WorldWideScience

Sample records for positive public perception

  1. Public perceptions of cancer: a qualitative study of the balance of positive and negative beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Kathryn A; Simon, Alice E; Miles, Anne; Wardle, Jane

    2014-07-10

    Cancer's insidious onset and potentially devastating outcomes have made it one of the most feared diseases of the 20th century. However, advances in early diagnosis and treatment mean that death rates are declining, and there are more than 30 million cancer survivors worldwide. This might be expected to result in more sanguine attitudes to the disease. The present study used a qualitative methodology to provide an in-depth exploration of attitudes to cancer and describes the balance of negative and positive perspectives. A qualitative study using semistructured interviews with thematic analysis. A university in London, UK. 30 participants (23-73 years), never themselves diagnosed with cancer. Accounts of cancer consistently incorporated negative and positive views. In almost all respondents, the first response identified fear, trauma or death. However, this was followed-sometimes within the same sentence-by acknowledgement that improvements in treatment mean that many patients can survive cancer and may even resume a normal life. Some respondents spontaneously reflected on the contradictions, describing their first response as a 'gut feeling' and the second as a more rational appraisal-albeit one they struggled to believe. Others switched perspective without apparent awareness. People appear to be 'in two minds' about cancer. A rapid, intuitive sense of dread and imminent death coexists with a deliberative, rational recognition that cancer can be a manageable, or even curable, disease. Recognising cancer's public image could help in the design of effective cancer control messages. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Native American Women Perceptions in Pk-12 Administrative Positions in North Dakota Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoteau, Lanelia Irene

    2012-01-01

    Historically Native American women have experienced barriers in their rise to Pk-12 educational leadership positions. There is limited research available on Native American women in educational leadership. Therefore, the purpose for this survey study was to discover what inspired current Pk-12 Native American women educational leaders to choose…

  3. Public perceptions of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Public perceptions of risk will probably always be unsatisfying to a scientist. Public perceptions are formed by the actions of institutions which have goals other than formation of an informed public opinion, such as the schools, the media, business and the government. In this environment, it seems unrealistic to expect public opinion to reflect scientific realities. The talk will focus on the media as an opinion-former and will discuss several non-nuclear issues as illustrations: plague in New Mexico, Toxic Shock Syndrome, and Injuries as a Public Health Problem. Ultimately however, we are confronted with two wonderfully complex matters: can risk be adequately expressed or measured in universally comprehensible or broadly acceptable terms; and the mysterious movements of the public and collective mind

  4. Public perceptions of radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainous, A.G. III; Hagen, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1984, a significant amount of media attention has focused on health threats from radon gas exposure. Using a probability telephone survey of adults (n = 685), we studied public perceptions of risk from radon exposure versus other environmental health risks. The results indicated that 92% of those individuals who had heard of radon believe radon to be a health risk, although only 4% believe they are currently exposed to high levels of radon gas. Perception of risk from radon was positively related to other perceptions of environmental risks. Younger and less educated individuals were more likely to perceive radon as a health risk. Women were three-and-one-half times as likely as men to perceive risk from radon. However, there was no significant relationship between perceived risk from radon and cigarette smoking. Media attention has apparently led to public awareness of radon hazards, but further attention is needed to improve smokers' awareness of their special risks from radon

  5. Coal and public perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

  6. Public perceptions of geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Anderson, Mark; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2014-05-01

    Geological issues are increasingly intruding on the everyday lives of ordinary people. Whether it be onshore exploration and extraction of oil and gas, deep injection of water for geothermal power or underground storage of carbon dioxide and radioactive waste, many communities across Europe are being faced with potentially contested geological activity under their backyard. As well as being able to communicate the technical aspects of such work, geoscience professionals also need to appreciate that for most people the subsurface is an unfamiliar realm. In order to engage communities and individuals in effective dialogue about geological activities, an appreciation of what 'the public' already know and what they want to know is needed, but this is a subject that is in its infancy. In an attempt to provide insight into these key issues, this study examines the concerns the public have, relating to geology, by constructing 'Mental Models' of people's perceptions of the subsurface. General recommendations for public engagement strategies will be presented based on the results of selected case studies; specifically expert and non-expert mental models for communities in the south-west of England.

  7. Public perception of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burri, Regula Valerie; Bellucci, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    While several studies on the public opinion of nanotechnology have pointed to a rather enthusiastic U.S. public, the public uptake of nanotechnology in Europe is more contained. The results of the Swiss publifocus on nanotechnology reveal a pragmatic attitude of citizens toward the emerging technologies, thus confirming what has been identified as a 'balanced approach' in the NanoJury UK

  8. Public perception of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiipper, Felipe de Moura

    2011-01-01

    The key for nuclear renaissance is public acceptance. Facing energetic needs that occur around the world and lack of resources, the work of characterizing and proposing new models to represent public opinion is extremely important to all stakeholders. Even though public opinion's study on risks is relatively recent, may approaches of this subject have been suggested and presented, especially for the topic of perceptions on nuclear installations. Actual definitions on risk exist between objective and subjective models, that reflect opinions of lay public and experts. Strategies on communications with the public may be evaluated from many developed models, and its results may be registered. The use of structural models may present an exploratory character as well as confirmatory theories, as an adequate tool for the development of studies on public perception. In this work, a structural model is presented from data obtained in a previous report, and added to data collected before and after the Fukushima nuclear accident, in Japan. The effects developed from this accident offered a unique opportunity to study public opinion through the effects of a serious nuclear accident and its effects on risk communications. Aside, this work attempted to check the structural model according with obtained results, in order to sustain a constant improvement of the working tools. Yet, a comparison between data according to experts' respondents and lay public ones as well as a comparison among different students before and after a visit to nuclear station is considered. Obtained data for the structural models has been applied for on a structural model and analyzed by structural correlation matrix, latent variable structural coefficients and R 2 values. Results indicate that public opinion maintains its rejection on nuclear energy and the perception of benefits, facing perceived risks before the accident, has diminished. A new model that included a latent variable for corresponding

  9. Contribution of eye position to movement perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Panichi, R; Bambagioni, D; Grassi, S; Botti, F M

    2004-05-01

    To investigate the influence of gaze eccentricity on movement perception during asymmetric vestibular stimulation. Subjects (n = 10) were placed on a rotating platform and oscillated asymmetrically in the dark. Subjects were asked to reproduce with a pointer the location in space of a light spot that was turned off at the beginning of the oscillation. The target was presented in centric and eccentric (0 degrees, 20 degrees and 40 degrees) positions. In the centric position a large shift from the real position of the target was observed in the opposite direction to that of the faster vestibular stimulation. The shift increased when the target was placed eccentrically toward the slower vestibular stimulation side and decreased when it was placed in the opposite direction. The dependence of rotation perception on the target position suggests that the eye deviation, imposed by the eccentricity of the target, is able to influence the perception of body movement and may modulate the internal reference frame.

  10. The New York State Public School Superintendency: The Effects of Personal, Career and District Factors on Perceptions of Job Satisfaction for Women in Superintendent Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camasso, Eileen L.

    2010-01-01

    Women have entered the New York State public school district superintendency in increasing numbers over the past two decades. Traditionally a male dominated field, these women have successfully addressed various personal, career and district factors to obtain these positions. In this study, 121 actively employed women superintendents were surveyed…

  11. Public perceptions of animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling; Vincentsen, Ulla; Andersen, Ida-Elisabeth

    What was from the outset meant to be a survey testing predefined categories of ethical positions related to new biotechnologies with animal cloning as an example was subsequently developed into a process of broader involvement of groups of citizens in the issue. The survey was conducted at meetings...... in four different cities in Denmark. The participants were introduced to animal cloning and after that they filled out the questionnaire. Finally, the issue was discussed in focus groups. The process as a whole was run in a dialogue oriented way. Through the information they received in combination...... with reflecting on the survey questions the participants were well prepared for discussions in the focus groups. This approach made it possible, on the one hand to get a measure of the citizen's perceptions of the ethical aspects of animal cloning, but also to go deeper into their own thoughts of the issue...

  12. Public Perceptions of Arctic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, L.

    2014-12-01

    What does the general US public know, or think they know, about Arctic change? Two broad nationwide surveys in 2006 and 2010 addressed this topic in general terms, before and after the International Polar Year (IPY). Since then a series of representative national or statewide surveys have carried this research farther. The new surveys employ specific questions that assess public knowledge of basic Arctic facts, along with perceptions about the possible consequences of future Arctic change. Majorities know that late-summer Arctic sea ice area has declined compared with 30 years ago, although substantial minorities -- lately increasing -- believe instead that it has now recovered to historical levels. Majorities also believe that, if the Arctic warms in the future, this will have major effects on the weather where they live. Their expectation of local impacts from far-away changes suggests a degree of global thinking. On the other hand, most respondents do poorly when asked whether melting Arctic sea ice, melting Greenland/Antarctic land ice, or melting Himalayan glaciers could have more effect on sea level. Only 30% knew or guessed the right answer to this question. Similarly, only 33% answered correctly on a simple geography quiz: whether the North Pole could best be described as ice a few feet or yards thick floating over a deep ocean, ice more than a mile thick over land, or a rocky, mountainous landscape. Close analysis of response patterns suggests that people often construct Arctic "knowledge" on items such as sea ice increase/decrease from their more general ideology or worldview, such as their belief (or doubt) that anthropogenic climate change is real. When ideology or worldviews provide no guidance, as on the North Pole or sealevel questions, the proportion of accurate answers is no better than chance. These results show at least casual public awareness and interest in Arctic change, unfortunately not well grounded in knowledge. Knowledge problems seen on

  13. Promoting a Positive Image: Public Relations Strategies for Special Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Kathleen B.; Miller, April D.; Brennan, J. Patrick, II

    2000-01-01

    A positive public relations campaign specific to special education can stimulate teacher cooperation and principal support, improve community perceptions of special education students, and increase hiring of special education students by local businesses. A monthly calendar of suggested activities and guidelines for starting a public relations…

  14. Public's perception and judgment on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Jong Seok; Lee, Byung Wook

    2000-01-01

    A public's perception and judgment model on nuclear power is developed to reveal the structure of public acceptance toward nuclear power in Korea. This is somewhat a verification of an earlier study by the author using two independent sets of survey data. A perception model makes it possible to construct two major exploratory variables, perceived risk and perceived benefit. The difference of perception is analyzed for different groups such as gender, education difference, and different information channels. A judgment model helps identify influential factors that improve the acceptance of nuclear energy. Estimates of model parameters from independent data sets were not significantly different, which implies the validity of the model. Methodologies of this study can be used as the basis for investigating the structure of public perception of technological risks and benefits, designing a public information and risk communication program, and developing remedial policy actions to improve public acceptance

  15. PAGs - Public perception and acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quillin, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: While Protective Action Guides or PAGs have been a part of the lexicon of the radiation protection field for several decades, the concept of accepting higher levels of risk under certain situations has not received adequate scrutiny by the general public, the media or elected officials. Consequently there is a question as to how implementation of PAGs would be perceived by the above groups in the event that such implementation became necessary. A personal case in point involves the response of an executive in the food industry. When the concept of selling a food product meeting the PAGs was explained his response was, 'we won't sell a contaminated product, we would dump the unprocessed raw food. Our industry image is that of a natural unadulterated food'. While this may be an isolated view, there is a need to determine what is the perception and consequently what would be the response if PAGs were implemented today. If the response was negative by anyone of the three groups listed previously, then there is an obvious need for a program to assure receptiveness by those concerned. However, this may face formidable obstacles. This is because the terms radiation and radioactive have gained generally negative word associations, e.g. 'deadly' radiation and radioactive 'desert'. The former term was recently heard in a taped presentation at a Museum of Natural History on a completely unrelated subject. The latter term was part of a recent article heading in the Wall Street Journal. Incidentally the article was discussing television. Thus beyond the scientific issues of setting PAGs and the administrative and procedural issues of implementing PAGs there is the issue of society's understanding and acceptance of PAGs. Particularly, how can such understanding and acceptance be achieved in a situation which is associated with an actual or perceived radiation emergency? These are not questions that radiation or agricultural scientists can answer alone. These are

  16. Perceptions of Public Relations Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacks, Don W.; Botan, Carl; Turk, Judy VanSlyke

    1999-01-01

    Surveys 258 public-relations educators and practitioners, finding they agree that public-relations education is on track; that systematic assessment is an important feature of public-relations education; and that they agreed on how public-relations education should be structured, and demonstrated a high degree of similarity in their preferences…

  17. Public perceptions of animal experimentation across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Roten, Fabienne Crettaz

    2013-08-01

    The goal of this article is to map out public perceptions of animal experimentation in 28 European countries. Postulating cross-cultural differences, this study mixes country-level variables (from the Eurostat database) and individual-level variables (from Eurobarometer Science and Technology 2010). It is shown that experimentation on animals such as mice is generally accepted in European countries, but perceptions are divided on dogs and monkeys. Between 2005 and 2010, we observe globally a change of approval on dogs and monkeys, with a significant decrease in nine countries. Multilevel analysis results show differences at country level (related to a post-industrialism model) and at individual level (related to gender, age, education, proximity and perceptions of science and the environment). These results may have consequences for public perceptions of science and we call for more cross-cultural research on press coverage of animal research and on the level of public engagement of scientists doing animal research.

  18. Risk Perception and the Public Acceptance of Drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, Reece A; Greer, Dominique A; Greer, Duncan G; Mehta, Amisha M

    2015-06-01

    Unmanned aircraft, or drones, are a rapidly emerging sector of the aviation industry. There has been limited substantive research, however, into the public perception and acceptance of drones. This article presents the results from two surveys of the Australian public designed to investigate (1) whether the public perceive drones to be riskier than existing manned aviation, (2) whether the terminology used to describe the technology influences public perception, and (3) what the broader concerns are that may influence public acceptance of the technology. We find that the Australian public currently hold a relatively neutral attitude toward drones. Respondents did not consider the technology to be overly unsafe, risky, beneficial, or threatening. Drones are largely viewed as being of comparable risk to that of existing manned aviation. Furthermore, terminology had a minimal effect on the perception of the risks or acceptability of the technology. The neutral response is likely due to a lack of knowledge about the technology, which was also identified as the most prevalent public concern as opposed to the risks associated with its use. Privacy, military use, and misuse (e.g., terrorism) were also significant public concerns. The results suggest that society is yet to form an opinion of drones. As public knowledge increases, the current position is likely to change. Industry communication and media coverage will likely influence the ultimate position adopted by the public, which can be difficult to change once established. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Public Perceptions of Human Trafficking in Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Robinson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is a widely studied phenomenon. Comparing public perceptions of trafficking to institutional (i.e. the academy, governmental and non-governmental organizations perceptions gives a richer understanding of the problem. The data for this study were collected in and around Chisinau, Moldova in the summer of 2004. Public discourse provides a more intimate "portraiture" of the issue, but the public also demonstrated a complex level of understanding of this social problem in this study. Its view is juxtaposed against an institutional view of human trafficking as explored through a literature review. Combining institutional and public perceptions and knowledge of a social problem is helpful in not only establishing a more thorough understanding of the social problem and guiding policy decisions, but in exploring the experiences victims may face at the community level.

  20. Public perception: Distrust for fracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaghten, Philip

    2017-04-01

    Oil and gas extraction via hydraulic fracturing is controversial, with government support but mixed public opinion. Deliberative research shows that securing public support may be difficult because citizens in the United States and United Kingdom are sceptical of government and industry motives.

  1. The risk perception and public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudens, H. de

    2004-01-01

    The problems in the field of risk to inform the public are the difference in the risk perception by the public, between the risk realities and the image the public makes in himself, the confidence of the public towards those that give information, the readability ( and then understanding) of the information, the easiness for the public to forget the information. Solutions can be summarized by the same way: durability of information actions, information elaborated by safety authority, inhabitants associations, risk generator, elected members, supports of information clear and understandable. (N.C.)

  2. Public perception of analytical risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, D.A.; McCormack, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    Most analytical assessments of potential impacts on the environment from US Department of Energy (DOE) activities receive, at some point in their development, public scrutiny. The objective of this paper is to discuss the apparent perception of these assessments held by the public reviewers, based on written and verbal comments that they have offered. The discussion begins with a short overview of the analytical assessment process most often used on DOE projects. The process is described in terms of the basic process elements and data sources involved. Based on this outline of the assessment process, the key elements from the public's perspective are identified and examined on the basis of Importance Criteria and the Perception Framework in which the Importance Criteria appear to be applied. The paper is concluded with an analysis of the key elements of the public's perception. This section of the discussion is formatted to couple observational evidence of public perception difficulties with key assessment elements, and these difficulties with potential alternative approaches that serve the same purpose but are more acceptable to the public

  3. Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Marsalis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected

  4. Public perception of mental health in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hasoon Saad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.

  5. Perception towards Public Amenities in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rozmi Ismail; Mohammad Hesam Hafezi; Rahim Mohd Nor

    2013-01-01

    The environment where a person lives has a significant impact on his or her development. The objective of the study is to determine the person's perception and satisfaction towards safety and public amenity nearby. Purposive sampling method was utilized to collect data in Selangor and Kelang Vally, Malaysia. Data were collected through interview using a set of questionnaire and analyzed using the SPSS program. The results of the study showed that in terms of public amenities and physical surr...

  6. Changing public perceptions of genetically modified foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    Previous research concerning public perception of GM foods indicates that European consumers hold firm negative attitudes to GM foods. These attitudes, however, are not based on risk-benefit evaluations of particular products. Rather, they seem to be a function of general sociopolitical attitudes...

  7. Principals' Perceptions of School Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robert C.; Chan, Tak Cheung; Patterson, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate school principals' perceptions on school public relations in five areas: community demographics, parental involvement, internal and external communications, school council issues, and community resources. Findings indicated that principals' concerns were as follows: rapid population growth, change of…

  8. EDITORIAL PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF THE HEALTH PROFESSION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DSB

    and comedians, there is a lot of serious introspection by health professionals and where possible remedial corrective measures are ... The public perception of health professionals is heavily influenced by greatly skewed media reporting. ... because of the resulting intense itch and could hardly sleep at night. The tourist ...

  9. Public perception of environmental quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech Cantuaria, Manuella

    outcomes. The quality of the environment and its impacts on communities’ health consist in a growing source of public and government concern and therefore, are being widely investigated in epidemiological studies. These studies are usually designed so that potential errors are minimized and high...... of the cases, investigating the impacts that these issues may have on health effect estimates and the interpretation of epidemiological results. For this purpose, the thesis is based on two distinct case studies: the first one refers to non-urban communities of Denmark living nearby agricultural and livestock...... farming activities; while the second case study analyzes urban populations living in the capital city of Switzerland, being constantly exposed to noise and air pollution from traffic sources. The following methodological issues are hereby confronted throughout the thesis: 1) misclassification...

  10. Risk perception: expert opinion versus public understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Jennifer

    1987-01-01

    A research project looking at the public's attitudes towards the siting of radioactive waste depositories is reported. The risk perception studies seek to compare expert and lay understanding of risk. Adverse public reactions to risk can only be understood if it is known how people relate to risks in their everyday or working lives. Social trends and experiences are important, for example, the adverse public opinion on the siting of nuclear waste facilities. A number of elements have been identified as common to different risk areas such as chemicals, drugs, food or radioactive waste. These are the clashing of values, polarization of beliefs or clashes of interest. (UK)

  11. Effect of science communication with the public on inference of risk perception of science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosugi, Motoko

    2006-01-01

    Our previous study showed a big difference between expert's own risk perception and experts' inference of the public risk perception about technologies. So, this study tried to clarify the effect of the perceived distance in risk perception between the public and experts themselves on forwardness in science communication to the public. The questionnaire survey results reaffirmed that experts were inclined to feel larger difference in risk perception between the public and themselves on the subject of their own specialty than of non-specialty. The result also suggested the tendency that the bigger experts recognized difference in risk perception from the public, the less they actually had experiences of science communication including communication with the public. Moreover, the result showed that experiences of science communication had positive effects on belief of the public's scientific literacy. (author)

  12. Public perceptions of behavioral and substance addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Brent; Rosenberg, Harold

    2017-02-01

    Most of the research on public perceptions of people with addictive disorders has focused on alcohol and illicit drugs, rather than addiction to behavioral activities. To expand the range of addictive behaviors and types of perceptions studied, we designed the present study to assess the lay public's definitions of and willingness to affiliate with people described as addicted to 1 of 2 specific behaviors (i.e., pornography or gambling) or 1 of 3 specific substances (i.e., alcohol, marijuana, or heroin). A nationwide convenience sample (N = 612) of American adults completed online questionnaires during the summer of 2015. Participants rated heroin as more addictive than the other drugs and behaviors and, despite differences among the conditions, were generally unwilling to affiliate with an individual addicted to any of the 2 behaviors or 3 substances. When asked to rate different potential indications of addiction, participants endorsed behavioral signs of impaired control and physiological and psychological dependence as more indicative of all 5 types of addiction than desire to use the substance or engage in the addictive behavior. Despite recent efforts to increase public knowledge about addictive disorders, members of the public continue to endorse some attitudes indicative of stigmatization toward people with selected substance and behavioral addictions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Public perceptions of risk to forest biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Bonita L

    2005-06-01

    This study examines the perceived risks to forest biodiversity and perceived effectiveness of biodiversity conservation strategies among the general public. It tests the hypotheses that perceived risk to forest biodiversity is influenced by cognitive factors (value orientation and knowledge) and social-cultural factors (such as gender and environmental membership) and that risk perceptions influence other cognitive constructs such as support for natural resource policy and management. Data were collected from a sample of the general public (n= 596) in British Columbia, Canada by mail survey in 2001. Results show that insects and disease were perceived as the greatest risk. Educating the public and industry about biodiversity issues was perceived as a more effective conservation strategy than restricting human uses of the forest. Value orientation was a better predictor of perceptions of risk and perceived effectiveness of conservation strategies than knowledge indicators or social-cultural variables. Examining the indirect effects of social-cultural variables, however, revealed that value orientation may amplify the effect of these variables and suggests that alternative paths of influence should be included. Perceived risk showed an inconsistent association with perceived effectiveness of conservation strategies.

  14. Adult Perceptions of Positive and Negative Infant Emotional Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzani Dinehart, Laura H.; Messinger, Daniel S.; Acosta, Susan I.; Cassel, Tricia; Ambadar, Zara; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Adults' perceptions provide information about the emotional meaning of infant facial expressions. This study asks whether similar facial movements influence adult perceptions of emotional intensity in both infant positive (smile) and negative (cry face) facial expressions. Ninety-five college students rated a series of naturally occurring and…

  15. Social perception and public information in the nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltra, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The investigation in perception of the risk, the studies on perception of the nuclear risk in Spain and Public Information and the social acceptance of nuclear energy in Spain are discussed in this paper

  16. Public perceptions of energy system risks: some policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.; Otway, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; perceptions, beliefs and attitudes; the survey of public perceptions and attitudes towards energy systems; attitudes towards the five energy systems (nuclear, coal, oil, solar and hydro); perceptions of energy systems - the underlying dimensions of belief (economic benefits; environmental risk; psychological and physical risk; indirect risk; technology development); differential analysis of the perceptions of those pro and con nuclear energy; summary of perceptions of energy systems - relevance to the Austrian dilemma; policy implications. (U.K.)

  17. Contact high: Mania proneness and positive perception of emotional touches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piff, Paul K; Purcell, Amanda; Gruber, June; Hertenstein, Matthew J; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-01-01

    How do extreme degrees of positive emotion-such as those characteristic of mania-influence emotion perception? The present study investigated how mania proneness, assessed using the Hypomanic Personality Scale, influences the perception of emotion via touch. Using a validated dyadic interaction paradigm for communicating emotion through touch (Hertenstein, Keltner, App, Bulleit, & Jaskolka, 2006), participants (N=53) received eight different touches to their forearm from a stranger and then identified the emotion via forced-choice methodology. Mania proneness predicted increased overall accuracy in touch perception, particularly for positive emotion touches, as well as the over-attribution of positive and under-attribution of negative emotions across all touches. These findings highlight the effects of positive emotion extremes on the perception of emotion in social interactions.

  18. Public attitudes toward nuclear generating facilities: positive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krannich, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    Public opposition and intervention in the siting and development of nuclear power plants has become more of a limiting factor than technological issues. Attitude surveys indicate that, while the majority of Americans support nuclear power, the utilities would do well to respond to the concerns and opinions of local residents when projects are in the planning stages. Recent polls are analyzed to identify the demographic and perceptive factors of opposition. Demographic studies indicate that the greatest opposition comes from women, young people, urban residents, farmers, low-income groups, and the unemployed. Perceptual opposition is associated with anticipated negative impacts in the form of hazards and social disruption. Since there appears to be a correlation between access to pertinent information and level of support, utility planners could develop educational programs to provide this information on the advantages of nuclear power. 10 references

  19. Radiation risk perception and public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggs-Mayes, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    We as Health Physicists face what, at many times, appears to be a hopeless task. The task simply stated is informing the public about the risks (or lack thereof) of radiation. Unfortunately, the public has perceived radiation risks to be much greater than they actually are. An example of this problem is shown in a paper by Arthur C. Upton. Three groups of people -- the League of Women Voters, students, and Business and Professional Club members -- were asked to rank 30 sources of risk according to their contribution to the number of deaths in the United States. Not surprisingly, they ranked nuclear power much higher and medical x-rays much lower than the actual values. In addition to the perception problem, we are faced with another hurdle: health physicists as communicators. Members of the Health Physics Society (HPS) found that the communication styles of most health physicists appear to be dissimilar to those of the general public. These authors administered the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to the HPS Baltimore-Washington Chapter. This test, a standardized test for psychological type developed by Isabel Myers, ask questions that provide a quantitative measure of our natural preferences in four areas. Assume that you as a health physicist have the necessary skills to communicate information about radiation to the public. Health physicists do nothing with these tools. Most people involved in radiation protection do not get involved with public information activies. What I will attempt to do is heighten your interest in such activities. I will share information about public information activities in which I have been involved and give you suggestions for sources of information and materials. 2 refs., 1 tab

  20. Risk Assessment, Transparency and Public Perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treichel, Judy

    2003-01-01

    To examine the US. public perception of risk now, in mid-2003, is a matter of capturing a snap shot at a particular moment of a specific circumstance. Over the past two years, Americans have gone from what they considered to be a fast-paced, high-stress, rapidly-changing, but fumiliar lifestyle and culture, to an uncertain existence that starts and stops with 'breaking news'. For people who previously felt confident about their understanding of what is or is not likely to happen, is or is not dangerous, and is or is not acceptable, there is now doubt. Studies of human behavior in judgement and decision making point out the importance of 'affect'. People's first reactions are based on good or bad experiences or images and not a rational weighing of pros and cons. The study results imply that people base their judgments of an activity or a technology not only on what they think about it but also on what they feel about it. It is unreasonable to expect that the public will accept decisions made for them regarding nuclear waste disposal and transport considering the negative images associated with radiation combined with the threat of possible terrorism. The federal government does face, as one of its most important tasks, protecting the health, safety and security of its people. it is also necessary for the government to consider the issue of nuclear waste disposal, but combining the two and using national security to defend nuclear waste policies is publically unacceptable. In a democracy, methods of how to best protect the people should be a matter of public debate and should be implemented only after public approval. One sure path to the erosion of democracy is govemmental decision making without the consent of the peopie, in the name of a (albeit honorable) principle. When government defends its own ideology and implements its own conception of what is best for the nation, democracy is lost

  1. Public knowledge and perceptions of black-tailed prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, B.L.; Cline, K.

    2003-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) historically occupied an 11-state region of the United States. We surveyed 1,900 residents (response rate 56%) of this region to understand citizen knowledge and perceptions about prairie dogs and their management. Those who have direct experience - e.g., those who live very close to prairie dog colonies or know the location of the nearest colony - have higher levels of knowledge. A significantly higher level of knowledge was documented among those who were politically active when compared with the general public. Those who found environmental issues difficult to understand were associated with lower knowledge. People with direct experience were likely to hold negative views, whereas those holding environmentalist values were likely to express positive attitudes toward the species. Although those with higher education reported more knowledge, there was no link between a person's level of knowledge and perceptions of prairie dog management.

  2. Public perceptions about nanotechnology: Risks, benefits and trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, Michael D.; Macoubrie, Jane

    2004-01-01

    We report data from the first representative national phone survey of Americans' perceptions about nanotechnology (N =1536). Public opinion about nanotechnology is in its infancy, and knowledge about it is quite limited. Yet, Americans' initial reaction to nanotechnology is thus far generally positive, probably rooted in a generally positive view of science overall. Survey respondents expected benefits of nanotechnology to be more prevalent than risks, and they reported feeling hopeful about nanotechnology rather than worried. Their most preferred potential benefit of nanotechnology is 'new and better ways to detect and treat human diseases,' and they identified 'losing personal privacy to tiny new surveillance devices' as the most important potential risk to avoid. The most discouraging aspect to the data is respondents' lack of trust in business leaders to minimize nanotechnology risks to human health. Overall, these data indicate that while Americans do not necessarily presume benefits and the absence of risks, their outlook is much more positive than not

  3. A report on the public perception of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    Noting that the public's perception of risk is real whether or not it is based on what experts call scientific fact, the report examines physchological, socio-economic, informational, and cultural factors affecting risk perception. In the case of nuclear energy it is concluded that the public has little knowledge of the many measures taken to control risks

  4. Public school teachers’ perceptions about mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gonçalves Simões Soares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6% showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools.

  5. Issues related to public perception of radioactive waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Public perceptions about radioactive waste are generally rather or even strongly negative. They are also very poorly informed. This is rather unfortunate as it is these perceptions that appear to greatly influence the Public views on nuclear energy in general. This, in turn, has had an influence on political decisions. On the other hand, in a very clear majority of the Member States of the European Union, the Public have already indicated that they would be ready to accept the important role of nuclear in their future energy mix as long as all the radioactive wastes can be safely managed. However perceptions about nuclear energy and radioactive waste should be seen in the context of the Public wider perceptions on energy and, in particular, the role in the future of different sources. It may be wrong for political decisions on nuclear energy in the future to rely to heavily on the Public perceptions. (author)

  6. Positive and Negative Perceptions of Bumiputra And Non-Bumiputra Students on Professional Qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd. Rashid Noor Asidah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bumiputra and non-Bumiputra students may come from various economic backgrounds and culture. This may influence their perception on their career choice of pursuing a professional accounting qualification. Thus, this study investigates the difference in positive and negative perceptions of Bumiputra and non-Bumiputra students on pursuing a professional qualification upon graduation. A questionnaire survey method was used to collect the data from final year accounting students from five public and three private universities in Malaysia. Means and independent sample t-tests results were analysed. Results indicated that there are only a few significant differences between Bumiputra and non-Bumiputra students on positive and negative perceptions on becoming professional accountants. As perception frames action, these findings would be useful to the Malaysian Institute of Accountants as well as professional bodies to attract both Bumiputra and non-Bumiputra graduates to become professional accountants.

  7. Public Perception of Bio fuels; Percepcion Publica de los Biocombustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C.; Priolo, V.

    2011-11-10

    The deployment of bio fuels has generated a significant controversy in the energy, agricultural and environmental fields. Governments and promoters around the world have advocated for developing bio fuels based on their potential contribution to emissions reduction and energy security. But opposition to bio fuels has growth in the last years. Environmental NGO's and other stake holders have called for a review of the environmental and social sustainability of energy crops. This controversy has characterized the public debate around bio fuels. In this context, and given the need to improve public involvement in energy technologies, this article reports an investigation of Spanish citizens' perceptions about bio fuels. The study investigated the perceptions of informed citizens and the reasoning basis underlying beliefs and attitudes. The study finds an initial positive association of bio fuels to a clean and natural fuel that is mitigated by participants' concerns on the practical usage of bio fuels and the social and environmental impacts. Study participants' reactions show the need to differentiate among the diverse groups of publics holding differing views and a different reaction to information on the benefits and costs of bio fuels. (Author) 9 refs.

  8. Public Perception of Bio fuels; Percepcion Publica de los Biocombustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C; Priolo, V

    2011-11-10

    The deployment of bio fuels has generated a significant controversy in the energy, agricultural and environmental fields. Governments and promoters around the world have advocated for developing bio fuels based on their potential contribution to emissions reduction and energy security. But opposition to bio fuels has growth in the last years. Environmental NGO's and other stake holders have called for a review of the environmental and social sustainability of energy crops. This controversy has characterized the public debate around bio fuels. In this context, and given the need to improve public involvement in energy technologies, this article reports an investigation of Spanish citizens' perceptions about bio fuels. The study investigated the perceptions of informed citizens and the reasoning basis underlying beliefs and attitudes. The study finds an initial positive association of bio fuels to a clean and natural fuel that is mitigated by participants' concerns on the practical usage of bio fuels and the social and environmental impacts. Study participants' reactions show the need to differentiate among the diverse groups of publics holding differing views and a different reaction to information on the benefits and costs of bio fuels. (Author) 9 refs.

  9. Measuring and improving the public perceptions on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to measure the public's perception on risk and benefit of nuclear power and to find ways to improve the perceptions. Latent Class Analysis is adopted for the perception measures, which quantify people's perception and reveal the perception structure. The measures resulted from Latent Class Analysis show that women perceive risks to be more existent and benefits to be less than men do. Moreover there is a tendency that if education level is high, perceived risk is low and perceived benefit is high. The perception of risk and benefit also depends on different channels through which people get information about nuclear energy. Comparing seven different information channels, the most effective ways of communicating with people to improve the risk and benefit perception of nuclear energy are found to be the visit to nuclear plants and the education through the regular schooling. Information dissemination through mass media is only effective to the benefit perception

  10. Longevity increased by positive self-perceptions of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Becca R; Slade, Martin D; Kunkel, Suzanne R; Kasl, Stanislav V

    2002-08-01

    This research found that older individuals with more positive self-perceptions of aging, measured up to 23 years earlier, lived 7.5 years longer than those with less positive self-perceptions of aging. This advantage remained after age, gender, socioeconomic status, loneliness, and functional health were included as covariates. It was also found that this effect is partially mediated by will to live. The sample consisted of 660 individuals aged 50 and older who participated in a community-based survey, the Ohio Longitudinal Study of Aging and Retirement (OLSAR). By matching the OLSAR to mortality data recently obtained from the National Death Index, the authors were able to conduct survival analyses. The findings suggest that the self-perceptions of stigmatized groups can influence longevity.

  11. Public perception of Tourette syndrome on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fat, Mary Jane Lim; Sell, Erick; Barrowman, Nick; Doja, Asif

    2012-08-01

    We sought to determine public perception surrounding Tourette syndrome through viewers' responses to videos on YouTube. The top 20 videos on YouTube for search terms Tourette's, Tourette's syndrome, Tourette syndrome and tics were selected. The portrayal of Tourette syndrome was assessed as positive, negative, or neutral. Top 10 comments for each video were graded as "sympathetic," "neutral," or "derogatory." A total of 14 970 hits were obtained and 41 videos were retained, with an average of 590 113 views (1369 to 13 747 069) and 1761 comments (0 to 35 241). Twenty-two percent of videos retained portrayed Tourette syndrome negatively, 20% were neutral and 59% positive. Negative portrayals were significantly associated with more views (Spearman correlation rho = -.46, P =.003) and comments (Spearman correlation rho = -.47, P = .002). Although excellent examples of Tourette syndrome are available on YouTube, the popularity of negative portrayals may reinforce existing stigma in society.

  12. Market Positioning of Public and Private Universities:Students Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Kahar ADAM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on universities strategies for admitting students and the rate at which private sector universities expand in today’s higher educational setups. This paper answers the following question: to what extend are the public universities different from the private universities? In an attempt to find the answers, the whole study is developedtowards students’ perception of the universities positioning in terms of what they are offering to the customers, through what they prompt people to apply for admission? Therefore, thispaper looks at the prevailing admission strategies and potential students’ entry requirements at both public and private universities to determine the theoretical systems that are used by these universities in competition for customers (students. A quantitative survey of students in both public and private universities in Ghana was undergone In all, a total number of 255 questionnaires were printed. Only 187 were answered and returned out of 200 distributed questionnaires to the public sector universities whereas 55 questionnaires were distributed to the private sector students and 51 were answered and returned. This research was based on sampling data collection methods. The findings show that there are three categories of universities such as Publicly/Fully Independent Chartered Universities, Privately Owned Universities and Personal/Sole Proprietorship University Colleges. All these affect students’ choices for admission application. The findings clearly indicate that both public and private universitiespurposes are related using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient formulae to that of the sole proprietorship colleges. Also, the admission requirement strategies differ between public and private universities.

  13. Evolving Public Perceptions of Spaceflight in American Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launius, R. D.

    2002-01-01

    There is a belief that exists in the United States about public support for NASA's activities. The belief is almost universally held that NASA enjoyed outstanding public support and confidence in the 1960s during the era of Apollo and that public support waned in the post-Apollo era, only to sink to quite low depths in the decade of the 1990s. These beliefs are predicated on anecdotal evidence that should not be discounted, but empirical evidence gleaned from public opinion polling data suggest that some of these conceptions are totally incorrect and others either incomplete or more nuanced than previously believed. This paper presents an analysis of public opinion polling data in the United States from throughout the history of the space age. Analyzing these polls allows the plotting of trends over a long period of time. This study reveals several interesting insights about the evolution of spaceflight. For example, most people believe that Project Apollo was enormously popular, but the polls do not support this contention. Consistently throughout the 1960s a majority of Americans did not believe Apollo was worth the cost, with the one exception to this being a poll taken at the time of the Apollo 11 lunar landing in July 1969. And consistently throughout the decade 45-60 percent of Americans believed that the government was spending too much on space. Clearly, this data does not support a contention that most people approved of Apollo and thought it important to explore space. The decision to proceed with Apollo was not made because it was enormously popular with the public, despite general acquiescence, but for hard-edged political reasons. There are many other observations emerging from this review. Some of them are contradictory to the general findings discussed above about support for Apollo. They include the following: - The American public has long held generally positive attitudes toward the space program, but is not - Over the history of the space age, an

  14. Risk perception in the public: Results of a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, S.; Brenot, J.

    1989-01-01

    At first, some approaches used to study risk perception are briefly reviewed. Then, results of a survey devoted to general public risk perception, are presented. Risky activities are ranked. Clusters of activities which are judged similar for danger, are given. The relations between perception of danger, trust in the safety organization and the characteristics of the interviewed people are emphasized. The nuclear and chemical sectors are shortly compared. (author)

  15. Public perceptions of dental implants: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Gao, Xiaoli; Lo, Edward C M

    2015-07-01

    Dental implants have become a popular option for treating partially dentate or edentulous patients. Information on dental implants is widely available in the public domain and is disseminated through industries and dental practitioners at various levels/disciplines. This qualitative study aimed to evaluate the public's information acquisition and their perceptions of dental implants and the effects of these on their care-seeking and decision making. A purposive sample of 28 adults were recruited to join six focus groups. To be eligible, one must be 35-64 years of age, had never been engaged in dentally related jobs, had at least one missing tooth, and had heard about dental implant but never received dental implant or entered into any dental consultation regarding dental implants. All of the focus groups discussions were transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic content analysis following a grounded theory approach. Participants acquired information on dental implants through various means, such as patient information boards, printed advertisements, social media, and personal connections. They expected dental implants to restore the patients' appearance, functions, and quality of life to absolute normality. They regarded dental implants as a panacea for all cases of missing teeth, overestimated their functions and longevity, and underestimated the expertise needed to carry out the clinical procedures. They were deterred from seeking dental implant treatment by the high price, invasive procedures, risks, and complications. Members of the public were exposed to information of varying quality and had some unrealistic expectations regarding dental implants. Such perceptions may shape their care-seeking behaviours and decision-making processes in one way or another. The views and experiences gathered in this qualitative study could assist clinicians to better understand the public's perspectives, facilitate constructive patient-dentist communication, and contribute

  16. Public perception of cancer care in Poland and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jȩdrzejewski, Mariusz; Thallinger, Christiane; Mrozik, Magda; Kornek, Gabriela; Zielinski, Christoph; Jassem, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    We compared the public perception of cancer care in Poland and Austria. Both countries are members of the European Union (EU) but reflect two extremes in health-related per capita spending. Recently, the EUROCARE-5 study reported on very discrepant cancer outcomes between the two countries. A one-time survey was conducted to compare the public perception of cancer treatment in Poland and Austria. In total, 3,649 subjects, representing the general population, cancer patients, and cancer patients' family members, were surveyed. In both countries, cancer was considered the most challenging problem of the health care system, and health care was indicated as the most important issue influencing political election decisions. Polish compared with Austrian cancer patients gave a significantly lower positive assessment of overall cancer treatment efficacy and detection methods. Cancer cure rates estimated by Polish and Austrian citizens were 29% and 44%, respectively. The majority of all citizens interviewed thought that cancer patients should have access to all available registered cancer drugs. However, only 18% of Poles versus 62% of Austrians agreed with the notion that the available cancer treatment in their countries is of a standard comparable to that of other EU countries. Consequently, 24% of Poles and 7% of Austrians identified financial status, age, gender, and residence as factors influencing the availability of cancer treatments. In both countries, cancer is considered the most challenging problem of the health care system, and health care issues may strongly influence decisions for political elections. Vast differences in the two populations' perceptions of cancer care reflect actual cancer outcomes and the national per capita spending on health-related issues. ©AlphaMed Press.

  17. Water security in South Africa: perceptions on public expectations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water security in South Africa: perceptions on public expectations and municipal ... will in government, a need to restore citizen trust in government intention and capability ... services, and a failure to up-scale existing water re-use technology.

  18. Public Perception of Environmental Pollution in Warri, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the public perception on the environmental pollution profile in Warri ... that water pollution leads to loss of aquatic lives and reduction of potable water. ... The study therefore suggested among others that government should ...

  19. Public Perception of Cadaver Organ Donation in Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A J; Xie, W Z; Luo, J J; Ouyang, W

    2016-10-01

    Our aim was to (1) survey public' perception and attitudes toward organ donation and (2) analyze the relationship between knowledge, attitudes, and willingness to donate. We developed a questionnaire, and conducted the survey with stratified random sampling. Overall, 600 residents, aged ≥18 who resided in Hunan, and 600 undergraduates from 3 universities in Hunan were surveyed randomly. For this study, 1085 valid questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 90.4%. Of the 1085 participants, 581 (53.5%) were students, 504 (46.5%) were residents, and 519 (47.8%) were male and 566 (52.2%) female. The mean accuracy rate was 71.96%, and the students' mean accuracy rate was slightly higher than that of the resident population (73.06% vs 70.68%, respectively). The results showed that 82.2% of public support organ donation, and 53.5% were willing to donate their organs after death. Students scored higher than the residents (88% vs 75.6% and 55.6% vs 51.2%). Nearly 1.8% felt that organ donation was against their religion, 14.9% thought it was important to ensure the integrity of the body, 71.7% agreed that organ donation allowed a positive outcome after a person's death, and 61.5% agreed that organ donation represented a continuation of life, to help families cope with grief. Age and gender were related to attitudes. Public knowledge of organ donation and their attitudes were correlated positively (r = 0.666). Public knowledge of organ donation is poor, biased, and incomplete, and based on television, movies, and communication networks. Positive attitudes toward donation displayed in the surveys were not matched by actual organ donation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Positive Freedom of the Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind

    2015-01-01

    calls for new reflections on the possible relationship between media, public sphere and democracy. This paper argues that we should change the questions that are raised when we try to assess the public sphere. It is argued that the traditional (Enlightenment) focus upon negative liberties and the truth-value......The relationship between democracy and the media since the appearance of Habermas' major texts in the 1960s has been articulated through theories of the public sphere. The structure of the public sphere is significantly influenced by the communicative media, and the emergence of the internet thus...

  1. PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTING ETHICS: A VISUAL ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC PERCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ferreira Leitão Azevedo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The decline in both the number and quality of students choosing accounting programs has been a worldwide source of concern to scholars and practitioners. According to Albrecht and Sack (2000, that decline is a consequence of several factors, such as changes in business environment, decrease in salary levels and development of alternative careers perceived as more attractive by students and lack of information and/or misunderstanding related to accounting careers. For Carnegie and Napier (2010, comprehension of such external images related to accounting careers and accountants is important for assessing the roles of these professionals in a wider social context. The success of the accounting profession, according to Belski et al. (2004, largely depends on how it is viewed by the public, considering that the image of the accounting profession has been damaged in the recent past by the widely publicized accounting frauds, scandals and failures involving accounting firms and accountants. To support a better understanding of this phenomenon, the objective of this study is to identify and analyze whether the accounting profession is negatively stereotyped by public perception according to ethics. Based on an adapted photo-survey, with 1,034 randomly selected respondents, and tests of differences between means, the central hypothesis of this study was rejected: it is not possible to state that accounting professionals are negatively stereotyped for professional ethics. Also, there were no significant differences based on gender, academic background or education levels of the respondents, but on the other hand is possible to confirm a positive perception based on confidence interval analysis. Implications for practice and recommendations for future studies are both presented in the last section.

  2. Radioactive material package test standards and performance requirements - public perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Rawl, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses issues related to the public perception of the regulatory test standards and performance requirements for packaging and transporting radioactive material. Specifically, it addresses the adequacy of the package performance standards and testing for Type B packages, which are those packages designed for transporting the most hazardous quantities and forms of radioactive material. Type B packages are designed to withstand accident conditions in transport. To improve public perception, the public needs to better understand: (a) the regulatory standards and requirements themselves, (b) the extensive history underlying their development, and (c) the soundness of the technical foundation. The public needs to be fully informed on studies, tests, and analyses that have been carried out worldwide and form the basis of the regulatory standards and requirements. This paper provides specific information aimed at improving the public perception of packages test standards

  3. Public health nurse perceptions of Omaha System data visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seonah; Kim, Era; Monsen, Karen A

    2015-10-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide many benefits related to the storage, deployment, and retrieval of large amounts of patient data. However, EHRs have not fully met the need to reuse data for decision making on follow-up care plans. Visualization offers new ways to present health data, especially in EHRs. Well-designed data visualization allows clinicians to communicate information efficiently and effectively, contributing to improved interpretation of clinical data and better patient care monitoring and decision making. Public health nurse (PHN) perceptions of Omaha System data visualization prototypes for use in EHRs have not been evaluated. To visualize PHN-generated Omaha System data and assess PHN perceptions regarding the visual validity, helpfulness, usefulness, and importance of the visualizations, including interactive functionality. Time-oriented visualization for problems and outcomes and Matrix visualization for problems and interventions were developed using PHN-generated Omaha System data to help PHNs consume data and plan care at the point of care. Eleven PHNs evaluated prototype visualizations. Overall PHNs response to visualizations was positive, and feedback for improvement was provided. This study demonstrated the potential for using visualization techniques within EHRs to summarize Omaha System patient data for clinicians. Further research is needed to improve and refine these visualizations and assess the potential to incorporate visualizations within clinical EHRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Public School Uniforms: Effect on Perceptions of Gang Presence, School Climate, and Student Self-Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kathleen Kiley; Stafford, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between public school uniforms and student self-worth and student and staff perceptions of gang presence and school climate. Surveys of middle school students and teachers indicated that although students' perceptions did not vary across uniform policy, teachers from schools with uniform policies perceived lower levels of…

  5. Perceptions of Beginning Public School Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, James E.

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes a study to determine principal's perceptions of their competency in primary responsibility areas and their greatest challenges and frustrations. Beginning principals are challenged by delegating responsibilities and becoming familiar with the principal's role, the local school, and school operations. Their major frustrations are role…

  6. Public Inaccuracy in Meta-perceptions of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swim, J.; Fraser, J.

    2012-12-01

    Public perceptions of climate change and meta-perceptions of the public and climate scientist's perceptions of climate change were assessed to benchmark the National Network for Climate Change Interpretation's impacts. Meta-perceptions are important to examine because they can have implications for willingness to take action to address climate change. For instance, recent research suggests a tendency to misperceive that there is disagreement among climate scientists is predictive of lack of support for climate change policies. Underestimating public concern about climate change could also be problematic: it could lead individuals to withdraw from personal efforts to reduce impact and engage others in discussions about climate change. Presented results will demonstrate that respondents in a national survey underestimated the percent of the public who were very concerned, concerned or cautious about climate change and overestimated the extent others were disengaged, doubted, or non-believers. They underestimated the percent of the public who likely believed that humans caused climate change and overestimate the percent that believed climate change was not happening nor human induced. Finally, they underestimated the percent of the public that believed climate change threatened ocean health. The results also explore sources of misperceptions. First, correlates with TV viewing habits suggest that inaccuracy is a result of too little attention to network news, with one exception: Greater attention to FOX among doubters reduced accuracy. Second, adding to other evidence that basic cognitive heuristics (such as availability heuristic) influence perceptions of climate change, we show that that false consensus effects account for meta-perceptions of the public and climate scientists beliefs. The false consensus effect, in combination with underestimating concern among the public, results in those most concerned about climate change and those who believe it to be human

  7. Public perceptions about nanotechnology: Risks, benefits and trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, Michael D.; Macoubrie, Jane [North Carolina State University, Department of Political Science (United States)

    2004-08-15

    We report data from the first representative national phone survey of Americans' perceptions about nanotechnology (N =1536). Public opinion about nanotechnology is in its infancy, and knowledge about it is quite limited. Yet, Americans' initial reaction to nanotechnology is thus far generally positive, probably rooted in a generally positive view of science overall. Survey respondents expected benefits of nanotechnology to be more prevalent than risks, and they reported feeling hopeful about nanotechnology rather than worried. Their most preferred potential benefit of nanotechnology is 'new and better ways to detect and treat human diseases,' and they identified 'losing personal privacy to tiny new surveillance devices' as the most important potential risk to avoid. The most discouraging aspect to the data is respondents' lack of trust in business leaders to minimize nanotechnology risks to human health. Overall, these data indicate that while Americans do not necessarily presume benefits and the absence of risks, their outlook is much more positive than not.

  8. Public perception process of nuclear power risk and some enlightenment to public education for nuclear power acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper, based on the international research literatures on perception of risks, designs a conceptual model of public perception of nuclear power risk. In this model, it is considered that the public perception of nuclear power risk is a dynamic, complicate and closed system and is a process from subjective perception to objective risk. Based on the features of the public perception of nuclear power risk and multi-faceted dimension influences as discussed, suggestions for the public education for nuclear power acceptance are given in five aspects with indication that the public education for nuclear power acceptance plays an important role in maintaining the public perception of nuclear power risk system. (author)

  9. Radiological social risk perception: something more than experts/ public discrepancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades Lopez, Ana; Gonzalez Reyes, Felisa

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important concerns of the postindustrial societies lies on the specification and quantification of risk, the Risk Assesment. However, the efforts and resources devoted to such goal have not avoided a growing worry about both the environmental conditions and the situations that potentially threaten it, generating an intense social debate about risks. In this framework, discrepancies between experts and public evaluations risks leaded to the study of social Risk perception. Several theoretical scopes have tried to characterize the phenomenon. A worthy conclusion of the empirical studies carried out on this issue is that all of them, experts and public, are influence by some factors which, in turns, affect their risk perception,. Specially striking is the fact that perception of risk among experts is also modulated by qualitative, personal and social factors. Social Risk Perception, through the process of Communication and Social Participation, has been configurated as a critical tool for both risk prevention and management

  10. Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Quail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.

  11. Public Perceptions of GPS Monitoring for Convicted Sex Offenders: Opinions on Effectiveness of Electronic Monitoring to Reduce Sexual Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Kristen M; Mancini, Christina

    2017-09-01

    In the United States, electronic monitoring (EM) and global positioning systems (GPS) are new applications that are used to extensively monitor and track convicted sex offenders. What is unclear though are public perceptions of this strategy. This research examines public perceptions of a national sample of Americans on the use of GPS/EM with convicted sex offenders as a method to reduce their sexual recidivism. Using a multinomial regression model, we analyze the effects of sex offender myths and parental status on public perceptions that sex offender GPS/EM is very effective in reducing sexual recidivism. Findings suggest that public perceptions of effectiveness are partially driven by myths and also that parents are unsure of this strategy. The analysis contributes to the growing body of knowledge on public perceptions of GPS/EM to manage sex offenders in communities. Implications of the study and areas for future research are discussed in light of the findings.

  12. Perception of Women in Top Managerial Positions in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Górska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the pilot study was to fnd out whether the perception of candidates for leadership positions differs along with the gender of the candidate in Poland. Methodology: In order to answer the question, the author has conducted a preliminary experiment on 50 MBA students, which were experienced in recruitment. Two identical CVs were randomly distributed among the participants, with either a male or female version of the CV. Basing on the provided information, respondents were to decide on among others hireability, likeability and offered income to the given candidate. Findings: The experiment revealed that the female candidate for the CEO position was perceived and evaluated differently than the male candidate. Thus, the experiment indicated that gender inequality may already appear at the phase of recruitment for higher positions. Originality: The presented study analyzed perceptions of experienced recruiters, which may suggest that such behaviors and patters may be repeated in a non-laboratory environment. Limitations: A limitation of the pilot study is the low number of participants and therefore further research should be conducted.

  13. Assessment of public perception of radioactive waste management in Korea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trone, Janis R.; Cho, SeongKyung (Myongji University, Korea); Whang, Jooho (Kyung Hee University, Korea); Lee, Moo Yul

    2011-11-01

    The essential characteristics of the issue of radioactive waste management can be conceptualized as complex, with a variety of facets and uncertainty. These characteristics tend to cause people to perceive the issue of radioactive waste management as a 'risk'. This study was initiated in response to a desire to understand the perceptions of risk that the Korean public holds towards radioactive waste and the relevant policies and policy-making processes. The study further attempts to identify the factors influencing risk perceptions and the relationships between risk perception and social acceptance.

  14. Accreditation in a public hospital: perceptions of a multidisciplinary team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camillo, Nadia Raquel Suzini; Oliveira, João Lucas Campos de; Bellucci Junior, José Aparecido; Cervilheri, Andressa Hirata; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Fernandez Lourenço; Matsuda, Laura Misue

    2016-06-01

    to analyze the perceptions of the multidisciplinary team on Accreditation in a public hospital. descriptive, exploratory, qualitative research, performed in May 2014, using recorded individual interviews. In total, 28 employees of a public hospital, Accredited with Excellence, answered the guiding question: "Tell me about the Accreditation system used in this hospital". The interviews were transcribed and subjected to content analysis. of the speeches, three categories emerged: Advantages offered by the Accreditation; Accredited public hospital resembling a private hospital; Pride/satisfaction for acting in an accredited public hospital. participants perceived Accreditation as a favorable system for a quality management in the public service because it promotes the development of professional skills and improves cost management, organizational structure, management of assistance and perception of job pride/satisfaction.

  15. Perceptions of Administrative and Supervisory Support in Public Child Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya M. Westbrook

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the Child Welfare Organizational Culture Inventory (CWOCI in a public child welfare agency, perceptions of administrative and supervisory support held by employees with social work degrees (BSW and MSW were compared to perceptions of administrative and supervisory support held by employees without social work degrees. Child welfare employees with social work degrees reported lower administrative and supervisory support than employees without social work degrees. Implications for social work educators, public child welfare administrators and supervisors, and future research are presented.

