WorldWideScience

Sample records for positive tuberculin test

  1. Helminths and skewed cytokine profiles increase tuberculin skin test positivity in Warao Amerindians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L. M.; Hermans, P. W. M.; Warris, A.; de Groot, R.; Maes, M.; Villalba, J. A.; del Nogal, B.; van den Hof, S.; Mughini Gras, L.; van Soolingen, D.; Pinelli, E.; de Waard, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    The immune regulatory mechanisms involved in the acquisition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children are largely unknown. We investigated the influence of parasitic infections, malnutrition and plasma cytokine profiles on tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity in Warao Amerindians in

  2. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.

  3. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-11-22

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.  Created: 11/22/2006 by National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 12/12/2006.

  4. Prevalence and predictors of tuberculin skin positivity in Hellenic Army recruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopterides Petros

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB remains one of the leading causes of death among infectious diseases worldwide. Despite its low incidence rates in countries of Western Europe and North America, the resurgence of TB in Eastern Europe and the increased immigration from high-incidence countries imply that extreme vigilance is required in order to detect early, treat, and isolate all new cases. In this study, we analyzed the prevalence and predictors of tuberculin skin testing positivity in Hellenic Army recruits. Methods The study population consisted of 953 Greek military recruits enlisted inthe Army during the period from November 2005 toFebruary 2006. Tuberculin skin testing was performed on all study subjects upon enrollment, according to the routine procedures. A tuberculin skin test reaction size >15 mm was considered positive for all study participants. Epidemiological data regarding age, repatriation status, geographic area of residence, smoking habits, and parental occupation were collected by means of personal interviews. In addition, body weight, height, and body mass index were measured. Results The mean age of the studied subjects (± SD was 23.5 (± 6.4 years. The overall prevalence of tuberculin positivity was 3.9% (37/953, and bivariable analysis showed that it was associated with lower weight (p = 0.047 and repatriation status (p Conclusion While the incidence of tuberculosis in the native Greek population is low, and comparable to other Western European countries, the extremely high tuberculin positivity in repatriated persons underscores the importance of actively screening for TB in order to promptly identify, isolate, and treat cases of active and latent infection.

  5. Characteristics of children with positive tuberculin skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocaoğlu, Arzu Babayiğit; Erge, Duygu Olmez; Anal, Ozden; Makay, Balahan; Uzuner, Nevin; Karaman, Ozkan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the characteristics of children with latent tuberculosis diagnosed with positive tuberculin skin test (TST) and evaluate potential risk factors in children with positive TST. Children followed with the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection were included in the study retrospectively. Demographic characteristics of patients including history of atopy, respiratory infections, family history of tuberculosis and atopy, number of BCG vaccinations, findings of physical examination and laboratory data were extracted from patient's file. Eighty-one children (51 male, 30 female) who had positive TST were retrospectively evaluated in the study. Mean age of the patients was 8.00 ± 4.00 years. Only 13 (16%) of the children had contact with a case who had active tuberculosis. It was shown that the age of the patients, number of BCG scars and BCG vaccination significantly affected TST reaction size. TST size was not affected with time passed after last dose of BCG vaccination, family history of tuberculosis, presence of TST positive case in the family, exposure to cigarette smoke, number of household family members and presence of respiratory allergic disease. The patient's age, numbers of BCG vaccination and BCG scars significantly affect TST results in childhood. This may cause difficulty in diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection and in decision of initiating prophylactic treatment. The results of this study may show that recently developed, more accurate and convenient in vitro tests that they have higher costs and require sophisticated laboratory, can be used to diagnose latent tuberculosis.

  6. Tuberculin Skin Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Interim Laboratory Biosafety Guidance for XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains Data & Statistics ... The Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) is the standard method of determining whether a person is infected ...

  7. Is tuberculin testing before BCG vaccination necessary for children over three months of age?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, B

    2008-03-01

    In July 2007 Irish national policy changed such that children aged 3 months to 6 years no longer routinely require tuberculin (Mantoux) skin testing prior to BCG vaccination. Previous to that a tuberculin test was required in all children in this age group pre vaccination. While the previous policy was in place this study was conducted to assess the value of this test. The observation that children are frightened by the test (an injection into the skin) prompted the study. The author conducted a retrospective study of the results of 1,854 tuberculin tests performed as a prerequisite to BCG vaccination and found that only 0.7% of children had a positive test result (induration > 5mm). None of 107 children < 6 years of age tested positive. Those > 12 years were more likely to test positive than younger children (1.09% vs 0.4% respectively, p < 0.05). This study suggests that testing young children before BCG vaccination has a low yield of positive results and adds little to the detection of latent or active TB.

  8. The comparative performance of the single intradermal test and the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test in Irish cattle, using tuberculin PPD combinations of differing potencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, M; Clegg, T A; Costello, E; More, S J

    2011-11-01

    In national bovine tuberculosis (BTB) control programmes, testing is generally conducted using a single source of bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin. Alternative tuberculin sources should be identified as part of a broad risk management strategy as problems of supply or quality cannot be discounted. This study was conducted to compare the impact of different potencies of a single bovine PPD tuberculin on the field performance of the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT) and single intradermal test (SIT). Three trial potencies of bovine PPD tuberculin, as assayed in naturally infected bovines, namely, low (1192IU/dose), normal (6184IU/dose) and high (12,554IU/dose) were used. Three SICTTs (using) were conducted on 2102 animals. Test results were compared based on reactor-status and changes in skin-thickness at the bovine tuberculin injection site. There was a significant difference in the number of reactors detected using the high and low potency tuberculins. In the SICTT, high and low potency tuberculin detected 40% more and 50% fewer reactors, respectively, than normal potency tuberculin. Furthermore, use of the low potency tuberculin in the SICTT failed to detect 20% of 35 animals with visible lesions, and in the SIT 11% of the visible lesion animals would have been classified as negative. Tuberculin potency is critical to the performance of both the SICTT and SIT. Tuberculin of different potencies will affect reactor disclosure rates, confounding between-year or between-country comparisons. Independent checks of tuberculin potency are an important aspect of quality control in national BTB control programmes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of Tuberculin Skin Test result and interferon gamma response to human PPD in BCG scar positive and negative children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyahfar, Shirin; Karimi, Abdollah; Fahimzad, Alireza; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to compare Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) result and interferon gamma response to human PPD (purified protein derivative), in scar positive and scar negative BCG-vaccinated children. Between August 2007 and May 2008 a total of 236 children aged 1-168 months (mean 21 months) admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital, Tehran, Iran, were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Each patient was examined for BCG vaccine scar and tested with TST and human PPD-based Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA). Two hundred and twenty one cases out of 236 (44% female, 1-168 months, mean age 21 months) were scar positive of whom 95% TST result was negative. Human PPD-based IGRA was positive in 110 (49.8%), negative in 85 (38.4 %) and indeterminate in 26 (11.8%) of scar positive patients. Fifteen children (40% female, 1-156 months; mean age 42 months) were scar negative. All the scar negative cases were TST negative. Human PPD-based IGRA was positive in 10 (66.7%), negative in 4 (26.7%) and indeterminate in 1 (6.7%) of scar negative patients. Immune responsiveness to human PPD antigens in scar positive and negative children may not correspond with results of the Tuberculin Skin Test. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intradermal tuberculin testing of wild African lions (Panthera leo) naturally exposed to infection with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keet, D F; Michel, A L; Bengis, R G; Becker, P; van Dyk, D S; van Vuuren, M; Rutten, V P M G; Penzhorn, B L

    2010-08-26

    African lions in the southern half of Kruger National Park (KNP) are infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Historically, reliable detection of mycobacteriosis in lions was limited to necropsy and microbiological analysis of lesion material collected from emaciated and ailing or repeat-offender lions. We report on a method of cervical intradermal tuberculin testing of lions and its interpretation capable of identifying natural exposure to M. bovis. Infected lions (n=52/95) were identified by detailed necropsy and mycobacterial culture. A large proportion of these confirmed infected lions (45/52) showed distinct responses to bovine tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) while responses to avian tuberculin PPD were variable and smaller. Confirmed uninfected lions from non-infected areas (n=11) responded variably to avian tuberculin PPD only. Various non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) were cultured from 45/95 lions examined, of which 21/45 were co-infected with M. bovis. Co-infection with M. bovis and NTM did not influence skin reactions to bovine tuberculin PPD. Avian tuberculin PPD skin reactions were larger in M. bovis-infected lions compared to uninfected ones. Since NTM co-infections are likely to influence the outcome of skin testing, stricter test interpretation criteria were applied. When test data of bovine tuberculin PPD tests were considered on their own, as for a single skin test, sensitivity increased (80.8-86.5%) but false positive rate for true negatives (18.75%) remained unchanged. Finally, the adapted skin test procedure was shown not to be impeded by persistent Feline Immunodeficiency Virus(Ple) co-infection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The comparative performance of the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test in Irish cattle, using tuberculin PPD combinations from different manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, M; Clegg, T A; Murphy, F; More, S J

    2011-07-05

    Ireland currently obtains its avian and bovine tuberculin purified protein derivatives (PPDs) from a single source. Because problems of supply or quality cannot be discounted, it is prudent that Ireland identify alternative supplier(s) as part of a broad risk management strategy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the performance of a number of different tuberculin combinations (that is, pairings of bovine and avian PPD; with different manufacturers) in the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT), as currently performed in Ireland. The study was randomised, controlled and double-blinded. A total of 2172 cattle were used in the study. Each animal was tested using two SICTTs, the first based on the tuberculin combination in current use, and the second using one of six trial tuberculin combinations. Analyses were conducted to compare both reactor-status and skin increase. For each control/trial tuberculin combination, there was good agreement between the control and trial reactor-status. Differences in skin increases were mainly confined to animals categorised as either negative or severe inconclusive. However, the measured differences were minor, and unlikely to have a significant impact on the actual test outcome, either for individual animals or for herds. In conclusion, while further studies determining sensitivity and specificity in Ireland would have to be done in the event of a change in tuberculin PPD there should be minimal disruption of the national programme if alternative tuberculin PPDs meeting WHO, OIE and EU regulations were used. In this study, the precision of the guinea pig bio-assay to assess tuberculin potency was low and therefore Ireland should maintain its practice of periodically assessing potency in naturally infected cattle, even though this is not currently required under WHO, OIE or EU Regulations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. TUBERCULIN DIAGNOSTICS: TO BE OR NOT TO BE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Koretskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculin diagnostics — is a diagnostic method of detection of specific sensitization to Mycobactrerium tuberculosis (MBT. It is used as a specific test during mass population screening on tuberculosis (mass tuberculin diagnostics and for individual examinations (individual tuberculin diagnostics. The aims of the mass diagnostics are: revealing of the patients contaminated with MBT for the first time; revealing of the patients with hyperergic and increasing reactions to tuberculin; selection of the population for vaccination against tuberculosis with weakened BCG vaccine in infants older than 2 months of life who had not been vaccinated after birth, as well for re-vaccination with BCG vaccine; early diagnostics of tuberculosis in children and adolescents; determination of epidemiological characteristics of tuberculosis (population contamination with MBT, yearly risk of contamination with MBT. On mass tuberculin diagnostics it is used only the united intradermal tuberculin Mantoux test with 2 tuberculin units (TU of purified tuberculin in standard solution (prepared form. In the article the author discusses questions of tuberculosis diagnostics in children and adolescents, lists indications to mass tuberculin diagnostics with Mantoux test with 2 TU PPD and test with recombinant tuberculosis allergen. Advantages of both methods, which should be used in order to increase efficacy of tuberculosis diagnostics among children population, are described. It was concluded that switch to the mass screening of tuberculosis with the means of recombinant tuberculosis allergen is not rational under current conditions. The appropriateness of 2-steps examination (necessity of test with recombinant tuberculosis allergen after receiving a positive result of Mantoux test with 2 TU PPD is explained. 

  13. Documented tuberculin skin testing among infliximab users following a multi-modal risk communication interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatin, Deborah; Rawson, Nigel S B; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Braun, M Miles; Martin, Carolyn K; Moreland, Larry W; Becker, Angela F; Patkar, Nivedita M; Allison, Jeroan J; Saag, Kenneth G

    2006-01-01

    Following its licensure, tuberculosis (TB) was reported as a potential adverse effect of infliximab. Subsequently, the product circular was changed to recommend tuberculin skin testing before patients received infliximab, which was reinforced by several risk communication efforts. The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns and predictors of documented tuberculin skin testing in patients before and after manufacturer, federal, and academic risk communications. Patients administered infliximab were identified from 11 health plans located throughout the United States, and claims data were examined to determine whether the patients had received a tuberculin skin test. Patients were divided into three cohorts depending on the timing of their first infliximab treatment in relation to the risk communication efforts. The overall tuberculin skin testing rate doubled from 15.4% in the first cohort to 30.9% in the last cohort, while the rate of pre-infliximab treatment testing increased from 0 to 27.7% (Chi-squared test for trend, p skin testing rates were significantly higher in women, those with a diagnosis of rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis, and those with a rheumatologist as prescriber. After multivariable analysis, only rheumatologist remained significantly associated with tuberculin skin testing. Although the tuberculin skin testing rate was relatively low overall, tuberculin skin testing doubled over 30 months of ongoing risk communication efforts and under ascertainment likely occurred. We also found variation in the tuberculin skin testing rate associated with physician specialty. This study demonstrates a significant change in patient care following risk communication efforts. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Comparison of sensitivity of quantiferon-tb gold test and tuberculin skin test in active pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, K.F.; Ambreen, A.; Butt, T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the sensitivity of tuberculin skin test (TST) and quantiFERON-TB gold test (QFT-G) in active pulmonary tuberculosis. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, from July 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: QuantiFERON-TB gold test (QFT-G) was evaluated and compared it with tuberculin skin test (TST) in 50 cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis, in whom tuberculous infection was suspected on clinical, radiological and microbiological grounds. Sensitivity was determined against positive growth for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Results: Out of 50 cases, 43 were females and 7 were males. The mean age was 41.84 A+- 19.03 years. Sensitivity of QFT-G was 80% while that of TST was 28%. Conclusion: QFT-G has much higher sensitivity than TST for active pulmonary tuberculosis. It is unaffected by prior BCG administration and prior exposure to atypical mycobacteria. A positive QFT-G result can be an adjunct to diagnosis in patients having clinical and radiological data compatible with pulmonary tuberculosis. (author)

  15. Using ELISPOT to expose false positive skin test conversion in tuberculosis contacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C Hill

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeat tuberculin skin tests may be false positive due to boosting of waned immunity to past mycobacterial exposure. We evaluated whether an ELISPOT test could identify tuberculosis (TB contacts with boosting of immunity to non-tuberculous mycobacterial exposure.We conducted tuberculin and ELISPOT tests in 1665 TB contacts: 799 were tuberculin test negative and were offered a repeat test after three months. Those with tuberculin test conversion had an ELISPOT, chest X-ray and sputum analysis if appropriate. We compared converters with non-converters, assessed the probability of each of four combinations of ELISPOT results over the two time points and estimated boosting with adjustment for ELISPOT sensitivity and specificity. 704 (72% contacts had a repeat tuberculin test; 176 (25% had test conversion, which increased with exposure to a case (p = 0.002, increasing age (p = 0.0006 and BCG scar (p = 0.06. 114 tuberculin test converters had ELISPOT results: 16(14% were recruitment positive/follow-up positive, 9 (8% positive/negative, 34 (30% negative/positive, and 55 (48% were negative/negative. There was a significant non-linear effect of age for ELISPOT results in skin test converters (p = 0.038. Estimates of boosting ranged from 32%-41% of skin test converters with increasing age. Three converters were diagnosed with TB, two had ELISPOT results: both were positive, including one at recruitment.We estimate that approximately one third of tuberculin skin test conversion in Gambian TB case contacts is due to boosting of immunity to non-tuberculous mycobacterial exposure. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm whether ELISPOT can reliably identify case contacts with tuberculin test conversion that would benefit most from prophylactic treatment.

  16. Association between parasitic infections and tuberculin skin test results in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Nathaniel S; Mizinduko, Mucho M; Barnett, Elizabeth D; White, Laura F; Hochberg, Natasha S

    Parasitic infections are known to modulate the immune response necessary for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We sought to investigate species-specific effects of parasite infection on M. tuberculosis infection. As part of the Refugee Health Assessment Program, stool examinations and tuberculin skin testing were performed on refugees seen at Boston Medical Center between 1995 and 2012. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and stool examination data were collected for 6669 refugees; 3349 (50.2%) were TST positive (≥10 mm). Among TST-positive subjects, 176 (5.3%) had helminth infections and 1149 (34.3%) protozoa. After adjusting for sex, age, and country of origin, helminth and protozoan infections were not associated with TST-positivity. When species-specific effects were examined, subjects infected with Trichuris trichiura and Giardia lamblia had reduced odds of TST-positivity (adjusted OR [aOR] 0.65 [95%CI 0.44-0.96; p = 0.03] and aOR 0.79 [95%CI 0.65-0.95, p = 0.01], respectively). Our findings suggest that T. trichiura and G. lamblia may provide protection against M. tuberculosis infection. This study adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that immune response modulation and susceptibility to M. tuberculosis infection is parasite species-dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Differences in tuberculin reactivity as determined in a veterans administration employee health screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sanjay R; MacGruder, Cathy; Looney, David; Johns, Scott; Smith, Davey M

    2009-04-01

    In response to a difference in pricing, the San Diego Veterans Administration Medical Center changed its tuberculin preparation from Tubersol to Aplisol in the fall of 2006. Following the change, an increased number of employee skin test conversions was noted. Employee tuberculin skin test converters from 2006 were screened with the QuantiFERON Gold (QFT-G) gamma interferon release assay. Those employees who tested negative by QFT-G were asked to repeat their skin test with both Tubersol and Aplisol tuberculin preparations. Of the new purified protein derivative converters, 12 of 14 returned for repeat testing with QFT-G, and the assay was negative for 83% (10/12), positive for 8% (1/12), and indeterminate for 8% (1/12) of the individuals. Nine of the individuals who were QFT-G negative agreed to repeat skin testing with both tuberculin preparations, and 7/8 (87.5%) demonstrated reactivity with the Aplisol preparation, while 0/8 (0%) reacted to the Tubersol preparation. A change from Tubersol to Aplisol resulted in elevated tuberculin skin test conversion rates that may be due to false-positive reactions. The differences in skin test reactivity between preparations support CDC guidelines that recommend that institutions should not change tuberculin preparations, as doing so may falsely increase the number of positive reactions.

  18. Concordant or discordant results by the tuberculin skin test and the quantiFERON-TB test in children reflect immune biomarker profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhanasekaran, S; Jenum, S; Stavrum, R

    2014-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB-Gold-In-tube (QFTGIT) are adjunctive tests used in the diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis (TB). Neither test can rule out TB; however, a positive test usually triggers preventive treatment in TB contacts aged <5 years. TST and QFTGIT can give div...

  19. The History of In Vivo Tuberculin Testing in Bovines: Tuberculosis, a “One Health” Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Good

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is more than 3 million years old thriving in multiple species. Ancestral Mycobacterium tuberculosis gave rise to multiple strains including Mycobacterium bovis now distributed worldwide with zoonotic transmission happening in both directions between animals and humans. M. bovis in milk caused problems with a significant number of deaths in children under 5 years of age due largely to extrapulmonary TB. This risk was effectively mitigated with widespread milk pasteurization during the twentieth century, and fewer young children were lost to TB. Koch developed tuberculin in 1890 and recognizing the possibility of using tuberculin to detect infected animals the first tests were quickly developed. Bovine TB (bTB control/eradication programmes followed in the late nineteenth century/early twentieth century. Many scientists collaborated and contributed to the development of tuberculin tests, to refining and optimizing the production and standardization of tuberculin and to determining test sensitivity and specificity using various methodologies and injection sites. The WHO, OIE, and EU have set legal standards for tuberculin production, potency assay performance, and intradermal tests for bovines. Now, those using tuberculin tests for bTB control/eradication programmes rarely, see TB as a disease. Notwithstanding the launch of the first-ever roadmap to combat zoonotic TB, many wonder if bTB is actually a problem? Is there a better way of dealing with bTB? Might alternative skin test sites make the test “better” and easier to perform? Are all tuberculins used for testing equally good? Why have alternative “better” tests not been developed? This review was prompted by these types of questions. This article attempts to succinctly summarize the data in the literature from the late nineteenth century to date to show why TB, and zoonotic TB specifically, was and still is important as a “One Health” concern, and that the

  20. False-negative reactions to the comparative intradermal tuberculin test for bovine tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudielle A. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: According to the Brazilian National Program for the Control and Eradication of Animal Brucellosis and Tuberculosis (PNCEBT, the routine tests for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in the country are the simple intradermal tuberculin test (SITT of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA, the caudal fold test and the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT. The latter is also used as a confirmatory test. A group of 53 animals from three dairy herds in a focal area for bovine tuberculosis, that were submitted to depopulation in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, were submitted to the CITT. Tissues were cultured and the resulting colonies were confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Among the 53 animals analyzed using the CITT, 32 (60.4% were negative, 14 (26.4% were positive and seven (13.2% results were inconclusive. The CITT detected 11 of the 39 animals with culture-confirmed M. bovis infection as positive. Among the total of 14 uninfected animals based on cultures, the CBT detected eight as negative. Thus, the CITT demonstrated sensitivity of 28.2% and specificity of 57.1% for the population sampled. A total of 24/32 (75.0% of the animals with negative CITT results were culture positive (confirmed by PCR and were considered false negatives based on the CITT. The maintenance of these false-negative animals in herds has serious implications for the control of the disease, since they can be a source of infection. The addition of complementary tests could help identify such animals and increase the odds of diagnostic success.

  1. Tuberculin reactivity in a population of schoolchildren with high BCG vaccination coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bierrenbach Ana L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of BCG vaccination or revaccination on tuberculin skin test reactivity, in order to guide the correct interpretation of this test in a setting of high neonatal BCG vaccination coverage and an increasing BCG revaccination coverage at school age. METHODS: We conducted tuberculin skin testing and BCG scar reading in 1148 children aged 7-14 years old in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. We measured the positive effect of the presence of one or two BCG scars on the proportion of tuberculin skin test results above different cut-off levels (induration sizes of > 5 mm, > 10 mm, and > 15 mm and also using several ranges of induration size (0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14, and > 15 mm. We also measured the effects that age, gender, and the school where the child was enrolled had on these proportions. RESULTS: The proportion of tuberculin results > 10 mm was 14.2% (95% confidence interval (CI = 8.0%-20.3% for children with no BCG scar, 21.3% (95% CI = 18.5%-24.1% for children with one BCG scar, and 45.0% (95% CI = 32.0%-58.0% for children with two BCG scars. There was evidence for an increasing positive effect of the presence of one and two BCG scars on the proportion of results > 5 mm and > 10 mm. Similarly, there was evidence for an increasing positive effect of the presence of one and two scars on the proportion of tuberculin skin test results in the ranges of 5-9 mm and of 10-14 mm. The BCG scar effect on the proportion of results > 5 mm and > 10 mm did not vary with age. There was no evidence for BCG effect on the results > 15 mm. CONCLUSIONS: In Brazilian schoolchildren, BCG-induced tuberculin reactivity is indistinguishable, for results under 15 mm, from reactivity induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. BCG revaccination at school age increases the degree of BCG-induced tuberculin reactivity found among schoolchildren. This information should be taken into account in tuberculin skin test surveys intended to

  2. Teste de tuberculinização em caprinos (Capra hircus experimentalmente sensibilizados Tuberculin test in experimentally sensitized goats (Capra hircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Gomes da Silva

    2006-06-01

    inoculated with saline solution. The results of the simple cervical test after 72h of bovine tuberculin inoculation was interpreted as follow: positive reaction, when there was an increase in the skin fold thickness greater than 3.9mm; suspicious, when from 1.8 to 3.8mm; and negative when less than 1.7mm. The analysis of the results of the comparative cervical test between M. avium and M. bovis and analysed, 72h after tuberculin, indicated positive reactions, when the increase in skin fold thickness induced by M. bovis was greater than that one induced by the avian tuberculin at least 2.5mm; it was considered suspicious when the difference between the bovine and avian tuberculin reactions was from 1.9 to 2.4mm; and negative when this difference was smaller than 1.8mm. The histological evaluation of the local specific tuberculin response, were performed in skin samples collected from five goats in group A, five in group B, and four in group C, the results were the presence of mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate at 96h after tuberculin inoculation.

  3. Scar formation and tuberculin conversion following BCG vaccination in infants: A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara S Dhanawade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is considerable variation in BCG scar failure rate on available data and correlation between BCG scar and tuberculin conversion remains controversial. Through this study we aimed to determine the scar failure rate and tuberculin conversion in term infants vaccinated with BCG within the first month. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted among 85 consecutive infants weighing >2 kg attending the immunization clinic of a medical college hospital. Fifteen subjects who could not complete the follow up were excluded. Total of 70 cases were analyzed. All babies were administered 0.1 ml of BCG and examined at 3 months (+1 week for scar. Tuberculin test was done with 5TU PPD. An induration of >5 mm was considered positive. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel and SPSS-22. Results: Out of the 70 infants, 41 (58.6% were males. Although majority (72.9% of infants were vaccinated within 7 days, only 18 (25.7% received BCG within 48 hours of birth. Sixty-four (91.4% had a visible scar at 12 weeks post vaccination representing a scar failure rate of 8.6%. Tuberculin test was positive in 50 (71.4%. The mean ± s.d. for scar and tuberculin skin test (TST reaction size was 4.93 ± 2.01 mm and 6.01 ± 3.22 mm, respectively. The association between scar formation and tuberculin positivity was highly significant (P < 0.001. There was significant correlation between scar size and TST size (r = 0.401, P = 0.001 Conclusions: Less than 10% of infants fail to develop a scar following BCG vaccination. There is good correlation between scar positivity and tuberculin conversion.

  4. A chromosome 5q31.1 locus associates with tuberculin skin test reactivity in HIV-positive individuals from tuberculosis hyper-endemic regions in east Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal S Sobota

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One in three people has been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB, and the risk for MTB infection in HIV-infected individuals is even higher. We hypothesized that HIV-positive individuals living in tuberculosis-endemic regions who do not get infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis are genetically resistant. Using an "experiment of nature" design that proved successful in our previous work, we performed a genome-wide association study of tuberculin skin test positivity using 469 HIV-positive patients from prospective study cohorts of tuberculosis from Tanzania and Uganda to identify genetic loci associated with MTB infection in the context of HIV-infection. Among these individuals, 244 tested were tuberculin skin test (TST positive either at enrollment or during the >8 year follow up, while 225 were not. We identified a genome-wide significant association between a dominant model of rs877356 and binary TST status in the combined cohort (Odds ratio = 0.2671, p = 1.22x10-8. Association was replicated with similar significance when examining TST induration as a continuous trait. The variant lies in the 5q31.1 region, 57kb downstream from IL9. Two-locus analyses of association of variants near rs877356 showed a haplotype comprised of rs877356 and an IL9 missense variant, rs2069885, had the most significant association (p = 1.59x10-12. We also replicated previously linked loci on chromosomes 2, 5, and 11. IL9 is a cytokine produced by mast cells and TH2 cells during inflammatory responses, providing a possible link between airway inflammation and protection from MTB infection. Our results indicate that studying uninfected, HIV-positive participants with extensive exposure increases the power to detect associations in complex infectious disease.

  5. A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsu Christian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged 6-10 years in 8 out of 10 regions of Ghana between 2004 and 2006. Methods Tuberculin survey was conducted in 179 primary schools from 21 districts in 8 regions. Schools were purposively selected so as to reflect the proportion of affluent private and free tuition public schools as well as the proportion of small and large schools. Results Of the 24,778 children registered for the survey, 23,600 (95.2% were tested of which 21,861 (92.6% were available for reading. The age distribution showed an increase in numbers of children towards older age: 11% of the children were 6 years and 25%, 10 years. Females were 52.5% and males 47.5%. The proportion of girls was higher in all age groups (range 51.4% to 54.0%, p Conclusion Tuberculosis infection is still a public health problem in Ghana and to monitor the trend, the survey needs to be repeated at 5 years interval.

  6. A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addo, K.K.; van den Hof, S.; Mensah, G.I.; Hesse, A.; Bonsu, C.; Koram, K.A.; Afutu, F.K.; Bonsu, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged

  7. STUDIES ON TUBERCULIN FEVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Charles H.; Atkins, Elisha

    1959-01-01

    Evidence has been presented that the fever elicited by intravenous administration of old tuberculin (O.T.) in BCG-infected rabbits is a specific property of this hypersensitivity system and is probably not due to contamination of tuberculin with bacterial endotoxins. Daily injections of O.T. in sensitized animals resulted in a rapid tolerance to its pyrogenic effect. Tuberculin tolerance can be differentiated from that occurring with endotoxins and was invariably associated with the development of a negative skin test. The mechanism of this tolerance would thus appear to be desensitization. A circulating pyrogen found during tuberculin fever was indistinguishable in its biologic effects from endogenous pyrogens obtained in several other types of experimental fever. This material produced fevers in normal recipients and therefore may be clearly differentiated from O.T. itself which was pyrogenic only to sensitized animals. Since the titer of serum pyrogen was directly proportional to the degree of fever induced by injection of O.T. in the donor animals, a causal relation is suggested. On the basis of these findings, it is postulated that tuberculin fever is due to a circulating endogenous pyrogen released by a specific action of O.T. on sensitized cells of the host. PMID:13641561

  8. Loss of receptor on tuberculin-reactive T-cells marks active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Streitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculin-specific T-cell responses have low diagnostic specificity in BCG vaccinated populations. While subunit-antigen (e.g. ESAT-6, CFP-10 based tests are useful for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection, there is no reliable immunological test for active pulmonary tuberculosis. Notably, all existing immunological tuberculosis-tests are based on T-cell response size, whereas the diagnostic potential of T-cell response quality has never been explored. This includes surface marker expression and functionality of mycobacterial antigen specific T-cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Flow-cytometry was used to examine over-night antigen-stimulated T-cells from tuberculosis patients and controls. Tuberculin and/or the relatively M. tuberculosis specific ESAT-6 protein were used as stimulants. A set of classic surface markers of T-cell naïve/memory differentiation was selected and IFN-gamma production was used to identify T-cells recognizing these antigens. The percentage of tuberculin-specific T-helper-cells lacking the surface receptor CD27, a state associated with advanced differentiation, varied considerably between individuals (from less than 5% to more than 95%. Healthy BCG vaccinated individuals had significantly fewer CD27-negative tuberculin-reactive CD4 T-cells than patients with smear and/or culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis, discriminating these groups with high sensitivity and specificity, whereas individuals with latent tuberculosis infection exhibited levels in between. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Smear and/or culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis can be diagnosed by a rapid and reliable immunological test based on the distribution of CD27 expression on peripheral blood tuberculin specific T-cells. This test works very well even in a BCG vaccinated population. It is simple and will be of great utility in situations where sputum specimens are difficult to obtain or sputum-smear is negative. It will also help

  9. Humoral immunity in tuberculin skin test anergy and its role in high-risk persons exposed to active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinales, Liliana; Zuñiga, Joaquin; Granados-Montiel, Julio; Yunis, Maria; Granados, Julio; Almeciga, Ingrid; Clavijo, Olga; Awad, Carlos; Collazos, Vilma; Vargas-Rojas, María Inés; Bañales-Mendez, José Luis; Vazquez-Castañeda, Lilia; Stern, Joel N; Romero, Viviana; Fridkis-Hareli, Masha; Frindkis-Hareli, Masha; Terreros, Daniel; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo; Yunis, Edmond J

    2010-02-01

    The most common test to identify latent tuberculosis is the tuberculin skin test that detects T cell responses of delayed type hypersensitivity type IV. Since it produces false negative reactions in active tuberculosis or in high-risk persons exposed to tuberculosis patients as shown in this report, we studied antibody profiles to explain the anergy of such responses in high-risk individuals without active infection. Our results showed that humoral immunity against tuberculin, regardless of the result of the tuberculin skin test is important for protection from active tuberculosis and that the presence of high antibody titers is a more reliable indicator of infection latency suggesting that latency can be based on the levels of antibodies together with in vitro proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the presence of the purified protein derivative. Importantly, anti-tuberculin IgG antibody levels mediate the anergy described herein, which could also prevent reactivation of disease in high-risk individuals with high antibody titers. Such anti-tuberculin IgG antibodies were also found associated with blocking and/or stimulation of in vitro cultures of PBMC with tuberculin. In this regard, future studies need to establish if immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis can generate a broad spectrum of reactions either toward Th1 responses favoring stimulation by cytokines or by antibodies and those toward diminished responses by Th2 cytokines or blocking by antibodies; possibly involving mechanisms of antibody dependent protection from Mtb by different subclasses of IgG. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The effect of Ramadan fasting on tuberculin skin test and leukocyte count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Nasiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Annually, many Muslims fast during the month of Ramadan worldwide. This practice has different favorable medical and physiological effects, such as improved serum lipid profile and blood glucose level due to changes in diet and sleep patterns. It has also been hypothesized that Ramadan fasting may affect the immune system. As reported, Ramadan fasting can influence the immunoglobulin and cytokine levels. Accordingly, tuberculin skin test or purified protein derivative (PPD test, which is a delayed-type hypersensitivity of cellular immune response, may also be affected by Ramadan fasting. Regarding this, the present study aimed to investigate the alteration of PPD test during and after Ramadan. Materials & Methods: A total of 42 males (seminary students who fasted during Ramadan in 2006 were included in the study; however, only 28 cases completed the study. For data collection, the participants underwent blood and tuberculin tests at the fourth week of Ramadan and three months after this month. The white blood cell (WBC count and the tuberculin induration were recorded and compared between the two intervals to evaluate the changes. Results: According to the results of the study, the mean age of the participants was 19.21±3.83 years. Furthermore, the mean tuberculin induration was 9.3±5.4 mm (size range: 2-22 mm on the fourth week of Ramadan, which increased to 9.79±6.8 mm (size range: 3-35 mm three months after this month (P=0.501. The mean count of WBC decreased insignificantly from 5907±1879 mcL to 5601±1362 mcL after Ramadan (P=0.334. Additionally, the mean lymphocytes count decreased significantly from 2292±520/mcL to 2023±486/mcL after this month (P=0.003. Likewise, the lymphocyte (P=0.014 and mean neutrophil percentage also reduced significantly (P0.05. Conclusion: As the findings of the present study indicated, Ramadan fasting induce some changes in the immune status, including lymphocyte and neutrophil

  11. [IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay versus PPD tuberculin skin test in the diagnosis of tuberculous epididymitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Yang, Xi-Fei; Deng, Qun-Yi; Li, Bing; Liu, Guo-Hui; Zhang, Jie-Yun; Yang, Da-Fei

    2012-06-01

    To explore the potential application of IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay in the diagnosis of tuberculous epididymitis (TE) by comparing ELISPOT assay with the traditional purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin skin test. We examined 13 TE patients using an in-house ELISPOT kit, another 11 TE patients by PPD skin testing, and 57 healthy male volunteers by parallel test with both the methods. Twelve (92.3%) of the 13 TE cases were positive on ELISPOT assay, and 10 (90.9%) of the 11 TE cases positive on PPD skin test, with no statistically significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05). Among the 57 healthy male volunteers, 8 (14.0%) were positive on ELISPOT, and 28 (49.1%) positive on PPD test, the latter significantly higher than the former (P PPD test in the examination of tuberculous epididymitis. As for specificity, ELISPOT assay seems better than PPD test in differentiating tuberculous epididymitis patients from healthy males.

  12. Tuberculin skin testing: Spectrum of adverse reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Ramar; Bahuguna, Amit; Dhadwal, Bhumesh Singh

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculin skin testing (TST) is one of the primary diagnostic modalities recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) study conducted in the United Kingdom (UK) for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). Even after acceptance as a diagnostic modality and stern standardization, TST has its own flaws that include a spectrum of adverse reactions. We report a series of cases with a spectrum of adverse reactions occurring with a higher frequency than present in the available evidence. The study has some demerits such as being a retrospective one with interobserver variation and lack of histopathological confirmation. The observation is presented to accentuate the fact that adverse reactions are not a rarity and that further studies are required to establish the cause and exact incidence of the same.

  13. A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; van den Hof, Susan; Mensah, Gloria Ivy; Hesse, Adukwei; Bonsu, Christian; Koram, Kwadwo Ansah; Afutu, Felix Kwami; Bonsu, Frank Adae

    2010-01-26

    Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged 6-10 years in 8 out of 10 regions of Ghana between 2004 and 2006. Tuberculin survey was conducted in 179 primary schools from 21 districts in 8 regions. Schools were purposively selected so as to reflect the proportion of affluent private and free tuition public schools as well as the proportion of small and large schools. Of the 24,778 children registered for the survey, 23,600 (95.2%) were tested of which 21,861 (92.6%) were available for reading. The age distribution showed an increase in numbers of children towards older age: 11% of the children were 6 years and 25%, 10 years. Females were 52.5% and males 47.5%. The proportion of girls was higher in all age groups (range 51.4% to 54.0%, p < 0.001). BCG scar was visible in 89.3% of the children. The percentage of children with a BCG scar differed by district and by age. The percentage of children with a BCG scar decreased with increasing age in all districts, reflecting increasing BCG vaccination coverage in Ghana in the last ten years. The risk of tuberculosis infection was low in the northern savannah zones compared to the southern coastal zones. Using a cut-off of 15 mm, the prevalence of infection ranged from 0.0% to 5.4% and the Annual Risks of Tuberculosis Infection 0.0% to 0.6%. There was an increase in the proportion of infected children after the age of 7 years. Children attending low and middle-class schools had a higher risk of infection than children attending upper-class schools. Tuberculosis infection is still a public health problem in Ghana and to monitor the trend, the survey needs to be repeated at 5 years interval.

  14. Pre-employment screening of latent tuberculosis infection among healthcare workers using tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON-TB Gold test at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Helaly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Objective: To assess the agreement between the tuberculin skin test (TST and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT-G as pre-employment screening tests for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI among healthcare workers. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among 1412 healthcare workers who were screened for LTBI during the period from August 2009 to May 2011 at a tertiary-care hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. The studied population was screened for LTBI using both TST and QFT-G simultaneously. The agreement between both tests was quantified using the Kappa coefficient (κ. Results: Comparing the results of QFT-G with TST, the tests had a significant overall agreement of 73.7% (1040/1412; κ = 0.33; p < 0.01. Negative concordance comprised 60.1% of the results, and positive concordance comprised 13.5%. However, positive TST but negative QFT comprised 16.3% of the results, and negative TST but positive QFT-G comprised 10.1%. Concordance was significantly associated with young age, female gender, Saudi-born nationals, and early career but not job type (clinical versus non-clinical nor status of Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG vaccination. Conclusions: This study demonstrated 73.7% overall agreement between TST and QFT-G results among healthcare workers during pre-employment screening for LTBI. The results need to be confirmed in future studies before recommending QFT-G as a pre-employment screening test for LTBI. Keywords: Latent tuberculosis infection, Healthcare workers, Tuberculin skin test, QuantiFERON-TB Gold test

  15. Tuberculin skin testing in patients with HIV infection: limited benefit of reduced cutoff values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobelens, Frank G.; Egwaga, Saidi M.; van Ginkel, Tessa; Muwinge, Hemed; Matee, Mecky I.; Borgdorff, Martien W.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When determining eligibility for isoniazid preventive therapy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, the cutoff value of the tuberculin skin test (TST) is often reduced from an induration of 10 mm in diameter to one of 5 mm in diameter to compensate for loss of

  16. The effect of fish oil on two-step tuberculin test in hospitalized patients: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Arfa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to national tuberculosis control guide, two-step tuberculin skin test (TST should be done in the elderly, if the initial test is negative. However, it raises questions about the usefulness of this approach. Objective: This study aimed to explore the effects of fish oil supplements on the two-step tuberculin test in hospitalized patients. Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 128 patients randomly allocated to control group (receiving placebo, n=64 and treatment group (receiving fish oil supplements, n=64 during 2016. Fish oil supplement group was treated with 2 g daily for 4 consecutive days. The outcome was considered a change in 2 sequential TST induration sizes. Significant increase in the size of the secondary induration compared to primary was considered 6 mm or more. Findings: There was significant difference between primary and secondary indurations of two groups (higher in treatment group (P=0.04. According to the results of analysis of variance and correlation tests, two effective factors were identified: initial induration and residence location (P=0.014 and P=0.002, respectively. In both groups, no clinically significant increase in the size of induration was observed. Conclusion: It seems that the number of cases considered as infected with tuberculosis does not increase with two- rather than one-step tuberculin skin test. Also, the short-term administration of fish oil supplements does not change this result.

  17. Comparison of two interferon-gamma assays and tuberculin skin test for tracing tuberculosis contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arend, Sandra M.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; Leyten, Eliane M. S.; Bouwman, John J. M.; Franken, Willeke P. J.; Koster, Ben F. P. J.; Cobelens, Frank G. J.; van Houte, Arend-Jan; Bossink, Ailko W. J.

    2007-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) has low specificity. QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G) and T-SPOT.TB are based on interferon (IFN)-gamma responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens. A novel in-tube format of QFT-G (QFT-GIT) offers logistical advantages. To compare TST, QFT-GIT, and T-SPOT.TB

  18. The stability of human, bovine and avian tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Mailis; Giménez, José Francisco; D'Alessandro, Adriana; De Waard, Jacobus H

    2011-11-15

    Guidelines recommend storing tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) refrigerated. However, especially in developing countries, maintaining the product refrigerated under field conditions can be difficult, limiting its use. Here we determine the effect of prolonged exposure to high temperatures on the potency of human, bovine and avian tuberculin PPD. Human, bovine and avian tuberculin PPD were stored for several weeks exposed to temperatures ranging from 37º to 100ºC. The potency was evaluated in vivo, in sensitized or naturally infected animals. Most test situations didn't affect the biological activity of the tuberculin PPDs and only very long and extreme incubations (several days at 100 °C) compromised the potency. Tuberculin PPD is very stable and can be stored or transported for long periods without refrigeration. 

  19. Tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON® assay in young children investigated for tuberculosis in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moyo, S.; Isaacs, F.; Gelderbloem, S.; Verver, S.; Hawkridge, A. J.; Hatherill, M.; Tameris, M.; Geldenhuys, H.; Workman, L.; Pai, M.; Hussey, G.; Hanekom, W. A.; Mahomed, H.

    2011-01-01

    Although the literature on interferon-gamma release assays on tuberculosis (TB) in children has increased, data pertaining to young children remain relatively limited. To compare results from the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube assay (QFT) in children aged <3 years

  20. Reactivation of tuberculosis during immunosuppressive treatment in a patient with a positive QuantiFERON-RD1 test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Munk, Martin E; Andersen, Ase Bengaard

    2004-01-01

    A patient with polymyositis developed tuberculosis during immunosuppressive treatment. Tuberculin Skin Test and chest X-ray failed to demonstrate latent tuberculosis, whereas a blood sample that was tested with a modified QuantiFERON-TB-assay, using the recombinant ESAT-6 and CFP-10, was positive...

  1. Correlation between tuberculin skin test and IGRAs with risk factors for the spread of infection in close contacts with sputum smear positive in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza-Galvão, Maria Luiza; Latorre, Irene; Altet-Gómez, Neus; Jiménez-Fuentes, María Ángeles; Milà, Celia; Solsona, Jordi; Seminario, Maria Asunción; Cantos, Adela; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan; Domínguez, José

    2014-05-13

    The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between the tuberculin skin test (TST) and in vitro interferon-gamma released assays (IGRAs) with risk factors for the spread of infection in smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) contacts. We recruited prospective contacts with smear positive pulmonary TB cases. We looked at human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other conditions of immunosuppression, presence of BCG vaccination and the degree of exposure to the index case. Patients underwent the TST, chest radiography, sputum analysis when necessary, and IGRA assays (QFN-G-IT and T-SPOT.TB). Presence of cough, diagnostic delay (days between first symptoms and TB diagnostic), contact conditions: room size (square meters) and index of overcrowding (square meters per person) were investigated in the index case. 156 contacts (119 adults, 37 children) of 66 TB patients were enrolled, 2.4 (1-14) contacts per TB case. The positivity of the TST did not correlate with the risk factors studied: presence of cough (p = 0.929); delayed diagnosis (p = 0.244); room size (p = 0.462); overcrowding (p = 0.800). Both QFN-G-IT and T-SPOT.TB, showed significant association with cough (p = 0.001, and p = 0.007) and room size (p = 0.020, and p = 0.023), respectively. Both IGRA associated better than TST with certain host-related risk factors involved in the transmission of disease, such as the presence of cough.

  2. Delayed Hypersensitivity to Tuberculin and Other Antigens in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delayed hypersensitivi:y is a valuable index of cellular immune function, provided that the incidence of positive readions in the population is known. One hundred and sixty-two hospital pat;ents were examined, using tuberculin. (PPD), streptokinase and antigens derived from Candida albicans and mumps. Whereas 75% of ...

  3. Influência do tamanho do frasco de tuberculina nos resultados da prova tuberculínica Influence of vial size on the results of the tuberculin test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ruffino-Netto

    2005-04-01

    using the Mantoux technique. Patients were randomly allocated to receive two 0.1-ml injections, either one in the right forearm from a 1.5-ml vial and one in the left forearm from a 5-ml vial or vice versa. Induration was determined in a blinded fashion by a single, previously trained observer. Right arm-left arm differences of 2 mm or less were considered concordant results. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients presented no induration and were excluded from analysis. Among the 42 remaining patients, mean induration diameters obtained in tuberculin tests using the larger vials were greater than those obtained in tests using the smaller vials. Concordance was achieved in 40.5% (17/42. The difference was negative (large-vial indurations smaller than small-vial indurations in 16.7% (7/42 and positive in 42.9% (18/42. CONCLUSIONS: The size of the vial may influence tuberculin test results. Adsorption to the sides of the vial may explain this phenomenon. The authors caution others to be aware of the impact of these variations in epidemiological and operational studies.

  4. 9 CFR 113.409 - Tuberculin-PPD Bovis, Intradermic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tuberculin-PPD Bovis, Intradermic. 113... REQUIREMENTS Diagnostics and Reagents § 113.409 Tuberculin—PPD Bovis, Intradermic. Tuberculin—PPD Bovis... completed product from each serial shall be subjected to a comparison specificity test using a Reference PPD...

  5. Antibody response to a sterile filtered PPD tuberculin in M. bovis infected and M. bovis sensitized cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Bryan; Filion, Lionel G; Smart, Nonie

    2010-11-09

    Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, afflicts approximately 50 million cattle worldwide and is detected by the tuberculin skin test (TST). While it has long been recognized that purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin is composed of a mixture of M. bovis derived protein components, little is known about the quality, relative quantity and identity of the proteins that make up PPD tuberculin. We manufactured a sterile filtered PPD tuberculin (SF-PPD) from a nine-week-old M. bovis culture supernatant in order to characterise the culture filtrate proteins (CFP) which make up M. bovis PPD tuberculin and to compare the antibody response of M. bovis infected versus M. bovis sensitized cattle. SF-PPD resolved into approximately 200 discrete spots using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) while fewer than 65 spots could be discerned from 2-DE gels of tuberculin derived from autoclaved culture supernatant. Two dimensional Western blot analyses indicated that sera from M. bovis sensitized cattle recognized additional SF-PPD antigens as compared to M. bovis infected cattle at seven weeks post infection/sensitization. However, application of a comparative tuberculin skin test resulted in an antibody boosting response to the same set of M. bovis CFPs in both the M. bovis infected and M. bovis sensitized cattle. We concluded that it is the heat sterilization of the M. bovis CFPs that causes severe structural changes to the M. bovis proteins. This work suggests that M. bovis infected cattle and cattle artificially sensitized to M. bovis with an injection of heat killed cells exhibit similar antibody responses to M. bovis antigens.

  6. Specificity of the Tuberculin Skin Test and the T-SPOT."TB" Assay among Students in a Low-Tuberculosis Incidence Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Elizabeth A.; Harland, Dawn; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Burrer, Sherry; Adams, Lisa V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Interferon-[gamma] release assays (IGRAs) are an important tool for detecting latent "Mycobacterium tuberculosis" infection (LTBI). Insufficient data exist about IGRA specificity in college health centers, most of which screen students for LTBI using the tuberculin skin test (TST). Participants: Students at a low-TB incidence college…

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis epitope-specific interferon-g production in healthy Brazilians reactive and non-reactive to tuberculin skin test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosco Christiano Maciel da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The interferon (IFN-γ response to peptides can be a useful diagnostic marker of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB latent infection. We identified promiscuous and potentially protective CD4+ T-cell epitopes from the most conserved regions of MTB antigenic proteins by scanning the MTB antigenic proteins GroEL2, phosphate-binding protein 1 precursor and 19 kDa antigen with the TEPITOPE algorithm. Seven peptide sequences predicted to bind to multiple human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR molecules were synthesised and tested with IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from 16 Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST-positive and 16 TST-negative healthy donors. Eighty-eight percent of TST-positive donors responded to at least one of the peptides, compared to 25% of TST-negative donors. Each individual peptide induced IFN-γ production by PBMCs from at least 31% of the TST-positive donors. The magnitude of the response against all peptides was 182 ± 230 x 106 IFN-γ spot forming cells (SFC among TST-positive donors and 36 ± 62 x 106 SFC among TST-negative donors (p = 0.007. The response to GroEL2 (463-477 was only observed in the TST-positive group. This combination of novel MTB CD4 T-cell epitopes should be tested in a larger cohort of individuals with latent tuberculosis (TB to evaluate its potential to diagnose latent TB and it may be included in ELISPOT-based IFN-γ assays to identify individuals with this condition.

  8. The value of counting BCG scars for interpretation of tuberculin skin tests in a tuberculosis hyperendemic shanty-town, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M.; Bautista, C. T.; Gilman, R. H.; Bowering, A.; Levy, M. Z.; Evans, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY SETTING The tuberculin skin test (TST) is widely used as a diagnostic or screening test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease. A peri-urban shanty-town in the desert hills of south Lima, Peru, highly endemic for tuberculosis, and where bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine had been given in multiple doses until 1995. OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of multiple BCG vaccines on TST in a community-based setting. DESIGN Point-prevalence survey of TST reactions of 572 people aged 6–26 years from 255 households. TST reactions were compared to the observed number of BCG scars and other potential risk factors (age, living with a TST-positive person, and contact with active tuberculosis). RESULT People with two or more scars had significantly larger reactions, even after adjusting for potential risk factors. The adjusted population attributable fraction of being TST-positive and having two or more BCG scars was 26%. CONCLUSION There is no demonstrated benefit of repeat BCG vaccination. We therefore recommend that physicians take into consideration the number of BCG scars when interpreting the TST and that programs give no more than one BCG vaccination. PMID:15260275

  9. Tuberculin Skin Test and Quantiferon in BCG Vaccinated, Immunosuppressed Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurti, Zsuzsanna; Lovasz, Barbara Dorottya; Gecse, Krisztina Barbara; Balint, Anita; Farkas, Klaudia; Morocza-Szabo, Agnes; Gyurcsanyi, Andras; Kristof, Katalin; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Gonczi, Lorant; Kiss, Lajos Sandor; Golovics, Petra Anna; Lakatos, Laszlo; Molnar, Tamas; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2015-12-01

    There are few data available on the effect of immunomodulator/biological therapy on the accuracy of the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) in BCG-vaccinated immunosuppressed patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our aim was to define the accuracy, predictors and agreement of TST and IGRA in a BCG-vaccinated immunosuppressed referral IBD cohort. 166 consecutive moderate-to-severe IBD patients (122 Crohn's disease, CD and 44 ulcerative colitis, UC) were enrolled in a prospective study from three centers. Patients were treated with immunosuppressives and/or biologicals. IGRA and TST were performed on the same day. Both in- and outpatient records were collected and comprehensively reviewed. TST positivity rate was 23.5%, 21.1%,14.5% and 13.9% when cut-off values of 5, 10, 15 and 20mm were used. IGRA positivity rate was 8.4% with indeterminate result in 0.6%. Chest X-ray was suggestive of latent tuberculosis in 2 patients. Correlation between TST and IGRA was moderate (kappa: 0.39-0.41, p15mm) should be considered to identify patients at risk for latent TB. Accuracy is satisfactory in BCG-vaccinated, immunosuppressed IBD patients. Smoking is a risk factor for TST positivity.

  10. The use of serological tests in combination with the intradermal tuberculin test maximizes the detection of tuberculosis infected goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezos, Javier; Roy, Álvaro; Infantes-Lorenzo, José Antonio; González, Isabel; Venteo, Ángel; Romero, Beatriz; Grau, Anna; Mínguez, Olga; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía

    2018-05-01

    The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in goats is based mainly on the single and comparative intradermal tuberculin (SIT and CIT) tests and, exceptionally, on the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay, however they are not perfect in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Nevertheless, various serological assays that provide a potential cost-effective approach for the control of TB are also available or under development, and a variety of results have been reported regarding the ability of these tests to detect infected animals, particularly in the early stages of infection. In the present study, SIT/CIT and IFN-γ tests and three different serological assays were evaluated during two consecutive herd testing events in a recently infected caprine herd (n = 447) with a high prevalence of infection in order to evaluate their performance and provide field data with which to improve the TB control programs in this species. The proportion of infected animals that tested positive among all the infected goats (T+/I+ value) in the last herd testing event ranged from 26.2% (IC95%; 19.3-34.5) to 85.7% (IC95%; 78.5-90.7) using cell-based diagnostic tests. The SIT/SCIT tests detected more infected goats than the IFN-γ test, regardless of the interpretation criteria. The T+/I+ value of serology was 83.2 (IC95%; 75.2-89), although it increased significantly (P test (100%, IC95%; 97-100). In general, a parallel interpretation of intradermal tests with serology maximized the detection of infected goats. These results demonstrate that serological tests are valuable diagnostic tools to maximize the detection of TB infected goats, even in recent outbreaks, accelerating the eradication process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Aspects of temporary specific anergy to tuberculin in Vietnamese refugees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Jacob

    1992-01-01

    De vragen die in het onderzoek beantwoord dienden te worden waren: 1) Kan bevestigd worden dat bij Vietnamese vluchtelingen een groot aantal negatieve tuberculine huidtesten na herhaling van de test een positief resultaat vertoont (Mantoux-omslag) ; 2) Kunnen deze omslagen worden verklaard door een

  12. Influence of isoniazid on naturally acquired tuberculin allergy and on induction of allergy by BCG vaccination*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Raj; Bagga, A. S.; Naganna, K.; Mayurnath, S.

    1970-01-01

    Previous studies on the influence of isoniazid on the size of the tuberculin reaction have given conflicting results. A controlled study in an area with high prevalence of low-grade allergy has been carried out by the administration of isoniazid or placebo tablets. For those not vaccinated with BCG, isoniazid in a single daily dose of 5 mg/kg body-weight tended to reduce somewhat the size of the tuberculin reaction among those with reactions of 12 mm or more at the initial tuberculin test. In people who were vaccinated with BCG, isoniazid given simultaneously resulted in significantly less increase in the size of post-vaccination tuberculin reactions as compared with controls; the difference was still significant, in tests conducted 4½ months after the discontinuation of isoniazid. However, in spite of isoniazid, the post-vaccination allergy induced by BCG was quite considerable. This considerable increase in post-vaccination allergy suggests that the vaccination was successful in spite of the administration of isoniazid and makes it clear that primary chemoprophylaxis could be combined with BCG vaccination. Administration of isoniazid for 2 months is estimated to have killed about 90% of the bacilli in the BCG vaccine injected intracutaneously. PMID:5312322

  13. CD14-159C/T polymorphism in the development of delayed skin hypersensitivity to tuberculin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Druszczynska

    Full Text Available The skin tuberculin test (TST, an example of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH reaction, is based on measuring the extent of skin induration to mycobacterial tuberculin (PPD. Little is known about the genetic basis of TST reactivity, widely used for diagnosing TB infection. The study investigated the relationship of the single base change polymorphic variants in CD14 gene (CD14(-159C/T with the development of DTH to PPD in BCG-vaccinated Polish Caucasian individuals. We found persistent lack of TST reactivity in about 40% of healthy subjects despite receiving more than one dose of BCG. The TST size was negatively correlated with the number of BCG inoculations. The distribution of C/T genotype was significantly more frequent among TST-negative compared with TST-positive individuals. The concentration of serum sCD14 was positively associated with mCD14 expression, but not with the TST status or CD14(-159C/T polymorphism. A significant increase in mCD14 expression and serum sCD14 levels was found in TB group. We hypothesize that CD14(-159C/T polymorphic variants might be one of genetic components in the response to attenuated M. bovis BCG bacilli.

  14. Evaluation of the tuberculin skin test and the interferon-γ release assay for TB screening in French healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffi Francois

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Using French cut-offs for the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST, results of the TST were compared with the results of an Interferon-γ Release Assay (IGRA in Healthcare Workers (HCW after contact to AFB-positive TB patients. Methods Between May 2006 and May 2007, a total of 148 HCWs of the University Hospital in Nantes, France were tested simultaneously with IGRA und TST. A TST was considered to indicate recent latent TB infection (LTBI if an increase of >10 mm or if TST ≥ 15 mm for those with no previous TST result was observed. For those with a positive TST, chest X-ray was performed and preventive chemotherapy was offered. Results All HCWs were BCG-vaccinated. The IGRA was positive in 18.9% and TST ≥ 10 mm was observed in 65.5%. A recent LTBI was believed to be highly probable in 30.4% following TST. Agreement between IGRA and TST was low (kappa 0.041. In 10 (16.7% out of 60 HCWs who needed chest X-ray following TST the IGRA was positive. In 9 (20% out of 45 HCWs to whom preventive chemotherapy was offered following TST the IGRA was positive. Of those considered TST-negative following the French guidelines, 20.5% were IGRA-positive. In a two-step strategy - positive TST verified by IGRA - 18 out of 28 (64.3% IGRA-positive HCWs would not have been detected using French guidelines for TST interpretation. Conclusion The introduction of IGRA in contact tracings of BCG-vaccinated HCWs reduces X-rays and preventive chemotherapies. Increasing the cut-off for a positive TST does not seem to be helpful to overcome the effect of BCG vaccination on TST.

  15. Extent and effects of recurrent shortages of purified-protein derivative tuberculin skin test antigen solutions - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    Two purified-protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin skin test (TST) antigen solutions are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA): Tubersol (Sanofi Pasteur Limited) and Aplisol (JHP Pharmaceuticals, LLC). Tubersol was out of production in late 2012 through April 2013. Shortages of Aplisol have resulted from increased demand as practitioners have sought a substitute for Tubersol. Tubersol production resumed in May 2013, and supplies had been nearly restored by early June. However, in mid-July, state tuberculosis (TB) control officials notified CDC of difficulty obtaining Tubersol and Aplisol. Sanofi Pasteur notified FDA of a temporary delay in the availability of tuberculin in the 10-dose and 50-dose presentations. In mid-October, the 10-dose presentation was being returned to market, on allocation, which means that historical purchasing practices determine the amount that customers are allotted. In late October, the 50-dose presentation was being returned to market, also on allocation, one vial per historical customer per month. Supplies are forecast to approach normal during January 2014, after distributors have restored their supply chains. A compensatory surge in testing after deferment of testing during the periods of shortage might cause further temporary instability of supplies. In mid-August 2013, officials in 29 of 52 U.S. jurisdictions noted a shortage of at least one PPD TST antigen solution in health departments to the extent that it interrupted activities. This report includes a summary of the extent and effects of the shortages and a reiteration of advice on how to adapt to them.

  16. Prevalence of positive tuberculin skin test and associated factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    different from one derived from mixture analysis [46.3%(95% Bayesian credibility interval 36.5%-55.8%)]. Positive ... Health Organization (WHO) report of the World's top. 22 high ..... World re- port 2009. WHO/HTM/TB/2009.411. Geneva: World.

  17. Screening health care workers with interferon-γ release assay versus tuberculin skin test: impact on costs and adherence to testing (the SWITCH study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrighton-Smith, Peter; Sneed, Laurie; Humphrey, Frances; Tao, Xuguang; Bernacki, Edward

    2012-07-01

    To determine the price point at which an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) is less costly than a tuberculin skin test (TST) for health care employee tuberculosis screening. A multidecision tree-based cost model incorporating inputs gathered from time-motion studies and parallel testing by IGRA and TST was conducted in a subset of our employees. Administering a TST testing program costs $73.20 per person screened, $90.80 per new hire, and $63.42 per annual screen. Use of an IGRA for employee health testing is cost saving at an IGRA test cost of $54.83 or less per test and resulted in higher completion rates because of the elimination of the need for a second visit to interpret the TST. Using an IGRA for employee health screening can be an institutional cost saving and results in higher compliance rates.

  18. Tuberculin skin testing and treatment modulates interferon-gamma release assay results for latent tuberculosis in migrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K O'Shea

    Full Text Available Identifying latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI in people migrating from TB endemic regions to low incidence countries is an important control measure. However, no prospective longitudinal comparisons between diagnostic tests used in such migrant populations are available.To compare commercial interferon (IFN-gamma release assays (IGRAs and the tuberculin skin test (TST for diagnosing LTBI in a migrant population, and the influence of antecedent TST and LTBI treatment on IGRA performance.This cohort study, performed from February to September 2012, assessed longitudinal IGRA and TST responses in Nepalese military recruits recently arrived in the UK. Concomitant T-SPOT.TB, QFT-GIT and TST were performed on day 0, with IGRAs repeated 7 and 200 days later, following treatment for LTBI if necessary.166 Nepalese recruits were prospectively assessed. At entry, 21 individuals were positive by T-SPOT.TB and 8 individuals by QFT-GIT. There was substantial agreement between TST and T-SPOT.TB positives at baseline (71.4% agreement; κ = 0.62; 95% CI:0.44-0.79, but only moderate concordance between positive IGRAs (38.1% agreement; κ = 0.46; 95% CI:0.25-0.67. When reassessed 7 days following TST, numbers of IGRA-positive individuals changed from 8 to 23 for QFT-GIT (p = 0.0074 and from 21 to 23 for T-SPOT.TB (p = 0.87. This resulted in an increase in IGRA concordance to substantial (64.3% agreement; κ = 0.73; 95% CI:0.58-0.88. Thus, in total on day 0 and day 7 after testing, 29 out of 166 participants (17.5% provided a positive IGRA and of these 13 were TST negative. Two hundred days after the study commenced and three months after treatment for LTBI was completed by those who were given chemoprophylaxis, 23 and 21 participants were positive by T-SPOT.TB or QFT-GIT respectively. When individual responses were examined longitudinally within this population 35% of the day 7 QFT-GIT-positive, and 19% T-SPOT.TB-positive individuals, were

  19. Using latent class analysis to estimate the test characteristics of the γ-interferon test, the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test and a multiplex immunoassay under Irish conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clegg, Tracy A.; Duignan, Anthony; Whelan, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to improving the existing diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis (single intradermal comparative tuberculin test [SICTT] and ¿-interferon assay [¿-IFN]) and to develop new tests. Previously, the diagnostic characteristics (sensitivity, specificity) have been...... estimated in populations with defined infection status. However, these approaches can be problematic as there may be few herds in Ireland where freedom from infection is guaranteed. We used latent class models to estimate the diagnostic characteristics of existing (SICTT and ¿-IFN) and new (multiplex...... immunoassay [Enferplex-TB]) diagnostic tests under Irish field conditions where true disease status was unknown. The study population consisted of herds recruited in areas with no known TB problems (2197 animals) and herds experiencing a confirmed TB breakdown (2740 animals). A Bayesian model was developed...

  20. Decreased delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin demonstrated in experimental leptospirosis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Johansen, K S; Bentzon, M W

    1976-01-01

    Skin reactivity to tuberculin has been studied during the course of experimental leptospirosis in guinea pigs. A depression of the delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin was demonstrated in the infected animals. The depression was most pronounced when icterus had developed. The depression...

