors. For the Earth, its magnetic field has been speculated to be partially responsible for its habitability, and knowledge of an extrasolar planet's magnetic field may be necessary to assess its habitability. The radio emission from Jupiter and other solar system planets is produced by an electron cyclotron maser, and detections of extrasolar planetary electron cyclotron masers will enable measurements of extrasolar planetary magnetic fields. Based on experience from the solar system, such observations will almost certainly require space-based observations, but they will also be guided by on-going and near-future ground-based observations.This work has benefited from the discussion and participants of the W. M. Keck Institute of Space Studies "Planetary Magnetic Fields: Planetary Interiors and Habitability" and content within a white paper submitted to the National Academy of Science Committee on Exoplanet Science Strategy. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  7. Etiopathogenesis of parafunctional habits of the stomatognathic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, D; Landi, N; Romagnoli, M; Cantini, E; Bosco, M

    2003-01-01

    A broad consensus does exist among main authors on the importance of parafunctional habits in the etiopathogenesis of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Mechanisms through which an intense parafunctional activity determined a pathological effect on the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) and their related structures have still not been definitively clarified; nevertheless, before investigating those mechanisms, it's useful to study predisposing, triggering and/or worsening factors of parafunctions themselves. At present the theory, once widely accepted, according to which occlusal interferences can trigger a muscular hyperactivity through the activation of periodontal receptors, has lost a lot of credit. Recently, the hypothesis that bruxism and other parafunctions have a central etiology has become more and more accepted. In such a context, the role of the psychic component assumes a strong relevance, particularly for its relation with the limbic system, which is the part of the central nervous system (CNS) that regulates emotions. Such a hypothesis is confirmed by clinical practice, but it doesn't explain why some patients have reported a worsening of parafunctional activities after occlusal adjustment. The aim of this study is to investigate this issue through a critical review of the literature, indicating how the 2 theories might be complementary for the development and worsening of a parafunctional habit. From this review, despite the number of clinical opinions, there emerges a lack of methodologically appropriate associative works and controlled clinical trials which consent to clarify the effective importance of psychic and/or occlusal factors in the etiopathogenesis of parafunctional habits.

  8. Titania may produce abiotic oxygen atmospheres on habitable exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Norio; Enomoto, Takafumi; Masaoka, Shigeyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko

    2015-09-10

    The search for habitable exoplanets in the Universe is actively ongoing in the field of astronomy. The biggest future milestone is to determine whether life exists on such habitable exoplanets. In that context, oxygen in the atmosphere has been considered strong evidence for the presence of photosynthetic organisms. In this paper, we show that a previously unconsidered photochemical mechanism by titanium (IV) oxide (titania) can produce abiotic oxygen from liquid water under near ultraviolet (NUV) lights on the surface of exoplanets. Titania works as a photocatalyst to dissociate liquid water in this process. This mechanism offers a different source of a possibility of abiotic oxygen in atmospheres of exoplanets from previously considered photodissociation of water vapor in upper atmospheres by extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light. Our order-of-magnitude estimation shows that possible amounts of oxygen produced by this abiotic mechanism can be comparable with or even more than that in the atmosphere of the current Earth, depending on the amount of active surface area for this mechanism. We conclude that titania may act as a potential source of false signs of life on habitable exoplanets.

  9. Influence of surface position along the working range of conoscopic holography sensors on dimensional verification of AISI 316 wire EDM machined surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Pedro; Blanco, David; Rico, Carlos; Valiño, Gonzalo; Mateos, Sabino

    2014-03-06

    Conoscopic holography (CH) is a non-contact interferometric technique used for surface digitization which presents several advantages over other optical techniques such as laser triangulation. Among others, the ability for the reconstruction of high-sloped surfaces stands out, and so does its lower dependence on surface optical properties. Nevertheless, similarly to other optical systems, adjustment of CH sensors requires an adequate selection of configuration parameters for ensuring a high quality surface digitizing. This should be done on a surface located as close as possible to the stand-off distance by tuning frequency (F) and power (P) until the quality indicators Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and signal envelope (Total) meet proper values. However, not all the points of an actual surface are located at the stand-off distance, but they could be located throughout the whole working range (WR). Thus, the quality of a digitized surface may not be uniform. The present work analyses how the quality of a reconstructed surface is affected by its relative position within the WR under different combinations of the parameters F and P. Experiments have been conducted on AISI 316 wire EDM machined flat surfaces. The number of high-quality points digitized as well as distance measurements between different surfaces throughout the WR allowed for comparing the metrological behaviour of the CH sensor with respect to a touch probe (TP) on a CMM.

  10. Influence of Surface Position along the Working Range of Conoscopic Holography Sensors on Dimensional Verification of AISI 316 Wire EDM Machined Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernández

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conoscopic holography (CH is a non-contact interferometric technique used for surface digitization which presents several advantages over other optical techniques such as laser triangulation. Among others, the ability for the reconstruction of high-sloped surfaces stands out, and so does its lower dependence on surface optical properties. Nevertheless, similarly to other optical systems, adjustment of CH sensors requires an adequate selection of configuration parameters for ensuring a high quality surface digitizing. This should be done on a surface located as close as possible to the stand-off distance by tuning frequency (F and power (P until the quality indicators Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR and signal envelope (Total meet proper values. However, not all the points of an actual surface are located at the stand-off distance, but they could be located throughout the whole working range (WR. Thus, the quality of a digitized surface may not be uniform. The present work analyses how the quality of a reconstructed surface is affected by its relative position within the WR under different combinations of the parameters F and P. Experiments have been conducted on AISI 316 wire EDM machined flat surfaces. The number of high-quality points digitized as well as distance measurements between different surfaces throughout the WR allowed for comparing the metrological behaviour of the CH sensor with respect to a touch probe (TP on a CMM.

  11. THE ABILITY OF SELF-ASSESSMENT STUDY HABITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lizbeth Alonzo Rivera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Revista Varela, ISSN: 1810 -3413 RNPS: 2 038 Vol. ( 18, No. ( 49, art (06, pp. ( 69- 81, enero -abril , 2018 Universidad Central "Marta Abreu" de Las Villas, Carretera a Camajuani km 5,5. Santa Clara, Villa Clara, Cuba. CP 54830 http://revistavarela.uclv.edu.cu , revistavarela@uclv.cu Recibido: 15 de sept de 2017 Aprobado: 11 de dic de 2017 70 concentración. El desarrollo de la habilidad de autoevaluación permite el involucramiento del estudiante en su proceso educativo y lo hace copartícipe de su aprendizaje. ABSTRACT One of the problems facing students in b achelor's degree is the use of methods and techniques of inappropriate study, which repeat constantly during the performance of their academic duties, constitute a bad habit in their way of dealing with learning situations. Promote the development of the ability to study habits self -assessment allows students to reflect on issues that must be correct to develop an appropriate study method, involves a commitment and responsibility that the student has to purchase to develop their autonomy in the learning process. The identification of study habits that favor the process of knowledge acquisition is a skill needed for academic success. This paper shows resu lts of the practice of this skill, during three years with students from the bachelor's degree in B iology from a M exican university. The aspects of study habits that have worked on an ongoing basis are: distribution of time, reading, physiological condition and concentration. The development of self -evaluation ability allows the involvement of students in their educational process and your learning partner does.