  16. Public perception on nuclear safety and communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Nowadays the benefits and advantages of the nuclear application are varied and so many, that it is difficult to imagine the development of medicine, industry and agriculture without using ionizing radiation. The communication of nuclear issues to the public is receiving more and more attention of the regulatory authorities. First, because it is a very interesting topic that the public wishes to learn more. Second, for safety reasons: the public needs to know the benefits and risks of nuclear energy and when and how they should protect themselves from the radiation. In all cases, the communication should be constant and not only during crisis, such as suspicion of or during accidents with radioactive material. The public worries and their questions should be clarified quickly. An information network should be used in order to communicate the benefits and uses of radiation to as many people as possible. Not only the media such as television and the press should be used, but all radiation professionals who have contacts with the public, such as radiologists, radiotherapists, physicists and teacher

  17. Factors in public perception of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hore-Lacy, I.

    1999-01-01

    Public communication about nuclear energy needs to relate to the cultural undercurrents which determine how people perceive the environment. The paper discusses some of these and suggests ways of responding to them. It also outlines major ethical considerations relevant to uranium mining and nuclear energy and communication about both and shows that competent discourse about values is fundamental

  18. Public Perceptions of Journalists' Ethical Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voakes, Paul S.

    1997-01-01

    Finds starkly different conceptions of journalistic ethics, with members of the public believing the journalists' ethics are guided primarily by occupational norms and competitive pressures, whereas journalists themselves cited organizational policies, the relevant law, and their individual reasoning as primary influences on their ethical decision…

  19. Understanding public perceptions of biotechnology through the "Integrative Worldview Framework".

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witt, Annick; Osseweijer, Patricia; Pierce, Robin

    2015-07-03

    Biotechnological innovations prompt a range of societal responses that demand understanding. Research has shown such responses are shaped by individuals' cultural worldviews. We aim to demonstrate how the Integrative Worldview Framework (IWF) can be used for analyzing perceptions of biotechnology, by reviewing (1) research on public perceptions of biotechnology and (2) analyses of the stakeholder-debate on the bio-based economy, using the Integrative Worldview Framework (IWF) as analytical lens. This framework operationalizes the concept of worldview and distinguishes between traditional, modern, and postmodern worldviews, among others. Applied to these literatures, this framework illuminates how these worldviews underlie major societal responses, thereby providing a unifying understanding of the literature on perceptions of biotechnology. We conclude the IWF has relevance for informing research on perceptions of socio-technical changes, generating insight into the paradigmatic gaps in social science, and facilitating reflexive and inclusive policy-making and debates on these timely issues. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Final-year medical students′ perceptions regarding the curriculum in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrakrishnan Rayno Navinan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, has an integrated curriculum in which teaching of public health takes place through a series of modules which span the full five-year study programme. Aim: To assess final year medical student perceptions regarding the public health curriculum and to identify factors which influence this. Materials and Methods: The study was cross sectional. Convenience sampling was utilized on final-year students of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. A self-administered 4-point Likert scale questionnaire covered general opinion on public healthcare and perceptions about the curriculum. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests. Results: One hundred and eighty four students (94% participated in the study. Eighty-two percent (148 viewed public health as an important field. Only 9% (16 were interested in a career in public health. A significant association was found between choosing public health as career and the following: perception of public health as an important field; holding a good opinion about public health prior to commencement of the course; having found the field-based experience enjoyable and beneficial to the community; and feeling competent to work in the community at the end of the course (P < 0.01. With regard to teaching methods, group activities and discussion-centered activities were identified positively (153, 83% and 125, 68% respectively. The majority of students indicated that they were not stimulated to read more on the subject or regularly revise what they have learnt, both during the introductory public health programme and during the final year. Conclusions: The curriculum has been able to create a positive opinion about public health. However, students lack enthusiasm to learn independently. Experiential, group-centered teaching activities and a constructivist approach may be more effective in promoting independent learning

  1. Improving Public Perception of Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, David H

    2016-05-01

    The potential impact of behavior analysis is limited by the public's dim awareness of the field. The mass media rarely cover behavior analysis, other than to echo inaccurate negative stereotypes about control and punishment. The media instead play up appealing but less-evidence-based approaches to problems, a key example being the touting of dubious diets over behavioral approaches to losing excess weight. These sorts of claims distort or skirt scientific evidence, undercutting the fidelity of behavior analysis to scientific rigor. Strategies for better connecting behavior analysis with the public might include reframing the field's techniques and principles in friendlier, more resonant form; pushing direct outcome comparisons between behavior analysis and its rivals in simple terms; and playing up the "warm and fuzzy" side of behavior analysis.

  2. Preserving the positive functions of the public domain in science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Samuelson

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Science has advanced in part because data and scientific methodologies have traditionally not been subject to intellectual property protection. In recent years, intellectual property has played a greater role in scientific work. While intellectual property rights may have a positive role to play in some fields of science, so does the public domain. This paper will discuss some of the positive functions of the public domain and ways in which certain legal developments may negatively impact the public domain. It suggests some steps that scientists can take to preserve the positive functions of the public domain for science.

  3. Perception of public corruption in Kenya | Kimemia | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption decreases government efficiency and effectiveness, and influences the way citizens perceive the overall quality of the government. The main focus of this paper is to examine why perceptions of public corruption did not change during the Kibaki administration. This administration was in power for 10 years ...

  4. Internal social responsibility: the perception of the public servants from a federal institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laranja, Leticia Cruz

    2017-01-01

    The paper aims to analyze the perception of public servants from a federal autarchy regarding its practices, actions and Corporate Social Responsibility programs towards its servants, as well as proposing improvements. Thus, a revision of the existing literature on the evolution of Corporate Social Responsibility was carried out, as well as its applications on the public sector and inside its organizations. The quantitative-descriptive research was performed from a survey using a closed questionnaire developed from the Ethos Indicators focused on workforce. The research results indicated the dominance of a negative perception by the servants regarding Internal Social Responsibility practices in the autarchy, as well as the dominant negative perception from servants without leadership positions and with shorter length of service against the point of view of servants that occupy leadership positions and with longer length of service. The research allowed the identification of practices related to Working Conditions, Working Day and Life Quality as being more relevant, and practices regarding Unions Relations as being the least relevant for servants. In order to improve the perception of the servants on the issues evaluated negatively it is recommended to developed actions and programs related to professional development, employability and retirement, health and safety, working conditions and life quality, and to developed actions aimed at employees without leadership positions and with shorter length of service, whose perceptions were more negative. (author)

  5. Public perceptions of energy issues in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    In October 2004, the Environics Research Group conducted a telephone survey of 608 adult Ontarians to collect information on matters regarding energy; consumer confidence and protection; responsibilities of the Ontario Energy Board; and consumer information preferences. This report summarizes the key findings of the survey. According to the survey, the most important electricity and natural gas issue was identified as being price and cost issues, followed by reliability of supply, conservation, keeping utilities publicly owned, finding renewable sources of energy, and over-consumption. The survey revealed that Ontarians show much interest in conserving energy to save money, to protect the environment and ensure future energy supply, but they are generally sceptical that their interests are being protected on electricity and natural gas price issues. At least 9 in 10 Ontarians consider the tasks of the Ontario Energy Board to be important. The majority of Ontarians prefer to receive energy conservation information through the mail and from public regulators over a government department or a company. 10 tabs

  6. Public perceptions of climate change and extreme weather events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruine de Bruin, W.; Dessai, S.; Morgan, G.; Taylor, A.; Wong-Parodi, G.

    2013-12-01

    Climate experts face a serious communication challenge. Public debate about climate change continues, even though at the same time people seem to complain about extreme weather events becoming increasingly common. As compared to the abstract concept of ';climate change,' (changes in) extreme weather events are indeed easier to perceive, more vivid, and personally relevant. Public perception research in different countries has suggested that people commonly expect that climate change will lead to increases in temperature, and that unseasonably warm weather is likely to be interpreted as evidence of climate change. However, relatively little is known about whether public concerns about climate change may also be driven by changes in other types of extreme weather events, such as exceptional amounts of precipitation or flooding. We therefore examined how perceptions of and personal experiences with changes in these specific weather events are related to public concerns about climate change. In this presentation, we will discuss findings from two large public perception surveys conducted in flood-prone Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (US) and with a national sample in the UK, where extreme flooding has recently occurred across the country. Participants completed questions about their perceptions of and experiences with specific extreme weather events, and their beliefs about climate change. We then conducted linear regressions to predict individual differences in climate-change beliefs, using perceptions of and experiences with specific extreme weather events as predictors, while controlling for demographic characteristics. The US study found that people (a) perceive flood chances to be increasing over the decades, (b) believe climate change to play a role in increases in future flood chances, and (c) would interpret future increases in flooding as evidence for climate change. The UK study found that (a) UK residents are more likely to perceive increases in ';wet' events such

  7. Nuclear renaissance, public perception and design criteria: An exploratory review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodfellow, Martin J.; Williams, Hugo R.; Azapagic, Adisa

    2011-01-01

    There is currently an international drive to build new nuclear power plants, bringing about what is being termed a 'nuclear renaissance'. However, the public perception of nuclear energy has historically been, and continues to be, a key issue, particularly in light of the Fukushima nuclear incident. This paper discusses the disparity between perceived and calculated risks based on the last four decades of research into risk perception. The leading psychological and sociological theories, Psychometric Paradigm and Cultural Theory, respectively, are critically reviewed. The authors then argue that a new nuclear-build policy that promotes a broader approach to design incorporating a wider range of stakeholder inputs, including that of the lay public, may provide a means for reducing the perceived risk of a nuclear plant. Further research towards such a new approach to design is proposed, based on integrating expert and lay stakeholder inputs and taking into account broader socio-cultural factors whilst maintaining the necessary emphasis on safety, technological development, economics and environmental sustainability. - Highlights: → Globally, a number of countries are investing in or considering building new nuclear plants. → Public acceptance of nuclear safety is important to continuing new nuclear build efforts. → Theories are discussed attempting to explain the public perception of nuclear safety. → A socially informed design process is proposed which could assist in ensuring public support. → Further research to understand how this design process might be performed is proposed.

  8. Some approaches to understanding public perceptions of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer-Wootten, B.

    1981-01-01

    The debate on nuclear power contains a central set of arguments that can be related, by and large, to differences in the meaning of risk assessment for various concerned publics. At an earlier point in time the arguments largely concerned power production (reactor safety), but now most components of the nuclear fuel cycle are subject to risk perceptions. The strongest levels of public concern over time have focussed on waste management, and in this area illustrates most clearly the gaps between the assessments of the technical community and those of the publics. In order to understand such gaps, a theoretical framework is necessary. The broadest scope for such a framework is found in the I.I.A.S.A. - I.A.E.A. model developed by H.J. Otway, with its three interrelated components of risk estimation (technical), risk evaluation (public) and risk management. The model is described in this paper, as well as a number of empirical studies that derive from it and attempt to measure public perceptions of risks. These studies are then compared to several alternative explanations: the use of public opinion surveys; risk rating tasks based on psychologicl theory; the structure of arguments used by members of the public in qualitative focus group discussions; and a model of local community conflict derived from the content analysis of newspapers. Throughout the discussion, examples are taken wherever possible, from recent Canadian studies, in which the effects of major incidents (such as T.M.I., the Mississauga derailment, the Blind River refinery siting controversy, etc.) become apparent. It is suggested that our understanding of public perceptions of risks cannot be divorced from the set of broad societal concerns evidenced in the I.I.A.S.A. - I.A.E.A. model, and that the crucial elements of this approach are seen in its emphasis on the decision-making process

  9. Australian public perception of the greenhouse issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson-Sellers, A [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde (Australia)

    1990-08-01

    During 1987 and 1988 in Australia there have been two national meetings on the greenhouse effect and a campaign designed to increase public awareness. A study of the backgrounds, level of comprehension and attitudes of attendees at two state Greenhouse-88 meetings has been undertaken by means of a questionnaire survey and a set of personal interviews. Two crucial caveats pertain: some of the questions reflect the prejudices of the author who is an atmospheric scientist, and the respondents comprise a small, self-selected group. All the ensuing results should be viewed in the context of these caveats. Over 97% of the respondents believe that action should be taken now to alleviate the effects of increased greenhouse gases. Despite the fact that the majority of the 321 respondents are professional people (73%) and that over 53% have tertiary level educational qualifications, there was a failure to grasp some fundamental issues. On the other hand, the respondents generally demanded a relatively low level of confidence (50-70%) about the greenhouse issue from scientists before action is taken. Sixty-four percent believe that life will be worse for them and/or their children in Australia in 'Greenhouse 2025' with the youngest age range being the second most pessimistic group about the future. Relatively little interest was shown in the possibility of obtaining more information on topics that interest climatic scientists but more information was desired on the social and economic implication and on the scientific background to the issues. Overall, teachers are perceived as trying to increase understanding; whereas politicians, multinational corporations, the media and some extreme environmentalists are perceived as often attempting to deceive intentionally. Scientists are seen as neither especially malevolent nor benign. 15 figs., 39 refs.

  10. Mining Twitter to Assess the Public Perception of the "Internet of Things".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Jiang; Yoshigoe, Kenji; Hicks, Amanda; Yuan, Jiawei; He, Zhe; Xie, Mengjun; Guo, Yi; Prosperi, Mattia; Salloum, Ramzi; Modave, François

    2016-01-01

    Social media analysis has shown tremendous potential to understand public's opinion on a wide variety of topics. In this paper, we have mined Twitter to understand the public's perception of the Internet of Things (IoT). We first generated the discussion trends of the IoT from multiple Twitter data sources and validated these trends with Google Trends. We then performed sentiment analysis to gain insights of the public's attitude towards the IoT. As anticipated, our analysis indicates that the public's perception of the IoT is predominantly positive. Further, through topic modeling, we learned that public tweets discussing the IoT were often focused on business and technology. However, the public has great concerns about privacy and security issues toward the IoT based on the frequent appearance of related terms. Nevertheless, no unexpected perceptions were identified through our analysis. Our analysis was challenged by the limited fraction of tweets relevant to our study. Also, the user demographics of Twitter users may not be strongly representative of the population of the general public.

  11. Mining Twitter to Assess the Public Perception of the "Internet of Things".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Bian

    Full Text Available Social media analysis has shown tremendous potential to understand public's opinion on a wide variety of topics. In this paper, we have mined Twitter to understand the public's perception of the Internet of Things (IoT. We first generated the discussion trends of the IoT from multiple Twitter data sources and validated these trends with Google Trends. We then performed sentiment analysis to gain insights of the public's attitude towards the IoT. As anticipated, our analysis indicates that the public's perception of the IoT is predominantly positive. Further, through topic modeling, we learned that public tweets discussing the IoT were often focused on business and technology. However, the public has great concerns about privacy and security issues toward the IoT based on the frequent appearance of related terms. Nevertheless, no unexpected perceptions were identified through our analysis. Our analysis was challenged by the limited fraction of tweets relevant to our study. Also, the user demographics of Twitter users may not be strongly representative of the population of the general public.

  12. A fair day's wage? Perceptions of public sector pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Stieger, Stefan; Haubner, Tanja; Voracek, Martin; Swami, Viren

    2009-12-01

    There is a scarcity of evidence pertaining to the general public's perception of public sector pay. Hence, in the present study, 161 women and 149 men were asked to estimate the wages 35 public sector professions should receive annually in the fictitious nation of Maldoria, based on a comparison value of an annual income of T10,000 for general practitioners. Analysis showed that only pilots were given a higher annual income than general practitioners; miners and local government workers were also provided with relatively high annual incomes. By contrast, newscasters were provided with the lowest annual income. Participants' sex did not affect these evaluations, and other demographic variables and public sector-related information of the participants were poor predictors of their evaluations. The implications of this research on public attitudes toward wage determination are discussed, and avenues for further research highlighted.

  13. Teachers' attitudes and perceptions about preparation of public schools to assist students with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carral San Laureano, Florentino; Gutiérrez Manzanedo, José Vicente; Moreno Vides, Pablo; de Castro Maqueda, Guillermo; Fernández Santos, Jorge R; Ponce González, Jesús Gustavo; Ayala Ortega, María Del Carmen

    2018-04-01

    To assess teachers' attitudes and perceptions about preparation of public primary and secondary education schools in the Puerto Real University Hospital (Cádiz, Spain) area to care for students with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) METHODS: A descriptive observational study where answers to an attitude and perception questionnaire on the preparation of schools to care for pupils with T1DM were analyzed. A total of 765 teachers (mean age, 44.3±8.8 years; 61.7% women) from 44 public schools in the area of the Puerto Real University Hospital were selected by random sampling. Overall, 43.2% of teachers surveyed had or had previously had students with T1DM, but only 0.8% had received specific training on diabetes. 18.9% of teachers reported that one of their students with T1DM had experienced at least one episode of hypoglycemia at school, and half of them felt that their school was not prepared to deal with diabetic emergencies. 6.4% stated that their school had glucagon in its first aid kit, and 46.9% would be willing to administer it personally. Women, physical education teachers, and headmasters had a more positive perception of the school than their colleagues. Teachers with a positive perception of school preparation and with a positive attitude to administer glucagon were significantly younger than those with no positive perception and attitude. The study results suggest that teachers of public schools in our health area have not been specifically trained in the care of patients with T1DM and perceive that their educational centers are not qualified to address diabetic emergencies. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Positioning and role of public relations in large Belgian organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorp, B. van; Pauwels, L.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the position and role of public relations in the hierarchical structure of Belgian organizations of at least 50 employees. Empirical data was collected from a web survey (n = 750) to find out to what extent principles of excellence in public relations are applied in Belgium. The

  15. Positive Effects of Negative Publicity: When Negative Reviews Increase Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Jonah Berger; Alan T. Sorensen; Scott J. Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Can negative information about a product increase sales, and if so, when? Although popular wisdom suggests that "any publicity is good publicity," prior research has demonstrated only downsides to negative press. Negative reviews or word of mouth, for example, have been found to hurt product evaluation and sales. Using a combination of econometric analysis and experimental methods, we unify these perspectives to delineate contexts under which negative publicity about a product will have posit...

  16. Public Perceptions of Bears and Management Interventions in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Sakurai, Ryo; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Conservation of bears is a challenge globally. In Japan, Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) and brown bears (Ursus arctos) are considered a nuisance because of agricultural and property damage and personal human danger due to occasional human casualties. Reduction of human–bear conflicts in Japan would improve long-term conservation of bears and reduce risks to human health and safety. To understand Japanese perceptions of and experience with bears, we analyzed results of 5 public surveys...

  17. Public perceptions of wind energy developments: Case studies from New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Jessica B. [Department of Physics, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Stephenson, Janet R. [Department of Geography, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand)], E-mail: janet.stephenson@otago.ac.nz; Smith, Inga J. [Department of Physics, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2009-09-15

    Although the public generally hold positive attitudes towards wind energy, proposals for the construction of new wind farms are often met with strong resistance. In New Zealand, where the government has recently introduced ambitious policy targets for renewable energy generation, negative perceptions of wind farms are increasingly evident and have the potential to prevent the achievement of these targets. This research sets out to examine what influences social resistance to wind farms in New Zealand. Drawing from public submissions on three wind farm proposals, a framework developed by Devine-Wright [Devine-Wright, P., 2005a. Beyond NIMBYism: towards an integrated Framework for Understanding Public Perceptions of Wind Energy. Wind Energy 8, 125-139.] was used as the basis for identification of factors affecting public perceptions of wind farms. The research found firstly that there was no apparent relationship between the proximity of submitters to a proposed wind farm and their likelihood of having a negative perception of the proposal. A wide range of factors written in submissions appeared to have affected the submitter's decision to support or oppose the wind farm proposal. Some of these were consistent with Devine-Wright's findings, but ten further factors were added to the framework to adequately cover the aspects raised in submissions. The findings have implications for the achievement of New Zealand's energy policy aspirations.

  18. Public perceptions of wind energy developments. Case studies from New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Jessica B.; Smith, Inga J. [Department of Physics, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Stephenson, Janet R. [Department of Geography, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2009-09-15

    Although the public generally hold positive attitudes towards wind energy, proposals for the construction of new wind farms are often met with strong resistance. In New Zealand, where the government has recently introduced ambitious policy targets for renewable energy generation, negative perceptions of wind farms are increasingly evident and have the potential to prevent the achievement of these targets. This research sets out to examine what influences social resistance to wind farms in New Zealand. Drawing from public submissions on three wind farm proposals, a framework developed by Devine-Wright [Devine-Wright, P., 2005a. Beyond NIMBYism: towards an integrated Framework for Understanding Public Perceptions of Wind Energy. Wind Energy 8, 125-139.] was used as the basis for identification of factors affecting public perceptions of wind farms. The research found firstly that there was no apparent relationship between the proximity of submitters to a proposed wind farm and their likelihood of having a negative perception of the proposal. A wide range of factors written in submissions appeared to have affected the submitter's decision to support or oppose the wind farm proposal. Some of these were consistent with Devine-Wright's findings, but ten further factors were added to the framework to adequately cover the aspects raised in submissions. The findings have implications for the achievement of New Zealand's energy policy aspirations. (author)

  19. Mining Twitter to Assess the Public Perception of the “Internet of Things”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshigoe, Kenji; Hicks, Amanda; Yuan, Jiawei; He, Zhe; Xie, Mengjun; Guo, Yi; Prosperi, Mattia; Salloum, Ramzi; Modave, François

    2016-01-01

    Social media analysis has shown tremendous potential to understand public's opinion on a wide variety of topics. In this paper, we have mined Twitter to understand the public's perception of the Internet of Things (IoT). We first generated the discussion trends of the IoT from multiple Twitter data sources and validated these trends with Google Trends. We then performed sentiment analysis to gain insights of the public’s attitude towards the IoT. As anticipated, our analysis indicates that the public's perception of the IoT is predominantly positive. Further, through topic modeling, we learned that public tweets discussing the IoT were often focused on business and technology. However, the public has great concerns about privacy and security issues toward the IoT based on the frequent appearance of related terms. Nevertheless, no unexpected perceptions were identified through our analysis. Our analysis was challenged by the limited fraction of tweets relevant to our study. Also, the user demographics of Twitter users may not be strongly representative of the population of the general public. PMID:27391760

  20. Public perception of the activities of the Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technologies Agency of Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Marta; Arencibia, Alois; Alvarado, Jorge; Garcia, Dulce; Rodriguez, Ingrids; Hernandez, Noslen [Centro de Gestion de la Informacion y Desarrollo de la Energia (CUBAENERGIA), La Habana (Cuba); Aguilar, Aurora; Perera, Maricela [Centro de Investigaciones Psicologicas y Sociologicas (CIPS), La Habana, (Cuba); Rodriguez, Ramon [Agencia de Energia Nuclear y Tecnologias de Avanzada (AENTA), La Habana, (Cuba); Alonso, Ivonne [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana, (Cuba); Quintana, Natacha [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), La Habana, (Cuba); Cardenas, Juan; Ramos, Odalys [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana, (Cuba); Elias, Lidia Lauren [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana, (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The work presents the results of a study of perception of the nuclear activities of the Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technologies Agency of Cuba, carried out by means of a study of image. The public object was a wide group of clients, providers, journalists and experts of the governing and regulatory organs which constitute its external public. For the investigation a methodology was prepared with a questionnaire and a semi structured interview, which allowed to obtain complementary information of qualitative character. In general, the perception of the Agency turned out to be positive and the human resources were the best evaluated aspect. Nevertheless, the visibility of the Agency in the public day pupils is considered to be insufficient. The study provided the necessary information so as to design the strategy of communication of the Agency. (author)

  1. Public perception of the activities of the Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technologies Agency of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, Marta; Arencibia, Alois; Alvarado, Jorge; Garcia, Dulce; Rodriguez, Ingrids; Hernandez, Noslen; Aguilar, Aurora; Perera, Maricela; Rodriguez, Ramon; Alonso, Ivonne; Quintana, Natacha; Cardenas, Juan; Ramos, Odalys; Elias, Lidia Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The work presents the results of a study of perception of the nuclear activities of the Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technologies Agency of Cuba, carried out by means of a study of image. The public object was a wide group of clients, providers, journalists and experts of the governing and regulatory organs which constitute its external public. For the investigation a methodology was prepared with a questionnaire and a semi structured interview, which allowed to obtain complementary information of qualitative character. In general, the perception of the Agency turned out to be positive and the human resources were the best evaluated aspect. Nevertheless, the visibility of the Agency in the public day pupils is considered to be insufficient. The study provided the necessary information so as to design the strategy of communication of the Agency. (author)

  2. Conflict between public perceptions and technical processes in site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avant, R.V. Jr.; Jacobi, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations and guidance on site selection are based on sound technical reasoning. Geology, hydrology, flora and fauna, transportation, demographics, and sociopolitical concerns, to name a few, have been factored into the process. Regardless of the technical objectivity of a site selection process, local opposition groups will challenge technical decisions using technical, nontechnical, and emotional arguments. This paper explores the many conflicts between public perceptions, technical requirements designed to protect the general public, and common arguments against site selection. Ways to deal with opposition are also discussed with emphasis placed on developing effective community relations

  3. Malaysian public perception towards nuclear power energy-related issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misnon, Fauzan Amin; Hu, Yeoh Siong; Rahman, Irman Abd.; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia had considered nuclear energy as an option for future electricity generation during the 9th Malaysia Development Plan. Since 2009, Malaysia had implemented a number of important preparatory steps towards this goal, including the establishment of Nuclear Power Corporation of Malaysia (MNPC) as first Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organization (NEPIO) in Malaysia. In light of the establishment of MNPC, the National Nuclear Policy was formulated in 2010 and a new comprehensive nuclear law to replace the existing Atomic Energy Licensing Act (Act 304) is currently in the pipeline. Internationally, public acceptance is generally used to gauge the acceptance of nuclear energy by the public whenever a government decides to engage in nuclear energy. A public survey was conducted in between 14 March 2016 to 10 May 2016 focusing on the Malaysian public acceptance and perception towards the implementation of nuclear energy in Malaysia. The methodology of this research was aim on finding an overview of the general knowledge, public-relation recommendation, perception and acceptance of Malaysian towards the nuclear power development program. The combination of information gathered from this study can be interpreted as an indication of the complexity surrounding the development of nuclear energy and its relationship with the unique background of Malaysian demography. This paper will focus mainly on energy-related section in the survey in comparison with nuclear energy.

  4. Social Media Management Strategies for Organizational Impression Management and their Effect on Public Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Benthaus, Janek; Risius, Marten; Beck, Roman

    2016-01-01

    With the growing importance of social media, companies increasingly rely on social media management tools to analyze social media activities and to professionalize their social media engagement. In this study, we evaluate how social media management tools, as part of an overarching social media strategy, help companies to positively influence the public perception among social media users. A mixed methods approach is applied, where we quantitatively analyze 15 million user-generated Twitter m...

  5. Public perceptions of health care professionals' participation in pharmaceutical marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy J; Courter, Laura; Hayes, Kristen; Shepherd, K

    2009-09-01

    Trust in the nurse-patient relationship is maintained not by how professionals perceive their actions but rather by how the public perceives them. However, little is known about the public's view of nurses and other health care professionals who participate in pharmaceutical marketing. Our study describes public perceptions of health care providers' role in pharmaceutical marketing and compares their responses with those of a random sample of licensed family nurse practitioners. The family nurse practitioners perceived their participation in marketing activities as significantly more ethically appropriate than did the public responders. Further research is warranted before conclusions can be drawn, but these early findings suggest that nurse practitioners should consider a conservative approach to participating in pharmaceutical marketing.

  6. Radiation education versus 'radio-phobia' - public perception of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goraczko, W.; Latek, S.

    1999-01-01

    In this article the author presents the basis and reasons of the public radio-phobia in Poland. He mentions about people mentality historically based the 'cold war' and Soviet's military and technologically domination in this part of Europe. Besides of the historical and sociological sources he pays attention on a few aspects, which - in his opinion - intensified the negative public responses: Chernobyl catastrophe, the coal-lobby influences, the political parties (not only 'green') games during election time, existing of old conventional coal power stations, accessibility of own cheap coal, cost of transformation from communistic to free-market economy, low-level of public pro-ecology thinking and so on. On the other hand the author describes some non-realistic attitudes of society - for example - they accept nuclear medicine while do not agree to develop nuclear power engineering. Finally he presents conclusions, which can change public perception of radiation. (author)

  7. Exploring public perceptions of energy security risks in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demski, Christina; Poortinga, Wouter; Pidgeon, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Along with climate change and affordability, concerns about energy security are key drivers behind proposals for major energy system change in the UK and numerous other countries. Unlike climate change we know very little about how the public thinks and feels about this aspect of sustainability and energy policy. Beyond engaging critically with conceptual and theoretical discussions, empirical data from two surveys (Cardiff postal survey, N=520; online UK survey, N=499) using a ten item energy security scale are presented and discussed. Here we show that aspects of energy security are certainly of concern to the UK public, with particularly high concern around dependence on fossil fuels/imports and relatively lower expressed concern for actual disruption of energy supply. However public concerns around energy security are only emerging, and likely to change depending on the context in which it is discussed (e.g. in comparison to climate change). In addition, findings from public interviews are used to further contextualise the survey findings, showing unfamiliarity among the UK public with regards to the term “energy security”. We discuss implications, and further work that would be useful for understanding public perceptions in more depth. - highlights: • Exploring public views on energy security using a 10 item scale. • Concerns over energy security is relatively high but susceptible to framing. • Patterns of concern for different energy security aspects examined. • The term energy security is unfamiliar, only an emerging concern among UK publics. • Further discussion on the meanings and implications of these perceptions

  8. Exercise in obese pregnant women: positive impacts and current perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sui Z

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhixian Sui,1 Jodie M Dodd1,21The University of Adelaide, Robinson Institute, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 2Department of Perinatal Medicine, Women’s and Babies Division, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaAbstract: Overweight and obesity have significant implications during pregnancy and childbirth. The objective of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the effect of physical activity on pregnancy outcomes, the change of physical activity during pregnancy, and women’s perception of being physically active during pregnancy, with a particular focus on women who are overweight or obese. Many studies have investigated the beneficial effect of exercise during pregnancy, including reduced risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and operative birth, in addition to improved cardiovascular function, overall fitness, psychological well-being, and mood stability. Benefits for the infant include reduced risks of prematurity and improved fetal growth, although there is more limited information about longer-term health benefits for both women and infants. The existing literature examining physical activity patterns during pregnancy has generally focused on women of all body mass index categories, consistently indicating a reduction in activity over the course of pregnancy. However, the available literature evaluating physical activity during pregnancy among women who are overweight or obese is more limited and contradictory. A number of studies identified barriers preventing women from being active during pregnancy, including pregnancy symptoms, lack of time, access to child care, and concerns about their safety and that of their unborn baby. Conversely, significant enablers included positive psychological feelings, family influence, and receiving advice from health professionals. Very few studies have provided insights about perceptions of being active during

  9. Body composition and perception of teenagers from public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Araújo Ferreira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is accompanied by cognitive, emotional, social and biological changes; situations that increase the risk for development of psychosomatic disorders. This study measured and classified body composition and compared it to body self-perception in adolescents. Students from the seventh to ninth grade in public primary education in Distrito Federal, Brazil, answered socio-demographic and body self-perception questionnaires. Weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI was calculated for body composition classification. From the 977 adolescents, 79.1% presented eutrophic BMI. Of the 473 boys, 11.4% were overweight and 4.7% underweight, 23.8% perceived the body as smaller than it really is and 25.5% tried to gain body mass. Of the 504 girls, 11.9% were overweight and 13.4% underweight, 24.1% perceived the body as larger than it really is and 32.5% tried to lose body mass. Inadequate body composition, prevalent in 20.9% of adolescents, may harm growth, development and health. These problems may be aggravated by the high prevalence of distorted body self-perception and attitudes for bodily changes. It is recommended the implementation of educational interventions on body composition, perception and culture and health, with different approaches by gender.

  10. Public Perception of Uncertainties Within Climate Change Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschers, Vivianne H M

    2018-01-01

    Climate change is a complex, multifaceted problem involving various interacting systems and actors. Therefore, the intensities, locations, and timeframes of the consequences of climate change are hard to predict and cause uncertainties. Relatively little is known about how the public perceives this scientific uncertainty and how this relates to their concern about climate change. In this article, an online survey among 306 Swiss people is reported that investigated whether people differentiate between different types of uncertainty in climate change research. Also examined was the way in which the perception of uncertainty is related to people's concern about climate change, their trust in science, their knowledge about climate change, and their political attitude. The results of a principal component analysis showed that respondents differentiated between perceived ambiguity in climate research, measurement uncertainty, and uncertainty about the future impact of climate change. Using structural equation modeling, it was found that only perceived ambiguity was directly related to concern about climate change, whereas measurement uncertainty and future uncertainty were not. Trust in climate science was strongly associated with each type of uncertainty perception and was indirectly associated with concern about climate change. Also, more knowledge about climate change was related to less strong perceptions of each type of climate science uncertainty. Hence, it is suggested that to increase public concern about climate change, it may be especially important to consider the perceived ambiguity about climate research. Efforts that foster trust in climate science also appear highly worthwhile. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Public perceptions of hazardous technologies and demographic political institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Failure of high-level waste repository might impose high radiation doses on a few people, or very low doses on many people: no failure that has been identified can impose high doses on many people. Thus the public's perception of rad wastes posing a serious threat to human well-being is unjustified. Nevertheless, in democracies such as the U.S.A., public concern has risen to a point where the future of waste disposal, and therefore of nuclear energy, is in jeopardy. This paper argues that the waste dilemma might be resolved if skeptical elites can be convinced that rad wastes, if properly handled, do not pose the threat commonly perceived by the public. This may require development of inherently safe packaging, such as the copper canisters adopted in Sweden

  12. Public's Perception of the Phenomenon of Street Children: A Qualitative Study of Students and Shopkeepers in Accra, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on recorded interviews and focus group discussions with shopkeepers, and junior and senior high school children respectively in Accra Central, this study explores the public's perceptions of the phenomenon of street children in Accra, Ghana. A semi-structured interview guide was used. Qualitative analyses of the data indicated that both shopkeepers and school children who participated in this study generally have positive and supportive perception of street children. However, the scho...

  13. Nanotechnology in Dutch science cafés: Public risk perceptions contextualised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Anne M; Critchley, Christine R

    2016-01-01

    Understanding public perceptions of and attitudes to nanotechnology is important in order to understand and facilitate processes of dialogue and public participation. This research quantitatively analysed risk perceptions and attitudes of Dutch science café participants (n = 233) and compared these with members of the Dutch public (n = 378) who had not attended a café but were interested in science and technology as well. A qualitative analysis of the meetings contextualised and enriched the quantitative findings. Both groups shared similar key attitudes and were positive about nanotechnology while the Dutch café participants were even more positive about nanotechnology than the group of non-participants. The perception that nanotechnology would lead to risk applications was only predictive of attitudes for the non-participants. The qualitative analysis showed that café participants and speakers considered discussion of the risks, benefits and related issues important. Further research could investigate how science cafés can play a role in the science-society debate. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Knowledge, risk, and policy support: Public perceptions of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoutenborough, James W.; Sturgess, Shelbi G.; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear energy was becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to air polluting fossil fuel technologies through the latter half of the 2000s. The tragic events of March 11, 2011 in Fukushima, Japan appear to have instantly killed any momentum the nuclear industry had gained. While unfortunate, many argue that nuclear power is still a safe alternative and that the Fukushima disaster resulted from insufficient safety regulations in Japan, a problem that does not exist in the United States. This project examines U.S. public support for nuclear energy one year after the Fukushima tragedy, seeking to understand the influence of knowledge and risk perceptions on policy support. We evaluate public support for nuclear energy policy from several perspectives using risk and attitudinal measurements that are more specific than often found in the literature to obtain a greater understanding of the connection between policy and risk. -- Highlights: •Paper evaluates US public support for nuclear energy1 year after Fukushima tragedy. •Attitudinal indicators are significant predictors of nuclear power policy support. •People more knowledgeable about energy issues are more supportive of nuclear energy. •Perceptions of risk exert varying influence on support for nuclear power. •Specific attitude and risk indicators permit nuanced insight into their influence

  15. Public Perceptions and Attitudes Toward Adolescent Marijuana Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella M. Resko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study is to examine patterns in public perceptions and attitudes toward marijuana use among adolescents. Computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI was used to collect data from a statewide sample of adults in Michigan identified through random-digit dialing (n = 560. CATI interviews were supplemented with web- and paper-based surveys for nonrespondents. We used latent class analysis to characterize patterns in public perception, using a vignette technique that assessed (a whether adults recognize adolescent marijuana use as a problem, (b how they view the efficacy of treatment, (c how they view help-seeking with mental health professionals, and (d whether they support prevention services for adolescents. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between class membership and demographics, substance use, and methodological factors. Three latent classes were identified: (a a discriminating group, (b a low-concern group, and (c a high-concern group. Age and substance use were among the strongest determinants for membership in the discriminating group. Results provide insight into how the general public perceives marijuana use and marijuana-related problems among adolescents.

  16. Public perceptions of industrial risks: the context of public attitudes toward radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    1981-06-01

    A survey was made to determine the public risk perception of several industrial hazards. A free response approach was used in order for respondents to generate their own alternatives. The general class of hazard investigated here included all hazardous industrial facilities. The free response survey was used to study public perception of: (a) the closeness of the nearest hazardous industrial facility (as estimated by the respondent); (b) the sort of facility it is; (c) the sorts of risk associated with it; and (d) the persons placed at risk by it. Respondents also identified the risks of, and the persons placed at risk by, both a toxic chemical disposal facility and a nuclear waste disposal facility. Results of this study thus can inform us of the unprompted concerns of the public regarding a wide variety of industrial facilities

  17. Fear of Public Speaking: Perception of College Students and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Marinho, Anna Carolina; Mesquita de Medeiros, Adriane; Côrtes Gama, Ana Cristina; Caldas Teixeira, Letícia

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of fear of public speaking among college students and to assess its association with sociodemographic variables and those related to the voice and oral communication. A cross-sectional descriptive and analytic study was conducted with 1135 undergraduates aged 17-58 years. The assessment instruments were (1) a questionnaire addressing the variables sex, age, field of undergraduate study, voice, and frequency of exposure to public speaking, and (2) the Self-statements During Public Speaking Scale (SSPS), which includes variables implicated in specific domains of public speaking. A descriptive analysis was performed of the variables as well as uni- and multivariate logistic regressions to examine their association with fear of public speaking. The level of significance was set at 5%. In all, 63.9% of the college students reported fear of public speaking. As many as 89.3% of the students would like their undergraduate program to include classes to improve public speaking. Being female, having infrequent participation as speakers in groups, and perceiving their voice as high-pitched or too soft increase the odds of exhibiting fear of public speaking compared with students without those features. A great number of undergraduates report fear of public speaking. This fear is more prevalent among women, students who participate in few activities involving speaking to groups of people, and those who have a self-perception of their voice as high-pitched or too soft. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuclear energy and the public: risk perception, attitudes and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.

    1982-01-01

    A research group at the Nuclear Research Centre, Julich, has attempted to trace public attitudes to nuclear power and their roots. The structure of attitudes, types of reasoning and the processes involved in deciding about nuclear power were measured. Intuitive perceptions of technology and risk were studied. Attitudes to nuclear energy are found to be the result of intuitive processes and opposition is 'natural' on the basis of intuitive reasoning. Many people who believe nuclear power to be hazardous nevertheless will accept it as inevitable for the economic advantages it will bring in the future. (U.K.)

  19. Self-Regulatory Climate: A Positive Attribute of Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Ware, Jordan K.; Miskell, Ryan C.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to the development of a positive framework for effective public schools in 2 ways. First, it advances the construct self-regulatory climate as consisting of 3 generative school norms--collective faculty trust in students, collective student trust in teachers, and student-perceived academic emphasis. The authors argue these…

  20. Positive Perception of Aging and Performance in a Memory Task: Compensating for Stereotype Threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Bustillos, Antonio; Huici, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: The aim of this research is to explore whether segments of seniors might be immune to aging stereotypes of the older adult group. Stereotype threat research indicates that older adults show low memory recall under conditions of stereotype threat. Stereotype internalization theory (Levy, 2009) predicts that a positive perception of aging has favorable effects on the behavior and health of older people. A total of 112 older adult participants (62% women, aged 55 to 78) attending the University Programme for Older Adults were assigned to one of two conditions: stereotype threat condition and positive information condition. A control group was included from participants in the same program (n = 34; 61% women, aged 55 to 78). Individual differences in self-perception of aging were considered as continuous variable. Participants with better self-perception of aging showed better memory performance than those with poorer self-perception of aging in the stereotype threat condition and control condition. However, no differences were found in the positive information condition between participants with high and low self-perception of aging. These results indicate that positive self-perception of aging moderates the effects of stereotype threat, and that positive information promotes better memory performance for those older adults with a poorer self-perception of aging. As expected, individuals with a positive perception of their own aging were less vulnerable to the activation of a negative older adult stereotype in the stereotype threat condition.

  1. Social Position Influencing the Water Perception Gap Between Local Leaders and Constituents in a Socio-Hydrological System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffner, Melissa; Jackson-Smith, Douglas; Flint, Courtney G.

    2018-02-01

    How well city leaders represent their constituents and meet their needs are key concerns in transitioning to local sustainable water governance. To date, however, there is little research documenting the influence of social position between elected leaders who make policy, career staff water managers who design and operate systems and implement policies, and the members of the public whose individual water use behaviors are important drivers of water sustainability outcomes. In this study, we ask: "How does social position explain variation in water perceptions and concerns between different actors in a socio-hydrological system?" Using a mixed method approach with survey and interview data, we explore the ways that positioning within the governance system, geographic context, and citizen engagement in local government mediate perceptions of the urban water system. Regardless of local biophysical water supply conditions, residents showed most concern about future water shortages and high water costs, while their leaders were consistently most concerned about deteriorating local water infrastructure. Further, constituents who received water-related information directly from public utility mailings or served on community committees and boards had perceptions that were more aligned with leaders' concerns. The importance of social structure over natural and built environments in shaping water issue perceptions underscores the value of social analysis in socio-hydrology studies. Further, practitioners looking to increase consensus for a transition to sustainable water governance might work to develop institutional mechanisms to increase opportunities for water user involvement in local water system governance.

  2. Public perceptions of cohort studies and biobanks in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkbaum, Johannes; Gottweis, Herbert; Gottweis, Ursula; Kleiser, Christina; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Börm, Sonja; Wichmann, H-Erich

    2014-04-01

    Cohort studies and biobank projects have led to public discussions in several European countries in the past. In Germany, many medium-sized studies are currently running successfully in terms of respondent rates. However, EU-wide research on general public perceptions of biobanks and cohort studies have shown that Germany is among those countries where people express the highest reluctance for providing body material and other data for research purposes. Because of early efforts of the just-initiated German National Cohort Study, we are able to begin to investigate in greater detail how various groups of people across Germany reflect and discuss the ongoing implementation of cohort studies and biobanking in Germany. Our research is based on 15 focus group discussions in four German regions, as well as on Eurobarometer poll data on biobanking.

  3. Are positive self-perceptions and expectancies really beneficial in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study was to discover interrelations between university students' self-perceptions, expectancies, and academic achievement. A sample of 645 Unisa students was divided into three groups: Overestimators, Realists, and Underestimators. The data revealed that, compared to Underestimators, ...

  4. Increasing Positive Perceptions of Counseling: The Importance of Repeated Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Scott A.; Vogel, David L.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Wade, Nathaniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of repeated exposures to a video intervention based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model. The video was designed to increase help-seeking attitudes and perceptions of peer norms and to decrease the stigma associated with seeking counseling. Participants were 290 undergraduates who were randomly assigned to a…

  5. Public perception of low-level waste technologies: Demands on research and public education programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witzig, W.F.; Bord, R.J.; Vincenti, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The complexities of our political and legal systems, along with both insufficient information and misinformation, has resulted in significant problems in the disposal of radioactive waste. Distrust of the industry and regulators by the public, along with insufficient understanding of public fear by those responsible for waste disposal, has created a delay which shows few signs of early resolution. In light of these problems, this paper will specifically cover low-level radioactive waste disposal and management issues in the Appalachian Compact state of Pennsylvania. It will focus on the public's perception of waste technologies, and related policy issues, and the necessity of research and public education to create a bridge of understanding between those responsible for disposing of this material, those who benefit (the general public) from the creation of the waste, and those who are asked to live near disposal sites

  6. What is the social gain from competency management? The employees' perception at a Brazilian public university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Busch Rocha

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present global scenario of strong competitive edge, the Human factor had its relevance enhanced, presenting itself as a key element to enhance organizations' flexibility and performance. Since the 1990s, one of the most widespread and studied Human Resources practices has consisted of the Management Model by Competency, that innovated by changing the "position" reference to the "people" element. Therefore, this paper tries to investigate what are the elements that influence the employees' perception of social gain within an establishment that had taken on the competency management model. This is a quantitative work with survey methodology. The sample consists of 422 employees of a Brazilian public university that had implanted the competency model in 2011. The questionnaire, available in an online environment, used the dimensions developed by Sarsur (2007. The relationships between the actions on corporate education, wage move, career move, managerial positions held, workplace and seniority (independent variables with the perception employees have of social gain (dependent variables were analyzed through non parametric statistical techniques. The results indicate that the employees' perception of social competency gains in the model displays an essentially utilitarian nature. Namely, just the benefited employees demonstrated higher rankings of perception regarding the new proposal.

  7. Mutual perceptions between nuclear plant employees and general public on nuclear policy communication applying the Co-orientation analysis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Chul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Chung, Woon Kwan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines mutual perceptions between general public and nuclear plant employees on understanding nuclear policy communication applying the co-orientation model. The total of 414 responses were analyzed including 211 of the general public and 203 of plant employees. Results indicate that agreement between general public and plant employees is relatively high, in that general public tends to have negative evaluation to nuclear policy communication, but plant employees tends to have positive one. In terms of congruence, general public perceive that plant employees might have more positive evaluation than themselves, and nuclear plant employees perceive that general public might have more negative evaluation than themselves. Finally, in terms of accuracy, general public accurately estimate how nuclear plant employees perceive on policy communication, whereas nuclear plant employees unaccurately estimate how general public perceive on policy communication

  8. Mutual perceptions between nuclear plant employees and general public on nuclear policy communication applying the Co-orientation analysis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Chul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Chung, Woon Kwan [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    This study examines mutual perceptions between general public and nuclear plant employees on understanding nuclear policy communication applying the co-orientation model. The total of 414 responses were analyzed including 211 of the general public and 203 of plant employees. Results indicate that agreement between general public and plant employees is relatively high, in that general public tends to have negative evaluation to nuclear policy communication, but plant employees tends to have positive one. In terms of congruence, general public perceive that plant employees might have more positive evaluation than themselves, and nuclear plant employees perceive that general public might have more negative evaluation than themselves. Finally, in terms of accuracy, general public accurately estimate how nuclear plant employees perceive on policy communication, whereas nuclear plant employees unaccurately estimate how general public perceive on policy communication.

  9. Contribution of safety issues to public perceptions of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.; Thomas, K.

    1978-01-01

    Public opposition is an important consideration for those responsible for energy planning; however, the formulation of socially viable policies requires an understanding of the reasons for this opposition. An attitude model was applied to identify the underlying determinants of public perceptions of five energy systems: nuclear, coal, oil, solar and hydro. Empirical results (heterogeneous sample of the general public, N = 224) are reported in which these energy systems were found to be perceived in terms of four basic dimensions: psychological aspects; economic benefits; socio-political implications; environmental and physical safety issues. For the total sample, safety issues made an appreciable contribution to attitudes toward all of the systems except nuclear energy, where it was not significant. A differential analysis of two sub-samples, those respondents PRO and CON nuclear energy, showed that benefits and safety issues were important determinants of PRO attitudes while CON attitudes were primarily due to psychological aspects and concerns about personal and political power. The role of technical information in the formation of public attitudes toward technological policies is discussed

  10. Exploring responsible innovation : Dutch public perceptions of the future of medical neuroimaging technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arentshorst, Marlous E.; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; de Cock Buning, J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Insight into public perceptions provides opportunities to take public desires and concerns into account in an early phase of innovation development in order to maximise the potential benefits for users of the future. Public perceptions of neuroimaging in health care are presented in this article,

  11. Nuclear waste and hazardous waste in the public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruetli, Pius; Seidl, Roman; Stauffacher, Michael [ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. for Environmental Decisions

    2015-07-01

    The disposal of nuclear waste has gained attention of the public for decades. Accordingly, nuclear waste has been a prominent issue in natural, engineer and social science for many years. Although bearing risks for todays and future generations hazardous waste in contrast is much less an issue of public concern. In 2011, we conducted a postal survey among Swiss Germans (N = 3.082) to learn more about, how nuclear waste is perceived against hazardous waste. We created a questionnaire with two versions, nuclear waste and hazardous waste, respectively. Each version included an identical part with well-known explanatory factors for risk perception on each of the waste types separately and additional questions directly comparing the two waste types. Results show that basically both waste types are perceived similarly in terms of risk/benefit, emotion, trust, knowledge and responsibility. However, in the direct comparison of the two waste types a complete different pattern can be observed: Respondents perceive nuclear waste as more long-living, more dangerous, less controllable and it, furthermore, creates more negative emotions. On the other hand, respondents feel more responsible for hazardous waste and indicate to have more knowledge about this waste type. Moreover, nuclear waste is perceived as more carefully managed. We conclude that mechanisms driving risk perception are similar for both waste types but an overarching negative image of nuclear waste prevails. We propose that hazardous waste should be given more attention in the public as well as in science which may have implications on further management strategies of hazardous waste.

  12. The brain seduction: the public perception of neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Ramani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of magazine covers dedicated to brain studies and the success of magazines and scientific journals entirely dedicated to brain and mind indicate a strong interest on these themes. This interest is clearly surpassing the boundaries of scientific and medical researches and applications and underlines an engagement of the general public, too. This phenomenon appears to be enhanced by the increasing number of basic researches focusing on non-health-related fMRI studies, investigating aspects of personality as emotions, will, personal values and beliefs, self-identity and behaviour. The broad coverage by the media raises some central questions related to the complexity of researches, the intrinsic limits of these technologies, the results’ interpretative boundaries, factors which are crucial to properly understand the studies’ value. In case of an incomplete communication, if those fundamental interpretative elements are not well understood, we could register a misinterpretation in the public perception of the studies that opens new compelling questions. As already observed in the past debates on science and technologies applications, in this case, too, we assist to a communicative problem that set against scientific community on one side and media, on the other. Focusing our attention, in particular, on the debate on fMRI, taken as a good model, in the present letter we will investigate the most interesting aspects of the current discussion on neuroscience and neuroscience public perception. This analysis was performed as one of the bid - brains in dialogue - activities (www.neuromedia.eu. bid is a three year project supported by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Program and coordinated by Sissa, the International School for Advanced Studies of Trieste, aimed at fostering dialogue between science and society on the new challenges coming from neuroscience.

  13. Nuclear waste and hazardous waste in the public perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruetli, Pius; Seidl, Roman; Stauffacher, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The disposal of nuclear waste has gained attention of the public for decades. Accordingly, nuclear waste has been a prominent issue in natural, engineer and social science for many years. Although bearing risks for todays and future generations hazardous waste in contrast is much less an issue of public concern. In 2011, we conducted a postal survey among Swiss Germans (N = 3.082) to learn more about, how nuclear waste is perceived against hazardous waste. We created a questionnaire with two versions, nuclear waste and hazardous waste, respectively. Each version included an identical part with well-known explanatory factors for risk perception on each of the waste types separately and additional questions directly comparing the two waste types. Results show that basically both waste types are perceived similarly in terms of risk/benefit, emotion, trust, knowledge and responsibility. However, in the direct comparison of the two waste types a complete different pattern can be observed: Respondents perceive nuclear waste as more long-living, more dangerous, less controllable and it, furthermore, creates more negative emotions. On the other hand, respondents feel more responsible for hazardous waste and indicate to have more knowledge about this waste type. Moreover, nuclear waste is perceived as more carefully managed. We conclude that mechanisms driving risk perception are similar for both waste types but an overarching negative image of nuclear waste prevails. We propose that hazardous waste should be given more attention in the public as well as in science which may have implications on further management strategies of hazardous waste.

  14. Public perceptions of arguments supporting and opposing recreational marijuana legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Heley, Kathryn; Barry, Colleen L

    2017-06-01

    In debates about recreational marijuana legalization, pro-legalization arguments highlighting economic and other potential policy benefits compete with anti-legalization arguments emphasizing public health risks. In 2016, we conducted a national survey using an online panel (N=979) designed to answer two main research questions: (1) How do Americans perceive the relative strength of competing arguments about recreational marijuana legalization? (2) How are perceptions of argument strength associated with public support for recreational marijuana legalization? We examined differences in attitudes among individuals living in states that have/have not legalized recreational marijuana and among Democrats/Independents/Republicans. Ordered logit regression assessed the relationship between perceived argument strength and public support for recreational marijuana legalization. Respondents rated pro-legalization arguments highlighting beneficial economic and criminal justice consequences as more persuasive than anti-legalization arguments emphasizing adverse public health effects. Respondents were more likely to agree with arguments highlighting legalization's potential to increase tax revenue (63.9%) and reduce prison overcrowding (62.8%) than arguments emphasizing negative consequences on motor vehicle crashes (51.8%) and youth health (49.6%). The highest rated anti-legalization arguments highlighted the conflict between state and federal marijuana laws (63.0%) and asserted that legalization will fail to eliminate the black market (57.2%). Respondents who endorsed pro-legalization economic and criminal justice arguments were more likely than other respondents to support legalization. Our findings indicate that, on both side of the recreational marijuana legalization debate, there are arguments that resonate with the American public. However, public health risk messages were viewed as less compelling than pro-legalization economic and criminal justice-oriented arguments

  15. 130 PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF CORRUPTION IN ANAMBRA STATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khan sees corruption from the point of view of people who mismanage public positions for ... weak, where rule of law and adherence to formal rules are not rigorously observed, where political patronage is the ... This has contributed to capital flight from Nigeria to foreign accounts in Europe,. America and other parts of the ...

  16. Gender differences in public perceptions on National Health Insurance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... current two-tiered system. Support for NHI has increased since similar studies in 2005 and 2008, with the simultaneous growth of public discourse on the policy. More females than males support NHI, reflecting the potential of the NHI system to have a positive impact on gender equality and the health of women and girls.

  17. Public perceptions of self-harm: a test of an attribution model of public discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Emma; Townsend, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study applied Corrigan, Markowitz, Watson, Rowan, and Kubiak’s (2003) attribution model of public discrimination toward individuals with mental ill-health to explore public perceptions of self-harm—an underresearched topic, given the size and scale of the problem of self-harm.Participants (community-based adult sample, N=355, aged 18–67 years) were presented with 1 of 10, first-person, vignettes describing an episode of adolescent self-harm and comple...

  18. Effects of Positive Affect on Risk Perceptions in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Affective influences may play a key role in adolescent risk taking, but have rarely been studied. Using an audiovisual method of affect induction, two experimental studies examined the effect of positive affect on risk perceptions in adolescence and young adulthood. Outcomes were risk perceptions regarding drinking alcohol, smoking a cigarette,…

  19. Changing Perception of Physical Properties using Multimodal Augmented Reality: Position Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtenberg, Geert; Sandor, Christian; Hürst, W.O.; Plopski, Alexander; Taketomi, Takafumi; Kato, Hirokazu; Rosa, N.E.

    2016-01-01

    By means of augmented reality (AR) systems it has become increasingly easy to manipulate our perception of real objects. In this position paper we review existing work that changes physical property perception, and propose methods for changing perceived object density during haptic interaction. Our

  20. Perceptions of Academic Performance: Positive Illusions in Adolescents with and without Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Nancy; Roberts, Elizabeth; Toste, Jessica R.

    2013-01-01

    Children with academic and behavioral difficulties have been found to report overly positive self-perceptions of performance in their areas of specific deficit. Researchers typically investigate self-perceptions in reference to both actual performance and ratings by teachers, peers, and parents. However, few studies have investigated whether or…

  1. Risk communication between Experts and the Public: Perceptions and Intentions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, Lennart; Verhost, Philippe; Bouzon, Arlette

    2002-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual and theoretical analysis of risk communication in cases where experts and the public have widely divergent views about the size of a risk: experts find it very small but some members of the public have an opposite view. Other members of the public agree with the experts. Applications are chosen from the risk management problems inhere in the handling of spent nuclear fuel. It is pointed out that the conflicting views have very different bases.The role of trust is analyzed and while it is a crucial issue, it is much broader than what has usually been assumed. Trust refers not only to social trust (i.e. trust in experts or authorities/corporation) but also to basic notions regarding knowledge and science. In a communication situation, the communicated position with regard to risk seems may not be perceived correctly by any of the parties, and positions tend to be entrenched

  2. Public Perceptions of Regulatory Costs, Their Uncertainty and Interindividual Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B; Finkel, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Public perceptions of both risks and regulatory costs shape rational regulatory choices. Despite decades of risk perception studies, this article is the first on regulatory cost perceptions. A survey of 744 U.S. residents probed: (1) How knowledgeable are laypeople about regulatory costs incurred to reduce risks? (2) Do laypeople see official estimates of cost and benefit (lives saved) as accurate? (3) (How) do preferences for hypothetical regulations change when mean-preserving spreads of uncertainty replace certain cost or benefit? and (4) (How) do preferences change when unequal interindividual distributions of hypothetical regulatory costs replace equal distributions? Respondents overestimated costs of regulatory compliance, while assuming agencies underestimate costs. Most assumed agency estimates of benefits are accurate; a third believed both cost and benefit estimates are accurate. Cost and benefit estimates presented without uncertainty were slightly preferred to those surrounded by "narrow uncertainty" (a range of costs or lives entirely within a personally-calibrated zone without clear acceptance or rejection of tradeoffs). Certain estimates were more preferred than "wide uncertainty" (a range of agency estimates extending beyond these personal bounds, thus posing a gamble between favored and unacceptable tradeoffs), particularly for costs as opposed to benefits (but even for costs a quarter of respondents preferred wide uncertainty to certainty). Agency-acknowledged uncertainty in general elicited mixed judgments of honesty and trustworthiness. People preferred egalitarian distributions of regulatory costs, despite skewed actual cost distributions, and preferred progressive cost distributions (the rich pay a greater than proportional share) to regressive ones. Efficient and socially responsive regulations require disclosure of much more information about regulatory costs and risks. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Public Perception of Urban Air Pollution in Four Spanish Cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltra, C.; Jorcano, A.; Sala, R.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study on public reactions to urban air pollution. An on-line survey was implemented in four Spanish cities. Various psychosocial dimensions were assessed: perception of local air quality; attention, understanding and public awareness of the problem of air pollution; perceived impacts on health and quality of life; beliefs of severity, susceptibility and controllability associated with the risk; emotional responses and related self-protection and involvement behaviors. Results show that residents in the four cities pay little attention to the quality of air in their daily life. They perceive air quality in their city as regular. Nevertheless, significant differences exist among cities that could be explained by air pollution levels. Participants believe that air pollution has significant impacts on their health and quality of life; however the degree of information and knowledge about air quality effects seems to be low. Fatalistic beliefs and low controllability regarding the possibility to protect from air pollution were found. Participants declare performing very few self-protection or involvement behaviors. Differences between cities were also found in this dimension. Those findings could be useful for risk communication programs and public involvement strategies in the field of urban air pollution.