  1. Automation of an interferon-γ release assay and comparison to the tuberculin skin test for screening basic military trainees for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Donald J; Mazurek, Gerald H; Campbell, Brandon H; Bohanon, Jamaria; West, Kevin B; Bell, James J; Powell, Richard; Toney, Sean; Morris, John A; Yamane, Grover K; Sjoberg, Paul A

    2014-03-01

    We automated portions of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) and assessed its quality when performed concurrently with the tuberculin skin test (TST) among U.S. Air Force basic military trainees (BMTs). The volume of blood collected for QFT-GIT was monitored. At least one of the three tubes required for QFT-GIT had blood volume outside the recommended 0.8- to 1.2-mL range for 688 (29.0%) of 2,373 subjects who had their blood collected. Of the 2,124 subjects who had TST and QFT-GIT completed, TST was positive for 0.6%; QFT-GIT was positive for 0.3% and indeterminate for 2.0%. Among 2,081 subjects with completed TST and determinate QFT-GIT results, overall agreement was 99.5% but positive agreement was 5.6%. Specificity among the 1,546 low-risk BMTs was identical (99.7%). Indeterminate QFT-GIT results were 2.7 times more likely when mitogen tubes contained >1.2 mL blood than when containing 0.8- to 1.2-mL blood. Automation can facilitate QFT-GIT completion, especially if the recommended volume of blood is collected. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection prevalence among BMTs based on TST and QFT-GIT is similar and low. Selectively testing those with significant risk may be more appropriate than universal testing of all recruits. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  2. Reactivation of tuberculosis during immunosuppressive treatment in a patient with a positive QuantiFERON-RD1 test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Munk, Martin E; Andersen, Ase Bengaard

    2004-01-01

    A patient with polymyositis developed tuberculosis during immunosuppressive treatment. Tuberculin Skin Test and chest X-ray failed to demonstrate latent tuberculosis, whereas a blood sample that was tested with a modified QuantiFERON-TB-assay, using the recombinant ESAT-6 and CFP-10, was positive...... indicating that this patient was latently infected before immunosuppressive therapy. This case indicates the risk of progressing from latent to active tuberculosis given that the subject is RD1 responsive, and we believe that preventive anti-tuberculous treatment could have prevented this case...

  3. Reactivation of tuberculosis during immunosuppressive treatment in a patient with a positive QuantiFERON-RD1 test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Munk, Martin E; Andersen, Ase Bengaard

    2004-01-01

    A patient with polymyositis developed tuberculosis during immunosuppressive treatment. Tuberculin Skin Test and chest X-ray failed to demonstrate latent tuberculosis, whereas a blood sample that was tested with a modified QuantiFERON-TB-assay, using the recombinant ESAT-6 and CFP-10, was positive...... indicating that this patient was latently infected before immunosuppressive therapy. This case indicates the risk of progressing from latent to active tuberculosis given that the subject is RD1 responsive, and we believe that preventive anti-tuberculous treatment could have prevented this case...... of tuberculosis. We suggest that RD1 based tests are evaluated further in immunocompromised patients....

  4. Tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assay values are associated with antimicrobial peptides expression in  polymorphonuclear cells during latent tuberculous infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio E Castañeda-Delgado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that patients with progressive tuberculosis (TB express abundant amounts of the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs cathelicidin (LL-37 and human neutrophil peptide-1 (HNP-1 in circulating cells, whereas latent TB infected donors showed no differences when compared with purified protein derivative (PPD and QuantiFERON®-TB Gold (QFT-healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to determine whether LL-37 and HNP-1 production correlates with higher tuberculin skin test (TST and QFT values in TB household contacts. Twenty-six TB household contact individuals between 26-58 years old TST and QFT positive with at last two years of latent TB infection were recruited. AMPs production by polymorphonuclear cells was determined by flow cytometry and correlation between TST and QFT values was analysed. Our results showed that there is a positive correlation between levels of HNP-1 and LL-37 production with reactivity to TST and/or QFT levels. This preliminary study suggests the potential use of the expression levels of these peptides as biomarkers for progression in latent infected individuals.

  5. Serial testing of refugees for latent tuberculosis using the QuantiFERON-gold in-tube: effects of an antecedent tuberculin skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Cristina A; Thomas, William; Stauffer, William M; Peterson, Phillip K; Tsukayama, Dean T

    2009-04-01

    Screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in refugee populations immigrating to low-incidence countries remains a challenge. We assessed the characteristics of the QuantiFERON-Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) compared with the tuberculin skin test (TST) in 198 refugees of all ages from tuberculosis-endemic countries. Diagnostic agreement between the first QFT-GIT and simultaneous TST was 78% (kappa = 0.56) and between serial QFT-GITs was 89% (kappa = 0.76). In serial QFT-GIT testing, 70% of subjects had an increased QFT-GIT value, perhaps the result of an antecedent TST in the setting of previous TB exposure. This boosting seemed to become less prevalent with time from TST and occurred less frequently in those with negative first QFT-GIT readings. Despite small changes in the quantitative results caused by nonspecific variation and boosting, the diagnostic result of the QFT-GIT was reliable. The QFT-GIT shows the potential to replace the TST for LTBI screening in refugees from tuberculosis-endemic areas.

  6. [Tuberculin reactivity among ninth-grade schoolchildren in the city of Havana, Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto Gutiérrez, Susana M; González Ochoa, Edilberto; Armas Pérez, Luisa; Urbino López-Chávez, Amelia; Martínez, Ana Maribel; Llanes, María Josefa; Sevy Court, José; Carreras Corzo, Libertad

    2003-09-01

    To determine the proportion of 14-year-old schoolchildren in the city of Havana, Cuba, with a positive tuberculin skin test, as an indicator of the prevalence of tuberculosis infection among them. Using single-stage cluster sampling, 1 936 Mantoux (tuberculin) tests were carried out with ninth-grade students (cohort born in 1985) during the 1999- 2000 school year in 20 basic high schools randomly selected in Havana. The tests were performed according to the standard technique recommended by the World Health Organization, and they were read after 72 hours. The percentage of skin tests that were positive and the average diameter of the indurations were calculated for the cohort overall and for the two genders. The means and the percentages were compared using the chi-square test, with 95% confidence intervals. The computer software used was Epi Info version 6.0. Of the tests read, 96% of them were negative (0-4 mm), 2.5% were doubtful (5-9 mm), and 1.5% were positive (>/=10 mm). The percentage of reactivity was 0.1% when a cutoff value of 15 mm was used. The mean diameter of the indurations was 0.41 mm. No statistically significant difference was found between the genders. In this study the proportion of schoolchildren with tuberculin reactivity, using an induration-diameter cutoff point of 10 mm, was very low (1.5%), and it was much lower (0.1%) when a cutoff point of 15 mm was used. The skin reactions with an induration diameter of >/=10 mm could be the expression of a natural infection if one takes into account the low frequency of bacillary tuberculosis in Cuba and that there is an inverse relationship between the time elapsed from the BCG vaccination and the intensity of the response to tuberculin. Therefore, that would mean that in this case (l)the point (.)prevalence of tuberculosis infection in this group of schoolchildren wou d be 1.5% ResumenObjetivos. Determinar la proporción de personas que reaccionan a la tuberculina como indicador de la prevalencia de

  7. Tuberculin immunotherapy: its history and lessons to be learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, Cristina; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2010-02-01

    The use of tuberculin for the therapy of tuberculosis was attempted more than 100 years ago and abandoned because of its adverse reactions. In this historical review we point out that some of the intensive efforts to avoid the reactions were based on the best scientific rationale available at that time. Balancing the dosage and intervals of tuberculin delivery with clinical and laboratory monitoring of patients achieved a limited success, with implications, toward current research in the field. The role of economical and social aspects at that time is also a lesson to be learned toward current approaches to tuberculosis control. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. [Robert Koch was right. Towards a new interpretation of tuberculin therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Pere J

    2006-01-01

    At the centenary of Robert Koch's Nobel Prize award, tuberculosis treatment with tuberculin, which was announced in Berlin in 1890, is still considered a failure. Nevertheless, there is now sufficient information supporting the idea that tuberculin therapy was widely used until the second half of the twentieth century; thus, the impact of this treatment should be studied and related to the decrease in tuberculosis-related mortality recorded in that period. Moreover, tuberculin therapy has inspired at least two new immunotherapies; these, however, were directed toward precisely the opposite effect: suppression of the Koch phenomenon. Thus, inoculation of Mycobacterium vaccae polarizes the immune response towards the Th1 type; and inoculation of RUTI avoids local immunodepression after short-term chemotherapy without inducing toxicity. For this reason, Robert Koch's work on antituberculosis therapy should be reread and proper recognition given to his contribution in this field.

  9. Screening of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers working in Hajj pilgrimage area in Saudi Arabia, using interferon gamma release assay and tuberculin skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhary, Zakeya A; Amer, Soliman M; Emara, Magdy M; Abdalla, Mohammad E; Ali, Sahar A

    2018-01-01

    Interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) is highly specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is the preferred test in BCG-vaccinated individuals. The few studies that have screened health care workers (HCWs) in Saudi Arabia for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) using IGRA have varied in agreement with the traditional tuberculin skin test (TST). Assess the prevalence of LTBI among HCWs working in the Hajj pilgrimage using IGRA and TST and measuring their agreement. Cross-sectional prospective. Multiple non-tertiary care hospitals. HCWs who worked during the Hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia in December 2015. Data was collected by standarized questionnaire. Samples were drawn and analyzed by standard methods. The prevalence of LTBI among HCW and the agreement by kappa statistic between QFT-GIT and TST. 520 subjects. Nurses accounted for 30.7% of the sample and physicians, 19.2%. The majority were BCG vaccinated (98.5%). There were a total of 56 positive by QFT-GIT and the LTBI rate was 10.8%. In 50 QFT positive/476 TST negative the LTBI rate was 10.5% in discordant tests, and in 6 QFT positive/44 TST positive it was 13.6% in concordant tests. The overall agreement between both tests was poor-83% and kappa was 0.02. LTBI prevalence was associated with longer employment (13.1 [9.2] years). The QFT-GIT positive test was significantly higher in physicians (P=.02) and in HCWs working in chest hospitals 16/76 (21.05%) (P=.001). Agreement between the tests was poor. QFT-GIT detected LTBI when TST was negative in HCWs who had a history of close contact with TB patients. A second step TST was not feasible within 2-3 weeks. None.

  10. STUDIES ON TUBERCULIN FEVER. 3. MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN THE RELEASE OF ENDOGENOUS PYROGEN IN VITRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATKINS, E; HEIJN, C

    1965-08-01

    In a search for the source of the circulating endogenous pyrogen (EP) that mediates tuberculin-induced fever, tuberculin was incubated in vitro with various tissues of rabbits sensitized by intravenous infection with BCG. Evidence was obtained that tuberculin specifically stimulates cells in the blood of sensitized rabbits to generate pyrogen in vitro, whereas both lymph node and spleen cells from the same donors were inactive. Since normal blood cells, incubated in plasma of sensitized donors, were similarly activated, it is postulated that circulating antibodies play a role in sensitizing cells (presumably granulocytes) to release pyrogen on contact with tuberculin) both in vitro and in vivo. Release of endogenous pyrogen in vitro may be a sensitive means of detecting immunologic reactions between antigen and specifically sensitized blood cells-in other allergic states accompanied by fever.

  11. Evidence-based treatments for the asymptomatic HIV- positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    banzi

    ty of the women attending antenatal clin- ics are healthy and therefore ... a decrease in the patient's risk of falling ill from opportunistic .... 10% risk in those who are tuberculin-. n e g a t i v e . In summary. • There is grade-A evidence that. HIV-positive patients who are tuberculin skin-positive benefit from anti-TB prophylaxis.

  12. Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: T.SPOT.TB versus Tuberculin Skin Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Del Mar Arenas Miras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early studies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE reported increased incidence of tuberculosis. The tuberculin skin test (TST is the technique of choice to detect latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI but has several limitations. Objectives. We compared TST and the newer T.SPOT.TB test to diagnose LTBI in SLE patients. Methods. In this observational cohort study conducted between August 2009 and February 2012, we recruited 92 patients from those attending the SLE clinic of our university hospital. Data recorded were epidemiological and sociodemographic characteristics. Laboratory analyses included TST and T.SPOT.TB tests. Results. Of the patients studied, 92% were women with an average age of 42.7 years. Overall, the degree of correlation between the two tests was low (Kappa index = 0.324 but was better in patients not receiving corticosteroids (CTC/immunosuppressive (IS therapy (Kappa = 0.436 and in those receiving hydroxychloroquine (Kappa = 0.473. While TST results were adversely affected by those receiving CTC and/or IS drugs (P=0.021, the T.SPOT.TB results were not. Conclusion. Although the TST test remains a useful tool for diagnosing LTBI in SLE patients, the T.SPOT.TB test is perhaps better employed when the patient is receiving CTC and/or IS drugs.

  13. Safety of the two-step tuberculin skin test in Indian health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Devasahayam J; Shankar, Deepa; Datey, Ashima; Zwerling, Alice; Pai, Madhukar

    2014-12-01

    Health care workers (HCW) in low and middle income countries are at high risk of nosocomial tuberculosis infection. Periodic screening of health workers for both TB disease and infection can play a critical role in TB infection control. Occupational health programs that implement serial tuberculin skin testing (TST) are advised to use a two-step baseline TST. This helps to ensure that boosting of waned immune response is not mistaken as new TB infection (i.e. conversion). However, there are no data on safety of the two-step TST in the Indian context where HCWs are repeatedly exposed. Nursing students were recruited from 2007 to 2009 at the Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, India. Consenting nursing students were screened with a baseline two-step TST at the time of recruitment. From 2007 to 2008 adverse events were recorded when reported during the TST reading (Cohort A). Nurses recruited in the final study year (2009) answered an investigator administered questionnaire assessing all likely side-effects Cohort B). This information was extracted from the case report forms and analysed. Between 2007 and 09, 800 trainees consented to participate in the annual TB screening study and 779 did not have a past history of TB or recall a positive TST and were selected to administer TST. Of these, 755 returned for reading the result and had complete data and were included for the final analysis - 623 subjects in (cohort A) and 132 in (cohort B). These were included for the final analysis. In cohort A only 1.3% reported adverse events. In cohort B, as per the investigator administered questionnaire; 25% reported minor side effects. Itching and local pain were the most common side effects encountered. There were no major adverse events reported. In particular, the adverse events were similar in the second step of the test and not more severe. Screening of HCWs with two-step TST for LTBI is simple and safe, and hence suitable for wide scale implementation in high

  14. Tuberculin-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in a model of hu-PBMC-SCID mice grafted with autologous skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsicopoulos, A.; Pestel, J.; Fahy, O.; Vorng, H.; Vandenbusche, F.; Porte, H.; Eraldi, L.; Wurtz, A.; Akoum, H.; Hamid, Q.; Wallaert, B.; Tonnel, A. B.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed an animal model to study human delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Previous studies in humans have shown after tuberculin injection the presence of a mononuclear cell infiltration, with almost no eosinophils, associated with a preferential Th-1-type cytokine profile. Human skin graft obtained from tuberculin-reactive donors was grafted onto the back of severe combined immunodeficient mice. After healing, mice were reconstituted intraperitoneally with peripheral mononuclear cells. Tuberculin and diluent were injected intradermally, and skin biopsies were performed 72 hours later. Skin grafts were divided into two parts, one for immunohistochemistry and one for in situ hybridization studies. Immunohistochemistry was performed on cryostat sections using the alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase technique. In the tuberculin-injected sites as compared with the diluent-injected sites, there were significant increases in the number of CD45+ pan leukocytes and CD4+, CD8+, CD45RO+ T cells but not in CD68+ monocytes/macrophages and EG2 or MBP+ eosinophils. The activation markers CD25 and HLA-DR were up-regulated in the tuberculin-injected sites. In situ hybridization was performed using 35S-labeled riboprobes for interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-4, and IL-5. After tuberculin injection, a preferential Th-1-type cytokine profile was observed with significant increases in the numbers of IL-2 and IFN-gamma mRNA-expressing cells. These results are similar to those reported after tuberculin-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity in humans, suggesting that this model might be useful to study cutaneous inflammatory reaction. Images Figure 4 PMID:9626072

  15. Interferon gamma, interferon-gamma-induced-protein 10, and tuberculin responses of children at high risk of tuberculosis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrucci, Roberta; Abu Amer, Nabil; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children in contact with adults with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are at risk for infection and disease progression, and chemoprophylaxis may reduce this risk. The identification of infection is based on the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) release assays...

  16. Interferon Gamma Release Assay versus Tuberculin Skin Testing among Healthcare Workers of Highly Diverse Origin in a Moderate Tuberculosis Burden Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahal Al Hajoj

    Full Text Available Health care workers (HCW's are always at an increased risk of contracting tuberculosis (TB infection. In Saudi Arabia, Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA has not been evaluated as a screening tool for latent TB infection (LTBI among HCW's considering their high demographic diversity. During February 2012 to January 2015 a cross sectional study has been conducted in a tertiary care center with maximum demographically diverse staff population in the capital city-Riyadh. After a short interview and consenting, all the candidates were subjected to tuberculin skin test (TST and QuantiFERON TB gold In-tube test (QFT. A logistic regression analysis was carried out for establishing the associations between putative risk factors and the diagnostic tests. The candidates were classified according to geographical origin and a detailed analysis was conducted on the impact of their origin towards the results of TST and QFT. Of the 1595 candidates enrolled, 90.6% were BCG vaccinated, female (67.9% and mainly nurses (53.2%. Candidates with high risk of suspected or confirmed TB patient exposure were 56.1% and 76.5% of them had <10 year's work experience. TST positivity was observed in 503 (31.5% candidates, while QFT was positive among 399 (25%. Majority of the candidates were non-Saudi (83% and predominantly (52.4% from Western Pacific region. Concordant results were obtained in 14.2% of positive cases and 57.7% negative cases. The disagreements between the two tests were relatively high (kappa co-efficient-0.312±0.026, p value- <0.00001 as TST positive/QFT negative discordance was 54.8% while TST negative/QFT positive discordance was 15.7%. Age of the candidates, BCG vaccination, and South East Asian origin were associated with TST positivity while Occupational TB exposure and geographical origin of the candidates were associated with QFT positivity. A regular follow up on recently TST converted candidates showed no progression to active TB. The putative

  17. Effect of Pregnancy on Interferon Gamma Release Assay and Tuberculin Skin Test Detection of Latent TB Infection Among HIV-Infected Women in a High Burden Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCourse, Sylvia M; Cranmer, Lisa M; Matemo, Daniel; Kinuthia, John; Richardson, Barbra A; Horne, David J; John-Stewart, Grace

    2017-05-01

    Peripartum immunologic changes may affect latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) diagnostic performance among HIV-infected women. HIV-infected women were serially tested with tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay [QuantiFERON TB Gold In-tube (QFT)] in pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum in Kenya. Prevalence, sensitivity and agreement, and correlates of QFT/TST positivity were assessed. Quantitative QFT mitogen and Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen (Mtb-Ag) responses were compared by peripartum stage. Incidence of test conversion at 6 weeks postpartum was evaluated in baseline TST-/QFT- women. Among 100 HIV-infected women, median age was 26 years, median CD4 was 555 cells per cubic millimeter, and 88% were on antiretrovirals. More women were QFT+ than TST+ in both pregnancy (35.4% vs. 13.5%, P = 0.001) and postpartum (29.6% vs. 14.8%, P pregnancy vs. postpartum, and specifically among persistently QFT+ women (Mtb-Ag: 3.46 vs. 4.48 IU/mL, P = 0.007). QFT indeterminate rate was higher in pregnancy (16%) compared with postpartum (0%) because of lower mitogen response. QFT identified >2-fold more women with LTBI compared with TST in pregnancy and postpartum. Lower QFT Mtb-Ag and mitogen responses in pregnancy compared with postpartum suggest that pregnancy-associated immunologic changes may influence LTBI test performance.

  18. Prevalence of positive ppd in a cohort of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborenea, Maria Natalia; Tate, Guillermo; Mysler, Eduardo; Debonis, Jose; Schijedman, Adrian

    2010-03-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of positive and anergic tuberculin skin test (ppd) in a rheumatoid arthritis cohort of patients (RA) and assess the association among ppd results and clinical and treatment variables. Patients with RA diagnosis were included. The ppd was done by Mantoux method. Positive result was considered when indurations were equal or greater than 5 mm. Anergic reaction was defined when the indurations was 0 mm. We included 105 patients (N = 105). The prevalence of positive ppd was 12.4% (n = 13), while the 87.6% (n = 92) presented a negative result. The 69.5% (n = 73) of the population were anergic to ppd. Patients with negative result received higher steroids dosages than patients with positive ppd (p ppd (p = 0.021, OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.55-0.95). Anergic and non-anergic patients were separated in groups, and a new analysis was done. The higher dosage of methotrexate was associated to tuberculine anergy (p = 0.025). In the multivariable model, the methotrexate dosage was a significant and independent predictor of tuberculine anergy (p = 0.005, OR 1.14, 95% CIs 1.04-1.24). In conclusion, in our cohort, the prevalence of positive ppd was lower than others studies. Among analyzed variables, the high steroid dose was a significant and independent predictor of negative ppd. The methotrexate treatment and dose were associated with ppd anergy.

  19. Interferon gamma, interferon-gamma-induced-protein 10, and tuberculin responses of children at high risk of tuberculosis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrucci, Roberta; Abu Amer, Nabil; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children in contact with adults with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are at risk for infection and disease progression, and chemoprophylaxis may reduce this risk. The identification of infection is based on the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) release assays. Ot...

  20. Private sector tuberculosis prevention in the US: Characteristics associated with interferon-gamma release assay or tuberculin skin testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockbridge, Erica L; Miller, Thaddeus L; Carlson, Erin K; Ho, Christine

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether latent tuberculosis infection risk factors are associated with an increased likelihood of latent tuberculosis infection testing in the US private healthcare sector. A national sample of medical and pharmacy claims representing services rendered January 2011 through December 2013 for 3,997,986 commercially insured individuals in the US who were 0 to 64 years of age. We used multivariable logistic regression models to determine whether TB/LTBI risk factors were associated with an increased likelihood of Interferon-Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) or Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) testing in the private sector. 4.31% (4.27-4.34%) received at least one TST/IGRA test between 2011 and 2013 while 1.69% (1.67-1.72%) received a TST/IGRA test in 2013. Clinical risk factors associated with a significantly increased likelihood of testing included HIV, immunosuppressive therapy, exposure to tuberculosis, a history of tuberculosis, diabetes, tobacco use, end stage renal disease, and alcohol use disorder. Other significant variables included gender, age, asthma, the state tuberculosis rate, population density, and percent of foreign-born persons in a county. Private sector TST/IGRA testing is not uncommon and testing varies with clinical risk indicators. Thus, the private sector can be a powerful resource in the fight against tuberculosis. Analyses of administrative data can inform how best to leverage private sector healthcare toward tuberculosis prevention activities.

  1. Tuberculosis screening of new hospital employees: compliance, clearance to work time, and cost using tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Chang, Sarah A; Manning, Mary L; Chandler, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Selection of the most suitable test(s) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection should be based on purpose, setting, effectiveness, and cost. Two tests are available to screen for latent TB: the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the more recent interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). Based on the administrative, logistic, and technical ease of use, an IGRA trial was initiated by the occupational health department at an urban Veteran's Administration health care facility for TB screening of new employees. As a result, new employees completing the pre-placement process within the organization's designated 14 days increased from 77% to 97%, new employee clearance to work time decreased from 13.18 to 5.91 days, and new employee TB screening costs were reduced by 40%. The IGRA is an acceptable alternative to the TST and has significant potential to improve the process of pre-placement TB screening. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Osteoarticular tuberculosis in an HIV-positive patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Moraes Rêgo Guedes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of a 38-year-old HIV-positive woman, with subcutaneous nodules on the thoracic region with 3 months of evolution. Clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological features were evaluated and associated with apparent damage to the T11-T12 vertebrae, identification by imaging tests, positivity in a polymerase chain reaction-based test, and reactivity to the Mantoux tuberculin skin test (PPD-RT 23. The patient was diagnosed with osteoarticular tuberculosis and received treatment for a year, and clinical cure was achieved.

  3. Outbreak of pulmonary tuberculosis in which tuberculosis developed from QuantiFERON-TB second generation (QFT-2G) test negative persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Junichi; Ooba, Yuko; Kaneda, Mie; Uchida, Kiyomi; Ishikawa, Yo; Suzuki, Kiminori; Yagi, Takenori; Sasaki, Yuka; Yamagishi, Fumio

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the points to be considered when QuantiFERON-TB second generation (QFT-2G) tests are used in the contacts examination by public health center. We analyzed the results of contacts examination on 43 workplace colleagues (39 y/o and younger) of a pulmonary tuberculosis patient (bII2, Gaffky 9, cough for 1.5 months). After two months of the last contact with the index case, tuberculin skin tests, QFT-2G tests and chest X-rays were undertaken. After 6 months, chest X-rays were taken, and after 9 months, QFT-2G tests and chest CT scans were also undertaken. The tuberculin skin tests after two months showed a bimodal distribution, and 10 were QFT-2G positive and 2 showed doubtful reaction. The latter 12 persons underwent chemoprophylaxis. After 6 months, however, out of 31 QFT-2G negative persons, 2 developed pulmonary tuberculosis. Moreover, after 9 months, chest CT scans revealed 5 pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Three out of 7 new patients showed positive or doubtful reactions in QFT-2G tests undertaken after 9 months. The sensitivity of QFT-2G tests is reported to be 80 to 90%, and the possibility of false negative is not negligible. We propose measures for public health center to conduct the contacts examination as follows; In case of high QFT-2G positive (including doubtful reaction) rate and/or a bimodal distribution of tuberculin skin test result, many infected persons are likely to be included in the group; and the following measures are recommended; Necessity of chemoprophylaxis should be judged considering both tuberculin skin test results and the situation of contact with the index case, and not only by QFT-2G test results. QFT-2G negative persons also need to be followed with chest X-rays. (author)

  4. Occurrence of bovine TB in Iranian cattle herds of Khuzestan, a laboratory study on postmortem specimens from tuberculin-positive cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Loni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Khuzestan is a southwestern province of Iran with proximity to the Persian Gulf and the international border with Iraq where harsh climate seriously affects this oil-rich region. In a search for causative agents of bovine tuberculosis (bTB, slaughterhouse specimens (lymph nodes from 32 tuberculin-positive cows originating from 17 farms were cultured on Lowenstein–Jensen slopes. This was further extended with bacterial culture of postmortem material from 6 trapped feral mice straying on the same farm premises. Twenty-five bovine and 2 murine acid-fast isolates were consequently obtained with all of them confirmed as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB complex bacteria by IS6110-PCR experiment. Spoligotyping and RD4 typing of the 2 murine and some of the collected bovine isolates left no doubt that Mycobacterium bovis is the principle and possibly the single culprit in bTB in this region. It does not come as a surprise as previous exhaustive works have shown in the Iranian environment other members of MTB complex than M. bovis are very unlikely to have any role in the epidemiology of bTB.

  5. Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle in the Highlands of Cameroon: Seroprevalence Estimates and Rates of Tuberculin Skin Test Reactors at Modified Cut-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Awah-Ndukum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain epidemiological estimates of bovine tuberculosis (TB prevalence in cattle in the highlands of Cameroon using two population-based tuberculin skin test (TST surveys in the years 2009 and 2010. However, prior to the TST survey in 2010, blood was collected from already chosen cattle for serological assay. Anti-bovine TB antibodies was detected in 37.17% of tested animals and bovine TB prevalence estimates were 3.59%–7.48%, 8.92%–13.25%, 11.77%–17.26% and 13.14%–18.35% for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and single TST, respectively. The agreement between TST and lateral flow was generally higher in TST positive than in TST negative subjects. The K coefficients were 0.119, 0.234, 0.251 and 0.254 for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and the single TST groups, respectively. Chi square statistics revealed that strong (P48 associations existed between seroprevalence rates and TST reactors. The study suggested that using lateral flow assay and TST at severe interpretations could improve the perception of bovine TB in Cameroon. The importance of defining TST at modified cut-offs and disease status by post-mortem detection and mycobacterial culture of TB lesions in local environments cannot be overemphasised.

  6. Tuberculosis skin testing, anergy and protein malnutrition in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelly, T F; Santillan, C F; Gilman, R H; Cabrera, L Z; Garcia, E; Vidal, C; Zimic, M J; Moore, D A J; Evans, C A

    2005-09-01

    Malnutrition and intestinal parasites cause immunosuppression. This may cause false-negative tuberculin skin tests (TST) and failure to identify tuberculosis (TB) infection. To assess factors associated with TST positivity and anergy in disadvantaged communities in Peru. A study of 212 randomly selected adults: 102 in a rural Amazonian village and 110 shanty town residents in urban Lima. Respectively 52% and 53% of urban and rural jungle populations were TST-positive. Using simultaneous tetanus and candida skin tests, 99% had at least one positive skin test. Generalised anergy was therefore rare, despite frequent intestinal parasitic infection, including 34% helminth infection prevalence in the jungle. TST positivity was associated with age (P = 0.001), known TB contact (P = 0.02) and poor household ventilation (P = 0.007). TST positivity was not significantly associated with crowding, reported past TB, single/multiple BCG vaccination, income, intestinal parasites, dietary factors, body mass index or body fat. Individuals with lower anthropometric body protein, as measured by corrected arm muscle area, were less likely to be TST-positive (P = 0.02), implying that protein malnutrition caused tuberculin-specific anergy. These results identify the importance of household ventilation for community TB transmission and add to the evidence that protein malnutrition suppresses TB immunity, causing false-negative TST results.

  7. Modulation of Immune Response in Asthmatic Patients by Using Inhaled Tuberculin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Gamrah, E.M.; Borai, I.H.; Zahran, W.E.; Labib, I.B.; Lotfy, O.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a chronic immuno inflammatory reversible lung disease with airway responsiveness to various stimuli which relived by proper therapy using inhaled steroids or the highly expensive recombinant interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). This study undertaken to investigate for the first time a novel treatment method using inhaled tuberculin (PPD) to determine whether PPD inhalation could be safely and effectively delivered into the airways of bronchial asthmatic patients in attempt to bring immurite deviation away from atopy via inhaling an economic dose of tuberculin. Sixty patients suffering from mild atopic bronchial asthma along with twenty healthy volunteers were included in our study. Patients were randomly categorized into three equally-sized groups received 2, 5 and 10 PPD units respectively. Treatment doses taken every 72 hours for two weeks. Respiratory function tests were examined before and after treatment regime. Interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-4 and immunoglobulin E (IgE)w ere measured by ELISA technique in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples before and after treatment regime. Eosinophil count in BALF was also examined. The results showed that PPD treatment doses caused a significant increase in lung function standards (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio) as compared with before treatment values. Also, the different doses of PPD resulted in a highly significant increase in the levels of serum and BALF IL-2 with a concomitant significant decrease in BALF IL-4

  8. Specificiteit van de Mantoux-reactie op het nieuwe tuberculine RT23 ten opzichte van de reactie op het oude PPD-RIVM; vergelijkend onderzoek onder ziekenhuispersoneel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobelens, F. G.; de Boer, H. E.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the Netherlands, an increase in prevalence of tuberculin positivity has been noted since the replacement of the Dutch PPD-RIVM preparation by RT23. This investigation was carried out to assess the specificity of RT23 compared with PPD-RIVM. DESIGN: Comparative. METHOD: In 90 hospital

  9. The feasibility of the interferon gamma release assay and predictors of discordance with the tuberculin skin test for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in a remote Aboriginal community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo G Alvarez

    Full Text Available The tuberculin skin test (TST is the standard test used to screen for latent TB infection (LTBI in the northern Canadian territory of Nunavut. Interferon gamma release assays (IGRA are T cell blood-based assays to diagnose LTBI. The Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG vaccine is part of the routine immunization schedule in Nunavut. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility, and predictors of discordance between the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST and the IGRA assay in a medically under-serviced remote arctic Aboriginal population.Both the TST and QuantiFERON-TB Gold (Qiagen group IGRA tests were offered to people in their homes as part of a public health campaign aimed at high TB risk residential areas in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada. Feasibility was measured by the capacity of the staff to do the test successfully as measured by the proportion of results obtained.In this population of predominantly young Inuit who were mostly BCG vaccinated, the use of IGRA for the diagnosis of LTBI was feasible. IGRA testing resulted in more available test results reaching patients (95.6% vs 90.9% p = 0.02 but took longer (median 8 days (IGRA vs 2 days (TST, p value < 0.0001. 44/256 participants (17.2% had discordant results. Multivariable regression analysis suggested that discordant results were most likely to have received multiple BCG vaccinations (RR 20.03, 95% CI, 3.94-101.82, followed by BCG given post infancy (RR 8.13, 95% CI, 2.54-26.03 and then to a lesser degree when BCG was given in infancy (RR 6.43, 95% CI, 1.72-24.85.IGRA is feasible in Iqaluit, Nunavut, a remote Arctic community. IGRA testing results in more test results available to patients compared to TST. This test could result in fewer patients requiring latent TB treatment among those previously vaccinated with BCG in a region with limited public health human resources.

  10. QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube as a Confirmatory Test for Tuberculin Skin Test in Tuberculosis Contact Tracing: A Noninferiority Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Laura; Santin, Miguel; Alcaide, Fernando; Ruíz-Serrano, Maria Jesús; Gijón, Paloma; Bermúdez, Elena; Domínguez-Castellano, Angel; Navarro, María Dolores; Ramírez, Encarnación; Pérez-Escolano, Elvira; López-Prieto, María Dolores; Gutiérrez-Rodriguez, José; Anibarro, Luis; Calviño, Laura; Trigo, Matilde; Cifuentes, Carmen; García-Gasalla, Mercedes; Payeras, Antoni; Gasch, Oriol; Espasa, Mateu; Agüero, Ramon; Ferrer, Diego; Casas, Xavier; González-Cuevas, Araceli; García-Zamalloa, Alberto; Bikuña, Edurne; Lecuona, María; Galindo, Rosa; Ramírez-Lapausa, Marta; Carrillo, Raquel

    2018-01-18

    Screening strategies based on interferon-γ release assays in tuberculosis contact tracing may reduce the need for preventive therapy without increasing subsequent active disease. We conducted an open-label, randomized trial to test the noninferiority of a 2-step strategy with the tuberculin skin test (TST) followed by QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) as a confirmatory test (the TST/QFT arm) to the standard TST-alone strategy (TST arm) for targeting preventive therapy in household contacts of patients with tuberculosis. Participants were followed for 24 months after randomization. The primary endpoint was the development of tuberculosis, with a noninferiority margin of 1.5 percentage points. A total of 871 contacts were randomized. Four contacts in the TST arm and 2 in the TST/QFT arm developed tuberculosis. In the modified intention-to-treat analysis, this accounted for 0.99% in the TST arm and 0.51% in the TST/QFT arm (-0.48% difference; 97.5% confidence interval [CI], -1.86% to 0.90%); in the per-protocol analysis, the corresponding rates were 1.67% and 0.82% in the TST and TST/QFT arms, respectively (-0.85% difference; 97.5% CI, -3.14% to 1.43%). Of the 792 contacts analyzed, 65.3% in the TST arm and 42.2% in the TST/QFT arm were diagnosed with tuberculosis infection (23.1% difference; 95% CI, 16.4% to 30.0%). In low-incidence settings, screening household contacts with the TST and using QFT-GIT as a confirmatory test is not inferior to TST-alone for preventing active tuberculosis, allowing a safe reduction of preventive treatments. NCT01223534. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Safety and efficacy of the C-Tb skin test to diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, compared with an interferon γ release assay and the tuberculin skin test: a phase 3, double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Aggerbeck, Henrik; Gallardo, Rafael Vázquez; Hoff, Søren T; Villate, José I; Borregaard, Bettine; Martinez, José A; Kromann, Ingrid; Penas, Antón; Anibarro, Luis L; de Souza-Galvão, Maria Luiza; Sánchez, Francisca; Rodrigo-Pendás, Jose Ángel; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Martínez-Lacasa, Xavier; Tuñez, Maria Victoria; Fernández, Virginia Leiro; Millet, Joan P; Moreno, Antonio; Cobos, Nazaret; Miró, José M; Roldan, Llanos; Orcau, Angels; Andersen, Peter; Caylá, Joan A

    2017-04-01

    Targeted screening and treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection substantially reduces the risk of developing active tuberculosis. C-Tb (Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark) is a novel specific skin test based on ESAT-6 and CFP10 antigens. We investigated the safety and diagnostic potential of C-Tb compared with established tests in the contact-tracing setting. Negative controls, close contacts, occasional contacts, and patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis were enrolled at 13 centres in Spain. We compared C-Tb with the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube ([QFT] Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) interferon γ release assay (IGRA) and the purified protein derivative (PPD) RT 23 tuberculin skin test ([TST] Statens Serum Institute). All participants older than 5 years were tested with QFT. Some participants in the negative control group received C-Tb without the TST to test for potential interactions between C-Tb and PPD RT 23. The rest were randomly assigned in blocks of ten and tested with both C-Tb and TST, with five in each block receiving injection of C-Tb in the right arm and the TST in the left arm and five vice versa. The primary and safety analyses were done in all participants randomly assigned to a group who received any test. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01631266, and with EudraCT, number 2011-005617-36. From July 24, 2012, to Oct 2, 2014, 979 participants were enrolled, of whom 263 were negative controls, 299 were occasional contacts, 316 were close contacts, and 101 were patients with tuberculosis. 970 (99%) participants completed the trial. Induration sizes were similar for C-Tb and TST, but TST positivity was affected by BCG vaccination status. We found a strong positive trend towards C-Tb test positivity with increasing risk of infection, from 3% in negative controls to 16% in occasional contacts, to 43% in close contacts. C-Tb and QFT results were concordant in 785 (94%) of 834 participants aged 5 years and older

  12. Clinical evaluation of MPT-64 and MPT-59, two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for skin test reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcke, J T; Jensen, B N; Ravn, P

    1996-01-01

    : In a small scale clinical investigation, skin reactions to these antigens were compared to reactions to tuberculin PPD RT23 in 1) patients with active tuberculosis, 2) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects with close contact with tuberculous patients, and 3) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects without contact...... with tuberculous patients. Tests for in vitro reactivity to these antigens were carried out in similar groups. RESULTS: All subjects gave positive reaction to tuberculin PPD RT23, whereas approximately half of the subjects in each of the three groups reacted to MPT-59. Two subjects (one patient with tuberculosis...... and one healthy bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccinated subject without patient contact) reacted to MPT-64. The studies of cell proliferation and induction of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) following stimulation with tuberculin PPD and MPT-64 supported this profile of reactivity. CONCLUSION: None...

  13. Molecular signatures distinguishing active from latent tuberculosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, after in vitro antigenic stimulation with purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD) or Candida: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Joel N H; Keskin, Derin B; Romero, Viviana; Zuniga, Joaquin; Encinales, Liliana; Li, Changlin; Awad, Carlos; Yunis, Edmond J

    2009-01-01

    Purified protein derivative (PPD) or tuberculin skin testing is used to identify infected individuals with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and to assess cell-mediated immunity to Mtb. In the present study, we compared PBMC cultures in the presence of tuberculin or Candida antigens using cytokine bead arrays and RNA microarrays. Measurements of different cytokines and chemokines in supernatants of PMBC cultures in the presence of PPD showed increased levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma in active tuberculosis infection (ATBI) and latent TB infected (LTBI) compared to controls, and increased levels of TNF-alpha in ATBI compared with LTBI. Also, we found increase of IL-6 in cultures of PPD positive and controls but not in the cultures with Candida. We also report the molecular signature of tuberculosis infection, in ATBI patients, the following genes were found to be up-regulated and absent in LTBI individuals: two kinases (JAK3 and p38MAPK), four interleukins (IL-7, IL-2, IL-6, and IFNbeta1), a chemokine (HCC-4) a chemokine receptor (CxCR5), two interleukin receptors (IL-1R2 and IL-18R1), and three additional ones (TRAF5, Smad2, CIITA, and NOS2A). By contrast, IL-17 and IGFBP3 were significantly up-regulated in LTBI. And, STAT4, GATA3, Fra-1, and ICOS were down-regulated in ATBI but absent in LTBI. Conversely, TLR-10, IL-15, DORA, and IKK-beta were down-regulated in LTBI but not in ATBI. Interestingly, the majority of the up-regulated genes found in ATBI were found in cultures stimulated with tuberculin (PPD) or Candida antigens, suggesting that these pathogens stimulate similar immunological pathways. We believe that the molecular signature distinguishing active from latent tuberculosis infection may require using cytokine bead arrays along with RNA microarrays testing cell cultures at different times following in vitro proliferation assays using several bacterial antigens and PPD.

  14. Prevalence of Tuberculosis Infection Among Health-Care Workers in Hamadan, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The risk of occupationally acquired tuberculosis (TB remains a concern, even now that the infection has been under control to a great extent. Objectives The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of latent TB infection and pulmonary TB, and to assess the risk factors for TB, among health care workers in Hamadan. Patients and Methods Tuberculin skin test was performed on 245 health care workers, in two educational hospitals. The reaction was considered as "positive" if the induration diameter was ≥ 10 mm. Individuals with a positive test > than 15 mm were encouraged to seek further medical evaluation, including a chest-x-ray and a smear and sputum culture of the sputum for acid-fast bacilli, in those with radiographic changes indicating TB. Results Out of 245 health-care workers included in this study, 92 (38% had positive tuberculin test. There was a significant association between aging and tuberculin positivity. There was also a significant association between the length of employment and tuberculin positivity. Ward attendants had higher rates of positive test results, compared with other occupational groups. Conclusions It was concluded that latent TB infection is common among health-care workers in the studied region. Age, occupational group and employment length were found to be strongly associated with tuberculin positivity.

  15. Evaluación de la respuesta a la tuberculina en estudiantes del área de la salud Evaluation of the response to tuberculin among university students in the health field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Patricia Arbeláez M.

    2000-10-01

    . Tuberculin skin test reactivity was evaluated by the size of induration 72 hours after intradermal injection of two tuberculin units of purified protein derivative RT 23. There were no differences in tuberculin reactivity between students from the health programs and from the nonhealth programs, irrespective of the academic level. However, there was a significantly higher proportion of positive skin tests among students with a BCG scar. These results suggest that undergraduate health students do not have extensive contact with TB patients or with clinical samples from such patients. Nevertheless, the results do not rule out TB as an occupational risk for health personnel.

  16. Tuberculin purified protein derivative-reactive T cells in cord blood lymphocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Shiratsuchi, H; Tsuyuguchi, I

    1981-01-01

    Lymphocytes obtained from cord blood of newborn babies who were born of healthy mothers were studied in vitro for their responsiveness to purified protein derivative (PPD) of tuberculin. Cord blood lymphocytes proliferated in vitro by stimulation with PPD, despite wide variations in the results. Studies with fractionated lymphocytes revealed that PPD-responding cells belonged to E-rosetting, nylon wool-nonadherent T lymphocytes. Non-E-rosetting B lymphocytes alone did not proliferate at all a...

  17. Evaluation of the prognostic value of IFN-gamma release assay and tuberculin skin test in household contacts of infectious tuberculosis cases in Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lienhardt

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemoprophylaxis of contacts of infectious tuberculosis (TB cases is recommended for TB control, particularly in endemic countries, but is hampered by the difficulty to diagnose latent TB infection (LTBI, classically assessed through response to the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST. Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA are proposed new tools to diagnose LTBI, but there are limited data on their ability to predict the development of active TB disease. To address this, we investigated the response to TST and IGRA in household contacts of infectious TB cases in a TB high-burden country and the potential correlation with development of TB.Prospective household contacts study conducted in two health centres in Dakar, Senegal. A total of 2679 household contacts of 206 newly detected smear and/or culture positive index TB cases aged 18 years or greater were identified A TST was performed in each contact and an ESAT6/CFP10 ELISPOT assay performed in a random sample of those. Contacts were followed-up for 24 months. TB was diagnosed in 52 contacts, an incidence rate of 9.27/1000 person-years. In univariable analysis, the presence of positive TST (> or = 10 mm and ELISPOT (>32 SFC/million PBMC responses at baseline were associated with active TB during follow-up: Rate Ratio [RR] = 2.32 (95%CI:1.12-4.84 and RR = 2.09 (95%CI:0.83-5.31, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex and proximity to index case, adjusted RRs were 1.51 (95%CI:0.71-3.19 and 1.98 (95%CI:0.77-5.09, respectively. Restricting analysis to the 40 microbiologically confirmed cases, the adjusted RR for positive ELISPOT was 3.61 (95%CI:1.03-12.65. The median ELISPOT response in contacts who developed TB was 5-fold greater than in those who did not develop TB (p = 0.02.TST and IGRAs are markers of a contact of the immune system with tubercle bacilli. In a TB endemic area, a high ELISPOT response may reflect increased bacterial replication that may subsequently be associated with development of TB

  18. Tuberculin-purified protein derivative-, MPT-64-, and ESAT-6-stimulated gamma interferon responses in medical students before and after Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination and in patients with tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, P D; Stuart, R L; Grayson, M L

    1999-01-01

    QuantiFERON-TB (QIFN) (CSL Limited) is a whole-blood assay for the recognition of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. QIFN measures gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production when purified protein derivatives (PPDs) of mycobacteria are incubated with venous blood samples. The specificity...... of QIFN in medical students before and after BCG immunization was assessed, and sensitivity in patients with tuberculosis was assessed. Antigens were PPD derived from M. tuberculosis and two M. tuberculosis-specific proteins, ESAT-6 and MPT-64. Of 60 medical students, all of whom had 0-mm tuberculin skin...... tests (TSTs) at study entry, 58 (97%) were initially classified as negative for M. tuberculosis infection by PPD QIFN. Five months after BCG immunization, 7 of 54 students (13%) had a TST result of >/=10 mm and 11 of 54 students (20%) tested positive by PPD QIFN. ESAT-6- and MPT-64-stimulated IFN...

  19. Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Testing of Free-Ranging African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer Captured for Ex Situ Conservation in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is endemic in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer in some National Parks in Southern Africa, whilst no studies have been conducted on BTB on buffalo populations in Zambia. The increased demand for ecotourism and conservation of the African buffalo on private owned game ranches has prompted the Zambian Wildlife Authority (ZAWA and private sector in Zambia to generate a herd of “BTB-free buffaloes” for ex situ conservation. In the present study, 86 African buffaloes from four different herds comprising a total of 530 animals were investigated for the presence of BTB for the purpose of generating “BTB free” buffalo for ex-situ conservation. Using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT the BTB status at both individual animal and herd level was estimated to be 0.0% by the CIDT technique. Compared to Avian reactors only, a prevalence of 5.8% was determined whilst for Bovine-only reactors a prevalence of 0.0% was determined. These results suggest the likelihood of buffalo herds in the Kafue National Park being free of BTB.

  20. Ocular sarcoidosis masked by positive IgM for toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Bertazzo Peres

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We report a case of ocular sarcoidosis with positive immunoglobulin (Ig M and IgG serology for toxoplasmosis. The patient was a young female with red painful eyes, bilateral eyelid edema, and panuveitis with periphlebitis. In laboratory testing, she was IgM and IgG positive for toxoplasmosis and anergic in the tuberculin test. Topical treatment for anterior uveitis and oral antibiotics for toxoplasmosis were started, without improvement. Orbit tomography showed increased lacrimal glands bilaterally, and chest X-ray radiographic findings were consistent with pulmonary sarcoidosis, which supported the presumed ocular sarcoidosis diagnosis. The patient was treated with oral prednisone and methotrexate without antibiotics. She showed clinical and vision improvement without recurrences during the 1-year follow-up. Ocular sarcoidosis is an important differential diagnosis requiring careful anamnesis and ophthalmological examinations. Ancillary tests, such as X-ray radiography, tomography, and clinical and laboratory evaluations may help rule out other causes. Treatment mainly consists of corticosteroids and immunosuppression.

  1. Identification of proteins from tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsuk, Sibele; Newcombe, Jane; Mendum, Tom A; Dellagostin, Odir A; McFadden, Johnjoe

    2009-11-01

    The tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) is a widely used diagnostic antigen for tuberculosis, however it is poorly defined. Most mycobacterial proteins are extensively denatured by the procedure employed in its preparation, which explains previous difficulties in identifying constituents from PPD to characterize their behaviour in B- and T-cell reactions. We here described a proteomics-based characterization of PPD from several different sources by LC-MS/MS, which combines the solute separation power of HPLC, with the detection power of a mass spectrometer. The technique is able to identify proteins from complex mixtures of peptide fragments. A total of 171 different proteins were identified among the four PPD samples (two bovine PPD and two avium PPD) from Brazil and UK. The majority of the proteins were cytoplasmic (77.9%) and involved in intermediary metabolism and respiration (24.25%) but there was a preponderance of proteins involved in lipid metabolism. We identified a group of 21 proteins that are present in both bovine PPD but were not detected in avium PPD preparation. In addition, four proteins found in bovine PPD are absent in Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine strain. This study provides a better understanding of the tuberculin PPD components leading to the identification of additional antigens useful as reagents for specific diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  2. Tuberculin reactivity and tuberculosis epidemiology in the Pakaanóva (Wari') Indians of Rondônia, south-western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, A L; Coimbra, C E A; Camacho, L A B; Santos, R V

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of tuberculin skin test reactivity in the Pakaanóva Indians, in Amazonia, Brazil, after revaccination of all study participants with bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG). The investigation was designed as a post-BCG vaccination purified protein derivative (PPD) survey. Data included PPD readings, age, sex, nutritional status, place of residence, previous tuberculosis, physical examinations and BCG status. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. About 90% (n = 505) of the total population participated. One third (32.1%) of the subjects presented induration > or = 10 mm at 72 h. Induration sizes showed weak linear correlation with age; differences between sexes were not observed. Skin reaction was not associated with nutritional status. Individuals with a history of tuberculosis were six times more likely to test positive. History of tuberculosis, age, and previous BCG vaccination were significantly associated with PPD reactivity in the multivariate analyses. The Pakaanóva showed a high proportion (58.4%) of non-reactors, even with a recent BCG booster. Sex differences in PPD reactivity were either not present or could not be demonstrated. The association between age and PPD reactivity resembles that observed in other Amazonian populations. The authors discuss the potential of PPD testing as a screening tool to enhance tuberculosis detection, especially in indigenous populations in Amazonia with limited access to health services.

  3. Need for Different Cutoff Values for Reading Mantoux Test with 2TU and 5TU PPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaraj, Savitha M; Nagendra, K; Gopal, Girish; Majgi, Sumanth Mallikarjuna

    2017-09-01

    To compare the tuberculin reaction of 2 tuberculin unit (TU) with 5TU purified protein derivative (PPD) (both calibrated against RT 23) in healthy children. This was a cross sectional study done in the pediatric outpatient department of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Seventy healthy siblings of the children attending pediatric outpatient department in the age group of 1 to 12 y were enrolled. The exclusion criteria included previously diagnosed tuberculosis patients, malnutrition diagnosed according to the WHO classification, history of drug intake like steroids, recent history of measles, any skin lesions over forearm, history of fever, contact with tuberculosis and previous mantoux testing. The study was conducted wherein each child was subjected to simultaneous testing with 2TU and 5TU by standard technique. The reactions to both the tests was read at 48-72 h. Children with induration ≥10 mm were evaluated for tuberculosis by taking chest x-ray, gastric lavage or sputum smear examination for acid fast bacilli (AFB). Considering ≥10 mm induration as positive, subjects positive with 5TU were 7 (10%) and 2TU was 1(p value = 0.031); thus, there is no agreement between the two methods (McNemar's test). Comparing the mean diameter of induration of 2TU and 5TU (p PPD is not comparable to that of 5TU PPD.

  4. 9 CFR 77.34 - Official tuberculosis tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official tuberculosis tests. 77.34... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.34 Official tuberculosis tests. (a) Single cervical tuberculin (SCT) test. (1) The SCT test...

  5. The false positive exercise test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritani, Kohshiro; Matsuda, Yasuo; Ozaki, Masaharu; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Ichiyama, Masaji; Matsuda, Masako; Kusukawa, Reizo

    1986-01-01

    Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin were performed on 7 patients with true positive and 8 patients with false positive exercise test results. Four of 7 patients with true positive changes and 8 patients with false positive changes underwent exercise cardiac scintigraphy. Scintigrams showed perfusion defects in 4 patients with true positive outcomes, and no perfusion defect in 8 patients with false positive outcomes. Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin were performed with the same load as that without nitroglycerin. In all 7 patients with true positive exercise test results, ST segment depression observed in the control exercise test was not observed in the nitroglycerin exercise test. In the false positive patients, ST segment depression observed in the control exercise test remained unchanged in 7 of 8 patients receiving nitroglycerin. Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin as well as exercise cardiac scintigraphy are valuable tods in differentiating false positive from true positive patients. Furthermore, these data suggest that ST segment depression in the false positive patients may not be related to myocardial ischemia. (author)

  6. Detecting a low prevalence of latent tuberculosis among health care workers in Denmark detected by M. tuberculosis specific IFN-gamma whole-blood test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soborg, Bolette; Andersen, Aase B; Larsen, Helle K

    2007-01-01

    The study was designed to estimate prevalence of tuberculosis infection among health care workers, using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the new M. tuberculosis specific diagnostic whole-blood test and to identify possible risk factors. Employees at 2 departments of infectious diseases...... as the remaining 45 TST positive participants showed no sign of active tuberculous disease and were allocated to 6-month clinical follow-up, without medical therapy. Today, 1.5 y later, all remain healthy. The high rate of positive TST among health care workers was most probably due to BCG vaccination...

  7. A SKIN TEST FOR DETECTING GROUP C HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTION CAUSING EPIZOOTIC LYMPHADENITIS IN GUINEA PIGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Johannes K.

    1936-01-01

    1. A skin test with a crude bacterial extract prepared from group C (Lancefield) hemolytic streptococci was used as a means of detecting possible carriers of the streptococcus causing epizootic lymphadenitis in guinea pigs. A positive test similar to a positive tuberculin reaction was considered presumptive evidence of present or recent infection with this streptococcus. 2. 20 positive reactors were found in 330 supposedly normal guinea pigs. 3. 195 negatively reacting animals were used as a breeding stock which yielded 1,296 progeny over a period of 15 months. None of the breeding stock or their progeny showed evidence of spontaneous lymphadenitis. Skin tests of 100 of the progeny were all negative. 4. The use of this skin test as a means of obtaining guinea pig breeding stock free of the streptococcus causing spontaneous lymphadenitis is suggested. PMID:19870552

  8. Latent tuberculosis infection, tuberculin skin test and vitamin D status in contacts of tuberculosis patients: a cross-sectional and case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnedo-Pena Alberto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficient serum vitamin D levels have been associated with incidence of tuberculosis (TB, and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI. However, to our knowledge, no studies on vitamin D status and tuberculin skin test (TST conversion have been published to date. The aim of this study was to estimate the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D status with LTBI prevalence and TST conversion in contacts of active TB in Castellon (Spain. Methods The study was designed in two phases: cross-sectional and case-control. From November 2009 to October 2010, contacts of 42 TB patients (36 pulmonary, and 6 extra-pulmonary were studied in order to screen for TB. LTBI and TST conversion cases were defined following TST, clinical, analytic and radiographic examinations. Serum 25(OHD levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA on a COBAS® 410 ROCHE® analyzer. Logistic regression models were used in the statistical analysis. Results The study comprised 202 people with a participation rate of 60.1%. Only 20.3% of the participants had a sufficient serum 25(OHD (≥ 30 ng/ml level. In the cross-sectional phase, 50 participants had LTBI and no association between LTBI status and serum 25(OHD was found. After 2 months, 11 out of 93 negative LTBI participants, without primary prophylaxis, presented TST conversion with initial serum 25(OHD levels: a:19.4% (7/36: Conclusions The results suggest that sufficient serum 25(OHD levels protect against TST conversion.

  9. Diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: is the demise of the Mantoux test imminent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothel, James S; Andersen, Peter

    2005-12-01

    Tuberculosis is responsible for more then 2 million deaths worldwide each year and vies with HIV as the world's most fatal infectious disease. In many developing countries, attempts to control the spread of infection rely solely on identification and treatment of those with active disease, ignoring subclinical infection. However, in developed countries, large efforts are also expended to identify and give prophylactic drugs to people with latent tuberculosis infection. Until recently, the 100-year-old tuberculin skin test (Mantoux) has been the only available diagnostic test for latent tuberculosis infection, despite its many well-known limitations. Advances in scientific knowledge have led to the development of tests for tuberculosis that measure the production of interferon-gamma by T-cells stimulated in vitro with Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens. These interferon-gamma tests are highly specific and unaffected by prior Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination or immune reactivity to most atypical mycobacteria. They are more sensitive than the tuberculin skin test in detecting people with active tuberculosis, and their results correlate more closely with M. tuberculosis exposure risk factors than the tuberculin skin test in people likely to have latent tuberculosis infection. Science has caught up with one of the oldest diagnostic tests still in use worldwide, and the adoption of new, tuberculosis-specific interferon-gamma-based tests should move us one step closer to better control of this insidious pathogen.

  10. A SKIN TEST FOR DETECTING GROUP C HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTION CAUSING EPIZOOTIC LYMPHADENITIS IN GUINEA PIGS : APPLICATIONS IN SELECTING BREEDING STOCK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, J K

    1936-09-30

    1. A skin test with a crude bacterial extract prepared from group C (Lancefield) hemolytic streptococci was used as a means of detecting possible carriers of the streptococcus causing epizootic lymphadenitis in guinea pigs. A positive test similar to a positive tuberculin reaction was considered presumptive evidence of present or recent infection with this streptococcus. 2. 20 positive reactors were found in 330 supposedly normal guinea pigs. 3. 195 negatively reacting animals were used as a breeding stock which yielded 1,296 progeny over a period of 15 months. None of the breeding stock or their progeny showed evidence of spontaneous lymphadenitis. Skin tests of 100 of the progeny were all negative. 4. The use of this skin test as a means of obtaining guinea pig breeding stock free of the streptococcus causing spontaneous lymphadenitis is suggested.

  11. Detecting a low prevalence of latent tuberculosis among health care workers in Denmark detected by M. tuberculosis specific IFN-gamma whole-blood test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soborg, Bolette; Andersen, Aase B; Larsen, Helle K

    2007-01-01

    The study was designed to estimate prevalence of tuberculosis infection among health care workers, using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the new M. tuberculosis specific diagnostic whole-blood test and to identify possible risk factors. Employees at 2 departments of infectious diseases...... as the remaining 45 TST positive participants showed no sign of active tuberculous disease and were allocated to 6-month clinical follow-up, without medical therapy. Today, 1.5 y later, all remain healthy. The high rate of positive TST among health care workers was most probably due to BCG vaccination...... TST whereas only 2 of 139 (1%) had a positive QuantiFERON TB-Gold test (QFT-TB). 42 of 106 (40%) BCG vaccinated had positive TST (> or =12 mm) compared with 2 of 27 (7%) unvaccinated persons. Among 47 persons with positive TST, 42 (89%) were BCG- vaccinated. The 2 QFT-TB positive participants as well...

  12. Quantiferon test for tuberculosis screening in sarcoidosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Søborg, Bolette; Svendsen, Claus Bo

    2011-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors have been introduced in the treatment of refractory sarcoidosis. These biologics may reactivate latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Despite its known limitations, the tuberculin skin test (TST) is currently used for the diagnosis of LTBI in Danish...

  13. Teste tuberculínico. Como optimizar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Duarte

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Os testes utilizados no diagnóstico de infecção latente pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, o teste tuberculínico e o doseamento do interferão gama (IGRA identificam a existência de uma resposta imunológica adaptativa de memória contra os antigénios micobacterianos. Considerando as limitações dos dois testes, a melhor solução passa por tirar proveito das melhores características de cada um. A maior parte dos autores concorda com a utilização dos dois testes, utilizando os IGRA sobretudo na confirmação da positividade do teste tuberculínico (tirando proveito da sua maior especificidade.As características operativas do teste tuberculínico dependem da prevalência da doença na comunidade e dos objectivos da sua realização (as suas características são superiores quando utilizada no âmbito de rastreio ou como teste diagnóstico. Para interpretar correctamente um teste tuberculínico, o clínico deve conhecer a epidemiologia da tuberculose na comunidade e definir correctamente as indicações para a sua realização. Abstract: The tests used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis latent infection, the tuberculin skin test (TST and the interferon-gamma assays (IGRA, identify the existence of an adaptive immune response towards mycobacterial antigens. Considering the limitations of the two tests, the best solution is to take advantage of the best characteristics of each one. Most of the authors agree to the use of the two tests, using the IGRAS in the confirmation of a positive TST (because of its higher specificity. The operative characteristics of TST depend on the prevalence of the illness in the community and the aim of its use (its operative characteristics are higher when used in the tracing scope or as a diagnostic test. To interpret correctly a TST, the physician must know the epidemiology of tuberculosis in the community and correctly define the indications for its use. Palavras-chave: Tuberculose, teste tubercul

  14. Assessment of a Protein Cocktail-Based Skin Test for Bovine Tuberculosis in a Double-Blind Field Test in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ting; Jia, Hong; Ding, Jiabo; Li, Pingjun; Yang, Hongjun; Hou, Shaohua; Yuan, Weifeng; Guo, Xiaoyu; Wang, Haichun; Liang, Qianqian; Li, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a worldwide zoonosis caused mainly by Mycobacterium bovis. The traditional diagnostic method used often is the tuberculin skin test, which uses bovine purified protein derivatives (PPD-B). However, it is difficult to maintain uniformity of PPD-B from batch to batch, and it shares common antigens with nonpathogenic environmental mycobacteria. To overcome these problems, M. bovis-specific antigens that showed good T cell stimulation, such as CFP-10, ESAT-6, Rv3615c, etc., have been used in the skin test, but there have been no large-scale clinical studies on these antigens. In this study, two combinations (CFP-10/ESAT-6/TB10.4 protein cocktail and CFP-10/ESAT-6/Rv3872/MPT63 protein cocktail) were developed and used as stimuli in the skin test. Cattle were double-blind tested to assess the efficiency of the protein cocktail-based skin tests. The results showed that the CFP-10/ESAT-6/TB10.4 protein cocktail-based skin test can differentiate TB-infected cattle from Mycobacterium avium-infected ones and that it shows a high degree of agreement with the traditional tuberculin skin test (κ = 0.8536) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay (κ = 0.8154). Compared to the tuberculin skin test, the relative sensitivity and relative specificity of the CFP-10/ESAT-6/TB10.4-based skin test were 87% and 97%, respectively., The relative sensitivity and relative specificity of the CFP-10/ESAT-6/TB10.4-based skin test were 93% and 92%, respectively, on comparison with the IFN-γ release assay. The correlation between the increases in skin thickness observed after the inoculation of stimuli was high (PPD-B versus CFP-10/ESAT-6/TB10.4, Spearman r of 0.8435). The correlation between the optical density at 450 nm (OD450) obtained after blood stimulation with PPD-B and the increase in skin thickness observed after inoculation of the CFP-10/ESAT-6/TB10.4 protein cocktail was high (Spearman r = 0.7335). Therefore, the CFP-10/ESAT-6/TB10.4-based skin test

  15. Serial QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay and tuberculin skin test to diagnose latent tuberculosis in household Mexican contacts: conversion and reversion rates and associated factors using conventional and borderline zone definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Monárrez-Espino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A cohort of 123 adult contacts was followed for 18‐24 months (86 completed the follow-up to compare conversion and reversion rates based on two serial measures of QuantiFERON (QFT and tuberculin skin test (TST (PPD from TUBERSOL, Aventis Pasteur, Canada for diagnosing latent tuberculosis (TB in household contacts of TB patients using conventional (C and borderline zone (BZ definitions. Questionnaires were used to obtain information regarding TB exposure, TB risk factors and socio-demographic data. QFT (IU/mL conversion was defined as 0.70 (BZ and reversion was defined as ≥0.35 to 10 (BZ and reversion was defined as ≥5 to <5 (C. The QFT conversion and reversion rates were 10.5% and 7% with C and 8.1% and 4.7% with the BZ definitions, respectively. The TST rates were higher compared with QFT, especially with the C definitions (conversion 23.3%, reversion 9.3%. The QFT conversion and reversion rates were higher for TST ≥5; for TST, both rates were lower for QFT <0.35. No risk factors were associated with the probability of converting or reverting. The inconsistency and apparent randomness of serial testing is confusing and adds to the limitations of these tests and definitions to follow-up close TB contacts.