  12. Evaluation of Prevalence of Low Back Pain Among Residents of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in Relation with Their Position in Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams Vahdati, Samad; Sarkhosh Khiavi, Reza; Rajaei Ghafouri, Rouzbeh; Adimi, Ida

    2014-09-01

    Lower back pain is one of the most common complaints among the general population and among health professionals. Multiple workplace-related risk factors may contribute to back pain among physicians. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of lower back pain among medical residents of different medical specialties and to evaluate the relevant risk factors. A Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (DMQ) was completed by 125 medical residents. Part I concerned general demographic information, part II evaluated workplace-specific factors, and part III assessed the individual characteristics of lower back pain. The overall prevalence of lower back pain among residents was 56.8%, with 45.1% of men and 76.5% of women reporting lower back pain. A total of 94.4% of affected individuals believed that their lower back pain was related to their current job, and 72.6% claimed that the onset of lower back pain occurred after beginning medical work. Statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between lower back pain and certain risk factors, such as working in the same position for long periods, repetitive movement (bending, twisting) of the lumbar region, working in uncomfortable postures, stress, walking, and standing for long periods. However, no significant relationship was found between lower back pain and heavy lifting, smoking, or prolonged sitting. The role of exercise as a protective factor in reducing the incidence of lower back pain was supported by the statistical analysis. The prevalence of lower back pain among residents is high and is associated with a number of workplace-related risk factors.

  13. Living place significance for Kaunas first year university student habits

    OpenAIRE

    Pajarskaitė, Dovilė

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study: Investigate students eating habits and availability for healthy nutrition. Objectives: Compare students nutritional habits by comparing their place of living; Find out students nutritional habits that are living in student flats. also eat nearby catering places; Evaluate students that live in Kaunas city of students flats possibility to prepare meals. Methods. Data from 2010 Kohortinis European students living habits was used for Nutritional habits comparison by livi...

  14. The power of habits : Unhealthy snacking behaviour is primarily predicted by habit strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, A.A.C.; Adriaanse, M.A.; Evers, C.; de Ridder, D.T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Although increasing evidence shows the importance of habits in explaining health behaviour, many studies still rely solely on predictors that emphasize the role of conscious intentions. The present study was designed to test the importance of habit strength in explaining unhealthy

  15. The evolution of habit in Tempskya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, C.B.

    1939-01-01

    1. The genus Tempskya Corda, of Upper Cretaceous age in western America, is characterized by a markedly dichotomous solenostelic stem system sheathed in a felt of its own adventitious roots. A composite stemlike structure is thus formed which has been termed a false stem. 2. As primary bases for the discussion, it is assumed that the false stem is a composite "organ" analogous to a true stem in certain respects; that form is influenced by habit, and that lack of perfect correlation is indicative of a structural lag; and that the false stem is much more plastic than the true stem and, in consequence, a close correlation of habit and internal structure is to be expected. 3. Arguments favoring a subterranean and obliquely ascending habit for these false stemmed types are presented. Likewise, arguments suggesting an erect treefern-like habit for the radially symmetrical false stems, and a climbing habit for the dorsiventral ones are given. It is believed that the available evidence favors the erect and the liana-like habits. 4. Assuming a radial Urform, for which there is ample justification both in theoretical morphology and in the Paleozoic record, the dorsiventral morphology of fern stems may be regarded as developed towards the close of the Paleozoic as an adaptation to rigorous climates which are known to have produced striking changes in the organic landscape. 5. From one of these early dorsiventral types with a dichotomous stem system, Tempskya may have been derived through the development of the scandent and tree-climbing habit, aided by the production of a mass of adventitious roots. Thus the false stem could be developed. 6. It follows that the more primitive habit in Tempskya is logically the climbing one reflected by the dorsiventral false stem. Old age of individuals may have been characterized by self-saprophytism and finally epiphytism. 7. The radial forms, it is believed, were developed from these dorsiventral climbing types as a result of the

  16. Avoiding burnout: the personal health habits and wellness practices of US surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafelt, Tait D; Oreskovich, Michael R; Dyrbye, Lotte N; Satele, Daniel V; Hanks, John B; Sloan, Jeff A; Balch, Charles M

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the health habits, routine medical care practices, and personal wellness strategies of American surgeons and explore associations with burnout and quality of life (QOL). Burnout and low mental QOL are common among US surgeons and seem to adversely affect quality of care, job satisfaction, career longevity, and risk of suicide. The self-care strategies and personal wellness promotion practices used by surgeons to deal with the stress of practice are not well explored. Members of the American College of Surgeons were sent an anonymous, cross-sectional survey in October 2010. The survey included self-assessment of health habits, routine medical care practices, and personal wellness strategies and standardized assessments of burnout and QOL. Of 7197 participating surgeons, 3911 (55.0%) participated in aerobic exercise and 2611 (36.3%) in muscle strengthening activities, in a pattern consistent with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations. The overall and physical QOL scores were superior for surgeons' following the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations (all P work, focusing on what is important in life, maintaining a positive outlook, and embracing a philosophy that stresses work/life balance were less likely to be burned out (all P < 0.0001). Although many factors associated with lower risk of burnout were also associated with achieving a high overall QOL, notable differences were observed, indicating surgeons' need to employ a broader repertoire of wellness promotion practices if they desire to move beyond neutral and achieve high well-being. This study identifies specific measures surgeons can take to decrease burnout and improve their personal and professional QOL.