  4. Housing in China: State Governance, Market and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese house prices have been receiving huge coverage in both the domestic and the international media. Although the Chinese government has implemented many policies to control house prices, especially in the big cities, it is obvious that there is disequilibrium between demand for and supply of houses. Even though numerous housing policies have been put in place to overcome that, house prices in China are still rising. Many Chinese citizens from the low- and middle-incomes group find it difficult to purchase a house in the cities due to high house prices. This paper covers the current situation of the house prices in China, introduces the existing state of affairs about the Chinese housing market, explores a series of important reasons for high house prices, examines various public policies the Chinese government is using to control real estate, as well as reveals the citizens’ perceptions related to rising house prices. To gauge citizens’ perception of the current state of affairs in this regard, a questionnaire survey was conducted to gather information with a final sample of 256 respondents from more than ten cities of different tiers in the different regions of China.

  5. Education to Action: Improving Public Perception of Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Hoffmaster

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Public perception of bats has historically been largely negative with bats often portrayed as carriers of disease. Bats are commonly associated with vampire lore and thus elicit largely fearful reactions despite the fact that they are a vital and valuable part of the ecosystem. Bats provide a variety of essential services from pest control to plant pollination. Despite the benefits of bats to the environment and the economy, bats are suffering at the hands of humans. They are victims of turbines, human encroachment, pesticides, and, most recently, white nose syndrome. Because of their critical importance to the environment, humans should do what they can to help protect bats. We propose that humans will be more likely to do so if their perceptions and attitudes toward bats can be significantly improved. In a preliminary study we found some support for the idea that people can be educated about bats through bat oriented events and exhibits, and that this greater knowledge can inspire humans to act to save bats.

  6. Nuclear accidents and policy. Notes on public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Felix; Steenbeck, Malte; Wilhelm, Markus [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wirtschaftspolitik

    2013-07-01

    Major nuclear accidents as recently in Fukushima set nuclear power plant security at the top of the public agenda. Using data of the German Socio-Economic Panel we analyze the effects of the Fukushima accident and a subsequent government decision on nuclear power phase-out on several measures of subjective perception in Germany. In the light of current political debates about the strategic orientation of this energy turnaround, such an analysis is of particular interest since non-pecuniary gains in measures of subjective perception might provide further aspects to be taken into consideration when evaluating the economic costs of the policy. We find that the Fukushima accident increases the probability to report greater worries about the environment. Furthermore, we find evidence for a decrease in the probability to be very worried about the security of nuclear power plants as well as for an increase in reported levels of subjective well-being following the government's resolution on nuclear phase-out. Finally we find that the probabilities of reporting very high concerns are related to the distance between the respondents' place of residence and the nearest nuclear power station.

  7. Public perception of flood risks, flood forecasting and mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brilly

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary and integrated approach to the flood mitigation decision making process should provide the best response of society in a flood hazard situation including preparation works and post hazard mitigation. In Slovenia, there is a great lack of data on social aspects and public response to flood mitigation measures and information management. In this paper, two studies of flood perception in the Slovenian town Celje are represented. During its history, Celje was often exposed to floods, the most recent serious floods being in 1990 and in 1998, with a hundred and fifty return period and more than ten year return period, respectively. Two surveys were conducted in 1997 and 2003, with 157 participants from different areas of the town in the first, and 208 in the second study, aiming at finding the general attitude toward the floods. The surveys revealed that floods present a serious threat in the eyes of the inhabitants, and that the perception of threat depends, to a certain degree, on the place of residence. The surveys also highlighted, among the other measures, solidarity and the importance of insurance against floods.

  8. Nuclear accidents and policy. Notes on public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Felix; Steenbeck, Malte; Wilhelm, Markus [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wirtschaftspolitik

    2013-07-01

    Major nuclear accidents as recently in Fukushima set nuclear power plant security at the top of the public agenda. Using data of the German Socio-Economic Panel we analyze the effects of the Fukushima accident and a subsequent government decision on nuclear power phase-out on several measures of subjective perception in Germany. In the light of current political debates about the strategic orientation of this energy turnaround, such an analysis is of particular interest since non-pecuniary gains in measures of subjective perception might provide further aspects to be taken into consideration when evaluating the economic costs of the policy. We find that the Fukushima accident increases the probability to report greater worries about the environment. Furthermore, we find evidence for a decrease in the probability to be very worried about the security of nuclear power plants as well as for an increase in reported levels of subjective well-being following the government's resolution on nuclear phase-out. Finally we find that the probabilities of reporting very high concerns are related to the distance between the respondents' place of residence and the nearest nuclear power station.

  9. The meaning and value of spaceflight public perceptions

    CERN Document Server

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the most serious and comprehensive study, by far, of American public perceptions about the meaning of space exploration, analyzing vast troves of questionnaire data collected by many researchers and polling firms over a span of six decades and anchored in influential social science theories.  It doesn't simply report the percentages who held various opinions, but employs sophisticated statistical techniques to answer profound questions and achieve fresh discoveries. Both the Bush and the Obama administrations have cut back severely on fundamental research in space science and engineering. Understanding better what space exploration means for citizens can contribute to charting a feasible but progressive course. Since the end of the Space Race between the US and the USSR, social scientists have almost completely ignored space exploration as a topic for serious analysis, and this book seeks to revive that kind of contribution. The author communicates the insights in a lucid style, not only ...

  10. Public Perception of Climate Risk: The Case of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskaki, Asimina; Tsermenidis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is generally considered as one of the greatest challenges our world is facing. In the case of Greece climatic change seems to be associated with sea level rise, increase in temperature, variation in precipitation patterns, and extreme weather events. As a result of climate pattern changes a series of consequences are expected in areas involving build environment, infrastructures, health and various sectors of the economy. Even though climate change is probably going to affect Greece in terms of human welfare and economic growth, public perception and attitude do not always identify it as the most important, amongst others, environmental area of concern, or compared to various socio-economic issues. Considering that topics related to climate change involve a certain degree of uncertainty public perception seems to be important when dealing with adaptation strategies to manage or prevent risks from climate change impact and therefore people's reaction to risks seem to be an issue of great importance in future policy planning and implementation. The key issue of this paper is to investigate and analyse public perception in Greece as regards to climate change risk. Through a questionnaire survey this research investigates people's understanding, specific knowledge, opinion, awareness, emotions, behavior with regards to climate change risks and their willingness to pay in order to minimize or prevent risk. In addition, it examines people's willingness to alter current lifestyle and adapt to a changing climate. The information derived from survey data concern the topics and the perceived importance of the causes of the climate change between certain groups of people; the analysis of the data is focused on the correlation between perceived risk and knowledge about the issues involved. Rather than applying a specific technique extensively, we choose to deploy a number of methodologies with which we are able to draw different aspects from the data. To this

  11. Canadian medical students' perceptions of public health education in the undergraduate medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Ingrid V; Hau, Monica; Buxton, Jane A; Elliott, Lawrence J; Harvey, Bart J; Hockin, James C; Mowat, David L

    2009-09-01

    To understand the perceptions and attitudes of Canadian medical students toward their undergraduate medical public health curriculum and to identify student suggestions and priorities for curriculum change. Five focus groups of 11 or 12 medical students from all years of medical school were recruited at McMaster University Faculty of Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba Faculty of Medicine, and University of British Columbia Faculty of Medicine between February and April 2006. A professional facilitator was hired to conduct the focus groups using a unique, computer-based facilitation system. Questions in both the focus group and an accompanying survey sought to determine medical students' understanding and exposure to public health and how this impacted their attitudes and choices toward careers in the public health medical specialty of community medicine. The transcripts were independently reviewed and analyzed by each of the authors to identify themes. Four major themes related to students' desired curriculum change were identified: (1) poor educational experiences in public health courses, (2) lack of positive role models, especially exposure to community medicine specialists, (3) emphasis on statistics and epidemiology, and (4) negative attitudes toward public health topics. Students are disillusioned, disengaged, and disappointed with the public health curriculum currently being provided at the Canadian medical schools studied. Many medical students would prefer a public health curriculum that is more challenging and has more applied field experience and exposure to public health physician role models.

  12. Work Engagement in the Public Service Context: The Dual Perceptions of Job Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Mette Strange; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg

    2017-01-01

    . In this qualitative study, home caregivers’ perceptions of job characteristics are investigated. Semi-structured interviews and observations reveal three main themes: Optimization, helping others and emotional work. These show a dual perception of job characteristics consequently influencing the experienced...... engagement. Using Public Service Motivation literature, these dual perceptions are discussed...

  13. Work Engagement in the Public Service Context: The Dual Perceptions of Job Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Mette Strange; Rosenberg Hansen, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    . In this qualitative study, home caregivers’ perceptions of job characteristics are investigated. Semi-structured interviews and observations reveal three main themes: Optimization, helping others and emotional work. These show a dual perception of job characteristics consequently influencing the experienced...... engagement. Using Public Service Motivation literature, these dual perceptions are discussed...

  14. Fighting obesity or obese persons? Public perceptions of obesity-related health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R; Peterson, J L; Luedicke, J

    2013-06-01

    This study examined public perceptions of obesity-related public health media campaigns with specific emphasis on the extent to which campaign messages are perceived to be motivating or stigmatizing. In summer 2011, data were collected online from a nationally representative sample of 1014 adults. Participants viewed a random selection of 10 (from a total of 30) messages from major obesity public health campaigns from the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia, and rated each campaign message according to positive and negative descriptors, including whether it was stigmatizing or motivating. Participants also reported their familiarity with each message and their intentions to comply with the message content. Participants responded most favorably to messages involving themes of increased fruit and vegetable consumption, and general messages involving multiple health behaviors. Messages that have been publicly criticized for their stigmatizing content received the most negative ratings and the lowest intentions to comply with message content. Furthermore, messages that were perceived to be most positive and motivating made no mention of the word 'obesity' at all, and instead focused on making healthy behavioral changes without reference to body weight. These findings have important implications for framing messages in public health campaigns to address obesity, and suggest that certain types of messages may lead to increased motivation for behavior change among the public, whereas others may be perceived as stigmatizing and instill less motivation to improve health.

  15. University Student and Lecturer Perceptions of Positive Emotions in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Anna Dluzewska; Fitness, Julie; Wood, Leigh Norma

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results of an investigation exploring the experience and functionality of positive feelings and emotions in learning and teaching. The role of emotions in learning is receiving increasing attention; however, few studies have researched how university students and academics experience and perceive positive emotions. A prototype…

  16. Negative public perceptions of juvenile diabetics: applying attribution theory to understand the public's stigmatizing views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanath, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Despite a rise in the incidence of juvenile diabetes globally, little research has focused on public perceptions regarding its patients. The need to evaluate whether the public holds stigmatizing views is pressing when one considers the relatively young age of the patients of the disease. The current study extends the attribution theoretic framework to evaluate public stigma regarding juvenile diabetes. The findings suggest that a large percentage of individuals misattribute the causes of the disease and believe it is relatively rare and that its patients are personally responsible for contracting it. Individuals often utilize pejorative terms describing juvenile diabetes as a disease afflicting children who are lazy, unhealthy, fat, obese, lacking exercise, and having eating disorders.

  17. Understanding public perceptions of benefits and risks of childhood vaccinations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Geoboo

    2014-03-01

    In the face of a growing public health concern accompanying the reemerging threat of preventable diseases, this research seeks mainly to explain variations in the perceived benefits and risks of vaccinations among the general public in the United States. As Mary Douglas and Aaron Wildavsky's grid-group cultural theory of risk perception claims, the analytical results based upon original data from a nationwide Internet survey of 1,213 American adults conducted in 2010 suggest that individuals' cultural predispositions contribute to the formation of their perceptions pertaining to vaccine benefits and risks at both societal and individual levels, in conjunction with other factors suggested by previous risk perception literature, such as perceived prevalence of diseases, trust, knowledge level, and demographic characteristics. Those with a strong hierarch orientation tend to envision greater benefits and lesser risks and conceive of a relatively high ratio of benefit to risk when compared to other cultural types. By contrast, those with a strong fatalist tendency are inclined to emphasize risks and downplay benefits while conceiving of a low vaccination benefit-risk ratio. Situated between hierarchs and fatalists, strong egalitarians are prone to perceive greater benefits, smaller risks, and a more positive benefit-risk ratio than strong individualists. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. The Norwegian public's perception of risk from electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerli, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    A survey with a representative sample of the adult Norwegian population reveals that the public is concerned about the health effects of electromagnetic fields; almost 2/3 of the population regard health effects as a likely consequence if exposed, the level of exposure is regarded as higher today than previously, and a clear majority now consider the fields to be more dangerous than they formerly believed. Despite this general concern, fewer consider personal effects to be probable; approximately one of six reports concern for personal injuries due to the fields. Further, the reported will to act in situations of known exposure from a (hypothetical) power line nearby is high, either by gathering information or putting up shielding against the fields. More concerned parts of the public also show a more committed engagement, including a higher willingness to make economic sacrifices for limiting the fields. There are special features of risk perception across the sample, and gender differences are particularly prominent. Women regard health effects more probable, and respond more strongly to situations of known exposure. People living near to power lines seem to be more aware of the fields, but at the same time cancer is regarded less probable by this group. (author)

  19. Perceptions on nuclear energy: scientists, media and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, K.S.

    2009-01-01

    awareness programmes were limited. But that has changed perceptibly over the past two decades. Very few journalists knew the intricacies of the subject. Those who knew could not get access to scientists. Scientists were reluctant to communicate. Many young journalists realized that they could make good copies by mixing news with 'radiation and radioactivity'. The lecture will highlight the lessons learnt by scientists in interacting with the media and the public and will propose the way forward

  20. Public perception related to a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine transit bus demonstration and hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickson, Allister; Phillips, Al; Morales, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen has been widely considered as a potentially viable alternative to fossil fuels for use in transportation. In addition to price competitiveness with fossil fuels, a key to its adoption will be public perceptions of hydrogen technologies and hydrogen fuel. This paper examines public perceptions of riders of a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine bus and hydrogen as a fuel source

  1. Prevailing public perceptions of the ethics of gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Julie M; Roskams-Edris, Dylan; Kuzeljevic, Boris; Illes, Judy

    2014-08-01

    Gene therapy research is advancing rapidly, and hopes of treating a large number of brain disorders exist alongside ethical concerns. Most surveys of public attitudes toward these ethical issues are already dated and the content of these surveys has been researcher-driven. To examine current public perceptions, we developed an online instrument that is responsive and relevant to the latest research about ethics, gene therapy, and the brain. The 16-question survey was launched with the platform Amazon Mechanical Turk and was made available to residents of Canada and the United States. The survey was divided into six themes: (1) demographic information, (2) general opinions about gene therapy, (3) medical applications of gene therapy, (4) identity and moral/belief systems, (5) enhancement, and (6) risks. We received and analyzed responses from a total of 467 participants. Our results show that a majority of respondents (>90%) accept gene therapy as a treatment for severe illnesses such as Alzheimer disease, but this receptivity decreases for conditions perceived as less severe such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (79%), and for nontherapeutic applications (47%). The greatest area of concern for the application of gene therapy to brain conditions is the fear of not receiving sufficient information before undergoing the treatment. The main ethical concerns with enhancement were the potential for disparities in resource allocation, access to the procedure, and discrimination. When comparing these data with those from the 1990s, our findings suggest that the acceptability of gene therapy is increasing and that this trend is occurring despite lingering concerns over ethical issues. Providing the public and patients with up-to-date information and opportunities to engage in the discourse about areas of research in gene therapy is a priority.

  2. Public perception of radioactive waste management and lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curd, Peter James [UK Nirex Ltd., Harwell, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    1989-07-01

    This paper reviews the background to the current public awareness campaign on the management of radioactive wastes, which culminated in the publication by UK Nirex Limited of a Discussion Document 'The Way Forward'. The lessons learned from previous confrontations with communities and pressure groups are outlined together with the philosophy behind the Company's comprehensive discussion programme. An open policy of information distribution, while necessary was not enough. Therefore previous Nirex public information programmes had been less successful than hoped. Much has been learned from the problems encountered and this has been applied to develop a new programme. The importance of inviting people to take part in the decision process is manifest, and the discussion process was designed to encourage participation. It was an important step in overcoming the perception of secrecy which still surrounds the nuclear industry as a whole. It was unlikely that many communities would volunteer to take responsibility for the nations nuclear waste, although there are encouraging signs that some communities see the potential benefits outweigh perceived risks. However, by actively airing the matter in the general absence of local controversy a lot of accurate and hopefully persuasive information has been passed to many people and organisations in an atmosphere conducive to gaining their attention. If the Nirex discussion programme achieved nothing else there should be no local authority in the United Kingdom who does not know who we are, what we are doing and why. Having made a good start it is essential that an open debate continues and that local communities continue to share in the decision making process. There will be problems to overcome especially where unpopular recommendations have to be made but Nirex will continue to make every effort to win confidence and support by deeds as well as words.

  3. Public perception of radioactive waste management and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curd, Peter James

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the background to the current public awareness campaign on the management of radioactive wastes, which culminated in the publication by UK Nirex Limited of a Discussion Document 'The Way Forward'. The lessons learned from previous confrontations with communities and pressure groups are outlined together with the philosophy behind the Company's comprehensive discussion programme. An open policy of information distribution, while necessary was not enough. Therefore previous Nirex public information programmes had been less successful than hoped. Much has been learned from the problems encountered and this has been applied to develop a new programme. The importance of inviting people to take part in the decision process is manifest, and the discussion process was designed to encourage participation. It was an important step in overcoming the perception of secrecy which still surrounds the nuclear industry as a whole. It was unlikely that many communities would volunteer to take responsibility for the nations nuclear waste, although there are encouraging signs that some communities see the potential benefits outweigh perceived risks. However, by actively airing the matter in the general absence of local controversy a lot of accurate and hopefully persuasive information has been passed to many people and organisations in an atmosphere conducive to gaining their attention. If the Nirex discussion programme achieved nothing else there should be no local authority in the United Kingdom who does not know who we are, what we are doing and why. Having made a good start it is essential that an open debate continues and that local communities continue to share in the decision making process. There will be problems to overcome especially where unpopular recommendations have to be made but Nirex will continue to make every effort to win confidence and support by deeds as well as words

  4. Psychotherapy as a treatment modality for psychiatric disorders: Perceptions of general public of Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Abdul

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric disorders affect about 450 million individuals worldwide. A number of treatment modalities such as psychotropic medications, psychotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy can be used to treat these disorders. Attitudes of general public play a pivotal role in effective utilization of mental health services. We explored the perceptions of general public of Karachi, Pakistan regarding psychotherapy. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Karachi, Pakistan during July-August, 2008. A three-step sampling strategy and a structured questionnaire were employed to survey knowledge and perceptions of adult general public about psychotherapy. Descriptive statistics were used for baseline characteristics. Logistic regression models were used to investigate any significant associations between baseline characteristics of the participants and their perceptions. Results The study sample comprised of 985 individuals (536 males; 531 financially independent with an average age of 36.7 years (SD 13.54 years and 12.5 years (SD 3.09 years of education were included. Majority (59.4%; n = 585 claimed to be aware of psychotherapy as a treatment option for psychiatric disorders but 47.5% of these (n = 278/585 failed to identify its correct definition. Concerns voiced by the participants about psychotherapy included stigma (48.7% and breech in confidentiality (39.5%; 60.7% opined it cost effective and 86.5% favored its use as an adjuvant modality. A preference for psychotherapy as the treatment strategy for psychiatric disorders was demonstrated by 46.6% (n = 459/985. Younger, more educated, financially independent and female participants were more likely to prefer psychotherapy as were those who deemed it cost effective. Conclusion Positive attitudes regarding the acceptability, clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy were observed in a sample representative of general public of Karachi, Pakistan. These findings

  5. Homeless Adolescents' Perceptions of Positive Development: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Brooke Dolenc; Vuchinich, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background: While some recent research has addressed homeless youth from a strengths-based approach, comparative studies of homeless and non-homeless youth from a strengths perspective are few; research that includes youth's views on positive youth development are also limited. Objective: Addressing these gaps and using an inductive approach,…

  6. Optional contributions have positive effects for volunteering public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qi-Qing; Li, Zhen-Peng; Fu, Chang-He; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2011-11-01

    Public goods (PG) games with the volunteering mechanism are referred to as volunteering public goods (VPG) games, in which loners are introduced to the PG games, and a loner obtains a constant payoff but not participating the game. Considering that small contributions may have positive effects to encourage more players with bounded rationality to contribute, this paper introduces optional contributions (high value or low value) to these typical VPG games-a cooperator can contribute a high or low payoff to the public pools. With the low contribution, the logit dynamics show that cooperation can be promoted in a well mixed population comparing to the typical VPG games, furthermore, as the multiplication factor is greater than a threshold, the average payoff of the population is also enhanced. In spatial VPG games, we introduce a new adjusting mechanism that is an approximation to best response. Some results in agreement with the prediction of the logit dynamics are found. These simulation results reveal that for VPG games the option of low contributions may be a better method to stimulate the growth of cooperation frequency and the average payoff of the population.

  7. Perception of Journalists on the Role of Public Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Grasu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relations with the media are the main activity performed by the public relations specialists for maintaining a positive image of the organization they represent. This relation between public relations and journalists can become, sometimes, a conflicting one, but both of them admit that they need each other. On the on hand, communication specialists try to satisfy journalists‟ information needs, and on the other hand, the journalists satisfy PR-ists needs to put in a favorable light the organization they represent. In this study we intend to identify the opinion of journalists on public relations and spokesperson in relation to the work of the journalist and also to identify the reasons of journalists for not trust the profession of media relationist. The questionnaire was applied in the range 1 to 20 March 2014. The sampling was non-probabilistic one, the only criterion for selection of respondents being the status of journalist. The questionnaire answered 50 journalists from central and local press. In terms of the positions held by the respondents, the sample is as follows: 12% are director, 24% have editor function, 14% are editors and 34% are reporters.

  8. Public perception and acceptance on nuclear energy in China from questionnaire and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yangping; Zhang Zuoyi; Ma Yanxiu; Shi Zhengang; Liu Changxin

    2010-01-01

    China's nuclear industry is recently experiencing rapid development, creating a need for research into public perceptions and acceptance of nuclear power. In this paper, we propose a strategy for investigating public perception and acceptance in China, in a continuous and accurate way, and testing the effectiveness of public education in order to find a proper way to improve the perception and acceptance of nuclear energy in China. Questionnaires are conducted separately both before and after public education activities on nuclear energy held in Beijing. Some conclusions and future continuation of this study are also discussed. (author)

  9. Perception of Dalmatia in selected foreign lexicographic publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Faričić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the perception of Dalmatia in selected foreign, primarily French, British, Italian, German and American, lexicographic publications. Knowledge related to a specific area can be gained by personal (primary experience, i.e. one's own experience of space, and by indirect (secondary experience, i.e. from textual descriptions, graphic and cartographic presentations. Geographic knowledge is a certain type of spatial cognition that contributes to creating one's own mental map of a specific area. Probability of existence of different versions of such a mental map is much higher in case of larger areas that cannot be perceived as a whole, or in case of areas that have been marked by significant changes throughout their historical and geographic development. Indirect experience has a great importance in view of unknown and less known areas, because it is gained by the use of secondary and tertiary sources of geographic information. Among those sources of geographic information are lexicographic publications, such as encyclopedias, lexicons and geographic dictionaries, marked by availability, systematic form and conciseness. The problems that occur when defining spatial extent of Dalmatia in such works derive from the fact that the origins of that Croatian region were not the result of gradual centennial development within one state. Namely, it was a region on the contact of three powerful states (Venetian Republic, Ottoman Empire and Habsburg Monarchy, and its spatial extent differed from the extent of the great Roman province of Dalmatia that stretched from the Adriatic Sea to Posavina, and from the extent of the Byzantine theme that comprised different small and territorially disconnected urban communities on the northeastern Adriatic coast.

  10. Disentangling the influence of value predispositions and risk/benefit perceptions on support for nanotechnology among the American public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoun; Yeo, Sara K; Brossard, Dominique; Scheufele, Dietram A; Xenos, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    Using nanotechnology as a case study, this article explores (1) how people's perceptions of benefits and risks are related to their approval of nanotechnology, (2) which information-processing factors contribute to public risk/benefit perceptions, and (3) whether individuals' predispositions (i.e., deference to scientific authority and ideology) may moderate the relationship between cognitive processing and risk perceptions of the technology. Results indicate that benefit perceptions positively affect public support for nanotechnology; perceptions of risk tend to be more influenced by systematic processing than by heuristic cues, whereas both heuristic and systematic processing influence benefit perceptions. People who are more liberal-minded tend to be more affected by systematic processing when thinking about the benefits of nanotechnology than those who are more conservative. Compared to less deferent individuals, those who are more deferent to scientific authority tend to be less influenced by systematic processing when making judgments about the benefits and risks of nanotechnology. Implications are discussed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Predictors of public climate change awareness and risk perception around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien Ming; Markowitz, Ezra M.; Howe, Peter D.; Ko, Chia-Ying; Leiserowitz, Anthony A.

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is a threat to human societies and natural ecosystems, yet public opinion research finds that public awareness and concern vary greatly. Here, using an unprecedented survey of 119 countries, we determine the relative influence of socio-demographic characteristics, geography, perceived well-being, and beliefs on public climate change awareness and risk perceptions at national scales. Worldwide, educational attainment is the single strongest predictor of climate change awareness. Understanding the anthropogenic cause of climate change is the strongest predictor of climate change risk perceptions, particularly in Latin America and Europe, whereas perception of local temperature change is the strongest predictor in many African and Asian countries. However, other key factors associated with public awareness and risk perceptions highlight the need to develop tailored climate communication strategies for individual nations. The results suggest that improving basic education, climate literacy, and public understanding of the local dimensions of climate change are vital to public engagement and support for climate action.

  12. Leading US nano-scientists’ perceptions about media coverage and the public communication of scientific research findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Youngjae; Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the significant increase in the use of nanotechnology in academic research and commercial products over the past decade, there have been few studies that have explored scientists’ perceptions and attitudes about the technology. In this article, we use survey data from the leading U.S. nano-scientists to explore their perceptions about two issues: the public communication of research findings and media coverage of nanotechnology, which serves as one relatively rapid outlet for public communication. We find that leading U.S. nano-scientists do see an important connection between the public communication of research findings and public attitudes about science. Also, there is a connection between the scientists’ perceptions about media coverage and their views on the timing of public communication; scientists with positive attitudes about the media are more likely to support immediate public communication of research findings, while others believe that communication should take place only after research findings have been published through a peer-review process. We also demonstrate that journalists might have a more challenging time getting scientists to talk with them about nanotechnology news stories because nano-scientists tend to view media coverage of nanotechnology as less credible and less accurate than general science media coverage. We conclude that leading U.S. nano-scientists do feel a sense of responsibility for communicating their research findings to the public, but attitudes about the timing and the pathway of that communication vary across the group.

  13. Leading US nano-scientists' perceptions about media coverage and the public communication of scientific research findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Youngjae; Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the significant increase in the use of nanotechnology in academic research and commercial products over the past decade, there have been few studies that have explored scientists' perceptions and attitudes about the technology. In this article, we use survey data from the leading U.S. nano-scientists to explore their perceptions about two issues: the public communication of research findings and media coverage of nanotechnology, which serves as one relatively rapid outlet for public communication. We find that leading U.S. nano-scientists do see an important connection between the public communication of research findings and public attitudes about science. Also, there is a connection between the scientists' perceptions about media coverage and their views on the timing of public communication; scientists with positive attitudes about the media are more likely to support immediate public communication of research findings, while others believe that communication should take place only after research findings have been published through a peer-review process. We also demonstrate that journalists might have a more challenging time getting scientists to talk with them about nanotechnology news stories because nano-scientists tend to view media coverage of nanotechnology as less credible and less accurate than general science media coverage. We conclude that leading U.S. nano-scientists do feel a sense of responsibility for communicating their research findings to the public, but attitudes about the timing and the pathway of that communication vary across the group.

  14. Institutional transparency improves public perception of lab animal technicians and support for animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Katelyn E; Han, Zetta; Robbins, Jesse; Weary, Daniel M

    2018-01-01

    The use of animals in research is controversial and often takes place under a veil of secrecy. Lab animal technicians responsible for the care of animals at research institutions are sometimes described as performing 'dirty work' (i.e. professions that are viewed as morally tainted), and may be stigmatized by negative perceptions of their job. This study assessed if transparency affects public perceptions of lab animal technicians and support for animal research. Participants (n = 550) were randomly assigned to one of six scenarios (using a 3x2 design) that described identical research varying only the transparency of the facility (low, high) and the species used (mice, dogs, cows). Participants provided Likert-type and open-ended responses to questions about the personal characteristics (warmth, competence) of a hypothetical lab technician 'Cathy' and their support for the described research. Quantitative analysis showed participants in the low-transparency condition perceived Cathy to be less warm and were less supportive of the research regardless of animal species. Qualitative responses varied greatly, with some participants expressing support for both Cathy and the research. These results suggest that increasing transparency in lab animal institutions could result in a more positive perception of lab animal researchers and the work that they do.

  15. Sentence-position effects on children's perception and production of English third person singular -s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara, Megha; Demuth, Katherine; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2011-02-01

    Two-year-olds produce third person singular -s more accurately on verbs in sentence-final position as compared with verbs in sentence-medial position. This study was designed to determine whether these sentence-position effects can be explained by perceptual factors. For this purpose, the authors compared 22- and 27-month-olds' perception and elicited production of third person singular -s in sentence-medial versus-final position. The authors assessed perception by measuring looking/listening times to a 1-screen display of a cartoon paired with a grammatical versus an ungrammatical sentence (e.g., She eats now vs. She eat now). Children at both ages demonstrated sensitivity to the presence/absence of this inflectional morpheme in sentence-final, but not sentence-medial, position. Children were also more accurate at producing third person singular -s sentence finally, and production accuracy was predicted by vocabulary measures as well as by performance on the perception task. These results indicate that children's more accurate production of third person singular -s in sentence-final position cannot be explained by articulatory factors alone but that perceptual factors play an important role in accounting for early patterns of production. The findings also indicate that perception and production of inflectional morphemes may be more closely related than previously thought.

  16. Time and time again: risk perceptions by experts, legislators and the public over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, I.; Mays, C.; Sugier, N.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the hypothesis that a very different curve in perceptions of managed technological risks may be observed over time in experts, political decision makers, and the general public. Experts may have high risk perceptions during the phase of technology development, with the outcome of risk-reducing design. Members of the public, in their role as consumers, may perceive new technologies as very risky until such time as they have become integrated into everyday practice. At that time, with feedback from experience, risk perceptions may rise again in experts. The perceptions of legislators may respond to those expressed by either or both groups. Economic and social theories of risk perception are cited to construct the curve of risk perception for each group. (authors)

  17. Putting Like a Pro: The Role of Positive Contagion in Golf Performance and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charles; Linkenauger, Sally A.; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Joy-Gaba, Jennifer A.; Profitt, Dennis R.

    2011-01-01

    Many amateur athletes believe that using a professional athlete's equipment can improve their performance. Such equipment can be said to be affected with positive contagion, which refers to the belief of transference of beneficial properties between animate persons/objects to previously neutral objects. In this experiment, positive contagion was induced by telling participants in one group that a putter previously belonged to a professional golfer. The effect of positive contagion was examined for perception and performance in a golf putting task. Individuals who believed they were using the professional golfer's putter perceived the size of the golf hole to be larger than golfers without such a belief and also had better performance, sinking more putts. These results provide empirical support for anecdotes, which allege that using objects with positive contagion can improve performance, and further suggest perception can be modulated by positive contagion. PMID:22028804

  18. 'Fracking' Controversy and Communication: Using National Survey Data to Understand Public Perceptions of Hydraulic Fracturing (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudet, H. S.

    2013-12-01

    The recent push to develop unconventional sources of oil and gas both in the U.S. and abroad via hydraulic fracturing ('fracking') has generated a great deal of controversy. Effectively engaging stakeholders and setting appropriate policies requires insights into current public perceptions of this issue. Using a nationally representative U.S. sample (N=1,061), we examine public perceptions of hydraulic fracturing including: 'top of mind' associations; familiarity with the issue; levels of support/opposition; and predictors of such judgments. Similar to findings on other emerging technologies, our results suggest limited familiarity with the process and its potential impacts and considerable uncertainty about whether to support it. Multiple regression analysis (r2 = 0.49) finds that women, those holding egalitarian worldviews, those who read newspapers more than once a week, those more familiar with hydraulic fracturing, and those who associate the process with environmental impacts are more likely to oppose fracking. In contrast, people more likely to support fracking tend to be older, hold a bachelor's degree or higher, politically conservative, watch TV news more than once a week, and associate the process with positive economic or energy supply outcomes. Based on these findings, we discuss recommendations for future research, risk communication, and energy policy.

  19. The value of communication in changing public perception on nuclear technology: an experience with college students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Wellington Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays public acceptance is the most frequent keyword used in the Brazilian nuclear scenario with the revival of the nuclear program, in which the construction of more nuclear power plants and a national radioactive waste repository are expected. The acceptance of such activities is tightly linked to a strategic communication plan, the effective tool to be implemented if success is intended. Isolated communication actions are being done in the nuclear area and this paper presents one example of them, describing the experience with college students from two educational institutions, who attended the lecture 'Nuclear technology: prejudice, fundamentals, applications and challenges'. Opinion surveys were done before and after each event, to know the opinions towards nuclear technology. The surveys were based on the choice of three words from about 10 not ordered stimulating keywords and each participant was invited to choose the first three ones that could represent the image he/she had when faced with the theme 'nuclear technology'. The lecture included topics covering positive and negative points of the nuclear technology. The measured results after the lectures shown positive perspective in the first images associated with the nuclear technology, despite focus on accidents was given in the final part of the event. The results show that some effectiveness on the target public was achieved in terms of bringing new perceptions on this technology. It is expected that this article can contribute somehow to the discussion of public acceptance of nuclear technology in Brazil. (author)

  20. Square Pegs in Round Holes: Montessori Principals' Perceptions of Science Education in Texas Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the perceptions of Texas public Montessori school principals as instructional leaders in science. Twelve public Montessori school principals were interviewed for this study. Two research questions were used: How do public Montessori principals perceive Texas science standards in public…

  1. Scientific Consensus, Public Perception and Religious Beliefs – A Case Study on Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai A. GÎRŢU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the recent public debate over global warming we discuss the scientific consensus and public perception on climate issues. We then turn to the ongoing debate on diets and nutrition, comparing scientific perspectives, public views and religious standpoints.

  2. Nutrition labelling and the choices logo in Israel: positions and perceptions of leading health policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, A; Endevelt, R; Tirosh-Kamienchick, Y

    2014-02-01

    Based on the Social Marketing approach and Diffusion of Innovations Theory that indicates the importance of opinion leaders with respect to the spreading of new ideas, concepts or practices within a community, the present study aimed to examine positions and perceptions of Israeli leading dietitians and health officials regarding nutrition labelling and the Choices logo, before it was launched in Israel in February 2011, as well as how they would communicate it to the public as agents of influence. The study involved in-depth face-to-face and telephone interviews with 15 senior dietitians and Health Ministry officials using semi-structured protocols including questions about nutrition labelling and the Choices logo. The respondents considered that the nutrition facts panels usually found on the backs of packages are too complicated for the average consumer. Simiularly, fronts of packages are cluttered with advertisements and health claims, causing confusion. The study participants would like to see an integrative label on the front of the package to facilitate consumers' decisions. However, the Choices logo raises ethical and social questions about the conflict between corporate interests and public health: (i) the label's relativity versus objectivity; (ii) the consumer's responsibility to create a balanced diet; (iii) the label's credibility; and (iv) bias against companies, products and audiences. The results of the present study highlight the importance of a need for an integrated programme of nutrition promotion, including the use of social marketing based on a cooperative effort between the food industry, regulators and professionals, to recommend changes and adjustments in nutritional front of package labelling with the aim of promoting healthier nutrition consumption. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Perceptions of public transport travel time and their effect on choice-sets among car drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J.A. van Exel (Job); P. Rietveld (Piet)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCar drivers' perceptions of the quality of alternative travel modes have been identified as a barrier for including these alternatives in their choice sets. The present study investigated the accuracy of car drivers' perceptions of public transport (PT) travel time and the potential

  4. Teachers' and School Leaders' Perceptions of Commercialisation in Australian Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Anna; Thompson, Greg; Sellar, Sam; Lingard, Bob

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores teachers' and school leaders' perceptions of commercialisation in Australian public schools, reporting on findings from an open-ended survey question from an exploratory study that sought to investigate teacher and school leader perceptions and experiences of commercialisation. Commercialisation, for the purposes of this paper,…

  5. Environmental vulnerability in public perceptions and attitudes : The case of Israel's urban centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drori, Israel

    Objective. This article investigates how urban environmental vulnerability to hazards reflects in the perceptions and attitudes of the public in three major cities in Israel: Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, and Haifa. Our central argument is that the differences between the residents' perceptions and attitudes

  6. Analysis of Public Perception on Radiation: with One Year after Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Bang Ju

    2012-01-01

    A year has passed since the nuclear power plant accident in Fukushima on March 11, 2011, and a survey for public perception on radiation by Korean people has been made. The methodological design was based on a quantitative survey and a frequency analysis was done. The analysis objects were survey papers (n=2,754pcs) answered by random ordinary citizens chosen from all over the country. The questionnaires, and study tool, were directly distributed and collected. A total of 40 questionnaires using a coefficient of Cronbach's α per each area was 'self perception of radiation' (0.620), 'radiation risk' (0.830), 'benefit from radiation' (0.781), 'radiation controlled' (0.685), 'informative source of radiation' (0.831), 'influence degree from Fukushima accident' (0.763), showing rather high score from all areas. As the result of the questionnaires, the knowledge of radiation concept was 69.50 out of 100 points, which shows a rather significant difference from the result of 'know well about radiation' (53.7%) and 'just know about radiation' (37.40%). According to the survey, one of the main reasons why radiation seems risky was that once exposed to radiation, it may not have negative impacts presently but, the next generation could see negative impacts (66.1%). About 41% of our respondents showed a negative position against the government's report on radiation while 39.5% of respondents said that we should stop running nuclear power in light of Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. This study was done for the first time by Korean people's public perception on radiation after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. We expect this might have significant contributions to the establishment of the government's policy on radiation.

  7. 75 FR 4042 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Public Perceptions and Attitudes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Public Perceptions and Attitudes About Hawaiian Monk Seals AGENCY..., attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors regarding the endangered Hawaiian monk seal. The information...

  8. Perceptions and Positionings of Colleges in New York City: A Longitudinal Study of Brand Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sylvia D.

    2005-01-01

    A study of high school seniors' perceptions of colleges, conducted in 1979, was replicated 23 years later. The study affords an opportunity to examine perceptual changes over time and provides an additional perspective on the positioning of colleges, apart from other well-known surveys. This information may be useful for those involved in…

  9. Images of Famous People in Political Advertising: Youth Perceptions and Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov I. Ryumshina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article touches upon the issues of youth awareness about the recent political events and its attitude to the political advertising, examines youth perception and position in respect of famous people, as well as candidates participation in political advertising on the example of the last presidential campaign. The study describes the most attractive elements of the political advertising for youth

  10. Single Black Working Mothers' Perceptions: The Journey to Achieve Leadership Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglin, Sherrell

    2017-01-01

    Single Black working mothers faced significant challenges in achieving high-level or senior-level leadership positions. The purpose of this qualitative narrative study was to collect, analyze and code the stories told by 10 participants to understand the perceptions and insights of the challenges and barriers single Black working mothers faced in…

  11. Public Perception of Environmental Pollution in Warri, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Keyword: Perception, Environmental pollution, Warri, Nigeria, Environmental laws. Pollution has been ..... Table 3: Awareness of the impacts of pollution on environmental resources. Impacts on crop .... Oil Exploitation: The Case of Isoko Local.

  12. Implementing a Public Bicycle Share Program: Impact on Perceptions and Support for Public Policies for Active Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger-Gravel, Ariane; Gauvin, Lise; Fuller, Daniel; Drouin, Louis

    2015-04-01

    Favorable public opinion and support for policies are essential to favor the sustainability of environmental interventions. This study examined public perceptions and support for active living policies associated with implementing a public bicycle share program (PBSP). Two cross-sectional population-based telephone surveys were conducted in 2009 and 2010 among 5011 adults in Montréal, Canada. Difference-in-differences analyses tested the impact of the PBSP on negative perceptions of the impact of the PBSP on the image of the city, road safety, ease of traveling, active transportation, health, and resistance to policies. People living closer to docking stations were less likely to have negative perceptions of the effect of the PBSP on the image of the city (OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8) and to be resistant to policies (OR = 0.8; 95% CI, 0.6-1.0). The likelihood of perceiving negative effects on road safety increased across time (OR = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8). Significant interactions were observed for perceptions of ease of traveling (OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8), active transportation (OR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-1.0), and health (OR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8): likelihood of negative perceptions decreased across time among people exposed. Findings indicate that negative perceptions were more likely to abate among those living closer to the PBSP.

  13. Conversations between scientists and the public in radio phone-ins: an experimental approach to analyse public perception of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merzagora Matteo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available “Il ciclotrone” is the weekly science programme of “Radio Popolare - Popolare Network”, the most important independent news radio network in Italy, based in Milan. During the last 12 years, once or twice a month listeners have been able to directly ask questions to the guest scientists in the studios, or to express their point of view on some controversial scientific issue. Among mass-media, the radio has several characteristics which tend to enhance the sense of friendliness and belonging - essential to any true communication. Phone-ins at Radio Popolare are not filtered; regular and occasional listeners are used to communicate with or through the radio, and in doing so they contribute to the sense of spontaneity which characterise the programmes. During “Il ciclotrone”, very often the ''anchor'' tends to disappear, and phone-ins become a lively conversation between the scientists and the public (whose members seldom agree with each other. In this presentation, phone-ins on science - over the years they involved internationally famous scientists (such as Lewontin, Damasio, Amaldi, Rotblat, Di Chiara, …, and less well-known but reputed Italian researchers - are analysed in terms of their capabilities of providing a tool to understand public perception of science. Moreover, the authors believe that science journalism shouldn't only inform or educate the public on the work of scientists, but also inform or educate the scientists on how their work is perceived. Indeed, scientists seldom have a chance to hear the criticism (positive or negative of a large, unselected audience and to have a first-hand grasp of public feelings concerning their work.

  14. PAGs - Public perception and acceptance[Protective Action Guides (PAGs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quillin, Robert M [Radiation Control Division, Colorado Department of Health, Denver, CO (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Full text: While Protective Action Guides or PAGs have been a part of the lexicon of the radiation protection field for several decades, the concept of accepting higher levels of risk under certain situations has not received adequate scrutiny by the general public, the media or elected officials. Consequently there is a question as to how implementation of PAGs would be perceived by the above groups in the event that such implementation became necessary. A personal case in point involves the response of an executive in the food industry. When the concept of selling a food product meeting the PAGs was explained his response was, 'we won't sell a contaminated product, we would dump the unprocessed raw food. Our industry image is that of a natural unadulterated food'. While this may be an isolated view, there is a need to determine what is the perception and consequently what would be the response if PAGs were implemented today. If the response was negative by anyone of the three groups listed previously, then there is an obvious need for a program to assure receptiveness by those concerned. However, this may face formidable obstacles. This is because the terms radiation and radioactive have gained generally negative word associations, e.g. 'deadly' radiation and radioactive 'desert'. The former term was recently heard in a taped presentation at a Museum of Natural History on a completely unrelated subject. The latter term was part of a recent article heading in the Wall Street Journal. Incidentally the article was discussing television. Thus beyond the scientific issues of setting PAGs and the administrative and procedural issues of implementing PAGs there is the issue of society's understanding and acceptance of PAGs. Particularly, how can such understanding and acceptance be achieved in a situation which is associated with an actual or perceived radiation emergency? These are not questions that radiation or agricultural scientists can answer alone. These are

  15. Social Media Management Strategies for Organizational Impression Management and their Effect on Public Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benthaus, Janek; Risius, Marten; Beck, Roman

    2016-01-01

    strategy, help companies to positively influence the public perception among social media users. A mixed methods approach is applied, where we quantitatively analyze 15 million user-generated Twitter messages containing information about 45 large global companies highly active on Twitter, as well as almost......With the growing importance of social media, companies increasingly rely on social media management tools to analyze social media activities and to professionalize their social media engagement. In this study, we evaluate how social media management tools, as part of an overarching social media...... 160 thousand corresponding messages sent from these companies via their corporate Twitter accounts. Additionally, we conducted interviews with six social media experts to gain complementary insights. By these means, we are able to identify significant differences between different social media...

  16. 'The stigma attached isn't true of real life': Challenging public perception of dementia through a participatory approach involving people with dementia (Innovative Practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Laura; Innes, Anthea; Poyner, Christopher; Hambidge, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This paper discusses the potential impact of viewing public performances of an orchestra comprising people with dementia, family members, student volunteers and professional symphony orchestra members in contributing to challenging negative perceptions of dementia. Negative perceptions of dementia abound despite recent policy attempts to challenge the stigma associated with the condition. This paper reports on the findings from the performance element of a music project for people with dementia, known as the BUDI Orchestra, designed to replicate the traditional rehearse and perform cycle of musicians. Data were collected via self-completion questionnaires from audience members ( N = 109) at three public performances. The performances exceeded the expectations of the general public, and findings suggest a positive impact on perceptions of dementia, demonstrating the power and potential of participatory approaches showcasing the achievements of those living with dementia when attempting to raise awareness of dementia and challenge negative perceptions.

  17. Risk perception, trust and public engagement in nuclear decision-making in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mah, Daphne Ngar-yin; Hills, Peter; Tao, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which nuclear energy can be a feasible energy option has re-emerged as a subject of widespread debate following the Fukushima accident in Japan. However, relatively little is known about how public inputs can improve nuclear decision-making. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of public opinions regarding nuclear energy by examining its risk perception, trust and public engagement dimensions. Based on a survey of Hong Kong residents (n=509), we make some observations. Firstly, we offer empirical evidence that affirms the theoretical connections between risk perception, trust, and public engagement in the context of nuclear energy. Secondly, our logistic regression analysis indicates that demographics, trust, and perceptions of the efficacy of public engagement are factors explaining perceptions of greater risks and nuclear opposition. Thirdly, our conceptual model sheds light on the complexity of the trust concept, and specifies aspects of trust that are influential in the contexts of risk perception and nuclear choices. Our findings suggest that the Hong Kong government must ensure trust building receives prominent attention in nuclear decision-making, and that it should avoid excessive reliance on the business sector and should assume a key role for itself in enhancing trust in nuclear decision-making. - Highlights: • Risk perception, trust and public engagement matter to nuclear decision-making. • Our logistic regression analysis found that demographics, trust and perception of public engagement are the factors that explain risk perception and nuclear choice in Hong Kong. • Our conceptual model specifics aspects of trust that are influential

  18. Positively Biased Self-Perceptions of Peer Acceptance and Subtypes of Aggression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Rebecca J.; Kistner, Janet A.; Stephens, Haley F.; David-Ferdon, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of research linking children’s positively biased self-perceptions with higher levels of aggression. This study extended this area of research by examining prospective associations of positively biased self-perceptions of peer acceptance with overt and relational aggression. In addition, moderating effects of peer rejection were examined to test the “disputed overestimation hypothesis,” which posits that the link between bias and aggression is limited to children who are rejected by their peers. Using a two-wave longitudinal design, measures of peer-rated and self-perceived peer acceptance and peer-rated overt and relational aggression were obtained for 712 children in 3rd through 5th grades (386 girls and 326 boys). Positively biased perceptions led to increases in relational, but not overt, aggression. This pattern was observed even when the effects of gender, race, peer rejection, and overt aggression on relational aggression were controlled. Contrary to the disputed overestimation hypothesis, the prospective associations between bias and aggression did not vary as a function of children’s peer rejection status, thus supporting the view that positive bias predicts future aggressive behavior, regardless of social status. The results are discussed in terms of the comparability with previous findings and practical implications. PMID:26423823

  19. Information to Improve Public Perceptions of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA’s Tobacco Regulatory Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Osman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While the Food and Drug Administration (FDA has had regulatory authority over tobacco products since 2009, public awareness of this authority remains limited. This research examines several broad types of information about FDA tobacco regulatory mission that may improve the perceptions of FDA as a tobacco regulator. Using Amazon Mechanical Turk, 1766 adults, smokers and non-smokers, were randomly assigned to view a statement about FDA regulatory authority that varied three information types in a 2 × 2 × 2 between subjects experimental design: (1 FDA’s roles in regulating tobacco (yes/no; (2 The scientific basis of regulations (yes/no; and (3 A potential protective function of regulations (yes/no. Using factorial ANOVA, we estimated the main and interactive effects of all three types of information and of smoking status on the perceptions of FDA. Participants that were exposed to information on FDA roles reported higher FDA credibility and a greater perceived knowledge of FDA than those who did not. Exposure to information about the scientific basis of regulations led to more negative views of the tobacco industry. Participants who learned of the FDA’s commitment to protecting the public reported higher FDA credibility and more positive attitudes toward regulations than those who did not learn of this commitment. We observed no significant interaction effects. The findings suggest that providing information about the regulatory roles and protective characterization of the FDA’s tobacco regulatory mission positively influence public perceptions of FDA and tobacco regulations.

  20. Pursuing public and professional perception of nuclear energy with the Smithsonian Lady Godiva replica and demonstration/display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundl, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The following topics were addressed by the speaker at the Fast Burst Reactor Workshop banquet: (1) Lady Godiva and the perception of nuclear energy, (2) the question of public and professional perception of nuclear energy, (3) notions of public perception among Lady Godiva replicators, and (4) the nuclear fission chain: complete embodiment of nuclear energy

  1. A web-based e-learning framework for public perception and acceptance on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yangping; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Liu Jingquan; Ouyang, Jun; Lu Daogang

    2005-01-01

    Now, public acceptance plays a central role in the nuclear energy. Public concerns on safety and sustainability of nuclear energy, ground nuclear power in many countries and territories to a stop or even a downfall. In this study, an e-learning framework by using Internet, is proposed for public education in order to boost public perception on nuclear energy, which will certainly affect public acceptance toward it. This study aims at investigating public perception and acceptance on nuclear energy in a continuous and accurate manner. In addition, this e-learning framework can promote public perception on nuclear energy by using teaching material with a graphical hierarchy about knowledge of nuclear energy. This web-based e-learning framework mainly consists of two components: (1) an e-learning support module which continuously investigates public perception and acceptance toward nuclear energy and teaches public knowledge about nuclear energy; (2) an updating module which may improve the education materials by analyzing the effect of education or proving the materials submitted by the visitors through Wiki pages. Advantages and future work of this study are also generally described. (author)

  2. Science Policy in Spain: National Programs and Public Perception of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica M. Novikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the organization and financing of the Spanish state policy in the field of scientific and technological research and innovation, its institutional basic and the legal and regulatory framework, as well as analyzes the problem of Spanish public opinion on research and work of scientists. The author uses the methods of texts analysis, interviews and expert assessments. First, the author examines the legislative framework of scientific and technical policy of the Kingdom of Spain, the theoretical basis of its development and implementation Then, we study the institutional characteristics of scientific policy in the country, in particular the principal organs of coordination, financing and implementation, including their functional powers. Finally, we investigate the Spanish people perception of the science as a whole, the introduction of new technologies and the sources of material support to scientific research. In conclusion, the past 10years have seen active steps of the Spanish authorities improve the legislation in the field of science in order to ensure the effective implementation of innovation and enhance the overall competitiveness of the country in the international arena. An important finding was also positive changes in the public attitude towards science and the intensification of the dialogue between the scientific community and the public.

  3. PUBLIC PERCEPTION ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT USING VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION (VGI: CASE OF UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Yagoub

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of smart phones that are supported by location facility like Global Positioning System (GPS, Camera and connected to the internet has increased sharply in UAE during the last five years. This increase offers a chance to capitalize on using these devices as resources for data collection, therefore reducing cost. In many cases specific events may happen in areas or at time where there may be no governmental departments to collect such unrepeated events. The current research will showcase various studies that had been conducted on Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI debating various aspects such as accuracy, legal issues, and privacy. This research will also integrate Geographic Information System (GIS, VGI, social media tools, data mining, and mobile technology to design a conceptual framework for promoting public participation in UAE. The data gathered through survey will be helpful in correlating various aspects of VGI. Since there are diverse views about these aspects, policy makers are left undecided in many countries about how to deal with VGI. The assessment of the UAE case will contribute to the age-long debate by examining the willingness of the public to participate. The result will show the public perception to be as sensors for data collection. Additionally, the potential of citizen involvement in the risk and disaster management process by providing voluntary data collected for VGI applications will also be explored in the paper.

  4. Public Perception on Disaster Management Using Volunteered Geographic Information (vgi): Case of Uae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagoub, M. M.

    2015-10-01

    The number of smart phones that are supported by location facility like Global Positioning System (GPS), Camera and connected to the internet has increased sharply in UAE during the last five years. This increase offers a chance to capitalize on using these devices as resources for data collection, therefore reducing cost. In many cases specific events may happen in areas or at time where there may be no governmental departments to collect such unrepeated events. The current research will showcase various studies that had been conducted on Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) debating various aspects such as accuracy, legal issues, and privacy. This research will also integrate Geographic Information System (GIS), VGI, social media tools, data mining, and mobile technology to design a conceptual framework for promoting public participation in UAE. The data gathered through survey will be helpful in correlating various aspects of VGI. Since there are diverse views about these aspects, policy makers are left undecided in many countries about how to deal with VGI. The assessment of the UAE case will contribute to the age-long debate by examining the willingness of the public to participate. The result will show the public perception to be as sensors for data collection. Additionally, the potential of citizen involvement in the risk and disaster management process by providing voluntary data collected for VGI applications will also be explored in the paper.

  5. Public Perceptions of Aquaculture: Evaluating Spatiotemporal Patterns of Sentiment around the World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halley E Froehlich

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is developing rapidly at a global scale and sustainable practices are an essential part of meeting the protein requirements of the ballooning human population. Locating aquaculture offshore is one strategy that may help address some issues related to nearshore development. However, offshore production is nascent and distinctions between the types of aquatic farming may not be fully understood by the public-important for collaboration, research, and development. Here we evaluate and report, to our knowledge, the first multinational quantification of the relative sentiments and opinions of the public around distinct forms of aquaculture. Using thousands of newspaper headlines (Ntotal = 1,596 from developed (no. countries = 26 and developing (42 nations, ranging over periods of 1984 to 2015, we found an expanding positive trend of general 'aquaculture' coverage, while 'marine' and 'offshore' appeared more negative. Overall, developing regions published proportionally more positive than negative headlines than developed countries. As case studies, government collected public comments (Ntotal = 1,585 from the United States of America (USA and New Zealand mirrored the media sentiments; offshore perception being particularly negative in the USA. We also found public sentiment may be influenced by local environmental disasters not directly related to aquaculture (e.g., oil spills. Both countries voiced concern over environmental impacts, but the concerns tended to be more generalized, rather than targeted issues. Two factors that could be inhibiting informed discussion and decisions about offshore aquaculture are lack of applicable knowledge and actual local development issues. Better communication and investigation of the real versus perceived impacts of aquaculture could aid in clarifying the debate about aquaculture, and help support future sustainable growth.