  16. Risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in low incidence regions related to the movements of cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains difficult to eradicate from low incidence regions partly due to the imperfect sensitivity and specificity of routine intradermal tuberculin testing. Herds with unconfirmed reactors that are incorrectly classified as bTB-negative may be at risk of spreading disease, while those that are incorrectly classified as bTB-positive may be subject to costly disease eradication measures. This analysis used data from Scotland in the period leading to Officially Tuberculosis Free recognition (1) to investigate the risks associated with the movements of cattle from herds with different bTB risk classifications and (2) to identify herd demographic characteristics that may aid in the interpretation of tuberculin testing results. Results From 2002 to 2009, for every herd with confirmed bTB positive cattle identified through routine herd testing, there was an average of 2.8 herds with at least one unconfirmed positive reactor and 18.9 herds with unconfirmed inconclusive reactors. Approximately 75% of confirmed bTB positive herds were detected through cattle with no known movements outside Scotland. At the animal level, cattle that were purchased from Scottish herds with unconfirmed positive reactors and a recent history importing cattle from endemic bTB regions were significantly more likely to react positively on routine intradermal tuberculin tests, while cattle purchased from Scottish herds with unconfirmed inconclusive reactors were significantly more likely to react inconclusively. Case-case comparisons revealed few demographic differences between herds with confirmed positive, unconfirmed positive, and unconfirmed inconclusive reactors, which highlights the difficulty in determining the true disease status of herds with unconfirmed tuberculin reactors. Overall, the risk of identifying reactors through routine surveillance decreased significantly over time, which may be partly attributable to changes in movement testing regulations

  17. Clinical evaluation of MPT-64 and MPT-59, two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for skin test reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcke, J T; Jensen, B N; Ravn, P

    1996-01-01

    and one healthy bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccinated subject without patient contact) reacted to MPT-64. The studies of cell proliferation and induction of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) following stimulation with tuberculin PPD and MPT-64 supported this profile of reactivity. CONCLUSION: None...... of the experimental skin test antigens had properties superior to tuberculin PPD RT23 in humans. The failure of MPT-64 to induce delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in the majority of tuberculosis patients is discussed, in view of the potent reactivity to MPT-64 in tuberculous guinea pigs....

  18. Assessment of the respiratory metabolism in the skin from transcutaneous measurements of pO2 and pCO2: potential for non-invasive monitoring of response to tuberculin skin testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbot, N C; Spence, V A; Swanson-Beck, J; Carnochan, F M; Gibbs, J H; Lowe, J G

    1990-03-01

    A method is described for non-invasive transcutaneous (tc) measurement of tissue respiratory gas tensions in the skin on the forearm for study of delayed hypersensitivity reactions in man. Steady state values for tcpO2 and tcpCO2 were measured, and the skin respiratory rate (oxygen consumption) and the tissue pH were estimated from the changes in tcpO2 and tcpCO2 observed after interruption of the arterial circulation by cuff occlusion for 4 minutes. The extent of within-experiment and between subject variation in the steady-state measurements was not great (coefficient of variation 10%): tcpCO2.ss (steady state) was higher in men and tcpO2.ss was higher in women, but the extent of these sex differences was also small. Reference ranges have been established for tc measurements and calculated indices of tissue respiration in the undisturbed forearm skin of normal volunteers, against which the changes induced by tuberculin testing can be assessed. Severe changes, indicative of profound hypoxia and acidosis, are seen in intense delayed hypersensitivity reactions. Similar, but less severe changes were seen at the site of skin tests on BCG-vaccinated subjects who were 'negative' by conventional criteria of measurement of dermal induration and they became greatly exaggerated after successful re-vaccination. Intradermal injection of saline did not induce hypoxia or local acidosis. These new methods are very sensitive indicators of the tissue response in the DHS reaction.

  19. Optimization and Interpretation of Serial QuantiFERON Testing to Measure Acquisition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, Elisa; Rozot, Virginie; Geldenhuys, Hennie; Bilek, Nicole; Mabwe, Simbarashe; Abrahams, Deborah; Makhethe, Lebohang; Erasmus, Mzwandile; Keyser, Alana; Toefy, Asma; Cloete, Yolundi; Ratangee, Frances; Blauenfeldt, Thomas; Ruhwald, Morten; Walzl, Gerhard; Smith, Bronwyn; Loxton, Andre G; Hanekom, Willem A; Andrews, Jason R; Lempicki, Maria D; Ellis, Ruth; Ginsberg, Ann M; Hatherill, Mark; Scriba, Thomas J

    2017-09-01

    Conversion from a negative to positive QuantiFERON-TB test is indicative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, which predisposes individuals to tuberculosis disease. Interpretation of serial tests is confounded by immunological and technical variability. To improve the consistency of serial QuantiFERON-TB testing algorithms and provide a data-driven definition of conversion. Sources of QuantiFERON-TB variability were assessed, and optimal procedures were identified. Distributions of IFN-γ response levels were analyzed in healthy adolescents, Mtb-unexposed control subjects, and patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Individuals with no known Mtb exposure had IFN-γ values less than 0.2 IU/ml. Among individuals with IFN-γ values less than 0.2 IU/ml, 0.2-0.34 IU/ml, 0.35-0.7 IU/ml, and greater than 0.7 IU/ml, tuberculin skin test positivity results were 15%, 53%, 66%, and 91% (P 0.7 IU/ml) would allow more definitive detection of recent Mtb infection and potentially improve identification of those more likely to develop disease.

  20. Potential for false positive HIV test results with the serial rapid HIV testing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baveewo, Steven; Kamya, Moses R; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Fatch, Robin; Bangsberg, David R; Coates, Thomas; Hahn, Judith A; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2012-03-19

    Rapid HIV tests provide same-day results and are widely used in HIV testing programs in areas with limited personnel and laboratory infrastructure. The Uganda Ministry of Health currently recommends the serial rapid testing algorithm with Determine, STAT-PAK, and Uni-Gold for diagnosis of HIV infection. Using this algorithm, individuals who test positive on Determine, negative to STAT-PAK and positive to Uni-Gold are reported as HIV positive. We conducted further testing on this subgroup of samples using qualitative DNA PCR to assess the potential for false positive tests in this situation. Of the 3388 individuals who were tested, 984 were HIV positive on two consecutive tests, and 29 were considered positive by a tiebreaker (positive on Determine, negative on STAT-PAK, and positive on Uni-Gold). However, when the 29 samples were further tested using qualitative DNA PCR, 14 (48.2%) were HIV negative. Although this study was not primarily designed to assess the validity of rapid HIV tests and thus only a subset of the samples were retested, the findings show a potential for false positive HIV results in the subset of individuals who test positive when a tiebreaker test is used in serial testing. These findings highlight a need for confirmatory testing for this category of individuals.

  1. Evaluation of Serodiagnostic Assays for Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Elk, White-Tailed Deer, and Reindeer in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the United States Department of Agriculture conducted a project in which elk (Cervus elaphus spp., white-tailed deer (WTD (Odocoileus virginianus, and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus were evaluated by the single cervical tuberculin test (SCT, comparative cervical tuberculin test (CCT, and serologic tests. The rapid antibody detection tests evaluated were the CervidTB Stat-Pak (Stat-Pak, and the Dual Path Platform VetTB (DPP. Blood was collected from presumably uninfected animals prior to tuberculin injection for the SCT. A total of 1,783 animals were enrolled in the project. Of these, 1,752 (98.3% were classified as presumably uninfected, based on originating from a captive cervid herd with no history of exposure to TB. Stat-Pak specificity estimates were 92.4% in reindeer, 96.7% in WTD, and 98.3% in elk and were not significantly different from SCT specificity estimates. Using the DPP in series on Stat-Pak antibody-positive samples improved specificity in the three species. Thirty one animals were classified as confirmed infected, based on necropsy and laboratory results, and 27/31 were antibody positive on Stat-Pak for an estimated sensitivity of 87.1%. The study findings indicate that rapid serologic tests used in series are comparable to the SCT and CCT and may have a greater ability to detect TB-infected cervids.

  2. Potential for false positive HIV test results with the serial rapid HIV testing algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baveewo Steven

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid HIV tests provide same-day results and are widely used in HIV testing programs in areas with limited personnel and laboratory infrastructure. The Uganda Ministry of Health currently recommends the serial rapid testing algorithm with Determine, STAT-PAK, and Uni-Gold for diagnosis of HIV infection. Using this algorithm, individuals who test positive on Determine, negative to STAT-PAK and positive to Uni-Gold are reported as HIV positive. We conducted further testing on this subgroup of samples using qualitative DNA PCR to assess the potential for false positive tests in this situation. Results Of the 3388 individuals who were tested, 984 were HIV positive on two consecutive tests, and 29 were considered positive by a tiebreaker (positive on Determine, negative on STAT-PAK, and positive on Uni-Gold. However, when the 29 samples were further tested using qualitative DNA PCR, 14 (48.2% were HIV negative. Conclusion Although this study was not primarily designed to assess the validity of rapid HIV tests and thus only a subset of the samples were retested, the findings show a potential for false positive HIV results in the subset of individuals who test positive when a tiebreaker test is used in serial testing. These findings highlight a need for confirmatory testing for this category of individuals.

  3. Tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) immunoassay as an in vitro alternative assay for identity and confirmation of potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mei M; Kairo, Satnam K; Corbel, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) currently can only be standardised by delayed hypersensitivity skin reactions in sensitised guinea pigs. An in vitro dot blot immunoassay was developed for both identity and confirmation of potency estimation of PPD. Polyclonal antibodies (mainly IgG) were generated and immunoreacted with human, bovine and, to lesser extent, avian PPD preparations. Combining size exclusion chromatography (FPLC-SEC) and dot blot immunoassay, the results showed that PPD preparations were mixtures of very heterogeneous tuberculoproteins ranging in size from very large aggregates to very small degraded molecules. All individual fractions of PPD separated by size were immunoreactive, although those of the largest molecular sizes appeared the most immunoreactive in this in vitro dot blot immunoassay. This method is very sensitive and specific to tuberculoproteins and can be an in vitro alternative for the in vivo intradermal skin assay which uses guinea pigs for identity of PPD preparations. Although the capacity of PPD to elicit cell-mediated immune responses on intradermal testing has to be confirmed by in vivo assay, the dot blot immunoassay offers a rapid, sensitive and animal-free alternative to in vivo testing for confirming the identity of PPD preparations with appropriate potencies. This alternative assay would be particularly useful for national regulatory laboratories for confirming the data of manufacturers and thus reducing the use of animals.

  4. Concordancia de las pruebas de tuberculina e Interferón gamma en población reclusa Concordance of tuberculin tests and Interferon gamma release assays in the prison population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marco Mouriño

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estudiar en población penitenciaria la concordancia de la prueba de la tuberculina (PT y las pruebas de interferón gamma (IFG. Material y métodos: Estudio prospectivo realizado en una prisión en mayo-junio de 2009. Se estudian los ingresos sin antecedente de tuberculosis (TB o con PT previa negativa o no realizada. Se realizó IDR de Mantoux (positivo ³ 10 mm y extracción sanguínea para prueba de IFG (QuantiFERON®-TB Gold. En los infectados, se realizó despistaje de TB. Se pasó un cuestionario y se solicitó consentimiento informado. El estudio fue aprobado por un Comité ético ajeno a instituciones penitenciarias. La concordancia entre PT e IFG se basó en el índice Kappa. Resultados: Se incluyeron 181 casos. El 62% eran extranjeros, el 17% vacunados por BCG, el 8,4% UDI y el 4% VIH+. En los extranjeros había más vacunados, menos UDI y menos infectados por VIH que en autóctonos (p=0,02, p=0,02, y p=0,01, respectivamente. La PT fue positiva en el 24% y la IFG en el 26%. Hubo información de ambas en 149 (82% casos. El 15,8% fueron discordantes. El índice Kappa fue de 0,6 (0,4-0,7. La concordancia varió según subgrupos, siendo mayor en autóctonos (kappa= 0,8 y menor en vacunados (kappa=0,4 e inmigrantes (kappa=0,5. Conclusión: La concordancia global fue moderada-buena, pero en vacunados e inmigrantes fue menor. El nivel de discordancia aconseja ampliar el estudio, así como evaluar que prueba predice mejor el riesgo de progresión a TB y el coste-beneficio de ambas en la población reclusa de nuestro país.Objective: To study the agreement of Tuberculin Skin Tests (TST and Interferon Gamma Release Assays (IGRA when screening tuberculosis infection amongst inmates recently admitted to prison. Materials and methods: Prospective study conducted in a prison during the months of May and June 2009. Inmates without a TB history, with previous TST negatives or without prior TSTs were included. Participants signed an

  5. Latent tuberculosis infection in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection: comparison of tuberculin skin test to the anti TB-IgM antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvi, S.M.; Nadimi, M.; Shokri, S.; Zamani, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    To determine Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) prevalence and compare TST results to the anti TB-IgM anti bodies (ATIA) for the diagnosis of LTBI in HIV infected individuals. Sixty two randomized sampled HIV infected subjects from an addict treatment center in Ahvaz southwest Iran underwent TST, using 5 TU of purified protein derivative, and measuring ATIA. Data were analyzed in SPSS (version 16, USA). Of 62 participants, 34 (54.8%) had positive result for TST, whereas 6(9.7%) had positive ATIA. Overall concordance between TST and ATIA was 45.2% (Kappa= 0.37, P = 0.32). In subjects with positive test results by either TST or ATIA, only 4.8% had positive test results by both tests. Discordant results were found in 54.8% of subjects. Positive results for both tests in subjects categorized in two groups (above and below 200 CD4-cell/mm3) had no significant difference (P>0.05). LTBI prevalence among HIV infected individuals in studied area is higher than other parts of the world. TST is a useful test for LTBI diagnosis and prefer to ATIA. Concordance between TST and ATIA is low. (author)

  6. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Undetected by Tuberculin Skin Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. T.; Williams, A. J.; Brown, J. R.; Newton, S. M.; Šimšová, Marcela; Nicol, M. P.; Šebo, Peter; Levin, M.; Wilkinson, R. J.; Wilkinson, K. A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 173, - (2006), s. 1038-1042 ISSN 1073-449X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020406 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : adenylate cyclase * diagnostic tests and procedures * mycobacterium tuberculosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.091, year: 2006

  7. Tuberculosis Screening on a Health Science Campus: Use of QuantiFERON-TB Gold Test for Students and Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeser, Peggy Ingram; Smith, Phillip Karl; Handy, Barry; Martin, Sharon R.

    2007-01-01

    Detecting and managing "Mycobacterium tuberculosis" (TB) infection in a health-science center population is a clinical dilemma. Tuberculin skin tests are still the preferred method for detecting present or past infection of TB. The authors discuss the performance of whole blood interferon gamma release assay test commercially known as…

  8. Comparison of interferon-γ release assay to two cut-off points of tuberculin skin test to detect latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in primary health care workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Mattos de Souza

    Full Text Available An interferon-γ release assay, QuantiFERON-TB (QFT test, has been introduced an alternative test for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI. Here, we compared the performance of QFT with tuberculin skin test (TST measured at two different cut-off points among primary health care work (HCW in Brazil.A cross-sectional study was carried out among HCWs in four Brazilian cities with a known history of high incidence of TB. Results of the QFT were compared to TST results based on both ≥5 mm and ≥10 mm as cut-off points.We enrolled 632 HCWs. When the cut-off value of ≥10 mm was used, agreement between QFT and TST was 69% (k = 0.31, and when the cut-off of ≥5 mm was chosen, the agreement was 57% (k = 0.22. We investigated possible factors of discordance of TST vs QFT. Compared to the TST-/QFT- group, risk factors for discordance in the TST+/QFT- group with TST cut-off of ≥5 mm included age between 41-45 years [OR = 2.70; CI 95%: 1.32-5.51] and 46-64 years [OR = 2.04; CI 95%: 1.05-3.93], BCG scar [OR = 2.72; CI 95%: 1.40-5.25], and having worked only in primary health care [OR = 2.30; CI 95%: 1.09-4.86]. On the other hand, for the cut-off of ≥10 mm, BCG scar [OR = 2.26; CI 95%: 1.03-4.91], being a household contact of a TB patient [OR = 1.72; CI 95%: 1.01-2.92] and having had a previous TST [OR = 1.66; CI 95%: 1.05-2.62], were significantly associated with the TST+/QFT- group. No statistically significant associations were found among the TST-/QFT+ discordant group with either TST cut-off value.Although we identified BCG vaccination to contribute to the discordance at both TST cut-off measures, the current Brazilian recommendation for the initiation of LTBI treatment, based on information gathered from medical history, TST, chest radiograph and physical examination, should not be changed.

  9. Comparison of interferon-γ release assay to two cut-off points of tuberculin skin test to detect latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in primary health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fernanda Mattos; do Prado, Thiago Nascimento; Pinheiro, Jair dos Santos; Peres, Renata Lyrio; Lacerda, Thamy Carvalho; Loureiro, Rafaela Borge; Carvalho, Jose Américo; Fregona, Geisa; Dias, Elias Santos; Cosme, Lorrayne Beliqui; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Riley, Lee Wood; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2014-01-01

    An interferon-γ release assay, QuantiFERON-TB (QFT) test, has been introduced an alternative test for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Here, we compared the performance of QFT with tuberculin skin test (TST) measured at two different cut-off points among primary health care work (HCW) in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out among HCWs in four Brazilian cities with a known history of high incidence of TB. Results of the QFT were compared to TST results based on both ≥5 mm and ≥10 mm as cut-off points. We enrolled 632 HCWs. When the cut-off value of ≥10 mm was used, agreement between QFT and TST was 69% (k = 0.31), and when the cut-off of ≥5 mm was chosen, the agreement was 57% (k = 0.22). We investigated possible factors of discordance of TST vs QFT. Compared to the TST-/QFT- group, risk factors for discordance in the TST+/QFT- group with TST cut-off of ≥5 mm included age between 41-45 years [OR = 2.70; CI 95%: 1.32-5.51] and 46-64 years [OR = 2.04; CI 95%: 1.05-3.93], BCG scar [OR = 2.72; CI 95%: 1.40-5.25], and having worked only in primary health care [OR = 2.30; CI 95%: 1.09-4.86]. On the other hand, for the cut-off of ≥10 mm, BCG scar [OR = 2.26; CI 95%: 1.03-4.91], being a household contact of a TB patient [OR = 1.72; CI 95%: 1.01-2.92] and having had a previous TST [OR = 1.66; CI 95%: 1.05-2.62], were significantly associated with the TST+/QFT- group. No statistically significant associations were found among the TST-/QFT+ discordant group with either TST cut-off value. Although we identified BCG vaccination to contribute to the discordance at both TST cut-off measures, the current Brazilian recommendation for the initiation of LTBI treatment, based on information gathered from medical history, TST, chest radiograph and physical examination, should not be changed.

  10. Development and optimization of an ESAT6-ELISA-based detection system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, suitable for bovine TB eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Keshavarz

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Performing the ELISA test based on ESAT-6 antigen shows that this test can be a suitable way for screening beside the tuberculin test for accurate detection. It is noticed that the specificity of the ELISA test was determined more than the tuberculin test, especially since the culture and PCR are gold standards. Therefore, incorrect sampling can change the specificity of the tuberculin test. The results of this kit can encourage designing of an ELISA kit for the detection of human TB.

  11. Ensaio da padronização no homem da reacção de Mantoux usando 2 UT da tuberculina RT23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Brum

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: No nosso país são actualmente utilizadas diversas tuberculinas administradas em doses variáveis, pelo que procedemos à avaliação do padrâo de reactividade à tuberculina RT23 (State Serum Institute, Copenhaga na população portuguesa. Usámos para essa investigação 2 unidades tuberculínicas (UT de tuberculiua RT23.A população controlo·foi constituida por 357 reerutas militares vacinados pelo BCG, tendo a reacção de Mantoux sido positiva em 15,4%.Foram igualmente estudados 193 doentes com tubcrculose pulmonar, dos quais 160 seronegativos para o VIM. em que a reacção de Mantoux foi positiva em 73.1% reafirmando o valor desta prova on confirmação da infecção tuberculosa.Nos 33 doentes com tuberclose seropositive para o VIH somente em 42,4% houve positividade na reacção de Mantoux, o que ven confirmar a perda de reactividade à tuberculina neste grupo de doentes. ABSTRACT: We evaluated tile tuberculin reaction using 2 UT of RT23 (Stale Serum Institute, Copnhagen in 357 portuguese army recruits and 193 pulmonary tuberculosis patient. The Mantuox test was positive in 15,4 of the army control group, in spite of all them being BCG vaccinated as newborns.In the 160 pulmonary tuberculous patients HIV seronegative the Mantoux test was positive in 73,1 %. This value varied accordiug to the severity or the illness, from 81,2% in the minimal and moderate forms to 7,3% in the severe cases. The tuberculin test was positive·in only 42,4% of the 33 pulmonary tuberculous patients HIV seropositive.We recommended the administration of 2 UT of RT 23 for tuberculin testing in the survey of tuberculous infection in Portugal Palavras-chave: Reacção à tuberculina, RT23, Tuberculose, SIDA, Key-words: Tuberculin reaction, RT23, Tuberculosis, AIDS

  12. The influence of body position on Bielschowsky's test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Souza-Dias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the veracity of Jampolsky's statement that Bielschowsky's head tilt test is inverted if performed with the patient in the upside-down position and to interpret its neuromuscular mechanism. Methods: We present a series of 10 patients selected from a referred sample who were diagnosed with superior oblique paresis. Hypertropia was measured in the primary position, with the head erect and tilted toward both shoulders with the patient in the erect, supine, and upside-down positions. The last position was achieved by hanging the patient upside-down. Results: As expected, our results showed the veracity of Jampolsky's statement. The forced head tilt difference was inverted or significantly decreased when the test was performed in the upside-down position. Moreover, in all patients, Bielschowsky's phenomenon was neutralized in the supine body position, in which hypertropia with the head erect tended to vanish. In 3 patients, it disappeared completely. Conclusions: This study showed that, in patients with superior oblique paresis, differences in the extent of hypertropia in Bielschowsky's test tended to vanish when the test was performed with the patient in the supine position and invert when it was performed with the patient in the upside-down position.

  13. The navicular position test - a reliable measure of the navicular bone position during rest and loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spörndly-Nees, Søren; Dåsberg, Brian; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2011-01-01

    .08 degrees, ICC = 0.91. Discussion: The present data support The Navicular Position Test as a reliable test of the navicular bone position during rest and loading measured in a simple test set-up. Conclusion: The Navicular Position Test was shown to have a high intraday-, intra- and inter-tester reliability...

  14. Immunotherapy in viral warts with intradermal Bacillus Calmette–Guerin vaccine versus intradermal tuberculin purified protein derivative: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing effectiveness and safety in a tertiary care center in Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrashis Podder

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Both intradermal Bacillus Calmette–Guerin and tuberculin purified protein derivative hold promise in the treatment of viral warts. Bacillus Calmette–Guerin may be more effective, though it had more adverse events in our study.

  15. Mycobacterium kansasii Isolated from Tuberculinpositive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the Absence of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Steven T; Johnson, David K; Roodgar, Morteza; Smith, David Glenn; Montgomery, Charles A; Lloyd, Steven M; Higgins, James A; Kriel, Edwin H; Klein, Hilton J; Porter, William P; Nazareno, Jerome B; Houghton, Paul W; Panda, Aruna; DeTolla, Louis J

    2017-08-01

    Mycobacterial infections are of primary health concern in NHP colonies in biomedical research. NHP are constantly monitored and screened for Mycobacterium spp. We report 6 Chinese-origin rhesus macaques infected with Mycobacterium kansasii that exhibited positive tuberculin skin tests in the absence of disease. Two of these macaques were being used for research purposes; the remaining 4 macaques were residing at the contract quarantine company. Histopathology and acid-fast staining of fixed tissues from all macaques showed that all were free of disease. Thoracic radiographs were negative for any signs of disease or infection. Samples from bronchial lavage and tissues including lung, spleen, hilar and mesenteric lymph nodes tested negative by PCR assay for Mycobacterium spp. One of the research macaques tested culture-positive for M. kansasii and a poorly characterized M. avium complex organism. One macaque from the contract quarantine facility tested culture positive for M. kansasii. Genomic testing and target gene RNA expression analysis of the 2 M. kansasii isolates were performed to evaluate possible kinship and affected genes that might contribute to susceptibility to mycobacterial infection. Genotyping of the 2 isolates revealed 2 genetically distinct strains (strains 1 and 4). The presence of positive tuberculin skin tests in the absence of disease raises serious concerns regarding diagnostic methods used for infected NHP.

  16. Dual skin tests with Mycobacterium avium sensitin and PPD to detect misdiagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E M; O'Donnell, M; Chamblee, S; Horsburgh, C R; Marsh, B J; Moreland, J D; Johnson, L S; von Reyn, C Fordham

    2011-11-01

    A positive tuberculin skin test (TST) may indicate cross-reacting immunity to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and not latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). To assess misclassification of LTBI, as assessed by skin testing with Mycobacterium avium sensitin (MaS), and to determine how this misclassification affects the analysis of risk factors for LTBI. In a population-based survey, participants underwent skin testing with M. tuberculosis purified protein derivative (PPD) and MaS. A PPD-dominant skin test was a reaction that was ≥ 3 mm larger than the MaS reaction; a MaS-dominant skin test was a reaction that was ≥ 3 mm larger than the PPD reaction. Of 447 randomly selected persons, 135 (30%) had a positive PPD test. Of these, 21 (16%) were MaS- dominant, and were therefore attributable to NTM and misclassified as LTBI. PPD reactions of 5-14 mm were more likely to be misclassified than those ≥ 15 mm (OR = 5.0, 95%CI 1.9-13.2). Adjusting for misclassification had only a small impact on the analysis of risk factors for LTBI. A substantial number of individuals who are diagnosed with LTBI are actually sensitized to NTM. Using dual skin testing would reduce misdiagnosis and prevent unnecessary treatment.

  17. Delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test responses to PPD and other antigens among BCG-vaccinated HIV-1-infected and healthy children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Natalia Moriya Xavierda; Albuquerque, Maly de; Lins, Janaína Bacelar Acioli; Alvares-Junior, João Teixeira; Stefani, Mariane Martins de Araújo

    2011-10-01

    Among HIV-1-infected patients, CD4+ T cell counts are well-established markers of cell-mediated immunity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin tests can be used to evaluate in vivo cell-mediated immunity to common antigens. DTH responses to tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD), sporotrichin, trichophytin, candidin and streptokinase/streptodornase antigens were assessed. Thirty-six HIV-1-infected children/adolescents and 56 age- and sex-matched HIV-1/HIV-2-seronegative participants were tested. All participants had a BCG scar. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate significant differences between groups (pPPD positivity prevailed among healthy participants (40/56, 71.4%). PPD reactivity in the HIV-1-positive group was 8.3% (pPPD induration was 2.5mm (range: 2-5mm) in the HIV-1 group and 6.0 mm among healthy participants (range: 3-15 mm). There was no correlation between PPD positivity and age. No correlation between CD4+ T cell counts and DTH reactivity was observed among HIV-1-infected patients. DTH skin test responses, including PPD reactivity, were significantly lower among HIV-1-infected participants compared to healthy controls, which likely reflects advanced disease and T cell depletion.

  18. Prevailence of Patch Test Positivity with Some Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the suitability of some chemicals to act as bases for antigens for patch tests, patch tests were performed with these agents in patients having contact dermatitis. Propylene glycol′used as such produced positive reactions in 25 (50% patients of which 12 were 2 + or more, polyethylene glycol 200 produced positive reactions in 9 (18% cases of which 4 cases were 2 + or more, a mixture of liquid paraffin and hard paraffin gave rise to positive reactions in 10 (10% cases 3 of these being 2 +, a mixture of liquid paraffin and bees wax was positive in 14 (14,Yo cases 3 of these being 2 +, yellow petrolatum was positive in 4 (8% cases, one of which was 2 +, white petrolatum was positive in S (6% cases all of these being + reactions only, and glycerol gave rise to a I + reaction in only one (2% caw. In tropical countries, water should be as base for as many antigens as possible for others, a control test with the b must be included.

  19. Is a positive intracutaneous test induced by penicillin mediated by histamine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tannert, Line K; Falkencrone, Sidsel; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic workup of penicillin allergy comprises skin testing with penicillins, and patients are deemed allergic if skin test is positive. However, the literature suggests that skin test-positive patients may be challenge-negative, indicating that the skin test may be falsely positive....... Objective: To investigate real-time histamine release from a positive intracutaneous test induced by penicillin in patients with positive and negative challenges to penicillin. Methods: Skin microdialysis was performed in 21 penicillin-allergic patients with positive skin test, 13 non-allergic volunteers...... serving as negative controls, and 7 grass pollen-allergic patients serving as positive controls. Histamine was measured by microdialysis after skin test with penicillin/grass/NaCl. Penicillin challenge was subsequently performed in 12 of the patients. Results: Only 10/21 patients (47.6%) were skin test...

  20. 'False-positive' and 'false-negative' test results in clinical urine drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2009-08-01

    The terms 'false-positive' and 'false-negative' are widely used in discussions of urine drug test (UDT) results. These terms are inadequate because they are used in different ways by physicians and laboratory professionals and they are too narrow to encompass the larger universe of potentially misleading, inappropriate and unexpected drug test results. This larger universe, while not solely comprised of technically 'true' or 'false' positive or negative test results, presents comparable interpretive challenges with corresponding clinical implications. In this review, we propose the terms 'potentially inappropriate' positive or negative test results in reference to UDT results that are ambiguous or unexpected and subject to misinterpretation. Causes of potentially inappropriate positive UDT results include in vivo metabolic conversions of a drug, exposure to nonillicit sources of a drug and laboratory error. Causes of potentially inappropriate negative UDT results include limited assay specificity, absence of drug in the urine, presence of drug in the urine, but below established assay cutoff, specimen manipulation and laboratory error. Clinical UDT interpretation is a complicated task requiring knowledge of recent prescription, over-the-counter and herbal drug administration, drug metabolism and analytical sensitivities and specificities.

  1. EVALUATION OF DTECII AND IIEXAGO 1 TB KJTS USED FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    of TB infection and the risk of TB if infection has occurred (ATS-CDC, 1990) or as a dependent on the population being tested (ATS-CDC, 1994; Bass, 1993). ... environment, a cut off point of ;::: l 5mm is positive (ATS-CDC, 1994). Although tuberculin testing is the standard method for screening asymptomatic populations for ...

  2. Immunoreactivity examination of patients with testicular tumours treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanits, Klara; Kuhn, Endre; Csere, Tibor

    1985-01-01

    Results of the immunoreactivity study of 72 patients receiving radiotherapy are presented. Tuberculin and DNCB (2,4 dinitrochlorobenzol) reactivity tests were performed before, during and 3 years after the radiation therapy and at the time when metastases appeared. The number of positive reactions decreased slightly in both tuberculin and DNCB groups, though not significantly. Metastatic patients showed a significant decrease of reactivity against DNCB as compared with the results obtained before the treatment. In 5,6% of patients herpes zoster was registered. No other infections occured. It was found that immunosuppression caused by the radiation treatment does not influence the later fate of patients with testicular tumours. (author)

  3. RESULTS OF IMMUNOLOGICAL TESTING OF NEW GENERATION IN CHILDREN UNDER MASSIVE VACCINATION AGAINST TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Starshinova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new methods of immune diagnostics of tuberculous infection and their introduction into tuberculosis control practice have changed approaches to diagnostics of tuberculosis in Russia. Along with world recognized IGRA-tests the test with tuberculous recombinant allergen (TRA developed by Russian researchers is also widely used. High diagnostic value of each of the methods is proved by multiple national and international trials however there is no research comparing results of these methods in the diagnostics of tuberculous infection in children, including those with concurrent conditions. During the study data of testing in 654 children in the age from 0 to 14 years old with positive sensitivity to tuberculin as per Mantoux test with 2 TU were analyzed. All patients had modern immunological tests done: TRA and IGRA-tests (QuantifeRON® Gold ELISA (QFT and T-SPOT.TB. The study confirmed the low value of Mantoux test with 2 TU as a method of early tuberculosis detection in children; it detected underdiagnosis (10-50% and overdiagnosis (78% of latent tuberculous infection in the children with different sensitivity level as per data of Mantoux test with 2 TU. Comparing the results of TRA and IGRA tests it is possible to state that they are compatible for 76-81% of cases. The group of children was detected who had allergic and endocrine disorders (obesity, for whom IGRA tests were recommended to exclude chances of false-positive results of TRA tests

  4. Accounting for False Positive HIV Tests: Is Visceral Leishmaniasis Responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Leslie; Ritmeijer, Koert; Piriou, Erwan; Siddiqui, M Ruby; Kliescikova, Jarmila; Pearce, Neil; Ariti, Cono; Muluneh, Libsework; Masiga, Johnson; Abebe, Almaz

    2015-01-01

    Co-infection with HIV and visceral leishmaniasis is an important consideration in treatment of either disease in endemic areas. Diagnosis of HIV in resource-limited settings relies on rapid diagnostic tests used together in an algorithm. A limitation of the HIV diagnostic algorithm is that it is vulnerable to falsely positive reactions due to cross reactivity. It has been postulated that visceral leishmaniasis (VL) infection can increase this risk of false positive HIV results. This cross sectional study compared the risk of false positive HIV results in VL patients with non-VL individuals. Participants were recruited from 2 sites in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian algorithm of a tiebreaker using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) was used to test for HIV. The gold standard test was the Western Blot, with indeterminate results resolved by PCR testing. Every RDT screen positive individual was included for testing with the gold standard along with 10% of all negatives. The final analysis included 89 VL and 405 non-VL patients. HIV prevalence was found to be 12.8% (47/ 367) in the VL group compared to 7.9% (200/2526) in the non-VL group. The RDT algorithm in the VL group yielded 47 positives, 4 false positives, and 38 negatives. The same algorithm for those without VL had 200 positives, 14 false positives, and 191 negatives. Specificity and positive predictive value for the group with VL was less than the non-VL group; however, the difference was not found to be significant (p = 0.52 and p = 0.76, respectively). The test algorithm yielded a high number of HIV false positive results. However, we were unable to demonstrate a significant difference between groups with and without VL disease. This suggests that the presence of endemic visceral leishmaniasis alone cannot account for the high number of false positive HIV results in our study.

  5. Accounting for False Positive HIV Tests: Is Visceral Leishmaniasis Responsible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Shanks

    Full Text Available Co-infection with HIV and visceral leishmaniasis is an important consideration in treatment of either disease in endemic areas. Diagnosis of HIV in resource-limited settings relies on rapid diagnostic tests used together in an algorithm. A limitation of the HIV diagnostic algorithm is that it is vulnerable to falsely positive reactions due to cross reactivity. It has been postulated that visceral leishmaniasis (VL infection can increase this risk of false positive HIV results. This cross sectional study compared the risk of false positive HIV results in VL patients with non-VL individuals.Participants were recruited from 2 sites in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian algorithm of a tiebreaker using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs was used to test for HIV. The gold standard test was the Western Blot, with indeterminate results resolved by PCR testing. Every RDT screen positive individual was included for testing with the gold standard along with 10% of all negatives. The final analysis included 89 VL and 405 non-VL patients. HIV prevalence was found to be 12.8% (47/ 367 in the VL group compared to 7.9% (200/2526 in the non-VL group. The RDT algorithm in the VL group yielded 47 positives, 4 false positives, and 38 negatives. The same algorithm for those without VL had 200 positives, 14 false positives, and 191 negatives. Specificity and positive predictive value for the group with VL was less than the non-VL group; however, the difference was not found to be significant (p = 0.52 and p = 0.76, respectively.The test algorithm yielded a high number of HIV false positive results. However, we were unable to demonstrate a significant difference between groups with and without VL disease. This suggests that the presence of endemic visceral leishmaniasis alone cannot account for the high number of false positive HIV results in our study.

  6. The positive and negative consequences of multiple-choice testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Henry L; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2005-09-01

    Multiple-choice tests are commonly used in educational settings but with unknown effects on students' knowledge. The authors examined the consequences of taking a multiple-choice test on a later general knowledge test in which students were warned not to guess. A large positive testing effect was obtained: Prior testing of facts aided final cued-recall performance. However, prior testing also had negative consequences. Prior reading of a greater number of multiple-choice lures decreased the positive testing effect and increased production of multiple-choice lures as incorrect answers on the final test. Multiple-choice testing may inadvertently lead to the creation of false knowledge.

  7. Tuberculin-Specific T Cells Are Reduced in Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis Compared to LTBI or Status Post BCG Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitz, Mathias; Fuhrmann, Stephan; Powell, Fiona; Quassem, Ali; Nomura, Laurel; Maecker, Holden; Martus, Peter; Volk, Hans-Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Functional characteristics of tuberculosis (TB)–specific CD4 T cells were studied in clinically active pulmonary TB (n = 21) and high TB exposure including LTBI (n = 17). Following tuberculin stimulation, activated CD4 T cells were identified by flow-cytometry (CD154 up-regulation, degranulation, interferon γ [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], and interleukin 2 [IL-2\\ production). Interestingly, CD154 up-regulation accounted for ∼80% of activated CD4 T cells in the active TB group but just 40% in the controls, whereas IFN-γ accounted for only ∼50% of activated cells in each group. The frequencies of CD4 T cells displaying at least 1 activation marker discriminated better between the groups than those displaying degranulation or IFN-γ production alone. PMID:21186260

  8. Effectiveness of Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharide as an adjuvant for tuberculin PPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalan, Mostafa; Ardestani, Susan Kaboudanian; Zeinali, Majid; Mosaveri, Nader; Mohammad Taheri, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has T-helper 1 (Th1) immunostimulatory activities but because of toxicity and pyrogenicity cannot be used as an adjuvant. Brucella abortus LPS has less toxicity and no pyrogenic properties in comparison to other bacterial LPS. In the current study, the immunostimulatory properties of B. abortus LPS were evaluated for its adjuvant activity. Tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was extracted and after anion-exchange chromatography on Q-sepharose column, two fractions (17 and 23), which dominantly contained 30- and 70-kDa antigens, were collected for immunological studies. BALB/c mice were immunized with four different antigen preparations (BCG, PPD, 17th and 23rd PPD fractions) along with complete Freund's adjuvant or B. abortus LPS. The T-cell immune response of mice was assessed by measurement of Th1-type cytokine (IFN-γ) and Th2-type cytokines (IL-5 and IL-10) levels. Also, the humoral immunity was evaluated by measuring the specific IgG levels. Our results showed that immunization of mice with 17th PPD fraction along with B. abortus LPS can induce a Th1-type cytokine response characterized with a high IFN-γ/IL-5 ratio, while immunization with PPD or 23rd PPD fraction along with the same adjuvant resulted to a mixed Th1/Th2-type cytokine response. Copyright © 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Paratuberculose em caprinos e ovinos no Brasil Paratuberculosis in goats and sheep in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego M. Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    caprinos e ovinos no Brasil, determinar medidas de controle e avaliar a possibilidade de transmissão para humanos.This paper reports paratuberculosis in sheep and goats for the first time in Brazil. On Farm 1 in a flock of 33 goats and 13 sheep, one adult female goat presented progressive weight loss during about one year, and soft feces during one month before death. All the animals from the flock were submitted to the comparative tuberculin test. One sheep was positive to the avian tuberculin (2.2% and in two the results were inconclusive. On Farm 2, in a flock of 200 sheep and 80 goats, one adult ewe presented progressive weight loss during about one year, and soft feces during 20 days before death. All sheep older than four months of age and 23 goats were submitted to tuberculin test with avian tuberculin; 47 (25.4% sheep were positive, 115 (61.5% had inconclusive results, and 25 (13.4% were negative. No positive tuberculin test were observed in the goats, but in 11 (47.8% the test was inconclusive and in 12 (52.2% was negative. At necropsy both affected animals had enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes. In the affected sheep, the gut wall was thickened and corrugated, mainly in the ileum and ileocecal valve. Histologically, granulomas with mainly foamy macrophages were observed in the lamina propria and submucosa of the gut, in mesenteric lymph nodes, and in the goat also in the liver. One tuberculin positive sheep and one tuberculin negative goat from Farm 1 were euthanized and necropsied. A mild thickened of the intestinal wall was observed grossly in both animals. Inflammatory infiltrate with mainly lymphocytes was observed on the submucosa and lamina propria of the gut. In the four cases acid-alcohol positive rods, positive for Mycobacterium spp. on immunohistochemical examination were observed in macrophages and lymphocytes. New studies are necessary to know the prevalence and economical impact of paratuberculosis in goats and sheep in Brazil, to determine control

  10. Female False Positive Exercise Stress ECG Testing - Fact Verses Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Benjamin T; Scalia, William M; Scalia, Gregory M

    2018-03-07

    Exercise stress testing is a well validated cardiovascular investigation. Accuracy for treadmill stress electrocardiograph (ECG) testing has been documented at 60%. False positive stress ECGs (exercise ECG changes with non-obstructive disease on anatomical testing) are common, especially in women, limiting the effectiveness of the test. This study investigates the incidence and predictors of false positive stress ECG findings, referenced against stress echocardiography (SE) as a standard. Stress echocardiography was performed using the Bruce treadmill protocol. False positive stress ECG tests were defined as greater than 1mm of ST depression on ECG during exertion, without pain, with a normal SE. Potential causes for false positive tests were recorded before the test. Three thousand consecutive negative stress echocardiograms (1036 females, 34.5%) were analysed (age 59+/-14 years. False positive (F+) stress ECGs were documented in 565/3000 tests (18.8%). F+ stress ECGs were equally prevalent in females (194/1036, 18.7%) and males (371/1964, 18.9%, p=0.85 for the difference). Potential causes (hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, known coronary disease, arrhythmia, diabetes mellitus, valvular heart disease) were recorded in 36/194 (18.6%) of the female F+ ECG tests and 249/371 (68.2%) of the male F+ ECG tests (preinforce the value of stress imaging, particularly in women. Copyright © 2018 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in tuberculosis case contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Paulino Ribeiro Albanese

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : The tuberculin test is a diagnostic method for detecting latent tuberculosis (TB infection, especially among disease contact cases. The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence and evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among TB contact cases. METHODS : A retrospective cohort study was performed in a reference center for TB. The study population consisted of 2,425 patients who underwent a tuberculin test from 2003 to 2010 and whose results indicated contact with individuals with TB. The data were collected from the registry book of the tuberculin tests, patient files and the Information System Records of Notification Grievance. To verify the evolution of TB, case records through September 2014 were consulted. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. In all hypothesis tests, a significance level of 0.05 was used. RESULTS : From the studied sample, 435 (17.9% contacts did not return for reading. Among the 1,990 contacts that completed the test, the prevalence of latent TB infection was 35.4%. Of these positive cases, 50.6% were referred to treatment; the dropout rate was 42.5%. Among all of the contacts, the TB prevalence was 1.8%, from which 13.2% abandoned treatment. CONCLUSIONS : The collected data indicate the need for more effective public policies to improve TB control, including administering tests that do not require a return visit for reading, enhancing contact tracing and encouraging actions that reinforce full treatment adherence.

  12. Relevance of positive patch-test reactions to fragrance mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Steven A; Constandt, Lieve; Tupker, Ron A; Noz, Kathy C; Lucker, Georges P H; Bruynzeel, Derk P; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A; Kruyswijk, Mente R J; van Zuuren, Esther J; Vink, Jaqueline; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; van der Valk, Pieter G M

    2008-01-01

    Fragrances are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis. We presume that the traditional fragrance mix (FM) detects 70 to 80% of fragrance-allergic patients. FM has an irritant potential. Weak positive reactions may have a greater chance of being irrelevant than strong reactions. To improve the appraisal of FM patch-test reactions, we studied the relevance of reactions of different strength. We also studied the predictive value of the following on the relevance of the initial FM patch-test results: patch-test results of a repeated FM test; results of patch tests with balsam of Peru, colophony, and ingredients of the mix; and (history of) atopic dermatitis. One hundred thirty-eight patients who had doubtful positive (?+) or positive (+ to +++) reactions were included in the study. We determined relevance by history taking, location and course of the dermatitis, and additional patch testing. Patients were retested with FM and with each ingredient separately. The relevance of reactions to FM increases with the strength of the reactions. Predictors of relevance are the results of retesting with FM, the results of tests with the ingredients, and a history and/or present symptoms of atopic dermatitis. Retesting with FM and its ingredients may add to the benefit of patch testing.

  13. Increased risk of breast cancer in women with false-positive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Kuchiki, Megumi; Vejborg, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    of misclassification, i.e. women who were actually false-negatives instead of false-positives. METHOD: We used data from the Copenhagen Mammography Screening Programme, Denmark. The study population was the 295 women, out of 4743 recalled women from a total of 58,003 participants, with a false-positive test during...... the women with misclassified tests had been excluded, there was an excess risk of breast cancer of 27% (RR=1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.46) among the women with a false-positive test compared to women with only negative tests. Women with a false-positive test determined at assessment had...... an excess risk of 27%, while false-positives determined at surgery had an excess risk of 30%. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the increased risk is not explained only by misclassification. The excess risk remains for false-positives determined at assessment as well as at surgery, which favours some...

  14. Status of bovine tuberculosis in Addis Ababa dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, K; Hussein, D; Asseged, B; Wondwossen, T; Gebeyehu, M

    2008-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine the status of bovine tuberculosis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, by a comparative intradermal tuberculin test of 1,869 animals in 106 farms. Epidemiological information was also collected, taking into account factors chosen for their epidemiological significance and local livestock husbandry characteristics. In addition, milk samples were collected from tuberculin reactors for mycobacterial isolation and characterisation. Chi-square statistic, simple regression and multiple stepwise logistic regression were used to analyse the data. Of the 106 farms examined, 46 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.8% to 53.4%) contained comparative skin test reactors. Of the 1,869 animals, 443 (95% CI: 21.8% to 25.7%) were comparative skin test reactors. Furthermore, about 8.5% of tuberculin sensitive cows (12 of a sample of 141) secreted acid-fast bacteria in their milk. The microbes are described in more detail in the paper. Factors identified as possibly increasing the risk of bovine tuberculosis in Addis Ababa were herd size (large herd), farming (housing) condition (poor), and age (older animals). Similarly, as body condition scores improved from poor to medium and then to good, the likelihood of positive results significantly decreased (OR = 0.54; p < 0.01). Other factors including breed, sex, and physiological status of animals did not seem to significantly contribute to tuberculin sensitivity. The finding that large-size and intensively (often poorly) managed herds were at greater risk of bovine tuberculosis suggests that the significance of bovine tuberculosis is increasing in Addis Ababa parallel to an increasing dairy operation. If measures are not taken promptly, the impact on the economy and public health could be enormous.

  15. Tuberculosis testing among populations with high HIV risk in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Michele G; Laniado-Laborin, Rafael; Rodwell, Timothy C; Cerecer, Paris; Lozada, Remedios; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Burgos, Jose Luis; Garfein, Richard S

    2012-07-01

    To assess the prevalence of prior tuberculin skin testing (TST) among populations at risk for HIV infection in Tijuana, Mexico, and to identify factors associated with TST. Sex workers, injection drug users, noninjecting drug users, and homeless persons > 18 years old were recruited by using targeted sampling for risk assessment interviews and serologic testing for HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify correlates of self-reported TST history. Of 502 participants, 38.0% reported prior TST, which was associated with previous incarceration in the United States of America [odds ratio (OR) = 13.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 7.37-24.33] and injection drug use (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.27- 3.11). Positive results on serologic tests for M. tuberculosis infection (57%) and HIV (4.2%) were not associated with a prior TST. A history of TST was lower in HIV-positive participants even though TST is indicated for persons with HIV in Mexico. Fewer than half the individuals at high risk for HIV in this study had a history of TST; however, TST was fairly common among those individuals with a prior history of incarceration. Increased tuberculosis screening is needed for populations at risk of contracting HIV in Tijuana, particularly those outside of criminal justice settings.

  16. T Cell Reactivity against Mycolyl Transferase Antigen 85 of M. tuberculosis in HIV-TB Coinfected Subjects and in AIDS Patients Suffering from Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Launois

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycolyl transferase antigen 85 complex is a major secreted protein family from mycobacterial culture filtrate, demonstrating powerful T cell stimulatory properties in most HIV-negative, tuberculin-positive volunteers with latent M.tuberculosis infection and only weak responses in HIV-negative tuberculosis patients. Here, we have analyzed T cell reactivity against PPD and Ag85 in HIV-infected individuals, without or with clinical symptoms of tuberculosis, and in AIDS patients with disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Whereas responses to PPD were not significantly different in HIV-negative and HIV-positive tuberculin-positive volunteers, responses to Ag85 were significantly decreased in the HIV-positive (CDC-A and CDC-B group. Tuberculosis patients demonstrated low T cell reactivity against Ag85, irrespective of HIV infection, and finally AIDS patients suffering from NTM infections were completely nonreactive to Ag85. A one-year follow-up of twelve HIV-positive tuberculin-positive individuals indicated a decreased reactivity against Ag85 in patients developing clinical tuberculosis, highlighting the protective potential of this antigen.

  17. Risk of breast cancer after false-positive test results in screening mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Risør, Louise Madeleine; Thorsted, Brian Larsen

    2012-01-01

    Screening for disease in healthy people inevitably leads to some false-positive tests in disease-free individuals. Normally, women with false-positive screening tests for breast cancer are referred back to routine screening. However, the long-term outcome for women with false-positive tests...

  18. Evaluation of Patients with an Apparent False Positive Stool DNA Test: The Role of Repeat Stool DNA Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gregory S; Markowitz, Sanford D; Chen, Zhengyi; Tuck, Missy; Willis, Joseph E; Berger, Barry M; Brenner, Dean E; Li, Li

    2018-03-07

    There is uncertainty as to the appropriate follow-up of patients who test positive on multimarker stool DNA (sDNA) testing and have a colonoscopy without neoplasia. To determine the prevalence of missed colonic or occult upper gastrointestinal neoplasia in patients with an apparent false positive sDNA. We prospectively identified 30 patients who tested positive with a commercially available sDNA followed by colonoscopy without neoplastic lesions. Patients were invited to undergo repeat sDNA at 11-29 months after the initial test followed by repeat colonoscopy and upper endoscopy. We determined the presence of neoplastic lesions on repeat evaluation stratified by results of repeat sDNA. Twelve patients were restudied. Seven patients had a negative second sDNA test and a normal second colonoscopy and upper endoscopy. In contrast, 5 of 12 subjects had a persistently positive second sDNA test, and 3 had positive findings, including a 3-cm sessile transverse colon adenoma with high-grade dysplasia, a 2-cm right colon sessile serrated adenoma with dysplasia, and a nonadvanced colon adenoma (p = 0.045). These corresponded to a positive predictive value of 0.60 (95% CI 0.17-1.00) and a negative predictive value of 1.00 (95% CI 1.00-1.00) for the second sDNA test. In addition, the medical records of all 30 subjects with apparent false positive testing were reviewed and no documented cases of malignant tumors were recorded. Repeat positive sDNA testing may identify a subset of patients with missed or occult colorectal neoplasia after negative colonoscopy for an initially positive sDNA. High-quality colonoscopy with careful attention to the right colon in patients with positive sDNA is critically important and may avoid false negative colonoscopy.

  19. The problem of false-positive human papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm

    2013-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been extensively studied in randomized controlled trials of primary cervical screening. Based on encouraging results concerning its high detection rates and a high negative predictive value for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), HPV testing...... will probably replace cytology in future primary cervical screening. However, HPV testing is associated with more frequent false-positive tests compared to cytology. False-positive tests are defined as positive screening tests which are not subsequently confirmed with high-grade CIN. Several authors have...

  20. Design, test, and calibration of an electrostatic beam position monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Cohen-Solal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The low beta of proton or ion beams favors an electrostatic pickup to measure the transverse beam centroid position. Often papers on beam position monitors (BPM are focused on a particular aspect of the problem; however, it is important to consider all various issues of a position measurement system. Based on our experience at the IPHI (high intensity injector proton facility at CEA-Saclay, this paper will address all aspects to design, test, and calibrate a BPM for proton linear accelerators, while emphasizing the determination of the absolute beam position. We present details of the readout electronics, and describe the calibration of the BPM using a test station. For calculation and simulation of the electrical signals we developed a Mathematica script. The error analysis presented, on the basis of six BPMs installed in the high energy section of IPHI, demonstrates the expected accuracy of the position measurement. These studies also identify the parameters that could improve the performance of the beam position control. The experience from these developments is currently being used for the BPM design and test stand dedicated to the Spiral2 accelerator at Ganil-Caen which will deliver heavy ion beams.

  1. Design, test, and calibration of an electrostatic beam position monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Solal, Maurice

    2010-03-01

    The low beta of proton or ion beams favors an electrostatic pickup to measure the transverse beam centroid position. Often papers on beam position monitors (BPM) are focused on a particular aspect of the problem; however, it is important to consider all various issues of a position measurement system. Based on our experience at the IPHI (high intensity injector proton) facility at CEA-Saclay, this paper will address all aspects to design, test, and calibrate a BPM for proton linear accelerators, while emphasizing the determination of the absolute beam position. We present details of the readout electronics, and describe the calibration of the BPM using a test station. For calculation and simulation of the electrical signals we developed a Mathematica script. The error analysis presented, on the basis of six BPMs installed in the high energy section of IPHI, demonstrates the expected accuracy of the position measurement. These studies also identify the parameters that could improve the performance of the beam position control. The experience from these developments is currently being used for the BPM design and test stand dedicated to the Spiral2 accelerator at Ganil-Caen which will deliver heavy ion beams.

  2. Instrumented Impact Testing: Influence of Machine Variables and Specimen Position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucon, E.; McCowan, C. N.; Santoyo, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted on the influence of impact machine variables and specimen positioning on characteristic forces and absorbed energies from instrumented Charpy tests. Brittle and ductile fracture behavior has been investigated by testing NIST reference samples of low, high and super-high energy levels. Test machine variables included tightness of foundation, anvil and striker bolts, and the position of the center of percussion with respect to the center of strike. For specimen positioning, we tested samples which had been moved away or sideways with respect to the anvils. In order to assess the influence of the various factors, we compared mean values in the reference (unaltered) and altered conditions; for machine variables, t-test analyses were also performed in order to evaluate the statistical significance of the observed differences. Our results indicate that the only circumstance which resulted in variations larger than 5 percent for both brittle and ductile specimens is when the sample is not in contact with the anvils. These findings should be taken into account in future revisions of instrumented Charpy test standards.

  3. Instrumented Impact Testing: Influence of Machine Variables and Specimen Position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; McCowan, C. N.; Santoyo, R. A.

    2008-09-15

    An investigation has been conducted on the influence of impact machine variables and specimen positioning on characteristic forces and absorbed energies from instrumented Charpy tests. Brittle and ductile fracture behavior has been investigated by testing NIST reference samples of low, high and super-high energy levels. Test machine variables included tightness of foundation, anvil and striker bolts, and the position of the center of percussion with respect to the center of strike. For specimen positioning, we tested samples which had been moved away or sideways with respect to the anvils. In order to assess the influence of the various factors, we compared mean values in the reference (unaltered) and altered conditions; for machine variables, t-test analyses were also performed in order to evaluate the statistical significance of the observed differences. Our results indicate that the only circumstance which resulted in variations larger than 5 percent for both brittle and ductile specimens is when the sample is not in contact with the anvils. These findings should be taken into account in future revisions of instrumented Charpy test standards.

  4. Herbalife hepatotoxicity: Evaluation of cases with positive reexposure tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Eickhoff, Axel

    2013-07-27

    To analyze the validity of applied test criteria and causality assessment methods in assumed Herbalife hepatotoxicity with positive reexposure tests. We searched the Medline database for suspected cases of Herbalife hepatotoxicity and retrieved 53 cases including eight cases with a positive unintentional reexposure and a high causality level for Herbalife. First, analysis of these eight cases focused on the data quality of the positive reexposure cases, requiring a baseline value of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) Herbalife in these eight cases were probable (n = 1), unlikely (n = 4), and excluded (n = 3). Confounding variables included low data quality, alternative diagnoses, poor exclusion of important other causes, and comedication by drugs and herbs in 6/8 cases. More specifically, problems were evident in some cases regarding temporal association, daily doses, exact start and end dates of product use, actual data of laboratory parameters such as ALT, and exact dechallenge characteristics. Shortcomings included scattered exclusion of hepatitis A-C, cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus infection with only globally presented or lacking parameters. Hepatitis E virus infection was considered in one single patient and found positive, infections by herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus were excluded in none. Only one case fulfilled positive reexposure test criteria in initially assumed Herbalife hepatotoxicity, with lower CIOMS based causality gradings for the other cases than hitherto proposed.

  5. Evidence Based Medicine; Positive and Negative Likelihood Ratios of Diagnostic Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baratloo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the previous two parts of educational manuscript series in Emergency, we explained some screening characteristics of diagnostic tests including accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. In the 3rd  part we aimed to explain positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR as one of the most reliable performance measures of a diagnostic test. To better understand this characteristic of a test, it is first necessary to fully understand the concept of sensitivity and specificity. So we strongly advise you to review the 1st part of this series again. In short, the likelihood ratios are about the percentage of people with and without a disease but having the same test result. The prevalence of a disease can directly influence screening characteristics of a diagnostic test, especially its sensitivity and specificity. Trying to eliminate this effect, LR was developed. Pre-test probability of a disease multiplied by positive or negative LR can estimate post-test probability. Therefore, LR is the most important characteristic of a test to rule out or rule in a diagnosis. A positive likelihood ratio > 1 means higher probability of the disease to be present in a patient with a positive test. The further from 1, either higher or lower, the stronger the evidence to rule in or rule out the disease, respectively. It is obvious that tests with LR close to one are less practical. On the other hand, LR further from one will have more value for application in medicine. Usually tests with 0.1 < LR > 10 are considered suitable for implication in routine practice.

  6. [Characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis with positive skin prick test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Jiang, Y; Jin, Y M; Zhang, J Y; Li, Y

    2017-09-11

    Objective: To observe the clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis, and the correlations with skin prick test results. Methods: A retrospective study. Forty patients with positive skin prick test result were included. Patients underwent an ophthalmologic examination to identify their primary presenting signs and symptoms. The allergy types were divided into 5 groups. All dates were analyzed for the dependence, normality and homogeneity of variance. Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test and Spearman correlation analysis were performed accordingly. Results: Among 40 patients, 18(45.0%) had a clinical diagnosis of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, 14(35.0%) had perennial allergic conjunctivitis, 5(12.5%) had vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and 2(5.0%) had atopic keratoconjunctivits, and 1(2.5%) had giant papillary conjunctivitis. There was no significant difference in the number of symptoms and signs score among different types of allergic conjunctivitis, the score of itching and hyperemia had a positive relationship with the number of positive allergens ( r =0.74, Ptest of the allergen, the more symptoms and signs encountered in terms of severity. Conclusion: Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis was the most prevalent disorder, the most important clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis are itching and conjunctival congestion, the main allergens are dust and pollens, patients may be sensitive to multiple allergens. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 689-693) .

  7. Usefulness of exercise ECG test with nitroglycerin and exercise cardiac scintigraphy in patients with false positive exercise ECG test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritani, Kohshiro

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical usefulness of exercise (Ex) ECG test with sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG) and Ex cardiac scintigraphy in differentiating false positive responses from true positive responses of Ex ECG test. We examined 7 pts (age : 46+-7 years) with true positive Ex ECG test (TP) and 8 pts (age : 55+-10 years) with false positive Ex ECG test (FP). TP had significant coronary artery disease and FP did not. Ex test was done by multistage ergometer test. In 5 pts of TP and all pts of FP, Ex cardiac scintigraphy was performed. In TP, Ex cardiac scintigraphy revealed reversible perfusion deficit, but not in FP. NTG was administered 3 minutes before Ex test was started. Ex test with NTG was terminated at the same load as Ex test without NTG. Pressure-rate products at the end point of Ex test did not show significant difference between Ex test without NTG and that with NTG (TP: 203x10 2 , 213x10 2 , FP: 196x10 2 , 206x10 2 , respectively). In 7 pts of FP, ST depression in Ex test without NTG was not improved in Ex test with NTG. On the other hand, in all pts of TP, ST depression seen in Ex test without NTG, was not observed in Ex test with NTG. It may be concluded that Ex cardiac scintigraphy is diagnostic for differentiation of false positive responses from true positive responses of Ex ECG test, as well as Ex ECG test with NTG is. (author)

  8. Immunological and cytotoxicological characterization of tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) conjugated to single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinali, Majid; Jammalan, Mostafa; Ardestani, Sussan K; Mosaveri, Nader

    2009-09-22

    Tuberculosis (TB) represents one of the leading killers among all infectious disease. Protection against TB depends on the activation of T-helper type I (Th1) immune response. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted considerable attention because of their potential applications as new nanovehicle. In the current study, tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) was conjugated to carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Cytotoxicity of the carboxylated SWCNT and SWCNT-PPD conjugate was analyzed with MTT assay and by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation. Male BALB/c mice were immunized with BCG, PPD, SWCNT-PPD conjugate and PPD in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Induction of cellular immune response was analyzed by measuring the levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-gamma and IL-12) and Th2 cytokines (IL-10 and IL-5). Immunization with non-conjugated PPD or PPD in Freund's adjuvant induced a Th2 cytokine response while immunization with BCG resulted to a mixed Th1/Th2 cytokine response. In contrast, PPD in conjugation with SWCNT generated preferentially a Th1-type cytokine response in the absence of potential cytotoxic effects.

  9. Test equality between two binary screening tests with a confirmatory procedure restricted on screen positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2015-01-01

    In studies of screening accuracy, we may commonly encounter the data in which a confirmatory procedure is administered to only those subjects with screen positives for ethical concerns. We focus our discussion on simultaneously testing equality of sensitivity and specificity between two binary screening tests when only subjects with screen positives receive the confirmatory procedure. We develop four asymptotic test procedures and one exact test procedure. We derive sample size calculation formula for a desired power of detecting a difference at a given nominal [Formula: see text]-level. We employ Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the performance of these test procedures and the accuracy of the sample size calculation formula developed here in a variety of situations. Finally, we use the data obtained from a study of the prostate-specific-antigen test and digital rectal examination test on 949 Black men to illustrate the practical use of these test procedures and the sample size calculation formula.

  10. [Comparison of annual risk for tuberculosis infection (1994-2001) in school children in Djibouti: methodological limitations and epidemiological value in a hyperendemic context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatas, J J; Mohamed Ali, I; Ali Ismaël, H; Barreh Matan, A

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this report was to describe a tuberculin survey conducted in 2001 to assess the trend in the annual risk for tuberculosis infection in Djibouti and compare resulting data with those obtained in a previous survey conducted in 1994. In 2001 cluster sampling allowed selection of 5599 school children between the ages of 6 and 10 years including 31.2% (1747/5599) without BCG vaccination scar. In this sample the annual risk of infection (ARI) estimated using cutoff points of 6 mm, 10 mm, and 14 mm corrected by a factor of 1/0.82 and a mode value (18 mm) determined according to the "mirror" method were 4.67%, 3.64%, 3.19% and 2.66% respectively. The distribution of positive tuberculin skin reaction size was significantly different from the normal law. In 1994 a total of 5257 children were selected using the same method. The distribution of positive reactions was not significantly different from the gaussian distribution and 28.6% (1505/5257) did not have a BCG scar. The ARI estimated using cutoff points of 6 mm, 10 mm, and 14 mm corrected by a factor of 1/0.82 and a mode value (17 mm) determined according to the "mirror" method were 2.68%, 2.52%, 2.75% and 3.32 respectively. Tuberculin skin reaction size among positive skin test reactors was correlated with the presence of a BCG scar, and its mean was significantly higher among children with BCG scar. The proportion of positive skin test reactors was also higher in the BCG scar group regardless of the cutoff point selected. Comparison of prevalence rates and ARI values did not allow any clear conclusion to be drawn, mainly because of a drastic difference in the positive reaction distribution profiles between the two studies. The distribution of the skin test reaction's size 1994 study could be modelized by a gaussian distribution while it could not in 2001. A partial explanation for the positive reaction distribution observed in the 2001 study might be the existence of cross-reactions with environmental

  11. Vertical jumping tests in volleyball: reliability, validity, and playing-position specifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Hadzic, Vedran; Uljevic, Ognjen; Dervisevic, Edvin

    2012-06-01

    Vertical jumping is known to be important in volleyball, and jumping performance tests are frequently studied for their reliability and validity. However, most studies concerning jumping in volleyball have dealt with standard rather than sport-specific jumping procedures and tests. The aims of this study, therefore, were (a) to determine the reliability and factorial validity of 2 volleyball-specific jumping tests, the block jump (BJ) test and the attack jump (AJ) test, relative to 2 frequently used and systematically validated jumping tests, the countermovement jump test and the squat jump test and (b) to establish volleyball position-specific differences in the jumping tests and simple anthropometric indices (body height [BH], body weight, and body mass index [BMI]). The BJ was performed from a defensive volleyball position, with the hands positioned in front of the chest. During an AJ, the players used a 2- to 3-step approach and performed a drop jump with an arm swing followed by a quick vertical jump. A total of 95 high-level volleyball players (all men) participated in this study. The reliability of the jumping tests ranged from 0.97 to 0.99 for Cronbach's alpha coefficients, from 0.93 to 0.97 for interitem correlation coefficients and from 2.1 to 2.8 for coefficients of variation. The highest reliability was found for the specific jumping tests. The factor analysis extracted one significant component, and all of the tests were highly intercorrelated. The analysis of variance with post hoc analysis showed significant differences between 5 playing positions in some of the jumping tests. In general, receivers had a greater jumping capacity, followed by libero players. The differences in jumping capacities should be emphasized vis-a-vis differences in the anthropometric measures of players, where middle hitters had higher BH and body weight, followed by opposite hitters and receivers, with no differences in the BMI between positions.

