WorldWideScience

Sample records for positive net income

  1. Poweo half-year 2006 earnings. Positive net income, implementation of the 1. steps of the industrial plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    POWEO, the leading independent energy operator in France, presents in this document its key financial data and highlights for the first half of 2006: - Half-year revenue amounts to euro 119.4 m, multiplied by 3.4 compared to the same period last year; - The Energy Management activity has achieved a net margin of euro 34.3 m; - EBIT amounts to euro 6.2 m, compared to euro -2.9 m in the first half of 2005; - Net income amounts to euro 8.9 m, compared to euro -2.9 m in the first half of 2005; - Completion of the preliminary steps to the building of a first thermal power plant (CCGT) is close at hand, two other projects launched; - Strengthening of internal structures in view of the residential market opening up; - Outlook for 2006: total sales expected to reach euro 220 m and positive EBITDA; - LNG terminal building project in Le Havre

  2. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  3. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  4. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Withdrawal of... computation of net investment income. The regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts whose incomes meet certain income thresholds. DATES: The proposed rule published December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72612), is...

  5. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... of Article 23 (Relief from Double Taxation) of the 2006 United States Model Income Tax Convention... taxation of ANSTs at the lowest individual tax rate. Furthermore, section 646 treats all distributions, to... of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts whose incomes meet...

  6. Net one, net two: the primary care network income statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, M D; Little, A W

    1999-10-01

    Although hospital-owned primary care practices have been unprofitable for most hospitals, some hospitals are achieving competitive advantage and sustainable practice operations. A key to the success of some has been a net income reporting tool that separates practice operating expenses from the costs of creating and operating a network of practices to help healthcare organization managers, physicians, and staff to identify opportunities to improve the network's financial performance. This "Net One, Net Two" reporting allows operations leadership to be held accountable for Net One expenses and strategic leadership to be held accountable for Net Two expenses.

  7. Poweo half-year 2006 earnings. Positive net income, implementation of the 1. steps of the industrial plan; Poweo resultats du 1. semestre 2006. Resultat net positif, mise en oeuvre des 1. etapes du plan industriel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    POWEO, the leading independent energy operator in France, presents in this document its key financial data and highlights for the first half of 2006: - Half-year revenue amounts to euro 119.4 m, multiplied by 3.4 compared to the same period last year; - The Energy Management activity has achieved a net margin of euro 34.3 m; - EBIT amounts to euro 6.2 m, compared to euro -2.9 m in the first half of 2005; - Net income amounts to euro 8.9 m, compared to euro -2.9 m in the first half of 2005; - Completion of the preliminary steps to the building of a first thermal power plant (CCGT) is close at hand, two other projects launched; - Strengthening of internal structures in view of the residential market opening up; - Outlook for 2006: total sales expected to reach euro 220 m and positive EBITDA; - LNG terminal building project in Le Havre.

  8. AREVA net income: 649 million euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This document presents the financial statements for 2006 of Areva group: net income: 649 million euros; backlog up by 24.6% to 25.6 billion euros; steady growth of sales revenue: + 7.3%1 to 10.863 billion euros; operating income of 407 million euros: excellent divisional performance and constitution of a significant provision for the OL3 project in Finland; dividend proposed to Annual General Meeting of Shareholders: 8.46 euros per share.

  9. AREVA net income: 649 million euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    This document presents the financial statements for 2006 of Areva group: net income: 649 million euros; backlog up by 24.6% to 25.6 billion euros; steady growth of sales revenue: + 7.3%1 to 10.863 billion euros; operating income of 407 million euros: excellent divisional performance and constitution of a significant provision for the OL3 project in Finland; dividend proposed to Annual General Meeting of Shareholders: 8.46 euros per share

  10. Net positive energy buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.; Barreiro, E.; Sanchez Zabala, V.

    2010-01-01

    Buildings are great consumers of energy, being responsible for almost 36% of CO2 emissions in Europe. Though there are many initiatives towards the reduction of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in buildings, many of the alternatives are diminished due to a lack of a unique and holistic approach to the problem. This paper reports a new innovative concept of Positive Energy Buildings (EB+), as well as an integral methodology that covers the overall design process for achieving them. The methodology evaluates energy efficiency solutions at different scales, from building site to generation systems. An educational building design in Navarra serves as a case study to check the feasibility of the proposed methodology. The study concludes that the key to achieve a Positive Energy Building is a minimized energy demand, complemented by efficient facilities and enhanced by distributed power generation from renewable sources. (Author).

  11. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... avoid double taxation of net investment income and the taxation of amounts distributed to charities. The.... The proposed regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts. This document also contains a notice... calculated correctly. The likely respondents are individuals, estates, and trusts. Estimated total annual...

  12. Poweo positive net income of 7.4 million euro in 2006. First time in the black since the company's creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    POWEO, leading independent operator of electricity and gas, presents in this document the principal elements of its consolidated results and its highlights for 2006: - Sales turnover reaches 244.4 M euro, multiplied by 2.2 compared to 2005; - Operational result amounts to 9.3 M euro, against a loss of 8.4 M euro in 2005; - Consolidated net income group share reaches 7.4 M euro, against a loss of 4.9 M euro in 2005. The 2006 consolidated revenue amounted to 244.4 million euro against 243.7 million euro announced on January 31, taking into account a revaluation of 0.7 million euro of the Energy Management's performance. The number of transferred customer sites amounted to 80,300 as at December 31, 2006, in progression of 23% compared to the end of 2005. Gross margin reached 33.6 euro million, in strong progression compared to 2005, reflecting the effectiveness of the Energy Management activity which has allowed to very appreciably reduce the cost price for POWEO of the energy delivered to its customers, within the framework of its global sourcing strategy. Operating costs increased in line with the development plan, under the effect in particular of the strengthening of operational teams, the Group head-count having reached 90 people as at December 31, 2006. EBITDA reached 8.1 million euro in 2006, against a negative amount of 5.3 million euro in 2005, allowing POWEO to meet its objective of a positive EBITDA as announced in September 2006. The EBIT amounted to 9.3 million euro, taking into account a profit of dilution of 7.6 million euro related to the issuance premium recognized on POWEO Production by Verbund, the Austrian national electricity operator and reference shareholder of POWEO, within the framework of the partnership announced in January 2006. With a consolidated net income group share of 7.4 million euro, 2006 thus constitutes the first fiscal year in the black since the Company's creation in 2002. The consolidated net equity amounted to 103.2 euro

  13. RTE results 2002: positive net income (+112 million euros), in keeping with forecasts, at the end of a year placed under the sign of quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    The results of RTE, the French Transmission System Operator, confirm the company's sound financial position at the end of a year placed under the sign of quality. RTE announces a net income after taxes for 2002 that is in keeping with its forecasts: +112 million euros (versus 250 million euros in 2001) for 3,657 million euros in sales revenue. 616 million euros were devoted to investments for the development and replacement of the company's transmission and interconnection networks. RTE also continued the reduction of its debt by 99 million euros. The year 2001 had experienced a cold spell at year-end, bringing with it higher-than-average revenue (+80 million euros). 2002, which was exceptionally mild at the end of the year, saw revenue fall off by 40 million euros compared with a normal year. In all, the climatic impact goes to explain a drop of 120 million euros in 2002. This drop is partially offset by additional revenue since the adoption on 1/11/02 of the network access tariff (about 30 million euros). This tariff is now substituted for the transitional price scale which was unfavourable to RTE. Operating expenses rose from 3,089 million euros to 3,316 million euros. The most significant increases are to be attributed in particular to: - the contribution of 68 million euros to the 'ETSO Fund', ETSO being the Association of European Transmission System Operators which, since 1/03/02, has ensured the compensation for network utilisation costs related to international transfers, - the gaining in momentum, with more than 80 million euros, of the network mechanical security enhancement programme decided in the wake of the storms of 1999, which aims at adapting RTE infrastructures to the new technical requirements for wind resistance. More than 720 km of power lines were erected or replaced while 12 electrical substations were connected to the RTE network in 2002. Among these projects, mention should be made of the following: the commissioning of the first French

  14. Net Farm Income Analysis of Maize Production in Gwagwalada Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Net Farm Income Analysis of Maize Production in Gwagwalada Area Council of Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. OO Alabi, AAA Coker, ME Idegbesor. Abstract. This study examined net farm income of maize production in Gwagwalada Area Council of Federal Capital Territory. The specific objectives are to: identify the ...

  15. Basis Risk and Net Interest Income of Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mielus Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the banking sector are shaped primarily by commissions and net interest income. Net interest income is determined by the difference between the profitability of bank assets and liabilities. In the case when a different method is used to determine interest for each side of the balance sheet, there occurs a basis risk that may lead to the deterioration in the net interest income of the sector. This is the situation in the Polish banking sector, which is characterized by the presence of variable interest rates for long-term assets and fixed interest rates for short-term liabilities. The study aims to verify the following thesis: in an environment of falling interest rates we can observe the deterioration in net interest income of the banking sector, as a result of the materialization of the basis risk. The authors of the article state that the source of the basis risk is the mismatch between the reference rate used to define the interest flow of loans and the actual cost of financing the balance through term deposits collected from non-financial entities.