  6. Risk perception of the public living in vicinity of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaojuan; Hou Changsong; Wang Chunyan; Liu Ying; Sun Quanfu; Yu Ningle; Li Ningning; Zhou Rihui; Zhuang Jiayi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the attitude toward and perception of the risk of nuclear power plant among the public residing in vicinity of nuclear power plant, as well as the related factors. Methods: A face-to-face interview on perceived radiation risks was conducted among 1408 individuals in Liangyungang City, Jiangsu Province, where the Tianwan nuclear power plant was under construction. The four groups was defined according to the distance between the residence of the subjects and the Tianwan nuclear power plant: <4 km, 4- 8 km, 8-30 km and 30-50 km. A was used to collect information on education, working history, religion, perception of major industries hazards especially nuclear power plant, and major factors may influence their perceptions. Ordinal logistic regression model was used to analyze the data. Results: About 91.18% of the interviewee heard about the nuclear power plant, 35.36% of them had knowledge about Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, 71.05% of them believed that the nuclear power plant had no negative effects on environments, 37.03% of them believed that the nuclear energy was safe, 74.27% of them believed that it was necessary for China to develop nuclear energy, 63.29% of them supported the construction of the nuclear power plant in local area. Ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that the higher education, higher family annual income, male, economic benefits from the nuclear power plant construction, and trust in local government having competency to handling emergencies were positive factors; otherwise, impression on nuclear power plant of bad influences on environment and health were negative factors. An inverted U-shaped with a right tailing relationship between negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant and distance to the plant was found. Conclusions: Education, gender, family annual income and expectation of economic benefit returns were the major factors influencing the perception of and attitudes toward nuclear power

  7. The Perception of Community Radio as Public Sphere and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levi Manda

    This study takes initial look at the promise of community radio as a public sphere. Given the .... case studies typically contribute only incrementally to our theoretical ..... news and public affairs in mass media communication associated with.

  8. Risk Perception and Risk Communication for Training Women Apprentice Welders: A Challenge for Public Health Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Alves Bonow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%, chemical (96.2%, physiological (88.8%, and biological (62.9%. The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices’ ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning.

  9. Risk Perception and Risk Communication for Training Women Apprentice Welders: A Challenge for Public Health Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz; Piexak, Diéssica Roggia; Vaz, Joana Cezar

    2013-01-01

    This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase) and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase) in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%), chemical (96.2%), physiological (88.8%), and biological (62.9%). The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices' ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning. PMID:24288604

  10. Is the Positive Illusory Bias Illusory? Examining Discrepant Self-Perceptions of Competence in Girls with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Erika N.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    It has been claimed that excessively positive self-perceptions of competence are a key risk factor for concurrent and subsequent impairments in youth with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We examined whether girls with ADHD demonstrate positive illusory self-perceptions in scholastic competence, social acceptance, and behavioral…

  11. Public perception of pharmacists: Film and television portrayals from 1970 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanicak, Amy; Mohorn, Phillip L; Monterroyo, Philipp; Furgiuele, Gabrielle; Waddington, Lindsay; Bookstaver, P Brandon

    2015-01-01

    To determine the percentage of pharmacists portrayed in a positive, negative, or neutral light in films and television shows available in the United States from January 1970 to July 2013. Secondary objectives were to evaluate pharmacist characters as heroes, villains, or victims; assess pharmacist characters' demographics; and determine the presence of pharmacist characters in medical-themed television shows. Retrospective, observational, descriptive study. A review of available U.S. film and television from January 1970 to July 2013 at an academic institution. 214 television episodes or films that contained at least one pharmacist portrayal. Electronic inquiries requesting submissions of known pharmacist portrayals were distributed to pharmacy professionals in national and state-affiliated pharmacy organizations and to faculty, staff, and students at the University of South Carolina. Electronic databases and search engines (Internet Movie Database [IMDb], Bing, and Google) were consulted and used to further research possible pharmacist portrayals. The study investigators developed an algorithm incorporating social norms, common pharmacist practices, and viewer perceptions to determine positive, negative, or neutral status for each pharmacist portrayal. Year and genre of media, demographics of identified pharmacist characters, portrayal status of identified pharmacist characters, and number of pharmacist characters and appearances per each television show reviewed. In the films and television shows reviewed, there were 231 pharmacist portrayals, with 160 unique pharmacist characters. Of the 231 portrayals, 145 (63%) were negative, 30 (13%) were positive, and 56 (24%) were neutral. Of the 160 unique characters, 121 (76%) were male, 120 (75%) were Caucasian, and 86 (54%) were younger than 50 years old. The name of the character was provided for 70 (44%) of the pharmacists portrayed. The portrayal of pharmacists in U.S. film and television is primarily negative

  12. Perceptions of Information System Success in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørum, Hanne; Medaglia, Rony; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2012-01-01

    experience have a greater perception of levels of success. Practical implications – The fact that the majority of webmasters do not perform any type of user testing triggers a reflection on the need for such important intermediaries to enhance their feedback channels. User involvement in assessing IS success...

  13. Public knowledge, attitude and perception of over the counter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... knowledge, attitude and perception of over the counter medicines:Case study in Dar es ... views on OTC in terms of safety and effectiveness and knowledge and ... it shows those pharmacists need to be more proactive in the management of ...

  14. "System Destroys Trust?"--Regulatory Institutions and Public Perceptions of Food Risks in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kuei-tien; Liou, Hwa-meei

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to explore public perceptions of global food risk issues and public attitudes towards government capacity to respond to concerns with technological and health uncertainties in an era of rapid economic development in newly industrialized countries. From cross-national comparative research on global food risk issues in the EU, UK,…

  15. Outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases: Risk perception and behaviour of the general public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bults (Marloes)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis focuses on risk perception and behaviour of the public during the outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases. It consists of studies on Influenza A (H1N1), Q fever and Lyme disease. These studies were conducted among both the general public and specific

  16. Problems related to public perceptions of radiological emergency planning and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, Margaret A.

    1989-01-01

    Beyond the scientific, the administrative and procedural issues of radiological emergency planning and response there is the issue of public perception. This paper emphasises that, radiation crises being a rare occurrence there is no enough database for generating scholarly quantitative reports. It suggests the need for disseminating timely and accurate information through a single spokesman from a responsible public agency

  17. Opportunity to Improve Public Perceptions of Arthropods and Arthropod-Related Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bethany A.; Braman, S. Kristine

    2016-01-01

    The general public may not recognize the value of conserving insects and spiders in home landscapes. We surveyed individuals to assess public perceptions of 10 arthropods--nine common insects and one common spider species--and to determine whether arthropod-related attitudes could be altered. Additionally, we collected data on survey respondent…

  18. Social and Biophysical Predictors of Public Perceptions of Extreme Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, T. E.; Kooistra, C. M.; Paveglio, T.; Gress, S.; Smith, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    To date, what constitutes an 'extreme' fire has been approached separately by biophysical and social scientists. Research on the biophysical characteristics of fires has identified potential dimensions of extremity, including fire size and vegetation mortality. On the social side, factors such as the degree of immediate impact to one's life and property or the extent of social disruption in the community contribute to a perception of extremity. However, some biophysical characteristics may also contribute to perceptions of extremity, including number of simultaneous ignitions, rapidity of fire spread, atypical fire behavior, and intensity of smoke. Perceptions of these impacts can vary within and across communities, but no studies to date have investigated such perceptions in a comprehensive way. In this study, we address the question, to what extent is the magnitude of impact of fires on WUI residents' well-being explained by measurable biophysical characteristics of the fire and subjective evaluations of the personal and community-level impacts of the fire? We bring together diverse strands of psychological theory, including landscape perception, mental models, risk perception, and community studies. The majority of social science research on fires has been in the form of qualitative case studies, and our study is methodologically unique by using a nested design (hierarchical modeling) to enable generalizable conclusions across a wide range of fires and human communities. We identified fires that burned in 2011 or 2012 in the northern Rocky Mountain region that were at least 1,000 acres and that intersected (within 15 km) urban clusters or identified Census places. For fires where an adequately large number of households was located in proximity to the fire, we drew random samples of approximately 150 individuals for each fire. We used a hybrid internet (Qualtrics) and mail survey, following the Dillman method, to measure individual perceptions. We developed two

  19. Public risk perception of food additives and food scares. The case in Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linhai; Zhong, Yingqi; Shan, Lijie; Qin, Wei

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the factors affecting public risk perception of food additive safety and possible resulting food scares using a survey conducted in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. The model was proposed based on literature relating to the role of risk perception and information perception of public purchase intention under food scares. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for data analysis. The results showed that attitude towards behavior, subjective norm and information perception exerted moderate to high effect on food scares, and the effects were also mediated by risk perceptions of additive safety. Significant covariance was observed between attitudes toward behavior, subjective norm and information perception. Establishing an effective mechanism of food safety risk communication, releasing information of government supervision on food safety in a timely manner, curbing misleading media reports on public food safety risk, and enhancing public knowledge of the food additives are key to the development and implementation of food safety risk management policies by the Chinese government. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Public perception on the benefits and risks of nuclear power plants. A simplified study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro Junior, Joaquim Apparecido

    2007-01-01

    Public acceptance of the nuclear based electricity generation depends on many variables that can be affected by circumstances and interests, which although seemingly not close to the issue, can strongly influence the final outcome. Explicit or consented positions assumed by opinion makers and some segments of society are subject to episodic waves of interaction through the media and they permeate to the public in a process that is very complex to be fully understood. The modeling of such process is a very complicated undertaking, and gives no assurance of practical results concerning to what, how and who, should be given prominence in the interactions with the media and the general public. In this context, the risk communication has assumed a leading role and, as a consequence, most of the interaction with the public has been done with both defensive language and content. This study has tried a simple and practical approach to the problem, in such a way as to gather some interesting subsidies to treat this issue in a different way. The basic assumption is that in a similar way as individuals base their decision to acquire a new good or service on a 'intuitive' cost-benefit judgment, society (as a collection of individuals) also manifest their acceptance (or not) with respect to industrial installations and undertakings by comparing risks and benefits according to their perception. An exploratory survey was carried out in a few high schools, colleges and MBA courses in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. A first part was aimed to catch and understand the public perception of: the intrinsic value of the electric energy, the need to universalize the access to electricity, nuclear plants, the acceptance deficit of nuclear power as compared to other sources of energy, the benefits a nuclear plant can bring and who does and who does not deserves credibility to speak about nuclear plants. The second part was addressed to grasp a picture of more relevant distortions concerned

  1. Public perceptions and information gaps in solar energy in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Varun; Beck, Ariane L.

    2015-07-01

    Studying the behavioral aspects of the individual decision-making process is important in identifying and addressing barriers in the adoption of residential solar photovoltaic (PV). However, there is little systematic research focusing on these aspects of residential PV in Texas, an important, large, populous state, with a range of challenges in the electricity sector including increasing demand, shrinking reserve margins, constrained water supply, and challenging emissions reduction targets under proposed federal regulations. This paper aims to address this gap through an empirical investigation of a new survey-based dataset collected in Texas on solar energy perceptions and behavior. The results of this analysis offer insights into the perceptions and motivations influencing intentions and behavior toward solar energy in a relatively untapped market and help identify information gaps that could be targeted to alleviate key barriers to adopting solar, thereby enabling significant emissions reductions in the residential sector in Texas.

  2. PERCEPTIONS OF EXECUTIVE PAYMENT ABUSE IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Pendiuc

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the financial crisis, executive compensation abuse has been deeply criticized. Thus, the actuality of research is undeniable. The article highlights the importance of learning from other institutions’ past and present executive compensation abuse experiences by presenting the participants’ shared experiences (having to do with executive compensation abuse and by studying how participants perceive executive compensation abuse. The main objective of this research lies in exploring participants’ shared experiences concerning executive compensation abuse, as well as their perceptions, discrepancies and unsolved questions – presented within an ample, interconnected qualitative and quantitative methodological approach. A sample of 20 individuals was chosen for the triangulation method. From the resultant triangulation six new themes derive from the interview/questionnaire questions specifically referring to executive payment abuse namely: (a ethics means distinguishing between right and wrong, (b perspectives of ethical behaviour, (c types of executive payment abuse, (d the participant’s perceptions of institution and colleagues.

  3. Public Service Integrity Perception: Case Study In Kutai Kartanegara Regency, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Mutiarin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper was aimed to measure the integrity of public service at Kutai Kartanegara Regency, East Borneo Province, Indonesia. The public service integrity can be seen from many perspective such as how the citizens satisfied with the public services provided by the government, how the public perception on combating corruption, and how success the government providing minimum service standard to the public at large. This three forms of public service integrity was the main focuses of this research in Kutai Kartanegara regency. The phenomenon of public service in Kutai Kartanegara Regency shown out of the tracks and missing to convey the importance of public service values, characterized by uncertainty of charges, time, and procedures. The research used the quantitative methods by scoring 3 indexes, which are the Citizen Satisfaction Index, Corruption Perception Index, and Minimum Service Standard Index. This research used Non-probability Sampling method, also Judgment Sampling procedure, in the development and compilation of the citizens satisfaction index. There were 57 local government agencies that served as the samples. The results of this research were the public service integrity perceptions in Kutai Kartanegara regency was need to be improved on the quantity and quality of public service delivery, commitment and efforts to create a clean government, transparency and accountability especially on e-procurement and to implement minimum service standards in every government offices.

  4. No Correlation between Distorted Body Representations Underlying Tactile Distance Perception and Position Sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Longo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Both tactile distance perception and position sense are believed to require that immediate afferent signals be referenced to a stored representation of body size and shape (the body model. For both of these abilities, recent studies have reported that the stored body representations involved are highly distorted, at least in the case of the hand, with the hand dorsum represented as wider and squatter than it actually is. Here, we investigated whether individual differences in the magnitude of these distortions are shared between tactile distance perception and position sense, as would be predicted by the hypothesis that a single distorted body model underlies both tasks. We used established task to measure distortions of the represented shape of the hand dorsum. Consistent with previous results, in both cases there were clear biases to overestimate distances oriented along the medio-lateral axis of the hand compared to the proximo-distal axis. Moreover, within each task there were clear split-half correlations, demonstrating that both tasks show consistent individual differences. Critically, however, there was no correlation between the magnitudes of distortion in the two tasks. This casts doubt on the proposal that a common body model underlies both tactile distance perception and position sense.

  5. Word position and stress effects in consonant cluster perception and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilibrasi, Luca; Stojanovik, Vesna; Riddell, Patricia

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the saliency effect for word beginnings reported in children with dyslexia (Marshall & Van der Lely, 2009) can be found also in typically developing children. Thirty-four typically developing Italian children aged 8-10 years completed two specifically designed tasks: a production task and a perception task. Both tasks used nonwords containing clusters consisting of plosive plus liquid (e.g. pl). Clusters could be either in a stressed or in an unstressed syllable and could be either in initial position (first syllable) or in medial position (second syllable). In the production task, children were asked to repeat the nonwords. In the perception task, the children were asked to discriminate between two nonwords differing in one phoneme belonging to a cluster by reporting whether two repetitions were the same or different. Results from the production task showed that children are more accurate in repeating stressed than unstressed syllables, but there was no difference with respect to position of the cluster. Results from the perception task showed that children performed more accurately when discriminating word initial contrasts than when discriminating word medial contrasts, especially if the cluster was unstressed. Implications of this finding for clinical assessments are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Negative and positive pretrial publicity affect juror memory and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruva, Christine L; McEvoy, Cathy

    2008-09-01

    The experiment examined the effects of exposure to pretrial publicity (PTP) and delay on juror memory and decision-making. Mock jurors read news articles containing negative PTP, positive PTP, or unrelated articles. Five days later, they viewed a videotaped murder trial, after which they made decisions about guilt. Finally, all participants independently attributed specific information as having been presented during the trial or in the news articles. Half of the jurors rendered their verdicts and completed the source-memory test immediately after the trial, while the other half did so after a 2-day delay. Exposure to PTP significantly affected guilty verdicts, perceptions of defendant credibility, juror ratings of the prosecuting and defense attorneys, and misattributions of PTP as having been presented as trial evidence. Similar effects were obtained for negative and positive PTP. Delay significantly increased source-memory errors but did not influence guilt ratings. Defendant's credibility and juror ratings of prosecuting and defense attorneys significantly mediated the effect of PTP on guilt ratings. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. An analysis of the public perception of flood risk on the Belgian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellens, Wim; Zaalberg, Ruud; Neutens, Tijs; Vanneuville, Wouter; De Maeyer, Philippe

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, perception of flood risks has become an important topic to policy makers concerned with risk management and safety issues. Knowledge of the public risk perception is considered a crucial aspect in modern flood risk management as it steers the development of effective and efficient flood mitigation strategies. This study aimed at gaining insight into the perception of flood risks along the Belgian coast. Given the importance of the tourism industry on the Belgian coast, the survey considered both inhabitants and residential tourists. Based on actual expert's risk assessments, a high and a low risk area were selected for the study. Risk perception was assessed on the basis of scaled items regarding storm surges and coastal flood risks. In addition, various personal and residence characteristics were measured. Using multiple regression analysis, risk perception was found to be primarily influenced by actual flood risk estimates, age, gender, and experience with previous flood hazards. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Public Perception of Media Coverage of the Activities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study set out to investigate the awareness level, attention and attitude of the public towards media coverage of the activities of the Independent Corrupt Practices and other related offences Commission (ICPC). It also considered the appraisal of how the public select, organize and interpret stimuli about the commission.

  9. Perceptions of user studies as a foundation for public programming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of user studies and the evaluation of services in the development of effective public programming initiatives by the public archives of east and southern Africa. Users of the archives are the backbone of effective archival services. Sadly, it appears that the records are more ...

  10. Assimilation of public opinions in nuclear decision-making using risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, K.Y.; Yang, J.W.; Kang, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    A method of assimilating public opinions in the decision-making process has been developed in this study. The proposed method will resolve the major shortcomings of existing decision-making models, which are deficient in, or missing public participation during the process. In the nuclear-related decision-making process, a particular concern of the public is nuclear safety, which is numerically characterized by risk. In reality, it is the risk that each individual perceives that is very important. Hence, the public perception of risk has been employed as a key decision-making element in representing public opinions. To quantify the public perception of risk, the psychometric model is used. Psychological risk dimensions are first assessed using factor analysis and a set of factors is identified for optimized computation. Expert opinions formulated by a group of selected professionals and experts are then aggregated with the public opinions. To gather public and expert opinions, separate polls were conducted in this study. In the aggregation, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and multi-attribute utility analysis (MAUA) were employed, and for uncertainty analysis, a fuzzy set based approach was adopted. This method has been applied to analyze six options for spent fuel management in Korea for a case study. As expected, the results of the case study show that public risk perception is an important element in nuclear-related decision-making processes

  11. Adaptive Changes in the Perception of Fast and Slow Movement at Different Head Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichi, Roberto; Occhigrossi, Chiara; Ferraresi, Aldo; Faralli, Mario; Lucertini, Marco; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2017-05-01

    This paper examines the subjective sense of orientation during asymmetric body rotations in normal subjects. Self-motion perception was investigated in 10 healthy individuals during asymmetric whole-body rotation with different head orientations. Both on-vertical axis and off-vertical axis rotations were employed. Subjects tracked a remembered earth-fixed visual target while rotating in the dark for four cycles of asymmetric rotation (two half-sinusoidal cycles of the same amplitude, but of different duration). The rotations induced a bias in the perception of velocity (more pronounced with fast than with slow motion). At the end of rotation, a marked target position error (TPE) was present. For the on-vertical axis rotations, the TPE was no different if the rotations were performed with a 30° nose-down, a 60° nose-up, or a 90° side-down head tilt. With off-vertical axis rotations, the simultaneous activation of the semicircular canals and otolithic receptors produced a significant increase of TPE for all head positions. This difference between on-vertical and off-vertical axis rotation was probably partly due to the vestibular transfer function and partly due to different adaptation to the speed of rotation. Such a phenomenon might be generated in different components of the vestibular system. The adaptive process enhancing the perception of dynamic movement around the vertical axis is not related to the specific semicircular canals that are activated; the addition of an otolithic component results in a significant increase of the TPE.Panichi R, Occhigrossi C, Ferraresi A, Faralli M, Lucertini M, Pettorossi VE. Adaptive changes in the perception of fast and slow movement at different head positions. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(5):463-468.

  12. Perceptions of patient-centred care at public hospitals in Nelson Mandela Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihaam Jardien-Baboo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, the quality of health care is directly related to the concept of patient-centred care and the enactment of the Batho Pele Principles and the Patients' Rights Charter. Reports in the media indicate that public hospitals in the Eastern Cape Province are on the brink of collapse, with many patients being treated in condemned hospitals which lacked piped water, electricity and essential medical equipment. Receiving quality care, and principally patient-centred care, in the face of such challenges is unlikely and consequently leads to the following question: “Are patients receiving patient-centred care in public hospitals?” A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study was conducted to explore and describe the perceptions of professional nurses regarding patient-centred care in public hospitals in Nelson Mandela Bay. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a total of 40 purposively selected professional nurses working in public hospitals in Nelson Mandela Bay, Eastern Cape Province. Interviews were analysed according to the method described by Tesch in Creswell (2009:192. Professional nurses perceive patient-centred care as an awareness of the importance of the patient's culture, involving the patient's family, incorporating values of love and respect, optimal communication in all facets of patient care and accountability to the patient. Factors which enable patient-centred care were a positive work environment for staff, nursing manager's demonstrating exemplary professional leadership, continuous in service education for staff and collaborative teamwork within the interdisciplinary team. Barriers to patient-centred care were a lack of adequate resources, increased administrative work due to fear of litigation and unprofessional behaviour of nursing staff.

  13. Public perceptions and attitudes toward thalassaemia: Influencing factors in a multi-racial population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; George, Elizabeth; Tan, Jin-Ai Mary Anne

    2011-03-30

    Thalassaemia is a common public health problem in Malaysia and about 4.5 to 6% of the Malays and Chinese are carriers of this genetic disorder. The major forms of thalassaemia result in death in utero of affected foetuses (α-thalassaemia) or life-long blood transfusions for survival in β-thalassaemia. This study, the first nationwide population based survey of thalassaemia in Malaysia, aimed to determine differences in public awareness, perceptions and attitudes toward thalassaemia in the multi-racial population in Malaysia. A cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone interview survey of a representative sample of multi-racial Malaysians aged 18 years and above was conducted between July and December 2009. Of a total of 3723 responding households, 2846 (76.4%) have heard of thalassaemia. Mean knowledge score was 11.85 (SD ± 4.03), out of a maximum of 21, with higher scores indicating better knowledge. Statistically significant differences (P culturally acceptable in the reduction of pregnancies with thalassaemia major. The findings provide insights into culturally congruent educational interventions to reach out diverse socio-demographic and ethnic communities to increase knowledge and cultivate positive attitudes toward prevention of thalassaemia.

  14. The public perception of climate change in Taiwan and its paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Kuei Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to explore the risk perceptions of climate change in Taiwan. It probes into the public's views toward governments' risk communication regarding climate change, citizens' participation in decision-making, and their trust in the capacity of governments toward risk governance, as well as their attitude towards corporate social responsibility. For analysis, we developed ten types of perceptions under three dimensions: namely the severity of climate change (Type 1), the development of sustainable society (Types 2, 3, 4 and 5), and the risk governance and communication (Types 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10) to discuss whether the Taiwanese public's perception of climate change was prepared for a socially reflective paradigm shift. Regarding the three dimensions in the questionnaire design, although this study individually measured the public's risk perception, there was a high correlation between the variance analysis results among the three dimensions. This could systematically explain the potential change of the governance paradigm in Taiwanese society concerning structural transformation. - Highlights: • The public had critical view on the policy decision-making of climate change. • There is low public trust in the government's capacity to resist climate change. • The public requested more risk communication, transparency and participation. • The pursuit of an alternative sustainable economic society is highly expected. • People supported renewable energy by higher prices for carbon reduction

  15. Public Knowledge, Perceptions and Practices in Relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lymphatic filariasis and schistosomiasis with people contacting dirty-water or through sexual intercourse. Occasional ... to treat these diseases was reported to be a common practice. ...... Primary Publications and Grey Literature. Rwanda J.

  16. Risks perception and the public acceptance of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Walter Mendes; Gavazza, Sergio; Estrada, Julio J.S.

    2000-01-01

    This work establishes a methodology to evaluate the public acceptance of nuclear technology taking into consideration several risk concepts. Basic concepts of the nuclear science were transmitted, in form of lectures and courses, to the 13,439 Goiania residents, after the closing of the decontamination works, caused by the violation of the source of 137 Cs, of a teletherapy machine, in 1987. The results of the indicators shown that public's individuals perceive radiation risks and develop behaviors according to a constructive outline. The public does not know technical terms, being quite influenced by media, from where gets information of interest. The public orders the risks, relating them to accidents according to subjective criteria and models them as unknown, new and not observed at short period, establishing destruction, environmental catastrophe and diseases images. (author)

  17. Analysis of Public Perception on Radiation: with One Year after Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Bang Ju [Korean Science Reporters Association, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    A year has passed since the nuclear power plant accident in Fukushima on March 11, 2011, and a survey for public perception on radiation by Korean people has been made. The methodological design was based on a quantitative survey and a frequency analysis was done. The analysis objects were survey papers (n=2,754pcs) answered by random ordinary citizens chosen from all over the country. The questionnaires, and study tool, were directly distributed and collected. A total of 40 questionnaires using a coefficient of Cronbach's {alpha} per each area was 'self perception of radiation' (0.620), 'radiation risk' (0.830), 'benefit from radiation' (0.781), 'radiation controlled' (0.685), 'informative source of radiation' (0.831), 'influence degree from Fukushima accident' (0.763), showing rather high score from all areas. As the result of the questionnaires, the knowledge of radiation concept was 69.50 out of 100 points, which shows a rather significant difference from the result of 'know well about radiation' (53.7%) and 'just know about radiation' (37.40%). According to the survey, one of the main reasons why radiation seems risky was that once exposed to radiation, it may not have negative impacts presently but, the next generation could see negative impacts (66.1%). About 41% of our respondents showed a negative position against the government's report on radiation while 39.5% of respondents said that we should stop running nuclear power in light of Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. This study was done for the first time by Korean people's public perception on radiation after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. We expect this might have significant contributions to the establishment of the government's policy on radiation.

  18. UNCOVERING FACTORS INFLUENCING PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Ferdaus; Onyango, Benjamin M.; Adelaja, Adesoji O.; Schilling, Brian J.; Hallman, William K.

    2002-01-01

    Significant divergence exists in public opinions about biotechnology. Although there is broad support for plant biotechnology for health benefits, opinions differ on the issue of animal genetics for pure economic benefits. While some are opposed to it, many are undecided about genetically modified foods. Considerable skepticism exists about scientists, corporations and government which have negative influence on public acceptance of food biotechnology. Consumers' personal attributes have sign...

  19. Risk Perception and sexual risk behaviors among HIV-positive men on antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remien, Robert H; Halkitis, Perry N; O'Leary, Ann; Wolitski, Richard J; Gómez, Cynthia A

    2005-06-01

    There are reports of increased sexual risk behavior among people on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) due to beliefs about risk of HIV transmission when on HAART. In a cross-sectional study (Seropositive Urban Men's Study), we examined the relationship between risk perception and sexual risk behavior among sexually active, culturally diverse HIV positive men who have sex with men (N = 456). Less than twenty-five percent engaged in unprotected anal sex (either with an HIV negative, or unknown-status partner, or an HIV positive partner) within the past 3 months. Most men believed there was significant health risk (to partner or self) associated with unprotected sex when on HAART. There was no increased risk behavior associated with being on HAART, although the perception of negative health consequences, including HIV transmission, when on HAART was significantly lower for the relatively small subset of men who reported unprotected sex. Prevention strategies need to be tailored to address risk perception associated with HAART.

  20. An explanatory framework of teachers' perceptions of a positive mealtime environment in a preschool setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Satoko C; Gray, Samuel A; Goodell, L Suzanne

    2015-07-01

    Attending a preschool center may help preschoolers with growth and development that encourage a healthy lifestyle, including sound eating behaviors. Providing a positive mealtime environment (PME) may be one of the keys to fostering a child's healthy eating habits in the classroom. However, a specific definition of a PME, the components of a PME, or directions on how to create one have not been established. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to explore Head Start teachers' perceptions related to a PME and create a conceptual framework representing these perceptions. To achieve this purpose, researchers conducted 65 in-depth phone interviews with Head Start teachers around the US. Applying principles of grounded theory, researchers developed a conceptual framework depicting teachers' perceptions of PME, consisting of five key components: (1) the people (i.e., teachers, kitchen staff, parent volunteers, and children), (2) positive emotional tone (e.g., relaxed and happy), (3) rules, expectations, and routines (e.g., family-style mealtime), (4) operations of a PME (i.e., eating, socialization, and learning), and (5) both short- and long-term outcomes of a PME. With this PME framework, researchers may be able to enhance the effectiveness of nutrition interventions related to a PME, focusing on the factors in the conceptual framework as well as barriers associated with achieving these factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Positive Perceptions of Genital Appearance and Feeling Sexually Attractive: Is It a Matter of Sexual Esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined the relationship between perceptions of genital appearance and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. The study sample included men and women (aged 18-45 years, M = 23.7, SD = 4.98) who identified as heterosexual (n = 1017), gay or lesbian (n = 1225), or bisexual (n = 651). Participants responded to an online survey assessing their self-perceived sexual attractiveness, genital self-image, genital self-consciousness during sexual activity, and sexual esteem. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized a positive link between genital self-perceptions and self-perceived sexual attractiveness, with sexual esteem acting as a mediator. We tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed a significant association between both genital self-image and genital self-consciousness and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. However, these relationships were at least partially mediated by sexual esteem, across both gender and sexual orientation. The findings suggest that, regardless of gender or sexual orientation, individuals who maintain a positive genital self-image or lack genital self-consciousness, are more likely to experience greater sexual esteem, and in turn, feel more sexually attractive. The findings have implications for the importance of genital appearance perceptions and improving individuals' sexual esteem and self-perceived sexual attractiveness.

  2. Teratology Public Affairs Committee position paper: maternal obesity and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialli, Anthony R

    2006-02-01

    Compared to normal-weight women, obese women have an increased risk of infertility and pregnancy complications. The most consistently described pregnancy complications are hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes mellitus, thromboembolic events, and cesarean section. Fetal and neonatal complications may include congenital malformations, macrosomia, and shoulder dystocia. The literature suggests that women with a body mass index (BMI) >or=30 have approximately double the risk of having a child with a neural tube defect (NTD) compared to normal-weight women, and the increased risk associated with higher maternal body weight does not appear to be modified by folic acid supplementation. The Public Affairs Committee of the Teratology Society supports the public health initiatives identified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2004 and the research initiatives identified by the National Institutes of Health in 2004. The Public Affairs Committee recommends that clinicians counsel women about appropriate caloric intake and exercise and that health-care providers educate parents about appropriate childhood nutrition. Breast-feeding should be encouraged based on evidence of a protective effect against childhood obesity, as well as other health advantages. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2006. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Attitudes and perceptions of Conacyt researchers towards public communication of science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Merino, Noemí; Tarhuni Navarro, Daniela H

    2018-06-01

    This study aims to explore the perceptions and attitudes toward Public Communication of Science and Technology of the researchers of the National Council of Science and Technology (Conacyt), in order to provide a diagnosis about the ways the Mexican scientists are involved in public communication and to contribute to the visibility of researchers' needs in being able to popularize science. The results show significant differences among the researchers' opinions with respect to their perceptions about science communication, the ways they participate in PUS activities and their identified needs. In general, the researchers of Conacyt perceived public communication as very important. However, lack of time and of academic recognition stood out as determining factors in their low contribution to science popularization. We conclude that, to achieve a culture of Public Engagement in public communication of science and technology among R&D institutions, the Mexican Administration should address the above-mentioned unfavorable professional circumstances.

  4. Strategies for Positive Engagement with the Public in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.

    2017-12-01

    Strategies for engaging with the public about the geosciences are abundant. Whether engaging in these endeavors through professional opportunties associated with their research activities, or in their personal lives, scientists have numerous ways in which they can share the science they care so much about with the public. While participating in tried and true well-designed "outreach" activities associated with research projects has become a classic approach over the past 20 years, this is not the only way to reach "the public". Indeed, as we have recently learned, such approaches depend on the availability of funding for research projects and outreach components. With potentially large research funding cuts looming at federal agencies, and the future of "education and outreach" associated with funded projects in question, we need to think hard about approaches that are not so closely tied to the federal government. Engaging with the public through involvement in the K-12 educational arena provides another avenue to reach people - not only students and teachers, but also the parents of the students. Furthermore, engagement in local communities - on school boards as a member or regular attendee, in civic groups, in museums on their boards or as volunteers, in congregations, and in more informal local associations are additional opportunities. Indeed, one of the most important resources we have, as geoscientists, is ourselves. While many of us may be involved with groups in our communities, our willingness to openly talk about our science in ways that are accessible to members of the public is less clear. Indeed, some of us may intentionally avoid discussing our research with neighbors and friends for any number of reasons. But by doing so, we have effectively allowed scientists to be framed as "the other" - rather than the neighbor with a kid on the soccer team who occasionally hosts a sleepover for the team, or who really knows how to grill a nice steak, or who

  5. Epidemiology, public health, and the rhetoric of false positives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blair, Aaron; Saracci, Rodolfo; Vineis, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As an observational science, epidemiology is regarded by some researchers as inherently flawed and open to false results. In a recent paper, Boffetta et al. [Boffetta P, McLaughlin JK, LaVecchia C, Tarone RE, Lipworth L, Blot WJ. False-positive results in cancer epidemiology: a plea f...

  6. Analysis of public perception of increased radiofrequency exposure from mobile phone in Southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oladapo, O.O.; Ishola, G.A.; Ayokunnnu, D.O.

    2011-01-01

    Wireless communication devices have been increasingly used recently in Nigeria with a corresponding public perception of increase in radiofrequency (RF) radiation. This perception has developed into public concerns, thus requiring verification. For the purpose of verification, a survey in form of an opinion poll was conducted by means of an interview using questionnaires. The survey shows that people actually experienced symptoms like headache, fatigue, dizziness, and heat sensation. However, out of the respondents that have experienced one symptoms or the other, 84% still believe it is safe to use mobile phones. Only 4 % of those that claimed they experienced symptoms had consulted a doctor in connection with the symptoms.

  7. Public perception of nuclear power in Mexico after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, J. C.; Alonso, G.; Ramirez, R.

    2015-09-01

    This section presents some of the results of four studies on international public opinion about nuclear energy, the first one made several years before the Fukushima accident, conducted in 2005 by the IAEA through the company Globe Scan Inc. The second study was conducted by the same company in 2011 a few months after the Fukushima accident, including also corresponding results to two studies conducted by the British firm Ipsos Mori (of years 2011 and 2012 respectively). Finally three studies conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in 2006, 2008 and 2013 are presented. From the results of these studies was determined that the Fukushima accident itself had a negative effect on public opinion in Mexico, as throughout the world, but this trend is reversing. Also it found that public opinion in Mexico on using reactors to generate electricity is favorable, although not still has much support from the government for the construction of new nuclear power plants. (Author)

  8. Public perception toward information and knowledge of nuclear power plant development; A Malaysian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misnon, Fauzan Amin; Rahman, Irman Abd.; Hu, Yeoh Siong; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge has been known as a key element in developing support and perception by the public towards any new policy by the government, including the development of nuclear energy. The success of the policy is mainly dependent on public support which is related to the perception cultivated by the knowledge that is already held by the people. A public survey was conducted between 14 March 2016 to 10 May 2016 focusing on the Malaysian public acceptance and perception towards the implementation of nuclear energy in Malaysia (n=1438). This research was aimed on the research question which is `Does the level of general knowledge and education regarding nuclear energy in Malaysia influence the acceptance and support of the people to develop nuclear technology?'. These finding suggest that open discourse is a must even at the initial stages of developing a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) program, which will touch on a few points that will assist to society's knowledge and understanding towards nuclear energy from the aspects of management, safety, radioactive waste, impact on economic competitiveness as well as the benefits and risks regarding the development of NPP. By increasing the knowledge regarding nuclear power and radioactive waste, perception towards the pros of NPP as well as the conviction towards its safety can be increased. It is suggested for the parties involved to use the latest approach of information technology as a way to provide the most effective medium of information dissemination to the public.

  9. Exploring public perception of non-native species from a visions of nature perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugge, Laura N H; Van den Born, Riyan J G; Lenders, H J Rob

    2013-12-01

    Not much is known about lay public perceptions of non-native species and their underlying values. Public awareness and engagement, however, are important aspects in invasive species management. In this study, we examined the relations between the lay public's visions of nature, their knowledge about non-native species, and their perceptions of non-native species and invasive species management with a survey administered in the Netherlands. Within this framework, we identified three measures for perception of non-native species: perceived risk, control and engagement. In general, respondents scored moderate values for perceived risk and personal engagement. However, in case of potential ecological or human health risks, control measures were supported. Respondents' images of the human-nature relationship proved to be relevant in engagement in problems caused by invasive species and in recognizing the need for control, while images of nature appeared to be most important in perceiving risks to the environment. We also found that eradication of non-native species was predominantly opposed for species with a high cuddliness factor such as mammals and bird species. We conclude that lay public perceptions of non-native species have to be put in a wider context of visions of nature, and we discuss the implications for public support for invasive species management.

  10. Public perception of radioactive waste management and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curd, J.

    1989-01-01

    Information officers from United Kingdom Nirex Ltd have been dealing with one of industry's most intractable public relations programmes for five years. Mistakes have been made but lessons have been learned and are now being applied to the Company's current programme - the deep underground disposal of solid low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste. (author)

  11. Principals' Perceptions of Public Schools' Professional Development Changes during NCLB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated public school principals' reports of professional development implementation at the school level while working in different state- and local-level contexts (state accountability level, geographic locations, socioeconomic status, demographics, and grade levels). I attempted to measure principals' reported changes in levels…

  12. Use of "entertainment" chimpanzees in commercials distorts public perception regarding their conservation status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara K Schroepfer

    Full Text Available Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes are often used in movies, commercials and print advertisements with the intention of eliciting a humorous response from audiences. The portrayal of chimpanzees in unnatural, human-like situations may have a negative effect on the public's understanding of their endangered status in the wild while making them appear as suitable pets. Alternatively, media content that elicits a positive emotional response toward chimpanzees may increase the public's commitment to chimpanzee conservation. To test these competing hypotheses, participants (n = 165 watched a series of commercials in an experiment framed as a marketing study. Imbedded within the same series of commercials was one of three chimpanzee videos. Participants either watched 1 a chimpanzee conservation commercial, 2 commercials containing "entertainment" chimpanzees or 3 control footage of the natural behavior of wild chimpanzees. Results from a post-viewing questionnaire reveal that participants who watched the conservation message understood that chimpanzees were endangered and unsuitable as pets at higher levels than those viewing the control footage. Meanwhile participants watching commercials with entertainment chimpanzees showed a decrease in understanding relative to those watching the control footage. In addition, when participants were given the opportunity to donate part of their earnings from the experiment to a conservation charity, donations were least frequent in the group watching commercials with entertainment chimpanzees. Control questions show that participants did not detect the purpose of the study. These results firmly support the hypothesis that use of entertainment chimpanzees in the popular media negatively distorts the public's perception and hinders chimpanzee conservation efforts.

  13. Police Tweets and Public Perceptions of Safety and Police Performance: An Experiment on Framing and Other Tweet Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imke Smulders

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new media as a means of communication by the police triggers interesting questions about the impact of such new developments, such as the effect on people’s safety perceptions. Since communication is mostly overlooked as a possible determinant of safety perception, this led to a research project into the relationship between Twitter use by community policing officers and citizen’s perceptions of safety. This article reports on a part of this study, an experiment on framing and other linguistic effects of tweets by police officers. To assess the aforementioned relationship, it is important to examine how the precise content of a community policing officer’s tweet is perceived by the public. In an experimental setting the effects of gain versus loss frames, implicit versus explicit advice and style of addressing have been tested, with regard to safety perceptions and several related factors. The results show that gain framed tweets yield significantly more positive responses concerning opinion about police performance, perceived risk of burglary or assault, safety perception and marginally for perceived crime level in the neighbourhood. Including an explicitly or implicitly formulated piece of advice in the tweets doesn’t make a difference in any of the queried variables and style of addressing has only small effects: formal address leads to slightly more positive opinions about police performance than impersonal address.  The results show that formulation aspects – specifically framing – are worth taking into account in safety communications and that this type of research is beneficial for studying effects of social media.

  14. North American Engineering, Procurement, Fabrication and Construction Worker Safety Climate Perception Affected by Job Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Pinion

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and implementing the results of Safety Climate surveys can assist in decreasing occupational injuries and illnesses. The following article presents findings of a cross-sectional study that assessed the relationship between safety climate perceptions and job position among engineering, procurement, fabrication and construction (EPFC employees using a 15-item survey. Descriptive statistics (means and frequencies and an ANACOVA (analysis of covariance were performed on a saturated model. The study had a 62% response rate. Results indicate a statistically significant in mean safety climate scores between job position among EPFC employees when controlling for years in industry and location type (i.e., construction versus fabrication [F (9, 603 = 5.28, p < 0.0001, adjusted R-square = 0.07]. Employee perception of safety climate differed based on the employee’s job position (i.e., laborer, foreman, etc.. Project management reported the highest safety climate scores (0.91, followed by supervisors (0.86, technical support employees and foremen (0.84 and laborers (0.81.

  15. Tourists' perceptions of the quality of public transportation services in the Accra metropolis: a Servqual approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Y. Nutsugbodo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available All over the world, commuters (tourists are entreating public transport service providers to ensure that they provide quality service to their clienteles and not to be interested in only the financial gains. This study sought to examine tourists’ perception of the quality of public transportation services within the Accra Metropolis, Ghana using a SERVQUAL approach. The SERVQUAL scale was modified to aid in evaluating how tourists perceive public transportation services within this jurisdiction. Accidental sampling procedure was used to collect samples from 200 tourists at selected transport terminals. The study concluded that the tourists had a negative perception of public transport services within the metropolis. The implication for this study is that it is intended to provide strong basis for more in-depth studies into this phenomenon.

  16. Journalists' and Public Relations Practitioners' News Values: Perceptions and Cross-Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallot, Lynne M.; Steinfatt, Thomas M.; Salwen, Michael B.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to research on the relationship between journalism and public relations by surveying journalists and public relations practitioners. Shows that the two groups share generally similar news values, but that journalists were largely unaware of this similarity. Finds that practitioners, expecting contributions of social good by public…

  17. Thinking positively about chronic illness: An exploration of optimism, illness perceptions and well-being in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Catherine S; Burn, David J; Hindle, John; Samuel, Mike; Wilson, Ken; Brown, Richard G

    2014-05-01

    Holding positive beliefs about illness and having an optimistic outlook have been associated with increased well-being across a range of health conditions. However, research has indicated that being very optimistic may not actually be beneficial, and holding a realistic attitude is more adaptive in some forms of chronic illness, for example, Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to explore the nature of relationships between illness perceptions, optimism and well-being: specifically, whether a linear or non-linear relationship best described the data. Additionally, the proposed moderating effect of optimism on the relationship between illness perceptions and well-being was tested. A total of 109 participants with idiopathic PD completed questionnaire measures of illness perception, optimism, mood and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Multiple regression analyses were used to explore relationships between illness perceptions, optimism, mood and HRQoL. The potential curvilinear effects of illness perceptions and optimism were modelled using squared variables and linear and quadratic curve estimation. Holding positive illness perceptions predicted better well-being. Some evidence for a non-linear relationship between optimism and mood was found. Optimism had a significant moderating effect on the relationship between specific illness perceptions and outcome. Optimism appears to provide protection against some negative perceptions of illness and was associated with better mood and HRQoL. The findings indicate that specific illness perceptions may be beneficial targets for therapy. Therapeutic interventions should focus on enhancing positive perceptions of PD but potentially more importantly general optimistic attitude to maximize well-being. What is already known on this subject? Positive illness perceptions and high optimism are associated with better well-being in a range of conditions, both chronic and acute. Preliminary studies suggest that in chronic

  18. Public perception of radiation safety - a case study in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, Patricia; Steinhaeusler, Friedrich; Unterbruner, Ulrich

    1997-01-01

    A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in Brazil in order to assist the development of a strategy of communicating radiation issues with the public. The survey contains questions about knowledge of basic concepts, credibility in the sources of information about radiation, recall of the Goiania accident, reaction to an emergency situation (including the Goiania accident), and waste-related risk comparison. An analysis of this survey and a discussion about practical issues of a target-oriented communication program are presented. The communication program is addressed to the nuclear community, regulatory authority, educational centers, the media and the public and includes topics such as the present crisis of confidence, limitations, misconceptions and requirements, and communicating in a crisis situation

  19. Public perception of radiation safety - a case study in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieland, Patricia [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Steinhaeusler, Friedrich [Salzburg Univ. (Austria). Inst. of Physics and Biophysics; Xavier, Ana Maria [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Unterbruner, Ulrich [Salzburg Univ. (Austria). Inst. of Didactic and Natural Sciences

    1997-12-31

    A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in Brazil in order to assist the development of a strategy of communicating radiation issues with the public. The survey contains questions about knowledge of basic concepts, credibility in the sources of information about radiation, recall of the Goiania accident, reaction to an emergency situation (including the Goiania accident), and waste-related risk comparison. An analysis of this survey and a discussion about practical issues of a target-oriented communication program are presented. The communication program is addressed to the nuclear community, regulatory authority, educational centers, the media and the public and includes topics such as the present crisis of confidence, limitations, misconceptions and requirements, and communicating in a crisis situation 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Public perception of the nuclear area in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Renata Araujo de; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays human dependence on electricity is increasing and as a result access to energy resources and / or energy, is becoming a priority in most countries, both developed and developing. With this comes the need for government involvement in the planning and expansion of energy activities, especially when dealing with nuclear energy. This study makes a detailed assessment of the availability of energy and its capacity, the geographical location of current and future nuclear plants, economic criteria, the deployment period and public opinion concerning the construction of new nuclear plants. The aim of the study is not only to show the advantages of the expansion of nuclear energy in Brazil but also to evaluate public opinion on this issue. (author)

  1. Public perception of climate risk and adaptation in the UK: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Like other countries, the United Kingdom faces the unavoidable challenge of adapting to a changing climate. However, public perceptions of the risk posed by climate change and support for adaptation policies vary between countries. This article provides a UK-specific review of climate change beliefs, risk perceptions regarding potential climate change impacts, and attitudes towards climate change adaptation. We report on differences between expert and public conceptualisations of climate change risks. We also examine the effects of psychological distancing, climate change awareness, and hazard experience on both concerns about climate change and perceptions of the weather-related risks posed by climate change. Additionally, we review the effects of emotion, agency, perceived responsibility, place attachment, personal values and uncertainty on the willingness of UK residents to support and engage with climate change adaptation. We outline the implications of these factors for climate risk communication and highlight key areas for future research.

  2. Safety targets and public risk perceptions in the nuclear field - technical treadmill or institutional responses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynne, B.

    1989-01-01

    The context of our treatment of risk perceptions and safety targets is the apparently wide gap between expert judgements of 'objective risks' and public perceptions of those risks. In the nuclear field the latter appear to so multiply the objective risks as seen by the experts, as to make safety targets vastly too strict (whether for routine discharges or for large accidents), thus design extravagantly expensive on any 'rational' criteria. In recent years the nuclear industry has come to terms more with the public perceptions problem, and has accepted that it is legitimate to exercise different, more severe and costly safety standards in the nuclear field if that is what society wants, as it appears to do. Whilst retaining the conviction that this is scientifically unwarranted, the industry has therefore reconciled itself somewhat to more stringent technical safety targets. (author)

  3. Public perception of the nuclear area in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imeida, R.A. de; Lourdes Moreira, M. de

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil electricity production is proving increasingly important, the Brazilian government has recently launched the National Energy Plan, PNE-2030 which aims, among other objectives, to conclude construction of the Angra 3 plant and to deploy new nuclear power plants in the Northeast region. The Brazilian government wants to assess how the public has perceived its energy policy and what the public thinks about the nuclear issue. A public opinion survey was performed and sampling resulted in 127 respondents who were stratified by gender, age and educational level. The survey results show that although most respondents have post-graduate degrees, 64.6% are not aware of, or had never heard of PNE-2030. While 72 respondents consider nuclear energy as an alternative source of clean energy, 84 respondents did not know where the next Brazilian nuclear power plant will be built. The nuclear regulator, CNEN, is seen by 45.7% of respondents as the body that has most credibility to talk about the safety of nuclear power plants and the media most used to obtain information about the nuclear area were newspapers and discussion forums, with 52 and 50 votes respectively. These results prove the need to implement communication plans with clear and concise goals for different segments of society, since the degree of understanding differs within each segment

  4. Public perceptions of agrifood applications of Genetic modification – A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Lans, van der I.A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Reinders, M.J.; Menozzi, D.; Zhang, X.Y.; Berg, van den I.; Zimmermann, K.L.

    2012-01-01

    An extensive literature relating to public perceptions of genetically modified foods applied to agri-food production has been identified through the process of systematic review. Application of systematic review criteria indicated that 335 papers were of appropriate quality or relevance to be

  5. Perceptions of Parents on the Practice of Private Tuition in Public Learning Institutions in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwebi, Robert B.; Maithya, Redempta

    2016-01-01

    The practice of private tuition outside normal class hours is a phenomenon which has prevailed in Kenyan basic learning institutions despite the repeated ban by the government. The purpose of the study was to establish parental perceptions on extra tuition in public schools in Kenya. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. A total of 40…

  6. Knowledge and Perception about Clinical Research Shapes Behavior: Face to Face Survey in Korean General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Jung; Beck, Sung-Ho; Kang, Woon Yong; Yoo, Soyoung; Kim, Seong-Yoon; Lee, Ji Sung; Burt, Tal; Kim, Tae Won

    2016-05-01

    Considering general public as potential patients, identifying factors that hinder public participation poses great importance, especially in a research environment where demands for clinical trial participants outpace the supply. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge and perception about clinical research in general public. A total of 400 Seoul residents with no previous experience of clinical trial participation were selected, as representative of population in Seoul in terms of age and sex. To minimize selection bias, every fifth passer-by was invited to interview, and if in a cluster, person on the very right side was asked. To ensure the uniform use of survey, written instructions have been added to the questionnaire. Followed by pilot test in 40 subjects, the survey was administered face-to-face in December 2014. To investigate how perception shapes behavior, we compared perception scores in those who expressed willingness to participate and those who did not. Remarkably higher percentage of responders stated that they have heard of clinical research, and knew someone who participated (both, P perceptions and lack of knowledge will be effective in enhancing public engaged in clinical research.

  7. Funeral Benefits in Public Higher Education Institutions: How Do They Explain Employees' Perception of Equity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komba, Aneth Anselmo

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the government and three campuses of a higher public education institution's funeral policies with a view to determining how these policies explain employees' equity perception. Three research questions guided the study: (1) what does the government's funeral policy say about the burial of government employees and their…

  8. Exploring Students' Perceptions about English Learning in a Public University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Patricia Kim

    2018-01-01

    This manuscript reports the final findings of an exploratory, descriptive case study that aimed at exploring the perceptions of a group of English as a foreign language students in a public university regarding their English learning and the commitment level through the process. A questionnaire, a survey, and the teacher's diary were the…

  9. Public Perceptions and the Situation of Males in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufan, Mumin

    2018-01-01

    The main focus areas of this research are pointing out the public perceptions and beliefs about male preschool teachers, fear of child sexual molestation, moral panic, and power relations in the society. The sample of the study composed of one white, female preschool teacher with a single interview transcript, working in the city of Tempe,…

  10. Effect of Learning Organization Perception to the Organizational Commitment: A Comparison between Private and Public University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balay, Refik

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to examine the impact of faculty members' learning organization perceptions to the organizational commitment through quantitative method. The study group consists of 172 faculty members working in two universities, which are private (Zirve University) and public (Harran University) ones. The research results show that faculty…

  11. Perceptions of International Students on Service Quality Delivery in a Malaysian Public University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njie, Baboucarr; Asimiran, Soaib; Baki, Roselan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the perceptions of international students of service quality delivery (SQD) in a Malaysian public university. Design/methodology/approach: The study was limited to the University's immediate physical environment and its associated human and systems-based services. The physical environment in this…

  12. Influence of Multiculturalism on the Study Programs in Malaysian Public Universities: International Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Ambigapathy; Baboo, Shanthi Balraj; Mahfoodh, Omer Hassan Ali

    2016-01-01

    In response to the emphasis on the benefits of enhanced multicultural educational experiences of international students in higher education, this study examined international students' perceptions of the influence of multiculturalism on the study programs in Malaysian public universities. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. The…

  13. Excellence in High-Performing Public Schools in Chile: Students' Perceptions and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, Maria Luísa

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I aim to analyze the perceptions regarding excellence shared by students of high-performing public schools in Santiago de Chile and simultaneously to reflect on the way in which they experience it, inside and outside of school. Through the analysis of 24 focus groups conducted in six schools, I conclude that students share…

  14. Public perception of climate change and its impact on health and environment in rural southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asekun-Olarinmoye EO

    2014-02-01

    respondents had a positive attitude to causes of CC, while half had a positive attitude to the effects of CC. A significant association was found between educational status (P<0.001, Kendall's τ-c=-0.042, occupational status (P<0.01, Kendall's τ-c=0.088, and attitude to causes of CC. Further analysis using logistic regression showed that occupational status was significantly associated with likelihood of having a positive attitude, but educational status and marital status were not.Conclusion: Rural areas of Nigeria are vulnerable to the adverse effects of CC. Respondents' poor knowledge but positive attitude to CC calls for dissemination of adequate information on CC in sustained health-promotion programs.Keywords: climate change, global warming, public perception, rural child health, environmental effect

  15. Public perceptions of CO2 transportation in pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, Clair; O'Keefe, Laura; Mander, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the response by members of the lay public to the prospect of an onshore CO 2 pipeline through their locality as part of a proposed CCS development and presents results from deliberative Focus Groups held along a proposed pipeline route. Although there is a reasonable level of general knowledge about CO 2 across the lay public, understanding of its specific properties is more limited. The main concerns expressed around pipelines focused on five areas: (i) safe operation of the pipeline; (ii) the risks to people, livestock and vegetation arising from the leakage of CO 2 from the pipeline; (iii) the innovative and ‘first of its kind' nature of the pipeline and the consequent lack of operational CO 2 pipelines in the UK to demonstrate the technology; (iv) impacts on coastal erosion at the landfall site; and (v) the potential disruption to local communities during pipeline construction. Participants expressed scepticism over the motivations of CO 2 pipeline developers. Trust that the developer will minimise risk during the route selection and subsequent construction, operation and maintenance of the pipeline is key; building trust within the local community requires early engagement processes, tailored to deliver a variety of engagement and information approaches. - Highlights: • Lay publics express good general knowledge of CO 2 but not of its specific properties. • Key concerns relate to risk and safety and ‘first of a kind' nature of CO 2 pipeline. • Group participants are sceptical about motivations of CO 2 pipeline developers. • Communities' trust in developer is a major element of their risk assessment

  16. Public perception of radiation safety - a case study in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, P.; Steinhaeusler, F.; Xavier, A.M.; Unterbruner, U.

    1998-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, Brazil has been operating installations which run the gamut of the nuclear fuel cycle, from uranium mining and milling to a nuclear power plant. A second power plant is under construction and is planned to come on stream in 1999. In 1987, Brazil was shaken by the largest radiological accident on record involving a unit of radiotherapy equipment. This accident contaminated large areas of Goiania, a city of some 1 million inhabitants, and generated 3500 m 3 of radioactive waste. At present, apart from the facilities involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, close to 2600 installations in Brazil utilize radioactive materials in medicine, industry and research. Following the Goiania accident, the Brazilian authorities built a final subsurface disposal facility, which is currently in operation, for the waste generated by the cleanup of the city. Studies are now under way for the selection of a national waste repository. However, in spite of all the activities mentioned, the Brazilian public is largely unaware of both the benefits and the real risks of radiation. In order to assist in the development of an appropriate communication strategy focusing on radiation issues and directed at the public, a survey was undertaken. The survey contained questions on basic knowledge, the credibility of information sources dealing with radiation issues, recollections of the Goiania accident, reacting to an emergency situation in general and Goiania in particular and on waste related risk comparison. An analysis of this survey is presented. Practical issues are reviewed, including a target oriented communication programme involving the nuclear community, the regulatory authority, educational centres, the media and the public. The topics addressed are the present crisis of confidence, limitations, misconceptions and requirements, and communicating in a situation of crisis. (author)

  17. Route effect on the perception of public transport services quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chica-Olmo, J.; Gachs-Sanchez, H.M.; Lizarraga, C.

    2016-07-01

    User satisfaction sets a basic example for public service quality, especially those considered as basic necessities. The quality in transport service related to conceptualization and measurement, as a decisive demand key, presents challenges for both economic and mobility policies.Several operator companies are involved in the transport sector. Therefore this report aims to design a model of overall satisfaction based on the level of satisfaction with a specific set of factors, considering individual characteristics of users and the differential effect of different bus lines.The current presentation has applied a combined method, using Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis (NLPCA) and a Logit Multilevel Model (LMLM) in two-steps. (Author)

  18. Portraying a Positive Image: A Guide to Effective Public Relations for Educational Office Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania School Boards Association, New Cumberland.