  12. [Evaluation of performance and false positivity of Mediace RPR test that uses a chemistry autoanalyzer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jaekwang; Ko, Hak Hyun; Yun, Yeomin; Choi, Young Sook; Lee, Sang Gon; Shin, Sue; Han, Kyou Sup; Song, Eun Young

    2008-08-01

    We evaluated the performance and false positive rate of Mediace RPR test (Sekisui, Japan), a newly introduced nontreponemal test using a chemistry autoanalyzer. The sensitivity of Mediace RPR test was analyzed using sera from 50 patients with syphilis in different stages (8 primary, 7 secondary, and 35 latent), 14 sera positive with fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) IgM, and 74 sera positive with conventional rapid plasma regain (RPR) card test (Asan, Korea) and also positive with Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) test or FTA-ABS IgG test. The specificity was analyzed on 108 healthy blood donors. We also performed RPR card test on 302 sera that had been tested positive with Mediace RPR test and also performed TPHA or FTA-ABS IgG test to analyze the false positive rate of Mediace RPR test. A cutoff value of 0.5 R.U. (RPR unit) was used for Mediace RPR test. Mediace RPR test on syphilitic sera of different stages (primary, secondary, and latent stages) and FTA-ABS IgM positive sera showed a sensitivity of 100%, 100%, 82.9% and 100%, respectively. Among the 74 sera positive with conventional RPR card test and TPHA or FTA-ABS IgG test, 55 were positive with Mediace test. The specificity of Mediace RPR test on blood donors was 97.2%. Among the 302 sera positive with Mediace RPR test, 137 sera (45.4%) were negative by RPR card and TPHA/FTA-ABS IgG tests. Although the sensitivities of Mediace RPR were good for primary and secondary syphilis, due to its high negative rate of Mediace RPR over the conventional RPR positive samples, further studies are necessary whether it can replace conventional nontreponemal test for screening purpose. Moreover, in view of the high false positive rate, positive results by Mediace RPR test should be confirmed with treponemal tests.

  13. [Analysis of tuberculosis infection among foreigners using QuantiFeron TB-2G test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Kazue; Harada, Nobuyuki; Nagasaka, Yuji; Mori, Toru

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate contacts of a tuberculosis patient among foreigners using QuantiFERON TB-2G (QFT-2G) test. Three index cases in this study were all foreigners. Contacts, who were mostly foreigners and some Japanese, were investigated by a chest X-ray examination, tuberculin skin test (TST) and QFT-2G, and all data were compared. Among 48 subjects (30 Vietnamese and 18 Japanese) in case 1, 8 Vietnamese and 2 Japanese were QFT-2G positive. One contacts among 3 most close contacts who lived in the same room with the index case was QFT-2G positive. In case 2, three Chinese among 22 contacts were QFT-2G positive, and a very close contact who lived in the next door to the index case was QFT-2G negative. Seven QFT-2G positive Chinese were identified among 24 contacts in case 3. However, four very close contacts among them were QFT-2G negative. Although it was unclear whether QFT-2G positives in cases 1 and 2 were infected with M. tuberculosis through the index cases, it is possible to speculate that these QFT-2G positives were already infected with M. tuberculosis while they live in their own country based on the prevalence of TB in their countries and the fact that many very close contacts were QFT-2G negative. Also, it was suggested that QFT-2G positives in case 3 may not be infected through the index case, but infected in their country, since all close contacts were QFT-2G negative. The results of this study suggested that using the QFT-2G test for foreigners prior to or soon after their entry to Japan and recommending chemoprophylaxis for those who are QFT-2G positive would be a very efficient control measures against immigrant foreigners with TB infection.

  14. Comparison of interferon {gamma} release assays and conventional screening tests before tumour necrosis factor {alpha} blockade in patients with inflammatory arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of two interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) and conventional screening tests in patients with inflammatory arthritis undergoing screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) before treatment with anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFalpha) compounds. METHODS: Successive patients were subjected to conventional LTBI screening, including a tuberculin skin test (TST). The T-SPOT.TB test was performed on all patients and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test was performed on a large subset. The results of the IGRAs were compared with the results of conventional screening tests. RESULTS: A total 150 patients were evaluated. The majority (57.9%) had rheumatoid arthritis. Previous vaccination with Bacille Calmette-Guerin was confirmed in 82% of patients. No patient had received prior anti-TB treatment. A total of 57 patients (38.0%) had at least one positive conventional risk factor. In contrast, an unequivocally positive T-SPOT.TB test was seen in only 14\\/143 (9.8%). There was 98.2% agreement between the two IGRAs. Statistically significant associations were found between each of the IGRAs and both TST and risk history, but not chest x-ray (CXR). A positive IGRA result was significantly associated with increased age. TB was not reactivated in any patient during the follow-up period. Interpretation: This study suggests that IGRAs may be useful when screening for LTBI before anti-TNFalpha therapy in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. The observations reported here also highlight the inadequate performance of CXR as a marker of LTBI.

  15. [Comparative study of concordance and costs between tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection among contacts of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Lacasa, Xavier; Canals Font, Roser; Jaen Manzanera, Angels; Cuchi Burgos, Eva; Lite Lite, Josep

    2015-11-20

    Recently diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) can be made using the tuberculin skin test (TST) or by techniques known as interferon-γ release assays (IGRAS), being QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube (QF-G-IT) the most used. The IGRAS avoid some drawbacks of the TST, especially cross-reaction with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, but also present some problems such as those arising from cost and the need of having an adequate infrastructure and experience. There is no clear consensus on which technique should be preferentially used for the diagnosis of LTBI. This is a comparative study between the TST and QT-G-IT in a cohort of contacts of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis during the study period. An analysis of global agreement and groups was performed according to whether the contacts were vaccinated with BCG or not. A study of costs of both techniques and diagnostic strategies based on these techniques was performed. The agreement between TST and QF-G-IT was acceptable in the whole sample yet it was very good in the unvaccinated group. Few cases of indeterminate values were recorded. The cost study showed that TST was cheaper than QF-G-IT; however when we analyzed the cost of the strategies according to each technique, the QF-G-IT showed a better cost-benefit. We suggest considering QF-G-IT as the only preferred technique for the diagnosis of LTBI in household contacts, based on good overall agreement between the 2 techniques (even if we eliminate the effect of the vaccine) and a cost analysis favorable to QF-G-IT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Tuberculous synovitis of the knee in a 65-year-old man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciobanu Laura D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tuberculous (TB synovitis is a rare, treatable, potentially lethal form of extrapulmonary TB resulting from massive lymphohematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis. We presented a case of TB synovitis of the knee in a Caucasian HIV negative man from Romania, a high TB incidence country. Case report. A 65-year old man presented with cough, high fever, mild wheezing, and swelling of the left knee. Chest radiography was normal. Sputum smears were Acid Fast Bacilli negative and Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J culture negative for M. tuberculosis. Tuberculin skin test was negative. Respiratory symptoms disappeared in a week under antibiotics. Positive L-J cultures of knee punctation and favourable treatment outcome following standardized antituberculous treatment regimen confirmed the diagnosis of specific synovitis, which was also demonstrated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Conclusion. Tuberculous synovitis is important differencial diagnosis in patients with arthropathies and risk factors for TB in all the countries and all patients' ages even when tuberculin skin test is negative.

  17. Histamine release positive test associates with disease remission in chronic spontaneous urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berti, A; Yacoub, M R; Skov, Per Stahl

    2017-01-01

    the correlations between HR test results and demographic features, quality of life, disease activity, clinical course, and autologous serum and plasma skin tests (ASST and APST). Results. All patients with positive HR test (9/9, 100%) had a more severe disease activity at onset (urticaria activity score, UAS > 2......Summary: Background. Histamine release (HR) test has previously been shown to predict the presence of endogenous histamine-releasing factors in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). Objectives and methods. Twenty CSU patients unresponsive to antihistamine treatment were enrolled in order to evaluate...... with a positive HR test had a significant reduction of disease activity (p = 0.003) whereas patients with a negative HR test did not (p > 0.05), leading to disease remission and antihistamine treatment withdrawal in 67% (6/9) of positive HR test patients versus 18% (2/11) of negative HR test patients (p = 0...

  18. HUBUNGAN FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN RUMAH DENGAN PENULARAN TB PARU KONTAK SERUMAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Musadad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Factor Relation of House With Infection of TB Paru through Housing Contact.Tuberculosis of the Lung (Lung TB still become health problem for world, including Indonesia in the third sequence after India And China. If cannot overcome each and everyone with Active Lung TB with mean infection 10-15 people/year. This research aim to know environmental factor relation of house with infection of Lung TB through contact house. The research population consist of entire household which inside there is 1 (one or more patient of Adult Lung TB with the result of positive bacteria inspection by public health center in 2002, while as sample is entire household which inside there is 1 (one or more patient of Adult Lung TB and have under 5 years baby. Inclusion criteria is patient of Lung TB paru noted by public health center and reside in region of Tangerang District in 2002. The collection of data was conducted with interview using questionnaire, enviromental perception, and tuberculine test. Uji Tuberculin test done by Mantoux (inoculation intracutane for 5 years baby use PPD RT 23 strength 2 TU with tuberkulin 1 cc needle with number 26. Criteria of Lung TB infection if diameter transversal from period that happened as a result of tuberculine test >10 mm and have clinical history of such as coughing more than 3 weeks, pain and recuring or old fever without clear cause, body weight descend or not go up in 1 month; moon without clear cause, or have specific clinical symptom. Result showed that from 254 households there are 33 (13.0% occurence of infection Lung TB. Environmental factor of house which deal with infection TB as an entry of the indoor direct sunlight with value OR=3,50; CI 95% 1,19-10,34 (p=0,015. The conclusion stated that direct sunlight play important role for infection of Lung TB in the same house.Keywords: Tuberculosis, infection through housing ccontact, tuberculine test, sunlight

  19. Heterophilic antibodies interfering with radioimmunoassay. A false-positive pregnancy test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladutiu, A.O.; Sulewski, J.M.; Pudlak, K.A.; Stull, C.G.

    1982-11-19

    A young woman with amenorrhea had a consistently positive pregnancy test result (serum radioimmunoassay measurement of ..beta..-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone). No fetal or placental tissue was found after uterine curettage and exploratory laparotomy. The false-positive pregnancy test result was due to heterophilic antibovine and antigoat antibodies in the patient's serum. These antibodies interfered with radioimmunoassays using goat antibodies. This case shows that serum heterophilic antibodies can interfere with immunoassays and result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or unnecessary treatment.

  20. Heterophilic antibodies interfering with radioimmunoassay. A false-positive pregnancy test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladutiu, A.O.; Sulewski, J.M.; Pudlak, K.A.; Stull, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    A young woman with amenorrhea had a consistently positive pregnancy test result (serum radioimmunoassay measurement of #betta#-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone). No fetal or placental tissue was found after uterine curettage and exploratory laparotomy. The false-positive pregnancy test result was due to heterophilic antibovine and antigoat antibodies in the patient's serum. These antibodies interfered with radioimmunoassays using goat antibodies. This case shows that serum heterophilic antibodies can interfere with immunoassays and result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or unnecessary treatment

  1. Tuberculin reaction and BCG scar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Aaby, Peter

    2015-01-01

    rate ratio (MRR) comparing children with a BCG scar with those without was 0.42 (95% CI = 0.19; 0.93). There was a similar tendency for TST positivity: MRR = 0.47 (95% CI = 0.14; 1.54). For LBW children who had both a positive TST reaction and a scar, the MRR was 0.22 (95% CI = 0.05; 0.87). For NBW...

  2. 10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contractor, to have the potential to significantly affect the environment, public health and safety, or... evidence of the use of illegal drugs of employees in testing designated positions identified in this... section shall provide for random tests at a rate equal to 30 percent of the total number of employees in...

  3. Genetic Testing and Post-Testing Decision Making among BRCA-Positive Mutation Women: A Psychosocial Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene; An, Chen

    2016-10-01

    Through an analysis of an online survey of women who tested positive for the BRCA genetic mutation for breast cancer, this research uses a social constructionist and feminist standpoint lens to understand the decision-making process that leads BRCA-positive women to choose genetic testing. Additionally, this research examines how they socially construct and understand their risk for developing breast cancer, as well as which treatment options they undergo post-testing. BRCA-positive women re-frame their statistical medical risk for developing cancer and their post-testing treatment choices through a broad psychosocial context of engagement that also includes their social networks. Important psychosocial factors drive women's medical decisions, such as individual feelings of guilt and vulnerability, and the degree of perceived social support. Women who felt guilty and fearful that they might pass the BRCA gene to their children were more likely to undergo risk reducing surgery. Women with at least one daughter and women without children were more inclined toward the risk reducing surgery compared to those with only sons. These psychosocial factors and social network engagements serve as a "nexus of decision making" that does not, for the most part, mirror the medical assessments of statistical odds for hereditary cancer development, nor the specific treatment protocols outlined by the medical establishment.

  4. Prevalence of Mantoux test positivity among apparently healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Mantoux test positivity among apparently healthy children in Maiduguri, Nigeria. MG Mustapha, AM Garba, AI Rabasa, MS Gimba. Abstract. Background. The impact of tuberculosis (TB) is highest in the developing countries of Asia and Africa, especially among children, in whom the diagnosis is challenging.

  5. Association between positive patch tests to epoxy resin and fragrance mix I ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer; Vølund, Aage

    2009-01-01

    and possibly reproduce this association with the use of TRUE((R)) test data and supplementary tests with fragrance mix ingredients from the Department of Dermatology, Odense University Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six thousand one hundred and fifteen consecutive eczema patients tested from 1995 to 2007......BACKGROUND: Both epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and fragrance mix I are included in the European baseline series of contact allergens. A significant association between positive reactions to epoxy resin and fragrance mix has been reported by others. OBJECTIVE: To investigate...... were included, and test results from all patients tested with fragrance mix ingredients were analysed. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-five (2.4%) were positive to epoxy resin and 282 (4.6%) were positive to fragrance mix I. Nineteen were positive to both giving an odds ratio of 3.3, which...

  6. Use of recombinant purified protein derivative (PPD) antigens as specific skin test for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavri, Henriette; Bucurenci, Nadia; Ulea, Irina; Costache, Adriana; Popa, Loredana; Popa, Mircea Ioan

    2012-11-01

    Purified protein derivative (PPD) is currently the only available skin test reagent used worldwide for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to develop a Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific skin test reagent, without false positive results due to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination using recombinant antigens. Proteins in PPD IC-65 were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry and compared to proteins in M. tuberculosis culture filtrate; 54 proteins were found in common. Top candidates MPT64, ESAT 6, and CFP 10 were overexpressed in Escherichia coli expression strains and purified as recombinant proteins. To formulate optimal immunodiagnostic PPD cocktails, the antigens were evaluated by skin testing guinea pigs sensitized with M. tuberculosis H37Rv and BCG. For single antigens and a cocktail mixture of these antigens, best results were obtained using 3 μg/0.1 ml, equivalent to 105 TU (tuberculin units). Each animal was simultaneously tested with PPD IC-65, 2 TU/0.1 ml, as reference. Reactivity of the multi-antigen cocktail was greater than that of any single antigen. The skin test results were between 34.3 and 76.6 per cent the level of reactivity compared to that of the reference when single antigens were tested and 124 per cent the level of reactivity compared to the reference for the multi-antigen cocktail. Our results showed that this specific cocktail could represent a potential candidate for a new skin diagnostic test for TB.

  7. Perfectionism, Performance, and State Positive Affect and Negative Affect after a Classroom Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flett, Gordon L.; Blankstein, Kirk R.; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the associations among trait dimensions of perfectionism, test performance, and levels of positive and negative affect after taking a test. A sample of 92 female university students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale one week prior to an actual class test. Measures of positive affect and negative affect…

  8. Occurrence of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep breed Santa Ines with surface reactive lymph nodes at Uberlândia region, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius de Morais Barbosa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the occurrence of caseous lymphadenitis and tuberculosis in Santa Ines sheep, with the presence of reactive superficial lymph nodes on clinical examination, it was examined 650 adult animals, between one and four years of age from 11 farms in the region of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Tuberculin cervical comparative test (CCT was performed, as well as microbiological culture and polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR for positive cultures and serum samples for Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis identification. From the total of 650 sheep examined, 14.6% (96/650 had at least one presented swelling superficial lymph node, and the frequency was: pre-scapular reactive lymph nodes (41.9%, submandibular (38.1%, parotid (14 3% and pre-crural (5.7%. The microbiological culture punctured material showed growth of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in 81.8% of the samples (18/22, Staphylococcus sp and Escherichia coli in 4.6% (1/22 and no growth in 13.6% (3/22. All 18 samples of the culture of C. pseudotuberculosis were positive by PCR and only (3/22 serum samples positive by PCR. The TCC made of 96 sheep, 93 negative tests and 3 inconclusive. It is concluded that in Santa Inês sheep with the presence of swelling in superficial lymph node, the incidence of caseous lymphadenitis was 81.8% (18/22 and 3.1% (3/96 of animals were inconclusive in the tuberculin cervical comparative test.

  9. The secretory immunoglobulin A response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a childhood population Resposta da imunoglobulina A secretória ao Mycobacterium tuberculosis em população infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández de Larrea

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on the measurement of saliva anti-Purified Protein Derivative sIgA and 38kDa antibodies from 127 children, of whom 31 were strong tuberculosis suspects and 96 were healthy contact children. The results concerning the percentage of children with antibody reactivity to PPD and 38kDa antigens showed that, of these 2 antigens, 38kDa induced higher reactivity in patients positive and negative for the Tuberculin Skin Test (28% and 16.6%, respectively in comparison to controls positive and negative for the TST (11.7% and 7.1%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between patients positive and controls negative for the TST. In relation to the Purified Protein Derivative antigen, while 14.2% of patients positive for the TST showed antibody reactivity to the PPD antigen, no patients negative for the TST had reactivity to this antigen. The findings suggest that these two antigens seem be associated with a different development of the mucosal defence mechanisms mediated by sIgA against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.Foram dosados anticorpos sIgA anti-Purified Protein Derivative e 38kDa da saliva de 127 crianças, das quais 31 eram de pacientes altamente suspeitos de tuberculose e 96 eram provenientes de crianças saudáveis, que tiveram contato com pacientes. Os resultados referentes à porcentagem de crianças, reativas ao PPD e ao antígeno 38kDa, mostraram que destes dois antígenos, o 38kDa induziu maior reatividade em pacientes positivos e negativos ao Tuberculin Skin Test (28% e 16,6%, respectivamente, em comparação aos controles positivos e negativos ao TST (11,7% e 7,1%, respectivamente. Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre pacientes positivos e controles negativos ao Tuberculin Skin Test. Em relação ao antígeno PPD, enquanto 14,2% de pacientes positivos ao TST mostraram anticorpos reativos ao antígeno Purified Protein Derivative, nenhum paciente negativo ao TST foi reativo ao antígeno. Os

  10. [Tuberculosis screening program for undocumented immigrant teenagers using the QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Carlos; Ballaz, Aitor; Díez, Rosa; Aguirre, Urko; Antón, Ane; Altube, Lander

    2015-07-06

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis infection in undocumented immigrant teenagers using a tuberculin skin test (TST) for initial screening and QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) as a confirmatory test. From 2007 to 2012, under 19 year-old immigrant teenagers from 2 accommodation centers of the Basque Country (Spain) were included in the study. The TST was done in all of them and the QFT-GIT was done in selected patients with a TST≥5mm. Eight hundred and forty-five immigrants were included, most of them from Africa (99.5%). Fifty-one percent of immigrants with TST ≥ 5 mm has a positive QFT-GIT. We found 2 cases of active tuberculosis (2/845: 0.24%). The concordance between TST (≥ 10 mm) and QFT-GIT was 63%, with 57% of positive concordance cases and 96% of negative concordances. There were 246 cases with TST ≥ 10 mm (29%), with significant differences between Magrebis (21.5%) and Subsaharians (67%) (Ptuberculosis infection in Subsaharian immigrants, we recommend implementing screening programs in this population. Using QFT-GIT, the number of candidates for chemoprophylaxis was reduced to 43% compared with TST alone (≥ 10 mm). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Internal Impingement of the Shoulder: A Risk of False Positive Test Outcomes in External Impingement Tests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Leschinger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. External impingement tests are considered as being particularly reliable for identifying subacromial and coracoid shoulder impingement mechanisms. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if these tests are likely to provoke an internal shoulder impingement mechanism which, in cases of a pathologic condition, can lead to a positive test result. Method. In 37 subjects, the mechanical contact between the glenoid rim and the rotator cuff (RC was measured quantitatively and qualitatively in external impingement test positions using an open MRI system. Results. Mechanical contact of the supraspinatus with the posterosuperior glenoid was present in 30 subjects in the Neer test. In the Hawkins test, the subscapularis was in contact with the anterosuperior glenoid in 33 subjects and the supraspinatus in 18. In the horizontal impingement test, anterosuperior contact of the supraspinatus with the glenoid was identified in 35 subjects. Conclusion. The Neer, Hawkins, and horizontal impingement tests are likely to provoke the mechanism of an internal shoulder impingement. A posterosuperior internal impingement mechanism is being provoked predominately in the Neer test. The Hawkins test narrows the distance between the insertions of the subscapularis and supraspinatus and the anterosuperior labrum, which leads to an anterosuperior impingement mechanism.

  12. Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of a New Highly Pathogenic Field Isolate of Mycobacterium avium spp. avium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangquan Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian tuberculosis is a chronic, contagious zoonotic disease affecting birds, mammals, and humans. The disease is most often caused by Mycobacterium avium spp. avium (MAA. Strain resources are important for research on avian tuberculosis and vaccine development. However, there has been little reported about the newly identified MAA strain in recent years in China. In this study, a new strain was isolated from a fowl with symptoms of avian tuberculosis by bacterial culture. The isolated strain was identified to be MAA by culture, staining, and biochemical and genetic analysis, except for different colony morphology. The isolated strain was Ziehl-Zeelsen staining positive, resistant to p-nitrobenzoic acid, and negative for niacin production, Tween-80 hydrolysis, heat stable catalase and nitrate production. The strain had the DnaJ gene, IS1245, and IS901, as well. Serum agglutination indicated that the MAA strain was of serotype 1. The MAA strain showed strong virulence via mortality in rabbits and chickens. The prepared tuberculin of the MAA strain had similar potency compared to the MAA reference strain and standard tuberculin via a tuberculin skin test. Our studies suggested that this MAA strain tends to be a novel subtype, which might enrich the strain resource of avian tuberculosis.

  13. Positive Skin Test or Specific IgE to Penicillin Does Not Reliably Predict Penicillin Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannert, Line Kring; Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard; Skov, Per Stahl; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    According to guidelines, patients are diagnosed with penicillin allergy if skin test (ST) result or specific IgE (s-IgE) to penicillin is positive. However, the true sensitivity and specificity of these tests are presently not known. To investigate the clinical relevance of a positive ST result and positive s-IgE and to study the reproducibility of ST and s-IgE. A sample of convenience of 25 patients with positive penicillin ST results, antipenicillin s-IgE results, or both was challenged with their culprit penicillin. Further 19 patients were not challenged, but deemed allergic on the basis of a recent anaphylactic reaction or delayed reactions to skin testing. Another sample of convenience of 18 patients, 17 overlapping with the 25 challenged, with initial skin testing and s-IgE (median, 25; range, 3-121), months earlier (T -1 ), was repeat skin tested and had s-IgE measured (T 0 ), and then skin tested and had s-IgE measured 4 weeks later (T 1 ). Only 9 (36%) of 25 were challenge positive. There was an increased probability of being penicillin allergic if both ST result and s-IgE were positive at T 0 . Positive ST result or positive s-IgE alone did not predict penicillin allergy. Among the 18 patients repeatedly tested, 46.2% (12 of 25) of positive ST results at T -1 were reproducibly positive at T 0 . For s-IgE, 54.2% (14 of 24) positive measurements were still positive at T 0 and 7 converted to positive at T 1 . The best predictor for a clinically significant (IgE-mediated) penicillin allergy is a combination of a positive case history with simultaneous positive ST result and s-IgE or a positive challenge result. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Care Cascade for targeted tuberculosis testing and linkage to Care in Homeless Populations in the United States: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parriott, Andrea; Malekinejad, Mohsen; Miller, Amanda P; Marks, Suzanne M; Horvath, Hacsi; Kahn, James G

    2018-04-12

    Homelessness increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease and latent TB infection (LTBI), but persons experiencing homelessness often lack access to testing and treatment. We assessed the yield of TB testing and linkage to care for programs targeting homeless populations in the United States. We conducted a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and grey literature, adapting Cochrane systematic review methods. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility and abstracted key data on the testing to care cascade: number of persons reached, recruited for testing, tested for LTBI, with valid test results, referred to follow-up care, and initiating care. We used random effects to calculate pooled proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of persons retained in each step via inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis, and cumulative proportions as products of adjacent step proportions. We identified 23 studies published between 1986 and 2014, conducted in 12 states and 15 cities. Among studies using tuberculin skin tests (TST) we found that 93.7% (CI 72.4-100%) of persons reached were recruited, 97.9% (89.3-100%) of those recruited had tests placed, 85.5% (78.6-91.3%) of those with tests placed returned for reading, 99.9% (99.6-100%) of those with tests read had valid results, and 24.7% (21.0-28.5%) with valid results tested positive. All persons testing positive were referred to follow-up care, and 99.8% attended at least one session of follow-up care. Heterogeneity was high for most pooled proportions. For a hypothetical cohort of 1000 persons experiencing homelessness reached by a targeted testing program using TST, an estimated 917 were tested, 194 were positive, and all of these initiated follow-up care. Targeted TB testing of persons experiencing homelessness appears effective in detecting LTBI and connecting persons to care and potential treatment. Future evaluations should assess diagnostic use of interferon gamma release assays and completion of

  15. Interferon-γ release assays for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diel, R; Goletti, D; Ferrara, G

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the accuracy of the QuantiFERON-TB® Gold In-Tube (QFT-G-IT) and the T-SPOT®.TB assays with the tuberculin skin test (TST) for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI). The Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases...... of IGRAs varied 98-100%. In immunocompetent adults, NPV for progression to tuberculosis within 2 yrs were 97.8% for T-SPOT®.TB and 99.8% for QFT-G-IT. When test performance of an immunodiagnostic test was not restricted to prior positivity of another test, progression rates to tuberculosis among IGRA...

  16. False-positive Human Papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    Based on data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) on primary cervical screening, it has been reported that the problem of more frequent false-positive tests in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA screening compared to cytology could be overcome. However, these reports predominantly operated...

  17. Buffer substitution in malaria rapid diagnostic tests causes false-positive results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Ende Jef

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs are kits that generally include 20 to 25 test strips or cassettes, but only a single buffer vial. In field settings, laboratory staff occasionally uses saline, distilled water (liquids for parenteral drugs dilution or tap water as substitutes for the RDT kit's buffer to compensate for the loss of a diluent bottle. The present study assessed the effect of buffer substitution on the RDT results. Methods Twenty-seven RDT brands were run with EDTA-blood samples of five malaria-free subjects, who were negative for rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibodies. Saline, distilled water and tap water were used as substitute liquids. RDTs were also run with distilled water, without adding blood. Results were compared to those obtained with the RDT kit's buffer and Plasmodium positive samples. Results Only eight cassettes (in four RDT brands showed no control line and were considered invalid. Visible test lines occurred for at least one malaria-free sample and one of the substitutes in 20/27 (74% RDT brands (saline: n = 16; distilled water: n = 17; and tap water: n = 20, and in 15 RDTs which were run with distilled water only. They occurred for all Plasmodium antigens and RDT formats (two-, three- and four-band RDTs. Clearance of the background of the strip was excellent except for saline. The aspects (colour, intensity and crispness of the control and the false-positive test lines were similar to those obtained with the RDT kits' buffer and Plasmodium positive samples. Conclusion Replacement of the RDT kit's dedicated buffer by saline, distilled water and tap water can cause false-positive test results.

  18. A novel clinical sign in intraocular tuberculosis: Active chorioretinitis within chorioretinal atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash Pathengay; Bhavik Panchal; Himadri Choudhury; Soumyava Basu; Nidhi Relhan; Harry W. Flynn, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To report a novel clinical sign in patients with intraocular tuberculosis. The current study is an observational consecutive case series of patients diagnosed with intraocular tuberculosis managed at a tertiary eye care centre from June 1, 2012 to December 31, 2015. Observations: The diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis was made in 6 patients based on ocular features suggestive of tuberculosis along with a positive tuberculin skin testing and chest X-ray consistent with tuberculo...

  19. Cooperative testing of a positive personnel identifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.B.; Grambihler, A.J.; Graham, D.K.; Bradley, R.G.

    1980-06-01

    HEDL has a requirement to ensure the identification of remote computer terminal operators on a real-time nuclear inventory data base. The integrity of this data base depends on input from authorized individuals. Thus, a key to developing such a system is the ability to positively identify people attempting access to the system. Small scale tests of the Identimat 2000T hand geometry unit with an adjusting alogrithm have suggested a promising solution. To prove operational suitability, HEDL, in cooperation with Sandia Laboratories, has designed a large scale test of the Identimat 2000T. Data gathering on error rates, reliability, maintainability, and user acceptance will determine if the Identimat 2000T is suitable for the HEDL application. If proven acceptable, use of the Identimat 2000T can be broadened to many general applications where security information, locations and systems are required

  20. Positive hepatitis B surface antigen tests due to recent vaccination: a persistent problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rysgaard Carolyn D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV is a common cause of viral hepatitis with significant health complications including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Assays for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg are the most frequently used tests to detect HBV infection. Vaccination for HBV can produce transiently detectable levels of HBsAg in patients. However, the time course and duration of this effect is unclear. The objective of this retrospective study was to clarify the frequency and duration of transient HBsAg positivity following vaccination against HBV. Methods The electronic medical record at an academic tertiary care medical center was searched to identify all orders for HBsAg within a 17 month time period. Detailed chart review was performed to identify all patients who were administered HBV vaccine within 180 days prior to HBsAg testing and also to ascertain likely cause of weakly positive (grayzone results. Results During the 17 month study period, 11,719 HBsAg tests were ordered on 9,930 patients. There were 34 tests performed on 34 patients who received HBV vaccine 14 days or less prior to HBsAg testing. Of these 34 patients, 11 had grayzone results for HBsAg that could be attributed to recent vaccination. Ten of the 11 patients were renal dialysis patients who were receiving HBsAg testing as part of routine and ongoing monitoring. Beyond 14 days, there were no reactive or grayzone HBsAg tests that could be attributed to recent HBV vaccination. HBsAg results reached a peak COI two to three days following vaccination before decaying. Further analysis of all the grayzone results within the 17 month study period (43 results out of 11,719 tests revealed that only 4 of 43 were the result of true HBV infection as verified by confirmatory testing. Conclusions Our study confirms that transient HBsAg positivity can occur in patients following HBV vaccination. The results suggest this positivity is unlikely to persist beyond 14 days

  1. A prospective study of the psychosocial impact of a positive Chlamydia trachomatis laboratory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Stoner, Bradley P; Zaidi, Akbar A; Buckel, Christina; Tran, Molly; Leichliter, Jami S; Berman, Stuart M; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2011-11-01

    Few data exist on potential harms of chlamydia screening. We assessed the psychosocial impact of receiving a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test result. We prospectively studied women ≥16 years of age undergoing chlamydia testing in 2 Midwestern family planning clinics. We surveyed women at baseline and about 1 month after receiving test results, using 9 validated psychosocial scales/subscales and chlamydia-specific questions. Changes in scale scores were calculated for each woman. Mean percent changes in scores for chlamydia-positive and -negative women were compared using a t test. We enrolled 1807 women (response rate, 84%). Of the 1688 women with test results, 149 (8.8%) tested positive. At follow-up, chlamydia-positive women (n = 71) had a 75% increase in anxiety about sexual aspects of their life on the Multidimensional Sexual Self-Concept Questionnaire (P < 0.001), significantly greater than the 26% increase among 280 randomly selected chlamydia-negative women (P = 0.02). There were no differences for the other 8 scales/subscales, including general measures of anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Chlamydia-positive women were more likely than chlamydia-negative women to be "concerned about chlamydia" (80% vs. 40%, P < 0.001) and to report breaking up with a main partner (33% vs. 11%, P < 0.001) at follow-up. Women testing positive reported a range of chlamydia-specific concerns. Chlamydia-positive women had significant increases in anxiety about sex and concern about chlamydia, but did not have marked changes in more general measures of psychosocial well-being about 1 month after diagnosis. Chlamydia diagnoses were associated with some disruption of relationships with main partners. Chlamydia-specific concerns may guide counseling messages to minimize psychosocial impact.

  2. Isolation and identification of Mycobacterium bovis in milk from cows in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelson Marcolino Ramos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Milk samples from 16 cows that tested positive on the tuberculin test in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil, were used for mycobacteria isolation and identification. Mycobacteria were isolated from five (31.25% of the 16 milk samples; three samples were classified as M. bovis, and two as belonging to the Mycobacterium genus. This is probably the first study of isolation and identification of M. bovis in milk from cows in Northeastern Brazil, which suggests that humans are at risk of contamination by ingestion.

  3. Primary care visit use after positive fecal immunochemical test for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Jensen, Christopher D; Zhao, Wei K; Neugut, Alfred I; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Tiro, Jasmin A; Kushi, Lawrence H; Corley, Douglas A

    2017-10-01

    For some patients, positive cancer screening test results can be a stressful experience that can affect future screening compliance and increase the use of health care services unrelated to medically indicated follow-up. Among 483,216 individuals aged 50 to 75 years who completed a fecal immunochemical test to screen for colorectal cancer at a large integrated health care setting between 2007 and 2011, the authors evaluated whether a positive test was associated with a net change in outpatient primary care visit use within the year after screening. Multivariable regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between test result group and net changes in primary care visits after fecal immunochemical testing. In the year after the fecal immunochemical test, use increased by 0.60 clinic visits for patients with true-positive results. The absolute change in visits was largest (3.00) among individuals with positive test results who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer, but significant small increases also were found for patients treated with polypectomy and who had no neoplasia (0.36) and those with a normal examination and no polypectomy performed (0.17). Groups of patients who demonstrated an increase in net visit use compared with the true-negative group included patients with true-positive results (odds ratio [OR], 1.60; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.54-1.66), and positive groups with a colorectal cancer diagnosis (OR, 7.19; 95% CI, 6.12-8.44), polypectomy/no neoplasia (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.27-1.48), and normal examination/no polypectomy (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.18-1.30). Given the large size of outreach programs, these small changes can cumulatively generate thousands of excess visits and have a substantial impact on total health care use. Therefore, these changes should be included in colorectal cancer screening cost models and their causes investigated further. Cancer 2017;123:3744-3753. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  4. Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis by score system in children and adolescents: a trial in a reference center in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemax Couto Sant'Anna

    Full Text Available Since 2002, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has recommended a score system for tuberculosis diagnosis of children and adolescents that does not need bacteriological positivity, because most cases in this age group have few bacteria. An observational, transversal study was carried out at the outpatient health care service of the reference medical service in Salvador, Bahia, including 164 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, with ages ranging between 1 and 15 years of age, who were treated from 1990 to 2001. The gold standard used to establish the diagnosis was clinical, radiological, epidemiological and based on follow-up data. The score system for diagnosis purposes was tested retrospectively. The median age and the average age of the 164 patients were 6 and 6.62 years (SD ± 4.33, respectively. About 65% of the sample reported a history of close contact with a tuberculous adult. The BCG vaccine coverage was 70.7% (116/164. It was found that 26% (43/164 of the patients had severe malnutrition. Out of this group, 26/43 (60.47% were < 5mm reactive to the tuberculin test. On the other hand, out of the 91 patients with tuberculin test < 5mm, 29% (26/ 91 had severe malnutrition. The use of the score gave the following distribution: a TB very likely in 81.7% (134/164 of the patients; b possible TB in 15.9% (26/164 and TB unlikely in 2.4% (4/164. Among patients who had been vaccinated more than 2 years before, there was a 9 times higher risk of finding a tuberculin test above 10 mm in individuals with probable TB in comparison with the patients with possible or unlikely TB.

  5. Predictors for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo with positive Dix–Hallpike test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noda K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Kazutaka Noda, Masatomi Ikusaka, Yoshiyuki Ohira, Toshihiko Takada, Tomoko TsukamotoDepartment of General Medicine, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, JapanObjective: Patient medical history is important for making a diagnosis of causes of dizziness, but there have been no studies on the diagnostic value of individual items in the history. This study was performed to identify and validate useful questions for suspecting a diagnosis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV.Methods: Construction and validation of a disease prediction model was performed at the outpatient clinic in the Department of General Medicine of Chiba University Hospital. Patients with dizziness were enrolled (145 patients for construction of the disease prediction model and 61 patients for its validation. This study targeted BPPV of the posterior semicircular canals only with a positive Dix–Hallpike test (DHT + BPPV to avoid diagnostic ambiguity. Binomial logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the items that were useful for diagnosis or exclusion of DHT + BPPV.Results: Twelve patients from the derivation set and six patients from the validation set had DHT + BPPV. Binomial logistic regression analysis selected a "duration of dizziness ≤15 seconds" and "onset when turning over in bed" as independent predictors of DHT + BPPV with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval of 4.36 (1.18–16.19 and 10.17 (2.49–41.63, respectively. Affirmative answers to both questions yielded a likelihood ratio of 6.81 (5.11–9.10 for diagnosis of DHT + BPPV, while negative answers to both had a likelihood ratio of 0.19 (0.08–0.47.Conclusion: A "duration of dizziness ≤15 seconds" and "onset when turning over in bed" were the two most important questions among various historical features of BPPV.Keywords: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, likelihood ratio, diagnosis, screening, prediction rules

  6. Testing HIV positive in pregnancy: A phenomenological study of women's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingen-Stallard, Andrew; Furber, Christine; Lavender, Tina

    2016-04-01

    globally women receive HIV testing in pregnancy; however, limited information is available on their experiences of this potentially life-changing event. This study aims to explore women's experiences of receiving a positive HIV test result following antenatal screening. a qualitative, phenomenological approach. two public National Health Service (NHS) hospitals and HIV support organisations. a purposive sampling strategy was used. Thirteen black African women with a positive HIV result, in England, participated. data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews. An interpretive phenomenological approach to data analysis was used. the emergent phenomenon was transition and transformation of 'being,' as women accepted HIV as part of their lives. Paired themes support the phenomenon: shock and disbelief; anger and turmoil; stigma and confidentiality issues; acceptance and resilience. Women had extreme reactions to their positive HIV diagnosis, compounded by the cultural belief that they would die. Initial disbelief of the unexpected result developed into sadness at the loss of their old self. Turmoil was evident, as women considered termination of pregnancy, self-harm and suicide. Women felt isolated from others and relationship breakdowns often occurred. Most reported the pervasiveness of stigma, and how this was managed alongside living with HIV. Coping strategies included keeping HIV 'secret' and making their child(ren) the prime focus of life. Growing resilience was apparent with time. this study gives midwives unique understanding of the complexities and major implications for women who tested positive for HIV. Women's experiences resonated with processes of bereavement, providing useful insight into a transitional and transformational period, during which appropriate support can be targeted. midwives are crucial in improving the experience of women when they test HIV positive and to do this they need to be appropriately trained. Midwives need to

  7. The Intradermal Tuberculin Test as a Research Tool

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1973-01-27

    Jan 27, 1973 ... to attend school in the second case, are a few of the factors which can bias the results.) The scientist must ensure that all steps are taken to avoid any .... A random permutation of the 4 digits was matched with the sequential list of numbers. A 'mother list' of. 180 random permutations was easily obtained, ...

  8. Tuberculosis. Lung and extrapulmonary compromise (cutaneous and ganglionar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez Mildred; Neira, Myriam Consuelo; Latorre Pablo; Faisal, Michel

    2000-01-01

    We present the case or a male, 28 year old that consulted for fever, weight loss and axillary ulcer. Clinically had two skin lesions where cutaneous tuberculosis was proven (lupus vulgaris-scrofuloderma). The skin lesions led to the diagnosis of lung tuberculosis and tuberculous adenitis. In this case all the diagnostic criteria for cutaneous tuberculosis were completed: active presence of tuberculosis in another place, positive reaction to tuberculin test, physical signs and appropriate answer to the treatment

  9. The champagne toast position isolates the supraspinatus better than the Jobe test: an electromyographic study of shoulder physical examination tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Peter N; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Kupfer, Noam; Wimmer, Markus A; Verma, Nikhil N; Cole, Brian J; Romeo, Anthony A; Nicholson, Gregory P

    2016-02-01

    While Jobe's test is widely used, it does not isolate supraspinatus activity. Our purpose was to examine the electromyographic (EMG) activity within the supraspinatus and deltoid with resisted abduction to determine the shoulder position that best isolates the activity of the supraspinatus. We performed EMG analysis of the supraspinatus, anterior head of the deltoid, and middle head of the deltoid in 10 normal volunteers. We measured EMG activity during resisted shoulder abduction in the scapular plane to both manual resistance and a standardized load in varying degrees of abduction and rotation. To determine which position best isolates supraspinatus activity, the ratio of supraspinatus to deltoid activity (S:D) was calculated for each position. Results were analyzed with a repeated-measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction. The posterior deltoid was excluded as it serves mostly to extend and externally rotate. Our study confirmed Jobe's findings of maximal supraspinatus activity at 90° of abduction. However, decreasing abduction significantly increased S:D for both resisted manual testing and testing against a standardized load (P = .002 and .001, respectively). The greatest S:D ratio (4.6 ± 3.4 for standardized load testing) was seen at the "champagne toast" position, i.e., 30° of abduction, mild external rotation, 30° of flexion, and 90° of elbow flexion. The smallest ratio (0.8 ± 0.6) was seen at Jobe's position. Testing of abduction strength in the champagne toast position, i.e., 30° of abduction, mild external rotation, and 30° of flexion, better isolates the activity of the supraspinatus from the deltoid than Jobe's "empty can" position. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Control rod position and temperature coefficients in HTTR power-rise tests. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Nozomu; Nojiri, Naoki; Takada, Eiji; Saito, Kenji; Kobayashi, Shoichi; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Kokusen, Sigeru

    2001-03-01

    Power-rise tests of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) have been carried out aiming to achieve 100% power. So far, 50% of power operation and many tests have been carried out. In the HTTR, temperature change in core is so large to achieve the outlet coolant temperature of 950degC. To improve the calculation accuracy of the HTTR reactor physics characteristics, control rod positions at criticality and temperature coefficients were measured at each step to achieve 50% power level. The calculations were carried out using Monte Carlo code and diffusion theory with temperature distributions in the core obtained by reciprocal calculation of thermo-hydraulic code and diffusion theory. Control rod positions and temperature coefficients were calculated by diffusion theory and Monte Carlo method. The test results were compared to calculation results. The control rod positions at criticality showed good agreement with calculation results by Monte Carlo method with error of 50 mm. The control position at criticality at 100% was predicted around 2900mm. Temperature coefficients showed good agreement with calculation results by diffusion theory. The improvement of calculation will be carried out comparing the measured results up to 100% power level. (author)

  11. Positive Skin Test or Specific IgE to Penicillin Does Not Reliably Predict Penicillin Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tannert, Line Kring; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Skov, Per Stahl

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: According to guidelines, patients are diagnosed with penicillin allergy if skin test (ST) result or specific IgE (s-IgE) to penicillin is positive. However, the true sensitivity and specificity of these tests are presently not known. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical relevance...... of a positive ST result and positive s-IgE and to study the reproducibility of ST and s-IgE. METHODS: A sample of convenience of 25 patients with positive penicillin ST results, antipenicillin s-IgE results, or both was challenged with their culprit penicillin. Further 19 patients were not challenged......-IgE measured (T0), and then skin tested and had s-IgE measured 4 weeks later (T1). RESULTS: Only 9 (36%) of 25 were challenge positive. There was an increased probability of being penicillin allergic if both ST result and s-IgE were positive at T0. Positive ST result or positive s-IgE alone did not predict...

  12. Detection test of wireless network signal strength and GPS positioning signal in underground pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Yunwei; Chen, Ling

    2018-03-01

    In order to solve the problem of selecting positioning technology for inspection robot in underground pipeline environment, the wireless network signal strength and GPS positioning signal testing are carried out in the actual underground pipeline environment. Firstly, the strength variation of the 3G wireless network signal and Wi-Fi wireless signal provided by China Telecom and China Unicom ground base stations are tested, and the attenuation law of these wireless signals along the pipeline is analyzed quantitatively and described. Then, the receiving data of the GPS satellite signal in the pipeline are tested, and the attenuation of GPS satellite signal under underground pipeline is analyzed. The testing results may be reference for other related research which need to consider positioning in pipeline.

  13. Participation behaviour following a false positive test in the Copenhagen mammography screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Vejborg, Ilse; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2008-01-01

    women experiencing a negative screening test, regardless of whether the false positive statement was given following assessment or following surgery. The benign to malignant biopsy ratio, comparing the type B false positives to the true positives, was by the fifth round well below the desirable level...

  14. Skin irritability to sodium lauryl sulfate is associated with increased positive patch test reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitulla, J; Brasch, J; Löffler, H; Schnuch, A; Geier, J; Uter, W

    2014-07-01

    As previous observations have indicated an inter-relationship between irritant and allergic skin reactions we analysed data of synchronous allergen and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) patch tests in terms of a relationship between SLS responsiveness and allergic patch test reactions. To analyse differences in terms of allergen-specific and overall reaction profiles between patients with vs. those without an irritant reaction to SLS. Clinical data of 26 879 patients patch tested from 2008 to 2011 by members of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology were analysed. After descriptive analyses, including the MOAHLFA index, the positivity ratio and the reaction index, a negative binomial hurdle model was adopted to investigate the correlation between SLS reactivity and positive patch test reactions. Men, patients aged ≥ 40 years and patients with an occupational dermatitis background were over-represented in the SLS-reactive group. Patients with an irritant reaction to SLS showed a higher proportion of weak positive reactions, as well as more questionable and irritant reactions to contact allergens than patients not reactive to SLS. The risk of an additional positive patch test reaction increased by 22% for SLS-reactive patients compared with those who were SLS negative. The marked association between SLS reactivity and the number of positive reactions in patch test patients may be due to nonspecific increased skin reactivity at the moment of patch testing only. However, increased SLS reactivity could also be due to longer-lasting enhanced skin irritability, which may have promoted (poly-)sensitization. Further studies, for example with longitudinal data on patients repeatedly patch tested with SLS and contact allergens, are necessary. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. The prevalence of skin-test-positive allergic rhinitis in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Jørgensen, T; Nielsen, N H

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is disputed whether increases in self-reported respiratory allergy represent a true increase or merely increased recognition. We aimed to investigate whether the prevalence of skin-prick-test (SPT)-positive allergic rhinitis had increased in an adult general population in Copenhagen...... (participation rate 74.6%) and 482 (participation rate 53.4%) subjects were examined in 1990 and 1998, respectively. Diagnoses of SPT-positive allergic rhinitis were based on a history of nasal symptoms on exposure to allergens and SPT positivity to allergens. RESULTS: The prevalence of a diagnosis of SPT...

  16. Design, building and test of one prototype and four final position sensor assemblies: Hall effect position sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    This report covers the development of a three channel Hall effect position sensing system for the commutation of a three phase dc torquer motor. The effort consisted of the evaluation, modification and re-packaging of a commercial position sensor and the design of a target configuration unique to this application. The resulting design meets the contract requirements and, furthermore, the test results indicate not only the practicality and versatility of the design, but also that there may be higher limits of resolution and accuracy achievable.

  17. Risk factors for false positive and for false negative test results in screening with fecal occult blood testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Inge; de Wijkerslooth, Thomas R.; Stoop, Esther M.; van Leerdam, Monique; van Ballegooijen, M.; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A.; Fockens, Paul; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Dekker, Evelien; Bossuyt, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the risk of a false negative or a false positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) across subgroups may affect optimal screening strategies. We evaluate whether subgroups are at increased risk of a false positive or a false negative FIT result, whether such variability in risk is

  18. Preliminary performance test of control rod position indicator for ballscrew type CEDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, J. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Hu, H.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, J. I.

    2003-01-01

    The reliability and accuracy of the information on control rod position are very important to the reactor safety and the design of the core protection system. A survey on the RSPT(Reed Switch Position Transmitter) type control rod position indication system and its actual implementation in the exiting nuclear power plants in Korea was performed first. The prototype of control rod position indicator having the high performance for the ballscrew type CEDM was developed on the basis of RSPT technology identified through the survey. The characteristics of control rod position indicator was defined and documented through design procedure and preliminary performance test

  19. The risk of tuberculosis related to tumour necrosis factor antagonist therapies: a TBNET consensus statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solovic, I; Sester, M; Gomez-Reino, J J

    2010-01-01

    risk of reactivating latent infections, especially tuberculosis (TB). Following TNF antagonist therapy, the relative risk for TB is increased up to 25 times, depending on the clinical setting and the TNF antagonist used. Interferon-¿ release assays or, as an alternative in individuals without a history...... of bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination, tuberculin skin testing is recommended to screen all adult candidates for TNF antagonist treatment for the presence of latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover, paediatric practice suggests concomitant use of both the tuberculin skin test...

  20. Risk assessment of tuberculosis in immunocompromised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sester, Martina; van Leth, Frank; Bruchfeld, Judith

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: In the absence of active tuberculosis, a positive tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) result defines latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, although test results may vary depending on immunodeficiency. OBJECTIVES: This study compared the performance...... of TST and IGRAs in five different groups of immunocompromised patients, and evaluated their ability to identify those at risk for development of tuberculosis. METHODS: Immunocompromised patients with HIV infection, chronic renal failure, rheumatoid arthritis, solid-organ or stem-cell transplantation......, and healthy control subjects were evaluated head-to-head by the TST, QuantiFERON-TB-Gold in-tube test (ELISA), and T-SPOT.TB test (enzyme-linked immunospot) at 17 centers in 11 European countries. Development of tuberculosis was assessed during follow-up. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Frequencies of positive...

  1. Tuberculosis screening of travelers to higher-incidence countries: A cost-effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menzies Dick

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Travelers to countries with high tuberculosis incidence can acquire infection during travel. We sought to compare four screening interventions for travelers from low-incidence countries, who visit countries with varying tuberculosis incidence. Methods Decision analysis model: We considered hypothetical cohorts of 1,000 travelers, 21 years old, visiting Mexico, the Dominican Republic, or Haiti for three months. Travelers departed from and returned to the United States or Canada; they were born in the United States, Canada, or the destination countries. The time horizon was 20 years, with 3% annual discounting of future costs and outcomes. The analysis was conducted from the health care system perspective. Screening involved tuberculin skin testing (post-travel in three strategies, with baseline pre-travel tests in two, or chest radiography post-travel (one strategy. Returning travelers with tuberculin conversion (one strategy or other evidence of latent tuberculosis (three strategies were offered treatment. The main outcome was cost (in 2005 US dollars per tuberculosis case prevented. Results For all travelers, a single post-trip tuberculin test was most cost-effective. The associated cost estimate per case prevented ranged from $21,406 for Haitian-born travelers to Haiti, to $161,196 for US-born travelers to Mexico. In all sensitivity analyses, the single post-trip tuberculin test remained most cost-effective. For US-born travelers to Haiti, this strategy was associated with cost savings for trips over 22 months. Screening was more cost-effective with increasing trip duration and infection risk, and less so with poorer treatment adherence. Conclusion A single post-trip tuberculin skin test was the most cost-effective strategy considered, for travelers from the United States or Canada. The analysis did not evaluate the use of interferon-gamma release assays, which would be most relevant for travelers who received BCG

  2. IGRA-Based Screening for Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Persons Newly Incarcerated in New York City Jails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Monica; Leibowitz, Ruth; Venters, Homer

    2018-04-01

    In the United States, latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) detection in correctional settings is a public health priority. Interferon gamma release assay (IGRA)-based LTBI screening was introduced in New York City jails in 2011 to 2012, replacing historically used tuberculin skin testing (TST), which was associated with substantial incomplete screening rates. This retrospective, cross-sectional study evaluated LTBI screening outcomes and correlates of positivity in 40,986 persons newly incarcerated in 2011 to 2013. Of 35,090 eligible patients tested (96.4%), final results were 6.3% positive, 93.4% negative, and 0.2% indeterminate. In multivariable regression modeling, sex, age, race/ethnicity, nativity, marital status, prior jail incarceration, and HIV status were correlated with positivity. IGRA-based screening yielded high screening and low indeterminate test rates and may be recommended in correctional and other settings where TST is currently used.

  3. Design, Development and Testing of a Semicircular Type Capacitive Angular Position Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil GAURAV

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A low cost semicircular type capacitive angular position sensor has been designed, developed and tested. It is made of two semicircular parallel plates where one plate is fixed and another plate is connected with the rotor whose angular position is to be measured. When the angular position of the rotor changes with respect to the fixed plate, the overlapping area between the two plates of the capacitor is varied causing a change in capacitance value. Capacitance variation obtained due to the change in angular position is in the nano farad range. For signal conditioning, series R-L-C resonating circuit instead of conventional bridge circuit has been used to convert the sensor capacitance variation in to voltage. Experimental result shows that the capacitance for change in angular position 0º-180º increases linearly and for 180º-360º it decreases linearly. To get a linearly increasing response of same slope for the full scale of 0º-360º, a suitable linearising circuit has been designed, developed and tested. Sensor output along with the signal conditioning shows good linearity and repeatability.

  4. Hydroxychloroquine-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis with positive patch-testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfi, Ons; Kastalli, Sarrah; Sahnoun, Rym; Lakhoua, Ghozlane

    2015-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a severe cutaneous adverse reaction, mostly induced by drugs. Hydroxychloroquine have been rarely reported in literature as a causative drug of this reaction. We report a case of AGEP induced by hydroxychloroquine with systemic involvement and confirmed by positive patch testing.

  5. Tuberculosis of the penis: report of a case and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    谷川, 克己; 松下, 一男; 大越, 正秋

    1985-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the penis is a rare disease. We report a case of tuberculosis of the penis. A 51-year-old man noticed a painless induration with a central ulceration on the glans penis. He had a history of tuberculosis of cervical lymph-nodes, right epididymis and leg skin. Examination of the other parts showed no evidence of tuberculosis. Tuberculin test was strongly positive. The skin lesion of the glans was excised. The pathology was epithelioid cell granuloma with Langhans' giant cell, in...

  6. 9 CFR 80.4 - Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. 80.4 Section 80.4 Animals and Animal Products... animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. Animals that are positive... from the animals positive to an official Johne's disease test to the healthy animals in the vehicle. ...

  7. 16 CFR 1203.15 - Positional stability test (roll-off resistance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Positional stability test (roll-off resistance). 1203.15 Section 1203.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT... over the helmet along the midsagittal plane and attaching the hook over the edge of the helmet as shown...

  8. 9 CFR 80.3 - Movement of domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... positive to an official Johne's disease test. 80.3 Section 80.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test. (a) Movement of domestic animals for slaughter. Domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test may be moved interstate...

  9. [Necessity of repeated roll test in horizontal semicircular canalithasis positioned diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H H; Zhao, Y; Chen, T S; Xu, K X; Wang, W; Liu, Q; Wen, C; Li, S S; Li, X J; Han, X; Lin, P

    2016-04-07

    To investigate the influence of repeated roll test in horizontal semicircular canalithasis(HSC-Can) positioned diagnosis, so as to investigate the cecessity of repeated roll test. The patients with a chief complaint of positional vertigo accepted two consecutive cycles roll test, the evoked nystagmus characteristics of each cycle recorded by video-nystagmuograph(VNG), whose direction, intensity, time and other parameters characteristics were analyzed in 51 HSC-Can. Horizontal nystagmus in the same direction with turning were induced in HSC-Can roll test. In 51 HSC-Can, roll test cycle 1 and cycle 2 induced nystagmus same strength side in 26 cases(51.0%), of which 19 cases with stronger nystagmus intensity in cycle 2, another 7 cases were weaker; the opposite strength side of the two loops induced nystagmus, and cycle 1 evoked nystagmus intensity were weaker than cycle 2, based on cycle 2 results determined HSC-Can affected side in 25 cases (49.0%). Lesion and normal side in cycle 1 induced nystagmus duration (x±s, the same below) were (13.4±11.5)s and (14.1±9.9)s, respectively intensity (18.1±22.4)°/s and (13.0±12.0)°/s; as in cycle 2 induced nystagmus duration was (20.7±10.2)s and (18.0±12.0)s, strength respectively(40.4±28.0)°/s and (15.6 ±11.2)°/s. Cycle 2 ipsilateral rotor position evoked nystagmus showed longer duration and stronger intensity than cycle 1. Between two cycle induced ipsilateral nystagmus duration, intensity differences were statistically significant (t values were -4.233 and -5.154, P=0.000). 51 HSC-Can patients, 44 patients selected repositioning maneuver, after 1-2 times of maneuver, 41 cases (93.2%) showed complete resolution of symptoms, all cases's symptoms were improved; other 7 patients selected medication only. The proposed suspicious HSC-Can patients should receive at least two cycles roll test, and mainly in the second cycle could determine the location of the responsible semicircular canals.

  10. Prevalência para tuberculose caprina no semi-árido paraibano Prevalence for caprine tuberculosis in semi-arid of Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkyria Antunes Pignata

    2009-07-01

    and ages from 84 herds in the microregion of Monteiro, State of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil, were tuberculinized by the Comparative Cervical Test (CCT. Interpretation of the CCT was checked by calculation of the difference obtained between skin measures correspondent to respective tuberculins, before and 72 hours after inoculation: negative, when bovine PPD is smaller than avian PPD or larger in up to 1.8mm; suspicious or inconclusive, reaction to bovine PPD larger than avian PPD between 1.9 and 2.4mm; positive, reaction to bovine PPD larger than or equal to avian PPD in 2.5mm. From goats submitted to CCT, 0.47% (9/1866 reacted positively (95% CI = 0.23%-0.94%. The prevalence of positive herds to caprine tuberculosis was 10.71% (95% CI = 5.02-19.37%. When submitted to necropsy and histopathologic examination, a positive goat at tuberculin test presented tuberculosis-like lesions. The presence of Acid-Alcohol Resistant Bacilli (BAAR was also detected by direct bacterioscopy; in relation to herd size, herds with larger number of animals ( >25 with high incidence of the disease, and presence of the infection was evidenced in properties that raised cattle in association with goats and did not carry out tuberculin tests in cattle.

  11. Antibiotic-induced immediate type hypersensitivity is a risk factor for positive allergy skin tests for neuromuscular blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagau, Natalia; Gherman, Nadia; Cocis, Mihaela; Petrisor, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Skin tests for neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are not currently recommended for the general population undergoing general anaesthesia. In a previous study we have reported a high incidence of positive allergy tests for NMBAs in patients with a positive history of non-anaesthetic drug allergy, a larger prospective study being needed to confirm those preliminary results. The objective of this study was to compare the skin tests results for patients with a positive history of antibiotic-induced immediate type hypersensitivity reactions to those of controls without drug allergies. Ninety eight patients with previous antibiotic hypersensitivity and 72 controls were prospectively included. Skin tests were performed for atracurium, pancuronium, rocuronium, and suxamethonium. We found 65 positive skin tests from the 392 tests performed in patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity (1 6.58%) and 23 positive skin tests from the 288 performed in controls (7.98%), the two incidences showing significant statistical difference (p = 0.0011). The relative risk for having a positive skin test for NMBAs for patients versus controls was 1.77 (1.15-2.76). For atracurium, skin tests were more often positive in patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity versus controls (p = 0.02). For pancuronium, rocuronium and suxamethonium the statistical difference was not attained (p-values 0.08 for pancuronium, 0.23 for rocuronium, and 0.26 for suxamethonium). Patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity seem to have a higher incidence of positive skin tests for NMBAs. They might represent a group at higher risk for developing intraoperative anaphylaxis compared to the general population. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Acceptance of referral for partners by clients testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netsanet F

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetene Netsanet,1 Ayalew Dessie21IMA World Health SuddHealth Multi Donor Trust Fund-Basic Package of Health Services Project, Juba, South Sudan; 2United States Agency for International Development, Private Health Sector Program, Abt Associates Inc, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individuals who do not disclose their HIV status to their partners are more likely to present late for HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS care than those who have disclosed their HIV status to their partners. A major area of challenge with regards to HIV counseling for clients is disclosure of their HIV status to their partners. The main methods of partner notification are patient referral, provider referral, contract referral, and outreach assistance. The emphasis on a plausible and comprehensive partner referral strategy for widespread positive case detection in resource-limited countries needs to be thought out and developed.Methods: A qualitative study was conducted among newly HIV-positive clients to identify partners for notification and acceptance of referral by their partners. Health service providers working in HIV testing and counseling clinics were also provided with semistructured questionnaires in order to assess their view towards partner notification strategies for clients testing positive for HIV.Results: Fifteen newly diagnosed HIV-positive clients were counseled to provide referral slips to their partners. All clients agreed and took the referral card. However, only eight were willing and actually provided the card to their partners. Five of the eight partners of clients who tested HIV-positive and who were provided with referral cards responded to the referral and were tested for HIV. Three were positive and two were negative. Nine of 11 counselors did not agree to requesting partner locator information from HIV-positive clients for contractual referral and/or outreach assistance. The findings

  13. A CLASS OF DISTRIBUTION-FREE TESTS FOR INDEPENDENCE AGAINST POSITIVE QUADRANT DEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameshwar V Pandit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A class of distribution-free tests based on convex combination of two U-statistics is considered for testing independence against positive quadrant dependence. The class of tests proposed by Kochar and Gupta (1987 and Kendall’s test are members of the proposed class. The performance of the proposed class is evaluated in terms of Pitman asymptotic relative efficiency for Block- Basu (1974 model and Woodworth family of distributions. It has been observed that some members of the class perform better than the existing tests in the literature.  Unbiasedness and consistency of the proposed class of tests have been established.

  14. Outcome in clients with positive pregnancy test following IVF/ICSI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A retrospective analysis of the outcome of all patients who have recorded a positive pregnancy test following IVF/ICSI treatment from June 1999 to December 2002 was done. Materials and Methods: A total of 1256 treatment cycles were carried out using the long day 1 (early follicular phase) or day 21 ...

  15. Re-activation of bovine tuberculosis in a patient treated with infliximab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vang; Thomsen, V Ø; Sørensen, Inge Juul

    2008-01-01

    . QuantiFERON-TB (QFT) testing performed during screening and immunosuppressive treatment was indeterminate, whereas the QFT test performed at the time of ascites puncture was positive. The patient history revealed previous work at a dairy, with probable exposure to unpasteurised milk from M. bovis......Treatment with tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB). Screening for latent TB infection (LTBI) and prophylactic treatment has become mandatory. A 79-yr-old female with a history of severe erosive sero-positive rheumatoid arthritis was screened for LTBI...... before initiation of treatment with infliximab. The tuberculin skin test (TST) was negative, chest radiography was normal and she had no known risk factors for TB. After 4 months of treatment with infliximab, the patient developed ascites caused by Mycobacterium bovis. The TST was repeatedly negative...

  16. Poor Positive Predictive Value of Lyme Disease Serologic Testing in an Area of Low Disease Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, Paul M; Branda, John A; Boggan, Joel C; Chudgar, Saumil M; Wilson, Elizabeth A; Ruffin, Felicia; Fowler, Vance; Auwaerter, Paul G; Nigrovic, Lise E

    2015-11-01

    Lyme disease is diagnosed by 2-tiered serologic testing in patients with a compatible clinical illness, but the significance of positive test results in low-prevalence regions has not been investigated. We reviewed the medical records of patients who tested positive for Lyme disease with standardized 2-tiered serologic testing between 2005 and 2010 at a single hospital system in a region with little endemic Lyme disease. Based on clinical findings, we calculated the positive predictive value of Lyme disease serology. Next, we reviewed the outcome of serologic testing in patients with select clinical syndromes compatible with disseminated Lyme disease (arthritis, cranial neuropathy, or meningitis). During the 6-year study period 4723 patients were tested for Lyme disease, but only 76 (1.6%) had positive results by established laboratory criteria. Among 70 seropositive patients whose medical records were available for review, 12 (17%; 95% confidence interval, 9%-28%) were found to have Lyme disease (6 with documented travel to endemic regions). During the same time period, 297 patients with a clinical illness compatible with disseminated Lyme disease underwent 2-tiered serologic testing. Six of them (2%; 95% confidence interval, 0.7%-4.3%) were seropositive, 3 with documented travel and 1 who had an alternative diagnosis that explained the clinical findings. In this low-prevalence cohort, fewer than 20% of positive Lyme disease tests are obtained from patients with clinically likely Lyme disease. Positive Lyme disease test results may have little diagnostic value in this setting. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. QuantiFERON®-TB gold in-tube performance for diagnosing active tuberculosis in children and adults in a high burden setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Michala Vaaben; Kimaro, Godfather; Nissen, Thomas N

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) can contribute to the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) in children in a high-burden setting and to assess the performance of QFT and tuberculin skin test (TST) in a prospective cohort of TB suspect children compared to adults with confi......To determine whether QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) can contribute to the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) in children in a high-burden setting and to assess the performance of QFT and tuberculin skin test (TST) in a prospective cohort of TB suspect children compared to adults...