  17. Minimally invasive surgery when treating endometriosis has a positive effect on health and on quality of work life of affected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullschleger, M F; Imboden, S; Wanner, J; Mueller, M D

    2015-03-01

    retrospective survey cannot be excluded, although study-sensitive questions were provided in multiple ways. The absence of a control group (sham group; e.g. patients undergoing specific diagnostic laparoscopy without treatment) is a further limitation of the study. Our study shows that indicated minimally invasive surgery has a clear positive effect on the wellbeing and working performance of women suffering from moderate to severe endometriosis. Furthermore, national net savings in indirect costs with the present number of surgeries is estimated to be €10.7 million per year. In an idealized setting (i.e. without any diagnosis delay) this figure could be more than doubled. The study was performed on behalf of the University Hospital of Bern (Inselspital) as one of the leading Swiss tertiary care centers. The authors do not declare any competing interests. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. [Eating habits of patients with severe obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reséndiz Barragán, Aída Monserrat; Hernández Altamirano, Sheila Viridiana; Sierra Murguía, Mariana Alejandra; Torres Tamayo, Margarita

    2014-11-30

    Severe obesity is a health problem that has medical, emotional and economic consequences. The etiology of severe obesity is multifactorial; however, it is known that the eating habits represent a major factor in the development of this disease. This study aimed to identify eating patterns and specific habits that need to be changed to achieve weight loss. An observational, descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional study with 250 candidates for bariatric surgery, 79.2% women and 20.8% men aged 37.7 ± 10.2 years and 44.3 ± 7.7 kg/m2 BMI patients was performed. It was found that "drinking water", "eat faster than most people", "leave the plate empty", "have long fasts", "sweet cravings", and "drinking soda" were the most common habits in patients with severe obesity. The existence of significant differences between the habits of men and women and between BMI strata or groups are also discussed. "Snacking" and "eat until you feel uncomfortable" were significantly different between men and women and "eat by yourself because you feel ashamed of eating with others" was significant between BMI strata. It was concluded that it is important that the treatment of these patients includes assessment techniques and behavior modification aimed at these habits. It is recommended to include in future studies patients with normal weight and overweight as well as the use of instruments with adequate psychometric properties. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Europa's Habitability follows from Classical Dynamical Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, R.

    2001-11-01

    Celestial mechanics is responsible for Jupiter's satellite Europa being a possible site for life in the solar system. The Laplace orbital resonance drives a substantial eccentricity. The mutually dependent relationship between orbital and rotational evolution and tidal processes in turn controls Europa's heating and stress. Heat is likely adequate to maintain a liquid water ocean, and to keep the surface ice thin. Tidal stress can explain characteristic and ubiquitous crack patterns (global and cycloidal), as well as drive observed shear displacement features. The characteristic ridge sets that cover tectonic terrain are likely built by tidal pumping of oceanic fluid and slush through cracks to the surface on a daily basis. Nearly half the surface is chaotic terrain, with morphology and other characteristics indicative of melt-through from below. Formation of both chaotic and tectonic terrains has continually resurfaced the satellite, while connecting the ocean to the surface and providing a variety of evolving environmental niches. As a result of tides, liquid water would daily bathe crustal cracks and surfaces with heat, transporting and mixing substances vertically. Thus a variety of habitable environments likely exist in the crust. Moreover, exposure of the ocean to the surface in the ways described here satisfies a necessary condition for life in the ocean as well, by providing access to oxidants which are available near the surface. These processes were recent, and thus most likely continue today. Longer term changes in environmental conditions in the crust, such as deactivation of individual cracks after thousands of years (due to non-synchronous rotation) and later crustal thawing (releasing any trapped organisms), provided drivers for adaptation, as well as opportunity for evolution. This work is supported by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program and the NSF Life in Extreme Environments Program.

  20. A statistical test for the habitable zone concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checlair, J.; Abbot, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional habitable zone theory assumes that the silicate-weathering feedback regulates the atmospheric CO2 of planets within the habitable zone to maintain surface temperatures that allow for liquid water. There is some non-definitive evidence that this feedback has worked in Earth history, but it is untested in an exoplanet context. A critical prediction of the silicate-weathering feedback is that, on average, within the habitable zone planets that receive a higher stellar flux should have a lower CO2 in order to maintain liquid water at their surface. We can test this prediction directly by using a statistical approach involving low-precision CO2 measurements on many planets with future instruments such as JWST, LUVOIR, or HabEx. The purpose of this work is to carefully outline the requirements for such a test. First, we use a radiative-transfer model to compute the amount of CO2 necessary to maintain surface liquid water on planets for different values of insolation and planetary parameters. We run a large ensemble of Earth-like planets with different masses, atmospheric masses, inert atmospheric composition, cloud composition and level, and other greenhouse gases. Second, we post-process this data to determine the precision with which future instruments such as JWST, LUVOIR, and HabEx could measure the CO2. We then combine the variation due to planetary parameters and observational error to determine the number of planet measurements that would be needed to effectively marginalize over uncertainties and resolve the predicted trend in CO2 vs. stellar flux. The results of this work may influence the usage of JWST and will enhance mission planning for LUVOIR and HabEx.

  1. Practicing Good Habits, Grade 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cong Lau; And Others

    This illustrated textbook was designed for teaching civics and values to fourth grade students in Vietnam. It is divided into six chapters: (1) At School (recapitulation of the grade three program, friendship, respect for the teacher, team work, discipline, honor); (2) In the Street: Traffic Regulations; (3) At Home (the extended family spirit,…

  2. Geophysical and atmospheric evolution of habitable planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammer, Helmut; Selsis, Frank; Chassefière, Eric; Breuer, Doris; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Kulikov, Yuri N; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Biernat, Helfried K; Leblanc, Francois; Kallio, Esa; Lundin, Richard; Westall, Frances; Bauer, Siegfried J; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Gröller, Hannes; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Hausleitner, Walter; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Léger, Alain; Leitzinger, Martin; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Motschmann, Uwe; Odert, Petra; Paresce, Francesco; Parnell, John; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Rauer, Heike; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Spohn, Tilman; Stadelmann, Anja; Stangl, Günter; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of Earth-like habitable planets is a complex process that depends on the geodynamical and geophysical environments. In particular, it is necessary that plate tectonics remain active over billions of years. These geophysically active environments are strongly coupled to a planet's host star parameters, such as mass, luminosity and activity, orbit location of the habitable zone, and the planet's initial water inventory. Depending on the host star's radiation and particle flux evolution, the composition in the thermosphere, and the availability of an active magnetic dynamo, the atmospheres of Earth-like planets within their habitable zones are differently affected due to thermal and nonthermal escape processes. For some planets, strong atmospheric escape could even effect the stability of the atmosphere.