    Suggestions for improving communication and public relations are offered in this guidebook for school office personnel. Because of the high visibility and accessibility of their positions, such staff serve important public relations functions for the school. Chapter 1 examines the public relations role of school office personnel, and chapter 2…

  19. Public perception on nuclear energy and radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Fleming, Peter M.; Soares, Wellington A.; Braga, Leticia T.P.; Santos, Rosana A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The final destination of the waste generated in a nuclear power plant remains a big challenge. The question is not only the radiation emitted by the sources, in some cases for many years, but also the public acceptance of this theme. In many countries where a nuclear waste storage facility has to be built, the local population of the chosen site did not accept it at first, and the whole process had to restart including this variable. In the past, the population opinion was considered not relevant but several international experiences showed that in fact it can not be forgotten. Statistical data show that a significant fraction of the population of the world has many concerns about nuclear energy and its potential impacts. Although many experts state that it has environmental advantages, such as the absence of greenhouse gases emissions, the subject is still the target of never ending discussions. But it is a concrete fact that the sector is growing in many countries. The objective of this article is to summarize several experiences in many countries associated with nuclear energy, mainly those ones that involve nuclear storage facilities, and its acceptance by the public. This task can help CNEN in the studies associated with the RMBN project - Repository for Radioactive Waste with Low and Medium Levels of Radiation. (author)

  20. Bridge between public perception and expert assessment of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Preparation of the brief consisted of a comprehensive review of literature, selective interviews of available representative parties, and categorization of the spectrum of opinions. Analysis of the information thus obtained included identification of reconcilable and irreconcilable differences among the opinions and indication of possible ways to bridge some of the differences. Opinions were generally found to be best categorized as the pro, neutral, and contra opinions associated with experts and the public. The primary issues separating the opposing groups appear to be the following: 1) the required input for probabilistic risk analysis of accidents; 2) the evaluation of what constitutes an acceptable risk; 3) the evaluation of potential long-term consequences; 4) the general need for nuclear energy; and 5) the long-term risk to public health. Among the above issues, potential for reconciliation was found only for the first two, while the latter issues, because of the relatively short history of the industry and paucity of knowledge on relevant factors, were found difficult to reconcile without expansion of our present knowledge and data base. Reconciliation, generally, was proposed through augmentation of communication among the opposing groups through the availability of appropriate fora and development of a general spirit of good intention for a common cause: mankind's ultimate well-being

  1. Energy policy options--from the perspective of public attitudes and risk perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viklund, Mattias

    2004-01-01

    In the present study a representative sample (N=797) of the Swedish population was surveyed, with regard to attitudes related to energy policy issues (e.g., environmental attitudes, risk perceptions, and attitudes towards different energy production systems), and self-reported electricity saving behavior. These factors were considered relevant in a Swedish energy policy context, due to the planned phase-out of nuclear power. Citizens' attitudes have traditionally been important factors in energy policy-making, especially nuclear policy. One of the conditions for a successful phase-out is decreased levels of electricity consumption among households and in industry, in order to compensate for the loss in energy production. Respondents reported positive attitudes to the environment in general and to electricity saving, while the attitudes to nuclear power as an energy production system in Sweden were relatively negative. Perceived risk was an important predictor of these attitudes and it was concluded that it is important to investigate factors behind this variable. The relationship between attitudes towards electricity saving and electricity saving behavior was weak. It is suggested that a contribution of psychological knowledge in energy conservation campaigns could be to elaborate on people's willingness to be public-spirited citizens in combination with their pro-environmental attitudes. Viklund (1999, Electricity saving: Attitudes and behavior of Swedish households. Center for Risk Research, Stockholm.) presented more data from the survey referred to here

  2. Radioecological impact around the nuclear power plant - general public perception and facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakara, N.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear science and technology have contributed immensely to the overall societal developmental. Today, nuclear applications can be found in almost every social and economical sector, and in virtually every corner of the globe. Radiation and radioisotopes find wide applications in the fields of agriculture, food preservation, health care, industry, water management, etc. During the last five decades, India has established a strong technological base for producing safe and economic electricity through nuclear power, and in the use of radiation and radioisotopes for the benefit of society. Although people in general have been appreciating many of the above achievements, some of them are skeptical about the safety of nuclear reactors and impact on the environment. Large sections of society are also not aware of or are indifferent to many positive contributions that nuclear science and technology have made to everyday life. The Radioecology Research Laboratory of the University Science Instrumentation Centre, Mangalore University is engaged in frontline research studies on radioecology and radiation protection around the Kaiga Nuclear Power Plant in the west coast of India for the past 23 years. The general public perception on nuclear power and the results of the detailed scientific study on radioecology in the environment of a nuclear power plant are discussed

  3. Using nurse managers' perceptions to guide new graduates toward positive nurse relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Linda Weaver; Sublett, Cynthia; Leahy, Cathy; Bradley, Jennifer M

    One of the greatest challenges new graduates confront when transitioning to practice is establishing positive relationships with experienced nurses. Nursing faculty must prepare graduates for this challenge. However, nursing faculty are often removed from everyday practice and must rely on the perceptions of those entrenched in practice in order to ground teaching endeavors in authenticity. Nurse managers are well positioned to provide knowledgeable insights to nursing faculty regarding nurse relationships. The purpose of this qualitative, descriptive study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions regarding new graduates' relationships with more experienced nurses. Researcher-participant audiotaped interviews were conducted with 13 nurse managers. A content analysis revealed that all participants believed nurse relationships were significant, that factors such as perceived inequities and stressful occurrences triggered poor relationships, that new graduates were often targeted for negative relationships, and that reasons for targeting of new graduates included prolonged dependence on experienced nurses and either over or under confidence of the new graduate. Providing a supportive, protective environment and hiring practices that promote team unity were posed as strategies that could help to prevent targeting of new graduates. Findings provide real-life, practice based information that can underpin nurse educators' teaching regarding nurse relationships and relationship building. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of influencing factors on public perception in contaminated site management: Simulation by structural equation modeling at four sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonuo; Chen, Weiping; Cundy, Andrew B; Chang, Andrew C; Jiao, Wentao

    2018-03-15

    Public perception towards contaminated site management, a not readily quantifiable latent parameter, was linked through structural equation modeling in this paper to 22 measurable/observable manifest variables associated with the extent of information dissemination and public knowledge of soil pollution, attitude towards remediation policies, and participation in risk mitigation processes. Data obtained through a survey of 412 community residents at four remediation sites in China were employed in the model validation. The outcomes showed that public perception towards contaminated site management might be explained through selected measurable parameters in five categories, namely information disclosure, knowledge of soil pollution, expectations of remediation and redevelopment outcomes, public participation, and site policy, along with their interactions. Among these, information dissemination and attitude towards management policies exhibited significant influence in promoting positive public perception. Based on these examples, responsible agencies therefore should focus on public accessibility to reliable information, and encourage public inputs into policies for contaminated site management, in order to gain public confidence during remediation and regeneration projects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Employees' perceptions of the effectiveness and fairness of performance management in a South African public sector institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho Makhubela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The implementation of performance management systems (PMSs and performance appraisals (PAs by public managers remains a challenge and necessitates an investigation into employees’ perceptions of the effectiveness of the PMS and the fairness of PA. Research purpose: This study investigated the association between employee involvement, performance-oriented culture, management commitment and the effectiveness of a PMS. Six factors that determine and influence employees’ perceptions of PA fairness were also investigated. Motivation for the study: Employees’ experiences of the implementation and practice of PMSs and PAs by public managers may differ from what is intended. The motivation for this study was to quantify employee perceptions of the effectiveness of a PMS and the fairness of PA to establish if there is a discrepancy between what is intended and how they are implemented and practiced. Research approach, design and method: This cross-sectional study conducted a census on a total population of 140 employees in a public sector institution. A questionnaire comprising three sections was used to collect data: Section A contained biographical questions, Section B comprised questions on the contextual factors that measure the perceived effectiveness of the PMS while Section C comprised questions related to the perceived fairness of PA. Main findings: The results show that employees perceive their PMS to be ineffective and their PAs to be unfair. The mean perception scores for PA fairness for the Assets and Facilities Department were significantly lower than those of the Human Resources Department. This is indicative of some deficiencies in the appraisal process in the Assets and Facilities Department. Respondents occupying general positions returned significantly lower mean scores for PA fairness compared to those in managerial and professional positions, which indicates serious shortcomings in their appraisal process. Practical

  6. Evaluating the public perceptions of nuclear power in China: Evidence from a contingent valuation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chuanwang; Zhu, Xiting

    2014-01-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, more and more attention has been paid to the safety issues of nuclear power in China, even though it is a clean and necessary substitution to coal power. Due to the consideration about the uncertainty of nuclear safety, the local citizens may resist the nuclear power programs in their neighborhood, as indicated by the anti-nuclear movement in Jiangmen 2013. This phenomenon is often related to the public perceptions of “not-in-my-back-yard” (NIMABY). The explosion of anti-nuclear movements will impose adverse effects on the nuclear power decision-making in China. Based on the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), we evaluate the public Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) for avoiding the construction of nuclear power plants in their neighborhood. Moreover, we analyze whether more information about nuclear energy could improve the public acceptance. Our results show that the comprehensive information will decrease the public risk perception of nuclear power and increase the public support for nuclear power policy. This paper further suggests that China's decision makers should improve policy transparency and encourage the public involvement of nuclear energy decision making. - Highlights: • We firstly evaluate the WTP for avoiding nuclear construction in China. • The study is based on the CV survey data after the Fukushima accident. • More understanding of nuclear energy could improve public acceptance. • Decision-makers should improve policy transparency and public involvement

  7. A survey on the public perception of CCS in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Ha-Duong; Campos, A.S.; Nadai, A.

    2007-12-01

    An awareness and opinion survey on Carbon Capture and Storage was conducted on a representative sample of French aged 15 years and above. About 6% of respondents were able to provide a satisfying definition of the technology. The key question about 'approval of or opposition to' the use of CCS in France was asked twice, first after presenting the technology, then after exposing the potential adverse consequences. Approval rates, 59% and 38%, show that there is no a priori rejection of the technology, but public trust needs to be build. The sample was split in two to test for a semantic effect: questioning one half about 'Stockage' (English: storage), the other about 'Sequestration'. Manipulating the vocabulary had no statistically significant effect on approval rates. Stockage is more meaningful, but does not convey the idea of permanent monitoring. (authors)

  8. Valuing Multiple Benefits, and the Public Perception of SUDS Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Jarvie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the public perceive and value ponds is fundamental to appreciate the synergy between Sustainable urban Drainage (SUDS ponds and the multiple benefits they provide. This paper investigates this, through the application of a structured postal and online survey, for a case study area of Edinburgh, in the UK. It compares man-made ponds (including SUDS, and ponds with natural origins. The results from Whole Life Cost show that the benefits (based on Contingent Valuation exceed the CAPEX and OPEX costs for three of five artificial ponds studied. Benefits from natural (reference ponds exceed the replacement costs for a pond with the same surface area/catchment. This paper highlights the importance of monetising the multiple benefits from ponds.

  9. The public perceptions of carbon dioxide capture and storage in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shackley, S.; Gough, C.; McLachlan, C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presented the results of a study investigating public perceptions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage (CCS) technologies. The study was comprised of citizen panels in which members of the public met over a 5-week period to receive instruction on CCS technologies. A further survey of 212 individuals was also conducted. Results of the citizen panel study showed that while there was a general acceptance of CCS, the technology was not enthusiastically supported by the majority of panel members. The acceptance of CCS was dependent on an awareness of the anticipated severity of climate change; the extent of the CO 2 reductions required; and the perception of CCS as part of a wider sustainable energy strategy. An integrated approach to decarbonization was preferred by both survey respondents and citizen panel participants. The citizen panels supposed further CCS research activities as part of a broad program to reduce emissions. Both panel and survey respondents were concerned that CCS represented a means of treating the symptoms of climate change rather than the causes. A minority of opponents rejected CCS by suggesting that it was wrong to inject the earth with industrial waste by-products. A small minority were in favour of CCS as an effective means of rapidly reducing the risks of global climate change. Results from the survey showed the majority of individuals who were not informed about CCS were not strongly opinionated about its implementation. However, only 13 per cent of respondents supported the use of CCS. Half of the survey respondents developed a more positive attitude towards CCS after they had been provided with information on the use of CCS as a means of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CCS was preferred to nuclear power or increased energy prices to reduce demand. Concern was expressed that CCS would divert research and development resources and attention away from renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. It was

  10. Public Perception of CCS Technology. The Effects of Information on Attitude; Percepcion Publica de la Tecnologia de CAC. El Efecto de la Informacion en la Actitud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C.; Marin, R.; Sala, R.

    2011-11-10

    This report examines the public perception of Carbon Capture and Storage technology and the impacts of information on perception. We analyze, from an electronic questionnaire with technical and contextual information, dimensions such as the initial reaction to the technology, the acceptance of CO{sub 2} storage, the perception of risk of storage and the degree of antagonism toward the organizations involved. The determinants of attitudes and reactions to CCS are also analyzed. A favorable initial reaction to CCS is found after some information and contextualization of CCS as well as significant risk perception. The type of information transmitted appears to influence the attitude of participants to the technology. The broader positive impact on attitude occurs when transmitting the idea of CO{sub 2} as a natural resource. (Author) 4 refs.

  11. Nuclear Waste Management, Nuclear Power, and Energy Choices Public Preferences, Perceptions, and Trust

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of studies have investigated public perceptions and preferences about nuclear power, waste management, and technology. However there is clear lack of uniformity in the style, aims and methods applied.  Consequently, the body of results is inconsistent and it is difficult to isolate relevant patterns or interpretations. Nuclear Waste Management, Nuclear Power and Energy Choices: Public Preferences, Perceptions and Trust presents a theoretical base for public reactions then classifies and reviews the large body of surveys carried out over the past decade.   Particular focus is placed on residents within 50 miles US nuclear waste facilities due to the disproportionate presence of nuclear factors in their lives such as the legacy of nuclear waste disposal and job dependency. The motivations and reasons for their views such as fear, attraction to the economic benefits, trust of site managers and federal agencies, cultural views, personal history, and demographic attributes of the people are also conside...

  12. UK public perceptions of shale gas hydraulic fracturing:The role of audience, message and contextual factors on risk perceptions and policy support

    OpenAIRE

    Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Nash, Nick; Upham, Paul; Lloyd, Alyson; Verdon, James P; Kendall, J.-Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the need to understand public attitudes to energy sources, such as shale gas, and to feed these into decision-making. This study represents the first detailed UK experimental survey of public perceptions of shale gas fracking, including analysis of the effects of different messages and the relative influence of different audience, message and contextual factors on support and risk perceptions in respect of shale gas fracking. Using an online survey (N = 1457) o...

  13. School superintendents' perceptions of schools assisting students in obtaining public health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Megan L; Price, James H; Telljohann, Susan K; Dake, Joseph A; Fink, Brian N

    2011-12-01

    Superintendents' perceptions regarding the effect of health insurance status on academics, the role schools should play in the process of obtaining health insurance, and the benefits/barriers to assisting students in enrolling in health insurance were surveyed. Superintendents' basic knowledge of health insurance, the link between health and learning, and specific school system practices for assisting students were also examined. A 4-page questionnaire was sent to a national random sample of public school superintendents using a 4-wave postal mailing. Only 19% of school districts assessed the health insurance status of students. School districts' assistance in helping enroll students in health insurance was assessed using Stages of Change theory; 36% of superintendents' school districts were in the action or maintenance stages. The schools most often made health insurance materials available to parents (53%). The perceived benefits identified by more than 80% of superintendents were to keep students healthier, reduce the number of students with untreated health problems, reduce school absenteeism, and improvement of students' attention/concentration during school. The 2 most common perceived barriers identified by at least 50% of superintendents were not having enough staff or financial resources. Most superintendents believed schools should play a role in helping students obtain health insurance, but the specific role was unclear. Three fourths of superintendents indicated overwhelmingly positive beliefs regarding the effects of health insurance status on students' health and academic outcomes. School personnel and public policy makers can use the results to support collaboration in getting students enrolled in health insurance. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  14. Understanding Public Perceptions of the HPV Vaccination Based on Online Comments to Canadian News Articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Feinberg

    Full Text Available Given the variation in human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine coverage across Canada, and debate regarding delivery of HPV vaccines in Catholic schools, we studied online comments on Canadian news websites to understand public perceptions of HPV and HPV vaccine.We searched English- and French-language Canadian news websites for 2012 articles that contained the terms "HPV" or "human papillomavirus." Articles about HPV vaccinations that contained at least one comment were included. Two researchers independently coded comments, analyzing them for emerging themes.We identified 3073 comments from 1198 individuals in response to 71 news articles; 630 (52.6% individuals expressed positive sentiments about HPV vaccination (2.5 comments/individual, 404 (33.7% were negative (3.0 comments/individual, 34 (2.8% were mixed (1.5 comments/individual and 130 (10.8% were neutral (1.6 comments/individual. Vaccine-supportive commenters believed the vaccine is safe and effective. Common themes in negative comments included concerns regarding HPV vaccine safety and efficacy, distrust of pharmaceutical companies and government, and belief that school-age children are too young for HPV vaccine. Many comments focused on whether the Catholic Church has the right to inform health policy for students, and discussion often evolved into debates regarding HPV and sexual behaviour. We noted that many individuals doubted the credibility of vaccine safety information.The majority of commenters do not appear to be against HPV vaccination, but public health messaging that focuses on both the vaccine's safety profile, and its use as a means to prevent cancer rather than sexually transmitted HPV infection may facilitate its acceptance.

  15. Risk perception: expert opinion versus public understanding. [Of radioactive waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J

    1987-02-01

    A research project looking at the public's attitudes towards the siting of radioactive waste depositories is reported. The risk perception studies seek to compare expert and lay understanding of risk. Adverse public reactions to risk can only be understood if it is known how people relate to risks in their everyday or working lives. Social trends and experiences are important, for example, the adverse public opinion on the siting of nuclear waste facilities. A number of elements have been identified as common to different risk areas such as chemicals, drugs, food or radioactive waste. These are the clashing of values, polarization of beliefs or clashes of interest.

  16. The social perspective of desertification: Analysis of the public administration perception in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garay Romero, Ingrid Carolina; Cabero Dieguez, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Desertification is a complex problem and not only represents terrestrial ecosystems degradation. Today, it is well known that this process is linked to environmental deterioration as well as to economic and social factors, producing relevant impact in food security, poverty, migration and imbalance in many countries. Desertification perception analysis is essential in the design of the policies to fight this problem. Perception analysis in Central America is a very controversial issue and should be part of administration instruments and application strategies such as international agreements that will be included in public policies of the different States.

  17. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohler Jillian C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries 1. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals 2. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments, and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the

  18. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M

    2009-10-29

    Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries 1. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals 2. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of interest guidelines which, if present and

  19. Public perception of climate change in the cold regions of Russia: an example of Yakutia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Anisimov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of climate change in the Russian cold regions is nearly twice larger than the global‑mean rate. Besides climate risks, such changes lead to new possibilities, which require scientifically based regional adaptation strategies. Climate could be viewed as an inexhaustible public resource that creates opportuni‑ ties for sustainable development. Long‑term trends show that climate as a resource is becoming more read‑ ily available in the cold regions, notwithstanding the general perception that globally climate change is one of the challenges of the 21st century. Adaptation strategies are required for balancing the risks and potential benefits resulting from the changing climate. Success of such strategies depends on the public perception of climate change. This study compares the observational data on climate and environmental changes with the results of the public survey conducted in Yakutia in the period 2012–2017. The survey involved nearly 2000 respondents in several cities and 2 villages (Ust‑Maja, Saskhulakh representing different economical, socio‑ logical, permafrost, vegetation, and climatic conditions. Results indicated that public perception of the climatic and environmental changes is not univocal, and depends on many factors. Low probability extreme events, such as unusual weather patterns or abrupt land‑ scape changes may have greater effect than the long‑term climate trends. Currently less than half of the pop‑ ulation in Yakutia consider climate change as an established fact, and are ready to take actions in this regard. Meanwhile, Yakutia is a region where observational records demonstrate the most pronounced changes in climatic regime compared to other Russian regions. The contrast between the actual changes and public per‑ ception of such changes has important implication for developing adaptation strategies. To be effective, such strategies should combine knowledge coming from instrumental‑ and

  20. Public Perception of Blue-Algae Bloom Risk in Hongze Lake of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Sun, Kai; Ban, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2010-05-01

    In this work we characterize the public perception of one kind of ecological risk—blue-algae bloom in Hongze Lake, China, based on the psychometric paradigm method. In the first survey of May 2008, 300 respondents of Sihong County adjacent to Hongze Lake were investigated, with a total of 156 questionnaires returned. Then in a second survey of July 2008, 500 respondents from the same research area were investigated, with 318 questionnaires collected. This research firstly attempted to explore the local respondents’ degree of concern regarding ecological changes to Hongze Lake in the last ten years. Secondly, to explore the public perception of blue-algae bloom compared to three typical kinds of hazards including earthquake, nuclear power and public traffic. T-test was used to examine the difference of risk perception in these four hazards over time. The third part of this research, with demographic analysis and nonparametric statistical test, predicted the different groups of respondents’ willingness to accept (WTA) risk of blue-algae bloom in two surveys. Using multiple linear regression analysis, the risk perception model explained 28.3% of variance in the WTA blue-algae bloom risk. The variables of Knowledge, Social effect, Benefit, Controllability and Trust in government were significantly correlated with WTA, which implied that these variables were the main influencing factors explaining the respondents’ willingness to accept risk. The results would help the Chinese government to comprehend the public’s risk perception of the lake ecosystem, inducing well designed communication of risks with public and making effective mitigation policies to improve people’s rational risk judgment.

  1. Public understanding of science and the perception of nanotechnology: the roles of interest in science, methodological knowledge, epistemological beliefs, and beliefs about science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retzbach, Andrea; Marschall, Joachim; Rahnke, Marion; Otto, Lukas; Maier, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report data from an online questionnaire study with 587 respondents, representative for the adult U.S. population in terms of age, gender, and level of education. The aim of this study was to assess how interest in science and knowledge as well as beliefs about science are associated with risk and benefit perceptions of nanotechnology. The findings suggest that the U.S. public is still rather unfamiliar with nanotechnology. Those who have some knowledge mainly have gotten it from TV and the Internet. The content of current media reports is perceived as fairly positive. Knowledge of scientific methods is unrelated to benefit and risk perceptions, at least when other predictors are controlled. In contrast, positive beliefs about science (e.g., its impact on economy or health) and more sophisticated epistemological beliefs about the nature of scientific knowledge are moderately linked to more positive perceptions of nanotechnology. The only exception is the perception of scientific uncertainty: This is associated with less positive evaluations. Finally, higher engagement with science is associated with higher risk perceptions. These findings show that laypersons who are engaged with science and who are aware of the inherent uncertainty of scientific evidence might perceive nanotechnology in a somewhat more differentiated way, contrary to how it is portrayed in the media today.

  2. Teachers' Perceptions of Principals' Motivating Language and Public School Climates in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that the overall climate in a school can encourage or deter learning. One significant factor promoting a positive climate is the use of motivational language by school leaders. This article presents empirical evidence of teachers' perceptions of motivational language used by school principals and the effects of this language on…

  3. Positive outcomes influence the rate and time to publication, but not the impact factor of publications of clinical trial results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Suñé

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Publication bias may affect the validity of evidence based medical decisions. The aim of this study is to assess whether research outcomes affect the dissemination of clinical trial findings, in terms of rate, time to publication, and impact factor of journal publications. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All drug-evaluating clinical trials submitted to and approved by a general hospital ethics committee between 1997 and 2004 were prospectively followed to analyze their fate and publication. Published articles were identified by searching Pubmed and other electronic databases. Clinical study final reports submitted to the ethics committee, final reports synopses available online and meeting abstracts were also considered as sources of study results. Study outcomes were classified as positive (when statistical significance favoring experimental drug was achieved, negative (when no statistical significance was achieved or it favored control drug and descriptive (for non-controlled studies. Time to publication was defined as time from study closure to publication. A survival analysis was performed using a Cox regression model to analyze time to publication. Journal impact factors of identified publications were recorded. Publication rate was 48·4% (380/785. Study results were identified for 68·9% of all completed clinical trials (541/785. Publication rate was 84·9% (180/212 for studies with results classified as positive and 68·9% (128/186 for studies with results classified as negative (p<0·001. Median time to publication was 2·09 years (IC95 1·61-2·56 for studies with results classified as positive and 3·21 years (IC95 2·69-3·70 for studies with results classified as negative (hazard ratio 1·99 (IC95 1·55-2·55. No differences were found in publication impact factor between positive (median 6·308, interquartile range: 3·141-28·409 and negative result studies (median 8·266, interquartile range: 4·135-17·157. CONCLUSIONS

  4. Do different vertical positions of maxillary central incisors influence smile esthetics perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Erica Bretas Cabral; Bittencourt, Marcos Alan Vieira; Machado, Andre Wilson

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perception of smile esthetics among orthodontists and layperson, with respect to different maxillary central incisors vertical positions in full-face and close-up smile analyses. Frontal photographs of the smiles of two adult women were used. Images were altered to create a symmetrical image with the gingival margin levels of the maxillary canines matching the central incisors and a 1.0-mm central-to-lateral incisal step. Later, the images were altered in order to create six different central incisor vertical positions in 0.5-mm increments. The images were randomly assembled in an album, which was given to 114 judges, 57 orthodontists and 57 laypersons, who were asked to evaluate the attractiveness of the images using the visual analog scale. The data collected were statistically analyzed by means of 1-way analysis of variance with the Tukey post-hoc test and the Student t test. The highest rated smiles showed two notable characteristics: a) the central incisor gingival margins matched or were 0.5 mm below the line of the canine gingival margins and; b) the central-to-lateral incisal step was 1.0 to 1.5 mm. The worst smiles showed two notable characteristics: a) the central incisor gingival margins were 1.0 mm above or 1.5 mm below the canine gingival margins and; b) no step between the centrals and laterals or a 2.5-mm step. The vertical position of the maxillary central incisors significantly affected the perception of the smile esthetics, whereas slightly extruded central incisors were more esthetically preferred than intruded.

  5. Do different vertical positions of maxillary central incisors influence smile esthetics perception?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Bretas Cabral Menezes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the perception of smile esthetics among orthodontists and layperson, with respect to different maxillary central incisors vertical positions in full-face and close-up smile analyses. METHODS: Frontal photographs of the smiles of two adult women were used. Images were altered to create a symmetrical image with the gingival margin levels of the maxillary canines matching the central incisors and a 1.0-mm central-to-lateral incisal step. Later, the images were altered in order to create six different central incisor vertical positions in 0.5-mm increments. The images were randomly assembled in an album, which was given to 114 judges, 57 orthodontists and 57 laypersons, who were asked to evaluate the attractiveness of the images using the visual analog scale. The data collected were statistically analyzed by means of 1-way analysis of variance with the Tukey post-hoc test and the Student t test. RESULTS: The highest rated smiles showed two notable characteristics: a the central incisor gingival margins matched or were 0.5 mm below the line of the canine gingival margins and; b the central-to-lateral incisal step was 1.0 to 1.5 mm. The worst smiles showed two notable characteristics: a the central incisor gingival margins were 1.0 mm above or 1.5 mm below the canine gingival margins and; b no step between the centrals and laterals or a 2.5-mm step. CONCLUSION: The vertical position of the maxillary central incisors significantly affected the perception of the smile esthetics, whereas slightly extruded central incisors were more esthetically preferred than intruded.

  6. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn E Mills

    Full Text Available Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1 assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2 determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3 owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810 were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task', found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392 provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410 is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others.

  7. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Katelyn E; Robbins, Jesse; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-01-01

    Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1) assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2) determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3) owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810) were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task'), found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392) provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410) is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others.

  8. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on public perceptions of nuclear plant accident risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Perry, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Assessments of public perceptions of the characteristics of a nuclear power plant accident and affective responses to its likelihood were conducted 5 months before and 1 month after the Chernobyl accident. Analyses of data from 69 residents of southwestern Washington showed significant test-retest correlations for only 10 of 18 variables--accident likelihood, three measures of impact characteristics, three measures of affective reactions, and hazard knowledge by governmental sources. Of these variables, only two had significant changes in mean ratings; frequency of thought and frequency of discussion about a nearby nuclear power plant both increased. While there were significant changes only for two personal consequences (expectations of cancer and genetic effects), both of these decreased. The results of this study indicate that more attention should be given to assessing the stability of risk perceptions over time. Moreover, the data demonstrate that experience with a major accident can actually decrease rather than increase perceptions of threat

  9. Aesthetic Surgery Reality Television Shows: Do they Influence Public Perception of the Scope of Plastic Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Rafael; Araujo, Karin Milleni; Samartine Junior, Hugo; Denadai, Rodrigo; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this survey was to assess the influence of aesthetic surgery "reality television" shows viewing on the public's perception of the scope of plastic surgery practice. Perceptions of the scope of plastic surgery (33 scenarios), aesthetic surgery "reality television" viewing patterns ("high," "moderate," or "low" familiarity, similarity, confidence, and influence viewers), sociodemographic data, and previous plastic surgery interaction were collected from 2148 members of the public. Response patterns were created and bivariate and multivariate analyses were applied to assess the possible determinants of overall public choice of plastic surgeons as experts in the plastic surgery-related scenarios. Both "plastic surgeons" and "plastic surgeons alone" were the main response patterns (all p television" viewing negatively influences the public perception of the broad scope of plastic surgery. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  10. Climate Change. India's Perceptions, Positions, Policies and Possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, J.K.; Parikh, K. [Indira Ghandi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai (India)

    2002-06-01

    In January 2001, the OECD held an expert seminar as part of a pilot project to investigate interactions between the long term agenda for climate change and sustainable development strategies. Experts from both OECD and developing countries attended. Participants identified issues and approaches, based on their regional perspectives, relevant to an evolving, equitable regime for addressing climate change, given various national circumstances, political interests, institutions and capacities to achieve sustainable development objectives. They stressed the importance of both climate mitigation and adaptation policy within a sustainable development framework. Discussions and presentations centred around two broad themes: Synergies and trade-offs between sustainable development objectives and long-term strategies to limit climate change; and How to build analytical and implementation capacity in developing countries to maximise synergies at local, regional and global levels of decision-making. To support seminar discussions, the OECD commissioned several papers (including this one) from non- OECD country experts; authors were asked to comment on key interactions between climate change and sustainable development from their own regional or national perspectives. This paper is being released as an informal working paper in the hope that it will continue to stimulate interest and discussions on these topics in other fora. The paper presents Indian perceptions on the problem of climate change and sustainable development; the kind of negotiating positions that follow from these perceptions; the policies India has undertaken so far and finally India's possibilities for action that can help contain the threat of climate change.

  11. Trends and correlates of the public's perception of healthcare systems in the European Union: a multilevel analysis of Eurobarometer survey data from 2009 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSaud, AlJohara M; Taddese, Henock B; Filippidis, Filippos T

    2018-01-08

    The aim of the study is to assess trends in public perceptions of health systems in 27 European Union (EU) member states following the financial crisis (2009-2013), in order to discuss observed changes in the context of the financial crisis. Repeated cross-sectional studies. 27 EU countries. EU citizens aged 15 years and older. The study mainly uses the Eurobarometer Social Climate Survey, conducted annually between 2009 and 2013, thereby analysing 116 706 observations. A multilevel logistic regression was carried out to analyse trends over time and the factors associated with citizens' perceptions of their healthcare systems. Europeans generally exhibit positive perceptions of their national healthcare systems, 64.0% (95% CI 63.6% to 64.4%). However, we observed a significant drop in positive perceptions in the years following the crisis, especially within countries most affected by the crisis. Concerning fiscal characteristics, wealthier countries and those dedicating higher proportion of their national income to health were more likely to maintain positive perceptions. At the individual level, perceptions of healthcare systems were significantly associated with respondents' self-perceptions of their social status, financial capacity and overall satisfaction in life. Our finding confirms previous observations that citizens' perceptions of their healthcare systems may reflect their overall prospects within the broader socioeconomic systems they live in; which have in turn been affected by the financial crisis and the policy measures instituted in response. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Incidence of online health information search: a useful proxy for public health risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bo; Scammon, Debra L

    2013-06-17

    Internet users use search engines to look for information online, including health information. Researchers in medical informatics have found a high correlation of the occurrence of certain search queries and the incidence of certain diseases. Consumers' search for information about diseases is related to current health status with regard to a disease and to the social environments that shape the public's attitudes and behaviors. This study aimed to investigate the extent to which public health risk perception as demonstrated by online information searches related to a health risk can be explained by the incidence of the health risk and social components of a specific population's environment. Using an ecological perspective, we suggest that a population's general concern for a health risk is formed by the incidence of the risk and social (eg, media attention) factors related with the risk. We constructed a dataset that included state-level data from 32 states on the incidence of the flu; a number of social factors, such as media attention to the flu; private resources, such as education and health insurance coverage; public resources, such as hospital beds and primary physicians; and utilization of these resources, including inpatient days and outpatient visits. We then explored whether online information searches about the flu (seasonal and pandemic flu) can be predicted using these variables. We used factor analysis to construct indexes for sets of social factors (private resources, public resources). We then applied panel data multiple regression analysis to exploit both time-series and cross-sectional variation in the data over a 7-year period. Overall, the results provide evidence that the main effects of independent variables-the incidence of the flu (Phealth lifestyles (P=.009); and public resources, such as hospital care utilization (P=.008) and public health funds (P=.02)-have significant effects on Web searches for queries related to the flu. After

  13. Public representation in water management -- A network analysis of organization and public perceptions in Phoenix, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethany B. Cutts; Tischa A. Muñoz-Erickson; Shade T. Shutters

    2015-01-01

    To better accomplish their mission of an informed public, environmental education organizations often exchange ideas, share financing, and distribute overhead through collaboration. Yet it remains to be seen whether benefits of these collaborations extend to the public. We examine two possible benefits: the ability of the organizations to act as representatives of the...

  14. Placing the public library – a comparative analysis of political perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evjen, Sunniva

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores politicians’ perceptions of the public library and public library development. While many call for a redefined vision for public libraries, eye-catching libraries are built in major cities around the world. What library visions are expressed through such projects? I attempt...... to discern how local politicians view the role of the public library, and how do they want to develop it in their local context, using concepts from institutional theory in the analysis. The research questions include issues concerning norms politicians connect with public libraries compared with those...... and document analysis of local and national policy documents. One important premise for this study has been to find cases where there are on-going developments; in the shape of main library construction. The findings show that politicians have extensive knowledge about the norms and values found...

  15. Public perception of smog: A case study in Ningbo City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuncheng; Shi, Longyu

    2017-02-01

    Smog has become a public environmental crisis in most areas of China, and in response, research efforts have mainly focused on the chemical properties of smog and its impact on human health. However, in-depth research on the public's perception of smog has not yet been conducted. A survey of residents living around eight state-controlled atmospheric environmental monitoring sites in Ningbo City was conducted using stratified sampling. The data was statistically analyzed to investigate people's views and behavioral tendencies in smog weather, the influence of different media reports on public outlook, and public opinions on the local atmosphere and pollution management in different areas. The results showed that people's perception of smog differs greatly from actual conditions, indicating that the public opinion tends to deviate when faced with a public crisis. Mainstream media (TV, newspaper, etc.), accounting for 67% of all media sources, are the main source for dissemination of smog information. The main sources of pollution, in order of decreasing contribution, according to residents of Ningbo City are as follows: motor vehicle exhaust, industrial coal combustion, large-scale construction, biomass burning, and kitchen fumes. Since 2011, most areas of China have been affected by frequent smog. Most research on smog has been concentrated on its causes, alert systems, and prevention measures, whereas in-depth research on the public perception of smog has not yet been conducted. When a risky environmental event such as smog occurs, consequences may be more serious than the event itself will cause if people take irrational measures because of lacking relevant knowledge. Therefore, investigating people's attitude and response to smog is both theoretically and practically significant.

  16. Regional Variations of Public Perception on Contaminated Industrial Sites in China and Its Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonuo; Jiao, Wentao; Xiao, Rongbo; Chen, Weiping; Bai, Yanying

    2016-04-08

    Public involvement is critical in sustainable contaminated site management. It is important for China to improve public knowledge and participation, foster dialogue between urban managers and laypeople, and accelerate the remediation and redevelopment processes in contaminated site management. In this study, we collected 1812 questionnaires from nine cities around China through face-to-face interviews and statistically analyzed the perception of residents concerning contaminated sites. The results show that respondents' concern about soil pollution was lower than for other environmental issues and their knowledge of soil contamination was limited. The risks posed by contaminated industrial sites were well recognized by respondents, but they were unsatisfied with the performance of local agencies regarding information disclosure, publicity and education and public participation. Respondents believed that local governments and polluters should take the primary responsibility for contaminated site remediation. Most of them were unwilling to pay for contaminated site remediation and preferred recreational or public service redevelopment. Moreover, our research indicated that public perception varied among different cities. This variation was mainly determined by implementations of policy instruments and additionally affected by remediation technology, pollutant type, regional policy response and living distance.

  17. Dealing with public perceptions of health risks in a nuclear world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    An enormous gap exists between the perceptions within the scientific and technical community and the general public regarding health and safety risks associated with many technologies, especially nuclear power. Closing the gap in risk perception is not an easy matter. Studies demonstrate that disagreements about risks will not simply evaporate in the face of expert testimony. Problem resolution demands education and public information programs that clarify scientific and policy dimensions of the problem. Emphasis must be placed on identification of the knowledgeable experts as well as on explanation of their findings. Attention, in particular, must be paid to expanding public understanding of the meaning of risk probabilities. Encouragement must be given to the development of a sophisticated cadre of media personnel to serve as a liaison between the scientific community and the public. Additionally, increased use should be made by public utilities in the nuclear business of scientific and lay advisory committees to serve as a bridge to a skeptical public. And finally, outreach programs should be established with schools, church groups, and civic organizations designed to upgrade knowledge and understanding of health risks in the generation of nuclear energy

  18. Public perceptions of cooking and the implications for cooking behaviour in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Frattaroli, Shannon; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-06-01

    Despite the importance of cooking in modern life, public perceptions about what it means to cook are unknown. We aimed to examine perceptions of cooking and their association with cooking confidence, attitudes and behaviours in the USA. We designed and fielded a nationally representative survey among US adults (n 1112) in April 2015. We used factor analysis to identify perceptions about cooking and multivariate ordered logit and Poisson models to explore associations between those perceptions and cooking confidence, attitudes and behaviours. Nationally representative web-based survey of US adults. US adults aged ≥18 years. Americans conceptualized cooking in three ways: the use of scratch ingredients, convenience foods and not using heat. Respondents who perceived cooking as including convenience foods were less confident in their ability to cook from scratch (OR=0·52, Pcooking (OR=0·68, P=0·01) than those who did not. Although individuals who perceived cooking as including only scratch ingredients reported cooking dinner (4·31 times/week) and using packaged/boxed products (0·95 times/week) the least frequently, few notable differences in the frequency of cooking meals were observed. Cooking frequency is similar among US adults regardless of how they perceive cooking, but cooking confidence and enjoyment are lowest among Americans who perceive cooking as including the use of convenience foods. These insights should inform the development of more specific measures of cooking behaviour as well as meaningful and targeted public health messages to encourage healthier cooking.

  19. Social trust, risk perceptions and public acceptance of recycled water: testing a social-psychological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Victoria L; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-05-01

    Faced with a severe drought, the residents of the regional city of Toowoomba, in South East Queensland, Australia were asked to consider a potable wastewater reuse scheme to supplement drinking water supplies. As public risk perceptions and trust have been shown to be key factors in acceptance of potable reuse projects, this research developed and tested a social-psychological model of trust, risk perceptions and acceptance. Participants (N = 380) were surveyed a few weeks before a referendum was held in which residents voted against the controversial scheme. Analysis using structural equation modelling showed that the more community members perceived that the water authority used fair procedures (e.g., consulting with the community and providing accurate information), the greater their sense of shared identity with the water authority. Shared social identity in turn influenced trust via increased source credibility, that is, perceptions that the water authority is competent and has the community's interest at heart. The findings also support past research showing that higher levels of trust in the water authority were associated with lower perceptions of risk, which in turn were associated with higher levels of acceptance, and vice versa. The findings have a practical application for improving public acceptance of potable recycled water schemes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding public perceptions of risk regarding outdoor pet cats to inform conservation action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza, Ashley; Teel, Tara; VandeWoude, Susan; Crooks, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) incur and impose risks on ecosystems and represent a complex issue of critical importance to biodiversity conservation and cat and human health globally. Prior social science research on this topic is limited and has emphasized feral cats even though owned cats often comprise a large proportion of the outdoor cat population, particularly in urban areas. To address this gap, we examined public risk perceptions and attitudes toward outdoor pet cats across varying levels of urbanization, including along the wildland-urban interface, in Colorado (U.S.A.), through a mail survey of 1397 residents. Residents did not view all types of risks uniformly. They viewed risks of cat predation on wildlife and carnivore predation on cats as more likely than disease-related risks. Additionally, risk perceptions were related to attitudes, prior experiences with cats and cat-wildlife interactions, and cat-owner behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in risk perceptions may result in behavior change. Therefore, knowledge of cat-related risk perceptions and attitudes could be used to develop communication programs aimed at promoting risk-aversive behaviors among cat owners and cat-management strategies that are acceptable to the public and that directly advance the conservation of native species. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Scientific risk communication about controversial issues influences public perceptions of scientists' political orientations and credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vraga, Emily; Myers, Teresa; Kotcher, John; Beall, Lindsey; Maibach, Ed

    2018-02-01

    Many scientists communicate with the public about risks associated with scientific issues, but such communication may have unintended consequences for how the public views the political orientations and the credibility of the communicating scientist. We explore this possibility using an experiment with a nationally representative sample of Americans in the fall of 2015. We find that risk communication on controversial scientific issues sometimes influences perceptions of the political orientations and credibility of the communicating scientist when the scientist addresses the risks of issues associated with conservative or liberal groups. This relationship is moderated by participant political ideology, with liberals adjusting their perceptions of the scientists' political beliefs more substantially when the scientist addressed the risks of marijuana use when compared with other issues. Conservatives' political perceptions were less impacted by the issue context of the scientific risk communication but indirectly influenced credibility perceptions. Our results support a contextual model of audience interpretation of scientific risk communication. Scientists should be cognizant that audience members may make inferences about the communicating scientist's political orientations and credibility when they engage in risk communication efforts about controversial issues.

  2. Public Perceptions Regarding Use of Virtual Reality in Health Care: A Social Media Content Analysis Using Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Michelle Sophie; Park, Hannah J; Cunningham, Maria Elena; Fouladian, Joshua Eleazar; Chen, Michelle; Spiegel, Brennan Mason Ross

    2017-12-19

    Virtual reality (VR) technology provides an immersive environment that enables users to have modified experiences of reality. VR is increasingly used to manage patients with pain, disability, obesity, neurologic dysfunction, anxiety, and depression. However, public opinion regarding the use of VR in health care has not been explored. Understanding public opinion of VR is critical to ensuring effective implementation of this emerging technology. This study aimed to examine public opinion about health care VR using social listening, a method that allows for the exploration of unfiltered views of topics discussed on social media and online forums. In March 2016, NBC News produced a video depicting the use of VR for patient care. The video was repackaged by NowThis, a social media news website, and distributed on Facebook by Upworthy, a news aggregator, yielding 4.3 million views and 2401 comments. We used Microsoft Excel Power Query and ATLAS.ti software (version 7.5, Scientific Software Development) to analyze the comments using content analysis and categorized the comments around first-, second-, and third-order concepts. We determined self-identified gender from the user's Facebook page and performed sentiment analysis of the language to analyze whether the perception of VR differed by gender using a Pearson's chi-square test. Out of the 1614 analyzable comments, 1021 (63.26%) were attributed to female Facebook users, 572 (35.44%) to male users, and 21 (1.30%) to users of unknown gender. There were 1197 comments coded as expressing a positive perception about VR (74.16%), 251 coded as expressing a negative perception and/or concern (15.56%), and 560 coded as neutral (34.70%). Informants identified 20 use cases for VR in health care, including the use of VR for pain and stress reduction; bed-bound individuals; women during labor; and patients undergoing chemotherapy, dialysis, radiation, or imaging procedures. Negative comments expressed concerns about radiation

  3. Aspects of public opinion research in risk perception studies covering the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Katia Suemi; Hiromoto, Goro

    2011-01-01

    A project for site selection and construction of a national radioactive waste repository is underway at the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. Public acceptance is determinant to the deployment of an undertaking of this size. A major concern regarding the use of nuclear energy are the problems related to safe management of the radioactive waste. For effective communication between decision makers and the public, a mutual understanding of views, as well as attitudes towards risk, is needed. The use of opinions polls is necessary in order to achieve it. This work aims to point out the major aspects to be approached by an opinion poll for the study of risk perception on the candidate regions for repository construction. A risk perception research model is presented, to be applied to the case of radioactive waste disposal, along with theoretical support to the organization and implementation of its structure. (author)

  4. Public perception of risks from nuclear power plants in Japan, before the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Rumiko; Nakaune, Naoko; Kishikawa, Hiroki; Uchiyama, Iwao

    2011-01-01

    On this research we aim to clarify public perception of risks from nuclear power plants before the Great East Japan Earthquake. The findings of the questionnaire survey conducted in 2010 showed that 1) about 70% of the people felt that they gained benefit from nuclear power plants and these were needed for their daily life. 2) Fifty percent respondents recognized there was danger to themselves and their family members with regards to nuclear power plants. The risks of nuclear power plants to Japanese society ware estimated higher than that risk to individuals of Japanese public. 3) Perception of risks from nuclear power plants to individual Japanese tended to be slightly lower between 1999 and 2010. (author)

  5. Aspects of public opinion research in risk perception studies covering the nuclear field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimoto, Katia Suemi; Hiromoto, Goro, E-mail: ktanimoto@ipen.b, E-mail: hiromoto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A project for site selection and construction of a national radioactive waste repository is underway at the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. Public acceptance is determinant to the deployment of an undertaking of this size. A major concern regarding the use of nuclear energy are the problems related to safe management of the radioactive waste. For effective communication between decision makers and the public, a mutual understanding of views, as well as attitudes towards risk, is needed. The use of opinions polls is necessary in order to achieve it. This work aims to point out the major aspects to be approached by an opinion poll for the study of risk perception on the candidate regions for repository construction. A risk perception research model is presented, to be applied to the case of radioactive waste disposal, along with theoretical support to the organization and implementation of its structure. (author)

  6. Analysis of nuclear accidents and associated problems relevant to public perception of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naschi, G.; Petrangeli, G.

    1993-01-01

    The analytical study of nuclear accidents, even if they are limited in number, forms a significant part of the vast discipline of industrial plant risk analysis. The retrospective analysis of the causes and various elements which contributed to the evolution of real accidents, as well as, the evaluation of the consequences and lessons learned, constitute a bank of information which, when suitably elaborated through a process of rational synthesis, can strongly influence the preparation of safety normatives, plant design specifications, environmental impacts assessments, and the perception of risk. This latter aspect is gaining importance today as growing public awareness and sensitivity towards the development and use of new technologies now bear heavily on new plant decision making. This paper examines how the public perception of risk regarding nuclear energy has been influenced by the events surrounding the Chernobyl and Three Mile Island accidents and the way in which information dissemination concerning these accidents was handled by mass media

  7. An Analysis of the Ecology and Public Perception of Coarse Woody Debris in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhrman, Nicholas E.

    2004-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important habitat component for wildlife, fish, and plants and is important in nutrient cycling and soil formation. Knowledge of the volume, distribution, and use of CWD across Virginia would be useful to forest managers modeling nutrient budgets in southeastern forests and is important to wildlife management efforts. Knowledge of the effectiveness of informational brochures and cooperative learning activities/presentations at influencing public perception of C...

  8. The Lay Public's Understanding and Perception of Dementia in a Developed Asian Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wai Jia; Hong, Song-Iee; Luo, Nan; Lo, Tong Jen; Yap, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background Early detection of dementia aims to improve treatment outcomes. However, poor perception and understanding of dementia are significant barriers. We aim to investigate the public's perception of dementia and identify variables associated with the different profiles of public perception. Methods A custom-designed questionnaire was used to assess laypersons’ knowledge and perception of dementia during a health fair at a public hospital in Singapore, a developed Asian nation. Out of a sample of 370 subjects, 32 declined to participate (response rate = 91.4%). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify meaningful subgroups of subjects from significant associations with multiple indicators of dementia awareness. Multinomial logistic regression was performed exploring variables associated with each of the subgroups derived from LCA. Results The majority of the study participants were female (66.9%), 65 years or older (71.1%), and ethnic Chinese (88.1%). LCA classified the study participants into 3 subgroups: Class 1 (good knowledge, good attitude), Class 2 (good knowledge, poor attitude), and Class 3 (poor knowledge, poor attitude), in proportions of 14.28, 63.83, and 21.88%, respectively. Compared to other classes, participants with good knowledge and good attitude towards dementia (Class 1) were more likely to know someone with dementia and understand the effects of the disease, be married, live in private housing, receive higher monthly income, and not profess belief in Buddhism, Taoism, or Hinduism. Conclusion Our results show that the public in Singapore may not be ready for screening initiatives and early dementia diagnosis. Education efforts should be targeted at lower socioeconomic groups, singles, and those of certain oriental religions. PMID:23139688

  9. Public Perception of Extreme Cold Weather-Related Health Risk in a Cold Area of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Jie; Lan, Li; Yang, Chao; Wang, Jian; Chen, Chen; Huang, Ganlin; Li, Tiantian

    2017-08-01

    A need exists for public health strategies regarding extreme weather disasters, which in recent years have become more frequent. This study aimed to understand the public's perception of extreme cold and its related health risks, which may provide detailed information for public health preparedness during an extreme cold weather event. To evaluate public perceptions of cold-related health risk and to identify vulnerable groups, we collected responses from 891 participants in a face-to-face survey in Harbin, China. Public perception was measured by calculating the score for each perception question. Locals perceived that extreme cold weather and related health risks were serious, but thought they could not avoid these risks. The significant difference in perceived acceptance level between age groups suggested that the elderly are a "high health risk, low risk perception" group, meaning that they are relatively more vulnerable owing to their high susceptibility and low awareness of the health risks associated with extreme cold weather. The elderly should be a priority in risk communication and health protective interventions. This study demonstrated that introducing risk perception into the public health field can identify vulnerable groups with greater needs, which may improve the decision-making of public health intervention strategies. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:417-421).

  10. Public perceptions of key performance indicators of healthcare in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, Herbert C; Harvey, Michael D

    2012-06-01

    To examine the relationship between public perceptions of key performance indicators assessing various aspects of the health-care system. Cross-sequential survey research. Annual telephone surveys of random samples of adult Albertans selected by random digit dialing and stratified according to age, sex and region (n = 4000 for each survey year). The survey questionnaires included single-item measures of key performance indicators to assess public perceptions of availability, accessibility, quality, outcome and satisfaction with healthcare. Cronbach's α and factor analysis were used to assess the relationship between key performance indicators focusing on the health-care system overall and on a recent interaction with the health-care system. The province of Alberta, Canada during the years 1996-2004. Four thousand adults randomly selected each survey year. Survey questions measuring public perceptions of healthcare availability, accessibility, quality, outcome and satisfaction with healthcare. Factor analysis identified two principal components with key performance indicators focusing on the health system overall loading most strongly on the first component and key performance indicators focusing on the most recent health-care encounter loading most strongly on the second component. Assessments of the quality of care most recently received, accessibility of that care and perceived outcome of care tended to be higher than the more general assessments of overall health system quality and accessibility. Assessments of specific health-care encounters and more general assessments of the overall health-care system, while related, nevertheless comprise separate dimensions for health-care evaluation.

  11. Religion and Public Perceptions of Gays and Lesbians in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Timothy S

    2017-01-01

    Public support for gay and lesbian rights has increased in Western democracies, yet less is known regarding views in South Korea, or East Asia more broadly. Rather than broad cultural claims, this analysis asks to what extent religious identification explains perceptions of gays and lesbians. Public opinion survey data from South Korea finds that Protestants were consistently less supportive of homosexual issues compared to Catholics, Buddhists, and those without a religious identification. Furthermore, after controlling for religion, identification with the largest conservative party associated with less support.

  12. Effects of an Integrated Science and Societal Implication Intervention on Promoting Adolescents' Positive Thinking and Emotional Perceptions in Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zuway R.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances P.

    2012-02-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating science and societal implication on adolescents' positive thinking and emotional perceptions about learning science. Twenty-five eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (9 boys and 16 girls) volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group. Fifty-seven eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (30 boys and 27 girls) volunteered to participate in the assessments and were used as the comparison group. Additionally, 15 experimental students were recruited to be observed and interviewed. Paired t-tests, correlations, and analyses of covariance assessed the similarity and differences between groups. The findings were that the experimental group significantly outperformed its counterpart on positive thinking and emotional perceptions, and all participants' positive thinking scores were significantly related to their emotional perceptions about learning science. Recommendations for integrating science and societal implication for adolescents are provided.

  13. Public acceptance of renewable energy technologies from an abstract versus concrete perspective and the positive imagery of solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sütterlin, Bernadette; Siegrist, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Public acceptance and perception of renewable energy sources are key factors for successfully accomplishing an energy transition. In this light, developing effective policy and communication measures necessitates understanding how people perceive energy systems. Accordingly, the present study aimed to shed light on people's imagery of solar power, one of the renewable energy sources with the highest potential. Results revealed that almost unanimously people associate solar power with highly positive imagery and that visual characteristics are especially prevalent. The successful realization of renewable energy projects requires policymakers to draw on reliable data about public acceptance of renewables. In response to this need, the present study examined whether assessing public acceptance of renewables on a more concrete level (i.e., by addressing drawbacks) can result in a different, more reliable acceptance rating than assessment on an abstract level, as done at present in opinion polls. Results showed that people do not think about drawbacks related to renewables when they consider it from a general, more abstract, perspective. However, when downsides are specifically addressed, people integrate these into their evaluation, thus diminishing acceptance. Even the highly positive imagery of solar power is relativized and acceptance decreases. These findings have several important implications for policymakers. - Highlights: • Evaluating renewables on a concrete rather than abstract level decreases acceptance. • People are less likely to consider drawbacks when assessing renewables on an abstract level. • On a concrete level, people consider drawbacks, even if not personally affected. • Public acceptance assessed on a concrete level provides a more valid base for policy decisions. • People almost unanimously hold a strongly positive imagery of solar power.

  14. Effects of Competing Narratives on Public Perceptions of Opioid Pain Reliever Addiction during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; McGinty, Emma E; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-10-01

    Opioid pain reliever addiction has increased among women of reproductive age over the last fifteen years. News media and public attention have focused on the implications of this trend for infants exposed to opioids prenatally, with state policy responses varying in the extent to which they are punitive or public health oriented. We fielded a six-group randomized experiment among a nationally representative sample of US adults to test the effects of narratives portraying a woman with opioid pain reliever addiction during pregnancy on beliefs about people addicted to opioid pain relievers, perceptions of treatment effectiveness, policy attitudes, and emotional responses. Portraying a high socioeconomic status (SES) woman in the narrative lowered perceptions of individual blame for addiction and reduced public support for punitive policies. Depicting the barriers to treatment faced by a low SES woman lowered support for punitive policies and increased support for expanded insurance coverage for treatment. The extent to which narratives portraying successfully treated addiction affected public attitudes depended on the SES of the woman portrayed. These findings can inform the development of communication strategies to reduce stigma toward this population, reduce support for punitive policies, and increase support for more public health-oriented approaches to addressing this problem. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  15. The role of scientific knowledge in the public's perceptions of energy technology risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoutenborough, James W.; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    It is important for policy makers to have an accurate understanding of public attitudes toward pressing issues to help inform their decision making. Researchers consistently find that the public’s receipt of and correct processing of scientific information and knowledge are essential for its problem solving. Different levels of understanding of specific energy technologies may produce different risk assessments across technologies within this issue domain. How this differential risk assessment occurs and the role that scientific information may play in it is not yet well known. This project seeks to determine the role that perceived and objective scientific knowledge may play in the public’s risk assessments of different energy technologies. Our findings suggest that scientific knowledge does temper public risk evaluations of different energy technologies, therefore linking more clearly the connection between science knowledge, scientific trust, and issue problem identification. - Highlights: •We examine influence of assessed and perceived knowledge on public risk perceptions. •We model effect of knowledge type on publics’ perceptions of three energy risks. •All models show those with higher assessed knowledge see risks more like experts do. •Perceived knowledge is less reliable predictor of public rating risk like experts. •Greater scientific grasp of issues by public needed for accurate risk assessment.