  18. For Men: A Positive Zika Virus Test, What Does It Mean for Me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    CDC’s Response to Zika FOR MEN: A POSITIVE ZIKA VIRUS TEST What does it mean for me? You’ ... Zika test result, which means that you have Zika virus. Zika is spread through mosquito bites and through ...

  19. Migrant screening: Lessons learned from the migrant holding level at the Greek-Turkish borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eonomopoulou, Assimoula; Pavli, Androula; Stasinopoulou, Panagiota; Giannopoulos, Lambros A; Tsiodras, Sotirios

    In March 2011, a migrant health project became operational that aimed to provide medical and psychosocial support to migrants at the Greek-Turkish border. The aim of this study is to describe common syndromes, the communicable disease profile and vaccination patterns in newly arrived migrants through a surveillance system that was based on medical records data as well as screening procedures. Data were collected prospectively using one standardized form per patient including demographic information, civil status, and medical and vaccination history. A tuberculin screening test (TST) and serological testing for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C were performed after obtaining informed consent. A total of 6899 migrants were screened, the majority of whom were male (91%) and 18-31 years old (85%), with a mean age of 25.3 years. Of all patients, 2.5% received secondary care. Common complaints and diagnoses included respiratory infections (23%) and myalgia (18%). The tuberculin screening test (TST) was positive in 7.8% out of 1132 patients tested. Out of 632 migrants, 0.3%, 3.2% and 0.8% tested positive for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C, respectively. Overall, 22.3% of adults were vaccinated against poliomyelitis. Irregular migrants that enter Greek borders are generally in good health. Nevertheless, the risk of spreading communicable diseases is an important issue to consider among migrants at the holding level due to severe overcrowding conditions. Therefore, there is a need to strengthen surveillance and implement harmonized screening procedures with the aim of providing sustainable and good quality services that are focused on prevention and early treatment. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevelence of latent tuberculosis and associated risk factors in children under 5 years of age in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubashir Zafar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As infected children represent a large proportion of the pool from which tuberculosis (TB cases will arise and its associated risk factors that influence TB infection are basic cause for burden of TB. Aim: This study was to determine the prevalence of latent TB and associated risk factors in children less than 5 year of age in Karachi, Pakistan. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study and it was conducted in tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Materials and Methods: In this study, children who were living in contact with individuals who had proven smear-positive pulmonary TB cases were investigated. A tuberculin skin test (TST was performed on each child. TST sizes ≥5 and 10 mm, respectively, were considered positive. Statistical Analysis: A random effects logistic regression model, which takes into account the clustering of contacts within households, was used to assess the relationship between the tuberculin response of the contact and risk factors. Results are reported as unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. The likelihood ratio test was used to assess the overall significance of risk factors, tests for trend, and tests for interaction. Results: The distribution of TST responses followed a bimodal pattern, with 135 (35% children presenting a palpable induration. The risk of positive TST response in the child increased with the geographic proximity of the child to the individual with TB within the household and with the degree of activities shared with the individual with TB. Nutritional status and presence of a bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG scar were not independent risk factors for TST positivity in this population. On multivariate analysis, the effect of geographic proximity to the individual with TB, household size, and duration of cough in the index case persisted for TST responses ≥5 mm. Conclusions: Positive TST in a child reflects most probably TB infection rather than previous BCG

  1. [Mes differ by positioning: empirical testing of decentralized dynamics of the self].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Shinichi

    2013-10-01

    The present study empirically tested the conceptualization of the decentralized dynamics of the self proposed by Hermans & Kempen (1993), which they developed theoretically and from clinical cases, not from large samples of empirical data. They posited that worldviews and images of the self could vary by positioning even in the same individual, and denied that the ego was an omniscient entity that knew and controlled all aspects of the self (centralized ego). Study 1 tested their conceptualization empirically with 47 university students in an experimental group and 17 as a control group. The results showed that the scores on the Rosenberg's self-esteem scale and images of the Mes in the experimental group significantly varied by positioning, but those in the control group did not. Similar results were found in Study 2 with a sample of 120 university students. These results empirically supported the conceptualization of the decentralized dynamics of the self.

  2. PCR-based verification of positive rapid diagnostic tests for intestinal protozoa infections with variable test band intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sören L; Müller, Ivan; Mertens, Pascal; Herrmann, Mathias; Zondie, Leyli; Beyleveld, Lindsey; Gerber, Markus; du Randt, Rosa; Pühse, Uwe; Walter, Cheryl; Utzinger, Jürg

    2017-10-01

    Stool-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for pathogenic intestinal protozoa (e.g. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis) allow for prompt diagnosis and treatment in resource-constrained settings. Such RDTs can improve individual patient management and facilitate population-based screening programmes in areas without microbiological laboratories for confirmatory testing. However, RDTs are difficult to interpret in case of 'trace' results with faint test band intensities and little is known about whether such ambiguous results might indicate 'true' infections. In a longitudinal study conducted in poor neighbourhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa, a total of 1428 stool samples from two cohorts of schoolchildren were examined on the spot for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. intestinalis using an RDT (Crypto/Giardia DuoStrip; Coris BioConcept). Overall, 121 samples were positive for G. intestinalis and the RDT suggested presence of cryptosporidiosis in 22 samples. After a storage period of 9-10 months in cohort 1 and 2-3 months in cohort 2, samples were subjected to multiplex PCR (BD Max™ Enteric Parasite Panel, Becton Dickinson). Ninety-three percent (112/121) of RDT-positive samples for G. intestinalis were confirmed by PCR, with a correlation between RDT test band intensity and quantitative pathogen load present in the sample. For Cryptosporidium spp., all positive RDTs had faintly visible lines and these were negative on PCR. The performance of the BD Max™ PCR was nearly identical in both cohorts, despite the prolonged storage at disrupted cold chain conditions in cohort 1. The Crypto/Giardia DuoStrip warrants further validation in communities with a high incidence of diarrhoea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Protecting health care workers from tuberculosis: a 10-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbel, Sharon F; French, Audrey L; Bush, Patricia; DeGuzman, Delia; Weinstein, Robert A

    2009-10-01

    Cook County Hospital (CCH) is an inner-city, large public hospital. Twenty-five percent of Chicago's tuberculosis (TB) cases are diagnosed at CCH. We wanted to review and analyze interventions implemented over a 10-year period at CCH to prevent TB infection in health care workers. We performed a retrospective review of interventions to prevent health care-associated tuberculosis. We collated and analyzed tuberculin skin test conversions in our employees for the same time period. From 1990 to 2002, we cared for over 1800 in-patients with tuberculosis. During 1992-1997, multiple interventions to eliminate health care-associated spread of tuberculosis were implemented. Tuberculin skin test conversions in our employees decreased markedly from January 1994 through December 2002. Two drops in tuberculin skin test conversion rates occurred: one after introduction of basic administrative and engineering controls and a second after we experienced a decrease in missed TB cases and the introduction of N-95 personal respirators with 1-time qualitative fit testing. Our annual health care worker skin test conversion rate fell significantly when our primary interventions were relatively simple administrative and engineering controls. Educating health care workers to promptly recognize patients with TB and placing exhaust fans to create negative-pressure respiratory isolation rooms were probably our 2 most potent infection control measures.

  4. A comparative study of the typhidot (Dot-EIA) and Widal tests in blood culture positive cases of typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoharo, Haji Khan

    2011-07-01

    Seventy-six blood culture positive typhoid cases and forty-eight controls were studied. The typhidot test was positive in 74 (97.36%) cases, with a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 96%, 89.5%, and 95%, respectively, compared to the Widal test which was positive in 56 (73.68%) cases with a sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of 72%, 87%, and 87%, respectively (P = 0.001). In the control group, seven (14.5%) cases tested positive for the Widal test and two (4.16%) for the typhidot (P = 0.001), yielding the sensitivity and specificity for the Widal test and the typhidot test of 63% and 83%, and 85% and 97%, respectively. We conclude that the Dot-EIA (enzyme immunoassay; typhidot) is a more sensitive and specific test which is easy to perform and more reliable compared to the Widal test and that it is useful in early therapy.

  5. Group Systematic Desensitization Versus Covert Positive Reinforcement in the Reduction of Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, Marion P.; Galassi, John P.

    1974-01-01

    The study compared modified versions of systematic desensitization and covert positive reinforcement to a no-treatment control condition in the reduction of test anxiety. On an anagrams performance test, the covert reinforcement and control groups were superior to the desensitization group. (Author)

  6. PAL-XFEL cavity beam position monitor pick-up design and beam test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sojeong, E-mail: sojung8681@postech.ac.kr; Park, Young Jung; Kim, Changbum; Kim, Seung Hwan; Shin, Dong Cheol; Han, Jang-Hui; Ko, In Soo

    2016-08-11

    As an X-ray Free Electron Laser, PAL-XFEL is about to start beam commissioning. X-band cavity beam position monitor (BPM) is used in the PAL-XFEL undulator beam line. Prototypes of cavity BPM pick-up were designed and fabricated to test the RF characteristics. Also, the beam test of a cavity BPM pick-up was done in the Injector Test Facility (ITF). In the beam test, the raw signal properties of the cavity BPM pick-up were measured at a 200 pC bunch charge. According to the RF test and beam test results, the prototype cavity BPM pick-up design was confirmed to meet the requirements of the PAL-XFEL cavity BPM system.

  7. Polymerase Chain Reaction targeting insertion sequence IS6110 for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis among Sudanese children and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed L Osman

    2014-01-01

    All children participating in the study were subjected to the Mantoux test after obtaining appropriate consent injected by 5 tuberculin units of tuberculin purified protein derivative, and the results were recorded after three days. Specimens were decontaminated and inoculated on Lowenstein–Jensen media according to the modified Petroff's method. Two smears were prepared and stained by Ziehl–Neelsen stain and Auramine fluorescent dye; bacterial DNA was extracted from each specimen by using phenol chloroform method, and then the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique was adopted to detect Insertion Sequence IS6110 gene of MTB in these specimens. This study showed that the positive results for TST, ZN, Auramine, Culture and PCR were 86 (43.7%, 16 (8.1%, 22 (11.2%, 32 (16.2% and 35(17.8%, respectively. The study concluded that the PCR technique is the most sensitive and specific technique for a quick identification of MTB in gastric lavage and sputum from children who are unable to expectorate a good quality sputum sample or who are diagnosed as negative using conventional diagnostic methods.

  8. Characterization of human organ donors testing positive for type 1 diabetes-associated autoantibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, A; Granstam, A; Ingvast, S; Härkönen, T; Knip, M; Korsgren, O; Skog, O

    2015-01-01

    In this study we aim to describe the characteristics of non-diabetic organ donors with circulating diabetes-associated autoantibodies collected within the Nordic Network for Islet Transplantation. One thousand and thirty organ donors have been screened in Uppsala for antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) and islet antigen-2 (IA-2A). The 32 non-diabetic donors that tested positive for GADA (3·3% of all non-diabetic donors) were studied in more detail, together with 32 matched controls. Mean age among the autoantibody-positive donors was 52·6 (range 21–74), family history of type 1 diabetes (T1D) was unknown, and no donor was genetically predisposed for T1D regarding the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) locus. Subjects were analysed for islet cell antibodies (ICA), insulin autoantibodies (IAA) and zinc transporter 8 antibodies (ZnT8A), and pancreas morphology and clinical data were examined. Eight non-diabetic donors tested positive for two antibodies and one donor tested positive for four antibodies. No insulitis or other signs of a diabetic process were found in any of the donors. While inflammatory cells were present in all donors, subjects with high GADA titres had significantly higher CD45 cell numbers in exocrine tissue than controls. The extent of fibrosis was more pronounced in autoantibody-positive donors, even in subjects with lower GADA titres. Notably, it is possible that events not related directly to T1D (e.g. subclinical pancreatitis) may induce autoantibodies in some cases. PMID:26313035

  9. Testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata com o evoluir da idade Positive skin test and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Carvalho Neves Forte

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliação da positividade aos testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata em crianças com asma brônquica e/ou rinite alérgica em diferentes faixas etárias. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: foi observada a positividade aos testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata, por testes de puntura, frente a diferentes alérgenos de mesma procedência: poeira total e Dermatophagóides sp, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae e Blomia tropicalis, Penicillium sp, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium herbarium, Aspergillus fumigatus, grama bermuda, capim de pasto, epitélio de cão, epitélio de gato, penas, Blatella germanica, lã. Foram selecionadas 713 crianças divididas em grupos conforme a faixa etária: grupo I (6 a 11 meses, II (1 a 3 anos e 11 meses, III (4 a 8 anos e 11 meses e IV (9 a 15 anos. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o cálculo do qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: o total de diferenças significativas entre os vários grupos foi: I e II = 5; II e III = 5; II e IV = 5; III e IV = 6; I e III = 10 e I e IV = 10 CONCLUSÃO: concluiu-se que a positividade ao teste de hipersensibilidade imediata foi maior com o evoluir da idade, havendo positividade já aos doze meses de vida, sendo esta positividade significativamente maior a partir de quatro anos de idade.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate positive responses to skin tests for immediate hypersensitivity to allergens in children with asthma and rhinitis at different ages. METHOD: we observed positive skin test reactivity in prick tests using fifteen allergens of same origin (total dust and Dermatophagoides sp.; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; Dermatophagoides farinae; Blomia tropicalis; Penicillium sp; Alternaria alternata; Cladosporium herbarium; Aspergillus fumigatus; Bermuda grass; forage grass; dog and cat epithelia; feathers; Blatella germanica and wool. We placed 713 selected patients into different age groups - Group I: 6 to 11 months; Group II: 1 to 3 years and 11

  10. IFN-γ release assay conversions and reversions. Challenges with serial testing in U.S. health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Manish; Monson, Thomas P; Joshi, Anita; Woods, Gail L

    2014-03-01

    IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs) including the QuantiFERON-TB gold in-tube test (QFT-GIT) are increasingly used in place of the tuberculin skin test (TST) in surveillance programs for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the United States. However, data on conversions, reversions, and predictive value of QFT in such programs for health care workers (HCWs) are limited. The purpose of this study is to assess long-term reproducibility and conversion and reversion rates of QFT-GIT among HCWs who underwent serial testing at a tertiary care center in the United States. Retrospective chart review of HCWs at the Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System (CAVHS) who underwent serial testing with QFT-GIT as a part of their employee screening between November 1, 2008 and January 31, 2011. A total of 2,303 HCWs had at least 2 QFT-GITs 1 year apart. The initial QFT-GIT was positive for 69 and 2 were indeterminate. Of these 69 HCWs, 31 (45%) reverted on repeat testing, and 25 of 31 (80.6%) HCWs who reverted had a negative look-back TST. Of the 2,232 HCWs with an initial negative QFT-GIT, 71 (3.2%) converted on repeat testing. A third QFT-GIT assay was performed in 41 of the 71 converters and 90% (37 of 41) reverted back to negative. Only two HCWs had TST and QFT-GIT conversion. Poor IGRA reproducibility and a low predictive value of QFT-GIT conversions indicate that QFT-GIT with current interpretation criteria should not be used for serial screening of U.S. HCWs. Negative TSTs have higher reproducibility than QFT-GIT for serial testing of HCWs in low tuberculosis incidence settings.

  11. Center not liable for defamation from false-positive hepatitis test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-18

    The Nebraska Court of Appeals ruled that [name removed] does not have a cause of action against the Lincoln Plasma Center in Lincoln, NE. The center blacklisted him as a carrier of hepatitis B virus; subsequent tests proved [name removed] was uninfected. [Name removed], a paid plasma donator, was placed on an ineligible list after he tested positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen. [Name removed] sued, alleging that Lincoln defamed him by publishing false information to blood banks about his eligibility to donate. The Court of Appeals upheld a trial court's directed verdict because there was no evidence that the plasma center acted in malice.

  12. Yoga and positive body image: A test of the Embodiment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlo, Leeann; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-09-01

    The study aimed to test the Embodiment Model of Positive Body Image (Menzel & Levine, 2011) within the context of yoga. Participants were 193 yoga practitioners (124 Iyengar, 69 Bikram) and 127 university students (non-yoga participants) from Adelaide, South Australia. Participants completed questionnaire measures of positive body image, embodiment, self-objectification, and desire for thinness. Results showed yoga practitioners scored higher on positive body image and embodiment, and lower on self-objectification than non-yoga participants. In support of the embodiment model, the relationship between yoga participation and positive body image was serially mediated by embodiment and reduced self-objectification. Although Bikram practitioners endorsed appearance-related reasons for participating in yoga more than Iyengar practitioners, there were no significant differences between Iyengar and Bikram yoga practitioners on body image variables. It was concluded that yoga is an embodying activity that can provide women with the opportunity to cultivate a favourable relationship with their body. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Time-to-positivity, type of culture media and oxidase test performed on positive blood culture vials to predict Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with Gram-negative bacilli bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos-Triguero, N; Zboromyrska, Y; Morata, L; Alejo, I; De La Calle, C; Vergara, A; Cardozo, C; Arcas, M P; Soriano, A; Marco, F; Mensa, J; Almela, M; Martínez, J A

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of oxidase test and time-to-positivity (TTP) in aerobic and anaerobic blood culture vials to detect the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) bacteraemia. TTP was recorded for each aerobic and anaerobic blood culture vial of monomicrobial bacteraemia due to GNB. Oxidase test was performed in a pellet of the centrifuged content of the positive blood culture. An algorithm was developed in order to perform the oxidase test efficiently taking into account TTP and type of vial. A total of 341 episodes of GNB bacteraemia were analysed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the oxidase test performed on positive vials with GNB to predict P. aeruginosa were 95%, 99%, 91%, and 99%, respectively. When growth was first or exclusively detected in anaerobic vials, P. aeruginosa was never identified hence the performance of the oxidase test could be avoided. When growth was only or first detected in aerobic vials, a TTP≥8h predicted P. aeruginosa in 37% or cases (63 of 169), therefore oxidase test is highly recommended. Oxidase test performed onto positive blood culture vials previously selected by TTP and type of vials is an easy and inexpensive way to predict P. aeruginosa. In most cases, this can lead to optimization of treatment in less than 24 hours.

  14. Sensitivity, Specificity, and Positivity Predictors of the Pneumococcal Urinary Antigen Test in Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos, Luis; Zalacain, Rafael; Menéndez, Rosario; Reyes, Soledad; Capelastegui, Alberto; Cillóniz, Catia; Rajas, Olga; Borderías, Luis; Martín-Villasclaras, Juan J; Bello, Salvador; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Rodríguez de Castro, Felipe; Rello, Jordi; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan; Gabarrús, Albert; Musher, Daniel M; Torres, Antoni

    2015-10-01

    Detection of the C-polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine by an immune-chromatographic test is increasingly used to evaluate patients with community-acquired pneumonia. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of this test in the largest series of cases to date and used logistic regression models to determine predictors of positivity in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. We performed a multicenter, prospective, observational study of 4,374 patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. The urinary antigen test was done in 3,874 cases. Pneumococcal infection was diagnosed in 916 cases (21%); 653 (71%) of these cases were diagnosed exclusively by the urinary antigen test. Sensitivity and specificity were 60 and 99.7%, respectively. Predictors of urinary antigen positivity were female sex; heart rate≥125 bpm, systolic blood pressureantibiotic treatment; pleuritic chest pain; chills; pleural effusion; and blood urea nitrogen≥30 mg/dl. With at least six of all these predictors present, the probability of positivity was 52%. With only one factor present, the probability was only 12%. The urinary antigen test is a method with good sensitivity and excellent specificity in diagnosing pneumococcal pneumonia, and its use greatly increased the recognition of community-acquired pneumonia due to S. pneumoniae. With a specificity of 99.7%, this test could be used to direct simplified antibiotic therapy, thereby avoiding excess costs and risk for bacterial resistance that result from broad-spectrum antibiotics. We also identified predictors of positivity that could increase suspicion for pneumococcal infection or avoid the unnecessary use of this test.

  15. Can ultrasound of plantar plate have normal appearance with a positive drawer test?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Eloy de Avila [Affiliated Professor, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (EPM-Unifesp), São Paulo (Brazil); Mann, Tania Szejnfeld [Medical Assistant of Medicine and Surgery of the Foot and Ankle Group, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Puchnick, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.ddi@epm.br [Professor and Coordinator of Educational and Research Support, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Tertulino, Franklin de Freitas [Postgraduate Physician, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Cannato, Camila Testoni [Resident Physician, Department of Surgery, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Nery, Caio [Associate Professor, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Corrêa [Associate Professor, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •We evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound to identify and measure the plantar plate. •We correlate ultrasound findings with those of physical examination and MRI. •Ultrasound and MRI measures of plantar plate were positively correlated. •Ultrasound is efficient in identifying and measuring plantar plate. •Ultrasound may complement physical examination. •Young asymptomatic subjects can present a grade I positive drawer test. -- Abstract: Objectives: The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the reliability of ultrasound (US) examination in the identification and measurement of the metatarsophalangeal plantar plate (MTP-PP) in asymptomatic subjects and (2) to establish the correlation of US findings with those of physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), once it is an important tool in the evaluation of the instability syndrome of the second and third rays. Materials and Methods: US examinations of the second and third MTP-PPs were performed in eight asymptomatic volunteers, totaling 32 MTP joints, by three examiners with different levels of experience in musculoskeletal US. Plantar plate dimensions, integrity and echogenicity, the presence of ruptures, and confidence level in terms of structure identification were determined using conventional US. Vascular flow was assessed using power Doppler. US data were correlated with data from physical examination and MRI. Results: MTP-PPs were ultrasonographically identified in 100% of cases, always showing homogeneous hyperechoic features and no detectable vascular flow on power Doppler, with 100% certainty in identification for all examiners. There was excellent US inter-observer agreement for longitudinal measures of second and third toe MTP-PPs and for transverse measures of the second toe MTP-PP. The MTP drawer test was positive for grade 1 MTP instability in 34.4% of joints with normal US results. Transverse MTP-PP measures were significantly higher in individuals with positive

  16. Community Laboratory Testing for Cryptosporidium: Multicenter Study Retesting Public Health Surveillance Stool Samples Positive for Cryptosporidium by Rapid Cartridge Assay with Direct Fluorescent Antibody Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Roellig

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a common cause of sporadic diarrheal disease and outbreaks in the United States. Increasingly, immunochromatography-based rapid cartridge assays (RCAs are providing community laboratories with a quick cryptosporidiosis diagnostic method. In the current study, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL, and four state health departments evaluated RCA-positive samples obtained during routine Cryptosporidium testing. All samples underwent "head to head" re-testing using both RCA and direct fluorescence assay (DFA. Community level results from three sites indicated that 54.4% (166/305 of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 87.0% (67/77 of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed by DFA. When samples were retested by RCA at state laboratories and compared with DFA, 83.3% (155/186 of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 95.2% (60/63 of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed. The percentage of confirmed community results varied by site: Minnesota, 39.0%; New York, 63.9%; and Wisconsin, 72.1%. The percentage of confirmed community results decreased with patient age; 12.5% of community positive tests could be confirmed by DFA for patients 60 years of age or older. The percentage of confirmed results did not differ significantly by sex, storage temperature, time between sample collection and testing, or season. Findings from this study demonstrate a lower confirmation rate of community RCA positives when compared to RCA positives identified at state laboratories. Elucidating the causes of decreased test performance in order to improve overall community laboratory performance of these tests is critical for understanding the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in the United States (US.

  17. A case report of sarcoidosis with review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Man Chung; Ha, Sung Whan; Rhie, Byung Chul; Lee, Pil Woo; Kim, Choo Wan; Choo, Dong Woon; Han, Yong Chul; Lee, Moon Ho; Kim, Yong Il

    1974-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is uncommon not rare disease in western nations. But in Korea there is no case report of this disease yet. Diagnosis of sarcoidosis is considered established when typical radiological findings and consistent clinical features are present with biopsy evidence of noncaseating epitheliod tubercles or a positive Kveim test. The patient is 40 year old Korean female with complaint of visual disturbance. Chest radiograms show bilateral hilar and paratracheal lymphadenopathy and pulmonary parenchymal involvement. Biopsy of nodule at left knee shows non-caseating tuberculoma. Tuberculin skin-test with PPD of 1:2,000 is negative. Sputum smear for A. F. B. are negative for 4 times. Kveim test is positive. We think that more cases will be found in Korea, if we consider the possibility of sarcoidosis when see a chest radiogram with lymphadenopathy with or without parenchymal change

  18. Bayesian receiver operating characteristic estimation of multiple tests for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in Chadian cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borna Müller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (BTB today primarily affects developing countries. In Africa, the disease is present essentially on the whole continent; however, little accurate information on its distribution and prevalence is available. Also, attempts to evaluate diagnostic tests for BTB in naturally infected cattle are scarce and mostly complicated by the absence of knowledge of the true disease status of the tested animals. However, diagnostic test evaluation in a given setting is a prerequisite for the implementation of local surveillance schemes and control measures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We subjected a slaughterhouse population of 954 Chadian cattle to single intra-dermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT testing and two recently developed fluorescence polarization assays (FPA. Using a Bayesian modeling approach we computed the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve of each diagnostic test, the true disease prevalence in the sampled population and the disease status of all sampled animals in the absence of knowledge of the true disease status of the sampled animals. In our Chadian setting, SICCT performed better if the cut-off for positive test interpretation was lowered from >4 mm (OIE standard cut-off to >2 mm. Using this cut-off, SICCT showed a sensitivity and specificity of 66% and 89%, respectively. Both FPA tests showed sensitivities below 50% but specificities above 90%. The true disease prevalence was estimated at 8%. Altogether, 11% of the sampled animals showed gross visible tuberculous lesions. However, modeling of the BTB disease status of the sampled animals indicated that 72% of the suspected tuberculosis lesions detected during standard meat inspections were due to other pathogens than Mycobacterium bovis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results have important implications for BTB diagnosis in a high incidence sub-Saharan African setting and demonstrate the practicability of our Bayesian approach for

  19. Development of a superconducting position sensor for the Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavier, Odile Helene

    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) is a joint NASA/ESA mission that proposes to measure the differential acceleration of two cylindrical test masses orbiting the earth in a drag-free satellite to a precision of 10-18 g. Such an experiment would conceptually reproduce Galileo's tower of Pisa experiment with a much longer time of fall and greatly reduced disturbances. The superconducting test masses are constrained in all degrees of freedom except their axial direction (the sensitive axis) using superconducting bearings. The STEP accelerometer measures the differential position of the masses in their sensitive direction using superconducting inductive pickup coils coupled to an extremely sensitive magnetometer called a DC-SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device). Position sensor development involves the design, manufacture and calibration of pickup coils that will meet the acceleration sensitivity requirement. Acceleration sensitivity depends on both the displacement sensitivity and stiffness of the position sensor. The stiffness must kept small while maintaining stability of the accelerometer. Using a model for the inductance of the pickup coils versus displacement of the test masses, a computer simulation calculates the sensitivity and stiffness of the accelerometer in its axial direction. This simulation produced a design of pickup coils for the four STEP accelerometers. Manufacture of the pickup coils involves standard photolithography techniques modified for superconducting thin-films. A single-turn pickup coil was manufactured and produced a successful superconducting coil using thin-film Niobium. A low-temperature apparatus was developed with a precision position sensor to measure the displacement of a superconducting plate (acting as a mock test mass) facing the coil. The position sensor was designed to detect five degrees of freedom so that coupling could be taken into account when measuring the translation of the plate

  20. Annual risks of tuberculous infection in East Nusa Tenggara and Central Java Provinces, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtiar, A; Miko, T Y; Machmud, R; Besral, B; Yudarini, P; Mehta, F; Chadha, V K; Basri, C; Loprang, F; Jitendra, R

    2009-01-01

    East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) and Central Java Provinces, Indonesia. To estimate the average annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI) among school children aged 6-9 years in each province. Children attending Classes 1-4 in 65 schools in NTT and 79 in Central Java, selected by two-stage sampling, were intradermally administered 2 tuberculin units of purified protein derivative RT23 with Tween 80 on the mid-volar aspect of the left forearm. The maximum transverse diameter of induration was measured 72 h later. The analysis was carried out among 5479 satisfactorily test-read children in NTT and 6943 in Central Java. One hundred and fifty-five new sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases (78 in NTT and 77 in Central Java) were also tuberculin tested. Based on the frequency distribution of reaction sizes among the children and PTB cases, the prevalence of infection was estimated by the mirror-image method using the modes of tuberculous reactions at 15 and 17 mm. Using the 15 mm mode, ARTI was estimated at 1% in NTT and 0.9% in Central Java. Using the 17 mm mode, ARTI was estimated at 0.5% in NTT and 0.4% in Central Java. Transmission of tuberculous infection may be further reduced by intensification of tuberculosis control efforts.

  1. Asthmatic Children And Immunological Effects Of BCG Vaccine Key words: Asthmatic children, BCG vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saaed, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    A TH2 screwed immune response is known to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of allergy, so, preventing the differentiation of TH cells. The TH2 cells are appeared as a logical therapeutic approach to atopic asthma. The purpose of TH1 study was to determine the possible role of BCG vaccine on asthma and whether a TH1 type immune response elicited by BCG immunization could suppress the allergic sensitization in childhood asthma. Seventy asthmatic patients (50 atopic and 20 non-atopic) and fifty healthy individuals were subjected to TH1 study. Tuberculin test was performed for all groups then subjects with positive tuberculin test were excluded. The BCG vaccine was given for all groups with assessment of TH1 and TH2 cytokine response by measuring total IgE, IL-4 (for TH2 response) and INF-γ (for TH1 response). Significant reduction in IgE and IL-4, and elevation in INF-γ were determined in group I (atopic asthma) following BCG vaccination. There was non-significant change observed in IgE and IL-4 levels of group II while significant reduction in IL-4 and significant increase in INF-γ was observed after BCG vaccine

  2. The impact of induced positive mood on symptomatic behaviour in eating disorders. An experimental, AB/BA crossover design testing a multimodal presentation during a test-meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardi, Valentina; Esposito, Mirko; Clarke, Ariana; Schifano, Sylvia; Treasure, Janet

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the impact of a multimodal positive mood vodcast including pleasant images, background uplifting music and a script designed to elicit positive mood on eating disorders-related symptoms in participants suffering from an Eating Disorder (ED) and healthy controls (HCs). Forty-two women with an ED (Anorexia Nervosa [AN]: N = 19; Bulimia Nervosa [BN]: N = 23) and 36 HCs were included in an AB/BA cross-over design which compared the use of a positive mood induction procedure ("positive mood vodcast") with a control condition (i.e. blue static background, neutral music, and script describing objective facts) during a test-meal. Self-report measures and behavioural tasks were completed before and after the test-meal. The positive mood vodcast was associated with greater consumption of the test meal in the AN group; reduced vigilance to food stimuli and lower anxiety in the BN sample; and no significant changes in the HC group. The use of a positive mood vodcast was associated with some beneficial effects in the context of an experimental test-meal in participants with an ED. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Positive cell-free fetal DNA testing for trisomy 13 reveals confined placental mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, April L; Drendel, Holli M; Verbrugge, Jennifer L; Reese, Angela M; Schumacher, Katherine L; Griffith, Christopher B; Weaver, David D; Abernathy, Mary P; Litton, Christian G; Vance, Gail H

    2013-09-01

    We report on a case in which cell-free fetal DNA was positive for trisomy 13 most likely due to confined placental mosaicism. Cell-free fetal DNA testing analyzes DNA derived from placental trophoblast cells and can lead to incorrect results that are not representative of the fetus. We sought to confirm commercial cell-free fetal DNA testing results by chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis. These results were followed up by postnatal chromosome analysis of cord blood and placental tissue. First-trimester cell-free fetal DNA test results were positive for trisomy 13. Cytogenetic analysis of chorionic villus sampling yielded a mosaic karyotype of 47,XY,+13[10]/46,XY[12]. G-banded analysis of amniotic fluid was normal, 46,XY. Postnatal cytogenetic analysis of cord blood was normal. Karyotyping of tissues from four quadrants of the placenta demonstrated mosaicism for trisomy 13 in two of the quadrants and a normal karyotype in the other two. Our case illustrates several important aspects of this new testing methodology: that cell-free fetal DNA may not be representative of the fetal karyotype; that follow-up with diagnostic testing of chorionic villus sampling and/or amniotic fluid for abnormal test results should be performed; and that pretest counseling regarding the full benefits, limitations, and possible testing outcomes of cell-free fetal DNA screening is important.

  4. Monitoring the electron beam position at the TESLA test facility free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamps, T

    2000-06-14

    The operation of a free electron laser working in the Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission mode (SASE FEL) requires the electron trajectory to be aligned with very high precision in overlap with the photon beam. In order to ensure this overlap, one module of the SASE FEL undulator at the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) is equipped with a new type of waveguide beam position monitor (BPM). Four waveguides are arranged symmetrically around the beam pipe, each channel couples through a small slot to the electromagnetic beam field. The induced signal depends on the beam intensity and on the transverse beam position in terms of beam-to-slot distance. With four slot--waveguide combinations a linear position sensitive signal can be achieved, which is independent of the beam intensity. The signals transduced by the slots are transferred by ridged waveguides through an impedance matching stage into a narrowband receiver tuned to 12 GHz. The present thesis describes design, tests, and implementation of this new type of BPM. (orig.)

  5. Tests of crossed-wire position sensitive photomultipliers for scintillating fiber particle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdrisat, C.F.; Koechner, D.; Majewski, S.; Pourang, R.; Wilson, C.D.; Zorn, C.

    1995-01-01

    Several applications of two Hamamatsu position sensitive photomultiplier tubes to the detection of high energy particles with scintillating fibers are discussed. The PMTs are of the multiwire anode grid design, type R2486 and R4135. These tubes were tested with both single samples and arrays of 2 and 3 mm diameter scintillating fibers. Measurements of position resolution of the PMTs using either the charge digitization or the delay line readout techniques were made. The results indicate an intrinsic inability of the technique to reconstruct the actual position of a fiber on the photocathode when its location falls halfway between two grid wires. A way to overcome this limit is suggested. (orig.)

  6. Erythema induratum of Bazin associated with Addison's disease: first description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Antonio Brandão Neto

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Erythema induratum of Bazin (EIB is considered to be a tuberculid reaction and consists of recurrent painful nodules. The differential diagnosis includes diseases like nodular vasculitis, perniosis, polyarteritis nodosa and erythema nodosum. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a woman with EIB who developed Addison's disease during treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs with good response to glucocorticoid replacement. The diagnosis was obtained through the clinical picture, positive tuberculin test and positive BCG (bacillus Calmette-Guérin test on the histological sample. Anti-tuberculosis drugs and glucocorticoid replacement led to disappearance of the signs and symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first description of an association between EIB and Addison's disease. It should be borne in mind that tuberculosis is an important etiological factor for Addison's disease.

  7. The risk of tuberculosis related to tumour necrosis factor antagonist therapies: a TBNET consensus statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solovic, I.; Sester, M.; Gomez-Reino, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    risk of reactivating latent infections, especially tuberculosis (TB). Following TNF antagonist therapy, the relative risk for TB is increased up to 25 times, depending on the clinical setting and the TNF antagonist used. Interferon-gamma release assays or, as an alternative in individuals without...... a history of bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination, tuberculin skin testing is recommended to screen all adult candidates for TNF antagonist treatment for the presence of latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover, paediatric practice suggests concomitant use of both the tuberculin skin test...... and an interferon-gamma release assay, as there are insufficient data in children to recommend one test over the other. Consequently, targeted preventive chemotherapy is highly recommended for all individuals with persistent M. tuberculosis-specific immune responses undergoing TNF antagonist therapy...

  8. Detecting positive quadrant dependence and positive function dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic-Wróblewska, A.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Ledwina, T.

    2004-01-01

    There is a lot of interest in positive dependence going beyond linear correlation. In this paper three new rank tests for testing independence against positive dependence are introduced. The first one is directed on positive quadrant dependence, the second and third one concentrate on positive

  9. Detecting positive quadrant dependence and positive function dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic-Wróblewska, A.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Ledwina, T.

    2003-01-01

    There is a lot of interest in positive dependence going beyond linear correlation. In this paper three new rank tests for testing independence against positive dependence are introduced. The first one is directed on positive quadrant dependence, the second and third one concentrate on positive

  10. Easy fix for clinical laboratories for the false-positive defect with the Abbott AxSym total beta-hCG test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laurence A; Khanlian, Sarah A

    2004-05-01

    False-positive hCG results can lead to erroneous diagnoses and needless chemotherapy and surgery. In the last 2 years, eight publications described cases involving false-positive hCG tests; all eight involved the AxSym test. We investigated the source of this abundance of cases and a simple fix that may be used by clinical laboratories. False-positive hCG was primarily identified by absence of hCG in urine and varying or negative hCG results in alternative tests. Seventeen false-positive serum samples in the AxSym test were evaluated undiluted and at twofold dilution with diluent containing excess goat serum or immunoglobulin. We identified 58 patients with false-positive hCG, 47 of 58 due to the Abbott AxSym total hCGbeta test (81%). Sixteen of 17 of these "false-positive" results (mean 100 mIU/ml) became undetectable when tested again after twofold dilution. A simple twofold dilution with this diluent containing excess goat serum or immunoglobulin completely protected 16 of 17 samples from patients having false-positive results. It is recommended that laboratories using this test use twofold dilution as a minimum to prevent false-positive results.

  11. Physiologic performance test differences in female volleyball athletes by competition level and player position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Monique; Ransdell, Lynda B; Simonson, Shawn R; Gao, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiologic performance test differences by competition level (high school and Division-I collegiate athletes) and player position (hitter, setter, defensive specialist) in 4 volleyball-related tests. A secondary purpose was to establish whether a 150-yd shuttle could be used as a field test to assess anaerobic capacity. Female participants from 4 varsity high school volleyball teams (n = 27) and 2 Division-I collegiate volleyball teams (n = 26) were recruited for the study. Participants completed 4 performance-based field tests (vertical jump, agility T-test, and 150- and 300-yd shuttle runs) after completing a standardized dynamic warm-up. A 2-way multivariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc adjustments (when appropriate) and effect sizes were used for the analyses. The most important findings of this study were that (a) college volleyball athletes were older, heavier, and taller than high school athletes; (b) high school athletes had performance deficiencies in vertical jump/lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness; (c) lower-body power was the only statistically significant difference in the performance test measures by player position; and (d) the correlation between the 150- and 300-yd shuttle was moderate (r = 0.488). Female high school volleyball players may enhance their ability to play collegiate volleyball by improving their vertical jump, lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness. Furthermore, all player positions should emphasize lower-body power conditioning. These physical test scores provide baseline performance scores that should help strength and conditioning coaches create programs that will address deficits in female volleyball player performance, especially as they transition from high school to college.

  12. Beam test of the 2D position sensitive neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Lichao; Chen Yuanbo; Sun Zhijia; Tang Bin; Zhou Jianrong; Qi Huirong; Liu Rongguang; Zhang Jian; Yang Guian; Xu Hong

    2014-01-01

    China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), one of the Major scientific apparatuses of the national Eleventh Five-Year Plane, is under construction and three spectrumeters will be constructed in the first phase of the project. A 2D position sensitive neutron detector has been constructed for the Multifunctional Reflect spectrumeter (MR) in Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP). The basic operation principle of the detector and the test on the residual stress diffractometer of Chinese Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) in China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) is introduced in this paper. The results show that it has a good position resolution of l.18 mm (FWHM) for the neutrons of l.37 A and 2D imaging ability, which is consistent with the theory. It can satisfy the requirements of MR and lays the foundation for the construction of larger neutron detectors. (authors)

  13. 241-AN-A valve pit manifold valves and position indication acceptance test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VANDYKE, D.W.

    1999-08-25

    This document describes the method used to test design criteria for gear actuated ball valves installed in 241-AN-A Valve Pit located at 200E Tank Farms. The purpose of this procedure is to demonstrate the following: Equipment is properly installed, labeled, and documented on As-Built drawings; New Manifold Valves in the 241-AN-A Valve Pit are fully operable using the handwheel of the valve operators; New valve position indicators on the valve operators will show correct valve positions; New valve position switches will function properly; and New valve locking devices function properly.

  14. First-in-man open clinical trial of a combined rdESAT-6 and rCFP-10 tuberculosis specific skin test reagent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Bergstedt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculin is still the only available skin test reagent for the diagnosis of mycobacterial infection. The product has a remarkable sensitivity, but poor specificity. Previous studies, including two human phase I clinical trials, have indicated that rdESAT-6 has a potential as an improved skin test reagent. Animal studies have shown that the sensitivity may be increased by inclusion of the genetically related CFP-10 antigen in the preparation without loosing specificity.In this study a Lactococcus fermented, recombinant skin test reagent consisting of a 1ratio1 wt/wt of rdESAT-6 and CFP-10 was manufactured according to GMP standards and tested for the first time in 42 healthy adult volunteers. The two doses of 0.01 microg or 0.1 microg were injected intradermally by the Mantoux technique with 6 or 12 weeks interval. No serious adverse events and only mild adverse reactions were reported. The reagent elicited a positive skin test reaction after the first injection in one participant, who most likely was latently infected with M. tuberculosis as indicated by an appreciable IFN gamma response just below the Quantiferon(R cut-off level at the screening visit. None of the remaining participants in the four groups had any skin test reactions and sensitisation by the reagent could therefore be excluded.The investigational skin test reagent rdESAT-6 and CFP-10 appeared safe and non-sensitising in this first-in-man clinical trial in human volunteers and can now be tested in larger clinical trials involving individuals with latent M. tuberculosis infection or active TB disease.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00793702.

  15. Latent tuberculosis in HIV positive, diagnosed by the M. tuberculosis specific interferon-gamma test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Inger; Ruhwald, Morten; Lundgren, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although tuberculosis (TB) is a minor problem in Denmark, severe and complicated cases occur in HIV positive. Since the new M. tuberculosis specific test for latent TB, the QuantiFERON-TB In-Tube test (QFT-IT) became available the patients in our clinic have been screened...

  16. [The exploration on optimization of two alternatives between roll test and Dix-Hallpike test in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, R; Chen, T S; Wang, W; Xu, K X; Li, S S; Wen, C; Liu, Q; Lin, P

    2017-06-07

    Objective: To analyze the objective characteristics of roll test and Dix-Hallpike test in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo(BPPV)patients, discussing the premier solution of positional test. Methods: A total of 230 patients with BPPV, whereas 170 posterior semicircular canal canalithiasis (PSC-Can) BPPV and 60 horizontal semicircular canal canalithiasis (HSC-Can) BPPV were involved respectively. The induced nystagmus in roll test and Dix-Hallpike test was recorded by video nystagmuo graph (VNG), and the direction, intensity and time characteristics of nystagmus were compared in various BPPV.SPSS19.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: Vertically upward nystagmus was induced by hanging in 170 PSC-Can Dix-Hallpike test, and the nystagmus reversed and turned weaker when the subjects came to sit. The intensity of nystagmus at turning to lesion side by hanging and sitting were (30.3±14.1)°/s and (12.6±7.5)°/s respectively, the difference was statistically significant ( t =20.153, P <0.05). However, no nystagmus was induced in PSC-Can roll test. Horizontal nystagmus in the same direction with turning was induced in 60 HSC-Can roll test. The intensity of nystagmus at turning to lesion side and normal side was (42.0±18.0)°/s and (20.3±8.7)°/s respectively, the difference was statistically significant ( t =12.731, P <0.05). Furthermore, horizontal nystagmus in the same direction with turning was induced in 57 HSC-Can Dix-Hallpike. The coherence was 95% with the results of roll test. Conclusions: Dix-Hallpike test can not only be used to diagnose PSC-Can, but also induce nystagmus in HSC-Can effectively. Whereas the roll test only show significance in diagnosing HSC-Can. To avoid uncomfortable stimulation to patients as much as possible, we suggest to use Dix-Hallpike test at first, and to judge whether using roll test based on the result of the horizontal nystagmus.

  17. [Application of injection test in confirming the ideal position of esophageal balloon catheter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Xu, Ming; Yang, Yanlin; He, Xuan; Zhou, Jianxin

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the safety and feasibility of injection test which is used to locate esophageal balloon catheter. A prospective study was conducted. The patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) admitted to general intensive care unit (ICU) of Beijing Tiantan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University from May 2015 and March 2017 were enrolled. The commercially available esophageal balloon catheter was modified to perform injection test. The catheter was withdrawn step by step and the injection test was repeated until the presence disturbance wave presented, which indicated that the balloon had just entered the esophagus. The position where disturbance wave appears was named 0 cm. End-expiratory occlusions were performed at the positions of +15, +10, +5, 0, -5, -10 and -15 cm, respectively, and the changes of esophageal pressure (Pes) and airway pressures (Paw) were measured in the spontaneous breathing and passive ventilation, and the ratio between the changes (ΔPes/ΔPaw) was calculated. A total of 20 patients were enrolled, of which 15 patients finished both the spontaneous and the passive ventilation parts, and 2 patients finished only the spontaneous part and 3 patients finished only passive part. (1) Disturbance waves could be induced by injection test in all patients. The average depth of disturbance wave in spontaneous breathing was deeper than that in passive ventilation (cm: 42.4±3.8 vs. 41.8±3.3), but there was no significant difference between the two ventilation settings (P = 0.132). No adverse events occurred during the study period. (2) Pes increased with the stepwise withdraw of esophageal catheter, reached the maximal value at +5 cm, and then decreased when the catheter was further withdrawn, no matter in the spontaneous or the passive ventilation. In spontaneous breathing, the ΔPes/ΔPaw was within the ideal range (0.8-1.2) at the positions of 0, -5 and -10 cm. The ΔPes/ΔPaw was closest to unity at the positions of 0 cm (0

  18. Evaluation of a Positive Youth Development Program Based on the Repertory Grid Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The repertory grid test, based on personal construct psychology, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes in Hong Kong. One hundred and four program participants (n=104 were randomly invited to complete a repertory grid based on personal construct theory in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative data for measuring self-identity changes after joining the program. Findings generally showed that the participants perceived that they understood themselves better and had stronger resilience after joining the program. Participants also saw themselves as closer to their ideal selves and other positive role figures (but farther away from a loser after joining the program. This study provides additional support for the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of Project P.A.T.H.S. in the Chinese context. This study also shows that the repertory grid test is a useful evaluation method to measure self-identity changes in participants in positive youth development programs.

  19. False-positive result when a diphenylcarbazide spot test is used on trivalent chromium-passivated zinc surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reveko, Valeriia; Lampert, Felix; Din, Rameez Ud

    2018-01-01

    chromium passivation on zinc; however, subsequent analysis by XPS could not confirm the presence of chromium in a hexavalent state. Conclusions Unintended oxidation of DPC induced by atmospheric corrosion is suggested as a possible reason for the false-positive reaction of the DPC test on a trivalent......A colorimetric 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC)-based spot test can be used to identify hexavalent chromium on various metallic and leather surfaces. DPC testing on trivalent chromium-passivated zinc surfaces has unexpectedly given positive results in some cases, apparently indicating the presence...... of hexavalent chromium; however, the presence of hexavalent chromium has never been confirmed with more sensitive and accurate test methods. Objectives To examine the presence of hexavalent chromium on trivalent chromium-passivated zinc surfaces with a DPC-based spot test. Methods A colorimetric DPC spot test...

  20. Age is associated with latent tuberculosis in nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naesinee Chaiear

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate risk factors for developing latent tuberculosis (LTB in Thai nurses. Methods: A comparison study was conducted at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand. Clinical factors were compared between persons with tuberculin conversion and those without tuberculin conversion identified by tuberculin skin test. Results: There were 173 eligible persons with the LTB (34.7%. There were five workplaces where participants worked regularly including the general ward, surgical ward, pediatric ward, medical ward and critical care ward. In a multivariate model, two factors were significantly associated with LTB including age and history of tuberculosis in colleagues. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval of both variables were 1.056 (1.004–1.104 and 0.202 (0.044– 0.941. Conclusions: Older age is associated with latent tuberculosis in nurses. LTB should be screened routinely and treated if diagnosed for nurses.

  1. Simple Sample Preparation Method for Direct Microbial Identification and Susceptibility Testing From Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong-Wei; Li, Wei; Li, Rong-Guo; Li, Yong; Zhang, Yi; Sun, En-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.

  2. Tuberculose bovina no Estado da Paraíba: estudo retrospectivo Bovine tuberculosis in the state of Paraíba: retrospective survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomão M. Figueiredo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a frequência de propriedades positivas (focos e de animais positivos para a tuberculose bovina no Estado da Paraíba. Foram utilizados dados da Agência de Defesa Agropecuária do Estado, coletados de suas 23 microrregiões, durante o período de janeiro de 2008 a julho de 2009. Durante esse período, foram examinadas 10.963 propriedades e 54.472 bovinos foram submetidos ao teste de tuberculinização. Para o diagnóstico foi utilizada, como prova de triagem, a tuberculinização cervical simples para gado de leite e a tuberculinização na prega caudal para gado de corte; como prova confirmatória foi utilizada a tuberculinização cervical comparativa. Uma propriedade foi considerada foco quando apresentou pelo menos um animal soropositivo. Das propriedades investigadas, 62 (0,57% apresentaram pelo menos um animal positivo e dos animais analisados, 136 (0,25% foram positivos. Houve diferença significativa (pThe aim of this study was to determine the frequency of positive herds (foci and positive animals for bovine tuberculosis in the state of Paraíba, Northeast region of Brazil. Data from the Agency of Agricultural Protection in the state, collected from its 23 microregions, during the January 2008 to July 2009 period, were used. During this period, 10,963 herds were examined and 54,472 cattle were submitted to the tuberculin test. For diagnosis the cervical and caudal-fold tuberculin tests were used as screening tests in dairy and beef cattle, respectively; as confirmatory test, comparative cervical test was used. A herd was considered focus when presented at least one positive animal. Of the herds investigated, 62 (0.57% had at least one positive animal, and of the animals examined, 136 (0.25% were positive. There was significant difference (p<0.001 in the proportion of positivity for females (0.32% and males (0.04%. Despite low frequency of foci of brucellosis and seropositive animals, it is

  3. Latent tuberculosis in HIV positive, diagnosed by the M. tuberculosis specific interferon-gamma test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Inger; Ruhwald, Morten; Lundgren, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) is a minor problem in Denmark, severe and complicated cases occur in HIV positive. Since the new M. tuberculosis specific test for latent TB, the QuantiFERON-TB In-Tube test (QFT-IT) became available the patients in our clinic have been screened for the presence of latent...

  4. Risks of Using Bedside Tests to Verify Nasogastric Tube Position in Adult Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody Ni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nasogastric (NG tubes are commonly used for enteral feeding. Complications of feeding tube misplacement include malnutrition, pulmonary aspiration, and even death. We built a Bayesian network (BN to analyse the risks associated with available bedside tests to verify tube position. Evidence on test validity (sensitivity and specificity was retrieved from a systematic review. Likelihood ratios were used to select the best tests for detecting tubes misplaced in the lung or oesophagus. Five bedside tests were analysed including magnetic guidance, aspirate pH, auscultation, aspirate appearance, and capnography/colourimetry. Among these, auscultation and appearance are non-diagnostic towards lung or oesophagus placements. Capnography/ colourimetry can confirm but cannot rule out lung placement. Magnetic guidance can rule out both lung and oesophageal placement. However, as a relatively new technology, further validation studies are needed. The pH test with a cut-off at 5.5 or lower can rule out lung intubation. Lowering the cut-off to 4 not only minimises oesophageal intubation but also provides extra safety as the sensitivity of pH measurement is reduced by feeding, antacid medication, or the use of less accurate pH paper. BN is an effective tool for representing and analysing multi-layered uncertainties in test validity and reliability for the verification of NG tube position. Aspirate pH with a cut-off of 4 is the safest bedside method to minimise lung and oesophageal misplacement.

  5. An epidemic of tuberculosis with a high rate of tuberculin anergy among a population previously unexposed to tuberculosis, the Yanomami Indians of the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Alexandra O.; Salem, Julia I.; Lee, Francis K.; Verçosa, Maria C.; Cruaud, Philippe; Bloom, Barry R.; Lagrange, Philippe H.; David, Hugo L.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of an emerging tuberculosis epidemic among the Yanomami Indians of the Amazonian rain forest provided a unique opportunity to study the impact of tuberculosis on a population isolated from contact with the tubercle bacillus for millennia until the mid-1960s. Within the Yanomami population, an extraordinary high prevalence of active tuberculosis (6.4% of 625 individuals clinically examined) was observed, indicating a high susceptibility to disease, even among bacille Calmette–Guérin-vaccinated individuals. Observational studies on cell-mediated and humoral immune responses of the Yanomami Indians compared with contemporary residents of the region suggest profound differences in immunological responsiveness to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Among the Yanomami, a very high prevalence of tuberculin skin test anergy was found. Of patients with active tuberculosis, 46% had purified protein derivative of tuberculosis reactions Yanomami also had higher titers of antibodies against M. tuberculosis glycolipid antigens (>70%) than the control subjects comprised of Brazilians of European descent (14%). The antibodies were mostly of the IgM isotype. Among the tuberculosis patients who also produced IgG antibodies, the titers of IgG4 were significantly higher among the Yanomami than in the control population. Although it was not possible to analyze T-cell responses or patterns of lymphokine production in vitro because of the remoteness of the villages from laboratory facilities, the results suggest that the first encounter of the Yanomami Indian population with tuberculosis engenders a diminished cell-mediated immune response and an increased production antibody responses, relative to other populations with extensive previous contact with the pathogen. These findings suggest that tuberculosis may represent a powerful selective pressure on human evolution that over centuries has shaped the nature of human immune responses to infection. PMID:9371828

  6. An epidemic of tuberculosis with a high rate of tuberculin anergy among a population previously unexposed to tuberculosis, the Yanomami Indians of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, A O; Salem, J I; Lee, F K; Verçosa, M C; Cruaud, P; Bloom, B R; Lagrange, P H; David, H L

    1997-11-25

    A survey of an emerging tuberculosis epidemic among the Yanomami Indians of the Amazonian rain forest provided a unique opportunity to study the impact of tuberculosis on a population isolated from contact with the tubercle bacillus for millennia until the mid-1960s. Within the Yanomami population, an extraordinary high prevalence of active tuberculosis (6.4% of 625 individuals clinically examined) was observed, indicating a high susceptibility to disease, even among bacille Calmette-Guérin-vaccinated individuals. Observational studies on cell-mediated and humoral immune responses of the Yanomami Indians compared with contemporary residents of the region suggest profound differences in immunological responsiveness to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Among the Yanomami, a very high prevalence of tuberculin skin test anergy was found. Of patients with active tuberculosis, 46% had purified protein derivative of tuberculosis reactions Yanomami also had higher titers of antibodies against M. tuberculosis glycolipid antigens (>70%) than the control subjects comprised of Brazilians of European descent (14%). The antibodies were mostly of the IgM isotype. Among the tuberculosis patients who also produced IgG antibodies, the titers of IgG4 were significantly higher among the Yanomami than in the control population. Although it was not possible to analyze T-cell responses or patterns of lymphokine production in vitro because of the remoteness of the villages from laboratory facilities, the results suggest that the first encounter of the Yanomami Indian population with tuberculosis engenders a diminished cell-mediated immune response and an increased production antibody responses, relative to other populations with extensive previous contact with the pathogen. These findings suggest that tuberculosis may represent a powerful selective pressure on human evolution that over centuries has shaped the nature of human immune responses to infection.

  7. Frequency of indeterminate results from an interferon-gamma release assay among HIV-infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria do Valle Leone de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the frequency of and factors associated with indeterminate interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA results in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. Methods: We tested 81 PLWHA in the central-west region of Brazil, using the tuberculin skin test and an IGRA. Information on sociodemographic and clinical variables was gathered through the use of questionnaires and from medical records. The association of those variables with indeterminate results was analyzed by calculating the adjusted ORs in a multivariate logistic regression model. Concordance was evaluated by determining the kappa statistic. Results: Among the 81 patients evaluated, the tuberculin skin test results were positive in 18 (22.2% of the patients, and the IGRA results were positive in 10 (12.3%, with a kappa of 0.62. The IGRA results were indeterminate in 22 (27.1% of the patients (95% CI: 17.8-38.1%. The odds of obtaining indeterminate results were significantly higher in smokers (adjusted OR = 6.0; 95% CI: 1.4-26.7 and in samples stored for less than 35 days (adjusted OR = 14.0; 95% CI: 3.1-64.2. Patients with advanced immunosuppression (CD4+ T-cell count < 200 cells/mm3 were at a higher risk for indeterminate results (OR adjusted for smoking and inadequate duration of sample storage = 4.7; 95% CI: 0.91-24.0, although the difference was not significant. Conclusions: The high prevalence of indeterminate results can be a major limitation for the routine use of IGRAs in PLWHA. The need to repeat the test increases its costs and should be taken into account in cost-effectiveness studies. The processing of samples can significantly alter the results.

  8. Longitudinal investigation on learned helplessness tested under negative and positive reinforcement involving stimulus control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Emileane C; Hunziker, Maria Helena

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we investigated whether (a) animals demonstrating the learned helplessness effect during an escape contingency also show learning deficits under positive reinforcement contingencies involving stimulus control and (b) the exposure to positive reinforcement contingencies eliminates the learned helplessness effect under an escape contingency. Rats were initially exposed to controllable (C), uncontrollable (U) or no (N) shocks. After 24h, they were exposed to 60 escapable shocks delivered in a shuttlebox. In the following phase, we selected from each group the four subjects that presented the most typical group pattern: no escape learning (learned helplessness effect) in Group U and escape learning in Groups C and N. All subjects were then exposed to two phases, the (1) positive reinforcement for lever pressing under a multiple FR/Extinction schedule and (2) a re-test under negative reinforcement (escape). A fourth group (n=4) was exposed only to the positive reinforcement sessions. All subjects showed discrimination learning under multiple schedule. In the escape re-test, the learned helplessness effect was maintained for three of the animals in Group U. These results suggest that the learned helplessness effect did not extend to discriminative behavior that is positively reinforced and that the learned helplessness effect did not revert for most subjects after exposure to positive reinforcement. We discuss some theoretical implications as related to learned helplessness as an effect restricted to aversive contingencies and to the absence of reversion after positive reinforcement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Chest radiography in supporting the diagnosis of asthma in children with persistent cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaby, Claudia; Feuerman, Martin; Barlev, Dan; Pirzada, Melodi

    2014-03-01

    To establish whether chest radiographic findings suggestive of lower airway obstruction (LAO) disease support the diagnosis of asthma in pediatric patients with persistent cough in an outpatient setting. 180 patient charts were reviewed. The patients were children aged 1 to 18 years referred over a 3-year period to a pediatric pulmonary subspecialty clinic for evaluation of cough lasting ≥ 4 weeks. Chest radiographic images obtained after the initial evaluation of 90 patients diagnosed with cough-variant asthma and 90 patients diagnosed with persistent cough from nonasthma origins were compared with radiologic findings of a control group consisting of patients with a positive tuberculin skin test and no respiratory symptoms. Increased peribronchial markings/peribronchial cuffing and hyperinflation were considered radiographically suggestive findings of LAO disease. Children diagnosed with cough-variant asthma at the initial evaluation had higher rates of chest radiographic findings suggestive of LAO disease (30.00%) than children with persistent cough from other causes (17.80%) or those with a positive tuberculin skin test and no respiratory symptoms (8.16%) (overall P value = 0.0063). They also had higher rates of spirometry abnormalities suggestive of an LAO defect. Children with chest radiographic findings suggestive of LAO disease were found to be younger than those with normal chest radiographic findings (5.0 ± 2.7 years vs 8.6 ± 4.7 years; P < 0.0001). This study suggests that chest radiographic findings indicative of an LAO in correlation with the clinical presentation can support the diagnostic suspicion of asthma, especially in younger children unable to perform spirometry.

  10. Tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in humans in the south-west region of Ireland: is there a relationship with infection prevalence in cattle?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, T P

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in humans to the prevalence of M. bovis infection in cattle in south-west Ireland and discuss possible links between them. SETTING: In the south-west region of Ireland, a mixed urban and rural community (pop. 536,000), there is a residuum of human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the incidence of culture-positive M. bovis disease in humans in south-west Ireland from 1983 to 1994 and of the results of tuberculin testing in cattle from 1978 to 1994 for the same region. RESULTS: One to five cases of human tuberculosis due to M. bovis were recorded per year while the overall prevalence of bovine infection fell gradually during the period of study from 467 tuberculin-positive animals per 100,000 cattle tested in 1983 to 158 per 100,000 in 1994. CONCLUSION: The low incidence plateau of human tuberculosis due to M. bovis together with the decline in prevalence of animal infection in the overall period studied suggest a cut-off in the animal to human chain of infection at two points; the animal source and the ingestion of (now pasteurized) milk. This would suggest that disease in humans is now due to reactivation of previous foci of infection which were acquired when milk pasteurization was not compulsory. Based on this, we would anticipate a further reduction and possible elimination of human tuberculosis due to M. bovis in this region in the next 10-15 years.

  11. Retention of children under 18 months testing HIV positive in care in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retention of children under 18 months testing HIV positive in care in Swaziland: a retrospective study. ... children within the first two months of life and linking them into care. However, as time progresses the retention of children in care declines. Innovative strategies need to be developed to enhance patient retention.

  12. The APS x-ray undulator photon beam position monitor and tests at CHESS and NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Rodricks, B.; Barraza, J.; Sanchez, T.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The advent of third generation synchrotron radiation sources, like the Advanced Photon Source (APS), will provide significant increases in brilliance over existing synchrotron sources. The APS x-ray undulators will increase the brilliance in the 3-40 KeV range by several orders of magnitude. Thus, the design of the photon beam position monitor is a challenging engineering task. The beam position monitors must withstand the high thermal load, be able to achieve sub-micron spatial resolution while maintaining their stability, and be compatible with both undulators and wigglers. A preliminary APS prototype photon beam position monitor consisting of a CVD-diamond-based, tungsten-coated blade was tested on the APS/CHESS undulator at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Radiation Source (CHESS) and on the NSLS X-13 undulator beamline. Results from these tests, as well as the design of this prototype APS photon beam position monitor, will be discussed in this paper

  13. The APS X-ray undulator photon beam position monitor and tests at CHESS and NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Rodricks, B.; Barraza, J.; Sanchez, T.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The advent of thirs generation synchrotron sources, like the Advanced Photon Source (APS), will provide significant increases in brilliance over existing synchrotron sources. The APS X-ray undulators will increase the brilliance in the 3-40 keV range by several orders of magnitude. Thus, the design of the photon beam position monitor is a challenging engineering task. The beam position monitors must withstand the high thermal load, be able to achieve submicron spatial resolution while maintaining their stability, and be compatible with both undulators and wigglers. A preliminary APS prototype photon beam position monitor consisting of a CVD-diamond-based, tungsten-coated blade was tested on the APS/CHESS undulator at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Radiation Source (CHESS) and on the NSLS X-13 undulator beamline. Results from these tests, as well as the design of this prototype APS photon beam position monitor, will be discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  14. Simulation of Model Force-Loading with Changing Its Position in the Wind Tunnel Test Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Bui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When planning and implementing an aerodynamic experiment, model sizes and its position in the test section of the wind tunnel (WT play very important role. The paper focuses on the value variations of the aerodynamic characteristics of a model through changing its position in the WT test section and on the attenuation of the velocity field disturbance in front of the model. Flow around aerodynamic model profile in the open test section of the low-speed WT T-500 is simulated at BMSTU Department SM3. The problem is solved in a two-dimensional case using the ANSYS Fluent package. The mathematical model of flow is based on the Reynolds equations closed by the SST turbulence model. The paper also presents the results of the experiment. Experiments conducted in WT T-500 well correlate with the calculated data and show the optimal position in the middle of the test section when conducting the weighing and drainage experiments. Disturbance of tunnel dynamic pressure (velocity head and flow upwash around the model profile and circular cylinder in the WT test section is analyzed. It was found that flow upstream from the front stagnation point on the body weakly depends on the Reynolds number and obtained results can be used to assess the level of disturbances in the flow around a model by incompressible airflow.

  15. Research on Automatic Positioning System of Ultrasonic Testing of Wind Turbine Blade Flaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q. X.; Wang, Z. H.; Long, S. G.; Cai, M.; Cai, M.; Wang, X.; Chen, X. Y.; Bu, J. L.