  16. 40 CFR 73.83 - Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.83 Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications. (a) First come, first served. The Secretary of Energy will process and certify net income neutrality... of Energy determines that the net income neutrality certification application does not meet the...

  17. 26 CFR 1.857-3 - Net income from foreclosure property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net income from foreclosure property. 1.857-3 Section 1.857-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-3 Net income from foreclosure...

  18. 26 CFR 1.857-5 - Net income and loss from prohibited transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net income and loss from prohibited transactions. 1.857-5 Section 1.857-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-5 Net income and loss...

  19. Net Income of Pharmacy Faculty Compared to Community and Hospital Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path.

  20. Income and Well-Being: Relative Income and Absolute Income Weaken Negative Emotion, but Only Relative Income Improves Positive Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zonghuo; Chen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Whether relative income or absolute income could affect subjective well-being has been a bone of contention for years. Life satisfaction and the relative frequency of positive and negative emotions are parts of subjective well-being. According to the prospect theory, hedonic adaptation helps to explain why positive emotion is often so hard to be maintained, and negative emotion wouldn't be easy to be eliminated. So we expect the relationship between income and positive emotion is different from that between income and negative emotion. Given that regional reference is the main comparison mechanism, effects of regional average income on regional average subjective well-being should be potentially zero if only relative income matters. Using multilevel analysis, we tested the hypotheses with a dataset of 30,144 individuals from 162 counties in China. The results suggested that household income at the individual level is associated with life satisfaction, happiness and negative emotions. On the contrary, at a county level, household income is only associated with negative emotion. In other words, happiness and life satisfaction was only associated with relative income, but negative emotion was associated with relative income and absolute income. Without social comparison, income doesn't improve happiness, but it could weaken negative emotion. Therefore, it is possible for economic growth to weaken negative emotion without improving happiness. These findings also contribute to the current debate about the "Esterling paradox."

  1. Poweo positive net income of 7.4 million euro in 2006. First time in the black since the company's creation; Poweo benefice net de 7,4 millions euro en 2006. 1. exercice beneficiaire depuis la creation de Poweo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    POWEO, leading independent operator of electricity and gas, presents in this document the principal elements of its consolidated results and its highlights for 2006: - Sales turnover reaches 244.4 M euro, multiplied by 2.2 compared to 2005; - Operational result amounts to 9.3 M euro, against a loss of 8.4 M euro in 2005; - Consolidated net income group share reaches 7.4 M euro, against a loss of 4.9 M euro in 2005. The 2006 consolidated revenue amounted to 244.4 million euro against 243.7 million euro announced on January 31, taking into account a revaluation of 0.7 million euro of the Energy Management's performance. The number of transferred customer sites amounted to 80,300 as at December 31, 2006, in progression of 23% compared to the end of 2005. Gross margin reached 33.6 euro million, in strong progression compared to 2005, reflecting the effectiveness of the Energy Management activity which has allowed to very appreciably reduce the cost price for POWEO of the energy delivered to its customers, within the framework of its global sourcing strategy. Operating costs increased in line with the development plan, under the effect in particular of the strengthening of operational teams, the Group head-count having reached 90 people as at December 31, 2006. EBITDA reached 8.1 million euro in 2006, against a negative amount of 5.3 million euro in 2005, allowing POWEO to meet its objective of a positive EBITDA as announced in September 2006. The EBIT amounted to 9.3 million euro, taking into account a profit of dilution of 7.6 million euro related to the issuance premium recognized on POWEO Production by Verbund, the Austrian national electricity operator and reference shareholder of POWEO, within the framework of the partnership announced in January 2006. With a consolidated net income group share of 7.4 million euro, 2006 thus constitutes the first fiscal year in the black since the Company's creation in 2002. The consolidated net equity amounted to 103

  2. 75 FR 39621 - Proposed Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0002] Proposed Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Income-Net Worth and Employment...

  3. 77 FR 20888 - Proposed Information Collection (Income, Net Worth, and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0002] Proposed Information Collection (Income, Net Worth, and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Income, Net Worth, and Employment...

  4. 26 CFR 1.857-2 - Real estate investment trust taxable income and net capital gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... estate investment trust taxable income and net capital gain. (a) Real estate investment trust taxable... paid during the taxable year, and the net capital gain is excluded in computing real estate investment... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate investment trust taxable income and...

  5. 26 CFR 1.860C-2 - Determination of REMIC taxable income or net loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of REMIC taxable income or net loss. 1.860C-2 Section 1.860C-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860C-2 Determination of...

  6. 47 CFR 32.4100 - Net current deferred operating income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4100 Net current deferred operating income taxes. (a) This account shall include the balance...

  7. RTE results 2002: positive net income (+112 million euros), in keeping with forecasts, at the end of a year placed under the sign of quality; Bilan RTE 2002: un resultat net positif (+112 M d'euros), conforme aux previsions, au terme d'une annee placee sous le signe de la qualite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    The results of RTE, the French Transmission System Operator, confirm the company's sound financial position at the end of a year placed under the sign of quality. RTE announces a net income after taxes for 2002 that is in keeping with its forecasts: +112 million euros (versus 250 million euros in 2001) for 3,657 million euros in sales revenue. 616 million euros were devoted to investments for the development and replacement of the company's transmission and interconnection networks. RTE also continued the reduction of its debt by 99 million euros. The year 2001 had experienced a cold spell at year-end, bringing with it higher-than-average revenue (+80 million euros). 2002, which was exceptionally mild at the end of the year, saw revenue fall off by 40 million euros compared with a normal year. In all, the climatic impact goes to explain a drop of 120 million euros in 2002. This drop is partially offset by additional revenue since the adoption on 1/11/02 of the network access tariff (about 30 million euros). This tariff is now substituted for the transitional price scale which was unfavourable to RTE. Operating expenses rose from 3,089 million euros to 3,316 million euros. The most significant increases are to be attributed in particular to: - the contribution of 68 million euros to the 'ETSO Fund', ETSO being the Association of European Transmission System Operators which, since 1/03/02, has ensured the compensation for network utilisation costs related to international transfers, - the gaining in momentum, with more than 80 million euros, of the network mechanical security enhancement programme decided in the wake of the storms of 1999, which aims at adapting RTE infrastructures to the new technical requirements for wind resistance. More than 720 km of power lines were erected or replaced while 12 electrical substations were connected to the RTE network in 2002. Among these projects, mention should be made of the following: the commissioning of

  8. Analysis of genuine saving and potential green net national income. Portugal, 1990-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, Rui Pedro; Domingos, Tiago; Martins, Victor

    2010-01-01

    The context of this paper is the measurement of welfare and weak sustainability (defined as non-declining utility) in dynamic economies, i.e., comprehensive or green accounting. We estimate green net national income (GNNI) and genuine saving (GS) for Portugal, for the years 1990 to 2005, accounting for the disamenity of air pollution emissions, the depreciation of commercial forests and the value of time, discussing the implications of the assumptions underlying the inclusion of these terms in the green accounting model. The influence of short-run cycles is analyzed by estimating GNNI excluding business cycles. Our results suggest that business cycles affect the sustainability message of GNNI. We find that potential GNNI is growing and GS is positive in the analyzed period, thereby not indicating a weak sustainability problem in Portugal, although both depict a trend towards unsustainability. Excluding technological progress there is a contradiction in the sustainability message of GNNI and GS. (author)

  9. Analysis of genuine saving and potential green net national income. Portugal, 1990-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Rui Pedro; Domingos, Tiago [Environment and Energy Section, DEM, Instituto Superior Tecnico (Portugal); Martins, Victor [Department of Economics, Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao (Portugal)

    2010-08-15

    The context of this paper is the measurement of welfare and weak sustainability (defined as non-declining utility) in dynamic economies, i.e., comprehensive or green accounting. We estimate green net national income (GNNI) and genuine saving (GS) for Portugal, for the years 1990 to 2005, accounting for the disamenity of air pollution emissions, the depreciation of commercial forests and the value of time, discussing the implications of the assumptions underlying the inclusion of these terms in the green accounting model. The influence of short-run cycles is analyzed by estimating GNNI excluding business cycles. Our results suggest that business cycles affect the sustainability message of GNNI. We find that potential GNNI is growing and GS is positive in the analyzed period, thereby not indicating a weak sustainability problem in Portugal, although both depict a trend towards unsustainability. Excluding technological progress there is a contradiction in the sustainability message of GNNI and GS. (author)

  10. Net Income, Book Value and Cash Flows: The Value Relevance in Jordanian Economic Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHIAA SHAMKI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value relevance of financial statements variables namely net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously relative to Jordanian services and industrial firms for the period from 2000 to 2009. The main findings of this paper are three- dimensional. First, net income is value relevant, while book value and cash flows are irrelevant. Second, net income is more value relevant than book value and cash flows in both sectors. Third, this value relevance is greater in services sector than in industrial sector. The study shows that net income assist more in explaining market values in Jordanian services and industrial firms. Since research on the value relevance of these variables has neglected Jordan (and the Middle Eastern region, the study tries to fill this practical gap. The study is the first in Jordan that examines the value relevance of net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously and compares this value relevance according to Amman Stock Exchange sectors in one study in Jordan.