  16. SAFETY AND SECURITY IMPROVEMENT IN PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION BASED ON PUBLIC PERCEPTION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Basuki JOEWONO

    2006-01-01

    Three aspects of an improvement agenda are proposed based on the perception data, namely technology, management, and institution. This agenda is clarified by a set of action plans incorporating the responsible parties and a time frame. The action plan is divided into three terms to define a clear goal for each step. The short-term action focuses on the hardware and on preparing further steps, whereas the medium-term action focuses on developing and improving the standard of safety and security. The long-term action focuses on advancing safety and security practices. The effectiveness of this agenda and action plan rests upon a set of assumptions, such as the degree of seriousness from the authoritative institution, fair distribution of information, the availability of reasonable resources, and coordinated and collaborative action from all parties involved to reach the objective.

  17. Comparison of White and Chinese perception of esthetic Chinese lip position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Hui Theng; Thea, Kim Wei; Descallar, Joseph; Chen, Yong; Dalci, Oyku; Wong, Ricky; Darendeliler, M Ali

    2014-03-01

    To compare the esthetic preference of White and Chinese judges with regard to Chinese lip position. The profile images of a dental and skeletal Class I Chinese adult male and female were digitally adjusted to Chinese mean values. The lip profile was adjusted with the upper and lower lip at the mean distance from the Ricketts' E-line. These images were used as baseline images and were further digitally manipulated to generate six additional images with the upper and lower lip such that they lay 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 standard deviations (SDs) in front of or behind the E-line. An additional image was modified based on a White mean value. The images were viewed and ranked by 251 White and Chinese judges (dentists and laypersons) in Australia and China. Significantly more Chinese judges ranked the retrusive profiles higher than the White judges. The White judges also ranked the profile image adjusted to -0.5 SD as the most esthetic for both the female and male, while the Chinese judges ranked the -1.0 SD profile as the most esthetic. The ethnicity of the judges is a significant factor influencing the perception of esthetic lip position. The Chinese judges prefer a more retrusive profile and are more likely to rate a protrusive profile as unacceptable, compared with the White judges.

  18. 75 FR 14658 - Invitation for Public Comment on Mitigation Options for Global Positioning System Satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Public Comment on Mitigation Options for Global Positioning System Satellite Vehicle Number 49 AGENCY... options prior to changing the health status of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite IIR-20M (satellite vehicle number 49--SVN 49) from unhealthy to healthy. The potential mitigations are each designed...

  19. Positive Change in Feedback Perceptions and Behavior: A 10-Year Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Dorene F; Tenney-Soeiro, Rebecca; Mejia, Erika; Rezet, Beth

    2018-01-01

    Providing and learning from feedback are essential components of medical education, and typically described as resistant to change. But given a decade of change in the clinical context in which feedback occurs, the authors asked if, and how, perceptions of feedback and feedback behaviors might have changed in response to contextual affordances. In 2017, the authors conducted a follow-up, ethnographic study on 2 general pediatric floors at the same children's hospital where another ethnographic study on a general pediatric floor was conducted in 2007. Data sources included (1) 21 and 34 hours of observation in 2007 and 2017, respectively, (2) 35 and 25 interviews with general pediatric attending physicians and residents in 2007 and 2017, respectively, and (3) a review of 120 program documents spanning 2007 to 2017. Data were coded and organized around 3 recommendations for feedback that were derived from 2007 data and served as standards for assessing change in 2017. Data revealed progress in achieving each recommendation. Compared with 2007, participants in 2017 more clearly distinguished between feedback and evaluation; residents were more aware of in-the-moment feedback, and they had shifted their orientation from evaluation and grades to feedback and learning. Explanations for progress in achieving recommendations, which were derived from the data, pointed to institutional and national influences, namely, the pediatric milestones. On the basis of follow-up, ethnographic data, changes in the clinical context of pediatric education may afford positive change in perceptions of feedback and feedback behavior and point to influences within and beyond the institution. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Citizens’ Perceptions on Social Responsibility in Public Administration Organizations: A Case Study on Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis VÁZQUEZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes citizens’ expectations on social responsibility of public administration organizations in comparison to other public and private organizations, and argues that the mission attributed to different institutions in society might guide citizens’ perceptions and thresholds of satisfaction with sustainability standards. Three different survey studies were carried out to analyze citizens’ expectations of social responsibility of public administration organizations, private companies and a public university in the same Spanish region. A list of indicators defining internal and external social responsibility practices was developed to compare expectations in the three institutional contexts, and MANOVA was used to test differences between participants in the three surveys. Results support the notion that citizens’ expectations of social responsibility are related to perceived organizational goals in private and public contexts and the specific dimension of responsibility considered. Particularly, participants displayed higher expectations of external social responsibility in public administration organizations than in private companies and the public university analyzed, whereas citizens’ expectations of internal social responsibility were more homogeneous in public and private contexts. Implications of the study and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  1. Ethics and public perception of climate change: exploring the Christian voices in the US public debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardekker, J.A.; Petersen, A.C.; van der Sluijs, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change raises many questions with strong moral and ethical dimensions that are important to address in climate-policy formation and international negotiations. Particularly in the United States, the public discussion of these dimensions is strongly influenced by religious groups and leaders.

  2. The role of medical language in changing public perceptions of illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith E Young

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the impact of medical terminology on perceptions of disease. Specifically, we look at the changing public perceptions of newly medicalized disorders with accompanying newly medicalized terms (e.g. impotence has become erectile dysfunction disorder. Does using "medicalese" to label a recently medicalized disorder lead to a change in the perception of that condition? Undergraduate students (n = 52 rated either the medical or lay label for recently medicalized disorders (such as erectile dysfunction disorder vs. impotence and established medical conditions (such as a myocardial infarction vs. heart attack for their perceived seriousness, disease representativeness and prevalence. Students considered the medical label of the recently medicalized disease to be more serious (mean = 4.95 (SE = .27 vs. mean = 3.77 (SE = .24 on a ten point scale, more representative of a disease (mean = 2.47 (SE = .09 vs. mean = 1.83 (SE = .09 on a four point scale, and have lower prevalence (mean = 68 (SE = 12.6 vs. mean = 122 (SE = 18.1 out of 1,000 than the same disease described using common language. A similar pattern was not seen in the established medical conditions, even when controlled for severity. This study demonstrates that the use of medical language in communication can induce bias in perception; a simple switch in terminology results in a disease being perceived as more serious, more likely to be a disease, and more likely to be a rare condition. These findings regarding the conceptualization of disease have implications for many areas, including medical communication with the public, advertising, and public policy.

  3. Cross Perceptions: Journalists and Public Relations Practitioners Go Eyeball to Eyeball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Andrew; And Others

    Role theory, which posits that people play parts determined to some extent by others' expectations, was used in an investigation of the relationship between public relations practitioners and journalists. Twelve journalists and 14 public relations practitioners were asked to describe both roles in terms of a variety of attributes or…

  4. Patient's perceptions about the service quality of public hospitals located at District Kohat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Bakhtiar; Abbas, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    To determine patients' perception regarding service and quality of healthcare at public-sector institutions. The descriptive quantitative study was conducted in Kohat district, Pakistan, between July and December 2014, and focussed on 30 variables to assess the participants' perceptions of the actual healthcare service quality delivered. SERVQUAL instrument was used to measure the reliability and cronbach alpha was calculated to measure the reliability and validity of the instrument. A total of 200 questionnaires were distributed and 157(78.5%) were received back fully filled. Of them, 105(67%) were men and 52(33%) were women.The mean value of Assurance parameter was 3.05±0.88, indicating trust in public hospitals was high as they had experienced and capable doctors. On the other hand, the lowest mean value of 2.61±0.84 was for Empathy, highlighting the fact that public hospitals lacked the ability to handle patients' problem properly, services were not offered in time and they were short of staff. Public hospitals were largely seen as failing to deliver quality service.

  5. Contemporary public perceptions of nursing: a systematic review and narrative synthesis of the international research evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvin, June; Jackson, Debra; Hutchinson, Marie

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the current public understanding and perceptions of nursing. In recent years, attention to large scale health-care failures has focused considerable concern upon nursing standards. To avoid short-term solutions, and the temptation to see individual failures as representative of the wider profession, it is important to understand contemporary public perceptions of nursing. A systematic review and narrative synthesis of peer reviewed papers from January 2010 to September 2015. Four main themes were identified: (1) media portrayal of nursing as a troubled profession; (2) entertainment value in demeaning nursing; (3) role incongruity - nursing trusted but not respected; and (4) nursing roles remain poorly understood. Although there is evidence of strong public trust, this does not generally appear to be born out of an understanding of nursing work and impact; rather it appears to stem from the respect held for the traditional, more sentimental stereotypes of selfless, hardworking young females. A long-term, strategic solution is required that focuses on public engagement and interaction with the profession in a context wider than personal health/ill-health, and that goes beyond the marketing campaigns seen in the past to address recruitment crises. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. PERCEPTION OF MODES OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT COMPARED TO TRAVEL BEHAVIOUR OF URBAN INHABITANTS IN LIGHT OF MARKETING RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna HEBEL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study introduces the notion of “travel behaviour” among urban inhabitants, as well as highlighting its most common determinants, one of which is the perception of public transport. The study includes a comparative analysis of the link between passenger perceptions of the main modes of public transport in relation to the actual mode of transport chosen to complete a certain journey, based on market research results collected within a given city.

  7. Financial statement in the Brazilian public sector: The perception of the professionals that prepare that information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Eudes de Souza Calado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify the perception of the developers of the financial statements of public sector in respect to their difficulties in producing and disseminating such information, after the convergence of Brazil to the international standards IPSAS. Our methodological approach used multivariate descriptive techniques. Data was obtained through a survey, applied to professionals involved in the process of preparing the financial statement in the Brazilian public sector. The sample had 69 respondents, which corresponds to the perception of 85% of states and 46% of Brazilian cities. Data analysis was conducted using exploratory factor analysis. Results indicated that two perceptions of difficulties stood out: 1 the relevance of the information - its quality was not considered as being able to guide the internal user (decision-making or external user; 2 and the process of adaptation to the new standards - relationship between time and cost for adaptation. They also indicated the predominant focus on the Budget and the low adhesion to the Cash Flow Statement.

  8. Predictors of Biased Self-perception in Individuals with High Social Anxiety: The Effect of Self-consciousness in the Private and Public Self Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Nordahl

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available “Biased self-perception,” the tendency to perceive one’s social performance as more negative than observers do, is characteristic of socially anxious individuals. Self-attention processes are hypothesised to underlie biased self-perception, however, different models emphasise different aspects of self-attention, with attention to the public aspects of the self being prominent. The current study aimed to investigate the relative contribution of two types of dispositional self-attention; public- and private self-consciousness to biased self-perception in a high (n = 48 versus a low (n = 48 social anxiety group undergoing an interaction task. The main finding was that private self-consciousness explained substantial and unique variance in biased negative self-perception in individuals with high social anxiety, while public self-consciousness did not. This relationship was independent of increments in state anxiety. Private self-consciousness appeared to have a specific association with bias related to overestimation of negative social performance rather than underestimation of positive social performance. The implication of this finding is that current treatment models of Social anxiety disorder might include broader aspects of self-focused attention, especially in the context of formulating self-evaluation biases.

  9. Predictors of Biased Self-perception in Individuals with High Social Anxiety: The Effect of Self-consciousness in the Private and Public Self Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Henrik; Plummer, Alice; Wells, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    "Biased self-perception," the tendency to perceive one's social performance as more negative than observers do, is characteristic of socially anxious individuals. Self-attention processes are hypothesised to underlie biased self-perception, however, different models emphasise different aspects of self-attention, with attention to the public aspects of the self being prominent. The current study aimed to investigate the relative contribution of two types of dispositional self-attention; public- and private self-consciousness to biased self-perception in a high ( n = 48) versus a low ( n = 48) social anxiety group undergoing an interaction task. The main finding was that private self-consciousness explained substantial and unique variance in biased negative self-perception in individuals with high social anxiety, while public self-consciousness did not. This relationship was independent of increments in state anxiety. Private self-consciousness appeared to have a specific association with bias related to overestimation of negative social performance rather than underestimation of positive social performance. The implication of this finding is that current treatment models of Social anxiety disorder might include broader aspects of self-focused attention, especially in the context of formulating self-evaluation biases.

  10. Personal Perceptions and Perceived Public Opinion About Stuttering in the United States: Implications for Anti-Stigma Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael P

    2017-08-15

    This exploratory study was the first to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on both personal perceptions and perceived public opinion about stuttering in order to identify topics to include in anti-stigma programs for stuttering. Three-hundred ten adults in the United States completed a web survey that assessed knowledge about stuttering and attitudes toward people who stutter (PWS) with questions addressing personal perceptions (direct questions) and perceived public opinion (indirect questions). Many participants reported favorable personal perceptions of PWS regarding their intelligence, competence, and potential for success. However, most participants did not personally believe PWS were confident, and most believed they were shy. Perceived public opinion was more unfavorable as a majority agreed that the public is uncomfortable talking with PWS and that the public would recommend PWS avoid jobs requiring high speech demands and avoid talking to large audiences. A minority of participants agreed PWS are perceived publicly as capable or mentally healthy. The survey demonstrated misunderstandings and negative perceptions of PWS, especially when measured with perceived public opinion. Results can increase our understanding of content areas that should be included in anti-stigma programs for stuttering and highlight different methods for analyzing public perceptions of stuttering.

  11. Public health nurses perception of clinical leadership in Ireland: narrative descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Marie

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to identify how clinical leadership skills are perceived by Public Health Nurses in the course of their everyday work and the effectiveness and consequences of such skills in primary care delivery. Public health nurses deliver primary care to children and adults as part of small teams or in individual situations. Leadership skills are needed to fulfil their many roles. Rigorous analysis of narrative interviews with public health nurses working in primary care environments in Ireland was undertaken. Narrative information was obtained by having conversations with 20 public health nurses relating to their perceptions on what clinical leadership meant to them and how their leadership skills influenced effective primary care delivery. Analysis of conversations identified the tensions existing between the various roles and responsibilities of the public health nurse and other primary care workers. This tension was perceived by the nurses as being the main barrier to effective primary care delivery from their perspective. Clinical leadership is viewed narrowly by public health nurses as management skills rather than leadership skills were mainly identified. Education for the role was identified as a critical success factor. RELEVANCE TO NURSE MANAGERS: Public health nurses are well placed to shape and influence health service culture through effective clinical leadership.

  12. Public Service Entrance Examinations for Executive Secretary Position in Federal Institutions of Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Nunes de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The professional with a bachelor in Secretarial Science is increasingly placed on the labor market, both in the private and the public sector. However, recent public service entrance examination, on several occasions, offer positions for executive secretary – in which, neither the undergraduate degree in Secretarial Science nor the professional registry is mandatory, allowing undergraduates in different areas enter the public sector as executive secretaries. On the above, this article aims at identifying and introduce the public service entrance examinations for executive secretary, specifically in the Federal Institutions of Higher Education (IFES, from 2009 to 2015. It was identified 110 public service entrance examination rules which provided 531 positions. Of these, only 308 positions (from 57 public service entrance examination rules were exclusively intended for applicants professionally qualified according to the Law No 7.377 of September 30th, 1985. It was noted that some IFES did not demand, in their public service entrance examination rules, the professional qualification required by the Circular Letter No 015/2005 from MEC, causing a loss to the professionals with the professional qualification.

  13. Humanizing HIV/AIDS and its (re)stigmatizing effects: HIV public 'positive' speaking in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Mark; Sarangi, Srikant

    2009-01-01

    Social stigma has been inextricably linked with HIV and AIDS since the epidemic erupted in the early 1980s. The stigma that has built up around HIV and AIDS is generally regarded as having a negative impact on the quality of life of HIV-positive people and on general prevention efforts. Current attempts to combat HIV-related stigma focus on increasing the acceptance of HIV among the stigmatizing public and stigmatized individuals alike. In this, the global HIV-positive community is being increasingly called upon to ;humanize' the virus, not least through public displays of HIV 'positive' health and public ;positive' speaking. This article critically explores the constitutive effects and inherent power relations of HIV Positive Speakers' Bureaus (PSBs) as a platform for such a display. Adopting a post-structuralist discourse analytic approach, we explore accounts of positive-speaking and HIV health from HIV-related non-government organizations in India and in PSB training manuals. In particular, we highlight ways in which positive-speaking in India can be seen to have significant (re)stigmatizing effects by way of ambivalent and hyper-real configurations of HIV 'positive' identity and life.

  14. The contribution of safety issues to public perceptions of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.; Thomas, Kerry

    1978-01-01

    Public opposition is an important consideration for those responsible for energy planning. An attitude model was applied to identify the underlying determinants of public perceptions of five energy systems: nuclear, coal, oil, solar and hydro. Empirical results are reported in which these energy systems were found to be perceived in terms of four basic dimensions: psychological aspects; economics benefits; socio-political implications; environmental and physical safety issues. For the total sample, safety issues made an appreciable contribution to attitudes toward all of the systems except nuclear energy, where it was not significant. A differential analysis of two sub-samples, those respondents PRO and CON nuclear energy, showed that benefits and safety issues were important determinants of PRO attitudes while CON attitudes were primarily due to psychological aspects and concerns about personal and political power. The role of technical information in the formation of public attitudes toward technological policies is discussed [fr

  15. FACOTRS TO DETERMINE RISK PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE, AND ATTITUDE TOWARD ADAPTATION POLICY OF THE PUBLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kenshi; Sugimoto, Takuya; Kubota, Hiromi; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Mitsuru

    This study clarifies the factors to determine risk perception of climate change and attitudes toward adaptation policy by analyzing the data collecting from Internet survey to the general public. The results indicate the followings: 1) more than 70% people perceive some sort of risk of climate change, and most people are awaken to wind and flood damage. 2) most people recognize that mitigation policy is much more important than adaptation policy, whereas most people assume to accept adaptation policy as self-reponsibility, 3) the significant factors to determinane risk perception of climate chage and attitude towerd adaptation policy are cognition of benefits on the policy and procedural justice in the policy process in addion to demographics such as gender, experience of disaster, intension of inhabitant.

  16. Effective Two-way Communication of Environmental Hazards: Understanding Public Perception in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorono-Leturiondo, Maria; O'Hare, Paul; Cook, Simon; Hoon, Stephen R.; Illingworth, Sam

    2017-04-01

    Climate change intensified hazards, such as floods and landslides, require exploring renewed ways of protecting at-risk communities (World Economic Forum 2016). Scientists are being encouraged to explore new pathways to work closely with affected communities in search of experiential knowledge that is able to complement and extend scientific knowledge (see for instance Whatmore and Landström 2011 and Höpner et al. 2010). Effective two-way communication of environmental hazards is, however, a challenge. Besides considering factors such as the purpose of communication, or the characteristics of the different formats; effective communication has to carefully acknowledge the personal framework of the individuals involved. Existing experiences, values, beliefs, and needs are critical determinants of the way they perceive and relate to these hazards, and in turn, of the communication process in which they are involved (Longnecker 2016 and Gibson et al. 2016). Our study builds on the need to analyze how the public perceives environmental hazards in order to establish forms of communication that work. Here we present early findings of a survey analysing the UK public's perception and outline how survey results can guide more effective two-way communication practices between scientists and affected communities. We explore the perception of environmental hazards in terms of how informed and concerned the public is, as well as how much ownership they claim over these phenomena. In order to gain a more accurate image, we study environmental hazards in relation to other risks threatening the UK, such as large-scale involuntary migration or unemployment (World Economic Forum 2016, Bord et al. 1998). We also explore information consumption in relation to environmental hazards and the public's involvement in advancing knowledge. All these questions are accompanied by an extensive demographics section that allows us to ascertain how the context or environment in which an

  17. Perceptions Regarding Importance and Skill at Policy Development Among Public Health Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Brian C; Leider, Jonathon P; Sellers, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Policy development is recognized as a core function of public health and a core competency in formal public health education. However, relatively little is known nationally about worker perceptions and competencies related to policy development in the governmental public health workforce. To characterize perceived importance and presence or absence of competency gaps related to policy development. As part of the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS), a nationally representative stratified sample of permanently employed state health agency (SHA) central office staff was created. Descriptive and inferential analyses examined correlates of perceived importance and competency gaps related to policy development. Permanently employed central office employees of SHAs. Analyses focus on 2 self-reported measures of perceived importance and ability related to policy development skills, as well as awareness and perceptions regarding Health in All Policies (HiAP). Seventy-two percent of SHA central office staff (95% confidence interval, 71-73) indicated "influencing policy development" was somewhat or very important to their day-to-day work. Among that group, 35% (95% confidence interval, 34-36) reported that they were unable to perform this or they considered themselves to be a beginner at this skill. Approximately three-fourths of staff indicated "understanding the relationship between a new policy and many types of public health problems" was somewhat or very important, and 30% of those who did said they were unable to perform this skill or were a beginner at it. Nationally, one-half of staff have not heard of HiAP. Among those who have, 86% indicated it was somewhat or very important to public health, and 41% reported they would like to see more emphasis on HiAP. Workforce development, both formal education and on-the-job training, may benefit from placing a greater emphasis on the development of policy skills. HiAP is an important approach to policy

  18. Structural Modeling on the Relationship between Positive Perception, Deliberative Belief, and Friendship Quality: A Study with Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Wen

    2018-01-01

    Some of the key issues in pedagogy are the way of students' peer learning, collaboration, and team work at school. Friendship quality is essential for academic achievement by peer learning and team work. In line with that, the aim of the present study is to examine the associations between variables that are positive perception, deliberative…

  19. Why geriatrics? Academic geriatricians' perceptions of the positive, attractive aspects of geriatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravens, D D; Campbell, J D; Mehr, D R

    2000-01-01

    Recruitment of geriatrics trainees has been poor, and the current shortage of academic geriatricians is expected to worsen. Although barriers to entering geriatrics practice have been identified, a review of the literature found few studies about why people choose to enter geriatrics. We used qualitative methods to investigate the positive, attractive aspects of geriatrics. Long interviews with six academic geriatricians were taped and transcribed. Transcripts were entered into a textual database computer program and reviewed independently by two investigators. Six themes emerged: 1) traditional learning experiences, 2) value on personal relationships, 3) a perception of distinctive differences, 4) a desire to feel needed personally and societally, 5) prefer democracy versus autocracy, and 6) desire intellectual challenges. Academic geriatrics, therefore, is particularly attractive to people who value enduring relationships, see challenges in complexity, practice social responsibility, prefer working within a multidisciplinary team, and derive satisfaction from making seemingly small but nonetheless important changes in peoples' lives. If further studies validate these findings, they could promote geriatrics as a career, by, for example, identifying students and family practice and internal medicine residents who share these values, beliefs, and attitudes and encouraging them to consider this important field.

  20. Barriers Inhibiting Inquiry-Based Science Teaching and Potential Solutions: Perceptions of Positively Inclined Early Adopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Michael; Danaia, Lena; McKinnon, David H.

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, calls for the adoption of inquiry-based pedagogies in the science classroom have formed a part of the recommendations for large-scale high school science reforms. However, these pedagogies have been problematic to implement at scale. This research explores the perceptions of 34 positively inclined early-adopter teachers in relation to their implementation of inquiry-based pedagogies. The teachers were part of a large-scale Australian high school intervention project based around astronomy. In a series of semi-structured interviews, the teachers identified a number of common barriers that prevented them from implementing inquiry-based approaches. The most important barriers identified include the extreme time restrictions on all scales, the poverty of their common professional development experiences, their lack of good models and definitions for what inquiry-based teaching actually is, and the lack of good resources enabling the capacity for change. Implications for expectations of teachers and their professional learning during educational reform and curriculum change are discussed.

  1. Are Bank Employees Stressed? Job Perception and Positivity in the Banking Sector: An Italian Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mannocci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The epidemiology of stress on bank workers in Europe is only at the introductory stages. This study investigated for the first time the association between occupational stress level in bank-employees using the BEST8, Karasek-Model and socio-demographic and working factors in Italy. Methods: The observational pilot study involved 384 employees. Three questionnaires were adopted to collect data: Karasek-Model, BEST8 (p < 0.001 and Positivity-Scale. Results: 25% of the sample belonged to high stress group. The workers more stressed were older with a commercial role and consumer of antidepressants/sedatives. Women were much more likely to agree with the perception of feeling unsafe in a possible robbery (OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.50–3.91 and with that sales requests were in conflict with one’s own personal moral code (OR = 2.31; 95% CI: 1.38–3.87. Older employees declared feeling inadequate in the workplace (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.07–3.65 and younger employees referred to be anxious about meeting financial budget goals. Workers who had a low positivity had a lower probability of adaptation (OR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83–0.93. Conclusions: The occupational stress level in the banking sector involves many aspects: gender, type of bank, role, personal morals, high job-demands, low level of decision-making. This study recommended that banks should implement strategic interventions for well-being of employees, and consequently for their productivity.

  2. The Refugees: Threatening or Beneficial? Exploring the Effects of Positive and Negative Attitudes and Communication on Hostile Media Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Arlt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the actual debate on refugees in Germany the media’s role was heavily disputed. To understand this controversy, this study examines hostile media perceptions from the audience perspective. Building up on previous research on the hostile media phenomenon and considering literature on pro- and anti-immigrant attitudes, this study explores the effect of positive and negative attitudes towards refugees as well as of mainstream media, social media and interpersonal communication on hostile media perceptions. Using survey data (N=1005 and applying structural equation modelling, several hypotheses on the effects of attitudes and communication variables were tested. The results demonstrate that perceptions of media bias are strongly influenced by people’s negative and positive attitudes towards refugees and the basic hostile media hypothesis was confirmed. Moreover, our findings reveal that the perceived intensity of media coverage on contested aspects of the refugee issue also has an effect on perceptions of hostility. However, the various communication variables did not prove to have direct effects, whereas mainstream media use, social media use, and interpersonal communication with refugees had indirect effects on the hostile media perception.

  3. Public Perceptions of Service Dogs, Emotional Support Dogs, and Therapy Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina; Hellyer, Peter; Cheung, Louana; Kogan, Lori

    2017-06-15

    As service dogs, emotional support dogs, and therapy dogs have become more prevalent in the USA, so too has the controversy surrounding their legitimacy. Yet, there is a lack of objective data regarding the public's understanding of the role played by each of these types of animals, as well as their perceptions regarding the legitimacy of their integration. An anonymous, online survey was distributed to examine the perceptions of US adults who do not own any type of assistance animal. A total of 505 individuals responded to the online survey, yielding 284 usable responses. Results suggest widespread misconceptions about definitions, rules, regulations, and rights associated with each type of assistance dog. In general, service dogs are more likely to be perceived as helping with a legitimate need, and their access to public spaces is viewed favorably. While there are some concerns about the legitimacy and necessary access rights for emotional support dogs, members of the public correctly identified the roles and rights of therapy dogs. Despite the media's focus on abuses and false representation of these dogs, most participants reported feeling the majority of people are not taking advantage of the system.

  4. Comparative risk perception: how the public perceives the risks and benefits of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K [Open Univ., Milton Keynes (UK)

    1981-04-30

    The view of risk perception adopted in this paper focuses on how individuals define, and hence feel about, the outcomes of a risk issue. Perception of risk is seen as encompassing a variety of attributes of a risk issue including wider beliefs that permit a risk benefit trade-off. A survey of beliefs and attitudes of the general public toward the use of various energy systems (coal, oil, hydro, solar and nuclear energy) was carried out in Austria at a time of increasing concern with energy strategies and the controversy surrounding Austria's first nuclear energy plant. The results are analysed. In general, energy systems were found to be associated with only environmental risk; however, nuclear energy was an exception in that the public, whether in favour of nuclear energy or against, believed that it is also associated with psychological and physical risk. It was also found that the policy makers underestimated the public's negative feelings about the psychological risk dimension and their belief in its association with nuclear energy.

  5. Identifying the barriers to affirmative action training: Perceptions of affirmative action appointees in Mpumalanga public hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Rankhumise

    2010-11-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this study is to gauge the perceptions about existing barriers in the implementation of affirmative action (AA training interventions at public hospitals in the Mpumalanga Province. Motivations for the study: The research conducted in this study provides valuable information which would enable the Mpumalanga health department and public hospital management to develop improved interventions associated with AA training interventions. Research design, approach and method: The population of the study consists of two groups of participants which are AA appointees and AA mentors. The study mixed qualitative and quantitative research methodological processes. Main findings: Results of this study show that there are differences in perceptions between Black respondents who believe that mentors should be held liable for the failure of the mentees and White respondents who disagreed. The findings suggest that employees are of the opinion that internal policy guidelines on the implementation of AA are not communicated to all employees. Practical implications: Public hospital management should articulate the purpose of AA interventions and its targets to both mentors and mentees and continuously review the implementation thereof. Contribution: The study contributes towards explaining the importance of training interventions that are useful for the success of AA appointees in their respective duties and also give account of barriers that are experienced by these appointees.

  6. South African Foundation Phase Teachers’ Perceptions of ADHD at Private and Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Anwynne; Amod, Zaytoon; Seabi, Joseph; Vorster, Adri

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated foundation phase teachers’ perceptions of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The teachers’ views on the aetiology, appropriate interventions and incidence rates of ADHD were examined. A total of 130 foundation phase teachers from mainstream private and public schools completed a self-developed questionnaire that had been piloted by the researchers. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data, specifically to determine whether there were differences in responses between public and private school teachers. Thematic content analysis was used to identify the themes that emerged from the open-ended questions. It was found that the teachers had a limited understanding of ADHD, in terms of what it is as well as the aetiology. In addition, it emerged that medication was the preferred method of intervention despite the participants’ awareness of alternative intervention methods. A comparison of the private and public school teachers’ results indicated no significant difference in their perceptions regarding the aetiology, interventions or incidence rates of ADHD. PMID:25768242

  7. South African Foundation Phase Teachers’ Perceptions of ADHD at Private and Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwynne Kern

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated foundation phase teachers’ perceptions of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. The teachers’ views on the aetiology, appropriate interventions and incidence rates of ADHD were examined. A total of 130 foundation phase teachers from mainstream private and public schools completed a self-developed questionnaire that had been piloted by the researchers. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data, specifically to determine whether there were differences in responses between public and private school teachers. Thematic content analysis was used to identify the themes that emerged from the open-ended questions. It was found that the teachers had a limited understanding of ADHD, in terms of what it is as well as the aetiology. In addition, it emerged that medication was the preferred method of intervention despite the participants’ awareness of alternative intervention methods. A comparison of the private and public school teachers’ results indicated no significant difference in their perceptions regarding the aetiology, interventions or incidence rates of ADHD.

  8. Comparative risk perception: how the public perceives the risks and benefits of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.

    1981-01-01

    The view of risk perception adopted in this paper focuses on how individuals define, and hence feel about, the outcomes of a risk issue. Perception of risk is seen as encompassing a variety of attributes of a risk issue including wider beliefs that permit a risk benefit trade-off. A survey of beliefs and attitudes of the general public toward the use of various energy systems (coal, oil, hydro, solar and nuclear energy) was carried out in Austria at a time of increasing concern with energy strategies and the controversy surrounding Austria's first nuclear energy plant. The results are analysed. In general, energy systems were found to be associated with only environmental risk; however, nuclear energy was an exception in that the public, whether in favour of nuclear energy or against, believed that it is also associated with psychological and physical risk. It was also found that the policy makers underestimated the public's negative feelings about the psychological risk dimension and their belief in its association with nuclear energy. (author)

  9. Positive Teacher Influence Strategies to Improve Secondary Instrumental Students' Motivation and Perceptions of Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Olivia Gail

    2018-01-01

    Asmus's model of achievement motivation in music established a framework for the study of motivation in music education. Student perceptions of self were included in the model as a dynamic factor in student motivation to accomplish music learning tasks. Research has revealed further teacher influence on student motivation and perceptions of self…

  10. Public perception and attitude towards chemical industry park in Dalian, Bohai Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guizhen; Chen, Chunci; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yonglong

    2018-04-01

    Recent decade has witnessed accelerating expansion of chemical industry and increasing conflicts between the local citizens, governmental authorities and project developers, especially in some coastal and port cities in China. Development and transformation of chemical industrial parks has been adopted as a national initiative recently. However, there is a paucity of research examining public perspectives on chemical industrial parks and their risks. Aiming to understand public perception, attitude, and response and the factors underlying the support/acceptance of chemical industry park, this paper investigated 418 residents neighboring to two chemical industrial parks, Dalian in Bohai Rim through face-to-face questionnaire survey. The results showed the knowledge of the respondents on the chemical industrial parks development was very limited. The respondents had complex perceptions on the environmental impacts, risks control, social-economic benefits, and problem awareness. The current levels of information disclosure and public participation were very low. The central governmental official (44.3%) was the most trustworthy group by the respondents. Only 5.5% and 23.2% of the respondents supported the construction of a new CIP nearby and far away their homes, whilst 13% thought new CIP project as acceptable. The spearman correlation analysis results showed a strong NIMBY effect (Not In My Backyard). Factor analysis results demonstrated five latent factors: knowledge, benefit, information, trust, and participation. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated how socio-demographic differences and five latent factors might impact on the support/acceptance of the chemical industrial parks. Education level, trust, information, and participation were significant predictors of public support/acceptance level. This study contributes to our limited knowledge and understanding of public sentiments to the chemical industry parks in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  11. Incidence of Online Health Information Search: A Useful Proxy for Public Health Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammon, Debra L

    2013-01-01

    Background Internet users use search engines to look for information online, including health information. Researchers in medical informatics have found a high correlation of the occurrence of certain search queries and the incidence of certain diseases. Consumers’ search for information about diseases is related to current health status with regard to a disease and to the social environments that shape the public’s attitudes and behaviors. Objective This study aimed to investigate the extent to which public health risk perception as demonstrated by online information searches related to a health risk can be explained by the incidence of the health risk and social components of a specific population’s environment. Using an ecological perspective, we suggest that a population’s general concern for a health risk is formed by the incidence of the risk and social (eg, media attention) factors related with the risk. Methods We constructed a dataset that included state-level data from 32 states on the incidence of the flu; a number of social factors, such as media attention to the flu; private resources, such as education and health insurance coverage; public resources, such as hospital beds and primary physicians; and utilization of these resources, including inpatient days and outpatient visits. We then explored whether online information searches about the flu (seasonal and pandemic flu) can be predicted using these variables. We used factor analysis to construct indexes for sets of social factors (private resources, public resources). We then applied panel data multiple regression analysis to exploit both time-series and cross-sectional variation in the data over a 7-year period. Results Overall, the results provide evidence that the main effects of independent variables—the incidence of the flu (Psearches for queries related to the flu. After controlling for the number of reported disease cases and Internet access rate by state, we estimate the

  12. Chlamydia positivity in New Orleans public high schools, 1996-2005: implications for clinical and public health practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsuami, M Jacques; Nsa, Musheni; Brennan, Christine; Cammarata, Catherine L; Martin, David H; Taylor, Stephanie N

    2013-01-01

    To describe the trends in chlamydia positivity among New Orleans high school students tested in a schoolwide screening between 1996 and 2005, and to determine factors associated with chlamydia positivity among students during the 10-year period. Between school years 1995-1996 and 2004-2005, students in New Orleans public high schools were tested for chlamydia using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) in urine specimens (LCx assay until 1999-2000; BD assay from 2000-2001 to 2004-2005). For each year, we calculated chlamydia positivity by dividing the number of students testing positive by the total number of students tested. Data were analyzed separately by gender. Logistic regressions were performed to determine independent predictors of chlamydia positivity during the 10-year period. Between 1996 and 2005, the average chlamydia positivity was 7.0% (95% confidence interval 6.6-7.4) in boys and 13.1% (95% confidence interval 12.6-13.7) in girls (P New Orleans school-age adolescent population. Any benefit of screening on individuals tested was likely to be mitigated by participants' uninterrupted social interactions with the dynamic forces that sustain the sexual transmission of chlamydia in the population. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicines among pharmacy students of a Malaysian Public University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Elkalmi, Ramadan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is consistently on the rise worldwide. Consumers often consider pharmacists as a major source of information about CAM products and their safety. Due to the limitation of data, it is worth exploring the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students toward CAM. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students regarding the use of CAM in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted for 3 months among Bachelor of Pharmacy students in a public sector University of Malaysia. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire, comprised four sections, was used to collect the data from 440 participants. Descriptive analysis was used, and Chi-square test was used to test the association between dependent and independent variables. Results: Of 440 questionnaire distributed, 287 were returned giving a response rate of (65.2%). The results showed that 38.6% participants gave correct answers when asked about the use of herbal products with digoxin. Majority of the participants were knowledgeable about supplementary therapy (25.3%) while the lack of knowledge was mostly evident in traditional Chinese medicines (73.7%). Majority of the students were either neutral (49.5%) or disagreed that (42.8%) CAM use is unsafe. Females were more in disagreement to the statements than males (P = 0.007). Majority of students also agreed to use CAM therapies for their health and well-being (51.2%). Conclusion: The study revealed that pharmacy students did not have adequate knowledge of CAM though their attitudes and perceptions were relatively positive. PMID:26957866

  14. Awareness on adverse effects of nanotechnology increases negative perception among public: survey study from Singapore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Saji, E-mail: saji-george@nyp.edu.sg [Nanyang Polytechnic, Centre for Sustainable Nanotechnology, School of Chemical & Life Sciences (Singapore); Kaptan, Gulbanu [Newcastle University, Food and Society Group, CRE School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom); Lee, Joel [Nanyang Polytechnic, Centre for Sustainable Nanotechnology, School of Chemical & Life Sciences (Singapore); Frewer, Lynn, E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, Food and Society Group, CRE School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    As has been demonstrated by recent societal controversies associated with the introduction of novel technologies, societal acceptance of a technology and its applications is shaped by consumers’ perceived risks and benefits. The research reported here investigates public perceptions of nanotechnology in Singapore, where technological innovation is an established part of the economy, and it might be expected that consumer perceptions of risk are low, and those of benefit are high. The contribution of socio-demographic variables, knowledge level and exposure to risk information in shaping risk perception about nanotechnology applications within different application sectors were analysed. About ∼80 % of respondents have some understanding of nanotechnology, 60 % report having heard some negative information, and 39 % perceive nanotechnology as beneficial, while 27.5 % perceive it as risky. Nanotechnology application in food was reported to cause the most concern in the consumers included in the sample. Two-step cluster analysis of the data enabled grouping of respondents into those who expressed ‘less concern’ or ‘more concern’ based on their average scores for concern levels expressed with applications of nanotechnology in different sectors. Profiling of these clusters revealed that, apart from various socio-demographic factors, exposure to risk-related information, rather than awareness in nanotechnology itself, resulted in respondents expressing greater concern about nanotechnology applications. The results provide evidence upon which regulatory agencies and industries can base policies regarding informed risk–benefit communication and management associated with the introduction of commercial applications of nanotechnology.

  15. Awareness on adverse effects of nanotechnology increases negative perception among public: survey study from Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Saji; Kaptan, Gulbanu; Lee, Joel; Frewer, Lynn

    2014-12-01

    As has been demonstrated by recent societal controversies associated with the introduction of novel technologies, societal acceptance of a technology and its applications is shaped by consumers' perceived risks and benefits. The research reported here investigates public perceptions of nanotechnology in Singapore, where technological innovation is an established part of the economy, and it might be expected that consumer perceptions of risk are low, and those of benefit are high. The contribution of socio-demographic variables, knowledge level and exposure to risk information in shaping risk perception about nanotechnology applications within different application sectors were analysed. About 80 % of respondents have some understanding of nanotechnology, 60 % report having heard some negative information, and 39 % perceive nanotechnology as beneficial, while 27.5 % perceive it as risky. Nanotechnology application in food was reported to cause the most concern in the consumers included in the sample. Two-step cluster analysis of the data enabled grouping of respondents into those who expressed `less concern' or `more concern' based on their average scores for concern levels expressed with applications of nanotechnology in different sectors. Profiling of these clusters revealed that, apart from various socio-demographic factors, exposure to risk-related information, rather than awareness in nanotechnology itself, resulted in respondents expressing greater concern about nanotechnology applications. The results provide evidence upon which regulatory agencies and industries can base policies regarding informed risk-benefit communication and management associated with the introduction of commercial applications of nanotechnology.

  16. Awareness on adverse effects of nanotechnology increases negative perception among public: survey study from Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Saji; Kaptan, Gulbanu; Lee, Joel; Frewer, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    As has been demonstrated by recent societal controversies associated with the introduction of novel technologies, societal acceptance of a technology and its applications is shaped by consumers’ perceived risks and benefits. The research reported here investigates public perceptions of nanotechnology in Singapore, where technological innovation is an established part of the economy, and it might be expected that consumer perceptions of risk are low, and those of benefit are high. The contribution of socio-demographic variables, knowledge level and exposure to risk information in shaping risk perception about nanotechnology applications within different application sectors were analysed. About ∼80 % of respondents have some understanding of nanotechnology, 60 % report having heard some negative information, and 39 % perceive nanotechnology as beneficial, while 27.5 % perceive it as risky. Nanotechnology application in food was reported to cause the most concern in the consumers included in the sample. Two-step cluster analysis of the data enabled grouping of respondents into those who expressed ‘less concern’ or ‘more concern’ based on their average scores for concern levels expressed with applications of nanotechnology in different sectors. Profiling of these clusters revealed that, apart from various socio-demographic factors, exposure to risk-related information, rather than awareness in nanotechnology itself, resulted in respondents expressing greater concern about nanotechnology applications. The results provide evidence upon which regulatory agencies and industries can base policies regarding informed risk–benefit communication and management associated with the introduction of commercial applications of nanotechnology

  17. Stakeholders' perception of key performance indicators (KPIs of public-private partnership (PPP projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olabode Emmanuel Ogunsanmi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates key performance indicators (KPIs that could improve performance of public-private partnership (PPP projects in Nigeria. The study objectives include a comparison of stakeholders’ perception on KPIs and to investigate if significant difference exists between stakeholders’ perceptions on most KPIs. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information from various respondents who were recently involved in PPP projects. Random sampling technique was used to select forty-five (45 respondents out of which thirty-one (31 responses were used for the data analysis. The results indicate that top KPIs for performance improvement are levels of design complexity and technological advancement, and return on investment. Stakeholders agree on most of the rankings of the KPIs. The general perception of stakeholders was similar on most KPIs except for a few divergent opinions. The study findings have an implication for policy and decision making such that stakeholders could pay special attention to the KPIs identified, that could improve construction project performance. Finally the study recommends further research to explore KPIs for other procurement options.

  18. Label it or ban it? Public perceptions of nano-food labels and propositions for banning nano-food applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Agnes S. F.; Leong, Alisius D.; Cummings, Christopher L.; Ho, Shirley S.

    2018-02-01

    The future of nano-food largely hinges on public perceptions and willingness to accept this novel technology. The present study utilizes the scientific literacy model and psychometric paradigm as the key theoretical frameworks to examine the factors influencing public support for labeling and banning of nano-food in Singapore. Using data collected from a nationally representative survey of 1001 respondents, the findings demonstrated that attitudes toward technology, preference for natural product, science knowledge, and risk perception were found to substantially affect public support for both labeling and banning of nano-food. Conversely, attention to food safety news on traditional media and attention to nano-news on new media were only associated with public support for labeling of nano-food. Similarly, benefit perception was only significantly associated with public support for banning of nano-food. Theoretically, these findings support the growing body of literature that argues for the significant role played by predispositions, media use, science knowledge, and risk and benefit perceptions on attitude formation toward nano-food. It serves as the pioneering piece to address the aspect of banning in the field of nano-food. Practically, insights drawn from this study could aid relevant stakeholders in enlisting effecting strategies to convey the benefits of nano-food while mitigating the risk perceptions among the public.

  19. Trend of public perception on nuclear energy and future PA programs for winning public consensus in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Seung-Jin

    1996-01-01

    Before the second half of 1980's, the Korean government could carry out the nuclear power projects easily without any oppositions. However, the anti-nuclear and environmental preservation movement has been more vigorous after Chernobyl accident. Since 1987, the democratized social environment and improved standard of living which is resulted from economic growth have increased the public interest on a positive environment and safety of life. Moreover, the introduction of local self-government system has imposed heavy burdens on nuclear power development. The prevailing of local egoism is also a hard task to overcome in securing nuclear facility sites. The public began to recognize the necessity of nuclear energy. However, this is still a far cry from the ultimate target to the site selection. Therefore, winning public acceptance is the most important issue in implementing the nation's nuclear programs without significant obstacles, and it is necessary to develop sociopolitical approaches to deal with nuclear issues. (author)

  20. Trend of public perception on nuclear energy and future PA programs for winning public consensus in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Seung-Jin [Organization for Korea Atomic Energy Awareness, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    Before the second half of 1980`s, the Korean government could carry out the nuclear power projects easily without any oppositions. However, the anti-nuclear and environmental preservation movement has been more vigorous after Chernobyl accident. Since 1987, the democratized social environment and improved standard of living which is resulted from economic growth have increased the public interest on a positive environment and safety of life. Moreover, the introduction of local self-government system has imposed heavy burdens on nuclear power development. The prevailing of local egoism is also a hard task to overcome in securing nuclear facility sites. The public began to recognize the necessity of nuclear energy. However, this is still a far cry from the ultimate target to the site selection. Therefore, winning public acceptance is the most important issue in implementing the nation`s nuclear programs without significant obstacles, and it is necessary to develop sociopolitical approaches to deal with nuclear issues. (author)

  1. Comparing Dental and Pharmacy Students’ Perceptions on Public Health and Preventive Health Care Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Dogan, Fethi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A Public health course has an important role in the undergraduate education of pharmacy and dentistry in terms of emphasizing preventive care. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the views of pharmacy and dentistry students on a public health course and preventive health care. Methods: 173 students enrolled at Ege University, Faculties of Pharmacy and Dentistry completed a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and replied to 18 Likert type question to determine their perceptions on a public health course and preventive health care. The comments of the students were reviewed and categorized into key themes. Results: SWOT analysis and the results of quantitative Likert type questions supported each other. According to the quantitative results, there was no significant difference between the scores of students from both schools in terms of their statements about the public health course and preventive care. Both groups of students mentioned the contribution of the public health course to their professions in the future. They also appreciated the importance of preventive care in the health services. PMID:22347604

  2. HIV-Positive Patients' Perceptions of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence in Relation to Subjective Time: Imprinting, Domino Effects, and Future Shadowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, David; Toupin, Isabelle; Engler, Kim; Lènàrt, Andràs; Lebouché, Bertrand

    2018-01-01

    Antiretroviral treatment adherence barriers are major concerns in HIV care. They are multiple and change over time. Considering temporality in patients' perceptions of adherence barriers could improve adherence management. We explored how temporality manifests itself in patients' perceptions of adherence barriers. We conducted 2 semi-structured focus groups on adherence barriers with 12 adults with HIV which were analyzed with grounded theory. A third focus group served to validate the results obtained. Three temporal categories were manifest in HIV-positive patients' perceptions of barriers: (1) imprinting (events with lasting impacts on patients), (2) domino effects (chain of life events), and (3) future shadowing (apprehension about long-term adherence). An overarching theme, weathering (gradual erosion of abilities to adhere), traversed these categories. These temporalities explain how similar barriers may be perceived differently by patients. They could be useful to providers for adapting their interventions and improving understanding of patients' subjective experience of adherence.

  3. Effect of smile index and incisal edge position on perception of attractiveness in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, J-C; Nelson, A; Katwal, D; Elathamna, E N; Durski, M T

    2016-11-01

    Changes in occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) and age have been found to affect Smile Index (SI, width/height of smile). Limited information is available regarding the aesthetic effects of these changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the attractiveness of digitally manipulated smile images with differences in SI and incisal edge position (IEP) judged by respondents in different age groups. A total of 12 smile images were generated with varying SI (3·5, 5·3, 7·2, 9·0) and IEP (High, Medium, Low). Fifty respondents each in four age groups (15-24, 25-39, 40-54, 55+) evaluated the attractiveness of the 12 images using a 0-10 visual analog scale (VAS, 10 being most attractive). A repeated-measures three-factorial mixed model assessed differences. SI, IEP and age of respondents were found to significantly influence attractiveness score (P age groups combined, SI = 7·2/IEP = Medium was most attractive (VAS = 7·22), followed by SI = 9·0/IEP = Medium, and SI = 5·3/IEP = Medium (VAS = 6·53 and 6·48, respectively). SI = 3·5/IEP = High and SI = 3·5/IEP = Low were least attractive (VAS = 1·99 and VAS = 2·58, respectively). Age group significantly influenced aesthetic perception, with younger respondents more critical in differences in SI and IEP. SI and IEP significantly influenced attractiveness of the smile in all respondent age groups. Low SI (i.e. 3·5) combined with high or low IEP was unattractive. Medium SI to high SI (i.e. 5·3-9·0) combined with medium IEP were considered attractive. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Public perception on forestry issues in the Region of Valencia (Eastern Spain): diverging from policy makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabra-Crespo, M.; Mola-Yudego, B.; Gritten, D.; Rojas-Briales, E.

    2012-11-01

    Are the policies designed by decision-makers differing from society's wishes and preferences. The present paper analyzes the divergences between forest policy and public opinion in the Region of Valencia (Comunidad Valenciana) in Eastern Spain. The data is based on an extensive telephone survey of the general public on their perception of forestry issues. The issues studied include attitudes regarding forest fires, silvicultural treatments, the externalise produced by forest owners, and the state forest services role related to these issues. In total, the answers of 823 respondents were analyzed using classification trees. The results of the analysis showed a large divergence between the desires, preferences and priorities of society, on the one hand, and the policies implemented by the regional government, on the other. The study concludes that communication strategies concerning sustainable forest management need to be further developed by the responsible authorities, with the input of the research community. (Author) 53 refs.

  5. Not in My Backyard: CCS Sites and Public Perception of CCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Carola

    2017-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a technology that counteracts climate change by capturing atmospheric emissions of CO 2 from human activities, storing them in geological formations underground. However, CCS also involves major risks and side effects, and faces strong public opposition. The whereabouts of 408 potential CCS sites in Germany were released in 2011. Using detailed survey data on the public perception of CCS, this study quantifies how living close to a potential storage site affects the acceptance of CCS. It also analyzes the influence of other regional characteristics on the acceptance of CCS. The study finds that respondents who live close to a potential CCS site have significantly lower acceptance rates than those who do not. Living in a coal-mining region also markedly decreases acceptance. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk through Stakeholder Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William T. Hartwell

    2007-01-01

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Integration of a near real-time communications system, a public web site, training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs all help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS

  7. Public and stakeholder perceptions of 2030 bioenergy scenarios for the Yorkshire and Humber region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upham, Paul; Shackley, Simon; Waterman, Holly

    2007-01-01

    This study develops contrasting 2030 bioenergy scenarios for the Yorkshire and Humber region of the UK, primarily for wood, and documents the associated opinions of policy stakeholders and members of the public with a practical interest in renewable energy. Use of the region's wood resource for small- and medium-sized CHP and heat plants was found to be more attractive to these groups than use of the same resource for large or small electric power plants. Key reasons mentioned by stakeholders and the informed public groups are the higher energetic efficiency of CHP and heat relative to electricity, and perceptions of better performance in terms of local employment, local environmental impact and associated social benefits. There was also a common feeling that small-scale electric power plants were, to date, less technologically proven

  8. Negative and Positive Pretrial Publicity Affect Juror Memory and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruva, Christine L.; McEvoy, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    The experiment examined the effects of exposure to pretrial publicity (PTP) and delay on juror memory and decision-making. Mock jurors read news articles containing negative PTP, positive PTP, or unrelated articles. Five days later, they viewed a videotaped murder trial, after which they made decisions about guilt. Finally, all participants…

  9. Individual Public Transportation Accessibility is Positively Associated with Self-Reported Active Commuting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning Sten; Aadahl, Mette; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Active commuters have lower risk of chronic disease. Understanding which of the, to some extent, modifiable characteristics of public transportation that facilitate its use is thus important in a public health perspective. The aim of the study was to examine the association between individual public transportation accessibility and self-reported active commuting, and whether the associations varied with commute distance, age, and gender. Twenty-eight thousand nine hundred twenty-eight commuters in The Capital Region of Denmark reported self-reported time spent either walking or cycling to work or study each day and the distance to work or study. Data were obtained from the Danish National Health Survey collected in February to April 2010. Individual accessibility by public transportation was calculated using a multi-modal network in a GIS. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the association between accessibility, expressed as access area, and being an active commuter. Public transport accessibility area based on all stops within walking and cycling distance was positively associated with being an active commuter. Distance to work, age, and gender modified the associations. Residing within 10 km commute distance and in areas of high accessibility was associated with being an active commuter and meeting the recommendations of physical activity. For the respondents above 29 years, individual public transportation accessibility was positively associated with being an active commuter. Women having high accessibility had significantly higher odds of being an active commuter compared to having a low accessibility. For men, the associations were insignificant. This study extends the knowledge about the driving forces of using public transportation for commuting by examining the individual public transportation accessibility. Findings suggest that transportation accessibility supports active commuting and planning of improved public transit accessibility

  10. Patients’ perception of quality service delivery of public hospitals in Nigeria using analytical hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Olateju Oyatoye

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients are recently more aware and conscious. This is because of the belief that a high level of quality can translate into patient satisfaction. This is critical for healthcare providers as they deal with life. This recognition by both the service provider and service receivers made the government to establish units of service commission (SERVICOM in each of the governmental agencies including hospitals in Nigeria to monitor the level of quality of service delivery. However, to what extent do patients’ perceptions about health services seem to have been largely recognized remain unclear by health care providers, despite the (SERVICOM units in public institutions in Nigeria? Method: A cross-sectional analytical study using convenient sample method, based on the fact that not every patient of the selected hospitals can be chosen, was performed on 400 patients who received health services at four different public hospitals in Ogun state Nigeria. The selection of these hospitals was based on the zones in the state (Egba, Ijebu, Remo and Yewa area of Ogun-state. The instrument was a valid and reliable analytical hierarchy process based questionnaire containing five service quality dimensions. Data were analyzed using SPSS, Expert choice and Microsoft Excel software to determine the perception of patients towards service quality delivery in pairwise comparison of judgment consistent at less than 10%. Results:The results showed the composite priorities of the patients’ perception with respect to determinants of the patients’ perception towards quality of services delivered in the public hospitals in Nigeria. The most important factor to patients was the reliability dimension with composite priority 0.24 or 24% followed by the responsiveness dimension with 0.22 assurance dimension 0.21, tangibility dimension with 0.21, and the least determinant factor was the empathy dimension with 0.1101. Conclusion: Based on the results, the

  11. DIFFICULTIES RELATED TO THE FINANCIAL POSITION REPORTING INTO THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of a turbulent economic environment with impact on the vulnerability of the public sector entities, the stakeholders’ needs of information are focussed on the assessment of liquidities and their solvency, on the sustenability of service offerring, as well as on the capacity of the entities to answer a dynamic environment in terms of cost, quality and continuity. In this respect, the current study has as objective to identify the difficulties of reporting the financial position into the public sector in Romania. In order to reach the proposed objective, an interpretative research methodology was used. The results of this study has pointed out that the prevalence of divergences between the national view versus IPSAS in terms of reporting the financial position into the public sector limits the informational value and its relevance both for the management of the entities and their stakeholders.

  12. Public Education Campaigns to Transform Perceptions of Pharmacists: Are They Worth the Investment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepelkin, Jason; Abramovic, Melissa

    2016-07-01

    Recent public opinion polls consistently rank pharmacists as highly trusted health care professionals, but the reasoning for this ranking continues to remain vague and inconclusive. One possible explanation for this high ranking is that it is due in part to the limited expectations the public has of the profession. To gather comparative "before" and "after" data for this study, a self-administered, 33-item paper questionnaire was disseminated to 382 postsecondary (undergraduate) business students in a classroom setting. The questionnaire was designed to assess respondents' baseline perceptions toward (1) the pharmacy profession, in general, and (2) a prerecorded video of a simulated patient-pharmacist counseling session. Most respondents initially reported a "Poor/Fair" understanding of pharmacist education and training (52.1%), what to expect when having a prescription dispensed (55.5%), the content of a counseling session (49.7%), and pharmacist scope of practice (55.5%). After viewing the educational video, the number of respondents who reported a "Poor/Fair" understanding dropped to less than 5%; the majority of respondents reported a "Very Good/Excellent" understanding of pharmacist education and training (63.1%), what to expect when having a prescription dispensed (56.0%), the content of a counseling session (66.4%), and pharmacist scope of practice (60.5%). Results of this study demonstrated that using a public education-type video to increase public awareness for the pharmacy profession and pharmacist counseling duties significantly impacted respondents' knowledge and perception of value toward the profession and of pharmacist counseling.

  13. Michael Jackson, Bin Laden and I: functions of positive and negative, public and private flashbulb memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Burcu; Freund, Alexandra M

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perceived psychosocial functions of flashbulb memories: It compared positive and negative public flashbulb memories (positive: Bin Laden's death, negative: Michael Jackson's death) with private ones (positive: pregnancy, negative: death of a loved one). A sample of n = 389 young and n = 176 middle-aged adults answered canonical category questions used to identify flashbulb memories and rated the personal significance, the psychological temporal distance, and the functions of each memory (i.e., self-continuity, social-boding, directive functions). Hierarchical regressions showed that, in general, private memories were rated more functional than public memories. Positive and negative private memories were comparable in self-continuity and directionality, but the positive private memory more strongly served social functions. In line with the positivity bias in autobiographical memory, positive flashbulb memories felt psychologically closer than negative ones. Finally, middle-aged adults rated their memories as less functional regarding self-continuity and social-bonding than young adults. Results are discussed regarding the tripartite model of autobiographical memory functions.