    2017-11-01

    Ultrasonic testing technology has been used essentially in non-destructive testing of wind turbine blades. However, it is fact that the ultrasonic flaw detection method has inefficiently employed in recent years. This is because the testing result will illustrate a small deviation due to the artificial, environmental and technical factors. Therefore, it is an urgent technical demand for engineers to test the various flaws efficiently and quickly. An automatic positioning system has been designed in this paper to record the moving coordinates and the target distance in real time. Simultaneously, it could launch and acquire the sonic wave automatically. The ADNS-3080 optoelectronic chip is manufactured by Agilent Technologies Inc, which is also utilized in the system. With the combination of the chip, the power conversion module and the USB transmission module, the collected data can be transmitted from the upper monitor to the hardware that could process and control the data through software programming. An experiment has been designed to prove the reliability of automotive positioning system. The result has been validated by comparing the result collected form LABVIEW and actual plots on Perspex plane, it concludes that the system possesses high accuracy and magnificent meanings in practical engineering.

  16. Flight-Test Evaluation of Kinematic Precise Point Positioning of Small UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason N. Gross

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental analysis of Global Positioning System (GPS flight data collected onboard a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV is conducted in order to demonstrate that postprocessed kinematic Precise Point Positioning (PPP solutions with precisions approximately 6 cm 3D Residual Sum of Squares (RSOS can be obtained on SUAVs that have short duration flights with limited observational periods (i.e., only ~≤5 minutes of data. This is a significant result for the UAV flight testing community because an important and relevant benefit of the PPP technique over traditional Differential GPS (DGPS techniques, such as Real-Time Kinematic (RTK, is that there is no requirement for maintaining a short baseline separation to a differential GNSS reference station. Because SUAVs are an attractive platform for applications such as aerial surveying, precision agriculture, and remote sensing, this paper offers an experimental evaluation of kinematic PPP estimation strategies using SUAV platform data. In particular, an analysis is presented in which the position solutions that are obtained from postprocessing recorded UAV flight data with various PPP software and strategies are compared to solutions that were obtained using traditional double-differenced ambiguity fixed carrier-phase Differential GPS (CP-DGPS. This offers valuable insight to assist designers of SUAV navigation systems whose applications require precise positioning.

  17. Simple Sample Preparation Method for Direct Microbial Identification and Susceptibility Testing From Positive Blood Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-wei Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in <15 min. The correct rate of direct MALDI-TOF MS identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.

  18. Evaluation of HIV testing algorithms in Ethiopia: the role of the tie-breaker algorithm and weakly reacting test lines in contributing to a high rate of false positive HIV diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Leslie; Siddiqui, M Ruby; Kliescikova, Jarmila; Pearce, Neil; Ariti, Cono; Muluneh, Libsework; Pirou, Erwan; Ritmeijer, Koert; Masiga, Johnson; Abebe, Almaz

    2015-02-03

    In Ethiopia a tiebreaker algorithm using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in series is used to diagnose HIV. Discordant results between the first 2 RDTs are resolved by a third 'tiebreaker' RDT. Médecins Sans Frontières uses an alternate serial algorithm of 2 RDTs followed by a confirmation test for all double positive RDT results. The primary objective was to compare the performance of the tiebreaker algorithm with a serial algorithm, and to evaluate the addition of a confirmation test to both algorithms. A secondary objective looked at the positive predictive value (PPV) of weakly reactive test lines. The study was conducted in two HIV testing sites in Ethiopia. Study participants were recruited sequentially until 200 positive samples were reached. Each sample was re-tested in the laboratory on the 3 RDTs and on a simple to use confirmation test, the Orgenics Immunocomb Combfirm® (OIC). The gold standard test was the Western Blot, with indeterminate results resolved by PCR testing. 2620 subjects were included with a HIV prevalence of 7.7%. Each of the 3 RDTs had an individual specificity of at least 99%. The serial algorithm with 2 RDTs had a single false positive result (1 out of 204) to give a PPV of 99.5% (95% CI 97.3%-100%). The tiebreaker algorithm resulted in 16 false positive results (PPV 92.7%, 95% CI: 88.4%-95.8%). Adding the OIC confirmation test to either algorithm eliminated the false positives. All the false positives had at least one weakly reactive test line in the algorithm. The PPV of weakly reacting RDTs was significantly lower than those with strongly positive test lines. The risk of false positive HIV diagnosis in a tiebreaker algorithm is significant. We recommend abandoning the tie-breaker algorithm in favour of WHO recommended serial or parallel algorithms, interpreting weakly reactive test lines as indeterminate results requiring further testing except in the setting of blood transfusion, and most importantly, adding a confirmation test

  19. Papulonecrotic tuberculids associated with uveitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, N.R.; Raza, N.

    2008-01-01

    Papulonecrotic tuberculids represent an immunological expression of an internal focus of tuberculosis in an individual with a moderate or high degree of immunity. It responds to anti-tuberculosis treatment and is characterized by an eruption of necrotizing papules occurring in symmetrical crops, particularly affecting the elbows, knees, buttocks and face. A case of papulonecrotic tuberculids associated with immune mediated unilateral uveitis is reported in which all investigations were negative for tuberculosis except a strongly positive tuberculin test. There was an excellent response to anti-tuberculosis treatment. The association of immune mediated uveitis with papulonecrotic tuberculids has not been described before. (author)

  20. Predictive factors for repetition of the tuberculin test after a nonreactive test in patients with HIV/AIDS Factores predictivos para la repetición de la prueba de la tuberculina después de un resultado no reactivo en pacientes con infección por el VIH/sida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Líbia Cristina Rocha Vilela Moura

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The outcome of interest was repetition of the tuberculin skin test (TST and the objectives were to estimate the rate of TST repetition, the probability of no TST repetition after 1 year, and the probability of no TST repetition at the end of the follow-up period in patients whose initial test was nonreactive. The study also set out to analyze factors associated with the time until TST repetition at two HIV/AIDS referral services that carry out the TST on a routine basis in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: A cohort of HIV-positive patients who initially tested nonreactive on the TST were followed from November 2007 to February 2010. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the probability of not repeating the TST, and Cox's regression analysis was used to analyze the factors associated with time until repeating the TST. Cox's multivariate analysis was stratified according to each hospital where patients were followed, because this variable did not respect the principle of proportionality of risk. RESULTS: The probability of not repeating the TST for 1 year was 80.0% and at the end of the follow-up period it was 42.0%. The variables that remained associated with TST repetition in the final Cox multivariate model were an age of 40 years or older, body mass index between 18.0 and 24.9, being female, and years of schooling. CONCLUSIONS: This study encountered a very low TST repetition rate after 1 year of follow-up and identified groups of individuals who should be the target of interventions aimed at repeating the TST.OBJETIVO: El resultado principal de interés fue la repetición de la prueba de la tuberculina (PT y los objetivos fueron calcular la tasa de repetición de la PT, la probabilidad de no repetir la PT después de un año y la probabilidad de no repetir la PT al final del período de seguimiento en los pacientes cuya prueba inicial fue no reactiva. En el estudio también se analizaron los factores asociados con el

  1. Test measurement of a new TESLA cavity beam position monitor at the ELBE linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsyan, V.; Schreiber, H.J.; Evtushenko, P.; Schurig, R.

    2004-01-01

    A new type of a cavity BPM proposed for beam position determination along the TESLA linac was tested at the accelerator ELBE in Rossendorf / Dresden. Measurements using an improved BPM (large and stable cross-talk isolation, significantly less energy dissipation, a novel LO signal generation) were performed in single- and multi-bunch regimes. Agreement with expectations was found. The low bunch charge available allowed for preliminary measurements on sensitivity and position resolution, which extrapolated to TESLA would ful l the demands for precise bunch-to-bunch position determination. Possible improvements, in particular on the signal processing scheme, are also discussed. (orig.)

  2. Tuberculosis in Sheltered Homeless Population of Rome: An Integrated Model of Recruitment for Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Laurenti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors show the results of an integrated model for risk management of tuberculosis in a sample of sheltered homeless in Rome. Tuberculin skin test (TST was used for evaluating the prevalence of latent infection (LTBI. In TST positives, expectorate was collected and chest X-ray was achieved. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate determinants of infection. Out of 288 recruited subjects, 259 returned for the TST reading; 45.56% were positive and referred to a specialized center; 70 accessed the health facility and completed the clinical pathway. The risk factors associated to LTBI were male gender (OR=3.72, age over 60 years (OR=3.59, immigrant status (OR=3.73, and obesity (OR=2.19. This approach, based on an integrated social network, guarantees high adherence to screening (89.93%, allowing patients testing positive for latent tuberculosis infection to be diagnosed and rapidly referred to a specialized center.

  3. Etiology and Incidence of positive Microbiological tests in the Department of Pneumology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Mazzone

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The support of microbiological diagnosis for the management of the lower respiratory tract infections is of great utility. It is known, however, that for a correct therapeutic approach is essential to obtain clinical data and images diagnostic. Sometimes, in fact, to important clinical symptoms can coincide with microbiological results little worth, or the isolation from a sputum of certain bacteria, can be an expression of colonization or trivial contamination.The objective of this work was to evaluate the frequency of bacterial species responsible for respiratory tract infections, through direct (culture and indirect (serology methods. Between October 2007 - October 2008, 192 sputum cultures were examined, from the Department of Pneumology and out-patients.The isolation of bacterial strains was performed by seeding samples on the following media (Dasit: Columbia blood Agar (A. CNA, mannitol salt A., Wurtz lactose A., Sabouraud A., enriched chocolate A. + bacitracin. For serological tests, immunoassays in microplates (Vircell were used. The data show that of 192 samples deriving from Department of Pneumology, 41 (22% were positive, while among the out-patient samples, the percentage of positive cultures was 41% (20 positives on the total of 49 samples.The bacteria more frequently isolated in the department of Pneumology, was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n.8 while in out-patients was Escherichia coli (n.8. Serological tests resulted positive for anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibodies in 3 cases, and for anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae in one case, compared to 53 negative samples. The findings that over 75% of cultures have demonstrated negative results, is suggestive of an origin non-bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract.Among the bacterial isolates are predominant “opportunistic bacteria” (46% presumably responsible of nosocomial infections, while in the out-patients are Enterobacteriaceae the prevalent microrganisms isolated.

  4. Diagnostic Role of Head-Bending and Lying-Down Tests in Lateral Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetiser, Sertac; Ince, Dilay

    2015-08-01

    To compare the diagnostic value of the head-bending test (HBT), lying-down positioning test (LDPT) and patient's report to identify the affected canal in video-nystagmographically (VNG) confirmed patients with lateral canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (LC-BPPV). Case series with chart review. Head-bending, lying-down positioning and the head-roll maneuver (HRM) under VNG guidance. The data were collected in a referral community hospital. Seventy-eight patients (32 apogeotropic and 46 geotropic nystagmus) with LC-BPPV who had been recruited between 2009 and 2013 were enrolled in the study. Patients were tested with the HRM and then were asked about subjectively worse side. Later, they were subjected to HBT when sitting and the LDPT. The results were compared and studied with the 1-way ANOVA and chi-square tests. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Affected side was identified by HRM in 75% of patients with apogeotropic nystagmus and 95.6% of patients with geotropic nystagmus. Approximately 65.6% of patients with apogeotropic and 52% of patients with geotropic nystagmus had nystagmus during LDPT. However, its comparability with HRM was low. However, treatment plan based on LDPT results alone provided relief of symptoms in additional 12.5% of patients with apogeotropic and in 2.2% of patients with geotropic nystagmus. Approximately 63% of patients with apogeotropic and 56% of patients with geotropic nystagmus were able to tell the worse side. Nystagmus comparable with HRM during HBT was low and not diagnostic. HRM has the greatest diagnostic value of positioning tests in LC-BPPV in this study. LDPT provides some contribution in the diagnosis of LC-BPPV but much less than HRM. Patients' subjective feeling of vertigo was also a useful test. However, HBT was not as sensitive as other measures in uncertain cases.

  5. Impact of relative position vehicle-wind blower in a roller test bench under climatic chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Yáñez, P.; Armas, O.; Martínez-Martínez, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Air simulation model was developed for a vehicle test bench under climatic chamber. • Good accuracy between experimental data and simulated values were obtained. • Wind blower-vehicle relative position alters external cooling of after-treatment devices. • Vehicle emission certification can be affected by wind blower-vehicle relative position. - Abstract: In terms of energy efficiency and exhaust emissions control, an appropriate design of cooling systems of climatic chambers destined to vehicle certification and/or perform scientific research is becoming increasingly important. European vehicle emissions certification (New European Driving Cycle, NEDC) establishes the position of the wind-simulation blower at 200 mm above floor level. This height is fixed and kept constant independently of the vehicle tested. The position of the blower with respect to the vehicle can modify the external forced convection under the car, where after-treatment devices are located. Consequently, the performance of such devices could be modified and emission results during the certification cycle could be non-representative of real-world driving conditions. The aim of this work is to study the influence of different wind blower-vehicle relative heights on the air velocity and temperature profiles under the car by means of a simple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. A steady state three-dimensional CFD model was developed and applied to the estimation of the air velocity and temperature profiles inside of a climatic chamber equipped with a vehicle roller (chassis dyno) test bench. The simulations reproduce one steady-state condition from NEDC, specifically the EU17 mode (120 km/h, maximum velocity during the cycle). The cool air propelling temperature was 20 °C (minimum temperature in the NEDC range). Simulations were performed employing the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach with the realizable k-ε model to provide closure. Air velocity and

  6. [An attempt to construct a Japanese version of the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Shunsuke; Okubo, Nobutoshi; Kobayashi, Mai; Sato, Shigetaka; Kitamura, Hideya

    2014-08-01

    The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) is an instrument for the indirect assessment of positive and negative affect. A Japanese version of the IPANAT was developed and its reliability and validity were examined. In Study 1, factor analysis identified two independent factors that could be interpreted as implicit positive and negative affect, which corresponded to the original version. The Japanese IPANAT also had sufficient internal consistency and acceptable test-retest reliability. In Study 2, we demonstrated that the Japanese IPANAT was associated with explicit state affect (e.g., PANAS), extraversion, and neuroticism, which indicated its adequate construct validity. In Study 3, we examined the extent to which the Japanese IPANAT was sensitive to changes in affect by assessing a set of IPANAT items after the presentation of positive, negative, or neutral photographs. The results indicated that the Japanese IPANAT was sufficiently sensitive to changes in affect resulting from affective stimuli. Taken together, these studies suggest that the Japanese version of the IPANAT is a useful instrument for the indirect assessment of positive and negative affect.

  7. Determination of specificity and pattern of antinuclear antibodies (ana) in systemic rheumatic disease patients positive for ana testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, H.; Bashir, M.M.; Iqbal, W.

    2018-01-01

    To determine probability of finding antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) positive samples and associating ANA patterns with anti-ENA reactivities among a consecutive cohort of samples of systemic rheumatic disease patients referred for ANA testing. Study Design:Prospective cohort study. Place and Duration of Study:Immunology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January to June 2016. Methodology:All the samples referred for ANA testing with clinical suspicion of systemic rheumatic disease were included. After screening, ANA positive samples were subjected to anti-ENA antibodies testing (including anti-SSA, anti-SSB, anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anti-SCL-70 and anti-Jo-1 antibodies) and ANA pattern and titer determination. Results:Of 4,347 samples received, 397 were positive for ANA (9%). Of 397, 96 (24%) samples positive on ENA screen were tested for anti-ENA reactivity. Anti-SSA antibodies were found in 59 samples. Commonest ANA patterns were coarse and fine speckled (43 and 22 samples of 81 tested), while majority of samples carried ANA in titers of 1:40 and 1:80 (22 and 18 samples of 81 tested). No specific ANA pattern was associated with any particular anti-ENA reactivity. Conclusion:Among samples/patients referred for investigations of autoimmune disorders, probability of finding positive ANA is approximately 9%. Of these 9%, about 24% also show reactivity against ENA. Commonest ANA pattern is coarse speckled and majority of such patients carry ANA in titers ranging from 1:40 to 1:80. Commonest ENA reactivity was against SSA. (author)

  8. Beam position determination for the Test Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, P.

    1987-01-01

    The Test Storage Ring (TSR) for heavy ions, currently under design and construction at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, requires an extensive beam diagnostics system in order to enable it to operate without friction. This thesis concerns the beam position determination sub-system of this diagnostics system which is intended to determine the beam center of gravity of a bunched beam inside the cross section of the beam tube in a non-destructive manner. An electrostatic pickup is used to sense the location of the beam; the mode of operation of this device will be explained in detail. The signals go to a preamplifier from where they are then sent via a multiplex system to the measuring unit. This point also represents the interface to the computer system that controls the TSR. The prototype developed here was tested with the aid of a particle beam, as well as with other measurement methods. Resolutions of better than 1 mm about the center have been measured. In order to achieve or even improve such resolutions later in actual operation, it is possible to determine the properties of the preamplifiers with the aid of calibration signals and to take these into account in the course of the signal evaluation in the computer. The differences between the individual electrodes of a given pickup must also be compensated. These procedures and their associated electronic circuits are also described in this paper

  9. Testing Theoretical Relationships: Factors Influencing Positive Health Practices (PHP) in Filipino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Cynthia; Mahat, Ganga; Atkins, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine variables influencing the positive health practices (PHP) of Filipino college students to gain a better understanding of health practices in this ethnic/racial group. Cross-sectional study tested theoretical relationships postulated among (a) PHP, (b) social support (SS), (c) optimism, and (d) acculturation. Participants: A…

  10. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cattle over 1 month of age shall be negative to a caudal intradermal tuberculin test using 0.1 ml. of... shall be negative to a test for brucellosis conducted as prescribed in “Standard Agglutination Test... for use in treating animals infested with the ectoparasite involved in accordance with the label...

  11. Tilt angles and positive response of head-up tilt test in children with orthostatic intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing; Wang, Yuli; Ochs, Todd; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at examining three tilt angle-based positive responses and the time to positive response in a head-up tilt test for children with orthostatic intolerance, and the psychological fear experienced at the three angles during head-up tilt test. A total of 174 children, including 76 boys and 98 girls, aged from 4 to 18 years old (mean 11.3±2.8 years old), with unexplained syncope, were randomly divided into three groups, to undergo head-up tilt test at the angles of 60°, 70° and 80°, respectively. The diagnostic rates and times were analysed, and Wong-Baker face pain rating scale was used to access the children's psychological fear. There were no significant differences in diagnostic rates of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and vasovagal syncope at different tilt angles during the head-up tilt test (p>0.05). There was a significant difference, however, in the psychological fear at different tilt angles utilising the Kruskal-Wallis test (χ2=36.398, ptest (ptest for vasovagal syncope or for postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Hence, it is suggested that a tilt angle of 60° and head-up tilt test time of 45 minutes should be suitable for children with vasovagal syncope.

  12. Research of built-in self test technology on cable-free self-positioning seismograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaizhu, Z.; Lin, J.; Chen, Z.; Zhang, L.; Yang, H.; Zheng, F.

    2011-12-01

    Cable-free self-positioning seismograph is the key instrument and equipment required for deep seismic exploration in China. In order to measure the performance of seismic data acquisition systems whether meet exploration requirements , to ensure the accuracy of seismic data, and to ensure equipment reliability and stability, a built-in self test solution of the cable-free self-positioning seismic recorder is provided. Within a 24-bits Σ-Δ DAC, the seismograph can produce sine, step, pulse and other high-precision analog test signal, with dynamic range of 120dB or more, through the FPGA to control the analog multiplexer switching the input signal acquisition channels, and start the 24-bit Σ-Δ ADC in the instrument internal simultaneously to acquisition the test signal data, carries on the fast Fournier transformation by instrument internal CPU, to achieve the instrument of analysis and calculation of performance indicators, including: the equivalent noise and drift, common mode rejection ratio (CMRR), crosstalk, harmonic distortion, dynamic range, channel response consistency, detector impulse response , etc. A lot of testing experiments about the various parameters were performed and studied currently. By setting different sampling rate (1Hz, 5Hz, ..., 4kHz), each of the measurement system noise level was measured, and the maximum noise is about 0.5μV; the crosstalk between channels was tested using the 31.25Hz sine wave, the result is more than-120dB with sampling rate of 1kHz; the harmonic distortion was measured by adding the high-precision sine wave signals of different frequencies, such as 500Hz, 250 Hz, 125 Hz, 62.5 Hz, 31.25 Hz, 15.625 Hz, 7.812 Hz, 3.90625Hz, etc. the calculated results is in-118dB or more. The experimental results show that, the parameters of the cable-free self-positioning of the seismic recorder meet the technical requirements for the deep exploration, compared to the corresponding parameters with the 428XL seismograph of the French

  13. Biological false-positive venereal disease research laboratory test in cerebrospinal fluid in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis - a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S; Lin, R J; Chan, Y H; Ngan, C C L

    2018-03-01

    There is no clear consensus on the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has traditionally been considered the gold standard for diagnosing neurosyphilis but is widely known to be insensitive. In this study, we compared the clinical and laboratory characteristics of true-positive VDRL-CSF cases with biological false-positive VDRL-CSF cases. We retrospectively identified cases of true and false-positive VDRL-CSF across a 3-year period received by the Immunology and Serology Laboratory, Singapore General Hospital. A biological false-positive VDRL-CSF is defined as a reactive VDRL-CSF with a non-reactive Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA)-CSF and/or negative Line Immuno Assay (LIA)-CSF IgG. A true-positive VDRL-CSF is a reactive VDRL-CSF with a concordant reactive TPPA-CSF and/or positive LIA-CSF IgG. During the study period, a total of 1254 specimens underwent VDRL-CSF examination. Amongst these, 60 specimens from 53 patients tested positive for VDRL-CSF. Of the 53 patients, 42 (79.2%) were true-positive cases and 11 (20.8%) were false-positive cases. In our setting, a positive non-treponemal serology has 97.6% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value and 91.7% negative predictive value for a true-positive VDRL-CSF based on our laboratory definition. HIV seropositivity was an independent predictor of a true-positive VDRL-CSF. Biological false-positive VDRL-CSF is common in a setting where patients are tested without first establishing a serological diagnosis of syphilis. Serological testing should be performed prior to CSF evaluation for neurosyphilis. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. Feedback enhances the positive effects and reduces the negative effects of multiple-choice testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew C; Roediger, Henry L

    2008-04-01

    Multiple-choice tests are used frequently in higher education without much consideration of the impact this form of assessment has on learning. Multiple-choice testing enhances retention of the material tested (the testing effect); however, unlike other tests, multiple-choice can also be detrimental because it exposes students to misinformation in the form of lures. The selection of lures can lead students to acquire false knowledge (Roediger & Marsh, 2005). The present research investigated whether feedback could be used to boost the positive effects and reduce the negative effects of multiple-choice testing. Subjects studied passages and then received a multiple-choice test with immediate feedback, delayed feedback, or no feedback. In comparison with the no-feedback condition, both immediate and delayed feedback increased the proportion of correct responses and reduced the proportion of intrusions (i.e., lure responses from the initial multiple-choice test) on a delayed cued recall test. Educators should provide feedback when using multiple-choice tests.

  15. Incomplete follow-up of positive HPV tests: overview of randomised controlled trials on primary cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, M; Lynge, E

    2010-01-01

    with follow-up in HPV-positive women and relative >/=CIN3 detection was 0.48 (P=0.33).Conclusion:There is at present scant evidence to support the view that the measured sensitivity of HPV screening is a simple reflection of compliance with follow-up. Adjustment of measured cervical intraepithelial neoplasia......Background:It has been suggested that adjustment for incomplete compliance with follow-up in women with positive human papillomavirus (HPV) tests would be appropriate for estimating the true sensitivity of cervical screening with HPV testing. We assessed the compliance and its impact on >/=CIN3...

  16. Risk for tuberculosis among children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaoka, Hiroshi; Lawson, Lovett; Squire, S Bertel

    2006-01-01

    Contacts of adults with tuberculosis (TB) are at risk for infection. Tests based on interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) expression in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens may be more sensitive than the tuberculin skin test (TST). Risk for infection was assessed by using TST and an IFN...

  17. Positive results of serological tests for syphilis in pregnancy – diagnostic and therapeutic problems, report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Koper; Agnieszka B. Serwin; Anna Baran; Iwona Flisiak

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Undiagnosed and untreated syphilis in pregnancy may result in subsequent complications: early fetal loss, stillbirth, low birth weight of infants and newborns with congenital syphilis. Objective. To analyze diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas of positive results of serological tests for syphilis (STS) in pregnancy. Case reports. We present two cases of pregnant women, hospitalized in our department due to positive results of serological tests for syphilis, pe...

  18. Postoperative radiation therapy and adjuvant chemoimmunotherapy in breast cancer. Aspects of timing and immune competence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klefstroem, P.; Nuortio, L.; Taskinen, E.

    The effects of radiation therapy and adjuvant chemoimmunotherapy on the immune competence of patients with breast cancer were investigated. The tests performed included intradermal tuberculin tests, T- and B-lymphocyte counts, and lymphocyte blast transformation tests; phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (ConA) and pokeweed mitogen (PMW) were used as mitogens. Enhancement in lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogenic stimulation by PHA and PMW was seen in patients after 3 courses of chemotherapy + levamisole, whereas irradiation given after chemotherapy caused long-lasting depression in response to PHA and PWM (not significant). T-lymphocyte counts were also lower after irradiation than after chemoimmunotherapy. Clinically, the 16 patients treated with radiation therapy after chemotherapy exhibited a higher recurrence rate than the 24 patients treated first by irradiation. Enhanced reactivity to tuberculin tests occurred generally in patients receiving a planned treatment including irradiation, chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide) and levamisole. Enhancement of reactivity was seen more often in patients who had not relapsed.

  19. Tuberculin skin reactivity after neonatal BCG vaccination in preterm infants in Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2001-2002 Reactividad cutánea a la tuberculina tras la vacunación con BCG de neonatos prematuros en Minas Gerais, Brasil, 2001-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Camargos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The efficacy of BCG vaccination in preterm babies is unknown, and available data on conversion rates to tuberculin in this age group are scarce and controversial. This study assessed the tuberculin response in preterm infants after BCG vaccination. METHODS: This randomized cohort study was carried out at the Neonatal Department, University Hospital, Federal University of Minas Gerais in Brazil during 2001 and 2002. The BCG vaccine was administered at birth to 65 full-term (control and 40 preterm newborns. All of them were tested with 5 tuberculin units of purified protein derivative-S approximately 3 months after vaccination. RESULTS: A typical BCG scar was verified in 96.9% of the control group and in 90.0% of the preterm infants (P = 0.19. Indurations > 5 mm in diameter were recorded in 87.7% of the full-term and 67.5% of the preterm infants (P = 0.02. Indurations > 10 mm were recorded in 70.8% of the full-term and 42.5% of the preterm infants (P = 0.007. For indurations > 5 mm the upper and the lower limits of the 95% confidence interval for the difference between proportions were 8.5% to 31.8%, and for indurations > 10 mm these limits were 18.0% to 38.4%. No adverse reactions were observed in the study population. CONCLUSION: BCG vaccination could be recommended for preterm infants upon discharge from the neonatal unit to reduce morbidity and mortality in infants at risk for tuberculous infection, and to increase BCG vaccination coverage rates, especially in countries with high prevalence rates of tuberculosis.OBJETIVOS: Se desconoce la eficacia de la vacunación con Bacilo de Calmette-Guérin (BCG en neonatos prematuros, y los datos que existen acerca de la proporción de casos de conversión tuberculínica en este grupo de edad son pocos y cuestionables. En este estudio se evaluó la respuesta a la prueba de tuberculina de neonatos prematuros tras la vacunación con BCG. MÉTODOS: Este estudio de cohorte aleatorizado se llev

  20. BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guerin) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regimen for Latent TB Infection-Patient Education Brochure Posters Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test Wall Chart World TB ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  1. TB in Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regimen for Latent TB Infection-Patient Education Brochure Posters Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test Wall Chart World TB ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  2. Tuberculosis: The Connection between TB and HIV (the AIDS Virus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regimen for Latent TB Infection-Patient Education Brochure Posters Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test Wall Chart World TB ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  3. Hemorrhoids detected at colonoscopy: an infrequent cause of false-positive fecal immunochemical test results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turenhout, S.T. van; Oort, F.A.; Terhaar sive Droste, J.S.; Coupe, V.M.; Hulst, R.W. van der; Loffeld, R.J.; Scholten, P.; Depla, A.C.; Bouman, A.A.; Meijer, G.A.; Mulder, C.J.; Rossum, L.G.M. van

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer screening by fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) is hampered by frequent false-positive (FP) results and thereby the risk of complications and strain on colonoscopy capacity. Hemorrhoids might be a plausible cause of FP results. OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of

  4. Are Hemorrhoids Associated with False-Positive Fecal Immunochemical Test Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hee; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Sohn, Chong Il; Choi, Kyuyong; Jung, Yoon Suk

    2017-01-01

    False-positive (FP) results of fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) conducted in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening could lead to performing unnecessary colonoscopies. Hemorrhoids are a possible cause of FP FIT results; however, studies on this topic are extremely rare. We investigated whether hemorrhoids are associated with FP FIT results. A retrospective study was conducted at a university hospital in Korea from June 2013 to May 2015. Of the 34547 individuals who underwent FITs, 3946 aged ≥50 years who underwent colonoscopies were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with FP FIT results. Among 3946 participants, 704 (17.8%) showed positive FIT results and 1303 (33.0%) had hemorrhoids. Of the 704 participants with positive FIT results, 165 had advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACRN) and 539 had no ACRN (FP results). Of the 1303 participants with hemorrhoids, 291 showed FP results, of whom 81 showed FP results because of hemorrhoids only. Participants with hemorrhoids had a higher rate of FP results than those without hemorrhoids (291/1176, 24.7% vs. 248/2361, 10.5%; phemorrhoids as the only abnormality had a higher rate of FP results than those experiencing no such abnormalities (81/531, 15.3% vs. 38/1173, 3.2%; phemorrhoids was identified as an independent predictor of FP results (adjusted odds ratio, 2.76; 95% confidence interval, 2.24-3.40; pHemorrhoids are significantly associated with FP FIT results. Their presence seemed to be a non-negligible contributor of FP results in FIT-based CRC screening programs.

  5. Intralesional immunotherapy with tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) in recalcitrant wart: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial including an extra group of candidates for cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirnia, Mehdi; Khodaeiani, Effat; Fouladi, Daniel F; Masoudnia, Sima

    2016-01-01

    Due to paucity of randomized clinical trials, intralesional immunotherapy has not been yet accepted as a standard therapeutic method. To examine the efficacy and safety of intralesional immunotherapy with tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) for treating recalcitrant wart. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial, a total of 69 patients with recalcitrant warts received either intralesional PPD antigen (n = 35) or intralesional saline (n = 34) for six times at 2-week intervals. A third group of candidates for cryotherapy (n = 33) was also included. The decrease in lesion size (good: complete response, intermediate: 50-99% improvement, poor: PPD patients; 0%, 14.7% and 85.3% of the placebo patients and 18.2%, 33.3% and 48.5% of the cryotherapy patients, respectively (PPD versus placebo: p PPD versus cryotherapy: p PPD group. The recurrence rate was 8.6%, 5.9% and 24.2% in the PPD, placebo and cryotherapy groups, respectively (p > 0.05). Intralesional immunotherapy with PPD antigen is highly effective and safe for treating recalcitrant warts. IRCT201407089844N3 in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT).

  6. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the mesentery associated with high fever and positive Widal test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouairy, Camil J.; Bechara, Elie A.; Ghabril, Ramy H.; Gebran, Sleiman J.

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is associated in 15-30% of cases with systemic symptomatology , such as prolonged fever, weight loss, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) , anemia, thrombocytosis and leukocytosis. We report the case of a 4-year-old Lebanese boy who presented with high-grade fever of long duration and a single (unpaired) positive Widal agglutination test. Blood culture was negative. A diagnosis of typhoid fever was made. An abdominal (mesenteric) IMT was incidentally discovered, 30 days after the fever had appeared. After surgery, the fever disappeared immediately, and the ESR returned. We strongly favor the possibility of a false positive Widal test, due to polyclonal increase in serum immunoglobulins, which often occurs in IMT. We also think that IMT might be a mimicker of typhoid fever, both clinically and serologically. Physicians, especially pediatricians practicing in endemic areas, should probably be aware of this mimicry. (author)

  7. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the mesentery associated with high fever and positive Widal test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouairy, Camil J [Dept. of Pathology, Saint George Hospital, Beirut (Lebanon); Bechara, Elie A; Ghabril, Ramy H [Dept. of Pediatrics, Saint George Hospital, Beirut (Lebanon); Gebran, Sleiman J [Dept. of Pediatric Surgery, AlHada Armed Forces Hospital, Taif (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-07-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is associated in 15-30% of cases with systemic symptomatology , such as prolonged fever, weight loss, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) , anemia, thrombocytosis and leukocytosis. We report the case of a 4-year-old Lebanese boy who presented with high-grade fever of long duration and a single (unpaired) positive Widal agglutination test. Blood culture was negative. A diagnosis of typhoid fever was made. An abdominal (mesenteric) IMT was incidentally discovered, 30 days after the fever had appeared. After surgery, the fever disappeared immediately, and the ESR returned. We strongly favor the possibility of a false positive Widal test, due to polyclonal increase in serum immunoglobulins, which often occurs in IMT. We also think that IMT might be a mimicker of typhoid fever, both clinically and serologically. Physicians, especially pediatricians practicing in endemic areas, should probably be aware of this mimicry. (author)

  8. Studies on the prevalence of leishmanin skin test positivity in the Baringo District, Rift Valley, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, K. U.; Kurtzhals, J. A.; Kager, P. A.; Gachihi, G. S.; Gramiccia, M.; Kagai, J. M.; Sherwood, J. A.; Muller, A. S.

    1994-01-01

    The leishmanin skin test (LST) was applied in 26 clusters of an average of 97 individuals in Baringo District, Kenya. These clusters were centered around recent cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Of 2,411 individuals tested, 254 (10.5%, 155 males and 99 females) had a positive reaction. Among

  9. High HIV Prevalence, Suboptimal HIV Testing, and Low Knowledge of HIV-Positive Serostatus Among Injection Drug Users in St. Petersburg, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussova, Olga V.; Verevochkin, Sergei V.; Barbour, Russell; Heimer, Robert; Kozlov, Andrei P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to estimate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and testing patterns among injection drug users (IDUs) in St. Petersburg, Russia. HIV prevalence among 387 IDUs in the sample was 50%. Correlates of HIV-positive serostatus included unemployment, recent unsafe injections, and history/current sexually transmitted infection. Seventy-six percent had been HIV tested, but only 22% of those who did not report HIV-positive serostatus had been tested in the past 12 months and received their test result. Correlates of this measure included recent doctor visit and having been in prison or jail among men. Among the 193 HIV-infected participants, 36% were aware of their HIV-positive serostatus. HIV prevalence is high and continuing to increase in this population. Adequate coverage of HIV testing has not been achieved, resulting in poor knowledge of positive serostatus. Efforts are needed to better understand motivating and deterring factors for HIV testing in this setting. PMID:18843531

  10. Yersinia enterocolitica: an unlikely cause of positive brucellosis tests in greater yellowstone ecosystem bison (Bison bison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Wade; Edwards, William H; Dauwalter, Stacey; Almendra, Claudia; Kardos, Martin D; Lowell, Jennifer L; Wallen, Rick; Cain, Steven L; Holben, William E; Luikart, Gordon

    2012-07-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 has identical O-antigens to those of Brucella abortus and has apparently caused false-positive reactions in numerous brucellosis serologic tests in elk (Cervus canadensis) from southwest Montana. We investigated whether a similar phenomenon was occurring in brucellosis antibody-positive bison (Bison bison) using Y. enterocolitica culturing techniques and multiplex PCR of four diagnostic loci. Feces from 53 Yellowstone bison culled from the population and 113 free-roaming bison from throughout the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) were tested. Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 was not detected in any of 53 the bison samples collected at slaughter facilities or in any of the 113 fecal samples from free-ranging bison. One other Y. enterocolitica serotype was isolated; however, it is not known to cause cross-reaction on B. abortus serologic assays because it lacks the perosamine synthetase gene and thus the O-antigens. These findings suggest that Y. enterocolitica O:9 cross-reactivity with B. abortus antigens is unlikely to have been a cause of false-positive serology tests in GYE bison and that Y. enterocolitica prevalence was low in bison in the GYE during this study.

  11. Surgical management of BCG vaccine-induced regional axillary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The age of the patient and mode of presentation, imaging findings, and results of tuberculin skin testing (Mantoux test) ... Primary surgical treatment (incisional drainage or biopsy) is therefore not considered an ideal form of management in BCG lymphadenitis because of the high fistulisation and poor wound healing, ...

  12. Long-term field test of solar PV power generation using one-axis 3-position sun tracker

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.; Ding, W.L.; Huang, Y.C.

    2011-01-01

    The 1 axis-3 position (1A-3P) sun tracking PV was built and tested to measure the daily and long-term power generation of the solar PV system. A comparative test using a fixed PV and a 1A-3P tracking PV was carried out with two identical stand

  13. Positive affect and physical activity: Testing effects on goal setting, activation, prioritisation, and attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David S; Bertenshaw, Emma J; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-02-01

    The present research tested whether incidental positive affect promotes pursuit of physical activity goals. Four key features of goal pursuit were examined - setting physical activity goals (Study 1), goal activation (Study 2), and goal prioritization and goal attainment (Study 3). Participants (N s = 80, 81, and 59, in Studies 1-3, respectively) were randomized to positive affect (joy, hope) or neutral affect (control) conditions in each study. Questionnaire measures of goal level, goal commitment, and means selection (Study 1); a lexical decision task indexed goal activation (Study 2), a choice task captured goal prioritization and MET minutes quantified goal attainment (Study 3). Study 1 showed that positive affect led to a greater number of intended physical activities, and that joy engendered greater willingness to try activities. In Study 2, a positive affect induction led to heightened activation of the physical activity goal compared to the control condition. The joy induction in Study 3 led to greater physical activity, and a trend towards greater goal prioritization. These findings suggest that positive affect enhances the pursuit of physical activity goals. Implications for health behavior theories and interventions are outlined.

  14. Immunological assays in the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection at the beginning of 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kašiković-Lečić Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A subject infected by tubercle bacilli may immediately develop the disease (primary tuberculosis, witch occurs in a few number of infected persons, or may overcome the primary infection (a latent carrier of the infection. Nowadays there are about two milliard people with a latent tubercular infection. About 10% of them will develop active tuberculosis during their lifetime. Detection of latent tuberculosis and its treatment decreases the risk of developing the active form of the disease. Until recently, the tuberculin test was a single screening method to identify the subjects with tubercular infection. In recent years, some novel in vitro tests to diagnose the tubercular infection have been designed. These tests measure the cell-mediated immune response quantifying the emission of interferon gamma by T cells in response to stimulation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific antigens. These tests are more sensitive and specific than the tuberculin skin test, but they are just an accessory tool, i.e. a link in the diagnostic chain of the tubercular infection.

  15. Latent tuberculosis in nursing professionals of a Brazilian hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valim Andréia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tuberculosis (TB is considered an occupational disease among health-care workers (HCWs. Direct contact with TB patients leads to an increased risk to become latently infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of latent M. tuberculosis minfection among nursing professionals of a hospital in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, assessed by tuberculin skin test (TST. From November 2009 to May 2010, latent M. tuberculosis infection was assessed by TST in 55 nursing professionals. Epidemiological information was collected using a standardized questionnaire. A positive TST result (> or = 10 mm was observed in 47.3% of the HCWs tested. There was no significant difference in TST positivity when duration of employment or professional category (technician or nurse was evaluated. The results of this work reinforce the need for control measures to prevent latent M. tuberculosis infection among nursing professionals at the hospital where the study was conducted.

  16. Differences in the clinical-epidemiological profile between new cases of tuberculosis and retreatment cases after default

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylana de Souza Belchior

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify the socioeconomic and clinical-epidemiological factors related to tuberculosis in new cases and retreatment cases. METHOD Comparative study with 126 patients, of which 42 were retreatment cases after default attended in a reference center, and 84 were new cases completing the first treatment and treated in Basic Health Units. The collection of primary data was through interview, and of secondary data by records of the Notifiable Diseases Information System. Comparative analysis between the two groups. RESULTS The new cases differ from retreatment cases regarding educational level. The clinical-epidemiological profile shows a significant difference in relation to performance of the tuberculin skin test, and the HIV test result (positive in favor of new cases. In relation to performance of sputum culture and the result (positive of the first sputum smear of the first and second samples, in favor of retreatment cases. CONCLUSION The two groups are significantly different in clinical and epidemiological characteristics that show the access to exams.

  17. Double positivity to bee and wasp venom: improved diagnostic procedure by recombinant allergen-based IgE testing and basophil activation test including data about cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, Bernadette; Krischan, Lilian; Darsow, Ulf; Ollert, Markus; Ring, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    Specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies to both bee and wasp venom can be due to a sensitivity to both insect venoms or due to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs). Investigating whether a basophil activation test (BAT) with both venoms as well as with bromelain and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or recombinant allergen-based IgE testing can improve the diagnostic procedure. Twenty-two Hymenoptera-venom allergic patients with sIgE antibodies to both bee and wasp venom were studied. sIgE antibodies to MUXF3 CCD, bromelain, HRP, rApi m 1, and rVes v 5 were determined, and a BAT (Flow2 CAST) with venom extracts, bromelain, and HRP was performed. Further recombinant allergen-based IgE testing was done by using an ELISA, if required. The reactivity of basophils was calculated from the insect venom concentration at half-maximum stimulation. Double positivity/double negativity/single positivity to rApi m 1 and rVes v 5 was seen in 12/1/9 patients. Further recombinant allergen-based IgE testing in the last ones revealed positive results to the other venom in all cases except one. BAT was double positive/double negative/single positive in 6/2/14 patients. Four patients with negative results in sIgE antibodies to CCDs had positive results in BAT. BAT with bromelain/HRP showed a sensitivity of 50%/81% and a specificity of 91%/90%. Component-resolved IgE testing elucidates the pattern of double positivity, showing a majority of true double sensitizations independent of CCD sensitization. BAT seems to add more information about the culprit insect even if the true clinical relevance of BAT is not completely determined because of ethical limitations on diagnostic sting challenges. BAT with HRP is a good method to determine sensitivity to CCDs. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A cost-benefit analysis of a proposed overseas refugee latent tuberculosis infection screening and treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, La'Marcus T; Coleman, Margaret S; de la Motte Hurst, Christopher; Semple, Marie; Zhou, Weigong; Cetron, Martin S; Painter, John A

    2015-12-01

    This study explored the effect of screening and treatment of refugees for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) before entrance to the United States as a strategy for reducing active tuberculosis (TB). The purpose of this study was to estimate the costs and benefits of LTBI screening and treatment in United States bound refugees prior to arrival. Costs were included for foreign and domestic LTBI screening and treatment and the domestic treatment of active TB. A decision tree with multiple Markov nodes was developed to determine the total costs and number of active TB cases that occurred in refugee populations that tested 55, 35, and 20 % tuberculin skin test positive under two models: no overseas LTBI screening and overseas LTBI screening and treatment. For this analysis, refugees that tested 55, 35, and 20 % tuberculin skin test positive were divided into high, moderate, and low LTBI prevalence categories to denote their prevalence of LTBI relative to other refugee populations. For a hypothetical 1-year cohort of 100,000 refugees arriving in the United States from regions with high, moderate, and low LTBI prevalence, implementation of overseas screening would be expected to prevent 440, 220, and 57 active TB cases in the United States during the first 20 years after arrival. The cost savings associated with treatment of these averted cases would offset the cost of LTBI screening and treatment for refugees from countries with high (net cost-saving: $4.9 million) and moderate (net cost-saving: $1.6 million) LTBI prevalence. For low LTBI prevalence populations, LTBI screening and treatment exceed expected future TB treatment cost savings (net cost of $780,000). Implementing LTBI screening and treatment for United States bound refugees from countries with high or moderate LTBI prevalence would potentially save millions of dollars and contribute to United States TB elimination goals. These estimates are conservative since secondary transmission from tuberculosis cases

  19. Antibody Responses of Cervids (Cervus elaphus) following Experimental Mycobacterium bovis Infection and the Implications for Immunodiagnosis ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Noel P.; Surujballi, Om P.; Prescott, John F.; Duncan, J. Robert; Waters, W. Ray; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Greenwald, Rena

    2008-01-01

    Captive and free-ranging wildlife animals are implicated in the maintenance and transmission of bovine tuberculosis and therefore pose a significant obstacle to eradication of the disease from domestic livestock. The current antemortem diagnostic method, the intradermal tuberculin skin test, is impractical for routine use with many wild animals. Antibody-based assays are particularly attractive because the animals are handled only once and immediate processing of the sample is not required. This report characterizes the antibody responses of red deer-elk hybrids (Cervus elaphus) against Mycobacterium bovis and subsequently evaluates the diagnostic performance of select antigens in a rapid-test format. Sequential serum samples were collected from 10 animals experimentally infected with M. bovis and 5 noninfected animals over a 7-month period postinfection (p.i.). Samples were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunoblot analyses, and multiantigen print immunoassays for seroreactivity to mycobacterial antigens. Although all infected animals produced antibodies to M. bovis protein antigens, there was significant animal-to-animal variation in the kinetics and magnitudes of responses and the antigens recognized. The most frequently recognized antigens included MPB83, ESAT-6, CFP10, and MPB70. Responses to some antigens, such as MPB83, were consistently detected as early as 4 weeks after inoculation, whereas other antigens were detected only much later (>140 days p.i.). Antibody responses were boosted by injection of tuberculin for intradermal tuberculin skin testing. Comparison of single-antigen (fluorescence polarization assay) with multiantigen (CervidTB STAT-PAK) rapid tests demonstrated that a highly sensitive and specific serodiagnostic test for tuberculosis in cervids will require multiple and carefully selected seroreactive antigens covering a broad spectrum of antibody specificities. PMID:18815233

  20. Antibody responses of cervids (Cervus elaphus) following experimental Mycobacterium bovis infection and the implications for immunodiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Noel P; Surujballi, Om P; Prescott, John F; Duncan, J Robert; Waters, W Ray; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Greenwald, Rena

    2008-11-01

    Captive and free-ranging wildlife animals are implicated in the maintenance and transmission of bovine tuberculosis and therefore pose a significant obstacle to eradication of the disease from domestic livestock. The current antemortem diagnostic method, the intradermal tuberculin skin test, is impractical for routine use with many wild animals. Antibody-based assays are particularly attractive because the animals are handled only once and immediate processing of the sample is not required. This report characterizes the antibody responses of red deer-elk hybrids (Cervus elaphus) against Mycobacterium bovis and subsequently evaluates the diagnostic performance of select antigens in a rapid-test format. Sequential serum samples were collected from 10 animals experimentally infected with M. bovis and 5 noninfected animals over a 7-month period postinfection (p.i.). Samples were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunoblot analyses, and multiantigen print immunoassays for seroreactivity to mycobacterial antigens. Although all infected animals produced antibodies to M. bovis protein antigens, there was significant animal-to-animal variation in the kinetics and magnitudes of responses and the antigens recognized. The most frequently recognized antigens included MPB83, ESAT-6, CFP10, and MPB70. Responses to some antigens, such as MPB83, were consistently detected as early as 4 weeks after inoculation, whereas other antigens were detected only much later (>140 days p.i.). Antibody responses were boosted by injection of tuberculin for intradermal tuberculin skin testing. Comparison of single-antigen (fluorescence polarization assay) with multiantigen (CervidTB STAT-PAK) rapid tests demonstrated that a highly sensitive and specific serodiagnostic test for tuberculosis in cervids will require multiple and carefully selected seroreactive antigens covering a broad spectrum of antibody specificities.

  1. Anthropometric and Athletic Performance Combine Test Results Among Positions Within Grade Levels of High School-Aged American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutzinger, Todd J; Gillen, Zachary M; Miramonti, Amelia M; McKay, Brianna D; Mendez, Alegra I; Cramer, Joel T

    2018-05-01

    Leutzinger, TJ, Gillen, ZM, Miramonti, AM, McKay, BD, Mendez, AI, and Cramer, JT. Anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results among positions within grade levels of high school-aged American football players. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1288-1296, 2018-The purpose of this study was to investigate differences among player positions at 3 grade levels in elite, collegiate-prospective American football players. Participants' data (n = 7,160) were analyzed for this study (mean height [Ht] ± SD = 178 ± 7 cm, mass [Bm] = 86 ± 19 kg). Data were obtained from 12 different high school American football recruiting combines hosted by Zybek Sports (Boulder, Colorado). Eight 2-way (9 × 3) mixed factorial analysis of variances {position (defensive back [DB], defensive end, defensive lineman, linebacker, offensive lineman [OL], quarterback, running back, tight end, and wide receiver [WR]) × grade (freshmen, sophomores, and juniors)} were used to test for differences among the mean test scores for each combine measure (Ht, Bm, 40-yard [40 yd] dash, proagility [PA] drill, L-cone [LC] drill, vertical jump [VJ], and broad jump [BJ]). There were position-related differences (p ≤ 0.05) for Ht, 40 yd dash, and BJ, within each grade level and for Bm, PA, LC, and VJ independent of grade level. Generally, the results showed that OL were the tallest, weighed the most, and exhibited the lowest performance scores among positions. Running backs were the shortest, whereas DBs and WRs weighed the least and exhibited the highest performance scores among positions. These results demonstrate the value of classifying high school-aged American football players according to their specific position rather than categorical groupings such as "line" vs. "skill" vs. "big skill" when evaluating anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results.

  2. 77 FR 18273 - Submission for OMB Review; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ...-health-related assessments, the Applicant will be ``nominated'' to a program. This nomination does not... the Applicant's physical examination. Reactive Tuberculin Test Evaluation Form (a) Estimated number of...) Estimated annual cost to respondents: Indeterminate. General description of collection: The Reactive...

  3. LTBI: latent tuberculosis infection or lasting immune responses to M. tuberculosis? A TBNET consensus statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mack, U; Migliori, G B; Sester, M

    2009-01-01

    . tuberculosis after tuberculin skin test or IGRA conversion is unknown. It is also uncertain how long adaptive immune responses towards mycobacterial antigens persist in the absence of live mycobacteria. Clinical management and public healthcare policies for preventive chemotherapy against tuberculosis could...

  4. In vitro culture of skin-homing T lymphocytes from inflammatory skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Karen; Lund, Marianne; Mogensen, Søren C

    2005-01-01

    We, in this study, describe how T lymphocytes in a skin biopsy can proliferate in vitro for up to 3 months by using T-cell growth factors - interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-4 yielding approximately 100-160 million T lymphocytes within 1 month. We established cell lines from three tuberculin skin tests......, four positive patch tests, 15 of 16 biopsies from atopic dermatitis (AD), 15 of 19 biopsies from mycosis fungoides (MF), 12 of 24 biopsies from psoriasis vulgaris, which was significantly less than AD (P lymphocytes (P ... to immediate halt of proliferation. Blood mononuclear cells from patients and biopsies from healthy persons never gave cell lines. All cells were T lymphocytes expressing CD45RO+, HLA-DR+ and CD150. The CD7 expression was significantly increased in cell lines from AD (P

  5. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test: Validity and Relationship with Cardiovascular Stress-Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Melanie M; Brosschot, Jos F; Thayer, Julian F; Verkuil, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) was administered in two studies to test its ecological validity and relation with CV responses and self-report measures of affect. In Study 1 students (N = 34) viewed four film clips inducing anger, happiness, fear, or no emotion, and completed the IPANAT and the Positive And Negative Affect Scale at baseline and after each clip. Implicit negative affect (INA) was higher and implicit positive affect (IPA) was lower after the anger inducing clip and vice versa after the happiness inducing clip. In Study 2 students performed a stressful math task with (n = 14) or without anger harassment (n = 15) and completed the IPANAT and a Visual Analog Scale as an explicit measure afterwards. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout. SBP and DBP were higher and TPR was lower in the harassment condition during the task with a prolonged effect on SBP and DBP during recovery. As expected, explicit negative affect (ENA) was higher and explicit positive affect (EPA) lower after harassment, but ENA and EPA were not related to CV activity. Although neither INA nor IPA differed between the tasks, during both tasks higher INA was related to higher SBP, lower HRV and lower TPR and to slower recovery of DBP after both tasks. Low IPA was related to slower recovery of SBP and DBP after the tasks. Implicit affect was not related to recovery of HR, HRV, and TPR. In conclusion, the IPANAT seems to respond to film clip-induced negative and positive affect and was related to CV activity during and after stressful tasks. These findings support the theory that implicitly measured affect

  6. Test-retest reliability of joint position and kinesthetic sense in the elbow of healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, B.; Lund, Hans Aage; Hansen, K.

    2008-01-01

    Proprioception is an important effect measure in neuromuscular function training in physiotherapy. Reliability studies of methods for measuring proprioception are few on joint position sense (JPS) and threshold to detection of a passive movement (TDPM) on the elbow. The aim was to study test-rete...

  7. Effect of days in milk and milk yield on testing positive in milk antibody ELISA to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Milk samples are becoming more used as a diagnostic specimen for assessment of occurrence of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). This study assessed the effect of days in milk (DIM) and milk yield on testing positive in a commercial MAP specific milk antibody ELISA...... from the first couple of DIM should be excluded from MAP testing until further information on their significance is established. Milk yield also had a significant effect on odds of testing positive due to its diluting effect. Inclusion of milk yield in the interpretation of test results could improve...... among 222,774 Danish Holstein cows. Results showed that odds of testing positive on 1-2 DIM were 9-27 times higher than the rest of lactation, where the chance of testing positive varied less. The reason is most likely a high concentration of non-specific antibodies in colostrum. Consequently, samples...

  8. Expert Knowledge Influences Decision-Making for Couples Receiving Positive Prenatal Chromosomal Microarray Testing Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, M A; Werner-Lin, A; Barg, F K; Bernhardt, B A

    2017-09-01

    To assess how participants receiving abnormal prenatal genetic testing results seek information and understand the implications of results, 27 US female patients and 12 of their male partners receiving positive prenatal microarray testing results completed semi-structured phone interviews. These interviews documented participant experiences with chromosomal microarray testing, understanding of and emotional response to receiving results, factors affecting decision-making about testing and pregnancy termination, and psychosocial needs throughout the testing process. Interview data were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. In the absence of certainty about the implications of results, understanding of results is shaped by biomedical expert knowledge (BEK) and cultural expert knowledge (CEK). When there is a dearth of BEK, as in the case of receiving results of uncertain significance, participants rely on CEK, including religious/spiritual beliefs, "gut instinct," embodied knowledge, and social network informants. CEK is a powerful platform to guide understanding of prenatal genetic testing results. The utility of culturally situated expert knowledge during testing uncertainty emphasizes that decision-making occurs within discourses beyond the biomedical domain. These forms of "knowing" may be integrated into clinical consideration of efficacious patient assessment and counseling.

  9. Self-Reported HIV-Positive Status But Subsequent HIV-Negative Test Result Using Rapid Diagnostic Testing Algorithms Among Seven Sub-Saharan African Military Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-07

    analysis, data interpretation, or writing of the report. Leidos provided support in the form of salaries for JH, BRT, AGT, MBJ and JM but did not have any...have data on a QA process. The survey used for all seven partner mili- taries was based on a standardized modular survey, which assessed HIV risk... Technical considerations Technical limitations have been shown to increase false-positive HIV test results in voluntary counseling and testing centers

  10. Feasibility and willingness-to-pay for integrated community-based tuberculosis testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickery Carter

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based screening for TB, combined with HIV and syphilis testing, faces a number of barriers. One significant barrier is the value that target communities place on such screening. Methods Integrated testing for TB, HIV, and syphilis was performed in neighborhoods identified using geographic information systems-based disease mapping. TB testing included skin testing and interferon gamma release assays. Subjects completed a survey describing disease risk factors, healthcare access, healthcare utilization, and willingness to pay for integrated testing. Results Behavioral and social risk factors among the 113 subjects were prevalent (71% prior incarceration, 27% prior or current crack cocaine use, 35% homelessness, and only 38% had a regular healthcare provider. The initial 24 subjects reported that they would be willing to pay a median $20 (IQR: 0-100 for HIV testing and $10 (IQR: 0-100 for TB testing when the question was asked in an open-ended fashion, but when the question was changed to a multiple-choice format, the next 89 subjects reported that they would pay a median $5 for testing, and 23% reported that they would either not pay anything to get tested or would need to be paid $5 to get tested for TB, HIV, or syphilis. Among persons who received tuberculin skin testing, only 14/78 (18% participants returned to have their skin tests read. Only 14/109 (13% persons who underwent HIV testing returned to receive their HIV results. Conclusion The relatively high-risk persons screened in this community outreach study placed low value on testing. Reported willingness to pay for such testing, while low, likely overestimated the true willingness to pay. Successful TB, HIV, and syphilis integrated testing programs in high risk populations will likely require one-visit diagnostic testing and incentives.

  11. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-07

    Sep 7, 2017 ... protocol) and radiotherapy with a favorable follow up. Pan African Medical ... liver and kidney functions tests were normal. The tuberculin skin ... Chemotherapy was indicated, the patient received ABVD protocol. (Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine) followed by radiotherapy. The clinical and ...

  12. Identification of new antigen candidates for the early diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souriau, Armel; Freret, Sandrine; Foret, Benjamin; Willemsen, Peter T.J.; Bakker, Douwe; Guilloteau, Laurence A.

    2017-01-01

    Currently Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection is diagnosed through indirect tests based on the immune response induced by the infection. The antigens commonly used in IFN-γ release assays (IGRA) are purified protein derivative tuberculins (PPD). However, PPDs, lack both

  13. Field application of immunoassays for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, E.M.D.L.; Jenkins, A.; Cooper, D.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; Michel, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is considered the most important maintenance host of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in wildlife in Southern Africa. The diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in this species mostly relies on the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT). As an

  14. Evaluation of a large-scale tuberculosis contact investigation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgen, K.; Koster, B.; Meijer, H.; Kuyvenhoven, V.; van der Sande, M.; Cobelens, F.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate yield and effectiveness of a large-scale contact investigation around a supermarket employee with infectious tuberculosis. Supermarket customers were screened by tuberculin skin test (TST) and/or radiography, depending on individual characteristics. The

  15. Cavity beam position monitor system for the Accelerator Test Facility 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. I.; Ainsworth, R.; Aryshev, A.; Boogert, S. T.; Boorman, G.; Frisch, J.; Heo, A.; Honda, Y.; Hwang, W. H.; Huang, J. Y.; Kim, E.-S.; Kim, S. H.; Lyapin, A.; Naito, T.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Mellor, R. E.; Molloy, S.; Nelson, J.; Park, S. J.; Park, Y. J.; Ross, M.; Shin, S.; Swinson, C.; Smith, T.; Terunuma, N.; Tauchi, T.; Urakawa, J.; White, G. R.

    2012-04-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) is a scaled demonstrator system for final focus beam lines of linear high energy colliders. This paper describes the high resolution cavity beam position monitor (BPM) system, which is a part of the ATF2 diagnostics. Two types of cavity BPMs are used, C-band operating at 6.423 GHz, and S-band at 2.888 GHz with an increased beam aperture. The cavities, electronics, and digital processing are described. The resolution of the C-band system with attenuators was determined to be approximately 250 nm and 1μm for the S-band system. Without attenuation the best recorded C-band cavity resolution was 27 nm.

  16. Letter: California's position on pregnancy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, G C

    1976-07-01

    The dangers of do-it-yourself pregnancy testing have been recognized in California resulting in the passing of legislation. Pregnancy is a c ondition which requires skill, medical assistance, and occasionally inte rvention or objective counseling. There are 4 arguments against do-it-y ourself testing: 1) it may be inaccurate or inexpertly done, 2) reagents can be hazardous to the health of users or small children, 3) it fails to save money because confirmation by health professionals is usually required, and 4) the individual may not have access to appropriate healt h care resources. California counties have been providing an increasing volume of tests that have served to encourage earlier prenatal care, earlier and safer pregnancy termination, or attendance at family planning clinics. The success of this program warrants implementation by other state governments.

  17. Positive exercise thallium-201 test responses in patients with less than 50% maximal coronary stenosis: angiographic and clinical predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.A.; Osbakken, M.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.; Okada, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    The incidence and causes of abnormal thallium-201 (TI-201) myocardial perfusion studies in the absence of significant coronary artery disease were examined. The study group consisted of 100 consecutive patients undergoing exercise TI-201 testing and coronary angiography who were found to have maximal coronary artery diameter narrowing of less than 50%. Maximal coronary stenosis ranged from 0 to 40%. The independent and relative influences of patient clinical, exercise and angiographic data were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Significant predictors of a positive stress TI-201 test result were: (1) percent maximal coronary stenosis (p less than 0.0005), (2) propranolol use (p less than 0.01), (3) interaction of propranolol use and percent maximal stenosis (p less than 0.005), and (4) stress-induced chest pain (p . 0.05). No other patient variable had a significant influence. Positive TI-201 test results were more common in patients with 21 to 40% maximal stenosis (59%) than in patients with 0 to 20% maximal stenosis (27%) (p less than 0.01). Among patients with 21 to 40% stenosis, a positive test response was more common when 85% of maximal predicted heart rate was achieved (75%) than when it was not (40%) (p less than 0.05). Of 16 nonapical perfusion defects seen in patients with 21 to 40% maximal stenosis, 14 were in the territory that corresponded with such a coronary stenosis. Patients taking propranolol were more likely to have a positive TI-201 test result (45%) than patients not taking propranolol (22%) (p less than 0.05)

  18. Permanent pacemaker implantation in octogenarians with unexplained syncope and positive electrophysiologic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Georgios; Kossyvakis, Charalampos; Panagopoulou, Vasiliki; Tsiachris, Dimitrios; Doudoumis, Konstantinos; Mavri, Maria; Vrachatis, Dimitrios; Letsas, Konstantinos; Efremidis, Michael; Katsivas, Apostolos; Lekakis, John; Deftereos, Spyridon

    2017-05-01

    Syncope is a common problem in the elderly, and a permanent pacemaker is a therapeutic option when a bradycardic etiology is revealed. However, the benefit of pacing when no association of symptoms to bradycardia has been shown is not clear, especially in the elderly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pacing on syncope-free mortality in patients aged 80 years or older with unexplained syncope and "positive" invasive electrophysiologic testing (EPT). This was an observational study. A positive EPT for the purposes of this study was defined by at least 1 of the following: a corrected sinus node recovery time of >525 ms, a basic HV interval of >55 ms, detection of infra-Hisian block, or appearance of second-degree atrioventricular block on atrial decremental pacing at a paced cycle length of >400 ms. Among the 2435 screened patients, 228 eligible patients were identified, 145 of whom were implanted with a pacemaker. Kaplan-Meier analysis determined that time to event (syncope or death) was 50.1 months (95% confidence interval 45.4-54.8 months) with a pacemaker vs 37.8 months (95% confidence interval 31.3-44.4 months) without a pacemaker (log-rank test, P = .001). The 4-year time-dependent estimate of the rate of syncope was 12% vs 44% (P pacemaker implantation was independently associated with longer syncope-free survival. Significant differences were also shown in the individual components of the primary outcome measure (syncope and death from any cause). Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Latent tuberculous infection screening using recombinant tuberculous allergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Barmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the significant deterioration of health has been observed in schoolchildren. As per official data only 20% of children graduating from school are considered to be completely healthy, and 60% suffer from chronic diseases, i.e. belong to health groups III, IV and V, among which there are many children belonging to tuberculosis risk groups and suffering from undetected latent tuberculous infection. The efficiency of the new technique aimed to detect active tuberculous infection in children and adolescents of health groups III, IV and V has been evaluated. Screening proved the reduction in the number of patients in need of TB doctor advising by 8.4 fold compared to traditional mass diagnostics with tuberculin. Hyperergic reactions to diaskintest are 6 fold less common compared to Mantoux test. And 99.2% of children referred to TB doctor were registered to the dispensary follow-up versus 23.4% of children referred to TB doctor as per mass tuberculin testing results. (p < 0.001. Thus the validity of referral to TB doctor increased 4.2 fold. The detection rate of active forms of tuberculosis made 0.4 per 1000 examinations versus 0.1 in case of mass screening with tuberculin testing.