  3. Translational Research on Habit and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Theresa H; Shnitko, Tatiana A; Robinson, Donita L; Boettiger, Charlotte A

    2016-03-01

    Habitual actions enable efficient daily living, but they can also contribute to pathological behaviors that resistant change, such as alcoholism. Habitual behaviors are learned actions that appear goal-directed but are in fact no longer under the control of the action's outcome. Instead, these actions are triggered by stimuli, which may be exogenous or interoceptive, discrete or contextual. A major hallmark characteristic of alcoholism is continued alcohol use despite serious negative consequences. In essence, although the outcome of alcohol seeking and drinking is dramatically devalued, these actions persist, often triggered by environmental cues associated with alcohol use. Thus, alcoholism meets the definition of an initially goal-directed behavior that converts to a habit-based process. Habit and alcohol have been well investigated in rodent models, with comparatively less research in non-human primates and people. This review focuses on translational research on habit and alcohol with an emphasis on cross-species methodology and neural circuitry.

  4. Environmental Signatures for Habitability: What to Measure and How to Rank the Habitability Potential of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Mahaffy, Paul M.; Steele, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The environmental signatures for habitability are not necessarily biosignatures, even though on Earth, they are definitive proof of habitability. It is the constant overprint of the chemical signatures of life that makes it difficult to recognize the chemical and physical properties of a potentially habitable environment as distinct from an inhabited one. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will soon embark on a mission to Mars to assess its past or present habitability, so it is useful to examine how we measure habitability on Earth and prepare for how that approach may differ for Mars. This exercise includes: (a) articulation of fundamental assumptions about habitability, (b) an inventory of factors that affect habitability, (c) development of metrics, measurement approach and implementation, and (d) a new classification scheme for planetary habitability that goes beyond the binary "yes" or "no." There may be dozens of factors that affect habitability and they can be weighted as a function of specific environment. However a robotic, in situ investigation even on Earth has constraints that prevent the measurement of every environmental factor, so metrics must be reduced to the most relevant subset, given available time, cost, technical feasibility and scientific importance. Many of the factors could be measured with a combination of orbital data and the MSL payload. We propose that, at a minimum, a designation of high habitability potential requires the following conditions be met: (a) thermally stable with respect to extremes and frequency of fluctuation, (b) has more than one energy source, (c) sufficient chemical diversity to make compounds with covalent and hydrogen bonding, (d) can moderate ionizing radiation enough to allow a stable or evolving pool of organic molecules, (e) must have water or other high quality polar solvent, (f) must be able to renew chemical resources (e.g., plate tectonics, volcanism or something else we haven't envisioned). A measurement

  5. New inner boundaries of the habitable zones around M dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Jiayu; Tian, Feng; Liu, Lei

    2018-06-01

    Two general circulation models CAM4 and CAM5 are used to study the climate of ocean planets around M dwarfs with different effective temperatures. The atmospheres in CAM5 simulations are warmer and contain more water vapor than those in CAM4 under identical model settings, a result likely caused by improved treatments of radiation and possibly clouds in CAM5. The inner boundary of the habitable zones of M dwarfs based on CAM5 simulations, expressed as a second order polynomial function, are farther away from the stars than what are suggested by previous works and the corresponding atmospheres are in the moist greenhouse state.

  6. Multinodal control room envelope model used for habitability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberg, W.M.; Gore, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    This work analyzes the habitability of the control room envelope (CRE) during an off-normal ventilation system condition. The most limiting design basis accident utilized for this analysis is the postulated loss-of-coolant accident. The off-normal condition assumes two rooms within the CRE are at pressures that are lower than adjoining rooms outside the CRE. This pressure differential allows unfiltered in-leakage to enter the CRE through the doors and penetrations in these rooms. This paper quantifies the maximum unfiltered in-leakage

  7. Teaching originality? Common habits behind creative production in science and arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten Scheffer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Originality is a prerequisite for world-changing science and arts alike, but it cannot be taught. Or can it? Here, we show that a set of habits that are - surprisingly - shared among successful artists and scientists may catalyze creative output. We reveal three groups of such habits, each corresponding to a cluster of personality traits, shown to be shared by creative artists and scientists. The first habit group "embrace the unexpected" corresponds to the character trait "openness to new experiences" and encompasses tendencies to go ahead without a plan, collect diverse experiences, and take risks. The second group "create conditions for creation" links to the personality trait "autonomous" and encompasses simple habits such as making empty time and carrying a notebook. The third class of habits "break away from dogma" links to the shared personality trait "norm doubting" and stands for a strong drive to escape from established systems and also occasionally destroy part of one's own work to break tunnel vision and start anew. Although personality traits are hard to change, the habits we found hint at techniques or skills that may be taught.

  8. HABITABLE CLIMATES: THE INFLUENCE OF ECCENTRICITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Spiegel, David S.; Scharf, Caleb A.; Menou, Kristen; Raymond, Sean N.

    2010-01-01

    In the outer regions of the habitable zone, the risk of transitioning into a globally frozen 'snowball' state poses a threat to the habitability of planets with the capacity to host water-based life. Here, we use a one-dimensional energy balance climate model (EBM) to examine how obliquity, spin rate, orbital eccentricity, and the fraction of the surface covered by ocean might influence the onset of such a snowball state. For an exoplanet, these parameters may be strikingly different from the values observed for Earth. Since, for a constant semimajor axis, the annual mean stellar irradiation scales with (1 - e 2 ) -1/2 , one might expect the greatest habitable semimajor axis (for fixed atmospheric composition) to scale as (1 - e 2 ) -1/4 . We find that this standard simple ansatz provides a reasonable lower bound on the outer boundary of the habitable zone, but the influence of both obliquity and ocean fraction can be profound in the context of planets on eccentric orbits. For planets with eccentricity 0.5, for instance, our EBM suggests that the greatest habitable semimajor axis can vary by more than 0.8 AU (78%!) depending on obliquity, with higher obliquity worlds generally more stable against snowball transitions. One might also expect that the long winter at an eccentric planet's apoastron would render it more susceptible to global freezing. Our models suggest that this is not a significant risk for Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars, as considered here, since such planets are buffered by the thermal inertia provided by oceans covering at least 10% of their surface. Since planets on eccentric orbits spend much of their year particularly far from the star, such worlds might turnout to be especially good targets for direct observations with missions such as TPF-Darwin. Nevertheless, the extreme temperature variations achieved on highly eccentric exo-Earths raise questions about the adaptability of life to marginally or transiently habitable conditions.