  14. Public opinion about biofuels: The interplay between party identification and risk/benefit perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, Timothy K.F.; Choi, Doo Hun; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Shaw, Bret R.

    2014-01-01

    Using an experiment embedded within a representative survey, this study examined the interactive effect of party identification and risk/benefit perception on public opinion about biofuels. Democrats tended to be more supportive of biofuels than Republicans. However, the effect of party identification on opinion about biofuels varied when individuals considered the risk/benefit of biofuels in different domains. Individuals who reported greater affiliation with the Democratic Party were likely to support funding biofuels research when primed with the economic risks or the social/ethical benefits of biofuels. For those who considered the social/ethical benefits of biofuels, more self-identified Democrats were likely to support biofuels production and use. However, more self-identified Democrats were less supportive of biofuels production and use when they considered the political risks of biofuels. Implications are discussed. - Highlights: • We examined public opinion about biofuels policies. • Effect of risk/benefit perception varied across respondents' party identification. • Democrats favored more research when considering economic risks or social benefits. • Democrats favored biofuels more when considering social benefits. • Democrats favored biofuels less when considering political risks

  15. Staff perception of relative importance of quality dimensions for patients at tertiary public services in oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashdi, Ismail; Al Qasmi, Ahmed

    2012-09-01

    This research attempted to explore the public healthcare providers understanding the quality dimensions and patient priorities in Oman. It also addresses the issue of risks confronting health professionals in management without "a customer focused" approach. A descriptive study was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire distributed around two tertiary public hospitals. A total of 838 respondents from several specialties and levels of hierarchy participated in the study. The data was analyzed to compare the perception of two groups; the group of junior and frontline staff, as well as of managers and senior staff involved in management. The results showed that 61% of the junior and frontline staff, and 68.3% of the senior staff and managers think that cure or improvement in overall health is the single most important quality dimension in healthcare. Both groups perceive that technical dimensions have greater importance (to patients) over interpersonal aspects such as communication with the exception of dignity and respect. There was no significant difference between the perception of the managers and senior staff vis-à-vis the perception of junior and frontline staff on the importance of technical dimensions and the interpersonal aspects of service quality. Despite the proven contribution of empathy to patient satisfaction, it was ranked by both groups as the least important among the dimensions examined. The findings of this research are therefore informative of the need to implement strategies that deal effectively with such attitudes and create the platform and programs that reinforce the culture of good quality service amongst healthcare providers, managers in particular, and to improve patient satisfaction.

  16. Pharmacists' perceptions of advancing public health priorities through medication therapy management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casserlie LM

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Public health priorities can be addressed by pharmacists through channels such as medication therapy management (MTM to optimize patient and population outcomes. However, no studies have specifically assessed pharmacists’ perceptions of addressing public health priorities through MTM. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess pharmacists’ opinions regarding the feasibility and appropriateness of addressing seven areas of public health priority through MTM services to impact public health in direct patient care settings. Methods: An anonymous 37-question electronic survey was conducted to evaluate Ohio pharmacists’ opinions of advancing seven public health priorities identified from Healthy People 2020 (family planning, preconception care, smoking cessation, immunizations, nutrition/biometric wellness assessments, point-of-care testing, fall prevention through MTM activities; to identify potential barriers; and to collect demographic information. The cross-sectional survey was sent to a random sample of 500 pharmacists registered with the Ohio State Board of Pharmacy. Results: Seventy-six pharmacists responded to the survey, resulting in a 16% response rate. On average, it took respondents 5-10 minutes to complete the survey. The majority of respondents thought that each of the seven public health priorities were “important” or “very important” to patient health; the most commonly identified areas included smoking cessation, immunizations, and fall prevention (97.5%. When asked to indicate which of the seven areas they thought they could potentially have a role to provide services through MTM, on average pharmacists picked 4 of the priority areas. Only 6.6% indicated there was no role for pharmacists to provide MTM services for any of the listed categories. Staffing, time, and reimbursement represented the most commonly perceived barriers for pharmacists in providing MTM services. Fifty-seven percent indicated

  17. “Fracking” controversy and communication: Using national survey data to understand public perceptions of hydraulic fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudet, Hilary; Clarke, Christopher; Bugden, Dylan; Maibach, Edward; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The recent push to develop unconventional sources of oil and gas both in the U.S. and abroad via hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) has generated a great deal of controversy. Effectively engaging stakeholders and setting appropriate policies requires insights into current public perceptions of this issue. Using a nationally representative U.S. sample (N=1061), we examine public perceptions of hydraulic fracturing including: “top of mind” associations; familiarity with the issue; levels of support/opposition; and predictors of such judgments. Similar to findings on other emerging technologies, our results suggest limited familiarity with the process and its potential impacts and considerable uncertainty about whether to support it. Multiple regression analysis (r 2 =.49) finds that women, those holding egalitarian worldviews, those who read newspapers more than once a week, those more familiar with hydraulic fracturing, and those who associate the process with environmental impacts are more likely to oppose fracking. In contrast, people more likely to support fracking tend to be older, hold a bachelor's degree or higher, politically conservative, watch TV news more than once a week, and associate the process with positive economic or energy supply outcomes. Based on these findings, we discuss recommendations for future research, risk communication, and energy policy. - Highlights: • We conducted a survey of Americans' views on hydraulic fracturing in September 2012. • A majority of Americans have heard little or nothing about hydraulic fracturing. • Many Americans do not know if they support/oppose it or are undecided. • Those who have made a decision are evenly split between support and opposition. • Predictors of support include education, media use and top of mind associations

  18. PARTAKE Survey of Public Knowledge and Perceptions of Clinical Research in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Tal; Dhillon, Savita; Sharma, Pooja; Khan, Danish; MV, Deepa; Alam, Sazid; Jain, Sarika; Alapati, Bhavana; Mittal, Sanjay; Singh, Padam

    2013-01-01

    Background A public that is an informed partner in clinical research is important for ethical, methodological, and operational reasons. There are indications that the public is unaware or misinformed, and not sufficiently engaged in clinical research but studies on the topic are lacking. PARTAKE – Public Awareness of Research for Therapeutic Advancements through Knowledge and Empowerment is a program aimed at increasing public awareness and partnership in clinical research. The PARTAKE Survey is a component of the program. Objective To study public knowledge and perceptions of clinical research. Methods A 40-item questionnaire combining multiple-choice and open-ended questions was administered to 175 English- or Hindi-speaking individuals in 8 public locations representing various socioeconomic strata in New Delhi, India. Results Interviewees were 18–84 old (mean: 39.6, SD±16.6), 23.6% female, 68.6% employed, 7.3% illiterate, 26.3% had heard of research, 2.9% had participated and 58.9% expressed willingness to participate in clinical research. The following perceptions were reported (% true/% false/% not aware): ‘research benefits society’ (94.1%/3.5%/2.3%), ‘the government protects against unethical clinical research’ (56.7%/26.3%/16.9%), ‘research hospitals provide better care’ (67.2%/8.7%/23.9%), ‘confidentiality is adequately protected’ (54.1%/12.3%/33.5%), ‘participation in research is voluntary’ (85.3%/5.8%/8.7%); ‘participants treated like ‘guinea pigs’’ (20.7%/53.2%/26.0%), and ‘compensation for participation is adequate’ (24.7%/12.9%/62.3%). Conclusions Results suggest the Indian public is aware of some key features of clinical research (e.g., purpose, value, voluntary nature of participation), and supports clinical research in general but is unaware of other key features (e.g., compensation, confidentiality, protection of human participants) and exhibits some distrust in the conduct and reporting of clinical trials

  19. PARTAKE survey of public knowledge and perceptions of clinical research in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Burt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A public that is an informed partner in clinical research is important for ethical, methodological, and operational reasons. There are indications that the public is unaware or misinformed, and not sufficiently engaged in clinical research but studies on the topic are lacking. PARTAKE - Public Awareness of Research for Therapeutic Advancements through Knowledge and Empowerment is a program aimed at increasing public awareness and partnership in clinical research. The PARTAKE Survey is a component of the program. OBJECTIVE: To study public knowledge and perceptions of clinical research. METHODS: A 40-item questionnaire combining multiple-choice and open-ended questions was administered to 175 English- or Hindi-speaking individuals in 8 public locations representing various socioeconomic strata in New Delhi, India. RESULTS: Interviewees were 18-84 old (mean: 39.6, SD ± 16.6, 23.6% female, 68.6% employed, 7.3% illiterate, 26.3% had heard of research, 2.9% had participated and 58.9% expressed willingness to participate in clinical research. The following perceptions were reported (% true/% false/% not aware: 'research benefits society' (94.1%/3.5%/2.3%, 'the government protects against unethical clinical research' (56.7%/26.3%/16.9%, 'research hospitals provide better care' (67.2%/8.7%/23.9%, 'confidentiality is adequately protected' (54.1%/12.3%/33.5%, 'participation in research is voluntary' (85.3%/5.8%/8.7%; 'participants treated like 'guinea pigs'' (20.7%/53.2%/26.0%, and 'compensation for participation is adequate' (24.7%/12.9%/62.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest the Indian public is aware of some key features of clinical research (e.g., purpose, value, voluntary nature of participation, and supports clinical research in general but is unaware of other key features (e.g., compensation, confidentiality, protection of human participants and exhibits some distrust in the conduct and reporting of clinical trials. Larger, cross

  20. Benefit and Risk Perceptions of Controversial Facilities: A Comparison between Local Officials and the Public in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingduo Mao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the perception biases of local government officials and the general public by comparing their benefit and risk perceptions towards controversial facilities. The analysis framework of Social Judgement Theory (SJT—i.e., (a economic benefits, (b environmental health, and (c social and political factors—was used to design the research. SJT is a widely recognized theoretical framework that includes experimental approaches to the study of cognitive conflicts. An experimental survey was conducted to collect data in order to make a comparison of the weight of different elements. Results demonstrate that there are perception differences between the general public and local officials on controversial facilities. Local officials responsible for endorsing and supervising plants attach more significance to environmental factors than the public, while the public focuses more on social and political factors than officials. There is no significant difference in the cognition of economic benefits. Factors such as demolition compensation and legitimacy may provoke these perception gaps. This paper enriches the current understanding of SJT and policy making for controversial facilities by investigating the perception gaps between officials and the general public.

  1. Perception of the mexican public about the warning symbols of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, L.; Ramos, L.; Avila, G.; Canales, G.; Altamirano, R.

    2007-01-01

    The perception and familiarization of the mexican public on the terms of 'ionizing radiation' and 'radioactive material' and the traditional warning symbol of ionizing radiation, it has been strongly influenced by the television series 'The Simpson' and their character 'Homero Simpson', which has been the means of communication that of agreement to the results of the anonymous survey carried out in the cities of Mexico, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Veracruz and Merida, it has treated these impact topics in the public opinion in a simple way in different chapters of the series, jointly with the medical common practice of carrying out studies of X rays to the patients and the signals placed in the access doors in the imagenology areas. A bigger percentage is reported to 70% of those interviewed that they have listened the terms of 'ionizing radiation' and 'radioactive material. The traditional symbol of warning of ionizing radiation, 12% recognizes it at first sight, the logo doesn't mean him anything, and only a small group that knows the safety color code associates the yellow color of the bottom with the message of warning-danger. For the case of the new symbol, 100% of the interviewees indicates to ignore it at first sight, however the logo stops in 95% of the cases an opinion to have a meaning, being the perception of death 68%, danger 24%, to run 8% and the red color the message of danger. Inside the public with more familiarity with terminology and the derived traditional symbol of warning of their activities in the work, they were identified the firemen. Of the analysis of the surveys it is observed that the perception of fear to the radioactive material is of 42%, continued by that of ionizing radiations with 32% of the mentions. The presented arguments are that it produces cancer 80% and it can exploit 20% for the first case and it produces cancer 100% for the second case. 98% of the public is interested one in receiving bigger information on these topics and

  2. Radiation education versus 'radio-phobia' - public perception of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goraczko, W. [Technical Univ. Poznan, Radio- and Photochemistry Dept, Poznan, Piotrowo (Poland); Latek, S.

    1999-09-01

    In this article the author presents the basis and reasons of the public radio-phobia in Poland. He mentions about people mentality historically based the 'cold war' and Soviet's military and technologically domination in this part of Europe. Besides of the historical and sociological sources he pays attention on a few aspects, which - in his opinion - intensified the negative public responses: Chernobyl catastrophe, the coal-lobby influences, the political parties (not only 'green') games during election time, existing of old conventional coal power stations, accessibility of own cheap coal, cost of transformation from communistic to free-market economy, low-level of public pro-ecology thinking and so on. On the other hand the author describes some non-realistic attitudes of society - for example - they accept nuclear medicine while do not agree to develop nuclear power engineering. Finally he presents conclusions, which can change public perception of radiation. (author)

  3. Positive ageing perceptions among migrant Turkish and native Dutch older people: a matter of culture or resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Jane M; Nieboer, Anna P

    2017-07-21

    more firmly that their ageing processes would have both negative and positive effects on their lives. Results revealed poorer health, lower income and educational levels among Turkish than among Dutch elders. In addition, many more Dutch than Turkish elders were single/widowed/divorced. Physical and personal resources, in addition to culture, are most important for positive ageing perceptions among native Dutch and migrant Turkish elders residing in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. These resources are health and education for Turkish elders, and health and age for Dutch elders. Overall, ethnicity remained a significant predictor of ageing perceptions when other resources were taken into account.

  4. Risk perceptions of public health and food safety hazards in poultry husbandry by citizens, poultry farmers and poultry veterinarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortvliet, P M; Ekkel, E D; Kemp, B; Stassen, E N

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Differences in risk perceptions of public health and food safety hazards in various poultry husbandry systems by various stakeholder groups, may affect the acceptability of those husbandry systems. Therefore, the objective was to gain insight into risk perceptions of citizens, poultry farmers, and poultry veterinarians regarding food safety and public health hazards in poultry husbandry systems, and into factors explaining these risk perceptions. We surveyed risk perceptions of Campylobacter contamination of broiler meat, avian influenza introduction in laying hens, and altered dioxin levels in eggs for the most commonly used broiler and laying hen husbandry systems in Dutch citizens (n = 2,259), poultry farmers (n = 100), and poultry veterinarians (n = 41). Citizens perceived the risks of the three hazards in the indoor systems higher and in the outdoor systems lower than did the professionals. Citizens reported higher concerns regarding aspects reflecting underlying psychological factors of risk perception compared to professionals. Professionals indicated a relatively low level of personal control, which might imply risk denial. Of the socio-demographic characteristics, gender and childhood residence were associated with risk perceptions. The influence of other factors of risks perception are discussed. It is suggested that risk perceptions of all stakeholder groups are influenced by affect, stigma, and underlying values. To adapt current or new husbandry systems that can count on societal support, views of key stakeholders and multiple aspects such as animal welfare, public health, food safety, and underlying values should be considered integrally. When trade-offs, such as between animal welfare and public health have to be made, insight into underlying values might help to find consensus among stakeholders. PMID:29161444

  5. The IRSN Risk Perception Barometer: analyzing the 1997 - 2008 period and comparing expert, public and residents of a nuclear facility perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Jammal, Marie H.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Since 1997, IRSN conducts a yearly survey designed to understand how the French population perceives risk: the IRSN barometer. In this survey, 30 risks are investigated from three different angles: a) Seriousness of the risk; b) Trust in the authorities; c) Credibility of information given about these risks. The 30 risks include situations widely covered by the media (traffic accidents, smoking, alcohol, etc.), as well as situations of which the public can be unaware (such as radon in homes) and situations perceived as low risk (X-rays, noise, etc.). The list includes nuclear power plants, nuclear waste storage, Chernobyl pollution impacts, chemical industries, chemical waste, transportation of hazardous chemicals, etc. Statistical analysis of the answers highlighted five groups of risks in relation with a common rationale of perception by the French people. This will be presented as the first part of the paper. The conclusion will show that the risk perceptions of the French population are not at all versatile. Their perception logic is based on the perceived seriousness of the risk, on their 'trust in the protective measures taken by the French authorities' and on the perceived credibility of information. Risk perception varies greatly with age, gender, culture and level of education. We know this with the IRSN Barometer and others opinion pools. However, few surveys are carried out among experts in risk. Do they have a different perception of risk from the general public? It's the subject of a study entitled PERPLEX (Perception of Risk by the Public and Experts) who was realized in October 2004. This will be presented in the second part of the paper. The same question can be asked for the population who live near a nuclear power plant or other nuclear facility. So, in November 2007, 318 residents in the vicinity of twenty nuclear facility have answered at the IRSN's annual barometer questionnaire. The results of these three surveys will be presented

  6. Systems analysis of stress and positive perceptions in mothers and fathers of pre-school children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Richard P; Kovshoff, Hanna; Ward, Nicholas J; degli Espinosa, Francesca; Brown, Tony; Remington, Bob

    2005-10-01

    Systemic analyses of psychological functioning in families of children with autism have typically shown that parents report different experiences (e.g., stress) and that siblings may also be affected. The purpose of the present research was more explicitly to address relationships between child, partner, and parent variables. Parents of 48 children with autism (41 mother-father pairs) reported on child characteristics, and their own stress and mental health. Mothers were found to report both more depression and more positive perceptions than fathers. Regression analyses revealed that paternal stress and positive perceptions were predicted by maternal depression; maternal stress was predicted by their children's behavior problems (not adaptive behavior or autism symptoms) and by their partner's depression. The future testing of the mechanisms underlying these results is discussed. In addition, the need is emphasized for more systemic analyses to understand the psychological functioning of children with autism and their siblings and parents.

  7. Comparative analysis of public's perception of economic feasibility and reality for selected energy sources in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Seungkook; Jeong, Ik; Lee, Kibog; Kim, Dongwook; Kim, Hyunjin

    2016-01-01

    Controversy on nuclear energy has persisted ever since, but nuclear energy has maintained around 30% of electricity generation in Korea. This is because Korean wants to secure energy security and diversity of energy sources, but the most rational driver behind nuclear energy is the economic feasibility. Looking at the actual prices of electricity traded in the Korean Power Exchange, the price of electricity generated by nuclear energy is 39.1 Korean won per kWh, which is lower than that of other sources: 58.9 (bituminous coal), 221.8 (oil), 158.6 (gas), 170.9 (hydropower), 162.8 (wind) and 463.1 (photovoltaic). However only experts, regulators and people from electricity generation industry are aware of this fact and the public does not seem to be perceiving this correctly. This research, therefore, will compare the economic feasibility of energy sources and how it is perceived by the public in general. This research was able to identify the large gap between public's perception on and reality of economic feasibility of energy sources. There are two possible reasons for the gap. Firstly, the electricity price paid by the public is agnostic of energy sources. Therefore, it is difficult for the public to be aware that the electricity from nuclear energy is benefiting them and hence the public would be indifferent to the real economic feasibility. Secondly, public's awareness of nuclear reactor decommissioning and spent fuel processing along with easier access to relevant information the media would have played a role. In fact, number of press and media has questioned the economic feasibility of nuclear energy. However, the price of electricity generated by nuclear energy includes costs for future activities such as decommissioning, radioactive waste disposal and spent fuel disposal. The public seems to be not aware of such fact and therefore favoring the media. Such analysis leads to two major policy implications. Most importantly, the government should emphasize the

  8. Sustainability or profitability? How communicated motives for environmental policy affect public perceptions of corporate greenwashing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de vries, G; Terwel, B; Ellemers, Naomi|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086631276; Daamen, D.

    Companies in the energy sector face a dilemma regarding how to communicate their environmental policies to the public. Communicating that environmental policies and activities are motivated by concern for the environment could elicit positive reactions, but may also lead to accusations of corporate

  9. Lack of Reality: Positive Self-Perceptions of Health in the Presence of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent J. Dalbo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine if adults in Central Queensland have accurate self-perceptions of health. Data were collected as part of the 2010 Central Queensland Social Survey (N = 1289. Overweight/obesity is considered a health disorder and was determined using body mass index. Disease states were determined by asking respondents if they have: heart disease, high/low blood pressure, high cholesterol, high triglycerides, thyroid disorder, diabetes, and osteopenia/osteoporosis. Self-perceptions of health were assessed by asking, “Would you say that in general your health is” poor, fair, good, very good, excellent, don’t know, and no response. An accurate health perception occurred if: (1 A respondent with a disease/health disorder reported that their health was poor/fair or (2 A respondent without a disease/health disorder reported that their health was good/very good/excellent. The proportions of people with an accurate health perception by disease/health disorder were compared using a χ2 test. A proportion ratio (PR with a 95% confidence interval (CI was calculated for each disease/health disorder. A logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between each disease/health disorder and health perception using gender, age, education, physical activity level, and smoking status as covariates. More than 50% of residents with each disease/health disorder reported their health to be good/very good/excellent. Residents with each disease/health disorder were less likely to have an accurate health perception than those without the corresponding disease/health disorder prior to (p < 0.001 and following adjustment of the covariates (p < 0.001. Our results suggest that overweight/obesity and prevalence of disease are not being recognized as unhealthy, which contradicts established definitions of health.

  10. Bayesian integration of position and orientation cues in perception of biological and non-biological dynamic forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Matthew Thurman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual form analysis is fundamental to shape perception and likely plays a central role in perception of more complex dynamic shapes, such as moving objects or biological motion. Two primary form-based cues serve to represent the overall shape of an object: the spatial position and the orientation of locations along the boundary of the object. However, it is unclear how the visual system integrates these two sources of information in dynamic form analysis, and in particular how the brain resolves ambiguities due to sensory uncertainty and/or cue conflict. In the current study, we created animations of sparsely-sampled dynamic objects (human walkers or rotating squares comprised of oriented Gabor patches in which orientation could either coincide or conflict with information provided by position cues. When the cues were incongruent, we found a characteristic trade-off between position and orientation information whereby position cues increasingly dominated perception as the relative uncertainty of orientation increased and vice versa. Furthermore, we found no evidence for differences in the visual processing of biological and non-biological objects, casting doubt on the claim that biological motion may be specialized in the human brain, at least in specific terms of form analysis. To explain these behavioral results quantitatively, we adopt a probabilistic template-matching model that uses Bayesian inference within local modules to estimate object shape separately from either spatial position or orientation signals. The outputs of the two modules are integrated with weights that reflect individual estimates of subjective cue reliability, and integrated over time to produce a decision about the perceived dynamics of the input data. Results of this model provided a close fit to the behavioral data, suggesting a mechanism in the human visual system that approximates rational Bayesian inference to integrate position and orientation signals in dynamic

  11. Measuring risk/benefit perceptions of emerging technologies and their potential impact on communication of public opinion toward science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Andrew R; Cacciatore, Michael A; Scheufele, Dietram A; Shaw, Bret R; Corley, Elizabeth A

    2012-10-01

    This study presents a systematic comparison of two alternative measures of citizens' perceptions of risks and benefits of emerging technologies. By focusing on two specific issues (nanotechnology and biofuels), we derive several insights for the measurement of public views of science. Most importantly, our analyses reveal that relying on global, single-item measures may lead to invalid inferences regarding external influences on public perceptions, particularly those related to cognitive schema and media use. Beyond these methodological implications, this analysis suggests several reasons why researchers in the area of public attitudes toward science must revisit notions of measurement in order to accurately inform the general public, policymakers, scientists, and journalists about trends in public opinion toward emerging technologies.

  12. Deus ex machina or e-slave? Public perception of healthcare robotics in the German print media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laryionava, Katsiaryna; Gross, Dominik

    2012-07-01

    The news media plays a central role in providing information regarding new medical technologies and exerts an influence on their social perception, understanding, and assessments. This study, therefore, analyzes how healthcare robotics are portrayed in the German print news media. It examines whether the risks and opportunities of new medical technologies are presented in a balanced manner and investigates whether or not print media coverage of these technologies is affected by science-fiction discourse, in which robots appear mostly as a threat to humans. Ten years of German print media coverage (2000-2010) have been studied by means of systematic, standardized content analysis. Reporting focuses predominantly on beneficial advancements in medical practice and the advantages of robotics for patients, medical staff, and society. The results show that the dominant relationship between robots and humans that is transmitted in print media in medical contexts is positive, with robots mostly portrayed as assistants, colleagues, or even friends. Only a small number of articles report ethical questions and risks. In contrast to science-fiction discourse, the German print media provides a positive picture of robotics to the lay public.

  13. Lateral decubitus position vs. lithotomy position: which is the best way to minimize patient’s pain perception during transrectal prostate biopsy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Hyun Song

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction Considering the distinctive nature in terms of psychological stress and anal tone of position which is generally selected between lithotomy and left lateral decubitus (LLD, we postulated its effect on pain perception during biopsy, and investigated their association. Materials and Methods A prospective study for comparison of two biopsy positions which were perform in a different working day was conducted for 208 men (lithotomy position=86, LLD=122. The decision on the position was made solely based on the patient’s preference for the biopsy day, and all procedures were performed according to the identical protocol (12-core biopsy with intrarectal lidocaine gel, probe, and needle. The maximal degree of pain during the entire process was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS, immediately after biopsy. After propensity matching, a total of 152 patients were finally selected (lithotomy group=76, LLD=76, then peri-biopsy parameters were compared. Results Between groups, no differences were observed across all variables including age, obesity, prostate volume, serum PSA, international prostate symptom score, and cancer detection rate, except mean (±standard deviation VAS score (3.89±2.01 vs. 4.58±2.22, p=0.049. VAS score showed significant association solely with patient’s position (Pearson’s coefficient=-0.165, p=0.042. In multiple linear regression models regarding the effect of clinical variables on VAS score, patient position was a single independent predictor favoring lithotomy position to decrease perceived pain (B=-0.928, p=0.024. Conclusions These data suggest lithotomy position as a proper way to perform transrectal prostate biopsy with routine use of topical lidocaine gel in comparison with conventional LLD position.

  14. Public perceptions about climate change mitigation in British Columbia's forest sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerman, Shannon; Kozak, Robert; Hoberg, George

    2018-01-01

    The role of forest management in mitigating climate change is a central concern for the Canadian province of British Columbia. The successful implementation of forest management activities to achieve climate change mitigation in British Columbia will be strongly influenced by public support or opposition. While we now have increasingly clear ideas of the management opportunities associated with forest mitigation and some insight into public support for climate change mitigation in the context of sustainable forest management, very little is known with respect to the levels and basis of public support for potential forest management strategies to mitigate climate change. This paper, by describing the results of a web-based survey, documents levels of public support for the implementation of eight forest carbon mitigation strategies in British Columbia’s forest sector, and examines and quantifies the influence of the factors that shape this support. Overall, respondents ascribed a high level of importance to forest carbon mitigation and supported all of the eight proposed strategies, indicating that the British Columbia public is inclined to consider alternative practices in managing forests and wood products to mitigate climate change. That said, we found differences in levels of support for the mitigation strategies. In general, we found greater levels of support for a rehabilitation strategy (e.g. reforestation of unproductive forest land), and to a lesser extent for conservation strategies (e.g. old growth conservation, reduced harvest) over enhanced forest management strategies (e.g. improved harvesting and silvicultural techniques). We also highlighted multiple variables within the British Columbia population that appear to play a role in predicting levels of support for conservation and/or enhanced forest management strategies, including environmental values, risk perception, trust in groups of actors, prioritized objectives of forest management and socio

  15. DIFFICULTIES RELATED TO THE FINANCIAL POSITION REPORTING INTO THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelia ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2014-01-01

    Within the context of a turbulent economic environment with impact on the vulnerability of the public sector entities, the stakeholders’ needs of information are focussed on the assessment of liquidities and their solvency, on the sustenability of service offerring, as well as on the capacity of the entities to answer a dynamic environment in terms of cost, quality and continuity. In this respect, the current study has as objective to identify the difficulties of reporting the financial posit...

  16. Male and Female Communication, Leadership Styles and the Position of Women in Public Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Topic, M; Tench, R; Moreno, A

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses results of the largest European survey among communication and public relations (PR) practitioners in regards to the position of women in the industry. The survey was conducted online among communication and PR practitioners from 42 European countries. Using communication theories on differences in communication styles among men and women, we present and discuss results on managerial skills, differences in the communication styles, and traditional views on differences b...

  17. Professionals' positive perceptions of fathers are associated with more favourable attitudes towards including them in family interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montigny, Francine; Gervais, Christine; Meunier, Sophie; Dubeau, Diane

    2017-12-01

    This Université du Québec en Outaouais study examined professionals' attitudes towards fathers, their perceived self-efficacy when working with them and their perceptions of the importance of including fathers in family interventions. Professionals in Québec, Canada, working in childcare fields such as education, social services, health, community services and management answered a self-report questionnaire between 2013 and 2015. The 296 respondents (90% females) had a mean age of 39 (20-65), were from urban, semi-urban and rural settings and provided services to families with children up to five years of age. Social service professionals perceived fathers more negatively than did other professionals. Even though male professionals perceived fathers more negatively, they felt more confident working with them than did their female counterparts. Positive perceptions of fathers were associated with more favourable attitudes towards including them in family interventions, and this association was mediated by the professionals' perceptions of their own self-efficacy. The most negative attitudes were reported by social service professionals. Male professionals viewed fathers more negatively but were more confident working with them than were female colleagues. Improving professionals' perceptions of fathers could help to promote their inclusion in family interventions. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Perception of the Internal Managerial Control System – the Case of the Romanian Public Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    State Violeta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to control the management of activities for achieve the objectives, the managers at all levels of the hierarchy must have relevant information on the organization's events and activities, in an appropriate form and detail. Thus, they can assume their responsibilities. In this context, we considered that important of organizing and implementing in the public entities of the system of internal managerial control. This system provides reasonable assurance that the organization's objectives will be achieved in terms of efficiency, efficacy, economically. For this purpose, we have carried out a documentary research of both specialized papers and the applicable regulations in force in Romania in the field of managerial internal control within the public entities, as well as empirical research. Thus, in a conjunct survey, we conducted a survey on the implementation of the managerial internal control system in different public institutions in Romania with the central objective to highlight the perception of the staff involved in this tool at the disposal of the management.

  19. Integrating ecological knowledge, public perception and urgency of action into invasive species management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplat, Paul; Coutts, Shaun R

    2011-11-01

    Recently Prévot-Julliard and colleagues presented a concept paper on biological conservation strategies using exotic species as a case study. They emphasized the difficulty of integrating conservation into a broad picture that accounts for public perception as well as scientific knowledge. We support this general call for better integration of society in conservation research, but we believe that the original framework might misguide conservation practices if wrongly interpreted. Our objective is to complement their paper and correct a few misleading points, by showing that (1) for regions of high endemicity "reservation" may be the best conservation practice, and does not prevent public participation, (2) aiming for broad societal agreement is valuable, but in some cases risky, and always complex, and (3) calling a harmful invasive species harmful shouldn't be an issue. The Australian context provides us with many cases of the labeling of exotic species as harmful or not, using inputs from scientists, industry, and the public. Integration of social and scientific points of view can only improve conservation on the ground if it allows managers to use the ecological, economic and social impacts of exotic species to prioritize conservation actions in an operative way.

  20. Background radiation in the Sydney metropolitan area scientific reality and public perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    Very little information if any, is available to the public about the ubiquitous nature of low-level background radiation -both from terrestrial and cosmic sources - in our highly urbanised or predominantly agrarnian societies. Public perception has naively accepted that the combustion of precious oxygen by air breathing engines is both natural and societally acceptable. Little thought has been given to the fact that on the one planet known to be able to sustain life based on oxygen, this is a recipe for disaster. On the other hand, since the evolution or creation of our universe, billions of tonnes of radioactive material within the crust of planet earth together with radiation from the thermonuclear powers station of the solar system, the sun, have sustained life, assisted in its evolution and, through photosynthesis and energy deposition, have ensured its propagation. In this on-going student project, employing wide-band, sensitive scintillation radiation detectors, careful statistical analysis and an understanding of the physics of radium-uranium decay chain and the production of radon gas and its daughter products, fluctuation in the radiation fields of large cities is clearly demonstrated. The work is usually carried out by the author and his final year thesis and students have great educational value for the public, civic authorities, school teachers, the media and political decision makers

  1. Tangible Evidence, Trust and Power: Public Perceptions of Community Environmental Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; Senier, Laura; Darrah-Okike, Jennifer; Brown, Phil; Santos, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Communities with environmental health concerns in the USA frequently request studies from their local or state departments of public health. This paper presents findings from three focus groups conducted in communities north of Boston that have been the subject of two different environmental health studies. The focus groups were designed to elicit residents’ perceptions of environmental health, and of the particular studies conducted in their communities. In all focus groups, participants had difficulty accepting the findings of health studies that contradicted their own experiences of environmental exposures and illness. Our results suggest that lay knowledge, informed in varying degrees by the experience of what we term “tangible evidence,” creates a lens through which communities interpret a health study’s findings. The differences in reliance on tangible evidence were related to participants’ sense of trust in public officials, and the institutions responsible for conducting health studies. Participants from the wealthier, predominantly white communities discussed trust in study design and methodologies used. In contrast, participants from the lower income, higher minority communities assessed health studies with reference to their trust (or lack thereof) in study sponsors and public health institutions. Participants’ experience of tangible evidence, trust or distrust in health agencies and research institutions, and a sense of relative community power, influence how they assess the findings of environmental health studies and may have implications for pubic health. PMID:18995942

  2. Can journalistic "false balance" distort public perception of consensus in expert opinion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Derek J

    2016-03-01

    Media critics have expressed concern that journalistic "false balance" can distort the public's perceptions of what ought to be noncontroversial subjects (e.g., climate change). I report several experiments testing the influence of presenting conflicting comments from 2 experts who disagree on an issue (balance condition) in addition to a complete count of the number of experts on a panel who favor either side. Compared with a control condition, who received only the complete count, participants in the balance condition gave ratings of the perceived agreement among the experts that did not discriminate as clearly between issues with and without strong expert consensus. Participants in the balance condition also perceived less agreement among the experts in general, and were less likely to think that there was enough agreement among experts on the high-consensus issues to guide government policy. Evidently, "false balance" can distort perceptions of expert opinion even when participants would seem to have all the information needed to correct for its influence. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Recreationists’ Perceptions of Scenic Beauty and Satisfaction at a Public Forest Managed for Endangered Wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Paudyal

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Prescribed burning and other active forest management treatments have been proven essential for maintaining suitable habitat conditions for many wildlife species, including the federally endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW. This study examines the perception of forest management treatments of recreation users participating in various activities (hunting, hiking/backpacking, camping, off-highway vehicle riding, and canoeing/kayaking in terms of scenic beauty and recreation satisfaction. We used photographic images to capture various forest management treatments of different intensity levels and times after treatments, and assessed users’ perception of scenic beauty and recreation satisfaction. Results indicated variation among users participating in different recreation activities, but that good quality RCW habitats offered both higher scenic beauty and higher recreation satisfaction than poor quality habitats for most activity user groups. Finally, recreation satisfaction was statistically equal to perceived scenic beauty from both good and poor-quality RCW habitats for most of the activity user groups, thus suggesting the importance of scenic beauty of forest sites in determining recreation users’ attainment of visit satisfaction. Findings conclude that forest sites developed as good quality RCW habitats in the present state also offer quality experience to recreation users, thus supporting multi-objective forestry practices in public forests.

  4. A study on the public perception in nuclear area in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Renata Araujo de [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes; Guimaraes, Antonio Cesar Ferreira, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.b, E-mail: tony@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wieland, Patricia, E-mail: pwieland@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear. Div. de Normas

    2011-07-01

    During the course of the last years the need for the increase in the electric energy production in Brazil as well as in the rest of the world, has raised the tone of the debate about the environment impact of such production. As a result of these debates, both the several levels of government and some of the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO's) have commissioned innumerous opinion researches aiming at measuring and evaluating the knowledge and perception of the public in relation of the best non-polluting energy sources. Prior to 2001 these researches would not make any sense in Brazil., however due to that year's drought, the competent authorities were faced with the necessity of developing a plan, the Plano Nacional de Energia (PNE2030) aiming, among others objectives, at finalizing the construction of the Angra 3 plant and implementing new nuclear plants in places still to be determined. Allowing for the complexity of the subject, this paper presents a field research conducted from 28th September 2010 to 28th October 2010 assessing the current level of perception of the Brazilian population about the nuclear area, in particular of the residents of three cities of Rio de Janeiro. As a result of this work, we suggest how the competent authorities should proceed to reach in an efficient manner a greater understanding of the population about the proposed subject, through communication campaigns being both informative and educational. (author)

  5. A study on the public perception in nuclear area in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Renata Araujo de; Wieland, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    During the course of the last years the need for the increase in the electric energy production in Brazil as well as in the rest of the world, has raised the tone of the debate about the environment impact of such production. As a result of these debates, both the several levels of government and some of the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO's) have commissioned innumerous opinion researches aiming at measuring and evaluating the knowledge and perception of the public in relation of the best non-polluting energy sources. Prior to 2001 these researches would not make any sense in Brazil., however due to that year's drought, the competent authorities were faced with the necessity of developing a plan, the Plano Nacional de Energia (PNE2030) aiming, among others objectives, at finalizing the construction of the Angra 3 plant and implementing new nuclear plants in places still to be determined. Allowing for the complexity of the subject, this paper presents a field research conducted from 28th September 2010 to 28th October 2010 assessing the current level of perception of the Brazilian population about the nuclear area, in particular of the residents of three cities of Rio de Janeiro. As a result of this work, we suggest how the competent authorities should proceed to reach in an efficient manner a greater understanding of the population about the proposed subject, through communication campaigns being both informative and educational. (author)

  6. Educational Experiences Associated with International Students' Learning, Development, and Positive Perceptions of Campus Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Chris R.

    2012-01-01

    This research project uses the constructive-developmental tradition, in the self-authorship framework of intercultural maturity (King & Baxter Magolda, 2005), to examine the extent to which 12 specific educational experiences may be associated with international undergraduates' learning, development, and perception of campus climate. The study…

  7. Student Trust in Teachers and Student Perceptions of Safety: Positive Predictors of Student Identification with School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Kensler, Lisa; Tschannen-Moran, Megan

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effects of student trust in teacher and student perceptions of safety on identification with school. Data were collected from one large urban district in an eastern state. Participants included 5441 students in 3rd through 12th grades from 49 schools. Students responded to surveys that assessed student trust in teachers,…

  8. Teachers' perceptions and actions in carrying out communication policies in a public school for the deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, M H; Lowenbraun, S

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' opinions on school communication policies in a public school for the Deaf in Taipei, Taiwan. Specifically, the authors examined how teachers carried out communication policies, and examined possible discrepancies between teachers' perceptions of their communication methods and the methods they actually used in the classroom. Questionnaires were distributed to all 120 teachers at Taipei Municipal School for the Deaf. Thirteen of the 85 respondents were selected as subjects for personal interviews followed by direct classroom observation and videotaping. Sixteen deaf high school seniors at the school were interviewed concerning their opinions about the teachers' communication modes and abilities, and about the communication modes the students experienced.

  9. Quality of antiretroviral therapy in public health facilities in Nigeria and perceptions of end users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiegil, Robert J; Zungu, Lindiwe I; Jooste, Karien

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes perceptions of the end users on quality of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in public health facilities in Nigeria. Health care services in Nigeria face challenges of meeting end users' requirements and expectations for quality ART service provision. A qualitative design was followed. Unstructured focus group discussions were conducted with end users (n = 64) in six locations across the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. The findings indicate that end users were satisfied with uninterrupted antiretroviral drug supplies, courtesy treatment, volunteerism of support group members and quality counselling services. End users expect effective collaboration between healthcare providers and support group members, to enhance the quality of life of people living with HIV. A best practice guideline for the provision of end user focused ART service provision was developed for nurse managers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Including public perception data in the evaluation of the consequences of sewerage derived urban flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Scott; Crow, Helen; Karikas, Naoum

    2009-01-01

    This text reports research which was undertaken to assess the failure consequences associated with sewerage systems. In an effort to move away from considering only flood volume, depth or extent, the text will focus on how a survey of public opinion was used to inform the development of a consequence scoring methodology. The failure consequences considered range from internal flooding of properties, to road closure, environmental damage and odour problems. The text reports the extent to which experience of flooding influences perceptions of failure consequence and sewerage system management. It is also outlined how this data was used, along with other data sources, to construct an objective scoring process that can be used to evaluate failure consequence and readily prioritise sewerage maintenance.

  11. Public perception and risk communication in regard to bioterrorism against animals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, G S

    2006-04-01

    This paper examines the total international prohibition on the use of disease to attack humans, animals and plants, noting that in the past several countries had developed programmes for attacks on animals and plants as well as humans. Current activities undertaken by intergovernmental organisations - the World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)--to counter the threat of attacks on humans, animals and plants are examined. Effective countermeasures to deliberate attacks need to be developed in harmony with existing measures to control natural or accidental outbreaks of disease. Finally the paper assesses the risk and the public perception of it, and considers what risk communication is needed and to whom. Clear mandates are needed for the FAO and OIE to be prepared to deal with outbreaks of disease, and with contamination of the food supply chain, whether accidental or intentional.

  12. A sequential model to link contextual risk, perception and public support for flood adaptation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wanyun; Xian, Siyuan; Lin, Ning; Small, Mitchell J

    2017-10-01

    The economic damage from coastal flooding has dramatically increased over the past several decades, owing to rapid development in shoreline areas and possible effects of climate change. To respond to these trends, it is imperative for policy makers to understand individuals' support for flood adaptation policy. Using original survey data for all coastal counties of the United States Gulf Coast merged with contextual data on flood risk, this study investigates coastal residents' support for two adaptation policy measures: incentives for relocation and funding for educational programs on emergency planning and evacuation. Specifically, this study explores the interactive relationships among contextual flood risks, perceived flood risks and policy support for flood adaptation, with the effects of social-demographic variables being controlled. Age, gender, race and partisanship are found to significantly affect individuals' policy support for both adaptation measures. The contextual flooding risks, indicated by distance from the coast, maximum wind speed and peak height of storm surge associated with the last hurricane landfall, and percentage of high-risk flood zone per county, are shown to impact one's perceptions of risk, which in turn influence one's support for both policy measures. The key finding -risk perception mediates the impact of contextual risk conditions on public support for flood management policies - highlights the need to ensure that the public is well informed by the latest scientific, engineering and economic knowledge. To achieve this, more information on current and future flood risks and options available for mitigation as well as risk communication tools are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using Twitter to Understand Public Perceptions Regarding the #HPV Vaccine: Opportunities for Public Health Nurses to Engage in Social Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Mitchell, Emma M; Sun, Emily; Kennedy, Christine

    2017-07-01

    Given the degree of public mistrust and provider hesitation regarding the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, it is important to explore how information regarding the vaccine is shared online via social media outlets. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the content of messaging regarding the HPV vaccine on the social media and microblogging site Twitter, and describe the sentiment of those messages. This study utilized a cross-sectional descriptive approach. Over a 2-week period, Twitter content was searched hourly using key terms "#HPV and #Gardasil," which yielded 1,794 Twitter posts for analysis. Each post was then analyzed individually using an a priori coding strategy and directed content analysis. The majority of Twitter posts were written by lay consumers and were sharing commentary about a media source. However, when actual URLs were shared, the most common form of share was linking back to a blog post written by lay users. The vast majority of content was presented as polarizing (either as a positive or negative tweet), with 51% of the Tweets representing a positive viewpoint. Using Twitter to understand public sentiment offers a novel perspective to explore the context of health communication surrounding certain controversial issues. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. THE USE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS IN PROJECTING AN ORGANIZATION'S POSITIVE IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical approach on the importance of using public relations in helping an organization to project a positive image. The study of the impact information has on the image of organisations seems to be an interesting research topic. Practice has proved that the image of institutions has a patrimonial value and it is sometimes essential in raising their credibility. It can be said that an image is defined as the representation of certain attitudes, opinions or prejudices concerning a person, a group of persons or the public opinion concerning an institution. In other words, an image is the opinion of a person, of a group of persons or of the public opinion regarding that institution. All specialists agree that a negative image affects, sometimes to an incredible extent, the success of an institution. In the contemporary age, we cannot speak about public opinion without taking into consideration the mass media as a main agent in transmitting the information to the public, with unlimited possibilities of influencing or forming it. The plan for the PR department starts with its own declaration of principles, which describes its roles and contribution to the organisation.

  15. Analysis on perception of nuclear power plant and the preference of its policy alternatives for public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung; Lee, Byong Whi

    1995-01-01

    Public acceptance has become an important factor in nuclear power program particularly after Chernobyl accident and recent rapid democratization in Korea. Methods reflection public opinions in order to improve public acceptance are firstly to understand what the public think about nuclear power plant and secondly to find out the public preference values for its policies. For this purpose, simplified multi-attribute utility(MAU) model was applied to analyze the public perception for five power production system. And the conjoint analysis was applied to find out he quantitative values of public preferences for twelve policy alternatives to improve the safety and support communities surrounding nuclear power plants in Korea. To implement these perception and preference analyses, mail survey was conducted to the qualified sample who had the experience of visiting nuclear power plant. Diagnosis of their perception pattern for five power production systems was made by the simplified MAU model. Estimation of the quantitative preference values for potential policy alternatives was made by the conjoint measurement technique, which made it possible to forecast the effectiveness of each option. The results from the qualified sample and the methods used in this study would be helpful to set up new policy of nuclear power plant. 4 figs., 7 tabs., 18 refs. (Author)

  16. Memory for media: investigation of false memories for negatively and positively charged public events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen; Taylor, Kristian; Ten Brinke, Leanne

    2008-01-01

    Despite a large body of false memory research, little has addressed the potential influence of an event's emotional content on susceptibility to false recollections. The Paradoxical Negative Emotion (PNE) hypothesis predicts that negative emotion generally facilitates memory but also heightens susceptibility to false memories. Participants were asked whether they could recall 20 "widely publicised" public events (half fictitious) ranging in emotional valence, with or without visual cues. Participants recalled a greater number of true negative events (M=3.31/5) than true positive (M=2.61/5) events. Nearly everyone (95%) came to recall at least one false event (M=2.15 false events recalled). Further, more than twice as many participants recalled any false negative (90%) compared to false positive (41.7%) events. Negative events, in general, were associated with more detailed memories and false negative event memories were more detailed than false positive event memories. Higher dissociation scores were associated with false recollections of negative events, specifically.

  17. PUBLIC EMPLOYEES' LEVEL OF AWARENESS AND PERCEPTION ON SEXUAL ABUSE OF CHILDREN IN ONLINE ENVIRONMENTS: TURKEY CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Şen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to measure the level of awareness and perception of Turkish public personnel working in public institutions regarding the problem of online child pornography. Participants include 100 public officials positioned in various ministries. Quantitative research method was used in order to obtain information from participants. A questionnaire was submitted to the participants with meetings in person or via the Internet and data were collected. In order to ensure reliability and validity issues, expert opinion was sought as a means to measure validity and reliability. Necessary corrections were made based on the feedback provided. Outputs from the questionnaire were analyzed using the SPSS and the findings were evaluated. The results showed that participants who are rather young with high education levels, well-versed in national regulations, they have the knowledge about digital citizenship; however, it was found that they were not informed about technical issues such as international activities related to child pornography (CP, online child pornography, Darknet, p2p networks and hash databases. The findings showed that the reason behind the lack of awareness on some of these phenomena was the inherent problems in the education system and the insufficiency of the curriculum. Findings clearly show that it is necessary to establish an organic network among several ministries which are responsible for the fight with child pornography. Furthermore, to create a national CP images (Hash database which can detect the IP number and other information of the ones who share such images online using a national analysis software is another solution proposed.

  18. HIV-positive patients’ perceptions of care received at a selected antiretroviral therapy clinic in Vhembe district, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshifhiwa V. Ndou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients’ experiences are a reflection of what has happened during the care process and, therefore, provide information about the performance of health care professional workers. They refer to the process of care provision at the antiretroviral therapy (ART sites. Aim and setting: This article explored the perceptions of HIV-positive patients of care received at the Gateway Clinic of the regional hospital that provides antiretroviral treatment in the Vhembe district. Methods: A qualitative, explorative and descriptive design was used. A non-probability, convenient sampling method was used to select 20 HIV-positive patients who were above 18 years of age. In-depth individual interviews were used to collect data. Data were analysed through Tech’s open coding method. Results: One theme and two sub-themes emerged, namely positive experiences related to the environment and attitudes of health professionals, and negative experiences concerning the practices by health care providers. Conclusion: Patients’ perceptions of quality of, and satisfaction with, health care may affect health outcomes. Recommendations are made to consider, practice and strengthen the protocols, the standard operating procedures and the principles of infection control in the health facilities. Keywords: Human Immunodeficiecy Virus, Antiretroviral Treatment, HIV positive, Limpopo

  19. Public perceptions of the iodine tablets distribution around French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charron, S.; Morin, D.; Brenot, J.

    2000-01-01

    In April 1996 the French ministry of health took the decision to distribute iodine tablets to the population surrounding all nuclear power plants in France. In case of a severe accident the absorption of stable iodine would prevent irradiation of the thyroid by radioactive iodine released by the plant. This preventive distribution was initiated at the end of 1996 around 4 pilot sites, and then spread to all sited in 1997. During this period, the large public sample surveys conducted by IPSN for its barometer contained questions on counter-measures in case of a nuclear accident and more specifically on the distribution of iodine tablets. The aim of this polls was to find out if the general public had known about this decision and to get some feedback on its reactions. The work presented in this paper is the detailed analysis of the two sets of data obtained by the answers to the polls. Some numerical treatments and tests were performed to compare the data, evaluate their consistency and analyse the relation between the distance to a nuclear site and the perception of the public. The main conclusions are that people living close to nuclear sites knew more about the on-going action of the ministry of health, and appreciated it more than the general population but in the same time, many people (70% of interviewed people) are quite reluctant to have tablets in their home; and 65% of the population directly concerned with the distribution did not know where to get their tablets. It is now intended to follow the potential evolution of this results in year 2000 when public authorities have to organise a new distribution of iodine tablets. (author)

  20. DIFABLE PERCEPTION FOR ACCESSIBILITY AND INFORMATION OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochdiana Hernawan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Every human being has equal right for accessing to the transportation. Difable persons that have different ability also have the same right. The provision of the accessibility and information facility in public transport is not fully meet difable need and therefore difable persons have difficulties in accessibility and information while using public transports. This research will investigate the difable perceptions about accessibility and traveler information for the public transport in Jakarta. Questionnaire method will be used for this purpose and then analyzed by Importance Performance Analysis. The improvement for the transport infrastructure and information system will be elaborated. The findings of the research could be used as input for the local authority while planning or re-construction public transport infrastructure and information system so that difable persons become more accessible and convenience. The study results show that the average value of the perceived performance for the accessibility is 2.78 from 5 scales. This means the performance of the accessibility in overall is fairly. For the information facility, the average performance is 3.11 that meaning the performance in overall is good. The respondents required the provision of waiting room for difable persons as a priority. The information about the departure of the vehicle should been improved as priority to be increased. Furthermore, it is obtained that the Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI value for accessibility is 56%. This indicates the entire respondents satisfied sufficiently with the accessibility facility. Also, 62% of the CSI value shows that the respondents satisfied sufficiently with the provided information.

  1. Know your audience: public perception of geology from anecdote to evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel

    2015-04-01

    One of the basic strategies of science communication is to 'know your audience' (Nerlich et al, 2010), yet often scientists are communicating to a distant and diffuse audience that cannot be seen or directly engaged with. Both traditional written reports and emerging online media provide limited or no opportunity to engage audiences in dialogues with the communicator that can convey the public's own levels of knowledge. In those circumstances it becomes almost impossible to know your audience. For geoscientists, this decoupling from the intended audience is made more problematic when conveying new technical issues such as carbon capture and storage or deep geological disposal of radioactive waste, which are rooted in the unfamiliar subsurface (Sharma et al, 2007; Ashworth et al, 2009). Those geologists who have engaged with the public in these novel realms often have fashioned informal ways to overcome their audience's geological unfamiliarity based on the trial-and-error of personal experience, but such anecdotal lessons are rarely applicable to wider communities of practice. In recent years, however, our ad hoc intuitive ideas about how to comprehend public perceptions of geology have gained rigour from evidence-based theory (Singleton et al, 2009). This presentation highlights one example of this, using an ongoing study into the public understanding of the geological subsurface in south west England. Results from a combination of interviews and questionnaires were assessed using the established psychological technique: 'mental models' (Morgan et al, 2002). The work demonstrates how a mixed method approach can move geoscience communication beyond casual assumptions and individual rules of thumb to a more robust scientific way of thinking.

  2. Medical Students' Perception of Their Educational Environment and Quality of Life: Is There a Positive Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Sylvia Claassen; Perotta, Bruno; Paro, Helena B; Gannam, Silmar; Peleias, Munique; Mayer, Fernanda Brenneisen; Santos, Itamar Souza; Menezes, Marta; Senger, Maria Helena; Barelli, Cristiane; Silveira, Paulo S P; Martins, Milton A; Zen Tempski, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    To assess perceptions of educational environment of students from 22 Brazilian medical schools and to study the association between these perceptions and quality of life (QoL) measures. The authors performed a multicenter study (August 2011 to August 2012), examining students' views both of (1) educational environment using the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) and (2) QoL using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment, abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF). They also examined students' self-assessment of their overall QoL and medical-school-related QoL (MSQoL). The authors classified participants' perceptions into four quartiles according to DREEM total score, overall QoL, and MSQoL. Of 1,650 randomly selected students, 1,350 (81.8%) completed the study. The mean total DREEM score was 119.4 (standard deviation = 27.1). Higher total DREEM scores were associated with higher overall QoL and MSQoL scores (P student QoL.

  3. Perceptions of risk from nanotechnologies and trust in stakeholders: a cross sectional study of public, academic, government and business attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capon, Adam; Gillespie, James; Rolfe, Margaret; Smith, Wayne

    2015-04-26

    Policy makers and regulators are constantly required to make decisions despite the existence of substantial uncertainty regarding the outcomes of their proposed decisions. Understanding stakeholder views is an essential part of addressing this uncertainty, which provides insight into the possible social reactions and tolerance of unpredictable risks. In the field of nanotechnology, large uncertainties exist regarding the real and perceived risks this technology may have on society. Better evidence is needed to confront this issue. We undertook a computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) survey of the Australian public and a parallel survey of those involved in nanotechnology from the academic, business and government sectors. Analysis included comparisons of proportions and logistic regression techniques. We explored perceptions of nanotechnology risks both to health and in a range of products. We examined views on four trust actors. The general public's perception of risk was significantly higher than that expressed by other stakeholders. The public bestows less trust in certain trust actors than do academics or government officers, giving its greatest trust to scientists. Higher levels of public trust were generally associated with lower perceptions of risk. Nanotechnology in food and cosmetics/sunscreens were considered riskier applications irrespective of stakeholder, while familiarity with nanotechnology was associated with a reduced risk perception. Policy makers should consider the disparities in risk and trust perceptions between the public and influential stakeholders, placing greater emphasis on risk communication and the uncertainties of risk assessment in these areas of higher concern. Scientists being the highest trusted group are well placed to communicate the risks of nanotechnologies to the public.