  11. Human Capital and Optimal Positive Taxation of Capital Income

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobs (Bas); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes optimal linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cycle model of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heteroge- nous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not only labor income but also capital

  12. Net foreign asset (com)position : Does financial development matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Robert; de Haan, Jakob

    We investigate the relationship between a country's domestic financial development and the (composition of its) net foreign asset position using a pooled mean group estimator and data for 50 countries for the 1970-2007 period. The results show that financial development reduces a country's long-run

  13. Cash flow is cash and is a fact. Net income is just an opinion

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    A company's profit after tax (or net income) is quite an arbitrary figure, obtained after assuming certain accounting hypotheses regarding expenses and revenues. On the other hand, its cash flow is an objective measure, a single figure that is not subject to any personal criterion. In general, to study a company's situation, it is more useful to operate with the cash flow (equity cash flow, free cash flow or capital cash flow) as it is a single figure, while the net income is one of several t...

  14. A Positive and a Normative Theory of Income Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1970-01-01

    textabstractA positive theory of income distribution based on assumptions concerning the supply of and demand for each type of productive service is presented. The demand function of the organizers of production may be derived from the maximization of profits with the income scale and the production

  15. 77 FR 39343 - Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0002] Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0002.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Income-Net Worth and...

  16. 75 FR 56662 - Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0002] Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0002.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Income-Net Worth and...

  17. ANALYSIS OF MARKOV NETWORK WITH INCOMES, POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE MESSAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Naumenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Markov queuing network with income in transient regime is considered. It has positive and negative messages, which can be used in forecasting income of information and telecommunication systems and networks affected by viruses. Investigations are carried out in the cases when incomes from transitions between network states are deterministic functions dependent on states, or they are random variables with given mean values. In the last case it is assumed that all network systems operate in a high load mode. An example is given.

  18. The Potential for Increasing Net Incomes on Limited-Resource Farms in Eastern Kentucky. Research Report 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Fred J.; And Others

    The study identified possibilities for improving farm incomes on limited-resource farms in eastern Kentucky. Objectives were to describe farm operations of full-time Appalachian farmers who had gross sales of less than $5,000 in 1972, estimate potential increases in net farm incomes from given resources, and identify nonresource constraints on…

  19. Does a higher income have positive health effects? Using the earned income tax credit to explore the income-health gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrimore, Jeff

    2011-12-01

    The existence of a positive relationship between income and morbidity has been well documented in the literature. But it is unclear whether the relationship is positive because increased income allows individuals to purchase more health inputs that improve their health, because healthy individuals are more productive and thus can earn higher wages in the labor market, or because a third factor is improving health and increasing income. This article explores whether increases in income improve the health of the low-income population. Because health status may affect income, this article uses an "instrumental variable" strategy that considers income variations over seventeen years of changes in the generosity of state and federal Earned Income Tax Credits (EITC, a measure that should be exogenous to health status). I measured health status using both the self-reported health status and the functional limitations indicated on the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), as well as the self-reported health status indicated on the March Current Population Survey (CPS). I found only limited support for the theory that the relationship between income and morbidity is derived from shifts in income. Although I did observe a correlation between income and self-reported health, I found no evidence that increases in income significantly improve self-reported health statuses. In addition, while increases in income appear to reduce the prevalence of hearing limitations when using corrective measures, these increases did not have a significant effect on most of the other functional limitations considered here. These findings suggest that the ability to improve short-term health outcomes through public transfer payments may be limited. However, the lifetime effects on the health of people with higher incomes would still be a valuable avenue for future research. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  20. Does a Higher Income Have Positive Health Effects? Using the Earned Income Tax Credit to Explore the Income-Health Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrimore, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Context The existence of a positive relationship between income and morbidity has been well documented in the literature. But it is unclear whether the relationship is positive because increased income allows individuals to purchase more health inputs that improve their health, because healthy individuals are more productive and thus can earn higher wages in the labor market, or because a third factor is improving health and increasing income. This article explores whether increases in income improve the health of the low-income population. Methods Because health status may affect income, this article uses an “instrumental variable” strategy that considers income variations over seventeen years of changes in the generosity of state and federal Earned Income Tax Credits (EITC, a measure that should be exogenous to health status). I measured health status using both the self-reported health status and the functional limitations indicated on the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), as well as the self-reported health status indicated on the March Current Population Survey (CPS). Findings I found only limited support for the theory that the relationship between income and morbidity is derived from shifts in income. Although I did observe a correlation between income and self-reported health, I found no evidence that increases in income significantly improve self-reported health statuses. In addition, while increases in income appear to reduce the prevalence of hearing limitations when using corrective measures, these increases did not have a significant effect on most of the other functional limitations considered here. Conclusions These findings suggest that the ability to improve short-term health outcomes through public transfer payments may be limited. However, the lifetime effects on the health of people with higher incomes would still be a valuable avenue for future research. PMID:22188352

  1. The incidence of Clostridioides difficile and Clostridium perfringens netF-positive strains in diarrheic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Amanda Nadia; Coura, Fernanda Morcatti; Rupnik, Maja; Adams, Vicki; Stent, Thomas L; Rood, Julian I; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria; Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of Clostridioides (previously Clostridium) difficile and Clostridium perfringens in the feces of diarrheic and non-diarrheic dogs. Also, the presence of other common canine enteropathogens was examined. Toxigenic C. difficile and C. perfringens positive for the NetF-encoding gene (netF) were detected in 11 (11.9%) and seven (7.6%) diarrheic dogs, respectively. Three dogs were diagnosed simultaneously with toxigenic C. difficile and netF-positive C. perfringens. Among other enteropathogens, Giardia sp. was the most common agent detected in dogs positive for toxigenic C. difficile or netF-positive C. perfringens. The results suggest that C. difficile and C. perfringens occur more frequently as a primary cause of diarrhea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 31 CFR 356.13 - When must I report my net long position and how do I calculate it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I report my net long position and how do I calculate it? 356.13 Section 356.13 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... net long position and how do I calculate it? (a) Net long position reporting threshold. (1) If you are...

  3. APROACHING THE ECONOMIC DIMENSION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FROM A FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE: A CASE STUDY REGARDING CASH - FLOW ANALYSIS AND THE RELATIONSIPS BETWEEN CASH - FLOW AND NET INCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elena Vasiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Europe 2020, a strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth stresses the necessity of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The objectives of a sustainable economic development include sustaining economic growth, maximizing private profits and expanding markets. Considering this, economic development must based on facts, not on papers. Therefore, considering the economic dimension of sustainable development, it is important to establish if Romanian companies listed and traded on Bucharest Stock Exchange are able to obtain profit while cash is withdrawn. Even if reported in the income statement, net profit is not simultaneously charged due to accrual accounting that makes the balance sheet provide a static picture of the financial position, while the cash flow statement provides a dynamic picture of it. Therefore, the financial performance analysis based on classical indicators of performance must be accompanied by the analysis of treasury, namely of the cash flow, which provides a comprehensive assessment possibility of the financial performance, flexibility and adaptability of the economic entity, in the context of a highly competitive and often unstable environment. A positive net flows is a confirmation of the economic success of the company representing the concrete expression of the net profit and other pecuniary accumulations, interpreted as the real self-financing investment capacity, which would lead to the real asset growth and thus to the increase of the owners' wealth.