  20. Positive patch test reactions to oxidized limonene: exposure and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråred Christensson, Johanna; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus; Johansen, Jeanne D; Garcia-Bravo, Begoña; Gimenez Arnau, Ana; Goh, Chee-Leok; Nixon, Rosemary; White, Ian R

    2014-11-01

    R-Limonene is a common fragrance terpene found in domestic and industrial products. R-Limonene autoxidizes on air exposure, and the oxidation products can cause contact allergy. In a recent multicentre study, 5.2% (range 2.3-12.1%) of 2900 patients showed a positive patch test reaction to oxidized R-limonene. To study the exposure to limonene among consecutive dermatitis patients reacting to oxidized R-limonene in an international setting, and to assess the relevance of the exposure for the patients' dermatitis. Oxidized R-limonene 3.0% (containing limonene hydroperoxides at 0.33%) in petrolatum was tested in 2900 consecutive dermatitis patients in Australia, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Singapore, Spain, and Sweden. A questionnaire assessing exposure to limonene-containing products was completed. Overall, exposure to products containing limonene was found and assessed as being probably relevant for the patients' dermatitis in 36% of the limonene-allergic patients. In Barcelona and Copenhagen, > 70% of the patients were judged to have had an exposure to limonene assessed as relevant. Oxidized R-limonene is a common fragrance allergen, and limonene was frequently found in the labelling on the patients' products, and assessed as relevant for the patients' dermatitis. A large number of domestic and occupational sources for contact with R-limonene were identified. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Cell-mediated immunity in operable bronchial carcinoma: the effect of injecting irradiated autologous tumour cells and BCG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stack, B.H.R.; McSwan, N.; Stirling, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    In 52 patients undergoing tests of cell-mediated immunity before surgical resection of bronchial carcinoma a positive tuberculin test result was found in 71% compared with 68% of age - and sex-matched controls. Sensitization to DNCB occurred in 52% of 37 patients but in 78% controls. There was depression of lymphocyte transformation by PPD in 19 patients compared with controls (p=0.001), but there was no difference in lymphocyte transformation by PHA pr pokeweed mitogen between 34 patients and controls. In a pilot study patients were randomly allocated to autograft (eight) or non-autograft (seven) groups. The autograft group were given an intradermal injection of a suspension of irradiated autologous tumour-cells mixed with intradermal BCG on the day of operation. Tests of cell-mediated immunity were repeated two weeks after operation. Five patients in each group received a course of radiotherapy to the mediastinum three weeks after operation. There was a rise in a cutaneous tuberculin reactivity (p=0.08) and total leucocyte count (p=0.09) in the autograft group postoperatively with a fall in total lymphocyte and T lymphocyte counts in the non-autograft group (p<0.05). These differences, however, were not followed by any difference in the frequency of tumour recurrence or the survival rate two years after operation. The results show that the immunological surveillance mechanism is impaired even in patients with early bronchial carcinoma and that it is possible to overcome postoperative immunological depression with specific immunotherapy combined with BCG. This treatment did not produce any clinical advantage in this small number of patients and the skin lesions caused the patients considerable discomfort. (author)

  2. Mycobacterium bovis infection in a young Dutch adult : transmission from an elderly human source?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Onno; van der Loo, Kees; Nijmeijer, Dirk; van der Werf, Tjip; Mulder, Bert; Kremer, Kristin; van Soolingen, Dick; van der Zanden, Adri

    A young female health professional was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Source finding and contact tracing was initiated by the regional municipal health service using both tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON(A (R))-TB Gold (QFT-GIT (IGRA). The strain appeared

  3. 77 FR 3013 - Submission for OMB Review; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... a program. This nomination does not guarantee an invitation to serve, but it does hold a place so.... The electrocardiogram is performed as part of the Applicant's physical examination. Reactive...--Indeterminate General description of collection: The Reactive Tuberculin Test Evaluation Form is used when an...

  4. Mitsuda's reactions: induced by BCG in the normal Rhesus ("Macacca mulatta"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Pereira Filho

    1955-12-01

    Full Text Available The reversals of Mitsuda's reactions induced by BCG have been objected to based on the possiblem interference of other determination causes of the phenomenon: tuberculous primo-infections, communicants of unsuspected leprosy, revearsals due to other causes, such as anti-diphteric and anti-tetanic vaccination, etc. In order to study the problem, we have used Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, which were reared in isolation, in an attempt to avoid the referred to interferences. Prior to the experiments, all animals were tested and found negative to radiograph, tuberculin and lepromin tests and were then submitted to the application of BCG vaccine (from 1 to 3 days old, in different doses and by different via. At different times, after the application of BCG, they were again submitted to the radiographic, tuberculin and lepromin tests. In the tables I to IV the experiences were summarised. From the experiments, the following conclusions were reached: 1 - From 12 Rhesus that received BCG 11 showed reversals of the Mitsuda reaction (91.7%. 2 - These reverseals took place both in tests effected shortly after BCG (from 6 days to 2 months, and tests effected much later (from 7 to 12 months after BCG. 3 - Some differences were found in the results, according to the dosis and the application via of the BCG. a - The testicular and peritonela via (0,02g were the only that determined strong positive Mitsuda's reactions (+++. b - By oral via, animals that received high dosis (0.6g and 1.2 g, there resulted uniform and regular reversals, even though of low intensity (+; but from those who got small doses (0.2 g. one showed no reversals in all tests, and the other presented reversals in the 2nd and 3rd tests only, also with low positivity (+. 4 In the 2nd and 3rd Mitsuda's reactions in the same animals, positivity was always precocious (generally within 48 hours, one getting the impression that there occurs a sensibilization of the animal body by the antigen with

  5. Predictors for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo with positive Dix?Hallpike test

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Kazutaka; Ikusaka, Masatomi; Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Takada, Toshihiko; Tsukamoto, Tomoko

    2011-01-01

    Kazutaka Noda, Masatomi Ikusaka, Yoshiyuki Ohira, Toshihiko Takada, Tomoko TsukamotoDepartment of General Medicine, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, JapanObjective: Patient medical history is important for making a diagnosis of causes of dizziness, but there have been no studies on the diagnostic value of individual items in the history. This study was performed to identify and validate useful questions for suspecting a diagnosis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).Methods: Constr...

  6. False-positive head-impulse test in cerebellar ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia eKremmyda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this study was to compare the findings of the bedside head impulse test (HIT, passive head rotation gain, and caloric irrigation in patients with cerebellar ataxia (CA. In 16 patients with CA and bilaterally pathological bedside HIT, VOR gains were measured during HIT and passive head rotation by scleral search coil technique. Eight of the patients had pathologically reduced caloric responsiveness, while the other eight had normal caloric responses. Those with normal calorics showed a slightly reduced HIT gain (mean±SD: 0.73±0.15. In those with pathological calorics, gains 80ms and 100 ms after the HIT as well as the passive rotation VOR gains were significantly lower. The corrective saccade after head turn occurred earlier in patients with pathological calorics (111±62 ms after onset of the HIT than in those with normal calorics. (191±17 ms, p=0.0064 We indentified two groups of patients with CA: those with an isolated moderate HIT deficit only, probably due to floccular dysfunction, and those with combined HIT, passive rotation and caloric deficit, probably due to a peripheral vestibular deficit. From a clinical point of view, these results show that the bedside HIT alone can be false positive for establishing a diagnosis of a bilateral peripheral vestibular deficit in patients with CA.

  7. Cavity beam position monitor system for the Accelerator Test Facility 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2 is a scaled demonstrator system for final focus beam lines of linear high energy colliders. This paper describes the high resolution cavity beam position monitor (BPM system, which is a part of the ATF2 diagnostics. Two types of cavity BPMs are used, C-band operating at 6.423 GHz, and S-band at 2.888 GHz with an increased beam aperture. The cavities, electronics, and digital processing are described. The resolution of the C-band system with attenuators was determined to be approximately 250 nm and 1  μm for the S-band system. Without attenuation the best recorded C-band cavity resolution was 27 nm.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD IN FOOTBALL PLAYERS ON DIFFERENT POSITIONS, USING THE CONCONI TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Cvetković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Requirements and needs of properly programmed training process, especially in the pre-season, look for a precise definition of the functional parameters of all the players. The level of anaerobic threshold, as well as research on the same, may be a good indicator of proper dosage of loading. The aim of the research is to determine the differences in running speed and heart rate at the level of anaerobic threshold in relation to the position of the player. Methods: Age of the respondents in this study included boys from 14 to 16 years of age (60 football players. The sample of respondents was divided according to playing position, as follows: center-backs (12 players, wing-backs (15 players, midfielders (14 players, forwarders (13 players and goalkeepers (6 goalkeepers. An estimation of maximum heart rate and anaerobic threshold was performed using the Conconi test – (Conconi et al. 1996. Prior to testing players had ten minutes to warm up and after a few minutes of rest the testing began. Players started with jogging test (10 km/h and after every 200 m running speed was increased by 0.5 km/h. Within certain sections the load is constant which is achieved by increasing speed after each 200 m, and then maintaining that speed until the end of the section. After processing the results within the particular software (“Polar Precision Performance SW” the values needed for this research were collected. Multivariate methods MANOVA and discriminant analysis will be applied in the paper. Regarding the univariate procedures, ANOVA t-test and Roy’s test shall be applied. The descriptive parameters, mean value, standard deviation (SD, minimum and maximum of all values, the coefficient of variation (CV of confidence intervals, skewness as the measures of asymmetry, kurtosis as the measure of flatness and the value of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, shall be presented. Results: By using the multivariate analysis of variance and based on the

  9. The power of extraverts: testing positive and negative mood regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Hervas

    Full Text Available Extraversion is a personality trait which has been systematically related to positive affect and well-being. One of the mechanisms that may account for these positive outcomes is the ability to regulate the responses to positive, as well as negative, moods. Prior research has found that extraverts' higher positive mood maintenance could explain their higher levels of positive affect. However, research exploring differences between extraverts and introverts in negative mood regulation has yielded mixed results. The aim of the current study was explore the role of different facets of mood regulation displayed by extraverts, ambiverts, and introverts. After been exposed to a sad vs. happy mood induction, participants underwent a mood regulation task. Extraverts and ambiverts exhibited higher positive mood regulation than introverts, but similar mood repair. Thus, this research highlights the importance of positive mood regulation in the psychological functioning of extraverts, and opens new conceptualizations for developing interventions for introverts to improve their positive mood regulation and, hence, overall positive affect and well-being.

  10. Public health consequences of a false-positive laboratory test result for Brucella--Florida, Georgia, and Michigan, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-06

    Human brucellosis, a nationally notifiable disease, is uncommon in the United States. Most human cases have occurred in returned travelers or immigrants from regions where brucellosis is endemic, or were acquired domestically from eating illegally imported, unpasteurized fresh cheeses. In January 2005, a woman aged 35 years who lived in Nassau County, Florida, received a diagnosis of brucellosis, based on results of a Brucella immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) performed in a commercial laboratory using analyte specific reagents (ASRs); this diagnosis prompted an investigation of dairy products in two other states. Subsequent confirmatory antibody testing by Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT) performed at CDC on the patient's serum was negative. The case did not meet the CDC/Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists' (CSTE) definition for a probable or confirmed brucellosis case, and the initial EIA result was determined to be a false positive. This report summarizes the case history, laboratory findings, and public health investigations. CDC recommends that Brucella serology testing only be performed using tests cleared or approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or validated under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) and shown to reliably detect the presence of Brucella infection. Results from these tests should be considered supportive evidence for recent infection only and interpreted in the context of a clinically compatible illness and exposure history. EIA is not considered a confirmatory Brucella antibody test; positive screening test results should be confirmed by Brucella-specific agglutination (i.e., BMAT or standard tube agglutination test) methods.

  11. The 'carry-over' effects of patient self-testing: positive effects on usual care management by an anticoagulation management service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Fiona

    2010-11-01

    Patient self-testing (PST) of the international normalised ratio (INR) has a positive effect on anticoagulation control. This study investigated whether the benefits of PST (other than increased frequency of testing, e.g. patient education, empowerment, compliance etc.) could be \\'carried-over\\' into usual care management after a period of home-testing has ceased.

  12. [Spanish Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases guidelines on tuberculosis in pregnant women and neonates (i): Epidemiology and diagnosis. Congenital tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero-Artigao, F; Mellado Peña, M J; Del Rosal Rabes, T; Noguera Julián, A; Goncé Mellgren, A; de la Calle Fernández-Miranda, M; Navarro Gómez, M L

    2015-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) screening in pregnancy using tuberculin skin test (TST) is recommended in case of symptoms of TB disease, close contact with a patient with infectious TB, or high risk of developing active disease. The new interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) tests are recommended in BCG-vaccinated pregnant women with positive TST and no known risk factors for TB, and in those immunocompromised, with clinical suspicion of TB but negative TST. TB diagnosis is difficult due to the non-specific symptoms, the increased frequency of extrapulmonary disease, the delay in radiological examinations, and the high rate of tuberculin anergy. Neonatal TB can be acquired in utero (congenital TB), or through airborne transmission after delivery (postnatal TB). Congenital TB is extremely rare and does not cause fetal malformations. It may be evident at birth, although it usually presents after the second week of life. In newborns with no family history of TB, the disease should be considered in cases of miliary pneumonia, hepatosplenomegaly with focal lesions, or lymphocytic meningitis with hypoglycorrhachia, especially in those born to immigrants from high TB-burden countries. TST is usually negative, and IGRAs have lower sensitivity than in older children. However, the yield of acid-fast smear and culture is higher, mostly in congenital TB. Molecular diagnosis techniques enable early diagnosis and detection of drug resistance mutations. There is a substantial risk of disseminated disease and death. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbiological evaluation of milk samples positive to California Mastitis Test in dairy buffalo cows (Buballus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Sturion

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to observe the microbiological status of CMT positive samples, 734 apparently health mammary quarters from buffalo cows were submitted to physical evaluation, strip cup test and CMT. After milk samples inoculation in 10% ovine blood agar base media and in MacConkey agar and incubation under aerobic condition for 72 hours at 37oC, identification was proceeded. According to CMT, 227 quarters (30,93% were positive, among them 73 (32,16% presented 1+ reaction, 53 (23,35% were 2+ and 101 (44,49% were 3+. Microbiological exams of such samples were positive in 147 (64,76% out of 227 CMT positive samples and among the remaining 72 (31,72% were negative and 8 (3,52 were contaminated. In the 147 microbiological positive samples 204 bacteria were found in pure or associated growth and the most frequent agents were: Corynebacterium sp (59,25%; Staphylococcus sp (17,65% among which 86,11% were coagulase negative and 13,89% were coagulase positive; and Micrococcus sp (6,37%. The results revealed that, excluding the eight contaminated samples, 147 (67,12% quarters out of 219 CMT positive could be considered as bacteria-carrier and that even in a smaller percentage false-positive results can cause problems in a sanitary program for mastitis control in dairy buffalo cows.

  14. First operational tests of the positive-ion injector for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Den Hartog, P.K.; Pardo, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status and first operational experience with the positive-ion injector for ATLAS. The new injector consists of an ECR ion source on a 350-kV platform, followed by a superconducting injector linac of a new kind. In Phase I of this project, the ECR source, voltage platform, bunching system, beam-transport system, and a 3-MV injector linac were completed and tested in early 1989 by a successful acceleration of an 40 Ar 12+ beam. Most of the new system operated as planned, and the longitudinal emittance of the 36-MeV beam out of the injector was measured to be only 5 π keV-ns, much smaller than the emittance for the present tandem injector. When completed in 1990, the final injector linac will be enlarged to 12 MV, enough to allow the original ATLAS linac to accelerate uranium ions up to 8 MeV/u. 8 refs., 2 figs

  15. First operational tests of the positive-ion injector for ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Den Hartog, P.K.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Benaroya, R.; Billquist, P.J.; Clifft, B.E.; Markovich, P.; Munson, F.H. Jr.; Nixon, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status and first operational experience with the positive-ion injector for ATLAS. The new injector consists of an ECR ion source on a 350-kV platform, followed by a superconducting injector linac of a new kind. In Phase I of this project, the ECR source, voltage platform, bunching system, beam-transport system, and a 3-MV injector linac were completed and tested in early 1989 by a successful acceleration of an /sup 40/Ar/sup 12 +/ beam. Most of the new system operated as planned, and the longitudinal emittance of the 36-MeV beam out of the injector was measured to be only 5 ..pi.. keV-ns, much smaller than the emittance for the present tandem injector. When completed in 1990, the final injector linac will be enlarged to 12 MV, enough to allow the original ATLAS linac to accelerate uranium ions up to 8 MeV/u. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  16. False-positive cryptococcal antigen test associated with use of BBL Port-a-Cul transport vials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deborah A; Sholtis, Mary; Parshall, Sharon; Hall, Gerri S; Procop, Gary W

    2011-02-01

    A total of 52 residual CSF and serum specimens, which were originally negative with the Cryptococcal Antigen Latex Agglutination System (CALAS), were shown to become falsely positive after placement in BBL Port-A-Cul anaerobic transport vials. This transport device, although excellent for specimen transportation for subsequent culture, should not be used if cryptococcal antigen testing is needed.

  17. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis: Skin Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculous Lymphadenitis: Skin Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Reaction and Cellular Immune Responses. ... The tuberculin skin test (TST) and peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells (PBMCs) culture were conducted using PPD. The cytokines were measured using commercial kits. Results: The mean TST was 24.6 ±8.0 ...

  18. Risk of tuberculous infection in adolescents and adults in a rural community in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, D.; Akuffo, H.; Abate, E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in sub-Saharan Africa is one of the highest in the world. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of TB, the annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI) and associated risk factors in rural Ethiopia. METHODS: A tuberculin skin test was performed among ...

  19. Cervical cancer screening by high risk HPV testing in routine practice: results at one year recall of high risk HPV-positive and cytology-negative women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Mistro, Annarosa; Frayle, Helena; Ferro, Antonio; Callegaro, Susanna; Del Sole, Annamaria; Stomeo, Anna; Cirillo, Emanuela; Fedato, Chiara; Pagni, Silvana; Barzon, Luisa; Zorzi, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Cervical cancer screening by human papillomavirus (HPV) testing requires the use of additional triage and follow-up analyses. We evaluated women's compliance with and the performance of this strategy in a routine setting. Five cervical service screening programmes in North-East Italy. Eligible women aged 25-64 invited for a new screening episode underwent HPV testing for high risk types (hrHPV by Hybrid Capture 2) and cytology triage. Women with positive HPV and cytology results were referred for colposcopy; women with positive HPV but negative cytology results were referred to 1-year repeat hrHPV testing. Of 46,694 women screened by HPV testing up to December 2011, 3,211 (6.9%) tested hrHPV positive; 45% of these had a positive triage cytology. Those with negative cytology were invited for 1-yr repeat testing. Compliance with invitation was 61.6% at baseline and 85.3% at 1-yr repeat. Rate of persistent hrHPV positivity was 58% (830/1,435). Colposcopy performed in women with a positive hrHPV test at 1-yr repeat accounted for 36% of all colposcopies performed within the screening programmes. Cumulatively, a histological high-grade lesion was detected in 276 women (5.9‰ detection rate), 234 at baseline (85%), and 42 (15%) at 1-yr repeat. Compliance with hrHPV-based screening programmes was high both at baseline and at 1-yr repeat. Compared with the randomized trials, a higher proportion of triage cytology was read as positive, and only a small number of high-grade lesions were detected among the group of hrHPV positive cytology negative women who repeated testing 1-yr after baseline.

  20. Effect of deworming on human T cell responses to mycobacterial antigens in helminth-exposed individuals before and after bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, D; Wolday, D; Akuffo, H

    2001-01-01

    The protective efficacy of BCG vaccination against pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is highly variable in different populations. The reason remains to be elucidated. This study aims to investigate the possible effect of intestinal helminths on the immune response to PPD in naturally immunized or BCG......-vaccinated humans. The study population was assessed for helminthic infection and those found to be positive were randomly assigned to either an albendazole treatment group or a control group who received a placebo. The immune response to PPD was compared between the two groups. In addition, subjects who were...... tuberculin skin test-negative in both groups were BCG vaccinated and later on tested for PPD-specific responses. Albendazole induced elimination/or reduction in intestinal worms resulting in a significant improvement in T cell proliferation and in interferon-gamma production by peripheral blood mononuclear...

  1. EAMJ September 432-448.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-09-09

    Sep 9, 2008 ... and three (19%) of 16 HIV-infected patients (p=0.0701) and QFTG was positive among two (14%) of 14 ..... specific T-cell responses increased 1.8 fold, peaking at. 26 days before ... Markowitz, N., Hansen, N.I., Wilcosky, T.C., et al. Tuberculin ... 737-742. 10. Rangaka, M.X., Wilkinson, K.A., Seldon, R., et al.

  2. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.6 Goats. (a) In order to be eligible for export, goats shall be...) Tuberculosis. All goats over 1 month of age shall be negative to a caudal intradermal tuberculin test using 0.1...

  3. Positive results of serological tests for syphilis in pregnancy – diagnostic and therapeutic problems, report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Koper

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Undiagnosed and untreated syphilis in pregnancy may result in subsequent complications: early fetal loss, stillbirth, low birth weight of infants and newborns with congenital syphilis. Objective. To analyze diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas of positive results of serological tests for syphilis (STS in pregnancy. Case reports. We present two cases of pregnant women, hospitalized in our department due to positive results of serological tests for syphilis, performed during the antenatal visit. On the basis of patients' history, physical examination and STS results, early latent syphilis was diagnosed in the first patient; biological false positive reactions were considered in the second one. Both patients received procaine penicillin treatment. Conclusions. Screening for syphilis in pregnancy as a part of antenatal care and appropriate treatment with penicillin are the most effective interventions to prevent complications of syphilis in pregnancy. It is also important to adapt modern European Guidelines for management of syphilis to Polish conditions.

  4. Direct identification and susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using high speed cold centrifugation and Vitek II system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Ali M; Rabaan, Ali A; Fawarah, Mahmoud M; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A

    Compared to routine isolated colony-based methods, direct testing of bacterial pellets from positive blood cultures reduces turnaround time for reporting of antibiotic susceptibility. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy, and precision, of a rapid method for direct identification and susceptibility testing of blood cultures with the routine method used in our laboratory, using Vitek 2. A total of 60 isolates were evaluated using the candidate and the routine method. The candidate method had 100% accuracy for the identification of Gram negative bacteria, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus, 50% for Streptococcus and 33.3% for Corynebacterium species. Susceptibility testing of Gram negative isolates yielded 98-100% essential agreement. For Staphylococcus and Enterococcus isolates, essential agreement was 100% for 17 antibiotics except for moxifloxacin. Direct testing of blood culture samples with Vitek 2 produced reliable identification and susceptibility results 18-24h sooner for aerobic/anaerobic facultative Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive Staphylococcus and Enterococcus strains. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Design and Construction of a Beam Position Monitor Prototype for the Test Beam Line of the CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Garrigos, Juan Jose

    2008-01-01

    A prototype of Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for the Test Beam Line (TBL) of the 3rd CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) at CERN has been designed and constructed at IFIC in collaboration with the CERN CTF3 team. The design is a scaled version of the BPMs of the CTF3 linac. The design goals are a resolution of 5 μm, an overall precision of 50 μm, in a circular vacuum chamber of 24 mm, in a frequency bandwidth between 10 kHz and 100MHz.The BPMis an inductive type BPM. Beam positions are derived from the image current created by a high frequency electron bunch beam into four electrodes surrounding the vacuum chamber. In this work we describe the mechanical design and construction, the description of the associated electronics together with the first calibration measurements performed in a wire test bench at CERN.

  6. Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and a modification of the standardised disc diffusion test: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, C

    2016-04-27

    In an era when clinical microbiology laboratories are under increasing financial pressure, there is a need for inexpensive, yet effective, rapid microbiology tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel modification of standard methodology for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of pathogens in positive blood cultures, reducing the turnaround time of laboratory results by 24 h.

  7. False-Positive Cryptococcal Antigen Test Associated with Use of BBL Port-A-Cul Transport Vials▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deborah A.; Sholtis, Mary; Parshall, Sharon; Hall, Gerri S.; Procop, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 52 residual CSF and serum specimens, which were originally negative with the Cryptococcal Antigen Latex Agglutination System (CALAS), were shown to become falsely positive after placement in BBL Port-A-Cul anaerobic transport vials. This transport device, although excellent for specimen transportation for subsequent culture, should not be used if cryptococcal antigen testing is needed. PMID:21159939

  8. A Vision/Inertia Integrated Positioning Method Using Position and Orientation Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyue Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A vision/inertia integrated positioning method using position and orientation matching which can be adopted on intelligent vehicle such as automated guided vehicle (AGV and mobile robot is proposed in this work. The method is introduced firstly. Landmarks are placed into the navigation field and camera and inertial measurement unit (IMU are installed on the vehicle. Vision processor calculates the azimuth and position information from the pictures which include artificial landmarks with the known direction and position. Inertial navigation system (INS calculates the azimuth and position of vehicle in real time and the calculated pixel position of landmark can be computed from the INS output position. Then the needed mathematical models are established and integrated navigation is implemented by Kalman filter with the observation of azimuth and the calculated pixel position of landmark. Navigation errors and IMU errors are estimated and compensated in real time so that high precision navigation results can be got. Finally, simulation and test are performed, respectively. Both simulation and test results prove that this vision/inertia integrated positioning method using position and orientation matching has feasibility and it can achieve centimeter-level autonomic continuous navigation.

  9. Management of blood donors and blood donations from individuals found to have a positive direct antiglobulin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Judith L

    2012-04-01

    The medical literature is replete with articles addressing the diagnosis and management of patients with a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT). However, there is scant information addressing the management of blood donors and blood donations found to have a positive DAT. Practices vary considerably between countries and blood suppliers within countries, and there is no standardized approach to the management of these blood donors or the blood products prepared from their donations. Recent evidence from Israel suggests that the finding of a positive DAT in a blood donor may not be as benign as previously thought. Therefore, it may be prudent for blood collection agencies to periodically reexamine their approach to the management of blood donors with a positive DAT and their donations. This article reviews the available literature and explores options for the management of DAT-positive blood donors and their blood donations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ST-Segment Depression in Hyperventilation Indicates a False Positive Exercise Test in Patients with Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas P. Michaelides

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Mitral valve prolapse (MVP is a known cause for false positive exercise test (ET. The purpose of this study was to establish additional electrocardiographic criteria to distinguish the false positive exercise results in patients with MVP. Methods. We studied 218 consecutive patients ( years, 103 males with MVP (according to echocardiographic study, and positive treadmill ET was performed due to multiple cardiovascular risk factors or angina-like symptoms. A coronary angiography was performed to detect coronary artery disease (CAD. Results. From 218 patients, 90 (group A presented with normal coronary arteries according to the angiography (false positive ET while the rest 128 (group B presented with CAD. ST-segment depression in hyperventilation phase was present in 54 patients of group A (60% while only in 14 patients of group B (11%, . Conclusions. Presence of ST-segment depression in hyperventilation phase favors a false positive ET in patients with MVP.

  11. Open MR imaging of the unstable shoulder in the apprehension test position: description and evaluation of an alternative MR examination position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintzell, G.; Larsson, S.; Larsson, H.; Zyto, K.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate an alternative MR assessment procedure for analysis of unstable shoulders. Twelve patients with unilateral recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation had both shoulders examined. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed with an open-MR system in the apprehension position with the shoulder in 90 of abduction and maximum tolerable external rotation. Contrast enhancement was achieved with intravenous gadolinium. Correlations were made to the findings at operation. In 10 of 12 unstable shoulders the inferior glenohumeral ligament labral complex (IGHLLC) was detached from the glenoid as seen on MR and later verified during surgery. In one shoulder MR was unable to show a capsulolabral detachment that was verified at surgery, whereas in one shoulder both MR and surgical assessment revealed no soft tissue detachment (accuracy 92 %). A Hill-Sachs lesion was visualized and verified in all unstable shoulders, whereas the stable controls revealed normal IGHLLC and no Hill-Sachs lesion. Open-MRI evaluation of the shoulder in the apprehension test position may become a useful tool for the evaluation of anterior shoulder instability. (orig.)

  12. Analytic and clinical performance of cobas HPV testing in anal specimens from HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; Tokugawa, Diane; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Chen, Jie; Lorey, Thomas S; Gage, Julia C; Fetterman, Barbara; Boyle, Sean; Sadorra, Mark; Tang, Scott Dahai; Darragh, Teresa M; Castle, Philip E

    2014-08-01

    Anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are common, and the incidence of anal cancer is high in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). To evaluate the performance of HPV assays in anal samples, we compared the cobas HPV test (cobas) to the Roche Linear Array HPV genotyping assay (LA) and cytology in HIV-infected MSM. Cytology and cobas and LA HPV testing were conducted for 342 subjects. We calculated agreement between the HPV assays and the clinical performance of HPV testing and HPV genotyping alone and in combination with anal cytology. We observed high agreement between cobas and LA, with cobas more likely than LA to show positive results for HPV16, HPV18, and other carcinogenic types. Specimens testing positive in cobas but not in LA were more likely to be positive for other markers of HPV-related disease compared to those testing negative in both assays, suggesting that at least some of these were true positives for HPV. cobas and LA showed high sensitivities but low specificities for the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (AIN2/3) in this population (100% sensitivity and 26% specificity for cobas versus 98.4% sensitivity and 28.9% specificity for LA). A combination of anal cytology and HPV genotyping provided the highest accuracy for detecting anal precancer. A higher HPV load was associated with a higher risk of AIN2/3 with HPV16 (P(trend) < 0.001), HPV18 (P(trend) = 0.07), and other carcinogenic types (P(trend) < 0.001). We demonstrate that cobas can be used for HPV detection in anal cytology specimens. Additional tests are necessary to identify men at the highest risk of anal cancer among those infected with high-risk HPV. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Prednisolone treatment affects the performance of the QuantiFERON gold in-tube test and the tuberculin skin test in patients with autoimmune disorders screened for latent tuberculosis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bélard, Erika; Semb, Synne; Ruhwald, Morten

    2011-01-01

    (TST). METHODS: A prospective multicenter study included 248 patients with ulcerative colitis (39), Crohn's disease (54), rheumatoid arthritis (111), and spondylo-arthropathy (44). RESULTS: QFT-IT was positive in 7/248 (3%), negative in 229 (92%), and indeterminate in 12 (5%). TST was positive in 54....../238 (23%) patients. Chest x-ray was suspect for tuberculosis in 5/236 (2%), and 35/167 (21%) had =1 risk-factors for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The main finding was a pronounced negative effect on QFT-IT and TST performance associated with prednisolone treatment. During prednisolone.......0; IQR 9.7 to >10.0; P = 0.0058). Prednisolone treatment was strongly associated with negative TST, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.22 (0.1-0.8; P = 0.018), and with an increased risk of indeterminate QFT-IT results AOR 16.1 (4.1-63.2; P negative effect was found for long...

  14. Single test isolated lupus anticoagulant positivity is associated with increased plasma levels of inflammatory markers and dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, S A; Nybo, M; Laustrup, H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a single positive test for lupus anticoagulant (LA) is associated with levels of inflammatory markers and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, independent of autoimmune disease, thrombophilia and occurrence of other antiphospholipid antibodies. METHODS: In a ...

  15. BACTEC MGIT 960 TM system for screening of Mycobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed to evaluate the recent technique (BACTEC MGIT 960 TM system) for screening of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex among cattle in Egypt. From the 1180 cattle examined in three different Governorates (El-Sharkia, El-Gharbia and El-Monefeia) by single intradermal tuberculin test, 29 animals ...

  16. Cultural and molecular detection of zoonotic tuberculosis and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a chronic infectious disease of animals characterized by the formation of granulomas in tissues and its detection is carried out most commonly on the basis of tuberculin skin testing, abattoir meat inspection and rarely on bacteriological techniques. A study was conducted to assess the ...

  17. Prenatal Testing for Adult-Onset Conditions: the Position of the National Society of Genetic Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercher, Laura; Uhlmann, Wendy R; Hoffman, Erin P; Gustafson, Shanna; Chen, Kelly M

    2016-12-01

    Advances in genetic testing and the availability of such testing in pregnancy allows prospective parents to test their future child for adult-onset conditions. This ability raises several complex ethical issues. Prospective parents have reproductive rights to obtain information about their fetus. This information may or may not alter pregnancy management. These rights can be in conflict with the rights of the future individual, who will be denied the right to elect or decline testing. This paper highlights the complexity of these issues, details discussions that went into the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) Public Policy Task Force's development of the Prenatal testing for Adult-Onset Conditions position statement adopted in November 2014, and cites relevant literature on this topic through December 2015. Issues addressed include parental rights and autonomy, rights of the future child, the right not to know, possible adverse effects on childhood and the need for genetic counseling. This paper will serve as a reference to genetic counselors and healthcare professionals when faced with this situation in clinical practice.

  18. Ethics of genetic testing and research in sport: a position statement from the Australian Institute of Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Vlahovich, Nicole; Fricker, Peter A; Brown, Matthew A; Hughes, David

    2016-01-01

    As Australia's peak high-performance sport agency, the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) has developed this position statement to address the implications of recent advances in the field of genetics and the ramifications for the health and well-being of athletes. Genetic testing has proven of value in the practice of clinical medicine. There are, however, currently no scientific grounds for the use of genetic testing for athletic performance improvement, sport selection or talent identifica...

  19. Does Gender Influence Emotions Resulting from Positive Applause Feedback in Self-Assessment Testing? Evidence from Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ju; Huang, Chin-Fei; Liu, Ming-Chi; Chien, Yu-Cheng; Lai, Chia-Hung; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2015-01-01

    Computerized self-assessment testing can help learners reflect on learning content and can also promote their motivation toward learning. However, a positive affective state is the key to achieving these learning goals. This study aims to examine learning gains and emotional reactions resulting from receiving emotional feedback in the form of…

  20. Do health care needs of indigent Mexican-American, black, and white adolescents differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, S B; Fujii, C; Shragg, G P; Rice, L; Morgan, M; Felice, M E

    1990-03-01

    Few studies have addressed the specific health care needs of Mexican-American adolescents. This 2-year study assessed the routine health care needs and incidence of chronic illness among 279 Mexican-American, 233 white, and 333 black indigent adolescents enrolled in a vocational training program. Mexican-Americans were more likely to have a positive purified protein derivative tuberculin test and acne/eczema requiring treatment. Blacks were more likely to have incomplete immunizations and thyroid disorders, while whites were more likely to have musculoskeletal conditions and require family planning services and psychiatric intervention for mental health disorders. Although no difference in incidence of chronic illness was noted, our data suggests that routine health care needs may differ among indigent Mexican-American, white, and black adolescents.

  1. Clinical review of tuberculous peritonitis in 39 patients in Diyarbakir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrikulu, A Cetin; Aldemir, Mustafa; Gurkan, Fuat; Suner, Ali; Dagli, Canan Eren; Ece, Aydin

    2005-06-01

    Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is a rare manifestation, which can be overlooked on long-lasting and non-specific findings unless a high index of suspicion is maintained. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the diagnostic features of 39 patients hospitalized with tuberculous peritonitis (TBP) in Dicle University Hospital, Turkey between January 1994 and August 2003. Twenty-two patients were male; patient age ranged between 1 and 59 years (mean: 16.2 +/- 14.4 years). There were 21 patients (54%) under 15 years of age. Thirteen children had a history of familial TB and seven adults had prior history of TB. Six (29%) of 21 pediatric cases had bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) scars and results of 5-tuberculin units (TU) tuberculin test were positive in seven children (18%). Of all cases, the most common presenting findings were abdominal pain (95%), ascites (92%) and abdominal distention (82%). Five of the patients had accompanying pulmonary TB, and six patients (15%) had intestinal TB who were admitted to emergency service with acute abdomen, of whom three (8%) had perforation and three (8%) had ileus. Histopathologically 20 cases (51%) were proven on abdominal ultrasonography, and computed tomography revealed most commonly ascites and thickening of peritoneum. No microbiologic evidence was obtained except three positive culture results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As a result, TBP should be considered for diagnosis, in patients with non-specific symptoms of abdominal pain, wasting, fever, loss of appetite, abdominal distension and even symptoms of acute abdomen, because early diagnosis and effective treatment will decrease morbidity and mortality. (c) 2005 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests: Plasmodium falciparum infections with high parasite densities may generate false positive Plasmodium vivax pLDH lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Esbroeck Marjan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs detect Plasmodium falciparum and an antigen common to the four species. Plasmodium vivax-specific RDTs target P. vivax-specific parasite lactate dehydrogenase (Pv-pLDH. Previous observations of false positive Pv-pLDH test lines in P. falciparum samples incited to the present study, which assessed P. vivax-specific RDTs for the occurrence of false positive Pv-pLDH lines in P. falciparum samples. Methods Nine P. vivax-specific RDTs were tested with 85 P. falciparum samples of high (≥2% parasite density. Mixed P. falciparum/P. vivax infections were ruled out by real-time PCR. The RDTs included two-band (detecting Pv-pLDH, three-band (detecting P. falciparum-antigen and Pv-pLDH and four-band RDTs (detecting P. falciparum, Pv-pLDH and pan-pLDH. Results False positive Pv-pLDH lines were observed in 6/9 RDTs (including two- three- and four-band RDTs. They occurred in the individual RDT brands at frequencies ranging from 8.2% to 29.1%. For 19/85 samples, at least two RDT brands generated a false positive Pv-pLDH line. Sixteen of 85 (18.8% false positive lines were of medium or strong line intensity. There was no significant relation between false positive results and parasite density or geographic origin of the samples. Conclusion False positive Pv-pLDH lines in P. falciparum samples with high parasite density occurred in 6/9 P. vivax-specific RDTs. This is of concern as P. falciparum and P. vivax are co-circulating in many regions. The diagnosis of life-threatening P. falciparum malaria may be missed (two-band Pv-pLDH RDT, or the patient may be treated incorrectly with primaquine (three- or four-band RDTs.

  3. Standard operation procedures for conducting the on-the-road driving test, and measurement of the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This review discusses the methodology of the standardized on-the-road driving test and standard operation procedures to conduct the test and analyze the data. The on-the-road driving test has proven to be a sensitive and reliable method to examine driving ability after administration of central nervous system (CNS) drugs. The test is performed on a public highway in normal traffic. Subjects are instructed to drive with a steady lateral position and constant speed. Its primary parameter, the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), ie, an index of 'weaving', is a stable measure of driving performance with high test-retest reliability. SDLP differences from placebo are dose-dependent, and do not depend on the subject's baseline driving skills (placebo SDLP). It is important that standard operation procedures are applied to conduct the test and analyze the data in order to allow comparisons between studies from different sites.

  4. Prognosis of patients with positive exercise test and normal myocardial perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, J. H.; Jeong, S. Y.; Bae, J. H.; Ahn, B. C.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Exercise SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging(Ex-MPI) is regarded as a predictive technique particularly in patients with coronary artery disease(CAD) capable of performing exercise testing. In clinical practice, we encounter equivocal situations of discordant findings between exercise ECG and MPI. We evaluated the prognosis of subjects with positive ECG and normal MPI findings, and predictive factors for cardiac events. 2571 Ex-MPI studies were reviewed over a period of 3 years. Subjects were followed for more than 2 years(24-56 months, mean 35{+-}10months) for cardiac events after study. The cardiac events were defined as hard events(cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction(MI)) and soft events(aggravation of CAD necessitating revascularization, congestive heart failure necessitating hospital admission). We evaluated age, sex, typical angina pain, rest ECG, hypertension, diabetes mellitus(DM), serum levels of cholesterol and LDL, smoking history, history of cerebrovascular disease(CVD) and peripheral artery disease(PAD), and rest left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF) as clinical variables. Of 83 subjects with positive ECG and normal MPS findings, 6 were considered as false negative results confirmed with coronary angiography. There were 77 patients (mean age 52{+-}10 years, 39 males) with positive ECG and normal MPI results. During the follow-up period, of 77 there were 3 cardiac events (annual rate 1.9%), no cardiac death, 2 nonfatal MIs (annual rate 1.3%) and 1 soft event (annual rate 0.6%). 2/39 males(5.1%), and 1/38 females(2.6%) had cardiac events. All cardiac events were observed within 2 years. 1-year cardiac event rate was 0.6% and 2-year cardiac event rate was 1.9%. Among clinical factors, male sex, typical chest pain and smoking history at the time of MPI were predictive of cardiac events. Patients with positive ECG and negative EX-MPI results have low risk for cardiac events. Nevertheless, the cardiac events cannot be excluded totally in some

  5. Prognosis of patients with positive exercise test and normal myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, J. H.; Jeong, S. Y.; Bae, J. H.; Ahn, B. C.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B

    2004-01-01

    Exercise SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging(Ex-MPI) is regarded as a predictive technique particularly in patients with coronary artery disease(CAD) capable of performing exercise testing. In clinical practice, we encounter equivocal situations of discordant findings between exercise ECG and MPI. We evaluated the prognosis of subjects with positive ECG and normal MPI findings, and predictive factors for cardiac events. 2571 Ex-MPI studies were reviewed over a period of 3 years. Subjects were followed for more than 2 years(24-56 months, mean 35±10months) for cardiac events after study. The cardiac events were defined as hard events(cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction(MI)) and soft events(aggravation of CAD necessitating revascularization, congestive heart failure necessitating hospital admission). We evaluated age, sex, typical angina pain, rest ECG, hypertension, diabetes mellitus(DM), serum levels of cholesterol and LDL, smoking history, history of cerebrovascular disease(CVD) and peripheral artery disease(PAD), and rest left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF) as clinical variables. Of 83 subjects with positive ECG and normal MPS findings, 6 were considered as false negative results confirmed with coronary angiography. There were 77 patients (mean age 52±10 years, 39 males) with positive ECG and normal MPI results. During the follow-up period, of 77 there were 3 cardiac events (annual rate 1.9%), no cardiac death, 2 nonfatal MIs (annual rate 1.3%) and 1 soft event (annual rate 0.6%). 2/39 males(5.1%), and 1/38 females(2.6%) had cardiac events. All cardiac events were observed within 2 years. 1-year cardiac event rate was 0.6% and 2-year cardiac event rate was 1.9%. Among clinical factors, male sex, typical chest pain and smoking history at the time of MPI were predictive of cardiac events. Patients with positive ECG and negative EX-MPI results have low risk for cardiac events. Nevertheless, the cardiac events cannot be excluded totally in some

  6. Thermal-hydraulic design calculations for the annular fuel element with replaceable test bundles (TOAST) on the test zone position 205 of KNK II/3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norajitra, P.

    1984-10-01

    Annular fuel elements are foreseen in KNK II as carrier elements for irradiation inserts and test bundles. For the third core a reloadable annular element on position 205 is foreseen, in which replaceable 19-pin test bundles (TOAST) shall be irradiated. The present report deals with the thermal-hydraulic design of the annular carrier element and the test bundle, whereby the test bundle required additional optimization. The code CIA has been used for the calculations. Start of irradiation of the subassembly is planned at the beginning of the third core operation. After optimization of the pin-spacer geometry in the test bundle, design calculations for both bundles were performed, whereby thermal coupling between both was taken into account. The calculated mass-flows and temperature distributions are given for the nominal and the eccentric element configuration. The calculated bundle pressure losses have been corrected according to experimental results [de

  7. The level of PPD-specific IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ T cells in the blood predicts the in vivo response to PPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marcia Valéria B S; Lima, Mônica Cristina B S; Duppre, Nadia C; Matos, Haroldo J; Spencer, John S; Brennan, Patrick J; Sarno, Euzenir N; Fonseca, Leila; Pereira, Geraldo M B; Pessolani, Maria Cristina V

    2007-05-01

    There are no reliable means for detecting subclinical mycobacterial infections. The recent sequencing of several mycobacterial genomes has now afforded new opportunities for the development of pathogen-specific diagnostic tests, critical in the context of leprosy and tuberculosis control. In the present study, we applied a multi-parametric flow cytometric analysis that allowed the investigation of T-cell functions in order to define immunological markers that measure previous exposure to mycobacteria. We compared the in vivo response to PPD, the gold standard skin test reagent for measuring previous exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with in vitro parameters of leukocyte activation in five PPD positive and five PPD negative healthy volunteers. PPD-stimulated peripheral leukocytes expressing CD4, CD69, cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA) and intracellular IFN-gamma were enumerated in whole blood and compared with the size of in vivo PPD-induced induration and IFN-gamma production levels as measured by ELISA in supernatants of PPD-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The reactivity to the tuberculin skin test (TST) was associated with markedly increased frequencies of PPD-responsive activated (CD69+) and IFN-gamma-producing CD4+T cells. Detection of PPD-specific IFN-gamma producing leukocytes was restricted to CD4+T cells and a subset of these cells was shown to express the skin homing molecule CLA. Multiple linear regression modeling of responses to PPD showed the highest association between skin test indurations and frequencies of PPD-responsive IFN-gamma-producing CD4+CD69+ T cells. Our data show that the in vitro enumeration of antigen-specific IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ T cells can provide an alternative to the in vivo tuberculin test for the detection of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Moreover, the measurement of these immunological parameters can be useful for the screening of new specific antigens defined by the genome

  8. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in Italian cystic fibrosis patients: Prevalence and percentage of positive tests in the employed diagnostic criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccetti, Giovanni; Procopio, Elena; Marianelli, Lore; Campana, Silvia

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is difficult to determine because the data in the literature are not homogeneous or comparable. ABPA and CF have similar clinical symptoms which make diagnosis difficult and underestimate the real dimensions of the problem. We conducted an epidemiological study on 3089 Italian CF patients to determine the prevalence of ABPA in Italy and verify the percentage of positive tests in the employed diagnostic criteria. Our results indicate that the prevalence of ABPA in Italian CF patients is 6.18%, mainly in adolescents and young adults. ABPA is diagnosed using clinical symptoms (presence of episodic bronchial obstructions or typical radiographic features) and on the basis of other criteria which can only be partially fulfilled in paediatric patients. Among the diagnostic tests the most sensitive are the total IgE (84.5%), specific IgE anti-Aspergillus fumigatus (81.6%) and the prick test (68.3%). In the absence of clinical symptoms and gold standard diagnostic tests, serological positivity and/or the skin test are not sufficient evidence to confirm the presence of ABPA

  9. Evaluation of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojewoda, Christina M; Sercia, Linda; Navas, Maria; Tuohy, Marion; Wilson, Deborah; Hall, Geraldine S; Procop, Gary W; Richter, Sandra S

    2013-07-01

    Rapid identification of pathogens from blood cultures can decrease lengths of stay and improve patient outcomes. We evaluated the accuracy of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture (BC-GP) nucleic acid test for investigational use only (Nanosphere, Inc., Northbrook, IL) for the identification of Gram-positive bacteria from blood cultures. The detection of resistance genes (mecA in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and vanA or vanB in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis) by the BC-GP assay also was assessed. A total of 186 positive blood cultures (in BacT/Alert FA bottles) with Gram-positive cocci observed with Gram staining were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. The BC-GP results were compared with the identification and susceptibility profiles obtained with routine methods in the clinical laboratory. Discordant results were arbitrated with additional biochemical, cefoxitin disk, and repeat BC-GP testing. The initial BC-GP organism identification was concordant with routine method results for 94.6% of the blood cultures. Only 40% of the Streptococcus pneumoniae identifications were correct. The detection of the mecA gene for 69 blood cultures with only S. aureus or S. epidermidis was concordant with susceptibility testing results. For 3 of 6 cultures with multiple Staphylococcus spp., mecA detection was reported but was correlated with oxacillin resistance in a species other than S. aureus or S. epidermidis. The detection of vanA agreed with susceptibility testing results for 45 of 46 cultures with E. faecalis or E. faecium. Comparison of the mean times to results for each organism group showed that BC-GP results were available 31 to 42 h earlier than phenotypic identifications and 41 to 50 h earlier than susceptibility results.

  10. A New Position Measurement System Using a Motion-Capture Camera for Wind Tunnel Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousok Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the characteristics of wind tunnel tests, a position measurement system that can minimize the effects on the flow of simulated wind must be established. In this study, a motion-capture camera was used to measure the displacement responses of structures in a wind tunnel test, and the applicability of the system was tested. A motion-capture system (MCS could output 3D coordinates using two-dimensional image coordinates obtained from the camera. Furthermore, this remote sensing system had some flexibility regarding lab installation because of its ability to measure at relatively long distances from the target structures. In this study, we performed wind tunnel tests on a pylon specimen and compared the measured responses of the MCS with the displacements measured with a laser displacement sensor (LDS. The results of the comparison revealed that the time-history displacement measurements from the MCS slightly exceeded those of the LDS. In addition, we confirmed the measuring reliability of the MCS by identifying the dynamic properties (natural frequency, damping ratio, and mode shape of the test specimen using system identification methods (frequency domain decomposition, FDD. By comparing the mode shape obtained using the aforementioned methods with that obtained using the LDS, we also confirmed that the MCS could construct a more accurate mode shape (bending-deflection mode shape with the 3D measurements.

  11. Providing detailed information about latent tuberculosis and compliance with the PPD test among healthcare workers in Israel: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman, Danielle; Titler, Nava; Edelstein, Hana; Elias, Mazen; Saliba, Walid

    2013-12-01

    The compliance of screening for latent tuberculosis (TB) with the tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) test is very low among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Israel. This randomized controlled study uses the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a conceptual framework to examine whether providing more information about latent TB and the PPD test increases the response rate for PPD screening among HCWs. All candidate HCWs for latent TB screening were randomly allocated to one of the following two invitations to perform the PPD test: regular letter (control group, n=97), and a letter with information about latent TB and the PPD test (intervention group, n=196). 293 HCWs were included (185 nurses, and 108 physicians). Overall, 36 (12.3%) HCWs were compliant with the PPD test screening. Compliance with PPD testing in the intervention group was not statistically different from the control group, RR 0.87 (95% CI, 0.46-1.65). Compliance for latent TB screening is low among HCWs in northeastern Israel. Providing detailed information about latent TB was not associated with increased test compliance. Understanding existing disparities in screening rates and potential barriers to latent TB screening among HCWs is important in order to move forward and successfully increase screening rates. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Specificity and false positive rates of the Test of Memory Malingering, Rey 15-item Test, and Rey Word Recognition Test among forensic inpatients with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Christopher M; Glassmire, David M; Zanolini, Shanna Jordan; Wolf, Amanda

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the specificity and false positive (FP) rates of the Rey 15-Item Test (FIT), Word Recognition Test (WRT), and Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in a sample of 21 forensic inpatients with mild intellectual disability (ID). The FIT demonstrated an FP rate of 23.8% with the standard quantitative cutoff score. Certain qualitative error types on the FIT showed promise and had low FP rates. The WRT obtained an FP rate of 0.0% with previously reported cutoff scores. Finally, the TOMM demonstrated low FP rates of 4.8% and 0.0% on Trial 2 and the Retention Trial, respectively, when applying the standard cutoff score. FP rates are reported for a range of cutoff scores and compared with published research on individuals diagnosed with ID. Results indicated that although the quantitative variables on the FIT had unacceptably high FP rates, the TOMM and WRT had low FP rates, increasing the confidence clinicians can place in scores reflecting poor effort on these measures during ID evaluations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. POSITION-SPECIFIC DEFICIT OF JOINT POSITION SENSE IN ANKLES WITH CHRONIC FUNCTIONAL INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Yokoyama

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to test a hypothesis that individuals with functional ankle instability (FAI underestimate the joint angle at greater plantarflexion and inversion. Seventeen males with unilateral FAI and 17 controls (males without FAI consented for participation in this IRB-approved, case-control study. Using a passive reproduction test, we assessed ankle joint position sense (JPS for test positions between 30 and -10 degrees plantarflexion with an inclement of 10 degrees with or without 20° inversion at each plantarflexion angle. The constant error (CE was defined as the value obtained by subtracting the true angle of a test position from the corresponding perceived angle. At plantarflexed and inverted test positions, the CE values were smaller in negative with greater in the FAI group than in the control group. That is, in the FAI group, the FAI group underestimated the true plantarflexion angle at combined 30° plantarflexion and 20° inversion. We conclude that the ankle with FAI underestimate the amount of plantarflexion, which increases the chance of reaching greater planterflexion and inversion than patients' intention at high risk situations of spraining such as landing

  14. Den positive psykologis metoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Frans Ørsted; Mørck, Line Lerche; Nissen, Poul Erik

    En antologi der giver en introduktion til en række af de metoder der anvendes til forskning, assessment, test, udviklingsarbejde og intervention indenfor den positive psykologi.......En antologi der giver en introduktion til en række af de metoder der anvendes til forskning, assessment, test, udviklingsarbejde og intervention indenfor den positive psykologi....

  15. A mode of error: Immunoglobulin binding protein (a subset of anti-citrullinated proteins can cause false positive tuberculosis test results in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Greenwald

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrullinated Immunoglobulin Binding Protein (BiP is a newly described autoimmune target in rheumatoid arthritis (RA, one of many cyclic citrullinated peptides(CCP or ACPA. BiP is over-expressed in RA patients causing T cell expansion and increased interferon levels during incubation for the QuantiFERON-Gold tuberculosis test (QFT-G TB. The QFT-G TB has never been validated where interferon is increased by underlying disease, as for example RA.Of ACPA-positive RA patients (n = 126, we found a 13% false-positive TB test rate by QFT-G TB. Despite subsequent biologic therapy for 3 years of all 126 RA patients, none showed evidence of TB without INH. Most of the false-positive RA patients after treatment with biologic therapy reverted to a negative QFT-G test. False TB tests correlated with ACPA level (p < 0.02.Three healthy women without arthritis or TB exposure had negative QFT-G TB. In vitro, all three tested positive every time for TB correlating to the dose of BiP or anti-BiP added, at 2 ug/ml, 5 ug/ml, 10 ug/ml, and 20 ug/ml.BiP naturally found in the majority of ACPA-positive RA patients can result in a false positive QFT-G TB. Subsequent undertreatment of RA, if biologic therapy is withheld, and overtreatment of presumed latent TB may harm patients. Keywords: Tuberculosis, IGRA, Rheumatoid arthritis, Interferon, Anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA, Immunoglobulin binding protein (BiP

  16. Project W-314 acceptance test report HNF-4643 for HNF-4642 241-AN-A valve pit manifold valves and position indication for project W-314

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the test was to verify that the AN Tank Farm Manifold Valves can be manually manipulated to the required operating position and that the electrical and visual indications accurately reflect that position. Physical locking devices were also verified to function. The Acceptance Test Procedure HNF-4642, 241-AN-A Valve Pit Manifold Valves and Position Indication was conducted between 23 June and 10 August 1999 at the 200E AN Tank Farm. The test has no open test exceptions. The test was conducted prior to final engineering ''as built'' activities being completed, this had an impact on the procedure and test results, ECN 653752 was written to correct the mismatch between the procedure and actual field conditions. P and ID H-14-100941 was changed via ECN-W-314-4C-120. All components, identified in the procedure, were not found to be labeled and identified as written in the procedure, temporary tags were used for operational identification. A retest of valve ANA-WT-V 318 was required because it was removed from its installed position and modified after testing was completed

  17. Development of nanometer resolution C-Band radio frequency beam position monitors in the Final Focus Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaton, T.; Mazaheri, G. [Stanford Univ., CA (US). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Shintake, T. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    Using a 47 GeV electron beam, the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) produces vertical spot sizes around 70 nm. These small beam sizes introduce an excellent opportunity to develop and test high resolution Radio Frequency Beam Position Monitors (RF-BPMs). These BPMs are designed to measure pulse to pulse beam motion (jitter) at a theoretical resolution of approximately 1 nm. The beam induces a TM{sub 110} mode with an amplitude linearly proportional to its charge and displacement from the BPM's (cylindrical cavity) axis. The C-band (5,712 MHz) TM{sub 110} signal is processed and converted into beam position for use by the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) control system. Presented are the experimental procedures, acquisition, and analysis of data demonstrating resolution of jitter near 25 nm. With the design of future e{sup +}e{sup -} linear colliders requiring spot sizes close to 3 nm, understanding and developing RF-BPMs will be essential in resolving and controlling jitter.

  18. Development of nanometer resolution C-Band radio frequency beam position monitors in the Final Focus Test Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaton, T.; Mazaheri, G.

    1998-08-01

    Using a 47 GeV electron beam, the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) produces vertical spot sizes around 70 nm. These small beam sizes introduce an excellent opportunity to develop and test high resolution Radio Frequency Beam Position Monitors (RF-BPMs). These BPMs are designed to measure pulse to pulse beam motion (jitter) at a theoretical resolution of approximately 1 nm. The beam induces a TM 110 mode with an amplitude linearly proportional to its charge and displacement from the BPM's (cylindrical cavity) axis. The C-band (5,712 MHz) TM 110 signal is processed and converted into beam position for use by the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) control system. Presented are the experimental procedures, acquisition, and analysis of data demonstrating resolution of jitter near 25 nm. With the design of future e + e - linear colliders requiring spot sizes close to 3 nm, understanding and developing RF-BPMs will be essential in resolving and controlling jitter

  19. [Diagnostic strategies in the Tuberculosis Clinic of the Hospital General La Raza National Medical Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ibarra, Alberto Alejandro; Ochoa-Vázquez, María Dolores; Sánchez-Tec, Georgina Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    In order to diagnose TB infection, tuberculin skin test and interferon gamma release assay are available. The tuberculin test has a sensitivity of 99 % and a specificity of 95 %. For the detection of interferon gamma in blood there are currently two tests available: TBGold QuantiFERON-In-Tube (with a sensitivity of 0.70 and a specificity of 0.90), and T-SPOT-TB (sensitivity 0.90 and specificity 0.93). To diagnose the disease, a microscopy of direct smears for acid-fast bacilli is used if the physician is facing an extensive cavitary lung disease due to M. tuberculosis (this test has a high sensitivity: 80-90 %). The most common staining techniques used are Ziehl-Neelsen and Kinyoun, and the fluorescent technique, auramine-rhodamine. The culture is the gold standard and it has a sensitivity of 80 % and a specificity over 90 %, but the results take weeks. The nucleic acid amplification test has an overall sensitivity and specificity of 0.85 and 0.97, respectively. In the presence of a pleural effusion is necessary to perform a pleural biopsy for culture with a sensitivity of 85 % if it is percutaneous and 98 % if it was taken by thoracoscopy. The adenosine deaminase can be determined in pleural fluid with a sensitivity and specificity of 95 %.

  20. [Guidelines for the prevention and control of tuberculosis in health care workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Irma; Dominguez, Jose; Rodríguez, Soledad; Matllo, Joan; Altet, Neus

    2015-12-21

    Tuberculosis remains one of the communicable diseases that cause increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. With an incidence rate of 13,04 per 100,000 population, Spain ranks third among the most affected European countries. These data show a tendency to decrease meaning that it may go unnoticed with the potential to miss the appropriate preventive measures in a suspected case. In centers where patients are treated with tuberculosis, health care worker presents risk of transmission. This risk is higher in some areas or work units. The Occupational health physicians' services, which monitorize the health of health care workers, use different strategies in order to prevent and detect tuberculosis infection. The national guidelines include the tuberculin skin test as a screening test for tuberculosis infection with mention of new diagnostic tests based on the in vitro detection of gamma interferon (IGRA) for certain cases. The purpose of this guide is to establish common criteria for IGRA tests, as a supplementary aid to the tuberculin skin test in health care workers, from the evidence available today. Recommendations for its use have been adapted to the different situations faced by the professionals involved in monitoring the health of health workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Positioning and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogowski Jerzy B.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents national report of Poland for IAG on positioning and applications. The selected research presented was carried out at leading Polish research institutions and concern precise multi-GNSS satellite positioning - relative and absolute - and also GNSS-based ionosphere and troposphere modelling and studies. The research resulted in noticeable advancements in these subjects confirmed by the development of new algorithms and methods. New and improved methods of precise GNSS positioning were developed, and also GNSS metrology was studied. New advanced troposphere models were presented and tested. In particular, these models allowed testing IPW variability on regional and global scales. Also, new regional ionosphere monitoring web-based services were developed and launched.

  2. Excursions out-of-lane versus standard deviation of lateral position as outcome measure of the on-the-road driving test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The traditional outcome measure of the Dutch on-the-road driving test is the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), the weaving of the car. This paper explores whether excursions out-of-lane are a suitable additional outcome measure to index driving impairment. A literature search was conducted to search for driving tests that used both SDLP and excursions out-of-lane as outcome measures. The analyses were limited to studies examining hypnotic drugs because several of these drugs have been shown to produce next-morning sedation. Standard deviation of lateral position was more sensitive in demonstrating driving impairment. In fact, solely relying on excursions out-of-lane as outcome measure incorrectly classifies approximately half of impaired drives as unimpaired. The frequency of excursions out-of-lane is determined by the mean lateral position within the right traffic lane. Defining driving impairment as having a ΔSDLP > 2.4 cm, half of the impaired driving tests (51.2%, 43/84) failed to produce excursions out-of-lane. Alternatively, 20.9% of driving tests with ΔSDLP < 2.4 cm (27/129) had at least one excursion out-of-lane. Excursions out-of-lane are neither a suitable measure to demonstrate driving impairment nor is this measure sufficiently sensitive to differentiate adequately between differences in magnitude of driving impairment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. [Positive Distribution Rate of Coombs Test in Patients with Clinical Anemia and Blood Transfusion and Its Effect on Clinical Blood Transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Duan, Yu-Han

    2018-02-01

    To study the positive distribution rate of Coombs test in patients with clinical anemia and blood transfusion, and its effect on clinical blood transfusion. Seventy patients with hemoglobin level in the normal range were enrolled into control group, while 130 patients with anemia or blood transfusion who' s hemoglobin level was lower comfirmed by micro-column gel antihuman globin detection card and 70 surgical patients with anemia or blood transfusion who' s hemoglobin level was lower comfirmed by micro-column gel anti-human globin card were enrolled into anemia or blood transfusion (A or BT) group. And coomb' s test performed for all the patients, in which the positive patients in Department of Internal Medicine need to be re-typed. Among 70 surgical patients with anemia or blood transfusion, 14 cases were directly detected to be anti-human globine positive with detection rate 20%; among 130 internal medicine patients with anemia or blood transfusion, 54 cases were directly detected to be anti-human globine positive with detection rate 41.4%. Among 270 cases, the highest positive rate (66.7%) was observed in patients with 50-59 g/L of hemoglobin. According to type test, the samples of 54 patients with anemia in Department of Internal Medicine, who were directly selected to be anti-human globin positive, could be divided into anti-C3d(7 cases, accounting for 13.0%), anti-IgG(12 cases accounting for, 22.2%) and anti-C3d+anti-IgG(35 cases, accounting for 64.8%), while according to diseases, the anti-human globin positive ratio was high in tumor cancer, hephropathy and gastroenteropathy patients, and patients in intensive care unit, moreover the blood transfusion frequency of these patients was higher than that of patients with anti-human globin negative(Pblood transfusion, so as to ensure the effectiveness of blood transfusion.

  4. Anterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and positional downbeating nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Escamez, Jose A; Molina, Maria I; Gamiz, Maria J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features and video-oculographic findings in patients with anterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). This is a prospective case series. The study was set at an outpatient clinic in a general hospital. Fourteen individuals with symptoms of BPPV and positional downbeating nystagmus (pDBN) were included in the study. The diagnosis was based on a history of brief episodes of vertigo and the presence of pDBN confirmed in the video-oculographic examination during Dix-Hallpike test (DH) or head-hanging maneuver. Patients were treated by particle repositioning maneuver and the effectiveness was evaluated at 7, 30, and 180 days posttreatment. The treatment was repeated up to 4 times if pDBN was persistent. The main outcome measure is the number of patients without pDBN at 30 and 180 days. Video-oculography showed a predominant pDBN in response to DH. Of the 14 patients, 7 had arterial hypertension, and 5 of 14 cases presented abnormalities on the caloric test. Horizontal spontaneous nystagmus was found in 3 of 14 individuals. Positional nystagmus at different positional test was observed in 5 of 14 individuals, suggesting the involvement of several canals. Of the 14 patients, 10 (71%) did not present vertigo, and the positional tests were negative at 30 days. However, 3 cases presented a positive DH with persistence of BPPV episodes and pDBN at 30 days, and another developed a contralateral posterior canal affectation. One of the patients maintained a persistent pDBN at 180 days despite the repeated maneuvers. Video-oculography demonstrates that anterior canal BPPV is characterized by a predominant downbeating nystagmus in response to DH. These individuals may show alterations in the vestibular caloric, and they can have multicanal affectation.

  5. Risk factors for tuberculosis in dialysis patients: a prospective multi-center clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goumenos Demetrios S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Profound alterations in immune responses associated with uraemia and exacerbated by dialysis increase the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB in chronic haemodialysis patients (HDPs. In the current study, was determined the impact of various risk factors on TB development. Our aim was to identify which HDPs need anti-TB preventive therapy. Methods Prospective study of 272 HDPs admitted, through a 36-month period, to our institutions. Specific Relative Risk (RR for TB was estimated, considering age matched subjects from the general population as reference group. Entering the study all patients were tested with tuberculin (TST. Using Cox's proportional hazard model the independent effect of various risk factors associated with TB development was estimated. Results History of TB, dialysis efficiency, use of Vitamin D supplements, serum albumin and zinc levels were not proved to influence significantly the risk for TB, in contrast to: advanced age (>65 years, BMI, diabetes mellitus, tuberculin reactivity, healed TB lesions on chest X-ray and time on dialysis. Elderly (>70 years old HDPs (Adjusted RR 25.3, 95%CI 20.4-28.4, P Conclusion The above mentioned factors have to be considered by the clinicians, evaluating for TB in HDPs. Positive TST, the existence of predisposing risk factors and/or old TB lesions on chest X-ray, will guide the diagnosis of latent TB infection and the selection of those HDPs who need preventive chemoprophylaxis.