  9. Gut microbiota in early life and its influence on health and disease: A position paper by the Malaysian Working Group on Gastrointestinal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Hassan, Siti Asma; Ismail, Intan Hakimah; Chong, Sze Yee; Raja Ali, Raja Affendi; Amin Nordin, Syafinaz; Lee, Way Seah; Majid, Noorizan Abdul

    2017-12-01

    The role of gut microbiota in early life and its impact on gut health and subsequent diseases remain unclear. There is a lack of research and awareness in this area, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, including Malaysia. This paper reports the position of a Malaysian Working Group on some key issues surrounding gut microbiota in early life and its role in gut health and diseases, as well as experts' stand on probiotics and prebiotics. The group reached a consensus that certain factors, including elective caesarean; premature deliveries; complementary feeding; use of antibiotics, prebiotics and/or probiotics; and exposure to the external environmental, have an impact on gut microbiota in early life. However, as evidence is lacking, especially from the Asia-Pacific region, further studies are needed to understand how gut microbiota in early life affects subsequent diseases, including allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and infantile colic. Lastly, although beneficial in acute diarrhoeal disease and probably allergic eczema, probiotics (and/or prebiotics) should be used cautiously in other gut dysbiotic conditions until more data are available. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. The automatic component of habit in health behavior: habit as cue-contingent automaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbell, Sheina; Verplanken, Bas

    2010-07-01

    Habit might be usefully characterized as a form of automaticity that involves the association of a cue and a response. Three studies examined habitual automaticity in regard to different aspects of the cue-response relationship characteristic of unhealthy and healthy habits. In each study, habitual automaticity was assessed by the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI). In Study 1 SRHI scores correlated with attentional bias to smoking cues in a Stroop task. Study 2 examined the ability of a habit cue to elicit an unwanted habit response. In a prospective field study, habitual automaticity in relation to smoking when drinking alcohol in a licensed public house (pub) predicted the likelihood of cigarette-related action slips 2 months later after smoking in pubs had become illegal. In Study 3 experimental group participants formed an implementation intention to floss in response to a specified situational cue. Habitual automaticity of dental flossing was rapidly enhanced compared to controls. The studies provided three different demonstrations of the importance of cues in the automatic operation of habits. Habitual automaticity assessed by the SRHI captured aspects of a habit that go beyond mere frequency or consistency of the behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. UNDERTAKING POSITIVE CONTROL STUDIES AS PART OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING: A REPORT FROM THE ILSI RESEARCH FOUNDATION/RISK SCIENCE INSTITUTE EXPERT WORKING GROUP ON NEURODEVELOPMENTAL ENDPOINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing involves functional and neurohistological assessments in offspring during and following maternal and/or neonatal exposure. Data from positive control studies are an integral component in developmental neurotoxicity risk assessments. Positive ...

  12. Sleep homeostasis, habits and habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V; Walton, Mark E; Peirson, Stuart N; Bannerman, David M

    2017-06-01

    The importance of sleep for behavioural performance during waking is long-established, but the underlying reasons and mechanisms remain elusive. Waking and sleep are associated with changes in the levels of GluA1 AMPAR subunit in synaptic membranes, while studies using genetically-modified mice have identified an important role for GluA1-dependent synaptic plasticity in a non-associative form of memory that underlies short-term habituation to recently experienced stimuli. Here we posit that sleep may play a role in dishabituation, which restores attentional capacity and maximises the readiness of the animal for learning and goal-directed behaviour during subsequent wakefulness. Furthermore we suggest that sleep disturbance may fundamentally change the nature of behaviour, making it more model-free and habitual as a result of reduced attentional capacity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of a Brief Web and Mobile Phone Intervention for Men With Depression: Men's Positive Coping Strategies and Associated Depression, Resilience, and Work and Social Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Andrea Susan; Proudfoot, Judy; Whittle, Erin Louise; Clarke, Janine; Player, Michael J; Christensen, Helen; Wilhelm, Kay

    2017-08-10

    Previous research has identified that men experiencing depression do not always access appropriate health services. Web-based interventions represent an alternative treatment option for men, are effective in reducing anxiety and depression, and have potential for wide dissemination. However, men do not access Web-based programs at the same rate as women. Programs with content explicitly tailored to men's mental health needs are required. This study evaluated the applicability of Man Central, a new Web and mobile phone intervention for men with depression. The impact of the use of Man Central on depression, resilience, and work and social functioning was assessed. A recruitment flier was distributed via social media, email networks, newsletters, research registers, and partner organizations. A single-group, repeated measures design was used. The primary outcome was symptoms of depression. Secondary outcomes included externalizing symptoms, resilience, and work and social functioning. Man Central comprises regular mood, symptom, and behavior monitoring, combined with three 15-min interactive sessions. Clinical features are grounded in cognitive behavior therapy and problem-solving therapy. A distinguishing feature is the incorporation of positive strategies identified by men as useful in preventing and managing depression. Participants were directed to use Man Central for a period of 4 weeks. Linear mixed modeling with intention-to-treat analysis assessed associations between the intervention and the primary and secondary outcomes. A total of 144 men aged between 18 and 68 years and with at least mild depression enrolled in the study. The symptoms most often monitored by men included motivation (471 instances), depression (399), sleep (323), anxiety (316), and stress (262). Reminders were scheduled by 60.4% (87/144). Significant improvements were observed in depression symptoms (Pdepression risk, and externalizing symptoms (Psocial functioning (Pdepressive symptoms

  14. Sleep Habits and Nighttime Texting among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmy, Pernilla; Ward, Teresa M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine sleep habits (i.e., bedtimes and rising times) and their association with nighttime text messaging in 15- to 17-year-old adolescents. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from a web-based survey of adolescent students attending secondary schools in southern Sweden (N = 278, 50% female). Less than 8 hr of…

  15. Survey of licensee control room habitability practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boland, J.F.; Brookshire, R.L.; Danielson, W.F.; Driscoll, J.W.; Graham, E.D.; McConnell, R.J.; Thompson, V.N.