  4. Positive Reading Attitudes of Low-Income Bilingual Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussert-webb, Kathy M.; Zhang, Zhidong

    2018-01-01

    Many assume low-income, emergent bilingual Latinos have poor reading attitudes. To investigate this issue, we surveyed 1,503 Texas public high school students through stratified cluster sampling to determine their reading attitudes. Most represented Latinos and mixed-race Latinos/Whites who heard Spanish at home and whose mother tongue was…

  5. MANA YANG LEBIH MEMILIKI VALUE-RELEVANT: NET INCOME ATAU CASH FLOWS (Studi Terhadap Siklus Hidup Organisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juniarti Juniarti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to examine the relative value-relevant of net income and cash flow measures in different life cycle stages. Corporate life cycle consists of four stages: start up, growth, mature, and decline stage. Firms in different life cycle stages have different characteristics, and therefore in each life cycle stages the usefulness of accounting measures also different. Net incomes are predicted to be more value relevant in mature stages, while cash flows are expected to be more value relevant in stages characterized by start up, growth, and decline stages. The results prove that in the growth stage, the analysis supports the hypothesis that cash flows are more value relevant than net income. However, in the mature stage, the analysis results reject the hypothesis. This research do not analyze for the start up stage and decline stage, because of the limitation of the sample data. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji manakah yang lebih memiliki value-relevant pengukuran laba atau arus kas pada masing-masing siklus hidup perusahaan. Siklus hidup perusahaan umumnya terbagi dalam tahap start-up, growth, mature dan decline. Karakteristik perusahaan berbeda untuk setiap tahap siklus hidup tersebut, karena itu kegunaan pengukuran akuntansi juga akan berbeda. Laba diperkirakan lebih memiliki value-relevant pada tahap mature, sementara arus kas diekspektasikan lebih memiliki value-relevant ketika perusahaan berada pada tahap start-up, growth dan decline. Penelitian ini membuktikan bahwa pada tahap growth, hasil pengujian yang dilakukan mendukung hipotesis bahwa cash flow lebih memiliki value relevant dibanding laba. Tetapi, untuk tahap mature, hipotesis yang diajukan tidak berhasil dibuktikan. Penelitian ini tidak dapat melakukan pengujian untuk tahap start-up dan decline, dikarenakan data sampel untuk kedua tahap tersebut tidak mencukupi untuk dilakukan pengujian. Kata kunci: siklus hidup organisasi, value

  6. “THE NET MONETARY STATEMENT” AND “THE NET NON-MONETARY STATEMENT” – ASSESSMENT INDICATORS FOR THE FINANCIAL POSITION OF THE ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN-CONSTANTIN DEACONU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines two indicators, namely the net monetary statement and the net non-monetary statement. To determine and analyze them, we started with the classification of assets (monetary and non-monetary and liabilities (monetary and nonmonetary. The actual values of these elements were established on the basis of information supplied by the balance sheet, followed by the calculus of the net monetary statement and of the net non-monetary statement. These indicators provide relevant and reliable information to the users of financial statements and, in the future, they should be taken into account because they bring additional information about the financial position of the entity.

  7. Millennial Learners and Net-Savvy Teens? Examining Internet Use among Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhow, Christine; Walker, J. D.; Kim, Seongdok

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses access and use of information and communication technologies among urban high school students from low-income families, a topic of great interest to teacher educators, educational policymakers, and others concerned with digital literacy instruction. Recent reports from national digital learning initiatives have portrayed…

  8. Analysis of Life Insurance Premium in Regard to Net Income as an Influencing Factor– the Case of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olja Munitlak Ivanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In current business conditions, insurance market in the Republic of Serbia notes positive but relatively slow growing trend. During the last few years, life insurance market in Serbia has an upward trend, however, it still significantly falls back in comparison to developed European countries. Insufficient development of life insurance sector is in direct relation to insufficient economic development, weak financial market, high unemployment rate and poor implementation of economic reforms. Additionally there is a problem due to the lack of both quality and quantity of education with insufficient basic knowledge of potentials that this type of insurance offers. The aim of this paper is to present the projection of life insurance premium on the basis of linear trend parameters and correlation degree between average net income and the amount of life insurance premium and to emphasize the necessity of intense development of life insurance market. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  9. Underwater acoustic positioning system for the SMO and KM3NeT - Italia projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viola, S.; Barbagallo, G.; Cacopardo, G.; Calí, C.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D' Amato, C.; D' Amato, V.; D' Amico, A.; De Luca, V.; Del Tevere, F.; Distefano, C.; Ferrera, F.; Gmerk, A.; Grasso, R.; Imbesi, M.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via Santa Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); and others

    2014-11-18

    In the underwater neutrino telescopes, the positions of the Cherenkov light sensors and their movements must be known with an accuracy of few tens of centimetres. In this work, the activities of the SMO and KM3NeT-Italia teams for the development of an acoustic positioning system for KM3NeT-Italia project are presented. The KM3NeT-Italia project foresees the construction, within two years, of 8 towers in the view of the several km{sup 3}-scale neutrino telescope KM3NeT.

  10. Underwater acoustic positioning system for the SMO and KM3NeT - Italia projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, S.; Barbagallo, G.; Cacopardo, G.; Calí, C.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amato, V.; D'Amico, A.; De Luca, V.; Del Tevere, F.; Distefano, C.; Ferrera, F.; Gmerk, A.; Grasso, R.; Imbesi, M.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.

    2014-01-01

    In the underwater neutrino telescopes, the positions of the Cherenkov light sensors and their movements must be known with an accuracy of few tens of centimetres. In this work, the activities of the SMO and KM3NeT-Italia teams for the development of an acoustic positioning system for KM3NeT-Italia project are presented. The KM3NeT-Italia project foresees the construction, within two years, of 8 towers in the view of the several km 3 -scale neutrino telescope KM3NeT

  11. Design and Evaluation of a Net Zero Energy Low-Income Residential Housing Development in Lafayette, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; VanGeet, O.; Simkus, S.; Eastment, M.

    2012-03-01

    This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra low energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. Affordable housing development authorities throughout the United States continually struggle to find the most cost-effective pathway to provide quality, durable, and sustainable housing. The challenge for these authorities is to achieve the mission of delivering affordable housing at the lowest cost per square foot in environments that may be rural, urban, suburban, or within a designated redevelopment district. With the challenges the U.S. faces regarding energy, the environmental impacts of consumer use of fossil fuels and the increased focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, housing authorities are pursuing the goal of constructing affordable, energy efficient and sustainable housing at the lowest life-cycle cost of ownership. This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra-low-energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. In addition to describing the results of the performance monitoring from the pilot project, this paper describes the recommended design process of (1) setting performance goals for energy efficiency and renewable energy on a life-cycle cost basis, (2) using an integrated, whole building design approach, and (3) incorporating systems-built housing, a green jobs training program, and renewable energy technologies into a replicable high performance, low-income housing project development model.

  12. Financial Position and House Price Determination : An Empirical Study of Income and Wealth Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegmans, J.W.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377458708; Hassink, W.H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090437411

    This paper examines the effect of the relative financial position of buyers and sellers on house prices, distinguishing between income and wealth effects. Using administrative data from the Netherlands (2006–2010) that combine transaction data, house characteristics, and household characteristics of

  13. Relation Between Intelligence and Family Size, Position, and Income in Adolescent Girls in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Habab; Alahmadi, Maryam; Bakhiet, Salaheldin; Lynn, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Data are reported showing statistically significant negative correlations between intelligence and family size, position, and income in a sample of 604 adolescent girls in Saudi Arabia. There were no statistically significant correlations or associations between whether the mother or father were deceased or both parents were alive, and whether the parents were living together or were divorced. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Position calibration for the future KM3NeT detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motz, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Deep-sea neutrino telescopes consist of an array of photomultipliers to detect Cherenkov light emitted by neutrino-induced muons and particle showers in the surrounding sea water, allowing for reconstruction of the neutrino direction from position and timing of the Cherenkov photons. Since the photomultipliers are in most cases mounted on flexible structures, e.g. lines, and move with the sea current, a positioning system is required to determine the precise location of each sensor. The positioning system of the ANTARES neutrino telescope is based on acoustic triangulation using hydrophones mounted along the lines in combination with tiltmeters and compasses and provides centimetre precision alignment. For the future KM3NeT detector an Optical Module with integrated Piezo sensors for position calibration is proposed as a cost-effective solution. The performance of this system is tested with several sensors of the AMADEUS project, which is integrated in ANTARES to study the background for acoustic detection of highest energy neutrinos.

  15. Development of an acoustic transceiver for the KM3NeT positioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larosa, G., E-mail: giula@doctor.upv.es [Universitat Politèctnica de València, Institut d’Investigació per a la Gestiò Integrada de Zones Costaneres (IGIC), C/Paranimf 1, 46730 Gandia, València (Spain); Ardid, M.; Llorens, C.D.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Adrián-Martínez, S. [Universitat Politèctnica de València, Institut d’Investigació per a la Gestiò Integrada de Zones Costaneres (IGIC), C/Paranimf 1, 46730 Gandia, València (Spain)

    2013-10-11

    In this paper we describe an acoustic transceiver developed for the KM3NeT positioning system. The acoustic transceiver is composed of a commercial free flooded transducer, which works mainly in the 20–40 kHz frequency range and withstands high pressures (up to 500 bars). A sound emission board was developed that is adapted to the characteristics of the transducer and meets all requirements: low power consumption, high intensity of emission, low intrinsic noise, arbitrary signals for emission and the capacity of acquiring the receiving signals with very good timing precision. The results of the different tests made with the transceiver in the laboratory and shallow sea water are described, as well as, the activities for its integration in the Instrumentation Line of the ANTARES neutrino telescope and in a NEMO tower for the in situ tests.