  4. Structural models of public risk perception of radioactive substances in food. An analysis of the data from internet survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kito, Yayoi; Niiyama, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    In risk communication of food contamination by radioactive substances derived from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, it is required that experts, government and the public exchange information and opinions and establish a mutual understanding. To meet these requirements, it is necessary to investigate public risk perception and the structure of perception. We conducted a series of internet surveys in 2011-2012, two times in Kanto- and Kansai-area on men and women aged from 30 to 49 who have children, and once in all parts of Japan on women aged from 20 to 59. From the data analysis, we identified the feature of risk perception of radioactive substances and buying behavior, and moreover, we analyzed the relationship among the perceived risks and other factors using Structural Equation Modeling. (author)

  5. Faculty Perceptions of Conflict with Administrators: An Analysis of the Associations between the Nature of Conflict and Positive and Negative Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancks, Meredith L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions of faculty members regarding conflict experiences with administrators. It is driven by the question, "To what extent are faculty perceptions of positive and negative outcomes of faculty-administrator conflict associated with domain, nature and disciplinary context of the conflict," where domain refers…

  6. Framing 'fracking': Exploring public perceptions of hydraulic fracturing in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laurence; Macnaghten, Phil; Davies, Richard; Curtis, Sarah

    2015-07-13

    The prospect of fracking in the United Kingdom has been accompanied by significant public unease. We outline how the policy debate is being framed by UK institutional actors, finding evidence of a dominant discourse in which the policy approach is defined through a deficit model of public understanding of science and in which a technical approach to feasibility and safety is deemed as sufficient grounds for good policymaking. Deploying a deliberative focus group methodology with lay publics across different sites in the north of England, we find that these institutional framings are poorly aligned with participants' responses. We find that unease regularly overflows the focus on safety and feasibility and cannot be satisfactorily explained by a lack of understanding on the part of participants. We find that scholarship from science and technology studies productively elucidates our participants' largely sceptical positions, and orientates strategies for responding to them more effectively. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Framing ‘fracking’: Exploring public perceptions of hydraulic fracturing in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laurence; Macnaghten, Phil; Davies, Richard; Curtis, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The prospect of fracking in the United Kingdom has been accompanied by significant public unease. We outline how the policy debate is being framed by UK institutional actors, finding evidence of a dominant discourse in which the policy approach is defined through a deficit model of public understanding of science and in which a technical approach to feasibility and safety is deemed as sufficient grounds for good policymaking. Deploying a deliberative focus group methodology with lay publics across different sites in the north of England, we find that these institutional framings are poorly aligned with participants’ responses. We find that unease regularly overflows the focus on safety and feasibility and cannot be satisfactorily explained by a lack of understanding on the part of participants. We find that scholarship from science and technology studies productively elucidates our participants’ largely sceptical positions, and orientates strategies for responding to them more effectively. PMID:26170264

  8. Controlling liver cancer internationally: A qualitative study of clinicians' perceptions of current public policy needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, John Fp; Gallego, Gisselle; Blauvelt, Barri M

    2011-07-28

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh for women. Usually because of late diagnosis, the prognosis for liver cancer remains poor, resulting in liver cancer being the third most common cause of death from cancer. While some countries have treatment guidelines, little is known or understood about the strategies needed for liver cancer control internationally. To explore leading liver cancer clinician's perceptions of the current public policy needs to control liver cancer internationally. Key informant interviews were conducted with a range of liver cancer clinicians involved in policy in eleven countries. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated (where necessary), de-identified and analyzed by two researchers using a constant comparative method. Twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in: Australia, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, South Korea, Taiwan, Turkey and the United States. Nine themes were identified and cluster into three groups: 1) Promoting prevention via early risk assessment, focusing on viral hepatitis and other lifestyle factors; 2) Increasing political, public and medical community awareness; and 3) Improving funding for screening, liver cancer surveillance and treatment. This study is an important step towards developing an evidence-based approach to assessing preparedness for implementing comprehensive liver cancer control strategies. Evaluation mechanisms to assess countries' performance on the needs described are needed. Future research will concentrate of understanding how these needs vary across countries and the optimal strategies to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with liver cancer internationally.

  9. Public perceptions and acceptance of induced earthquakes related to energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, Katherine A.; Lu, Hang; Keranen, Katie M.; Furtney, Maria A.; Song, Hwansuck

    2016-01-01

    Growing awareness of the potential for some energy-related activities to induce earthquakes has created a need to understand how the public evaluates the risks of induced earthquakes versus the benefits of energy development. To address this need, this study presents a web survey that used a between-subjects factorial experimental design to explore the views of 325 U.S. adults, who were asked about their experiences with earthquakes; risk perceptions related to different causes of earthquakes (e.g., natural versus induced); and acceptability of earthquakes depending on the benefits, beneficiaries, and decision making process. The results found that participants had more negative feelings toward induced versus naturally occurring earthquakes. Although they judged no earthquake as “acceptable,” participants rated induced earthquakes significantly less acceptable than naturally occurring ones. Attributing the benefits to the provision of renewable energy or climate change mitigation did not increase induced earthquake acceptability, and no particular beneficiary made earthquakes more acceptable, although private companies as beneficiaries made earthquakes less acceptable. Finally, induced earthquake acceptability was significantly higher when people believed that people like them had a voice in the decision to implement the technology that caused the earthquake, underscoring the importance of public engagement in the development of energy technologies. - Highlights: • Human induced earthquakes were perceived as more negative than natural earthquakes. • Attributing benefits to renewable energy did not increase earthquake acceptability. • Acceptability was highest after a procedurally fair decision making process. • Acceptability was lowest following an expert-driven decision.

  10. Decommissioning through the prism of public perception: To understand in order to convince

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proyaev, V A; Belous, D A; Nechaev, A F [Department of Engineering Radioecology and Radiochemical Technology, Saint-Petersburg State Institute of Technology, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    To support large-scale and long-term activities in decommissioning of nuclear facilities including decontamination, radioactive waste management and environmental restoration, St. Petersburg Institute of Technology (SPIT) has developed and introduced special courses into the university education programme. Presently in Russia, like many other countries, nuclear technology is not a popular subject with the younger generation. Also, life priorities have changed and the public media has a rather watchful attitude toward nuclear activities. Therefore, to encourage final-year students to enter nuclear engineering, to provide close connection and mutual understanding between the students and the teachers, to ensure an adequate level of professional experience and to influence, to the extent possible, the degree of the public perception of nuclear technology it is desirable to understand the needs of the young people, how much they know, what do they want, whom do they trust, etc. To find these answers, SPIT carries out periodical opinion polls oriented towards students and school children. The last poll was done in the autumn 2001 and included 632 persons from St.-Petersburg and Moscow. This paper presents the principal results of the study and some conclusions important for the improvement of the process of human resource development for decommissioning activities. (author)

  11. Knowledge, perceptions and media use of the Dutch general public and healthcare workers regarding Ebola, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schol, Lianne G C; Mollers, Madelief; Swaan, Corien M; Beaujean, Desirée J M A; Wong, Albert; Timen, Aura

    2018-01-08

    The Ebola outbreak in West-Africa triggered risk communication activities to promote adequate preventive behaviour in the Netherlands. Our study investigated the level of knowledge, perceptions, and media use regarding Ebola. In December 2014, an online questionnaire was administered to the Dutch population (n = 526) and Health Care Workers (HCW) (n = 760). The mean knowledge score (range 0-15) of HCW (m = 13.3;SD = 1.4) was significantly higher than the general public (m = 10.8;SD = 2.0). No significant difference was found in perceived severity and susceptibility. Perceived fear of the general public (m = 2.5; SD = 0.8) was significantly higher than among HCW (m = 2.4; SD = 0.7). Respondents primarily used television to obtain information. While Ebola was perceived severe, it did not lead to excessive fear or perceived susceptibility for developing the disease. Nonetheless, our research showed that knowledge with respect to human-to-human transmission is low, while this is crucial to complying with preventive measures. Our study reveals priorities for improving risk communication.

  12. Decommissioning through the prism of public perception: To understand in order to convince

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proyaev, V.A.; Belous, D.A.; Nechaev, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    To support large-scale and long-term activities in decommissioning of nuclear facilities including decontamination, radioactive waste management and environmental restoration, St. Petersburg Institute of Technology (SPIT) has developed and introduced special courses into the university education programme. Presently in Russia, like many other countries, nuclear technology is not a popular subject with the younger generation. Also, life priorities have changed and the public media has a rather watchful attitude toward nuclear activities. Therefore, to encourage final-year students to enter nuclear engineering, to provide close connection and mutual understanding between the students and the teachers, to ensure an adequate level of professional experience and to influence, to the extent possible, the degree of the public perception of nuclear technology it is desirable to understand the needs of the young people, how much they know, what do they want, whom do they trust, etc. To find these answers, SPIT carries out periodical opinion polls oriented towards students and school children. The last poll was done in the autumn 2001 and included 632 persons from St.-Petersburg and Moscow. This paper presents the principal results of the study and some conclusions important for the improvement of the process of human resource development for decommissioning activities. (author)

  13. A Qualitative Exploration of Multiple Case Studies of the Perception of School Social Workers Concerning Their Roles in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Alesha Nicole

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative exploration in the form of multiple case studies interviewed a group of seven social workers from the St. Louis Metropolitan area to gain their perception as school social workers concerning their roles in public schools. The literature on school social workers indicated that school social workers brought unique knowledge and…

  14. Public Perception of the Millennium Development Goals on Access to Safe Drinking Water in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eni, David D.; Ojong, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the public perception of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of environmental sustainability with focus on the MDG target which has to do with reducing the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water in Cross River State, Nigeria. The stratified and systematic sampling techniques were adopted for the study,…

  15. Government Career Interests, Perceptions of Fit, and Degree Orientations: Exploring Their Relationship in Public Administration Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Leonard

    2018-01-01

    Scholars have long suggested that the degree orientations of public administration programs were related to the attitudes and behaviors of students, even though empirical research had failed to confirm this relationship. The purpose of this study was to re-examine this question from the standpoint of perceptions of fit. Using a sample of…

  16. Sexual Harassment in Public Schools: Policy Design, Policy Implementation, and the Perceptions of Employees Participating in Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratge, Katrina

    2009-01-01

    This study of two cases of sexual harassment investigates employee perceptions and organizational characteristics associated with policy and implementation procedures in two public school districts in New York State which experienced different outcomes to litigation in response to formal complaints of sexual harassment. Using documentary evidence…

  17. Public perception of science: a preliminary analysis and interpretation of the questionnaire data applied in the city of Campinas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt Carlos; de Almeida Evangelista Rafael; Knobel Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    This article will discuss and comment some of the results obtained by the application of the questionnaire “ Public perception of Science and Technology” . The questionnaire is a translated and adapted Portuguese version from the original in Spanish produced by the group Centro de Estudios sobre Ciencia, Desarrollo yEducación Superior of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

  18. Risk perception, risk management and safety assessment: what can governments do to increase public confidence in their vaccine system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Noni E; Smith, Jennifer; Appleton, Mary

    2012-09-01

    For decades vaccine program managers and governments have devoted many resources to addressing public vaccine concerns, vaccine risk perception, risk management and safety assessment. Despite ever growing evidence that vaccines are safe and effective, public concerns continue. Education and evidence based scientific messages have not ended concerns. How can governments and programs more effectively address the public's vaccine concerns and increase confidence in the vaccine safety system? Vaccination hesitation has been attributed to concerns about vaccine safety, perceptions of high vaccine risks and low disease risk and consequences. Even when the public believes vaccines are important for protection many still have concerns about vaccine safety. This overview explores how heuristics affect public perception of vaccines and vaccine safety, how the public finds and uses vaccine information, and then proposes strategies for changes in the approach to vaccine safety communications. Facts and evidence confirming the safety of vaccines are not enough. Vaccine beliefs and behaviours must be shaped. This will require a shift in the what, when, how and why of vaccine risk and benefit communication content and practice. A change to a behavioural change strategy such as the WHO COMBI program that has been applied to disease eradication efforts is suggested. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Non- or full-laxative CT colonography vs. endoscopic tests for colorectal cancer screening: A randomised survey comparing public perceptions and intentions to undergo testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanouni, Alex; Wardle, Jane; Von Wagner, Christian [University College London, Health Behaviour Research Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, London (United Kingdom); Halligan, Steve; Plumb, Andrew; Boone, Darren [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-15

    Compare public perceptions and intentions to undergo colorectal cancer screening tests following detailed information regarding CT colonography (CTC; after non-laxative preparation or full-laxative preparation), optical colonoscopy (OC) or flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS). A total of 3,100 invitees approaching screening age (45-54 years) were randomly allocated to receive detailed information on a single test and asked to return a questionnaire. Outcomes included perceptions of preparation and test tolerability, health benefits, sensitivity and specificity, and intention to undergo the test. Six hundred three invitees responded with valid questionnaire data. Non-laxative preparation was rated more positively than enema or full-laxative preparations [effect size (r) = 0.13 to 0.54; p < 0.0005 to 0.036]; both forms of CTC and FS were rated more positively than OC in terms of test experience (r = 0.26 to 0.28; all p-values < 0.0005). Perceptions of health benefits, sensitivity and specificity (p = 0.250 to 0.901), and intention to undergo the test (p = 0.213) did not differ between tests (n = 144-155 for each test). Despite non-laxative CTC being rated more favourably, this study did not find evidence that offering it would lead to substantially higher uptake than full-laxative CTC or other methods. However, this study was limited by a lower than anticipated response rate. (orig.)

  20. Internal social responsibility: the perception of the public servants from a federal institution; Responsabilidade social interna: a percepção dos servidores públicos de uma autarquia federal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laranja, Leticia Cruz

    2017-07-01

    The paper aims to analyze the perception of public servants from a federal autarchy regarding its practices, actions and Corporate Social Responsibility programs towards its servants, as well as proposing improvements. Thus, a revision of the existing literature on the evolution of Corporate Social Responsibility was carried out, as well as its applications on the public sector and inside its organizations. The quantitative-descriptive research was performed from a survey using a closed questionnaire developed from the Ethos Indicators focused on workforce. The research results indicated the dominance of a negative perception by the servants regarding Internal Social Responsibility practices in the autarchy, as well as the dominant negative perception from servants without leadership positions and with shorter length of service against the point of view of servants that occupy leadership positions and with longer length of service. The research allowed the identification of practices related to Working Conditions, Working Day and Life Quality as being more relevant, and practices regarding Unions Relations as being the least relevant for servants. In order to improve the perception of the servants on the issues evaluated negatively it is recommended to developed actions and programs related to professional development, employability and retirement, health and safety, working conditions and life quality, and to developed actions aimed at employees without leadership positions and with shorter length of service, whose perceptions were more negative. (author)

  1. Modelling the perception of weather conditions by users of outdoor public spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, H.; Oliveira, S.; Alcoforado, M.-J.

    2009-09-01

    Outdoor public spaces play an important role for the quality of life in urban areas. Their usage depends, among other factors, on the bioclimatic comfort of the users. Climate change can modify the uses of outdoor spaces, by changing temperature and rainfall patterns. Understanding the way people perceive the microclimatic conditions is an important tool to the design of more comfortable outdoor spaces and in anticipating future needs to cope with climate change impacts. The perception of bioclimatic comfort by users of two different outdoor spaces was studied in Lisbon. A survey of about one thousand inquires was carried out simultaneously with weather measurements (air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and solar and long wave radiation), during the years 2006 and 2007. The aim was to assess the relationships between weather variables, the individual characteristics of people (such as age and gender, among others) and their bioclimatic comfort. The perception of comfort was evaluated through the preference votes of the interviewees, which consisted on their answers concerning the desire to decrease, maintain or increase the values of the different weather parameters, in order to improve their comfort at the moment of the interview. The perception of the atmospheric conditions and of the bioclimatic comfort are highly influenced by subjective factors, which are difficult to integrate in a model. Nonetheless, the use of the multiple logistic regression allows the definition of patterns in the quantitative relation between preference votes and environmental and personal parameters. The thermal preference depends largely on the season and is associated with wind speed. Comfort in relation to wind depends not only on the speed but also on turbulence: a high variability in wind speed is generally perceived as uncomfortable. It was also found that the acceptability of warmer conditions is higher than for cooler conditions and the majority of people declared

  2. Public awareness and perception toward Adverse Drug Reactions reporting in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Ibrahim; Aljadhey, Hisham; Albogami, Yasser; Mahmoud, Mansour A

    2017-09-01

    Purpose: To assess the general public awareness and perception about Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) reporting and pharmacovigilance. Method: A cross-sectional study conducted on June 2012 during awareness campaign held in two malls in Riyadh city for two days. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of three parts was distributed to the attendees who accepted to participate in the study. Results: A total of 204 questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 68%. Twenty-three percent could correctly define ADRs. Only 13(15.7%) of responders were familiar with the term "Pharmacovigilance" and only 78.6% were aware about the Saudi Pharmacovigilance Center. Sixty-seventy percent indicated that their physicians or pharmacists don't actively encourage them to report ADRs that may occur when they take their medications. The majority of responders (73.2%) believed that the medical team, rather than consumers, should report ADRs. When asked why patients do not report ADRs, 19.1(48.5%) believed that patients do not know whether the ADR is from the medication or not, 18.1(46.1%) stated that the reason was because patients don't know about the Pharmacovigilance Center, 16(40.7%) think that patients don't know about the importance of ADRs reporting, and 14(36.3%) responded that patients probably don't know how to report ADRs. Conclusion: The general public in Saudi Arabia are not aware about ADRs reporting and the pharmacovigilance system. The Saudi Food and Drug Authorities (FDA) need to put more efforts to increasing public awareness about the importance of ADRs reporting process and the importance of pharmacovigilance system in promoting patient safety.

  3. Public perceptions, knowledge and awareness of cholesterol management in Singapore: a prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Than Htike; Go, Yun Yun; Low, Lip Ping; Chua, Terrance

    2013-01-01

    Hyperlipidaemia is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Its effective treatment has been shown to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events, both in secondary and primary prevention. An essential component of risk factor management at the community level is public awareness and knowledge of treatment benefits. However, this data is limited in Singapore. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire of public perception and knowledge on cholesterol treatment among adult Singaporeans aged 30-69 years was commissioned by the Singapore Heart Foundation and conducted by a professional market survey company. Regional quota sampling was performed to ensure that the sample was representative of the Singapore population. This was followed by random sampling of households and respondents. Of the 365 respondents, 40.9% were male, 70.3% were Chinese, 18.8% Malay and 10.9% Indian. The mean age was 47.5 years. Although 81.9% of respondents had medical check-ups involving blood tests, only 11.0% knew their actual cholesterol levels. A third of the respondents saw herbal medicine as healthier and safer than Western medication. More than 80% of respondents believed that diet and exercise were equally effective at lowering cholesterol as medication. About half of the respondents associated long-term use of statins with damage to the liver and kidney, while a third associated chronic statin use with the development of cancer. There are gaps in the level of public awareness and understanding of cholesterol treatment in Singapore. Common misconceptions should be addressed, as they could potentially impair effective management or treatment compliance.

  4. Public awareness and perception of clinical trials: Quantitative study in Pune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena D Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies have reported that clinical research has experienced tremendous growth during past few decades with many multinational pharmaceutical companies recruiting millions of Indians in clinical trials (CTs. However, there is hardly any literature that talks about the participants, their knowledge, and awareness of CTs. It is important that the general public is aware about CTs so that they can take their own informed decision to participate in CTs. Aim: To assess public awareness, perceptions, and attitudes toward CTs and their views on various methods to create awareness about CTs. Materials and Methods: Cross sectional survey was conducted with 200 non trial participants (NTPs and 40 trial participants (TPs. Results: TPs were significantly (P < 0.0001 older than NTPs. More than 80% of both TPs and NTPs mentioned participation in CT helps advance medical science and strongly felt that there is a need to create awareness about CTs. Nearly 70% of TPs could not remember the phase of the trial while 20% did not know which type of trial they had participated . The main reason for participation in the trial was physician′s advice. About 80% of both TPs and NTPs felt that participation in CT will increase with free medications and advice from friends/relatives who had good experience with trial. Conclusion: Results of this pilot study revealed need to create CT awareness among the general public. However, considering ethno-cultural, regional, and literacy-level differences throughout the country, a nationwide study would be appropriate to provide reliable results about awareness of CTs among Indians.

  5. The discrepancy in the perception of the public-political speech in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

    2014-03-01

    Key place in this paper takes the study of political speech in the Republic of Croatia and their impact on voters, or which keywords are in political speeches and public appearances of politicians in Croatia that their voting body wants to hear. Given listed below we will define the research topic in the form of a question - is there a discrepancy in the perception of the public-political speech in Croatia, and which keywords are specific to the two main regions in Croatia and that inhabitant these regions respond. Marcus Tullius Cicero, the most important Roman orator, he used a specific associative mnemonic technique that is called "technique room". He would talk expound on keywords and conceptual terms that he needed for the desired topic and join in these make them, according to the desired order, in a very creative and unique way, the premises of the house or palace, which he knew well. Then, while holding the speech intended to pass through rooms of the house or palace and then put keywords and concepts come to mind, again according to the desired order. Given that this is a specific kind of research political speech that is relatively recent in Croatia, it should be noted that there is still, this kind of political communication is not sufficiently explored. Particularly the emphasis on the impact and use of keywords specific to the Republic of Croatia, in everyday public and political communication. The paper will be analyzed the political, campaign speeches and promises several winning candidates, and now Croatian MEPs, specific keywords related to: economics, culture, science, education and health. The analysis is based on comparison of the survey results on the representation of key words in the speeches of politicians and qualitative analysis of the speeches of politicians on key words during the election campaign.

  6. Residents Perceptions of Friendship and Positive Social Networks Within a Nursing Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Anne-Nicole S; Low, Lee-Fay; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Brodaty, Henry

    2016-10-01

    (i) To describe nursing home residents' perceptions of their friendship networks using social network analysis (SNA) and (ii) to contribute to theory regarding resident friendship schema, network structure, and connections between network ties and social support. Cross-sectional interviews, standardized assessments, and observational data were collected in three care units, including a Dementia Specific Unit (DSU), of a 94-bed Sydney nursing home. Full participation consent was obtained for 36 residents aged 63-94 years. Able residents answered open-ended questions about friendship, identified friendship ties, and completed measures of nonfamily social support. Residents retained clear concepts of friendship and reported small, sparse networks. Nonparametric pairwise comparisons indicated that DSU residents reported less perceived social support (median = 7) than residents from the other units (median = 17; U = 10.0, p = .034, r = -.51), (median = 14; U = 0.0, p = .003, r = -.82). Greater perceived social support was moderately associated with higher number of reciprocated ties [ρ(25) = .49, p = .013]. Though some residents had friendships, many reported that nursing home social opportunities did not align with their expectations of friendship. Relationships with coresidents were associated with perceptions of social support. SNA's relational perspective elucidated network size, tie direction, and density, advancing understanding of the structure of residents' networks and flow of subjective social support through that structure. Understanding resident expectations and perceptions of their social networks is important for care providers wishing to improve quality of life in nursing homes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Awareness and Perception About Cancer Among the Public in Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhubala Elangovan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cancer-related stigma influences the way people perceive cancer, which renders cancer control—beginning with prevention and proceeding to palliation—a challenging task. This study aimed to assess the current levels of awareness and perceptions about cancer among people with various socioeconomic status and diverse backgrounds in the city of Chennai, India. Patients and Methods: The sample population (N = 2,981; 18 to 88 years of age was stratified into four groups: patients (n = 510, caregivers (n = 494 consulting at the Cancer Institute (Women Indian Association, college students (n = 978, and general public (n = 999. Fourteen statements related to cancer stigma or myths were identified and categorized by awareness (10 items or perception (4 items. Responses to those statements were recorded by using a Likert scale (yes, no, and don’t know. The data were described by frequency analysis and χ2 test using SPSS Version 13 (SPSS, Chicago, IL. Results: More than 70% of the study participants were aware that cancer is curable, that cancer is not contagious, and that cancer is not a curse or a death sentence. However, only approximately half believed that surgery or biopsy do not cause cancer to spread to other organs or that radiation therapy does not consist of receiving an electric shock. Higher education, younger age, male sex, personal experience with cancer (either as a patient or caregiver, and high socioeconomic status were the categories of people with increased awareness about cancer. Conclusion: These factors need to be taken into consideration in tailoring information, education, and communication campaigns. Resource allocation for these campaigns is an investment in cancer control.

  8. Awareness and Perception About Cancer Among the Public in Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaraman, Swaminathan; Basumalik, Barsha; Pandian, Dhivya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Cancer-related stigma influences the way people perceive cancer, which renders cancer control—beginning with prevention and proceeding to palliation—a challenging task. This study aimed to assess the current levels of awareness and perceptions about cancer among people with various socioeconomic status and diverse backgrounds in the city of Chennai, India. Patients and Methods The sample population (N = 2,981; 18 to 88 years of age) was stratified into four groups: patients (n = 510), caregivers (n = 494) consulting at the Cancer Institute (Women Indian Association), college students (n = 978), and general public (n = 999). Fourteen statements related to cancer stigma or myths were identified and categorized by awareness (10 items) or perception (4 items). Responses to those statements were recorded by using a Likert scale (yes, no, and don’t know). The data were described by frequency analysis and χ2 test using SPSS Version 13 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). Results More than 70% of the study participants were aware that cancer is curable, that cancer is not contagious, and that cancer is not a curse or a death sentence. However, only approximately half believed that surgery or biopsy do not cause cancer to spread to other organs or that radiation therapy does not consist of receiving an electric shock. Higher education, younger age, male sex, personal experience with cancer (either as a patient or caregiver), and high socioeconomic status were the categories of people with increased awareness about cancer. Conclusion These factors need to be taken into consideration in tailoring information, education, and communication campaigns. Resource allocation for these campaigns is an investment in cancer control. PMID:29094085

  9. Contingent Faculty Perceptions of Organizational Support, Workplace Attitudes, and Teaching Evaluations at a Public Research University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Young Cha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research examines contingent faculty’s perception of organizational support, workplace attitudes, and Student Ratings of Teaching (SRT in a large public research university to investigate their employee-organization relationship. According to t-tests and regression analyses for samples of 2,229 faculty and instructional staff who answered the survey and had SRT data (tenured and tenure-track faculty: 1,708, 76.6% of total; contingent faculty: 521, 23.4% of total, employment relationship of contingent faculty in this institution was closer to a combined economic and social exchange model than to a pure economic exchange model or underinvestment model. Contingent faculty’s satisfaction with work, satisfaction with coworkers, perception of being supported at work, and affective organizational commitment were higher than tenured and tenure-track faculty at a statistically significant level. In addition, contingent faculty had higher SRT mean results in all areas of SRT items in medium-size (10-30 classes and in ‘class presentation,’ ‘feedback,’ ‘deeper understanding,’ and ‘interest stimulated’ in large-size (30-50 classes than Tenured and Tenure-track Faculty. These results not only refute the misconception that contingent faculty have too little time to provide students with feedback but also support that they provide students with good teaching, at least in medium-size and large-size classes. Whereas these results might be partially attributable to the relatively stable status of contingent faculty in this study (who work for more than 50 percent FTE, they indicate that, as a collective, contingent faculty also represent a significant contributor to the university, who are satisfied with their work, enjoy the community they are in, and are committed to their institution.

  10. Alzheimer Europe's position on involving people with dementia in research through PPI (patient and public involvement)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gove, Dianne; Diaz-Ponce, Ana; Georges, Jean

    2018-01-01

    This paper reflects Alzheimer Europe's position on PPI (patient and public involvement) in the context of dementia research and highlights some of the challenges and potential risks and benefits associated with such meaningful involvement. The paper was drafted by Alzheimer Europe in collaboration...... with members of INTERDEM and the European Working Group of People with Dementia. It has been formally adopted by the Board of Alzheimer Europe and endorsed by the Board of INTERDEM and by the JPND working group 'Dementia Outcome Measures - Charting New Territory'. Alzheimer Europe is keen to promote...

  11. The Australian general public's perceptions of having a personally controlled electronic health record (PCEHR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Lynda; Gajanayake, Randike; Sahama, Tony

    2014-12-01

    The move internationally by Governments and other health providers to encourage patients to have their own electronic personal health record (e-PHRs) is growing exponentially. In Australia the initiative for a personally controlled electronic health record (known as PCEHR) is directed towards the public at large. The first objective of this study then, is to examine how individuals in the general population perceive the promoted idea of having a PCEHR. The second objective is to extend research on applying a theoretically derived consumer technology acceptance model to guide the research. An online survey was conducted to capture the perceptions and beliefs about having a PCEHR identified from technology acceptance models and extant literature. The survey was completed by 750 Queensland respondents, 97% of whom did not have a PCEHR at that time. The model was examined using exploratory factor analysis, regressions and mediation tests. Findings support eight of the 11 hypothesised relationships in the model. Perceived value and perceived risk were the two most important variables explaining attitude, with perceived usefulness and compatibility being weak but significant. The perception of risk was reduced through partial mediation from trust and privacy concerns. Additionally, web-self efficacy and ease of use partially mediate the relationship between attitude and intentions. The findings represent a snapshot of the early stages of implementing this Australian initiative and capture the perceptions of Queenslanders who at present do not have a PCEHR. Findings show that while individuals appreciate the value of having this record, they do not appear to regard it as particularly useful at present, nor is it particularly compatible with their current engagement with e-services. Moreover, they will need to have any concerns about the risks alleviated, particularly through an increased sense of trust and reduction of privacy concerns. It is noted that although the

  12. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk Through Stakeholder Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Hartwell

    2007-01-01

    . Finally, the CEMP provides training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs, which help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS

  13. Public perceptions of the risks of an unfamiliar technology: The case of using nuclear energy sources for space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharik, M.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis addresses the public perception of the risk of a technology not widely known to lay people. Its aims were (a) to characterize public perceptions of the risk of using nuclear energy in space and decisions related to this risk, and (b) to extend the mental model methodology to studying public perception of unfamiliar, risky technologies. A model of the physical processes capable of creating risks from using nuclear energy sources in space was first constructed. Then, knowledge and beliefs related to this topic were elicited from three different groups of people. The generality of the findings were examined in a constructive replication with environmentally-oriented people. The possibility of involving the public in decision-making processes related to engineering macro-design was then investigated. Finally, a communication regarding these risk processes was developed and evaluated in an experiment comparing it with communications produced by NASA. Recommendations related to the design and targeting of risk communication, and to public participation in decision making on using new and risky technologies, are derived

  14. Covenant of Mayors initiative—Public perception issues and barriers in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoforidis, Georgios C.; Chatzisavvas, Konstantinos Ch.; Lazarou, Stavros; Parisses, Costantinos

    2013-01-01

    The Covenant of Mayors (COM) initiative invites cities to commit themselves to reduce voluntarily the greenhouse gas emissions within their territories. This manuscript presents the COM initiative and analyzes its mechanisms. In order to better quantify the penetration of the initiative, the authors introduce suitable “participation factors”. Moreover, a study and a survey are presented concerning the COM initiative in Greece. Certain barriers are identified preventing the realization of the initiative's full potential in Greece. Results from the public survey indicate lack of proper information and communication about the COM initiative and the obligations arising from its signing towards the citizens itself. Nevertheless, once the citizens are informed properly, the public acceptance of the initiative and its commitments is considerable, to the extent that its success would influence the vote of a substantial percentage of citizens. The positive role of supporting structures is evaluated and may be demonstrated through the survey's results and discussion. Recommendations are provided for future or existing signatories based on the findings of this work. - Highlights: • Factors are defined to evaluate the penetration of the Covenant of Mayors initiative. • Barriers are identified preventing the initiative reaching its full potential in Greece. • A survey conducted in Greece shows poor dissemination of the initiative to citizens. • Significant public acceptance is observed once targets and commitments are explained to citizens. • The positive role of Supporting Structures in aiding signatories is appraised

  15. Attributes of patient-centered primary care associated with the public perception of good healthcare quality in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Guanais, Frederico C; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Canning, David; Macinko, James; Reich, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated primary care attributes of patient-centered care associated with the public perception of good quality in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and El Salvador. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a Latin American survey on public perceptions and experiences with healthcare systems. The primary care attributes examined were access, coordination, provider-patient communication, provision of health-related information and emotional support. A double-weighted multiple Poisson regression with robust variance model was performed. The study included between 1500 and 1503 adults in each country. The results identified four significant gaps in the provision of primary care: not all respondents had a regular place of care or a regular primary care doctor (Brazil 35.7%, Colombia 28.4%, Mexico 22% and El Salvador 45.4%). The communication with the primary care clinic was difficult (Brazil 44.2%, Colombia 41.3%, Mexico 45.1% and El Salvador 56.7%). There was a lack of coordination of care (Brazil 78.4%, Colombia 52.3%, Mexico 48% and El Salvador 55.9%). Also, there was a lack of information about healthy diet (Brazil 21.7%, Colombia 32.9%, Mexico 16.9% and El Salvador 20.8%). The public's perception of good quality was variable (Brazil 67%, Colombia 71.1%, Mexico 79.6% and El Salvador 79.5%). The primary care attributes associated with the perception of good quality were a primary care provider 'who knows relevant information about a patient's medical history', 'solves most of the health problems', 'spends enough time with the patient', 'coordinates healthcare' and a 'primary care clinic that is easy to communicate with'. In conclusion, the public has a positive perception of the quality of primary care, although it has unfulfilled expectations; further efforts are necessary to improve the provision of patient-centered primary care services in these four Latin American countries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  16. Vulnerability and risk perception in the management of HIV/AIDS: Public priorities in a global pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tsasis

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Peter Tsasis1,2, N. Nirupama21School of Health Policy and Management, 2School of Administrative Studies, York University, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Understanding the way perception of risk is shaped and constructed is crucial in understanding why it has been so difficult to mitigate the spread of HIV/AIDS. This paper uses the Pressure and Release (PAR model, used to predict the onset of natural disasters as the conceptual framework. It substitutes vulnerability and risk perception as the trigger factors in the model, in making the case that HIV/AIDS can be characterized as a slow onset disaster. The implications are that vulnerability must be managed and reduced by addressing root causes, dynamic pressures, and unsafe conditions that contribute to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. HIV/AIDS programs must be culturally appropriate and work toward influencing risk perception, while addressing social norms and values that negatively impact vulnerable populations. By impacting cultural and social expectations, individuals will be able to more readily adopt safer sex behaviors. The development of policies and programs addressing the issues in context, as opposed to individual behaviors alone, allows for effective public health intervention. This may have implications for public health measures implemented for combating the spread of HIV/AIDS.Keywords: vulnerability, risk perception, HIV/AIDS, public health intervention

  17. Labour Market Integration and Public Perceptions of Immigrants: A Comparison between Germany and Spain During the Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Godenau

    2012-06-01

    The economic crisis has made parts of the population more sceptical about immigration in both countries. However, there appear to be no links between the severity of the crisis and public debates on migration. Although Spain was definitely hit harder by the crisis than Germany, and immigrants were affected more severely, public debates on migration and integration issues seem to be at least as fierce in Germany as in Spain. The legacy of past migrations and migration policies exerts a more significant influence on the public perception of migration as a risk than economic factors do.

  18. Alice—A Fight for Life (1982 and the Public Perception of the Occupational Risks of Asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Menéndez Navarro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to explore the historical influence of documentary films, in particular within the sphere of the public perception of the risks posed by asbestos. For this purpose, we study the British documentary Alice—A Fight for Life, the context in which it was produced, and the impact that its screening in 1982 had on British public opinion. The drama of the testimonies of some of the victims shown in the film and the visual treatment they received were determinant in heightening public awareness of asbestos risks. We also explore the effects of the documentary when it was shown in Spain in 1984.

  19. Dismissing Children's Perceptions of Their Emotional Experience and Parental Care: Preliminary Evidence of Positive Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L.; David, Daryn H.; Crowley, Michael J.; Snavely, Jonathan E.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    The tendency to perceive caregivers in highly positive terms and to perceive the self as strong and problem-free are two facets of the positive bias characteristic of a dismissing attachment classification in adulthood. However, this link has not yet been examined in children. We evaluated the association between dismissing attachment and positive…

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of the teacher's role in sexuality education in public schools in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Dairo, Magbagbeola D; Amusan, Oluwatoyin A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge, attitude, and perception of teachers of their role in the sexuality education of secondary school students with a viewto suggesting strategies for improvement. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey. Information was collected from 305 secondary school teachers selected by multi-stage random sampling method from Osun state, Nigeria using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Median age of respondents was 36 +/- 8.18 years. Male/female ratio was 1:1.2. Knowledge about key reproductive issues was poor and inadequate. Knowledge of more than one contraceptive method was low (39.0%), Condom was the most frequently mentioned (59.3%). The teachers exhibited poor perception of their role in sexuality education of their students. 52.8% placed the sole responsibility for sexuality education on parents and only 20.7% found that it should start before age 10 years. Mean menarcheal age was 13.1 +/- 1.7 y. A statistically significant association was found between respondents' gender and knowledge of menarcheal age (p = .03); and between class taught and knowledge of menarcheal age (p = .003). 86.90% had positive attitude towards inclusion of sexuality education in the school curriculum; however, 43.6% felt that contraceptive methods should not be part of the course content. An urgent need exists for education and re-orientation of teachers through seminars and workshops, in-service training education program to equip them properly for the task. Policy makers need to formulate a definite, explicit, and workable sexuality education policy.

  1. An integrative discourse perspective on positive leadership in public health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietiläinen, Ville; Salmi, Ilkka

    2017-02-06

    Purpose This study aims to take a discursive view on positive leadership (PL). A positive approach has gained momentum in recent years as appropriate leadership practices are implemented in organizations. Despite the turn toward discursive approaches in organization studies, there is insufficient evidence supporting PL as a socially constructed experience. Design/methodology/approach The present study addresses an integrative discourse perspective for capturing the PL concept as a social process within the public health-care context. Findings Four meanings of PL are highlighted: role-taking, servicing, balancing and deciphering. Research limitations/implications The meanings shift the emphasis of certain PL definitions to a contextual interpretation. For scholars, the perspective demonstrates a multidimensional process approach in the desired organizational context as a counterbalance to one unanimously agreed-upon PL definition. Practical implications For leaders, an integrative discourse perspective offers tools for comprehending PL as a process: how to identify, negotiate and reconcile various PL meanings. Originality/value An integrative discourse perspective provides a novel perspective capturing the PL concept within the public health-care field.

  2. Comparative Study on Presentation of Statement of Financial Position in the Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Crețu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it is more than a decade since the elaboration of the first public accountingstandards, countries are still reluctant to adopt them, preferring rather an adaptation of nationallegislation with the provisions IPSASs. Concerns about the necessity and usefulness of the applicationof International Public Sector Accounting Standards are due to economic influences, cultural, social,which made their mark on philosophy, doctrine and national accounting policies. Although financialstatements may appear similar from country to country, there are differences that can be caused by avariety of social, economic and legal factors, and that some countries when setting the nationalrequirements have considered the needs of different users of financial statements. These factors haveled to the use of different definitions of the structures of financial statements, such as assets,liabilities, equity, revenues and expenses. Scope and disclosures in the financial statements were alsoaffected. Therefore, this paper intends to emphasize similarities, but especially the differencesbetween the two frames of reference - national norms to international standards - regarding Statementof financial position on a public institution.

  3. General public knowledge, perceptions and practice towards pharmaceutical drug advertisements in the Western region of KSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Mahmoud S; Hamam, Fayez; Al-Shakhshir, Sami M

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to examine general public knowledge and behavior toward pharmaceutical advertisements in the Western part of KSA. A cross sectional convenience sampling technique was used in this study. A total of 1445 valid questionnaires were received and analyzed using SPSS version 16 at alpha value of 0.05. Majority of respondents were aware of different types of drugs to be advertised and drug advertisements should seek approval from the health authorities. Television and Internet showed the highest effect on consumers. Almost half of the participants preferred an advertised drug over non-advertised one. Most of the respondents indicated that the quality of frequently advertised drugs is not better than those prescribed by the doctors. Majority of participants had positive beliefs toward advertised drugs concerning their role in education and spreading of awareness among the public. Pharmaceutical advertisements harm the doctor-patient relationship as evidenced by one-third of the investigated sample. Moreover, majority of the participants mentioned that they would consult another doctor or even change the current doctor if he/she refused to prescribe an advertised medication. Results of this study could be used to develop awareness programs for the general public and try to enforce the regulations and policies to protect the general public and patients from the business oriented pharmaceutical companies and drug suppliers.

  4. Public perception of carbon dioxide storage. The role of trust and affect in attitude formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huijts, N.M.A.

    2003-12-01

    In this study a multidisciplinary description of, and investigation into carbon dioxide storage is given. Carbon dioxide storage is a CO2-emission reduction option that might be implemented to combat climate change. The threat of climate change has led to emission reduction goals for greenhouse gases in the Netherlands for the period 2008-2010 compared to the year 1990, and possibly more stringent goals for the longer term. The technology of carbon dioxide capture, transport and storage is shortly described, and it is expected that it is possible to perform the technology. Possible identified barriers are the costs, the risks and public perception. A wide range for the estimation of the costs has been found. Any price in the range however leads to a significant increase of the electricity price, when applying CO2 capture and storage to power plants. Risks are not quantified yet, but possible risks are described for man, environment, and buildings in literature. So far, little research had been performed on the public perception of carbon dioxide storage. Therefore a field study has been conducted for this study. From personal communication and literature, the current points of view of government, industry, and environmental NGOs (non-governmental organizations) are described for the Netherlands. Government and environmental NGOs believe that carbon dioxide storage can only be a temporary solution, because it is not considered a sustainable solution. Opposition from environmental NGOs might arise when the storage of carbon dioxide diverts effort from the development of sustainable energy sources. Industry that would perform storage expects that it can be done in a safe and acceptable way. The points of view of the actors involved can influence the perception of citizens and have therefore been summarised and added to the information for the participants in the study. From literature in the field of psychology, a conceptual model for the formation of an attitude

  5. Public perception of carbon dioxide storage. The role of trust and affect in attitude formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijts, N.M.A.

    2003-12-01

    In this study a multidisciplinary description of, and investigation into carbon dioxide storage is given. Carbon dioxide storage is a CO2-emission reduction option that might be implemented to combat climate change. The threat of climate change has led to emission reduction goals for greenhouse gases in the Netherlands for the period 2008-2010 compared to the year 1990, and possibly more stringent goals for the longer term. The technology of carbon dioxide capture, transport and storage is shortly described, and it is expected that it is possible to perform the technology. Possible identified barriers are the costs, the risks and public perception. A wide range for the estimation of the costs has been found. Any price in the range however leads to a significant increase of the electricity price, when applying CO2 capture and storage to power plants. Risks are not quantified yet, but possible risks are described for man, environment, and buildings in literature. So far, little research had been performed on the public perception of carbon dioxide storage. Therefore a field study has been conducted for this study. From personal communication and literature, the current points of view of government, industry, and environmental NGOs (non-governmental organizations) are described for the Netherlands. Government and environmental NGOs believe that carbon dioxide storage can only be a temporary solution, because it is not considered a sustainable solution. Opposition from environmental NGOs might arise when the storage of carbon dioxide diverts effort from the development of sustainable energy sources. Industry that would perform storage expects that it can be done in a safe and acceptable way. The points of view of the actors involved can influence the perception of citizens and have therefore been summarised and added to the information for the participants in the study. From literature in the field of psychology, a conceptual model for the formation of an attitude

  6. Vodacom and MTN’s brand positioning based on the perceptions of a group of LSM seven to ten respondents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennie Mentz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates Vodacom and MTN’s brand positioning based on the perceptions of a group of LSM seven to ten respondents who are principal estate agents in Gauteng. An empirical study was conducted. The profile of the sample in terms of access to telecommunication-related services confirmed that of individuals in the LSM seven to ten groups with a skew towards LSM ten. As a minimum requirement for the target market brands in the category should be strongly associated with the statements market leader, local brand, technologically sophisticated brand, trusted brand, South African brand and prestigious/upmarket brand. At an overall level, Vodacom has established a more favourable brand positioning compared to MTN. However, both Vodacom and MTN have failed to establish a personal brand relationship with the target market.

  7. Controlled Social Interaction Tasks to Measure Self-Perceptions: No Evidence of Positive Illusions in Boys with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuanyuan; Johnston, Charlotte

    2017-08-01

    Studies have suggested that children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) possess a Positive Illusory Bias (PIB) where they have higher self-perceptions of competence than more objective measures of their competence. However, recent research calls into question the primary methodology of these studies, that is, difference scores. This study investigated the PIB in boys with ADHD within the social domain using a novel methodology that refrains from using difference scores. Eighty-one 8- to 12-year-old boys with and without ADHD completed social interaction tasks where their actual social performance was made comparable, allowing for tests of between-group differences in self-perceptions that do not rely on difference scores. In addition, to examine whether clarity of social feedback moderates the presence of the PIB, the social tasks presented unclear, clear positive, or clear negative feedback. Boys rated how well they performed in each social interaction task, and these ratings were compared between ADHD and non-ADHD groups. Compared to the non-ADHD group, boys with ADHD did not show a PIB in their ratings of performance on the social tasks. There also was no moderation of boys' ratings by type of feedback received. In contrast, when the PIB was calculated using difference scores based on child and parent ratings of child competence, boys with ADHD showed a PIB compared to boys without ADHD. These findings call attention to the need to re-examine the phenomenon of the PIB using methodologies outside of difference scores.

  8. A Pilot Study Evaluating the Stigma and Public Perception about the Causes of Depression and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tm; Hassali, Ma; Tahir, H; Khan, A

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate public perceptions towards the causes of depression and schizophrenia and identifications of factors resulting stigma towards mental ill. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the inhabitants of Pulau-Pinang, Malaysia in March, 2009. A 24-item questionnaire was used to obtain respondent views. A non-probability (i.e convenient sampling method) was used to approach the potential respondents. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 13 ®, non-parametric statistics (Chi-square) was applied to determine the association. Alpha value less than 0.05 were considered significant. One hundred respondents showed their willingness to participate in the study; overall response of the study was 40.0%. Majority 69% of the respondents were Malays, followed by Chinese and Indians. Public recognition toward depression was higher than schizophrenia. Lack of social support (X(2)= 4.832, P= 0.049), chemical imbalance in Brian (X(2)=6.132, P= 0.013*) and believes in supernatural factors (X(2)= 6.700, P= 0.050) were the commonly shared reasons for the mental disorders. Evaluation in terms of stigma revealed that majority 61 (55.0%). Individuals with mental disorders were not friendly (X(2)= 1.008, P= 0.050). Furthermore, one third of the population believe that they are moody, dangerous and unpredictable, it is better to avoid them. Overall findings revealed that Malaysians believe in supernatural reasons for the prevalence of mental disorders. Similarly the level of stigma towards mentally ill was higher among the respondents.

  9. Controlling liver cancer internationally: A qualitative study of clinicians' perceptions of current public policy needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridges John FP

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh for women. Usually because of late diagnosis, the prognosis for liver cancer remains poor, resulting in liver cancer being the third most common cause of death from cancer. While some countries have treatment guidelines, little is known or understood about the strategies needed for liver cancer control internationally. Objective To explore leading liver cancer clinician's perceptions of the current public policy needs to control liver cancer internationally. Methods Key informant interviews were conducted with a range of liver cancer clinicians involved in policy in eleven countries. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated (where necessary, de-identified and analyzed by two researchers using a constant comparative method. Results Twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in: Australia, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, South Korea, Taiwan, Turkey and the United States. Nine themes were identified and cluster into three groups: 1 Promoting prevention via early risk assessment, focusing on viral hepatitis and other lifestyle factors; 2 Increasing political, public and medical community awareness; and 3 Improving funding for screening, liver cancer surveillance and treatment. Conclusion This study is an important step towards developing an evidence-based approach to assessing preparedness for implementing comprehensive liver cancer control strategies. Evaluation mechanisms to assess countries' performance on the needs described are needed. Future research will concentrate of understanding how these needs vary across countries and the optimal strategies to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with liver cancer internationally.

  10. An investigation on nuclear energy policy in Turkey and public perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Mehmet Burhanettin; Tanriover, Banu

    2016-11-01

    Turkey, which meets nearly 70 per cent of its energy demands with import, is facing the problems of energy security and current account deficit as a result of its dependence on foreign sources in terms of energy input. It is also known that Turkey is having environmental problems due to the increases in CO2 emission. Considering these problems in Turkish economy, where energy input is commonly used, it is necessary to use energy sources efficiently and provide alternative energy sources. Due to the dependency of renewable sources on meteorological conditions (the absence of enough sun, wind, and water sources), the energy generation could not be provided efficiently and permanently from these sources. At this point, nuclear energy as analternative energy source maintains its importance as a sustainable energy source that providing energy in 7 days and 24 hours. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the nuclear energy subject within the context of negative public perceptions emerged after Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011) disasters and to investigate in the economic framework.

  11. An investigation on nuclear energy policy in Turkey and public perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Mehmet Burhanettin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey, which meets nearly 70 per cent of its energy demands with import, is facing the problems of energy security and current account deficit as a result of its dependence on foreign sources in terms of energy input. It is also known that Turkey is having environmental problems due to the increases in CO2 emission. Considering these problems in Turkish economy, where energy input is commonly used, it is necessary to use energy sources efficiently and provide alternative energy sources. Due to the dependency of renewable sources on meteorological conditions (the absence of enough sun, wind, and water sources, the energy generation could not be provided efficiently and permanently from these sources. At this point, nuclear energy as analternative energy source maintains its importance as a sustainable energy source that providing energy in 7 days and 24 hours. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the nuclear energy subject within the context of negative public perceptions emerged after Chernobyl (1986 and Fukushima (2011 disasters and to investigate in the economic framework.

  12. Analysis of Survey Results of the Public's Perceptions of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongwon

    2008-01-01

    In the 1970s when the two oil shocks occurred, nuclear energy was recognized as an economic and reliable source of electricity, and the nuclear power industry smoothly developed without much difficulty in the selection of reactor sites, etc. Amid such favorable circumstances, the government and nuclear energy companies gave short shrift to ensuring the public's correct understanding of nuclear energy. The perception of nuclear energy began to deteriorate in the latter half of the 1980s. With the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor no. 2 in the U. S. in 1979 and the melt-down of Chernobyl nuclear power came to the fore. In addition, the changes in the political and social environment wrought by the democratization movement made the continued development of the nuclear energy industry very difficult. The government had no choice but to seek peoples due to a number of factors including the emergence of a new social atmosphere in which individual freedom and human rights were emphasized over material abundance; increased opposition to nuclear energy by environmental groups that appeared during the course of democratization; antipathy against the previous authoritarian governments; and the people's increased demands for the right to know, etc. The nuclear energy industry also could not conduct its business, including the securing of sites for power plants and nuclear waste, without the people's concurrence

  13. Perceptions of undergraduate pharmacy students on plagiarism in three major public universities in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Moataz Ehab; Mohy, Nagla; Salah, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    The survey aimed to capture the perceptions of undergraduate pharmacy students towards plagiarism in three major public universities in Cairo, Egypt: Helwan, Ain-Shams, and Cairo Universities. This was a paper-based self-administrated survey study. The questionnaire was validated by both content and face validation. The final survey form captured the knowledge of the students on plagiarism in terms of definitions, attitudes, and practices. Four hundred and fourteen students, 320 females and 94 males, participated in the study. There was a significant difference between the students who knew the definition of plagiarism among the three universities with p-value = .01. More than half of the participants (67%) claimed that they had no previous education or training on plagiarism. However, after being informed about plagiarism, most of them agreed that plagiarism should be regarded as stealing and a punishment. Additionally, poor study skills and the ease of copying and pasting from the Internet were identified by the majority of the students to be the leading causes of plagiarism. Pharmacy students need to be more educated on plagiarism and its consequences on research and educational ethics. Finally, more strict policies should be incorporated to monitor and control plagiarism in undergraduate sections.

  14. Analysis of Survey Results of the Public's Perceptions of Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongwon [Korea Nuclear Energy Foundation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    In the 1970s when the two oil shocks occurred, nuclear energy was recognized as an economic and reliable source of electricity, and the nuclear power industry smoothly developed without much difficulty in the selection of reactor sites, etc. Amid such favorable circumstances, the government and nuclear energy companies gave short shrift to ensuring the public's correct understanding of nuclear energy. The perception of nuclear energy began to deteriorate in the latter half of the 1980s. With the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor no. 2 in the U. S. in 1979 and the melt-down of Chernobyl nuclear power came to the fore. In addition, the changes in the political and social environment wrought by the democratization movement made the continued development of the nuclear energy industry very difficult. The government had no choice but to seek peoples due to a number of factors including the emergence of a new social atmosphere in which individual freedom and human rights were emphasized over material abundance; increased opposition to nuclear energy by environmental groups that appeared during the course of democratization; antipathy against the previous authoritarian governments; and the people's increased demands for the right to know, etc. The nuclear energy industry also could not conduct its business, including the securing of sites for power plants and nuclear waste, without the people's concurrence.

  15. Analysis on difference of risk perception between people engaged in nuclear business and general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terado, M.; Yoshikawa, H.; Sugiman, T.; Hibino, A.; Akimoto, M.

    2004-01-01

    A new research project has started to develop two kinds of on-the-web communication systems which are aimed at effective social risk information on nuclear energy. One is mutual communication system for fostering safety culture among the workers in nuclear industry while the other is to enlighten general public about the risk issues on final disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Prior to the on-the-web systems development, social investigations have been conducted on risk perception for nuclear power for both the nuclear experts and women in the metropolitan area, in order to know how and what should be considered for the effective risk communication methods. It was found from the statistical analysis of the results of social investigation that the majority of nuclear people take business risk seriously but there is a fraction of nuclear people who are afraid of present practice of nuclear power operation while women in metropolitan area are evenly afraid of radioactive risk. The obtained results of social investigation gave useful insight for developing two kinds of risk communication systems and the related field study for enhancing safety culture in nuclear industries. (authors)

  16. Defending or Challenging the Status Quo: Position Effects on Biased Intergroup Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma A. Bäck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The default ideological position is status quo maintaining, and challenging the status quo is associated with increased efforts and risks. Nonetheless, some people choose to challenge the status quo. Therefore, to challenge the status quo should imply a strong belief in one’s position as the correct one, and thus efforts may be undertaken to undermine the position of others. Study 1 (N = 311 showed that challengers undermined, by ascribing more externality and less rationality, the position of defenders to a larger extent than defenders did of challengers’ position. Studies 2 (N = 135 and 3 (N = 109 tested if these effects were driven by the implied minority status of the challenging position. Results revealed no effects of experimentally manipulated numerical status, but challengers were again more biased than defenders. Study 3 also revealed that challengers felt more negatively toward their opponents (possibly due to greater social identification with like-minded others, and these negative emotions in turn predicted biased attributions. Results are important as they add to the understanding of how intergroup conflict may arise, providing explanations for why challengers are less tolerant of others’ point of view.

  17. Body position-dependent shift in odor percept present only for perithreshold odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Johan N; Boyle, Julie A; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that a supine position causes a decrease in olfactory sensitivity compared with an upright position. We pursued that initial finding in 3 separate experiments in which we explored the extent of, and mechanism underlying, this phenomenon. In Experiment 1, we replicated the decrease in olfactory sensitivity when in a supine compared with an upright position. In Experiment 2, we measured body position-dependent shifts in physiological variables and sniff measures while smelling suprathreshold odorants and performing a perithreshold odor intensity discrimination task. Olfactory performances were reduced while supine. However, no relationships between the shift in olfactory performances and either the physiological variables or sniff measures were found. In Experiment 3, we determined that there were no position-dependent shifts in ability to discriminate or identify suprathreshold odors or rate them for pleasantness, intensity, or familiarity. However, a drop in scores was observed, and performance was slowed, on a cognitive skill while supine. These results demonstrate a body position-dependent shift in olfactory sensitivity only for perithreshold odors that appears to be mediated by cognitive rather than physiological factors. Implications for olfactory imaging studies are discussed.

  18. Investigating positioning and gaze behaviors of social robots : people's preferences, perceptions, and behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosse, Michiel Pieter

    2017-01-01

    As technology advances, application areas for robots are no longer limited to the factories where they perform repetitive tasks behind fences. Robots are envisioned to provide services to us in everyday public spaces - in which they will encounter and interact with people. These types of robots can

  19. Post-Fukushima trends in russian nuclear energy and public perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarinskiy, A. Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The gloomy 'nuclear spring' of 2011 in practice had virtually no effect on the new nuclear construction program in Russia, which keeps its second place in the world as concerns the number of new NPP units under construction. Russian positions on the world nuclear power plant construction markets have improved. Current intensive analysis of Fukushima-Daiichi accident consequences is already starting to influence not only specific safety enhancement measures at operating units, but also the opinions related to strategic areas of future nuclear energy development. This paper is intended to demonstrate the nuclear community's position on the development strategy, as well as post-Fukushima trends in the activities of public forces, which try to form the attitude towards the nuclear option. (authors)

  20. Public perception of drinking water safety in South Africa 2002–2009: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In low and middle income countries, public perceptions of drinking water safety are relevant to promotion of household water treatment and to household choices over drinking water sources. However, most studies of this topic have been cross-sectional and not considered temporal variation in drinking water safety perceptions. The objective of this study is to explore trends in perceived drinking water safety in South Africa and its association with disease outbreaks, water supply and household characteristics. Methods This repeated cross-sectional study draws on General Household Surveys from 2002–2009, a series of annual nationally representative surveys of South African households, which include a question about perceived drinking water safety. Trends in responses to this question were examined from 2002–2009 in relation to reported cholera cases. The relationship between perceived drinking water safety and organoleptic qualities of drinking water, supply characteristics, and socio-economic and demographic household characteristics was explored in 2002 and 2008 using hierarchical stepwise logistic regression. Results The results suggest that perceived drinking water safety has remained relatively stable over time in South Africa, once the expansion of improved supplies is controlled for. A large cholera outbreak in 2000–02 had no apparent effect on public perception of drinking water safety in 2002. Perceived drinking water safety is primarily related to water taste, odour, and clarity rather than socio-economic or demographic characteristics. Conclusion This suggests that household perceptions of drinking water safety in South Africa follow similar patterns to those observed in studies in developed countries. The stability over time in public perception of drinking water safety is particularly surprising, given the large cholera outbreak that took place at the start of this period. PMID:22834485