    1985-04-01

    This document presents the results of a survey of Licensee control-room-habitability practices. The survey is part of a comprehensive program plan instituted in August 1983 by the NRC to respond to ongoing questions from the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The emphasis of this survey was to determine by field review the control-room habitability practices at three different plants, one of which is still under construction and scheduled to receive an operating license in 1986. The other two plants are currently operating, having received operating licenses in the mid-1970's and early 1980's. The major finding of this survey is that despite the fact that the latest control-room-habitability systems have become larger and more complex than earlier systems surveyed, the latest systems do not appear to be functionally superior. The major recommendation of this report is to consolidate into a single NRC document, based upon a comprehensive systems engineering approach, the pertinent criteria for control-room-habitability design

  16. Control room habitability study - findings and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) has raised a number of concerns related to control room habitability and has recommended actions which they believe could alleviate these concerns. As a result of the ACRS's concerns, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) in conjunction with the Offices of Research and Inspection and Enforcement, and the NRC regional offices, embarked upon a program to reevaluate Control Room Habitability. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted by the NRC to perform a Control Room Habitability Study on twelve licensed power reactors. The plants selected for the study were chosen based upon architect engineer, nuclear steam system supplier, utility, and plant location. The major findings of this study are included in this report along with generic recommendations of the review team that apply to control room HVAC systems. Although the study is not complete, at the time of publication of this report, the results obtained to date should be useful to persons responsible for Control Room Habitability in evaluating their own systems

  17. Heubach Smoking Habits and Attitudes Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heubach, Philip Gilbert

    This Questionnaire, consisting of 74 yes/no, multiple choice, and completion items, is designed to assess smoking practices and attitudes toward smoking in high school students. Questions pertain to personal data, family smoking practices and attitudes, personal smoking habits, reasons for smoking or not smoking, and opinions on smoking. Detailed…

  18. Curbing promiscuous habits among Nigerians through religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of inappropriate sexual habit among Nigerian citizens today poses a moral challenge. The idea seems to be that since everybody does it, there is probably nothing wrong with it. It is surprising that many young men and women give reason to justify this evil act. The act of prostitution, adultery and premarital ...

  19. Essays on habit formation and inflation hedging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The thesis consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 reviews recent contributions on habit formation in the literature and investigates its implications for investors. Chapter 2 revisits the “Floor-Leverage” rule for investors with ratchet consumption preference proposed by Scott and Watson (2011). It

  20. Recommendations for a Habitability Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Library Research Center.

    A prototype Habitability Data Base was developed for the United States Army Corps of Engineers. From a review of selected Army documents, standards in the form of goals or architectural criteria were identified as significant to man-environment relations (MER). A search of appropriate information systems was conducted to retrieve a minimum of 500…

  1. Scribal Habits at the Tebtunis Temple Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryholt, Kim

    2018-01-01

    the temple library itself, and it can be shown that some features are closely linked to specific scribes and their personal habits. The many distinctive hands attested in the library leads to the related question of paleography and orthography and the extent to which these factors may help to determinative...

  2. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  3. Relationship of Study Habits with Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiri, Onoshakpokaiye E.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relationship of study habits of students and their achievement in mathematics. The method used for the study was correlation design. A sample of 500 students were randomly selected from 25 public secondary schools in Delta Central Senatorial District, Delta State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were drawn to gather data on…

  4. Reading Habit Promotion in ASEAN Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangkaeo, Somsong

    This paper describes the activities of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) libraries have undertaken to promote reading by increasing awareness among their people. First, factors limiting reading habits in ASEAN libraries are addressed, including: we are not a reading society, but a chatting society; the management of "3…

  5. Habits of the Scaly Anteater from Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1903-01-01

    Mr. Edward Jacobson from Semarang (Java), one of the zealed correspondents of our Museum, communicated me the other day some observations made by himself on living animals. Especially of a high scientific interest seemed to me what he wrote concerning the habits and behavior of a specimen of the

  6. DIETS/DIETARY HABITS AND CERTAIN GASTROINTESTINAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiology Department, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Abia State ... of diet and dietary habits including fibres, food additives and preservatives on the aetiology of gastric cancers ... beneficial effects on the G.I tract (Howe et al, ...... Food poisoning: Diseases due to .... Obakpite, P. O., Onuminya, J. E., Nwana, E. J..

  7. Mushroom bodies regulate habit formation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, Björn

    2009-08-25

    To make good decisions, we evaluate past choices to guide later decisions. In most situations, we have the opportunity to simultaneously learn about both the consequences of our choice (i.e., operantly) and the stimuli associated with correct or incorrect choices (i.e., classically). Interestingly, in many species, including humans, these learning processes occasionally lead to irrational decisions. An extreme case is the habitual drug user consistently administering the drug despite the negative consequences, but we all have experience with our own, less severe habits. The standard animal model employs a combination of operant and classical learning components to bring about habit formation in rodents. After extended training, these animals will press a lever even if the outcome associated with lever-pressing is no longer desired. In this study, experiments with wild-type and transgenic flies revealed that a prominent insect neuropil, the mushroom bodies (MBs), regulates habit formation in flies by inhibiting the operant learning system when a predictive stimulus is present. This inhibition enables generalization of the classical memory and prevents premature habit formation. Extended training in wild-type flies produced a phenocopy of MB-impaired flies, such that generalization was abolished and goal-directed actions were transformed into habitual responses.

  8. Stress prompts habit behavior in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Wolf, Oliver T

    2009-06-03

    Instrumental behavior can be controlled by goal-directed action-outcome and habitual stimulus-response processes that are supported by anatomically distinct brain systems. Based on previous findings showing that stress modulates the interaction of "cognitive" and "habit" memory systems, we asked in the presented study whether stress may coordinate goal-directed and habit processes in instrumental learning. For this purpose, participants were exposed to stress (socially evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition before they were trained to perform two instrumental actions that were associated with two distinct food outcomes. After training, one of these food outcomes was selectively devalued as subjects were saturated with that food. Next, subjects were presented the two instrumental actions in extinction. Stress before training in the instrumental task rendered participants' behavior insensitive to the change in the value of the food outcomes, that is stress led to habit performance. Moreover, stress reduced subjects' explicit knowledge of the action-outcome contingencies. These results demonstrate for the first time that stress promotes habits at the expense of goal-directed performance in humans.