  16. Income inequality and status seeking: searching for positional goods in unequal U.S. States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walasek, Lukasz; Brown, Gordon D A

    2015-04-01

    It is well established that income inequality is associated with lower societal well-being, but the psychosocial causes of this relationship are poorly understood. A social-rank hypothesis predicts that members of unequal societies are likely to devote more of their resources to status-seeking behaviors such as acquiring positional goods. We used Google Correlate to find search terms that correlated with our measure of income inequality, and we controlled for income and other socioeconomic factors. We found that of the 40 search terms used more frequently in states with greater income inequality, more than 70% were classified as referring to status goods (e.g., designer brands, expensive jewelry, and luxury clothing). In contrast, 0% of the 40 search terms used more frequently in states with less income inequality were classified as referring to status goods. Finally, we showed how residual-based analysis offers a new methodology for using Google Correlate to provide insights into societal attitudes and motivations while avoiding confounds and high risks of spurious correlations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Do Electrochemiluminescence Assays Improve Prediction of Time to Type 1 Diabetes in Autoantibody-Positive TrialNet Subjects?

    OpenAIRE

    Fouts, Alexandra; Pyle, Laura; Yu, Liping; Miao, Dongmei; Michels, Aaron; Krischer, Jeffrey; Sosenko, Jay; Gottlieb, Peter; Steck, Andrea K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore whether electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assays can help improve prediction of time to type 1 diabetes in the TrialNet autoantibody-positive population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS TrialNet subjects who were positive for one or more autoantibodies (microinsulin autoantibody, GAD65 autoantibody [GADA], IA-2A, and ZnT8A) with available ECL-insulin autoantibody (IAA) and ECL-GADA data at their initial visit were analyzed; after a median follow-up of 24 months, 177 of these 1,2...

  18. R&D for an innovative acoustic positioning system for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameli, F.; Ardid, M.; Bertin, V.; Bonori, M.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Calì, C.; D'Amico, A.; Giovanetti, G.; Imbesi, M.; Keller, P.; Larosa, G.; Llorens, C. D.; Masullo, R.; Randazzo, N.; Riccobene, G.; Speziale, F.; Viola, S.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2011-01-01

    An innovative Acoustic Positioning System for the km3-scale neutrino telescope has been designed and is under realization within the KM3NeT Consortium. Compared to the Acoustic Positioning Systems used for the km3 demonstrators, ANTARES and NEMO Phase 1, this new system is based on the “all data to shore” concept and it will permit the enhancement of detector positioning performances, reduction of costs and its use as real-time monitor of environmental acoustic noise.

  19. Green Schoolyards in Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods: Natural Spaces for Positive Youth Development Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn R. Bates

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Children from low-income families are increasingly growing up in urban areas with limited access to nature. In these environments, strategies that promote access to natural outdoor spaces, such as green schoolyards, may enhance positive youth development outcomes by promoting physical activity (PA and prosocial behavior, as well as increasing perceptions of safety. The current study examines children’s PA and social interactions, as well as caregiver and teacher perceptions of safety, injuries, teasing/bullying, and gang activity on three newly renovated green schoolyards in low-income urban neighborhoods. A multi-method strategy, including behavioral mapping and caregiver- and teacher-reported surveys, was utilized at three time points to examine positive youth development outcomes and maintenance of effects over time. Analyses revealed that children evidenced a range of PA on the green schoolyards and demonstrated significant decreases in sedentary activity over time. The majority of children were engaged in social interactions with peers on the green schoolyards when observed. Less than 3% of interactions were negative and follow-up analyses found significant increases in positive interactions on the green schoolyards up to 24 months post-renovation. Caregivers and teachers reported increased perceptions of safety, fewer injuries, less teasing/bullying, and less gang-related activity on the renovated green schoolyards in comparison to the pre-renovation schoolyards, and these effects were maintained up to 32 months post-renovation. Overall, the study suggests that green schoolyards may promote positive development outcomes among youth living in urban, low-income neighborhoods by providing natural and safe spaces for PA and prosocial behavior.

  20. Mineralizing urban net-zero water treatment: Field experience for energy-positive water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D

    2016-12-01

    An urban net-zero water treatment system, designed for energy-positive water management, 100% recycle of comingled black/grey water to drinking water standards, and mineralization of hormones and other organics, without production of concentrate, was constructed and operated for two years, serving an occupied four-bedroom, four-bath university residence hall apartment. The system comprised septic tank, denitrifying membrane bioreactor (MBR), iron-mediated aeration (IMA) reactor, vacuum ultrafilter, and peroxone or UV/H 2 O 2 advanced oxidation, with 14% rainwater make-up and concomitant discharge of 14% of treated water (ultimately for reuse in irrigation). Chemical oxygen demand was reduced to 12.9 ± 3.7 mg/L by MBR and further decreased to below the detection limit (treatment. The process produced a mineral water meeting 115 of 115 Florida drinking water standards that, after 10 months of recycle operation with ∼14% rainwater make-up, had a total dissolved solids of ∼500 mg/L, pH 7.8 ± 0.4, turbidity 0.12 ± 0.06 NTU, and NO 3 -N concentration 3.0 ± 1.0 mg/L. None of 97 hormones, personal care products, and pharmaceuticals analyzed were detected in the product water. For a typical single-home system with full occupancy, sludge pumping is projected on a 12-24 month cycle. Operational aspects, including disinfection requirements, pH evolution through the process, mineral control, advanced oxidation by-products, and applicability of point-of-use filters, are discussed. A distributed, peroxone-based NZW management system is projected to save more energy than is consumed in treatment, due largely to retention of wastewater thermal energy. Recommendations regarding design and operation are offered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous....... Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...

  2. Mom-net: Evaluation of an internet-facilitated cognitive behavioral intervention for low-income depressed mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeber, Lisa B; Feil, Edward G; Seeley, John R; Leve, Craig; Gau, Jeff M; Davis, Betsy; Sorensen, Erik; Allan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Evaluate an Internet-facilitated cognitive-behavioral treatment intervention for depression, tailored to economically disadvantaged mothers of young children. Economically disadvantaged mothers (N = 266) of preschool aged children, who reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, were randomized to either the 8-session, Internet-facilitated intervention (Mom-Net) or to Motivational Interviewing and Referral to Services (MIRS). Outcomes were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9; Spitzer et al., 1999), the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR) Axis I Disorders (SCID; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 2002), and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS; Hamilton, 1960). Relative to participants in the MIRS condition, participants in Mom-Net demonstrated significantly greater reduction in depression as indexed by self-report questionnaire (primary outcome), interviewer-rated symptoms, and diagnostic outcomes. Results suggest that the Mom-Net intervention is effective as a remotely delivered intervention for economically disadvantaged mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The positive net radiative greenhouse gas forcing of increasing methane emissions from a thawing boreal forest-wetland landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Manuel; Chasmer, Laura E; Kljun, NatasCha; Quinton, William L; Treat, Claire C; Sonnentag, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    At the southern margin of permafrost in North America, climate change causes widespread permafrost thaw. In boreal lowlands, thawing forested permafrost peat plateaus ('forest') lead to expansion of permafrost-free wetlands ('wetland'). Expanding wetland area with saturated and warmer organic soils is expected to increase landscape methane (CH 4 ) emissions. Here, we quantify the thaw-induced increase in CH 4 emissions for a boreal forest-wetland landscape in the southern Taiga Plains, Canada, and evaluate its impact on net radiative forcing relative to potential long-term net carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) exchange. Using nested wetland and landscape eddy covariance net CH 4 flux measurements in combination with flux footprint modeling, we find that landscape CH 4 emissions increase with increasing wetland-to-forest ratio. Landscape CH 4 emissions are most sensitive to this ratio during peak emission periods, when wetland soils are up to 10 °C warmer than forest soils. The cumulative growing season (May-October) wetland CH 4 emission of ~13 g CH 4  m -2 is the dominating contribution to the landscape CH 4 emission of ~7 g CH 4  m -2 . In contrast, forest contributions to landscape CH 4 emissions appear to be negligible. The rapid wetland expansion of 0.26 ± 0.05% yr -1 in this region causes an estimated growing season increase of 0.034 ± 0.007 g CH 4  m -2  yr -1 in landscape CH 4 emissions. A long-term net CO 2 uptake of >200 g CO 2  m -2  yr -1 is required to offset the positive radiative forcing of increasing CH 4 emissions until the end of the 21st century as indicated by an atmospheric CH 4 and CO 2 concentration model. However, long-term apparent carbon accumulation rates in similar boreal forest-wetland landscapes and eddy covariance landscape net CO 2 flux measurements suggest a long-term net CO 2 uptake between 49 and 157 g CO 2  m -2  yr -1 . Thus, thaw-induced CH 4 emission increases likely exert a positive net radiative greenhouse gas

  4. Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in low and mid income countries: positive gradients among women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdriesz, Jizzo R; Mehmedovic, Selma; Witvliet, Margot I; Kunst, Anton E

    2014-02-06

    In Southern Europe, smoking among older women was more prevalent among the high educated than the lower educated, we call this a positive gradient. This is dominant in the early stages of the smoking epidemic model, later replaced by a negative gradient. The aim of this study is to assess if a positive gradient in smoking can also be observed in low and middle income countries in other regions of the world. We used data of the World Health Survey from 49 countries and a total of 233,917 respondents. Multilevel logistic regression was used to model associations between individual level smoking and both individual level and country level determinants. We stratified results by education, occupation, sex and generation (younger vs. older than 45). Countries were grouped based on GDP and region. In Eastern Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean, we observed a positive gradient in smoking among older women and a negative gradient among younger women. In Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America no clear gradient was observed: inequalities were relatively small. In South-East Asia and East Asia a strong negative gradient was observed. Among men, no positive gradients were observed, and like women the strongest negative gradients were seen in South-East Asia and East Asia. A positive socio-economic gradient in smoking was found among older women in two regions, but not among younger women. But contrary to predictions derived from the smoking epidemic model, from a worldwide perspective the positive gradients are the exception rather than the rule.