  6. Sensitive diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in a farmed cervid herd with use of an MPB70 protein fluorescence polarization assay

    OpenAIRE

    Surujballi, Om; Lutze-Wallace, Cyril; Turcotte, Claude; Savic, Mirjana; Stevenson, Dan; Romanowska, Anna; Monagle, Wendy; Berlie-Surujballi, Gloria; Tangorra, Erin

    2009-01-01

    After histopathological examination of a lesion found in a herd member returned a diagnosis of mycobacteriosis, a farmed herd (n = 47) of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and red deer (C. elaphus elaphus) was investigated for bovine tuberculosis with a battery of antemortem and postmortem diagnostic tests. Every animal was tested with the mid-cervical tuberculin skin test; all 47 had negative results. All of the 16 adult animals and 15 of the 31 calves (approximately 2-years-old) were blood-teste...

  7. Test-positive rate at CT colonography is increased by rectal bleeding and/or unexplained weight loss, unlike other common gastrointestinal symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hock, D.; Materne, R.; Ouhadi, R.; Mancini, I.; Aouachria, S.A.; Nchimi, A.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the rate of significant colonic and extra-colonic abnormalities at computed tomography colonography (CTC), according to symptoms and age. We retrospectively evaluated 7361 consecutive average-risk subjects (3073 males, average age: 60.3 ± 13.9; range 18–96 years) for colorectal cancer (CRC) who underwent CTC. They were divided into three groups according to clinical symptoms: 1343 asymptomatic individuals (group A), 899 patients with at least one “alarm” symptom for CRC, including rectal bleeding and unexplained weight loss (group C), and 5119 subjects with other gastrointestinal symptoms (group B). Diagnostic and test-positive rates of CTC were established using optical colonoscopy (OC) and/or surgery as reference standard. In addition, clinically significant extra-colonic findings were noted. 903 out of 7361 (12%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11–0.13) subjects had at least one clinically significant colonic finding at CTC. CTC true positive fraction and false positive fraction were respectively 637/642 (99.2%, 95%CI 0.98–0.99) and 55/692 (7.95%, 95%CI 0.05–0.09). The pooled test-positive rate in group C (138/689, 20.0%, 95%CI 0.17–0.23) was significantly higher than in both groups A (79/1343, 5.9%, 95%CI 0.04–0.07) and B (420/5329, 7.5%, 95%CI 0.07–0.08) (p < 0.001). Aging and male gender were associated to a higher test positive rate. The rate of clinically significant extra-colonic findings was significantly higher in group C (44/689, 6.4%, 95%CI 0.04–0.08) versus groups A (26/1343, 1.9%, 95%CI 0.01–0.02) and B (64/5329, 1.2%, 95%CI 0.01–0.02) (p < 0.001). Both test-positive and significant extra-colonic finding rates at CTC are significantly increased in the presence of “alarm” gastrointestinal symptoms especially in older patients

  8. Mobile phone-based evaluation of latent tuberculosis infection: Proof of concept for an integrated image capture and analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraghi, Safa; Mutsvangwa, Tinashe; Goliath, René; Rangaka, Molebogeng X; Douglas, Tania S

    2018-05-08

    The tuberculin skin test is the most widely used method for detecting latent tuberculosis infection in adults and active tuberculosis in children. We present the development of a mobile-phone based screening tool for measuring the tuberculin skin test induration. The tool makes use of a mobile application developed on the Android platform to capture images of an induration, and photogrammetric reconstruction using Agisoft PhotoScan to reconstruct the induration in 3D, followed by 3D measurement of the induration with the aid of functions from the Python programming language. The system enables capture of images by the person being screened for latent tuberculosis infection. Measurement precision was tested using a 3D printed induration. Real-world use of the tool was simulated by application to a set of mock skin indurations, created by a make-up artist, and the performance of the tool was evaluated. The usability of the application was assessed with the aid of a questionnaire completed by participants. The tool was found to measure the 3D printed induration with greater precision than the current ruler and pen method, as indicated by the lower standard deviation produced (0.3 mm versus 1.1 mm in the literature). There was high correlation between manual and algorithm measurement of mock skin indurations. The height of the skin induration and the definition of its margins were found to influence the accuracy of 3D reconstruction and therefore the measurement error, under simulated real-world conditions. Based on assessment of the user experience in capturing images, a simplified user interface would benefit wide-spread implementation. The mobile application shows good agreement with direct measurement. It provides an alternative method for measuring tuberculin skin test indurations and may remove the need for an in-person follow-up visit after test administration, thus improving latent tuberculosis infection screening throughput. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  9. Effect of Positive Training on Positive Psychological States (Character Strengths of Female High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Farnam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available psychological states of female students in second and third grades of high school. The research method was quasi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and follow-up. The sample consisted of forty students selected randomly in two groups (twenty students in each group. To collect data, Positive Psychological State Inventory (Rajaei, Khuy Nzhad and Nesaei was used. The experimental group received ninety minute positive training sessions (for two months and the control group did not receive treatment. The results of analysis  of covariance showed that positive training had positive effects on positive psychological states (trust in God, optimism, self-efficacy, duty, sense of control, targeted, hope, satisfaction with life, meaningful life, pleasant, sociability, self-esteem and self-worth, sense of peace, gratitude, and forgiveness among adolescents  both in the post  and follow-up tests

  10. Steam turbine power plant having improved testing method and system for turbine inlet valves associated with downstream inlet valves preferably having feedforward position managed control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lardi, F.; Ronnen, U.G.

    1981-01-01

    A throttle valve test system for a large steam turbine functions in a turbine control system to provide throttle and governor valve test operations. The control system operates with a valve management capability to provide for pre-test governor valve mode transfer when desired, and it automatically generates feedforward valve position demand signals during and after valve tests to satisfy test and load control requirements and to provide smooth transition from valve test status to normal single or sequential governor valve operation. A digital computer is included in the control system to provide control and test functions in the generation of the valve position demand signals

  11. Anterior chest wall tuberculous abscess: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papavramidis Theodossis S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The granulomatous inflammation of tuberculosis usually involves the lungs and the hilar lymph nodes. Musculoskeletal tuberculosis (TB occurs in 1–3% of patients with TB, while TB of the chest wall constitutes 1% to 5% of all cases of musculoskeletal TB. Furthermore, nowadays it is rarer to find extrapulmonary TB in immunocompetent rather that non-immunocompetent patients. The present case reports a fifty-six-year-old immunocompetent man with an anterior chest wall tuberculous abscess. The rarity of the present case relates both to the localization of the tuberculous abscess, and to the fact that the patient was immunocompetent. The diagnosis of musculoskeletal tuberculous infection remains a challenge for clinicians and requires a high index of suspicion. The combination of indolent onset of symptoms, positive tuberculin skin test, and compatible radiographic findings, strongly suggests the diagnosis. TB, however, must be confirmed by positive culture or histologic proof. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent serious bone and joint destruction.

  12. Análise da positivação do teste tuberculínico, após administração da vacina BCG, pela via oral, a crianças sadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvone Khairallah de Oliveira e Silva

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available Efetuaram os autores teste tuberculínico, com PPD (RT 23, 10 UT, em 3.6S4 crianças sadias, que receberam, pela via oral, em três oportunidades separadas por intervalos de um mês, vacina BCG líquida ou liofilizada e placebo representado por preparação sem bacilos. Dois grupos foram basicamente estabelecidos, tendo os limites etários correspondido a noventa dias em um deles e a essa idade e quinze anos no outro. Considerando os módulos com tamanhos superiores a cinco milímetros, observaram taxas de positividades de 37,6% e 21% relativamente aos indviduos separados da maneira citada e em avaliações levadas a efeito no máximo nove meses depois, mas as cifras pertinentes ao produto isento de bacilos álcool-ácido-resistentes e ao submetido à liofilização mostraram-se expressivamente menores. Valorizada somente a alergização, as percentagens indicadas e não desprezíveis atestaram a ocorrência de destacada absorção, sobretudo ao ser levado em conta o sucedido quanto às pessoas de menores idades.Oral BCG vaccine, either liquid or liophyllized, or a placebo was administered in three monthly doses to 3,684 healthy children. The study population was divided in two great groups, one to ninety days of age and the other from nine y days to jifteen years of age. A tuberculin test, with PPD (RT 23, 10 TU, was performed up to nine months later on each child, corsidering a nodule layer than five millimeters as a positive test. A positive incidence of 37.6% and 21% was found for the younger and the older age groups, respectively, who reccived liquid BCG. The children who took liophyllized BCG or placebo showed significantly smaller incidences. If allerginization moy be valued, then it can be seen that there is significant absortion, especially in the younger subjects

  13. A Sleep Position Trainer for positional sleep apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laub, Rasmus R; Tønnesen, Philip; Jennum, Poul J

    2017-01-01

    We tested the effect of the Sleep Position Trainer, a vibrational device, for positional sleep apnea in an open, randomized controlled trial with 101 patients, where 52 patients were allocated to Sleep Position Trainer and 49 patients to a non-treatment control group for 2 months (Part 1). All...... patients were then followed as a cohort for a period of 6 months with use of the Sleep Position Trainer (Part 2). The participants were assessed with polygraphy at entry, and after 2 and 6 months. The mean apnea-hypopnea index supine was 35 per h (SD, 18) in the Sleep Position Trainer group and 38 per h...... (SD, 15) in the control group at entry. In a per protocol analysis, the mean total apnea-hypopnea index at entry and after 2 months in the Sleep Position Trainer group was 18 per h (SD, 10) and 10 per h (SD, 9; P

  14. Stability Tests of Positive Fractional Continuous-time Linear Systems with Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kaczorek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Necessary and sufficient conditions for the asymptotic stability of positive fractional continuous-time linear systems with many delays are established. It is shown that: 1 the asymptotic stability of the positive fractional system is independent of their delays, 2 the checking of the asymptotic stability of the positive fractional systems with delays can be reduced to checking of the asymptotic stability of positive standard linear systems without delays.

  15. Positive view and increased likely uptake of follow-up testing with analysis of cell-free fetal DNA as alternative to invasive testing among Danish pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltoft, Caroline B; Rode, Line; Tabor, Ann

    2018-01-01

    AND METHODS: Unselected and high-risk women attending first-trimester screening (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital) were invited to fill out the questionnaire Antenatal testing for Down syndrome as an online survey. RESULTS: The survey included 203 unselected and 50 high-risk women (response...... of follow-up testing without a corresponding rise in the termination rate of affected fetuses as some women test for information only. However, both unselected and high-risk women had overwhelmingly positive views underlining attention to avoid routinization.......INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the attitude (view, likely uptake and preferred strategy) towards cell-free fetal DNA (cfDNA) testing among pregnant women before a first-trimester risk assessment for trisomy 21 (unselected women) and after obtaining a high risk. MATERIAL...

  16. Development and Test of a Contactless Position and Angular Sensor Device for the Application in Synchronous Micro Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas WALDSCHIK

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a contactless micro position and angular sensor system which consists of fixed commercial magnetic sensor elements, such as hall sensors and a movable part with integrated micro structured polymer magnets. This system serves particularly for linear and rotatory synchronous micro motors which we have developed and successfully tested. In order to achieve high precision and control of these motors an integration of the special micro position and angular sensors is pursued to increase the resolution and accuracy of the devices.

  17. Sensitive diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in a farmed cervid herd with use of an MPB70 protein fluorescence polarization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surujballi, Om; Lutze-Wallace, Cyril; Turcotte, Claude; Savic, Mirjana; Stevenson, Dan; Romanowska, Anna; Monagle, Wendy; Berlie-Surujballi, Gloria; Tangorra, Erin

    2009-07-01

    After histopathological examination of a lesion found in a herd member returned a diagnosis of mycobacteriosis, a farmed herd (n = 47) of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and red deer (C. elaphus elaphus) was investigated for bovine tuberculosis with a battery of antemortem and postmortem diagnostic tests. Every animal was tested with the mid-cervical tuberculin skin test; all 47 had negative results. All of the 16 adult animals and 15 of the 31 calves (approximately 2-years-old) were blood-tested with a lymphocyte stimulation test (LST) and a fluorescence polarization assay (FPA), which detects antibody to the MPB70 protein antigen. At necropsy of the 31 blood-tested animals, tissues were harvested for histopathological examination and culture of mycobacteria. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from 16 of the 31 animals, and a scotochromogen was also isolated from 1 of the 16 whose tissues yielded M. bovis. Each of these 16 animals, 15 of which were calves, also received a histopathological diagnosis of mycobacteriosis. Other species of mycobacteria, including those belonging to the M. avium and M. terrae complexes, were isolated from an additional 7 animals. The FPA was scored "positive" or "suspect" for 16 animals, 13 (81%) of which were culture-positive for M. bovis. The other 3 animals that were culture-positive for M. bovis had negative FPA results. Of the 3 FPA-positive or FPA-suspect animals that were culture-negative, 2 were suspected to have mycobacteriosis on the basis of the histopathological examination. The 7 animals from which Mycobacterium species other than M. bovis were cultured were all FPA-negative. The only animal with positive LST results was also FPA-positive and culture-positive for M. bovis. The M. bovis isolates had an identical spoligotype pattern, with an octal code of 664073777777600. This is the first report of the isolation and identification of this strain type in Canada.

  18. Bronchial leiomyoma, a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cárdenas-García, MD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 44 year old male former smoker from Ecuador presented with productive cough for 3 weeks, positive tuberculin skin test, 40 lbs weight loss and right lower lobe collapse. He denied wheezing or hemoptysis. He was treated with antibiotics and ruled out for tuberculosis with negative sputum smear. Bronchoscopy showed an endobronchial lesion at the distal end of bronchus intermedius as cause of the collapse. Endobronchial biopsy of the lesion revealed an endobronchial leiomyoma, a rare cause of endobronchial tumor. The patient underwent bilobectomy as definite therapy for the leiomyoma due to its large size and possible extra-luminal extension, which made it not amenable to bronchoscopic resection or bronchoplasty. Differential diagnoses of endobronchial lesions are discussed along with clinical, radiographic, pathologic characteristics and various treatment modalities for endobronchial leiomyomas.

  19. Evaluation of positive and false-positive results in syphilis screening of blood donors in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandes, V S; Silva, S G C; Motta, I J F; Velarde, L G C; de Castilho, S R

    2017-06-01

    We propose to analyse the positive and false-positive results of treponemal and nontreponemal tests in blood donors from Brazil and to evaluate possible factors associated with the results of treponemal tests. Treponemal tests have been used widely for syphilis screening in blood banks. The introduction of these tests in donor screening has caused an impact and a loss of donors who need to be assessed. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of syphilis screening and confirmatory test results of blood donors that were obtained before and after adopting a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). A comparative analysis was performed using a second sample drawn from positive donors. The possible factors associated with CLIA-positive or CLIA-false-positive results were investigated in a subgroup. Statistical tests were used to compare the proportions and adjusted estimates of association. The reactivity rate increased from 1·01% (N = 28 158) to 2·66% (N = 25 577) after introducing the new test. Among Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL)- and CLIA-confirmed results, the false-positive rates were 40·5% (N = 180) and 37·4% (N = 359), respectively (P = 0·5266). Older donors (OR = 1·04; P = 0·0010) and donors with lower education levels (OR = 6·59; P = 0·0029) were associated with a higher risk of positivity for syphilis. CLIA represents an improvement in blood bank serological screening. However, its use in a healthy population appears to result in high rates of false positives. Identifying which characteristics can predict false positives, however, remains a challenge. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for cats testing positive for feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus infection in cats entering an animal shelter in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, M C; Vigeant, S; Dale, A

    2017-11-01

    AIMS To estimate the prevalence of cats testing positive for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) antigens in domestic cats entering a New Zealand animal shelter, based on a commercial point-of-care ELISA, to identify risk factors associated with cats testing positive, and to compare the results obtained from the ELISA with those obtained using PCR-based testing. METHOD A cross-sectional study was performed on 388 cats entering the Royal New Zealand Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals animal shelter in Auckland, New Zealand between 7 February 2014 and 30 May 2014. Whole blood samples were collected from each cat and tested for FIV antibody and FeLV antigen using a commercial point-of-care ELISA. Information on the signalment and health status of the cat at the time of entry was also recorded. Blood and saliva samples from a subset of cats were tested for FIV and FeLV proviral DNA using a real-time PCR assay. RESULTS Of the 388 cats in the study sample, 146 (37.6%) had been relinquished by owners, 237 (62.4%) were strays, and 5 (1.3%) were of unknown origin. Overall, 53/388 (13.7%) cats tested positive for FIV antibodies and 4/388 (1.0%) were positive for FeLV antigen. Stray cats had a higher FIV seroprevalence than relinquished cats (42/237 (17.8%) vs. 11/146 (7.5%); p=0.008). Of 53 cats that were FIV-seropositive, 51 (96%) tested positive for FIV proviral DNA using PCR testing of blood. Of these 51 cats, 28 (55%) were positive by PCR testing of saliva. Of the four cats that were FeLV antigen-positive by ELISA, two (50%) were positive for FeLV proviral DNA by PCR testing of blood. The odds of a cat being seropositive for FIV were greater for intact compared to desexed cats (OR=3.3; 95% CI=1.6-7.4) and for male compared to female cats (OR=6.5; 95% CI=3.2-14.0). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The seroprevalence for FIV was 14% among cats entering an animal shelter in Auckland, whereas the prevalence of

  1. Latent Tuberculosis in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Malhamé

    Full Text Available In countries with low tuberculosis (TB incidence, immigrants from higher incidence countries represent the major pool of individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI. The antenatal period represents an opportunity for immigrant women to access the medical system, and hence for potential screening and treatment of LTBI. However, such screening and treatment during pregnancy remains controversial.In order to further understand the prevalence, natural history, screening and management of LTBI in pregnancy, we conducted a systematic literature review addressing the screening and treatment of LTBI, in pregnant women without known HIV infection.A systematic review of 4 databases (Embase, Embase Classic, Medline, Cochrane Library covering articles published from January 1st 1980 to April 30th 2014. Articles in English, French or Spanish with relevant information on prevalence, natural history, screening tools, screening strategies and treatment of LTBI during pregnancy were eligible for inclusion. Articles were excluded if (1 Full text was not available (2 they were case series or case studies (3 they focused exclusively on prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of active TB (4 the study population was exclusively HIV-infected.Of 4,193 titles initially identified, 208 abstracts were eligible for review. Of these, 30 articles qualified for full text review and 22 were retained: 3 cohort studies, 2 case-control studies, and 17 cross-sectional studies. In the USA, the estimated prevalence of LTBI ranged from 14 to 48% in women tested, and tuberculin skin test (TST positivity was associated with ethnicity. One study suggested that incidence of active TB was significantly increased during the 180 days postpartum (Incidence rate ratio, 1.95 (95% CI 1.24-3.07. There was a high level of adherence with both skin testing (between 90-100% and chest radiography (93-100%.. In three studies from low incidence settings, concordance between TST and an interferon

  2. The evaluation of Recombinant Immunoblot assay (RIBA and HCV-RNA test results in patients with low titer Anti-HCV positivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Uzun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Laboratory diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is based on the detection of anti-HCV antibodies by enzyme immunoassay (EIA or chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA techniques. However, a consensus related to the problem of low titer (Serum/Cut-off; S/C= 1.0 anti-HCV antibodies is still lacking. The study attempts to evaluate the clinical status of the patients with low titer anti-HCV antibodies detected by third generation anti-HCV tests during February 2013- May 2014 retrospectively. Methods: Serum samples were studied by Advia Centaur XP autoanalyser (Bayer-Siemens, Germany for anti-HCV, and line immunoassay (Inno-LIATM HCV Score, İnnogenetics, Belgium for anti-HCV confirmatory test, Cobas AmpliPre/Cobas AMPLICOR HCV Test (Roche diagnostics, Switzerland for HCV RNA. Results: A total of 55.631 serum samples were studied, and 55 of them were anti-HCV positive of which with low antibody levels (sample/cutoff [S/CO]. S/CO values ranged from 1.15 to 6.15. Seventeen (31% of patients who have low antibody levels were defined as positive and 2 (4% patients were intermittent and 36 (65% patients were negative with line immunoassay. HCV-RNA was not detected in any of the samples. Conclusions: It is thought that antibody positivity must be verified in cases of recurrent reactivity when considering the cost-effectiveness of molecular tests. In the study was concluded that the use of molecular tests would be appropriate diagnosis, and the effectiveness of treatment if necessary after evaluation of patients with biochemical analysis. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (4: 553-556

  3. Single-position Hall effect measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A method for determining a distance (Y) between a first position on and an electrical boundary (34) of a test sample by a multi-point probe comprising four contact elements, comprising: contacting the test sample with the four contact elements (20,22,24,26) at the first position, applying a magne...

  4. "Familias: Preparando La Nueva Generación": A Randomized Control Trial Testing the Effects on Positive Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Williams, Lela Rankin; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Booth, Jaime M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This article reports the effects of a culturally grounded parenting intervention to strengthen positive parenting practices. Method: The intervention was designed and tested with primarily Mexican origin parents in a large urban setting of the southwestern United States using an ecodevelopmental approach. Parents (N = 393) were…

  5. The Dutch Brucella abortus monitoring programme for cattle: the impact of false-positive serological reactions and comparison of serological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerzaal, A; de Wit, J J; Dijkstra, Th; Bakker, D; van Zijderveld, F G

    2002-02-01

    The Dutch national Brucella abortus eradication programme for cattle started in 1959. Sporadic cases occurred yearly until 1995; the last infected herd was culled in 1996. In August 1999 the Netherlands was declared officially free of bovine brucellosis by the European Union. Before 1999, the programme to monitor the official Brucella-free status of bovine herds was primarily based on periodical testing of dairy herds with the milk ring test (MRT) and serological testing of all animals older than 1 year of age from non-dairy herds, using the micro-agglutination test (MAT) as screening test. In addition, serum samples of cattle that aborted were tested with the MAT. The high number of false positive reactions in both tests and the serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) used for confirmation seemed to result in unnecessary blockade of herds, subsequent testing and slaughter of animals. For this reason, a validation study was performed in which three indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), the CFT and the SAT were compared using a panel of sera from brucellosis-free cattle, sera from experimentally infected cattle, and sera from cattle experimentally infected with bacteria which are known to induce cross-reactive antibodies (Pasteurella, Salmonella, Yersinia, and Escherichia). Moreover, four ELISAs and the MRT were compared using a panel of 1000 bulk milk samples from Brucella-free herds and 12 milk samples from Brucella abortus- infected cattle. It is concluded that the ELISA obtained from ID-Lelystad is the most suitable test to monitor the brucelosis free status of herds because it gives rise to fewer false-positive reactions than the SAT.

  6. Modified M20 Beam Position Monitor Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koros, Jessica; Musson, John

    2017-09-01

    Beam position monitors (BPMs) are used to measure lateral beam position. Two pairs of modified wire BPMs are being evaluated for installation into the injector at Jefferson Lab (JLab). The BPMs were coated with a Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) to aid in pumping at the electron gun, as an ultra-high vacuum is required to protect the gun and to avoid scattering the beam. Beam in the injector has a large diameter, allowing extraction of second moments to give information about beam profile and emittance. The purpose of this project is to determine the effects of NEG coating on the BPMs and to calculate second moments from beam models on the Goubau Line (G-Line). Using the G-Line, scans of the BPMs were taken before and after NEG coating. Each scan produced an electrical field map, which characterizes properties of the BPM, including scale factors and coupling. Second moments were calculated using superposition of previous scan data, and verification of this method was attempted using several beam models. Results show the BPMs responded well to NEG and that measurement of second moments is possible. Once the BPMs are installed, they will enhance gun vacuum and enable monitoring of shape and trajectory of the beam as it exits the electron gun to ensure quality beam for experiments. This work is made possible through support from NSF award 1659177 to Old Dominion University.

  7. Same day ART initiation versus clinic-based pre-ART assessment and counselling for individuals newly tested HIV-positive during community-based HIV testing in rural Lesotho - a randomized controlled trial (CASCADE trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhardt, Niklaus Daniel; Ringera, Isaac; Lejone, Thabo Ishmael; Masethothi, Phofu; Thaanyane, T'sepang; Kamele, Mashaete; Gupta, Ravi Shankar; Thin, Kyaw; Cerutti, Bernard; Klimkait, Thomas; Fritz, Christiane; Glass, Tracy Renée

    2016-04-14

    Achievement of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets in Sub-Sahara Africa is challenged by a weak care-cascade with poor linkage to care and retention in care. Community-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC) is widely used in African countries. However, rates of linkage to care and initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in individuals who tested HIV-positive are often very low. A frequently cited reason for non-linkage to care is the time-consuming pre-ART assessment often requiring several clinic visits before ART-initiation. This two-armed open-label randomized controlled trial compares in individuals tested HIV-positive during community-based HTC the proposition of same-day community-based ART-initiation to the standard of care pre-ART assessment at the clinic. Home-based HTC campaigns will be conducted in catchment areas of six clinics in rural Lesotho. Households where at least one individual tested HIV positive will be randomized. In the standard of care group individuals receive post-test counselling and referral to the nearest clinic for pre-ART assessment and counselling. Once they have started ART the follow-up schedule foresees monthly clinic visits. Individuals randomized to the intervention group receive on the spot point-of-care pre-ART assessment and adherence counselling with the proposition to start ART that same day. Once they have started ART, follow-up clinic visits will be less frequent. First primary outcome is linkage to care (individual presents at the clinic at least once within 3 months after the HIV test). The second primary outcome is viral suppression 12 months after enrolment in the study. We plan to enrol a minimum of 260 households with 1:1 allocation and parallel assignment into both arms. This trial will show if in individuals tested HIV-positive during community-based HTC campaigns the proposition of same-day ART initiation in the community, combined with less frequent follow-up visits at the clinic could be a pragmatic approach to

  8. The effect of neonatal BCG vaccination on atopy and asthma at age 7 to 14 years: an historical cohort study in a community with a very low prevalence of tuberculosis infection and a high prevalence of atopic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Guy B; Ng, Kitty; Zhou, Jie; Toelle, Brett G; Xuan, Wei; Belousova, Elena G; Britton, Warwick J

    2003-03-01

    There are conflicting reports on the effect of BCG vaccination on the subsequent development of atopy and asthma. There are no data on the effects of neonatal BCG vaccination on cytokine responses of lymphocytes that are exposed in vitro to allergens. We sought to test the hypothesis that neonatal BCG vaccination or, alternatively, evidence of an immunologic memory of this vaccination is associated with a reduced prevalence of allergic sensitization, asthma, eczema, and hay fever during childhood. An historical cohort study was conducted among 7- to 14-year-old children who were born in 2 districts in Sydney, Australia, and whose mothers were born in southeast Asia. One district had routinely administered BCG vaccination to infants born to overseas-born mothers and the other had not. Eligible subjects were identified from birth registers. Consenting subjects completed questionnaires, performed spirometric and airway hyperresponsiveness testing, and had allergen skin prick testing and tuberculin skin testing. Blood was collected to measure total serum IgE levels and for in vitro lymphocyte culture in the presence of an extract of house dust mite, the dominant allergen in this region, and purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tuberculin). IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IFN-gamma were measured in the culture supernatant. The cohort included 309 BCG-vaccinated subjects and 442 non-BCG-vaccinated subjects. BCG-vaccinated subjects did not have a lower rate of allergic sensitization than nonvaccinated subjects. However, among the subgroup of subjects with a family history of rhinitis or eczema, BCG vaccination was associated with a lower prevalence of current asthma (defined as recent wheezing plus airway hyperresponsiveness; relative risk, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22-0.95). BCG vaccination was also associated with lower levels of allergen-stimulated IL-10 production in vitro. Among the BCG-vaccinated subjects, the 44 (14.3%) who had tuberculin skin test reaction

  9. Screening for cervical cancer among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in Cameroon using simultaneous co-testing with careHPV DNA testing and visual inspection enhanced by digital cervicography: Findings of initial screening and one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholli, Preetam; Bradford, Leslie; Manga, Simon; Nulah, Kathleen; Kiyang, Edith; Manjuh, Florence; DeGregorio, Geneva; Ogembo, Rebecca K; Orock, Enow; Liu, Yuxin; Wamai, Richard G; Sheldon, Lisa Kennedy; Gona, Philimon N; Sando, Zacharie; Welty, Thomas; Welty, Edith; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2018-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO)'s cervical cancer screening guidelines for limited-resource settings recommend sequential screening followed by same-day treatment under a "screen-and-treat" approach. We aimed to (1) assess feasibility and clinical outcomes of screening HIV-positive and HIV-negative Cameroonian women by pairing visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugol's iodine enhanced by digital cervicography (VIA/VILI-DC) with careHPV, a high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) nucleic acid test designed for low-resource settings; and (2) determine persistence of HR-HPV infection after one-year follow-up to inform optimal screening, treatment, and follow-up algorithms. We co-tested 913 previously unscreened women aged ≥30years and applied WHO-recommended treatment for all VIA/VILI-DC-positive women. Baseline prevalence of HR-HPV and HIV were 24% and 42%, respectively. On initial screen, 44 (5%) women were VIA/VILI-DC-positive, of whom 22 had HR-HPV infection, indicating 50% of women screened false-positive and would have been triaged for unnecessary same-day treatment. VIA/VILI-DC-positive women with HIV infection were three times more likely to be HR-HPV-positive than HIV-negative women (65% vs. 20%). All women positive for either VIA/VILI-DC or HR-HPV (n=245) were invited for repeat co-testing after one year, of which 136 (56%) returned for follow-up. Of 122 women who were HR-HPV-positive on initial screen, 60 (49%) re-tested negative, of whom 6 had received treatment after initial screen, indicating that 44% of initially HR-HPV-positive women spontaneously cleared infection after one year without treatment. Women with HIV were more likely to remain HR-HPV-positive on follow-up than HIV-negative women (61% vs. 22%, p<0.001). Treatment was offered to all VIA/VILI-DC positive women on initial screen, and to all women screening VIA/VILI-DC or HR-HPV positive on follow-up. We found careHPV co-testing with VIA/VILI-DC to be feasible and valuable in

  10. Development of a stable positive control to be used for quality assurance of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, Inge; Mens, Petra F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a simple, cheap, and stable positive control for the quality control and quality assurance (QA) of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for the diagnosis of malaria. Plasmodium falciparum in vitro culture of known parasite concentrations was dried on a

  11. Electrostatic Positioning System for a free fall test at drop tower Bremen and an overview of tests for the Weak Equivalence Principle in past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondag, Andrea; Dittus, Hansjörg

    2016-08-01

    The Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) is at the basis of General Relativity - the best theory for gravitation today. It has been and still is tested with different methods and accuracies. In this paper an overview of tests of the Weak Equivalence Principle done in the past, developed in the present and planned for the future is given. The best result up to now is derived from the data of torsion balance experiments by Schlamminger et al. (2008). An intuitive test of the WEP consists of the comparison of the accelerations of two free falling test masses of different composition. This has been carried through by Kuroda & Mio (1989, 1990) with the up to date most precise result for this setup. There is still more potential in this method, especially with a longer free fall time and sensors with a higher resolution. Providing a free fall time of 4.74 s (9.3 s using the catapult) the drop tower of the Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) at the University of Bremen is a perfect facility for further improvements. In 2001 a free fall experiment with high sensitive SQUID (Superconductive QUantum Interference Device) sensors tested the WEP with an accuracy of 10-7 (Nietzsche, 2001). For optimal conditions one could reach an accuracy of 10-13 with this setup (Vodel et al., 2001). A description of this experiment and its results is given in the next part of this paper. For the free fall of macroscopic test masses it is important to start with precisely defined starting conditions concerning the positions and velocities of the test masses. An Electrostatic Positioning System (EPS) has been developed to this purpose. It is described in the last part of this paper.

  12. Gamma Interferon Release Assays for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkinger, Claudia M.; Kik, Sandra V.; Rangaka, Molebogeng X.; Zwerling, Alice; Oxlade, Olivia; Metcalfe, John Z.; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Dowdy, David W.; Dheda, Keertan; Banaei, Niaz

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Identification and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) can substantially reduce the risk of developing active disease. However, there is no diagnostic gold standard for LTBI. Two tests are available for identification of LTBI: the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay (IGRA). Evidence suggests that both TST and IGRA are acceptable but imperfect tests. They represent indirect markers of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exposure and indicate a cellular immune response to M. tuberculosis. Neither test can accurately differentiate between LTBI and active TB, distinguish reactivation from reinfection, or resolve the various stages within the spectrum of M. tuberculosis infection. Both TST and IGRA have reduced sensitivity in immunocompromised patients and have low predictive value for progression to active TB. To maximize the positive predictive value of existing tests, LTBI screening should be reserved for those who are at sufficiently high risk of progressing to disease. Such high-risk individuals may be identifiable by using multivariable risk prediction models that incorporate test results with risk factors and using serial testing to resolve underlying phenotypes. In the longer term, basic research is necessary to identify highly predictive biomarkers. PMID:24396134

  13. A new rapid method for direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnini, Simona; Brucculeri, Veronica; Morici, Paola; Ghelardi, Emilia; Florio, Walter; Lupetti, Antonella

    2016-08-12

    Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of the causative agent(s) of bloodstream infections can lead to prompt appropriate antimicrobial therapy. To shorten species identification, in this study bacteria were recovered from monomicrobial blood cultures by serum separator tubes and spotted onto the target plate for direct MALDI-TOF MS identification. Proper antibiotics were selected for direct AST based on species identification. In order to obtain rapid AST results, bacteria were recovered from positive blood cultures by two different protocols: by serum separator tubes (further referred to as PR1), or after a short-term subculture in liquid medium (further referred to as PR2). The results were compared with those obtained by the method currently used in our laboratory consisting in identification by MALDI-TOF and AST by Vitek 2 or Sensititre on isolated colonies. The direct MALDI-TOF method concordantly identified with the current method 97.5 % of the Gram-negative bacteria and 96.1 % of the Gram-positive cocci contained in monomicrobial blood cultures. The direct AST by PR1 and PR2 for all isolate/antimicrobial agent combinations was concordant/correct with the current method for 87.8 and 90.5 % of Gram-negative bacteria and for 93.1 and 93.8 % of Gram-positive cocci, respectively. In particular, 100 % categorical agreement was found with levofloxacin for Enterobacteriaceae by both PR1 and PR2, and 99.0 and 100 % categorical agreement was observed with linezolid for Gram-positive cocci by PR1 and PR2, respectively. There was no significant difference in accuracy between PR1 and PR2 for Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive cocci. This newly described method seems promising for providing accurate AST results. Most importantly, these results would be available in a few hours from blood culture positivity, which would help clinicians to promptly confirm or streamline an effective antibiotic therapy in patients with bloodstream

  14. Interferon-¿ release assays for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sester, M; Sotgiu, G; Lange, C

    2011-01-01

    and meta-analyses (PRISMA) and quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS) guidelines, we searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases to identify studies published in January 2001-November 2009 that evaluated the evidence of using QuantiFERON-TB® Gold in-tube (QFT-G-IT) and T-SPOT......-G-IT, and 81% (95% CI 78-84%) and 88% (confirmed and unconfirmed cases) (95% CI 82-92%) for T-SPOT.TB®, respectively. In blood and extrasanguinous fluids, the pooled specificity was 79% (95% CI 75-82%) and 82% (95% CI 70-91%) for QFT-G-IT, and 59% (95% CI 56-62%) and 82% (95% CI 78-86%) for T-SPOT.......TB®, respectively. Although the diagnostic sensitivities of both IGRAs were higher than that of tuberculin skin tests, it was still not high enough to use as a rule out test for TB. Positive evidence for the use of IGRAs in compartments other than blood will require more independent and carefully designed...

  15. DNA chip-assisted diagnosis of a previously unknown etiology of intermediate uveitis- Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basu Soumyava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the use of DNA chip technology in the identification of Toxoplasma gondii as the etiological agent in two patients with recurrent intermediate uveitis (IU. Both patients had recurrent episodes of vitritis (with no focal retinochoroidal lesion over varying time intervals and were diagnosed to have IU. The tuberculin test was negative in both. Blood counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and serum angiotensin convertase enzyme levels were normal. In both cases, the vitreous fluid tested positive for the T. gondii DNA sequence by using a uveitis DNA chip (XCyton Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, India. It contained complimentary sequences to "signature genes" of T. gondii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. chelonae, and M. fortuitum. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA detected elevated serum antitoxoplasma IgG levels in both. They responded to the antitoxoplasma therapy with oral co-trimoxazole (and additional intravitreal clindamycin in patient 1, with no recurrence during follow-ups of 6 and 8 months, respectively.

  16. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF COAGULASE-POSITIVE AND COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI IN RELATION TO METHICILLIN SENSITIVITY TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanabham Yalangi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus has long been recognised as an important pathogen in human disease. Staphylococci infection occurs regularly in hospitalised patients and has serious consequences despite antibiotic therapy. Shortly after introduction of methicillin after clinical use Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA were identified in many countries and become one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections. The aim of the study is to know the methicillin sensitivity of both coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from various samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 strains of staphylococci both coagulase positive and coagulase negative were isolated in the Department of Microbiology from various clinical samples. They were confirmed by morphology, staining methods and by using standard bacteriological procedures and biochemical reactions. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion test. RESULTS Predominant species from pus were S. epidermidis (42.42% and from sputum S. haemolyticus (31.81% from blood S. haemolyticus (53.33%. 53% of strains produced beta-lactamase. Majority 47.22% by S. epidermidis from pus followed by S. haemolyticus 23.33% from pus. Beta-lactamase production was least from throat swab (5.55%. Out of 32 coagulase-positive staphylococci tested to methicillin 15 (46.87% were found to be sensitive, 17 (53.13% were found to be resistant. Out of 68 coagulase-negative staphylococci tested, 13 (19.11% were found to sensitive and 55 (80.88% were found to be resistant. 72% of strains were sensitive to novobiocin and 28% resistant to novobiocin. 43% showed drug resistance to 2 drugs. 14% to 3 drugs and 5 drugs. 6% of staphylococci sensitive to all the 10 drugs. CONCLUSION MRSA is a type of bacteria that is resistant to a number of widely used antibiotics. This means MRSA infections can be more difficult to treat than other bacterial infections. In recent years

  17. Epidemiological status of bovine tuberculosis in the Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucílio Antônio Ribeiro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the implementation of the National Program for the Control and Eradication of Animal Brucellosis and Tuberculosis (PNCEBT in 2001, and the need to determine the epidemiological status of animal tuberculosis for future evaluation of the effectiveness of the measures laid down, the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors of bovine tuberculosis in the Federal District (DF of Brazil, as well as to provide an input for the strategic management of PNCEBT. Field testing and data collection was carried out from February to December 2003. The DF was considered a single epidemiological region owing to the small number of existing farms, and the absence of significant differences between the region’s farming enterprises, which would justify the stratification of the regional sample. A total of 278 farms were randomly sampled from the local registry database of bovine farms with reproductive activity, in which 2,019 adult cows were tuberculin tested. Only one sampled animal had a positive result, using the comparative cervical tuberculin test, resulting in a bovine tuberculosis prevalence of 0.05% [95% CI: 0.0-0.4%]. The herd-level prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in the DF was estimated as 0.36% [95% CI: 0-2.0%]. The analysis of risk factors was impaired by the results obtained, as the number of cases did not allow for this kind of analysis. Cattle farming in the DF is predominantly aimed at dairy production; however, it is characterized by the presence of small low milk yield herds, which may not favor the introduction and persistency of infection of Mycobacterium bovis. Health authorities from the DF perform surveillance for bovine tuberculosis and maintain the need for tests for the movement of bovines for breeding and those animals destined for any form of animal gathering, especially auctions. Therefore, it is likely that the DF has good conditions for successfully implementing the PNCEBT.

  18. Longitudinal Relations among Positivity, Perceived Positive School Climate, and Prosocial Behavior in Colombian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo Kanacri, Bernadette P.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Thartori, Eriona; Pastorelli, Concetta; Uribe Tirado, Liliana M.; Gerbino, Maria; Caprara, Gian V.

    2017-01-01

    Bidirectional relations among adolescents' positivity, perceived positive school climate, and prosocial behavior were examined in Colombian youth. Also, the role of a positive school climate in mediating the relation of positivity to prosocial behaviors was tested. Adolescents (N = 151; M[subscript age] of child in Wave 1 = 12.68, SD = 1.06; 58.9%…

  19. Identifying Predictors of Interferon-γ Release Assay Results in Pediatric Latent Tuberculosis: A Protective Role of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotgiu, Giovanni; Altet-Gómez, Neus; Tsolia, Maria; Ruga, Ezia; Velizarova, Svetlana; Kampmann, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release assays are widely used to diagnose latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in adults, but their performance in children remains incompletely evaluated to date. Objectives: To investigate factors influencing results of IFN-γ release assays in children using a large European data set. Methods: The Pediatric Tuberculosis Network European Trials group pooled and analyzed data from five sites across Europe comprising 1,128 children who were all investigated for latent tuberculosis infection by tuberculin skin test and at least one IFN-γ release assay. Multivariate analyses examined age, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination status, and sex as predictor variables of results. Subgroup analyses included children who were household contacts. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 1,093 children had a QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay and 382 had a T-SPOT.TB IFN-γ release assay. Age was positively correlated with a positive blood result (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube: odds ratio [OR], 1.08 per year increasing age [P 5 yr). Conclusions: Our data show that BCG vaccination may be effective in protecting children against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. To restrict use of IFN-γ release assays to children with positive skin tests risks underestimating latent infection. PMID:22700862

  20. Official Position of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology Social Security Administration Policy on Validity Testing: Guidance and Recommendations for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafetz, M D; Williams, M A; Ben-Porath, Y S; Bianchini, K J; Boone, K B; Kirkwood, M W; Larrabee, G J; Ord, J S

    2015-01-01

    The milestone publication by Slick, Sherman, and Iverson (1999) of criteria for determining malingered neurocognitive dysfunction led to extensive research on validity testing. Position statements by the National Academy of Neuropsychology and the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology (AACN) recommended routine validity testing in neuropsychological evaluations. Despite this widespread scientific and professional support, the Social Security Administration (SSA) continued to discourage validity testing, a stance that led to a congressional initiative for SSA to reevaluate their position. In response, SSA commissioned the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to evaluate the science concerning the validation of psychological testing. The IOM concluded that validity assessment was necessary in psychological and neuropsychological examinations (IOM, 2015 ). The AACN sought to provide independent expert guidance and recommendations concerning the use of validity testing in disability determinations. A panel of contributors to the science of validity testing and its application to the disability process was charged with describing why the disability process for SSA needs improvement, and indicating the necessity for validity testing in disability exams. This work showed how the determination of malingering is a probability proposition, described how different types of validity tests are appropriate, provided evidence concerning non-credible findings in children and low-functioning individuals, and discussed the appropriate evaluation of pain disorders typically seen outside of mental consultations. A scientific plan for validity assessment that additionally protects test security is needed in disability determinations and in research on classification accuracy of disability decisions.

  1. A Self-Paced, Web-Based, Positive Emotion Skills Intervention for Reducing Symptoms of Depression: Protocol for Development and Pilot Testing of MARIGOLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Elaine O; Addington, Elizabeth L; Bassett, Sarah M; Schuette, Stephanie A; Shiu, Eva W; Cohn, Michael A; Leykin, Yan; Saslow, Laura R; Moskowitz, Judith T

    2018-06-05

    Living with elevated symptoms of depression can have debilitating consequences for an individual's psychosocial and physical functioning, quality of life, and health care utilization. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that skills for increasing positive emotion can be helpful to individuals with depression. Although Web-based interventions to reduce negative emotion in individuals with depression are available, these interventions frequently suffer from poor retention and adherence and do not capitalize on the potential benefits of increasing positive emotion. The aim of this study was to develop and test a Web-based positive emotion skills intervention tailored for individuals living with elevated depressive symptoms, as well as to develop and test enhancement strategies for increasing retention and adherence to that intervention. This study protocol describes the development and testing for Mobile Affect Regulation Intervention with the Goal of Lowering Depression (MARIGOLD), a Web-based positive emotion skills intervention, adapted for individuals with elevated depressive symptomatology. The intervention development is taking place in three phases. In phase 1, we are tailoring an existing positive emotion skills intervention for individuals with elevated symptoms of depression and are pilot testing the tailored version of the intervention in a randomized controlled trial with two control conditions (N=60). In phase 2, we are developing and testing three enhancements aimed at boosting retention and adherence to the Web-based intervention (N=75): facilitator contact, an online discussion board, and virtual badges. In phase 3, we are conducting a multifactorial, nine-arm pilot trial (N=600) to systematically test these enhancement strategies, individually and in combination. The primary outcome is depressive symptom severity. Secondary outcomes include positive and negative emotion, psychological well-being, and coping resources. The project was funded in

  2. Optimal Threshold for a Positive Hybrid Capture 2 Test for Detection of Human Papillomavirus: Data from the ARTISTIC Trial▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, A.; Bailey, A.; Turner, A.; Almonte, M.; Gilham, C.; Baysson, H.; Peto, J.; Roberts, C.; Thomson, C.; Desai, M.; Mather, J.; Kitchener, H.

    2010-01-01

    We present data on the use of the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) test for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) with different thresholds for positivity within a primary screening setting and as a method of triage for low-grade cytology. In the ARTISTIC population-based trial, 18,386 women were screened by cytology and for HPV. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia lesions of grade two and higher (CIN2+ lesions) were identified for 453 women within 30 months of an abnormal baseline sample. When a relative light unit/cutoff (RLU/Co) ratio of ≥1 was used as the threshold for considering an HC2 result positive, 15.6% of results were positive, and the proportion of CIN2+ lesions in this group was 14.7%. The relative sensitivity for CIN2+ lesion detection was 93.4%. When an RLU/Co ratio of ≥2 was used as the threshold, there was a 2.5% reduction in positivity, with an increase in the proportion of CIN2+ lesions detected. The relative sensitivity decreased slightly, to 90.3%. Among women with low-grade cytology, HPV prevalences were 43.7% and 40.3% at RLU/Co ratios of ≥1 and ≥2, respectively. The proportions of CIN2+ lesions detected were 17.3% and 18.0%, with relative sensitivities of 87.7% at an RLU/Co ratio of ≥1 and 84.2% at an RLU/Co ratio of ≥2. At an RLU/Co ratio of ≥1, 68.3% of HC2-positive results were confirmed by the Roche line blot assay, compared to 77.2% of those at an RLU/Co ratio of ≥2. Fewer HC2-positive results were confirmed for 35- to 64-year-olds (50.3% at an RLU/Co ratio of ≥1 and 63.2% at an RLU/Co ratio of >2) than for 20- to 34-year-olds (78.7% at an RLU/Co ratio of ≥1 and 83.7% at an RLU/Co ratio of >2). If the HC2 test is used for routine screening as an initial test or as a method of triage for low-grade cytology, we would suggest increasing the threshold for positivity from the RLU/Co ratio of ≥1, recommended by the manufacturer, to an RLU/Co ratio of ≥2, since this study has shown that a beneficial balance

  3. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Traditionally Managed Livestock in Selected Districts of Southern Province of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Muma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed in 2008 to estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in traditionally reared cattle of Southern Province in Zambia in four districts. The single comparative intradermal tuberculin test (SCITT was used to identify TB reactors, and the Rose Bengal test (RBT, followed by confirmation with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA, was used to test for brucellosis. A total of 459 animals were tested for tuberculosis and 395 for brucellosis. The overall prevalence of BTB based on the 4 mm and 3 mm cutoff criteria was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.6–7.0% and 6.3% (95% CI: 3.8–8.8%, respectively. Change in skin thickness on SCITT was influenced by initial skin-fold thickness at the inoculation site, where animals with thinner skin had a tendency to give a larger tuberculin response. Brucellosis seroprevalence was estimated at 20.7% (95% CI: 17.0–24.4%. Comparison between results from RBT and c-ELISA showed good agreement (84.1% and revealed subjectivity in RBT test results. Differences in brucellosis and tuberculosis prevalence across districts were attributed to type of husbandry practices and ecological factors. High prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis suggests that control control programmes are necessary for improved cattle productivity and reduced public health risk.

  4. Is outdoor use of the six-minute walk test with a global positioning system in stroke patients' own neighbourhoods reproducible and valid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, L.E.; Kwakkel, G.; van de Port, I.G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the reproducibility, responsiveness and concurrent validity of the six-minute walk test (6MWT) when tested outdoors in patients' own neighbourhoods using a global positioning system (GPS) or a measuring wheel. Methods: A total of 27 chronic stroke patients, discharged to their

  5. Clostridium difficile Testing Algorithm: Is There a Difference in Patients Who Test Positive by Enzyme Immunoassay vs. Those Who Only Test Positive by Nucleic Acid Amplification Methodology?

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, Jonathan; Odili, Ogheneruona; Craver, Mary Ashleigh; Mayen, Anthony; Purrman, Kyle; Rahman, Asem; Sang, Charlie Joseph; Cook, Paul P

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Testing for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) commonly involves checking for the presence of toxins A and B by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or nucleic acid amplification (NAA). The former is very specific, but not very sensitive. The latter is very sensitive. Beginning in 2011, our hospital incorporated an algorithm that involved testing liquid stool specimens for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxin by EIA. For discrepant results, the stool specimen was tested for the ...

  6. Epidemiological, clinical, microbiological and therapeutic differences in tuberculosis disease in patients with and without HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sanz, Javier; Lago-Gómez, María Rosa; Rodríguez-Zurita, María Elena; Martín-Echevarría, Esteban; Torralba, Miguel

    2018-04-23

    Our objective is to analyze the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in our population and to compare the characteristics of patients with and without HIV infection. Clinical-epidemiological retrospective cohort study that included patients diagnosed with TB with and without HIV infection between 2005-2016 in the province of Guadalajara (Spain). Epidemiological, clinical, microbiological and therapeutic variables were assessed, including microbiological resistances. TB was diagnosed in 261 patients. There were 25 patients (9.6%) who had HIV infection. Patients with HIV infection were predominantly males, had higher incidence of hepatitis C virus, a higher percentage of extrapulmonary TB, a higher prevalence of resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin, a greater paradoxical response and a longer average hospital stay. On the other hand, they had a lower percentage of positive tuberculin skin test and positive sputum smear (microscopy). A significant percentage of TB patients had no serology for HIV. Patients with HIV infection show remarkable differences in epidemiological, clinical and resistance variables to antituberculosis drugs. A high percentage of patients with TB were not tested for HIV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of the Stroop test performed in supine position on the heart rate variability in both genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazan, Rastislav; Filcikova, Diana; Mravec, Boris

    2017-12-01

    The effect of Stroop test (ST)-induced stress on autonomic nervous system activity is often examined via measurement of heart rate variability (HRV). However, HRV may be significantly affected by interfering factors, including vocalization and inappropriate body position. Surprisingly, published studies ignore these issues, so the aim of our study was to test the innovative procedure for correct HRV measurement in individuals exposed to ST. Moreover, we examined possible gender differences in HRV and heart rate (HR) during ST. Healthy participants (21 men, 34 women) were placed in a supine position (no orthostatic activation) and then exposed to a 5 min relaxation period and a 5 min period of computerized ST (no vocalization). We found significant differences in HR and HRV parameters in both genders during ST when compared to relaxation (baseline) values. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in HR and HRV between males and females (except for a higher baseline HR in women). Also, reactivity to ST stress (difference between baseline and ST value) showed no gender differences. In conclusion, when performed in a supine position and without vocalization, the ST induces significant stress-related changes of HR and HRV in both genders, with no gender differences in the magnitude of reaction to ST stress. This experimental procedure can be used for correct examination of mental stress-related changes in the autonomic nervous system, and is particularly useful for examining mixed-gender experimental groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Design report for an annular fuel element for accommodation of a carbide test bundle on the ring position of the KNK II/2 test zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefner, H.E.

    1982-03-01

    This report describes an annular oxide element with Mark II rods for accommodation of a 19-pin carbide test bundle on position 201 in the test zone of the second core of KNK II as well as its behavior during the period of operation. The ring element comprises within a driver wrapper in three rows of pins 102 fuel pins of 7.6 mm diameter and six structural rods for fixing the spark eroded spacers. The report deals with the ring element with its individual components fuel rod, bundle, wrappers, head and foot and describes methods, criteria and results concerning the design. The carbide test bundle to be accommodated by the annular carrier element will be treated in a separate report. The loadability of the annular element with its components is demonstrated by generally valid standards for strength criteria

  9. Positioning performance of a maglev fine positioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wronosky, J.B.; Smith, T.G.; Jordan, J.D.; Darnold, J.R.

    1996-12-01

    A wafer positioning system was recently developed by Sandia National Laboratories for an Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) research tool. The system, which utilizes a magnetically levitated fine stage to provide ultra-precise positioning in all six degrees of freedom, incorporates technological improvements resulting from four years of prototype development experience. System enhancements, implemented on a second generation design for an ARPA National Center for Advanced Information Component Manufacturing (NCAICM) project, introduced active structural control for the levitated structure of the system. Magnetic levitation (maglev) is emerging as an important technology for wafer positioning systems in advanced lithography applications. The advantages of maglev stem from the absence of physical contact. The resulting lack of friction enables accurate, fast positioning. Maglev systems are mechanically simple, accomplishing full six degree-of-freedom suspension and control with a minimum of moving parts. Power-efficient designs, which reduce the possibility of thermal distortion of the platen, are achievable. Manufacturing throughput will be improved in future systems with the addition of active structural control of the positioning stages. This paper describes the design, implementation, and functional capability of the maglev fine positioning system. Specifics regarding performance design goals and test results are presented.

  10. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmudji

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis. This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic. M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal products, unpasteurised milk from tuberculosis cows or through respiratory route of contaminated aerosol. Bovine tuberculosis at the first stage does not show any clinical sign but as the disease progress in the next stage which may take several months or years, clinical signs may arise, suh as: fluctuative body temperature, anorexia, lost body weight, coughing, oedema of lymph nodes, increased respiratory frequencies. Pathological lesion of bovine tuberculosis is characterised by the formation of granulomas (tubercles, in which bacterial cells have been localised, most in lymph nodes and pulmonum, but can occur in other organs. The granulomas usually arise in small nodules or tubercles appear yellowish either caseus, caseo-calcareus or calcified. In Indonesia, bovine tuberculosis occurred in dairy cattle since 1905 through the imported dairy cows from Holland and Australian. It was unfortunate that until recently, there were not many research and surveilances of bovine tuberculosis conducted in this country, so the distribution of bovine tuberculosis is unknown. Early serological diagnosis can be done on live cattle by means of tuberculin tests under field conditions. Confirmation can be done by isolation and identification of excreted and secreted samples from the slaughter house. Antibiotic treatment and vaccination were uneffective, therefore the effective control of bovine tuberculosis is suggested by tuberculin tests and by slaughtering the selected

  11. Freqüência de positividade em teste cutâneo para aeroalérgenos Frequency of positive skin tests for airborne allergic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Godinho

    2003-12-01

    frequency of positive skin tests for specific airborne allergic agents, we assessed medical records of 398 patients with nasal symptoms suggestive of allergy or other otolaryngologic complaints which required skin testing to aid in the diagnosis. RESULTS: The most frequently found allergic agents were house dust (74,9%, dermatophagoides farinae (58,4% and mold (36,5%, followed by dog hair (32,7%, grass (22,4%, cat hair (16,9%, feathers (16,4% and wool (15,6%. Only 3,5% were positive for lovebird feathers and 1,5% for flowers. 39 patients (9,8% had negative skin tests, 10 (2,5% had reactions to the solution extract and 8 (2% did not react to histamine. We did not have complications in performing the test. CONCLUSION: House dust was the most frequently found allergic agent. Skin tests must be performed based on the clinical history, and their results may guide us towards the correct diagnosis and treatment of nose diseases.

  12. T cell-based tracking of multidrug resistant tuberculosis infection after brief exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richeldi, Luca; Ewer, Katie; Losi, Monica; Bergamini, Barbara M; Roversi, Pietro; Deeks, Jonathan; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Lalvani, Ajit

    2004-08-01

    Molecular epidemiology indicates significant transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after casual contact with infectious tuberculosis cases. We investigated M. tuberculosis transmission after brief exposure using a T cell-based assay, the enzyme-linked-immunospot (ELISPOT) for IFN-gamma. After childbirth, a mother was diagnosed with sputum smear-positive multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Forty-one neonates and 47 adults were present during her admission on the maternity unit; 11 weeks later, all underwent tuberculin skin testing (TST) and ELISPOT. We correlated test results with markers of exposure to the index case. The participants, who were asymptomatic and predominantly had no prior tuberculosis exposure, had 6.05 hours mean exposure (range: 0-65 hours) to the index case. Seventeen individuals, including two newborns, were ELISPOT-positive, and ELISPOT results correlated significantly with three of four predefined measures of tuberculosis exposure. For each hour sharing room air with the index case, the odds of a positive ELISPOT result increased by 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02-1.09, p = 0.003). Only four adults were TST-positive and TST results did not correlate with exposure. Thus, ELISPOT, but not TST, suggested quite extensive nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis after brief exposure. These results help to explain the apparent importance of casual contact for tuberculosis transmission, and may have implications for prevention.

  13. Interpreting the results of the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test: accounting for false-positive answers in the international consensus on the diabetic foot protocol by a new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Robert A; Koren, Shlomit; Ramot, Yoram; Buchs, Andreas; Rapoport, Micha J

    2014-01-01

    The Semmes-Weinstein monofilament is the most widely used test to diagnose the loss of protective sensation. The commonly used protocol of the International Consensus on the Diabetic Foot includes a 'sham' application that allows for false-positive answers. We sought to study the heretofore unexamined significance of false-positive answers. Forty-five patients with diabetes and a history of pedal ulceration (Group I) and 81 patients with diabetes but no history of ulceration (Group II) were studied. The three original sites of the International Consensus on the Diabetic Foot at the hallux, 1st metatarsal and 5th metatarsal areas were used. At each location, the test was performed three times: 2 actual and 1 "sham" applications. Scores were graded from 0 to 3 based upon correct responses. Determination of loss of protective sensation was performed with and without calculating a false-positive answer as a minus 1 score. False-positive responses were found in a significant percentage of patients with and without history of ulceration. Introducing false-positive results as minus 1 into the test outcome significantly increased the number of patients diagnosed with loss of protective sensation in both groups. False-positive answers can significantly affect Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test results and the diagnosis of LOPS. A model that accounts for false-positive answers is offered. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. An alert of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of rhesus macaques in a wild zoo in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenping; Yang, Yourong; Luo, Yi; Li, Ning; Bai, Xuejuan; Liu, Yinping; Zhang, Junxian; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Chenglin; Wu, Xueqiong

    2017-10-30

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the pathogen that causes tuberculosis (TB), is becoming increasingly recognized as an important cause of fatal chronic illnesses in China. In this study, we report an infectious disease among 84 rhesus macaques at a Chinese zoo. Their clinical signs and symptoms were very similar with the manifestations of TB in humans. To determine the potential pathogens of this outbreak, many methods were used. First, tuberculin skin tests showed that none of the monkeys displayed significant skin reactions. Subsequently, the sera were tested for specific antibody IgG; 29 (34.5%) and 39 (46.4%) blood samples tested positive by TB-IgG and TB-DOT, respectively. Radiographic examination showed characteristic imageology changes in 14 (16.7%) monkeys. One individual determined as positive by the above three methods was euthanized, and histopathological analysis demonstrated typical granulomas and caseous necrosis in the lung, liver, spleen, and intestine. Furthermore, the pathogenic mycobacteria were isolated from lung lobe, cultured on acidic Lowenstein-Jensen culture medium, and identified as M. tuberculosis by real-time PCR and DNA sequencing. Nevertheless, the origin of the infection remained unknown. These findings emphasize the need to strengthen the management and training of staff, especially those working at animal shelters.

  15. It's just as well kids don't vote: the positioning of children through public discourse around national testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Troels; Meaney, Tamsin

    2014-06-01

    The importance of mathematics or its alter ego `numeracy' is being cemented in the public's mind with the instigation of national, high-stakes testing in Australia. Discussions about national testing in press releases, online news articles and online public comments tacitly attribute importance to mathematics. In these discussions, children are positioned as commodities, with mathematics achievement being the value that can be added to them. Deficit language identified some children as being less valuable commodities and less likely to gain value from schooling. In the same public discourse, the value of the sort of mathematics that can be assessed in these tests appeared to be so accepted that it did not need to be mentioned. This has social justice implications.

  16. The prevalence of positive reactions in the atopy patch test with aeroallergens and food allergens in subjects with atopic eczema: a European multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsow, U; Laifaoui, J; Kerschenlohr, K; Wollenberg, A; Przybilla, B; Wüthrich, B; Borelli, S; Giusti, F; Seidenari, S; Drzimalla, K; Simon, D; Disch, R; Borelli, S; Devillers, A C A; Oranje, A P; De Raeve, L; Hachem, J-P; Dangoisse, C; Blondeel, A; Song, M; Breuer, K; Wulf, A; Werfel, T; Roul, S; Taieb, A; Bolhaar, S; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C; Brönnimann, M; Braathen, L R; Didierlaurent, A; André, C; Ring, J

    2004-12-01

    The atopy patch test (APT) was proposed to evaluate IgE-mediated sensitizations in patients with atopic eczema (AE). The prevalence and agreement with clinical history and specific IgE (sIgE) of positive APT reactions was investigated in six European countries using a standardized method. A total of 314 patients with AE in remission were tested in 12 study centers on clinically uninvolved, non-abraded back skin with 200 index of reactivity (IR)/g of house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat dander, grass, and birch pollen allergen extracts with defined major allergen contents in petrolatum. Extracts of egg white, celery and wheat flour with defined protein content were also patch tested. APT values were evaluated at 24, 48, and 72 h according to the European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis (ETFAD) guidelines. In addition, skin-prick test (SPT) and sIgE and a detailed history on allergen-induced eczema flares were obtained. Previous eczema flares, after contact with specific allergens, were reported in 1% (celery) to 34% (D. pteronyssinus) of patients. The frequency of clear-cut positive APT reactions ranged from 39% with D. pteronyssinus to 9% with celery. All ETFAD intensities occured after 48 and 72 h. Positive SPT (16-57%) and elevated sIgE (19-59%) results were more frequent. Clear-cut positive APT with all SPT and sIgE testing negative was seen in 7% of the patients, whereas a positive APT without SPT or sIgE for the respective allergen was seen in 17% of the patients. APT, SPT and sIgE results showed significant agreement with history for grass pollen and egg white (two-sided Pr > /Z/ atopic controls, no positive APT reaction was seen. Aeroallergens and food allergens are able to elicit eczematous skin reactions after epicutaneous application. As no gold standard for aeroallergen provocation in AE exists, the relevance of aeroallergens for AE flares may be evaluated by APT in addition to SPT and sIgE. The data may contribute to the international

  17. Some tests of wet tropospheric calibration for the CASA Uno Global Positioning System experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, T. H.; Wolf, S. Kornreich

    1990-01-01

    Wet tropospheric path delay can be a major error source for Global Positioning System (GPS) geodetic experiments. Strategies for minimizing this error are investigted using data from CASA Uno, the first major GPS experiment in Central and South America, where wet path delays may be both high and variable. Wet path delay calibration using water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and residual delay estimation is compared with strategies where the entire wet path delay is estimated stochastically without prior calibration, using data from a 270-km test baseline in Costa Rica. Both approaches yield centimeter-level baseline repeatability and similar tropospheric estimates, suggesting that WVR calibration is not critical for obtaining high precision results with GPS in the CASA region.

  18. The bovine tuberculosis burden in cattle herds in zones with low dose radiation pollution in the Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, Richard E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skrypnyk, Artem [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zavgorodniy, Andriy [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stegniy, Borys [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gerilovych, Anton [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kutsan, Oleksandr [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pozmogova, Svitlana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sapko, Svitlana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The authors describe a study of the tuberculosis (TB) incidence in cattle exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl (pronounced ‘Chornobyl’ in Ukrainian) nuclear plant catastrophe in 1986. The purpose of the study was to determine if ionising radiation influences the number of outbreaks of bovine TB and their severity on farms in the Kyiv, Cherkasy and Chernigiv regions of the Ukraine. These farms are all located within a 200 km radius of Chernobyl and have had low-dose radiation pollution. Pathological and blood samples were taken from cattle in those regions that had positive TB skin tests. Mycobacterium spp. were isolated,