  9. Early life-course socioeconomic position, adult work-related factors and oral health disparities: cross-sectional analysis of the J-SHINE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboya, Toru; Aida, Jun; Kawachi, Ichiro; Katase, Kazuo; Osaka, Ken

    2014-10-03

    We examined the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and oral health, and the associations of economic difficulties in childhood and workplace-related factors on these parameters. Cross-sectional study. A total of 3201 workers aged 25-50 years, living in and around Tokyo, Japan, from the J-SHINE (Japanese study of Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood) study. The response rate was 31.6%. Self-rated oral health (SROH)-A logistic regression model was used to estimate ORs for the association between poor SROH and each indicator of SEP (annual household income, wealth, educational attainment, occupation and economic situation in childhood). Multiple imputation was used to address missing values. Each indicator of SEP, including childhood SEP, was significantly inversely associated with SROH, and all of the workplace-related factors (social support in the workplace, job stress, working hours and type of employment) were also significantly associated with SROH. Compared with professionals, blue-collar workers had a significantly higher OR of poor SROH and the association was substantially explained by the workplace-related factors; ORs ranged from 1.44 in the age-adjusted and sex-adjusted model to 1.18 in the multivariate model. Poverty during childhood at age 5 and at age 15 was associated with poorer SROH, and these two factors seemed to be independently associated with SROH. We found oral health disparity across SEP among workers in Japan. Approximately 60% of the association between occupation and SROH was explained by job-related factors. Economic difficulties during childhood appear to affect SROH in adulthood separately from sex, age and the current workplace-related factors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. The Effects of Social Networking Sites on Students' Studying and Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    Social media is important to communicate with people, share/ask information, and follow/evaluate/interpret the events, etc. for everyone at the present time. The positive and negative effects of social networking sites on students' studying and habits were examined in this research. The study was conducted on 220 students in vocational school of…

  11. Healthy dietary habits, body mass index, and predictors among nursing students, northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, R; Nanakorn, S; Sanseeha, L; Nagahiro, C; Kodama, N

    1999-03-01

    This study aimed to assess body mass index (BMI) of nursing students, and examine the links between health behavior in terms of healthy dietary habits, positive health habits, dieting and BMI. A structured questionnaire was used for obtaining information on dietary habits, positive health habits, demographic characteristic including body weight, and height by administering self-answering questionnaires to all of nursing students in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th year-classes of the College of Nursing located in northeast Thailand. Three hundred and eleven female nursing students with an average age of 19.9 (SD = 1.4), had an average BMI of 20.3 kg/m2 (SD = 1.9). Most of the subjects (82.6%) were in the acceptable weight category (BMI > 18.5-24.99 kg/m2), 5.1% underweight (BMI or = 25.0 kg/m2). About half of them (50.8-66.2%) practiced healthy dietary habits in terms of avoiding eating fat/cholesterol, enriched fiber foods, while one-fourth practiced daily fruit consumption. Positive health habits in terms of having breakfast, and taking exercise over the last two weeks, were practiced by 49.5% and 59.8%, respectively. Persistent health problem occurred 13.5% amongst the subjects. The univariate analyses revealed significant associations between dieting with the BMI; perception of body size with the BMI; the enriched fiber food consumption with dieting; and the avoidance of fat/cholesterol with dieting. It suggests that the choice of food was predominantly attributable to dieting. Results from multiple logistic regression analysis showed that dietary belief, dieting, and exercise had effects on the strength of the association (p = 0.0191, 0.0024, 0.0165; Odds ratios = 0.97, 2.21, 1.87, respectively). The results and implications are discussed.

  12. New technologies for control room habitability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, G.P.; Muraida, J.E.; Perchiazzi, W.T.; Harden, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Older nuclear power plants typically considered only a nominal amount of unfiltered inleakage (typically 10 cfm) impacting their postaccident control room habitability. However, recent measurements of unfiltered inleakage show values in excess of the nominal 10 cfm. A reassessment for two of these ''older'' stations has been completed recently to show that the measured inleakage did not jeopardize the safety of the control room occupants. Recent concerns at the Zion Station and the Palisades Station about control room habitability in the event of a loss-of-coolant accident have led to an extensive effort to increase control room habitability margin. The heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system servicing each of the control rooms has the potential for unfiltered in-leakage through many locations. For example, at the Palisades Station, the current limiting control room habitability analysis allows for 25 cfm unfiltered in-leakage through its normal outside air intake louvered isolation dampers during emergency mode into the control room envelope. This leakage value was not thought to be achievable with the existing as-built configuration. Repairing the system was considered a potential solution; however, this would be costly and could negatively affect plant operation. In addition, the system would still be required to meet the low specified unfiltered in-leakage. An alternate approach was to review the analysis and reassess the most important parameters. The key effort was to determine the atmospheric dispersion factors (χ/Qs) through wind tunnel tests using scale models of the stations. The results of the wind tunnel testing could yield more realistic χ/Qs for control room habitability than previously employed methods. The wind tunnel study options were selected based on their ease of implementation, realistic results, and low cost. More importantly, the results of the studies would allow more realistic values of unfiltered inleakage

  13. Control room habitability study: findings and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) has raised a number of concerns related to control room habitability and has recommended actions which they believe could alleviate these concerns. As a result of the ACRS's concerns, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) in conjunction with the Offices of Research and Inspection and Enforcement, and the NRC regional offices, embarked upon a program to reevaluate Control Room Habitability. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted by the NRC to perform a Control Room Habitability Study on twelve licensed power reactors. The plants selected for the study were chosen based upon architect engineer, nuclear steam system supplier, utility, and plant location. Participants in the study review the plant design as contained in the Updated Safety Analysis Report, Technical Specifications, Three Mile Island action item III.D.3.4 submittal on Control Room Habitability, NRC staff evaluation of the III.D.3.4 submittal, appropriate plant operating procedures, system drawings, and significant Licensee Event Reports on Loss of Cooling to the Control Room Envelope. A two-day visit is then made to the plant to determine if the as-built systems are built, operated, and surveillance performed as described in the documentation reviewed prior to the visit. The major findings of this study are included in this report along with generic recommendations of the review team that apply to control room HVAC systems. Although the study is not complete, at the time of publication of this report, the results obtained to date should be useful to persons responsible for Control Room Habitability in evaluating their own systems

  14. Habitable zone limits for dry planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Sleep, Norman H; Zahnle, Kevin J

    2011-06-01

    Most discussion of habitable planets has focused on Earth-like planets with globally abundant liquid water. For an "aqua planet" like Earth, the surface freezes if far from its sun, and the water vapor greenhouse effect runs away if too close. Here we show that "land planets" (desert worlds with limited surface water) have wider habitable zones than aqua planets. For planets at the inner edge of the habitable zone, a land planet has two advantages over an aqua planet: (i) the tropics can emit longwave radiation at rates above the traditional runaway limit because the air is unsaturated and (ii) the dry air creates a dry stratosphere that limits hydrogen escape. At the outer limits of the habitable zone, the land planet better resists global freezing because there is less water for clouds, snow, and ice. Here we describe a series of numerical experiments using a simple three-dimensional global climate model for Earth-sized planets. Other things (CO(2), rotation rate, surface pressure) unchanged, we found that liquid water remains stable at the poles of a low-obliquity land planet until net insolation exceeds 415 W/m(2) (170% that of modern Earth), compared to 330 W/m(2) (135%) for the aqua planet. At the outer limits, we found that a low-obliquity land planet freezes at 77%, while the aqua planet freezes at 90%. High-obliquity land and aqua planets freeze at 58% and 72%, respectively, with the poles offering the last refuge. We show that it is possible that, as the Sun brightens, an aqua planet like Earth can lose most of its hydrogen and become a land planet without first passing through a sterilizing runaway greenhouse. It is possible that Venus was a habitable land planet as recently as 1 billion years ago.