  5. Do Electrochemiluminescence Assays Improve Prediction of Time to Type 1 Diabetes in Autoantibody-Positive TrialNet Subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouts, Alexandra; Pyle, Laura; Yu, Liping; Miao, Dongmei; Michels, Aaron; Krischer, Jeffrey; Sosenko, Jay; Gottlieb, Peter; Steck, Andrea K

    2016-10-01

    To explore whether electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assays can help improve prediction of time to type 1 diabetes in the TrialNet autoantibody-positive population. TrialNet subjects who were positive for one or more autoantibodies (microinsulin autoantibody, GAD65 autoantibody [GADA], IA-2A, and ZnT8A) with available ECL-insulin autoantibody (IAA) and ECL-GADA data at their initial visit were analyzed; after a median follow-up of 24 months, 177 of these 1,287 subjects developed diabetes. Univariate analyses showed that autoantibodies by radioimmunoassays (RIAs), ECL-IAA, ECL-GADA, age, sex, number of positive autoantibodies, presence of HLA DR3/4-DQ8 genotype, HbA1c, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) measurements were all significantly associated with progression to diabetes. Subjects who were ECL positive had a risk of progression to diabetes within 6 years of 58% compared with 5% for the ECL-negative subjects (P < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were compared, with the base model including age, sex, OGTT measurements, and number of positive autoantibodies by RIAs. The model with positivity for ECL-GADA and/or ECL-IAA was the best, and factors that remained significantly associated with time to diabetes were area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide, fasting C-peptide, AUC glucose, number of positive autoantibodies by RIAs, and ECL positivity. Adding ECL to the Diabetes Prevention Trial risk score (DPTRS) improved the receiver operating characteristic curves with AUC of 0.83 (P < 0.0001). ECL assays improved the ability to predict time to diabetes in these autoantibody-positive relatives at risk for developing diabetes. These findings might be helpful in the design and eligibility criteria for prevention trials in the future. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  6. Energy balance of maize production in Brazil: the energetic constraints of a net positive outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Luis Henrique de Barros; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; Urquiaga, Segundo

    2008-07-01

    Among the factors used to analyze and to establish the sustainability of a whole agricultural production system, the energy balance is one of the most powerful and robust. The maize production in Brazil is surely the reflex of an energy intensive system that demands many field operations and heavy fertilizer applications, notably nitrogen in urea form. This work presents an energy balance of this major crop adjusted to the Brazilian conditions of cultivation. The input components were grouped based on their energy contents, and the possible improvements in the agricultural practices that could improve energy balance and net energy withdrawn from the farming were considered. The replacement of N synthetic fertilizer by biological nitrogen fixation, whether the process is directly carried out by endophytic diazotroph bacteria or by means of a N{sub 2}- fixing legume culture planted before the main crop as a green-manure is also discussed. (author)

  7. Positive muscle protein net balance and differential regulation of atrogene expression after resistance exercise and milk protein supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitelseder, Søren; Agergaard, Jakob; Doessing, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Resistance exercise and amino acid availability are positive regulators of muscle protein net balance (NB). However, anabolic responses to resistance exercise and protein supplementation deserve further elucidation. The purpose was to compare intakes of whey, caseinate (both: 0.30 g/kg lean...... body mass), or a non-caloric control after heavy resistance exercise on protein turnover and mRNA expressions of forkhead homeobox type O (FOXO) isoforms, muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1), and Atrogin1 in young healthy males. Methods Protein turnover was determined by stable isotope-labeled leucine...

  8. Personal Services and Benefits Expenses in The FY 1996 Statement of Operations and Changes in Net Position of the Other Defense Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... Specifically, we reviewed the DoD Chief Financial Officers Other Defense Organizations Statement of Operations and Changes in Net Position for the year ended September 30, 1996, to determine whether...

  9. The Positive Adjustment of Low-Income Youths with Relational and Community Support: The Mediating Role of Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Eddie C. W.; Lam, Jasmine K. M.; Chan, Charles C. H.

    2017-01-01

    Youths living in poverty may experience less developmental support. Although the importance of hope, relational support, and community support for positive adaptation is acknowledged, how they combine to affect psychosocial adjustment is unknown. This study, drawing on 830 low-income youths (11-18 years old) in Hong Kong, provides evidence that…

  10. An Emic, Mixed-Methods Approach to Defining and Measuring Positive Parenting among Low-Income Black Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWayne, Christine M.; Mattis, Jacqueline S.; Green Wright, Linnie E.; Limlingan, Maria Cristina; Harris, Elise

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This within-group exploratory sequential mixed-methods investigation sought to identify how ethnically diverse, urban-residing, low-income Black families conceptualize positive parenting. During the item development phase 119 primary caregivers from Head Start programs participated in focus groups and interviews. These…

  11. Factors Distinguishing Positive Deviance Among Low-Income African American Women: A Qualitative Study on Infant Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Cecilia E; Masho, Saba W; Carlyle, Kellie E; Mosavel, Maghboeba

    2017-05-01

    Positive deviant individuals practice beneficial behaviors in spite of having qualities characterizing them as high risk for unhealthy behaviors. This study aimed to identify and understand factors distinguishing low-income African American women who breastfeed the longest (positive deviants) from those who breastfeed for a shorter duration or do not breastfeed. Seven mini-focus groups on infant-feeding attitudes and experiences were conducted with 25 low-income African American women, grouped by infant-feeding practice. Positive deviants, who had breastfed for 4 months or more, were compared with formula-feeding participants who had only formula fed their babies and short-term breastfeeding participants who had breastfed for 3 months or less. Positive deviant women had more schooling, higher income, breastfeeding intention, positive breastfeeding and unfavorable formula-feeding attitudes, higher self-efficacy, positive hospital and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children experiences, more exclusive breastfeeding, and greater comfort breastfeeding in public. Short-term breastfeeding women varied in breastfeeding intention and self-efficacy, seemed to receive insufficient professional breastfeeding support, and supplemented breastfeeding with formula. Some showed ambivalence, concern with unhealthy behaviors, and discomfort with breastfeeding in public. Formula-feeding women intended to formula feed, feared breastfeeding, thought their behaviors were incompatible with breastfeeding, were comfortable with and found formula convenient, and received strong support to formula feed. Tapping into the strengths of positive deviants; tailoring interventions to levels of general and breastfeeding self-efficacy; increasing social, institutional, and community supports; and removing inappropriate formula promotion may offer promising strategies to increase breastfeeding among low-income African American women.

  12. Relationship of in-coming radiation with photosynthetically active, infra-red and net radiations in Brassica species and rocket salad (Eruca sativa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandwal, A.S.; Kuhad, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Marked variation was observed among genotypes when the data for in-coming solar radiation were monitored horizontally. The regression equation for in-coming solar radiation versus photosynthetically active radiation and incoming solar radiation versus in-coming infra red radiation indicated linear relationship

  13. 17 CFR 210.3-02 - Consolidated statements of income and changes in financial positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-02 Consolidated statements of income and changes... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consolidated statements of... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES...

  14. Design and first tests of an acoustic positioning and detection system for KM3NeT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, F.; Ameli, F.; Ardid, M.; Bertin, V.; Bonori, M.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Calì, C.; D'Amico, A.; Giovanetti, G.; Imbesi, M.; Keller, P.; Larosa, G.; Llorens, C. D.; Masullo, R.; Randazzo, N.; Riccobene, G.; Speziale, F.; Viola, S.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2012-01-01

    In a deep-sea neutrino telescope it is mandatory to locate the position of the optical sensors with a precision of about 10 cm. To achieve this requirement, an innovative Acoustic Positioning System (APS) has been designed in the frame work of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope. The system will also be able to provide an acoustic guide during the deployment of the telescope’s components and seafloor infrastructures (junction boxes, cables, etc.). A prototype of the system based on the successful acoustic systems of ANTARES and NEMO is being developed. It will consist of an array of hydrophones and a network of acoustic transceivers forming the Long Baseline. All sensors are connected to the telescope data acquisition system and are in phase and synchronised with the telescope master clock. Data from the acoustic sensors, continuously sampled at 192 kHz, will be sent to shore where signal recognition and analysis will be carried out. The design and first tests of the system elements will be presented. This new APS is expected to have better precision compared to the systems used in ANTARES and NEMO, and can also be used as a real-time monitor of acoustic sources and environmental noise in deep sea.

  15. SDH-NET: a South-North-South collaboration to build sustainable research capacities on social determinants of health in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash-Gibson, Lucinda; Guerra, German; Salgado-de-Snyder, V Nelly

    2015-10-22

    It is desirable that health researchers have the ability to conduct research on health equity and contribute to the development of their national health system and policymaking processes. However, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is a limited capacity to conduct this type of research due to reasons mostly associated with the status of national (health) research systems. Building sustainable research capacity in LMICs through the triangulation of South-North-South (S-N-S) collaborative networks seems to be an effective way to maximize limited national resources to strengthen these capacities. This article describes how a collaborative project (SDH-Net), funded by the European Commission, has successfully designed a study protocol and a S-N-S collaborative network to effectively support research capacity building in LMICs, specifically in the area of social determinants of health (SDH); this project seeks to elaborate on the vital role of global collaborative networks in strengthening this practice. The implementation of SDH-Net comprised diverse activities developed in three phases. Phase 1: national level mapping exercises were conducted to assess the needs for SDH capacity building or strengthening in local research systems. Four strategic areas were defined, namely research implementation and system performance, social appropriation of knowledge, institutional and national research infrastructure, and research skills and training/networks. Phase 2: development of tools to address the identified capacity building needs, as well as knowledge management and network strengthening activities. Phase 3: identifying lessons learned in terms of research ethics, and how policies can support the capacity building process in SDH research. The implementation of the protocol has led the network to design innovative tools for strengthening SDH research capacities, under a successful S-N-S collaboration that included national mapping reports, a global open

  16. Understanding the relation between socioeconomic position and inflammation in post-menopausal women: education, income and occupational prestige.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; De Roos, Anneclaire; Garcia, Lorena; Lund, Rikke; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Kroenke, Candyce; Chan, Kei Hang Katie; Liu, Simin; Michael, Yvonne

    2017-12-01

    The role of occupational prestige, a direct measure of the perceived status of job and job holder, in inflammation is unknown. To contribute to understanding the pathways by which socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with inflammation, we aimed to estimate the direct effects of education, income and occupational prestige on C-reactive protein (CRP) and to describe the relationship between these markers and CRP. The study was based on 2026 post-menopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative-Observational Study. Occupational prestige was determined by linking a text description of longest held occupation with a social status item from the Occupational Information Network. Path analysis was employed to estimate direct and mediated effects. The study suggests that higher levels of education, income, and occupational prestige are associated with 8% (95% CI as percentage change -12, -4), 5% [95% CI (-8, -2) and 4% (95% CI - 7, -1)] lower levels of CRP, respectively. The inverse association between education and CRP was explained by the effect of education on income and occupational prestige. The effect of occupational prestige on CRP was independent of mediators in the model. The findings indicate that education may work to influence CRP primarily through increasing income and occupational prestige and provides evidence that occupational prestige captures a unique aspect of SEP. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Healthy eating behaviors and the cognitive environment are positively associated in low-income households with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Joy Rickman; Whaley, Shannon E

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine relationships between eating behaviors and the cognitive environment in primarily Hispanic low-income households with young children receiving WIC benefits in Los Angeles County. Survey data were collected from 3645 low-income families with children age 12-65 mo in Los Angeles County. Eating behaviors were measured through questions about fruit, vegetable, milk, soft drink, and fast food intake. The cognitive environment was evaluated through questions on the home literacy environment (HLE), reading frequency, and preschool enrollment. All healthy eating behaviors measured were significantly and positively associated with reading frequency and HLE scores after adjustment for confounders. HLE and reading frequency scores were 18% and 14% higher, respectively, in children eating two or more servings of fruit per day and 12% and 9% higher, respectively, in children eating three or more servings of vegetables per day. Preschool enrollment was not significantly associated with any eating behavior. Outcomes varied by language-ethnic groups and child sex. Results suggest that healthy eating behaviors are positively associated with stronger cognitive environments in low-income Hispanic families with young children. Interventions to prevent childhood obesity in this group may therefore benefit from including a home literacy component. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to treat respiratory distress in newborns in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewez, Juan Emmanuel; van den Broek, Nynke

    2017-01-01

    Severe respiratory distress is a serious complication common to the three major causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity (prematurity, intra-partum-related hypoxia and infections). In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), 20% of babies presenting with severe respiratory distress die.Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), is an effective intervention for respiratory distress in newborns and widely used in high-income countries. Following the development of simple, safe and relatively inexpensive CPAP devices, there is potential for large-scale implementation in the developing world.In this article, we describe existing CPAP systems and present a review of the current literature examining the effectiveness of CPAP compared to standard care (oxygen) in newborns with respiratory distress. We also discuss the evidence gap which needs to be addressed prior to its integration into health systems in LMICs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Income and expenditure in private dental clinics in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Tsuneishi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Although national dental care expenditure has not changed, the number of dental clinics has increased. Mass media has been reporting on the financial difficulties of dental clinics. To address this issue, we reviewed articles that showed the distribution and changes in net income, that is, total expenses subtracted from total income, of private dental clinics in Japan using data from a survey conducted by the Japan Dental Association. We also reviewed articles analyzing the factors relating to the net income. The results of the articles showed that distribution of net income has become positively skewed, with the mean dragged to the right by a few high scores. This means that the median is more appropriate than the mean as a measure of central tendency of net income. Factors relating to net income of private dental clinics have changed: private dental clinics that were opened after 1989 (new and had dental hygienists, who may conduct dental maintenance, had high net income, suggesting that they are well-managed or having a different type of patient mix in recent years. These analyses provide important and useful information for not only better management of private dental clinics but also policy-making in dental health care.

  20. Positive Impacts of a Vegetable Cooking Skills Program among Low-Income Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overcash, Francine; Ritter, Allison; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Redden, Joseph; Rendahl, Aaron; Vickers, Zata; Reicks, Marla

    2017-12-12

    To evaluate the impact of a vegetable-focused cooking skills and nutrition program on parent and child psychosocial measures, vegetable liking, variety, and home availability. Baseline and postcourse surveys collected 1-week after the course. Low-income communities in Minneapolis-St Paul. Parent-child dyads (n = 89; one third each Hispanic, African American, and white) with complete pre-post course data; flyer and e-mail recruitment. Six 2-hour-weekly sessions including demonstration, food preparation, nutrition education lessons, and a meal. Parental cooking confidence and barriers, food preparation/resource management, child self-efficacy and cooking attitudes, vegetable liking, vegetable variety, and vegetable home availability. Pre-post changes analyzed with paired t test or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results were significant at P cooking confidence (4.0 to 4.4/5.0), healthy food preparation (3.6 to 3.9/5.0), child self-efficacy (14.8 to 12.4; lower score = greater self-efficacy), parent liking of vegetables used in the course (7.8 to 8.1/10.0), vegetable variety (30 to 32/37 for parent, 22 to 24/37 for child), and home vegetable availability (16 to 18/35) (all P cooking and nutrition program for parents and children showed improvements in psychosocial factors, vegetable liking, variety, and home availability. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Improving positive parenting skills and reducing harsh and abusive parenting in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knerr, Wendy; Gardner, Frances; Cluver, Lucie

    2013-08-01

    Family and youth violence are increasingly recognized as key public health issues in developing countries. Parenting interventions form an important evidence-based strategy for preventing violence, both against and by children, yet most rigorous trials of parenting interventions have been conducted in high-income countries, with far fewer in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This systematic review, conducted in line with Cochrane Handbook guidelines, investigated the effectiveness of parenting interventions for reducing harsh/abusive parenting, increasing positive parenting practices, and improving parent-child relationships in LMICs. Attitudes and knowledge were examined as secondary outcomes. A range of databases were systematically searched, and randomized trials included. High heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis, but characteristics of included studies were described according to type of delivery mode and outcome. Twelve studies with 1580 parents in nine countries reported results favoring intervention on a range of parenting measures. The validity of results for most studies is unclear due to substantial or unclear risks of bias. However, findings from the two largest, highest-quality trials suggest parenting interventions may be feasible and effective in improving parent-child interaction and parental knowledge in relation to child development in LMICs, and therefore may be instrumental in addressing prevention of child maltreatment in these settings. Given the well-established evidence base for parenting interventions in high-income countries, and increasingly good evidence for their applicability across cultures and countries, there is now an urgent need for more rigorously evaluated and reported studies, focusing on youth outcomes as well as parenting, adapted for contexts of considerable resource constraints.