  15. Adolescents' unhealthy eating habits are associated with meal skipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Monteiro, Luana Silva; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2017-10-01

    Meal consumption and diet quality are important for healthy development during adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine the association between meal habits and diet quality in Brazilian adolescents. A school-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 with a probabilistic sample of adolescents ages 14 to 19 y (N = 1139) from high schools in central-western Brazil. Consumption of breakfast, morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner was assessed to evaluate adolescents' meal profile. The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R) was calculated to evaluate diet quality. The association between meal profile and BHEI-R (global estimates and components) was assessed using multivariate linear regression models. Diet was characterized by unhealthy eating: a low consumption of fruits, vegetables, and milk/dairy, and a high consumption of fats and sodium. An unsatisfactory meal profile was observed in 14% of adolescents, whereas daily consumption of breakfast, lunch, and dinner was reported by 47%, 78%, and 52% of adolescents, respectively. Meal profile was positively associated with diet quality. Daily consumption of breakfast was associated with higher BHEI-R scores, lower sodium intake, and greater consumption of fruits and milk/dairy. Daily consumption of lunch was associated with greater consumption of vegetables and "meats, eggs, and legumes," whereas consumption of dinner was associated with an increased consumption of "whole fruits." This study showed a parallelism between daily consumption of meals with healthier eating and greater adherence to traditional Brazilian food habits. Skipping meals was associated with a low-quality diet, especially concerning to the low consumption of fruits and vegetables and a high intake of sodium and calories from solid fats, added sugars, and alcoholic beverages. Therefore, the adoption of regular meal habits may help adolescents improve their diet quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  16. Gender differences and access to a sports dietitian influence dietary habits of collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Michael V; Jagim, Andrew R; Oliver, Jonathan M; Greenwood, Mike; Busteed, Deanna R; Jones, Margaret T

    2016-01-01

    Limited research exists on the effect of a sports dietitian (SD) on athletes' dietary habits and nutrient periodization, which is the deliberate manipulation of macronutrient intake to match training goals. Further, the difference in dietary habits between men and women collegiate athletes has been understudied. A survey questionnaire examining dietary habits and practices was administered to athletes at two universities that employed a full time SD. Not all athletes used the SD as their primary source for nutritional guidance. The purposes were to examine the effect of a SD as a primary source of nutrition information, and the effect of gender on dietary habits in collegiate athletes. Three hundred eighty-three women ( n  = 240) and men ( n  = 143) student-athletes (mean ± SD: age = 19.7 ± 1.4 years) from 10 collegiate sports took a 15-min survey consisting of questions on dietary habits and practices. Topics queried included eating habits, breakfast habits, hydration habits, nutritional supplementation use, pre-workout nutrition, post-workout nutrition, nutrition during team trips, and nutrient timing. Data were sorted by the athlete's source of nutritional information (i.e., sport dietitian, other). Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and 2-way Pearson X 2 analyses ( p  ≤ 0.10). When a SD was indicated as the primary nutrition information source, athletes appeared to have a greater understanding of nutrient periodization (47.12 % vs. 32.85 %), were more likely to have school-provided boxed meals while on team trips (21.29 % vs. 6.77 %), and also less likely to consume fast food while on team trips (9.90 % vs. 19.55 %). Men athletes consumed fast food or restaurant meals more frequently, had higher weekly and more frequent alcohol intake during the competitive season. Women athletes were more likely to prepare meals, eat breakfast 7 days a week, and have school-provided boxed meals. Positive effects on dietary

  17. Mobility Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts of coordi....../or resources. To accomplish their work, actors have to make the right configuration of these four aspects emerge.......We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts...... of coordination necessary in cooperative work, but focuses, we argue, mainly on the temporal aspects of cooperative work. As a supplement, the concept of mobility work focuses on the spatial aspects of cooperative work. Whereas actors seek to diminish the amount of articulation work needed in collaboration...

  18. Motivations for health and their associations with lifestyle, work style, health, vitality, and employee productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Scheppingen, Arjella R; de Vroome, Ernest M M; ten Have, Kristin C J M; Zwetsloot, Gerard I J M; Bos, Ellen H; van Mechelen, Willem

    2014-05-01

    Investigate employees' underlying motivational regulatory styles toward healthy living and their associations with lifestyle, work style, health, vitality, and productivity. Regression analyses on cross-sectional data from Dutch employees (n = 629), obtained as baseline measurement before a workplace health promotion project. Controlled regulation was not associated with smoking and alcohol use, and negatively associated with physical activity, healthy dietary habits, relaxation, and a balanced work style. Autonomous regulation was positively associated with physical activity, healthy dietary habits, and relaxation, and negatively associated with smoking and alcohol use. Healthy lifestyle and work style were associated with perceived health and vitality, which in turn were associated with employees' productivity (absenteeism and presenteeism). Internalization of the value of health is important to promote a healthy lifestyle and work style among employees, and has meaningful business implications.

  19. What Is the Role of Ethics Consultation in the Moral Habitability of Health Care Environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Wendy

    2017-06-01

    Ethics consultation has traditionally focused on the provision of expert guidance to health care professionals when challenging quandaries arise in clinical cases. Its role, however, is expanding as demands on health care organizations are negatively impacting their moral habitability. A sign of this impact can be seen in the moral distress experienced by staff and administrators, such that some leave their positions and their organizations. Ethics consultation, more broadly conceived, can be a major asset in ensuring that ethical practice is meaningfully supported, that moral distress is mitigated, and that the organizational environment is morally habitable. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  20. A Catalog of Stellar Evolution Profiles and the Effects of Variable Composition on Habitable Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Truitt, Amanda; Young, Patrick A.; Spacek, Alexander; Probst, Luke; Dietrich, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    We present stellar evolution models for 0.5 - 1.2 \\Msol at scaled metallicities of 0.1 - 1.5 Z\\sol and O/Fe values of 0.44 - 2.28 O/Fe\\sol. The time dependent evolution of habitable zone boundaries are calculated for each stellar evolution track based on stellar mass, effective temperature, and luminosity parameterizations. The rate of change of stellar surface quantities and the surrounding habitable zone position are strong functions of all three quantities explored. The range of orbits tha...