  2. Observed fearlessness and positive parenting interact to predict childhood callous-unemotional behaviors among low-income boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W

    2017-03-01

    Callous-unemotional behaviors identify children at risk for severe and chronic antisocial behavior. Research is needed to establish pathways from temperament and parenting factors that give rise to callous-unemotional behaviors, including interactions of positive versus harsh parenting with child fearlessness. Multimethod data, including parent reports and observations of parent and child behavior, were drawn from a prospective, longitudinal sample of low-income boys (N = 310) with assessments at 18, 24, and 42 months, and at ages 10-12 years old. Parent-reported callous-unemotional, oppositional, and attention-deficit factors were separable at 42 months. Callous-unemotional behaviors at 42 months predicted callous-unemotional behaviors at ages 10-12, accounting for earlier oppositional and attention-deficit behaviors and self-reported child delinquency at ages 10-12. Observations of fearlessness at 24 months predicted callous-unemotional behaviors at 42 months, but only when parents exhibited low observed levels of positive parenting. The interaction of fearlessness and low positive parenting indirectly predicted callous-unemotional behaviors at 10-12 via callous-unemotional behaviors at 42 months. Early fearlessness interacts with low positive parenting to predict early callous-unemotional behaviors, with lasting effects of this person-by-context interaction on callous-unemotional behaviors into late childhood. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Income inequality and population health: a panel data analysis on 21 developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Torre; Mikko Myrskylä

    2011-01-01

    The relative income-health hypothesis postulates that income distribution is one of the key determinants of population health. The discussion on the age and gender patterns of this association is still open. We test the relative income-health hypothesis using a panel data covering 21 developed countries for over 30 years. We find that net of trends in GDP per head and unobserved period and country factors, income inequality, measured by the Gini index, is strongly and positively associated wi...

  4. Sistema de informação geográfica para mapeamento da renda líquida aplicado no planejamento da agricultura irrigada Algorithm to mapping net income applied in irrigated agriculture planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson A. Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um algoritmo na linguagem computacional MATLAB para aplicações em sistemas de informações geográficas, visando ao mapeamento da renda líquida maximizada de cultivos irrigados. O estudo foi desenvolvido para as culturas do maracujá, da cana-de-açúcar, do abacaxi e do mamão, em área de aproximadamente 2.500 ha, localizada no município de Campos dos Goytacazes, norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os dados de entrada do algoritmo foram informações edafoclimáticas, funções de resposta das culturas à água, dados de localização geográfica da área e índices econômicos referentes ao custo do processo produtivo. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o algoritmo desenvolvido se mostrou eficiente para o mapeamento da renda líquida de cultivos irrigados, sendo capaz de localizar áreas que apresentam maiores retornos econômicos.The objective of this work was to develop an algorithm in MATLAB computational language to be applied in geographical information systems to map net income irrigated crops to plan irrigated agriculture. The study was developed for the crops of passion fruit plant, sugarcane, pineapple and papaya, in an area of approximately 2,500 ha, at Campos dos Goytacazes, located at north of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The algorithm input data were: information about soil, climate, crop water response functions, geographical location and economical cost indexes of the productive process. The results allowed concluding that developed algorithm was efficient to map net income of irrigated crops, been able to locate areas that present larger economical net income.

  5. Adopting the international financial reporting standards: a positive impact on 2004 income and consolidated equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallet, O.

    2005-03-01

    This document provides preliminary information on the quantitative impact of transition to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on AREVA 2004 financial position, in accordance with AMF recommendations regarding financial communications during the transition period.The basis for preparing 2004 information on transition to the IFRS comes from: the International Accounting Standards (IAS)/IFRS, as approved by the European Union. The impact of IAS 32/39 and IFRS 4 will not be recognized in shareholders equity until January 1, 2005; AREVA anticipation of the resolution of technical issues and ongoing projects under discussion by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC). Uncertainty factors on practical methods for applying certain standards and ongoing interpretations by IFRIC and regulatory organizations could impact the exactness of restatements identified at this stage. For all of these reasons, it is conceivable that the opening balance sheet at January 1, 2004, as presented in this document, will not be the balance sheet actually used to establish the consolidated financial statements for 2005. (author)

  6. 20 CFR 404.1085 - Net operating loss deduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1085 Net operating loss deduction. When determining your net earnings from self-employment...

  7. Improving Income Positions of Primary Producers in International Marketing Channels: The Lake Victoria-EU Nile Perch Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kambewa, E.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Tilburg, van A.

    2008-01-01

    Although fair distribution of incomes within marketing channels and systems receives increasing attention in companies¿ corporate social responsibility policies, the marketing literature offers few insights that may be helpful to initiate projects that improve incomes of primary producers in

  8. Comparative effectiveness of immediate antiretroviral therapy versus CD4-based initiation in HIV-positive individuals in high-income countries: observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodi, Sara; Phillips, Andrew; Logan, Roger; Olson, Ashley; Costagliola, Dominique; Abgrall, Sophie; van Sighem, Ard; Reiss, Peter; Miró, José M.; Ferrer, Elena; Justice, Amy; Gandhi, Neel; Bucher, Heiner C.; Furrer, Hansjakob; Moreno, Santiago; Monge, Susana; Touloumi, Giota; Pantazis, Nikos; Sterne, Jonathan; Young, Jessica G.; Meyer, Laurence; Seng, Rémonie; Dabis, Francois; Vandehende, Marie-Anne; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Jarrín, Inma; Jose, Sophie; Sabin, Caroline; Hernán, Miguel A.; Ainsworth, J.; Anderson, J.; Babiker, A.; Delpech, V.; Dunn, D.; Easterbrook, P.; Fisher, M.; Gazzard, B.; Gilson, R.; Gompels, M.; Hill, T.; Johnson, M.; Leen, C.; Orkin, C.; Phillips, A.; Pillay, D.; Porter, K.; Sabin, C.; Walsh, J.; Glabay, A.; Thomas, R.; Jones, K.; Perry, N.; Pullin, A.; Churchill, D.; Bulbeck, S.; Mandalia, S.; Clarke, J.; Munshi, S.; Post, F.; Khan, Y.; Patel, P.; Karim, F.; Duffell, S.; Williams, I.; Dooley, D.; Schwenk, A.; Youle, M.; Lampe, F.; Chaloner, C.; Puradiredja, D. Ismajani; Bansi, L.; Weber, J.; Kemble, C.; Mackie, N.; Winston, A.; Wilson, A.; Bezemer, D. O.; Kesselring, A. M.; van Sighem, A. I.; Smit, C.; Zaheri, S.; Kortmann, W.; Prins, J. M.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Godfried, M. H.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, J. C.; van der Valk, M.; Grijsen, M. L.; Wiersinga, W. J.; Vrouwe, Lieve; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W. L.; Ziekenhuis, Andreas; Veenstra, J.; Lettinga, K. D.; Mulder, J. W.; Lauw, F. N.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Perenboom, R. M.; Bomers, M.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J. P.; Gisolf, E. H.; Schippers, E. F.; van Elzakker, E. P.; Bravenboer, B.; Kootstra, G. J.; Sprenger, H. G.; Doedens, R.; van Assen, S.; Gasthuis, Kennemer; Soetekouw, R.; Kroon, F. P.; van Dissel, J. T.; Arend, S. M.; Jolink, H.; Bauer, M. P.; Weijer, S.; Lowe, S.; Lashof, A. Oude; Posthouwer, D.; Koopmans, P. P.; Warris, A.; van Crevel, R.; Nouwen, J. L.; Nispen, M. H.; Verbon, A.; Hassing, R. J.; Hartwig, N. G.; Ziekenhuis, Maasstad; Pogany, K.; Ziekenhuis, Sint Elisabeth; Juttmann, J. R.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; Mudrikova, T.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Barth, R. E.; Kinderziekenhuis, Wilhelmina; Bont, L. J.; de Ruyter Ziekenhuis, Admiraal; Stegeman, A.; Alleman, M. A.; Bouwhuis, J. W.; Abgrall, S.; Barin, F.; Bentata, M.; Billaud, E.; Boué, F.; Burty, C.; Cabié, A.; de Truchis, P.; Duval, X.; Duvivier, C.; Enel, P.; Fredouille-Heripret, L.; Gasnault, J.; Gaud, C.; Katlama, C.; Khuong, M. A.; Lang, J. M.; Lascaux, A. S.; Launay, O.; Mahamat, A.; Mary-Krause, M.; Meynard, J. L.; Pavie, J.; Pialoux, G.; Pilorgé, F.; Poizot-Martin, I.; Pradier, C.; Reynes, J.; Rouveix, E.; Simon, A.; Tissot-Dupont, H.; Viard, J. P.; Viget, N.; Jacquemet, N.; Costagliola, D.; Grabar, S.; Guiguet, M.; Lanoy, E.; Lièvre, L.; Lacombe, J. M.; Potard, V.; Pitié, G. H.; Bricaire, F.; Herson, S.; Desplanque, N.; Meyohas, M. C.; Picard, O.; Cadranel, J.; Mayaud, C.; Clauvel, J. P.; Decazes, J. M.; Gerard, L.; Molina, J. M.; Lariboisière-Fernand, G. H.; Honoré, P.; Jeantils, V.; Tassi, S.; Mechali, D.; Taverne, B.; Bouvet, E.; Ecobichon, J. L.; Matheron, S.; Picard-Dahan, C.; Yeni, P.; Dupont, C.; Chandemerle, C.; Mortier, E.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Weiss, L.; Tarnier-Cochin, G. H.; Auperin, I.; Gilquin, J.; Roudière, L.; Fior, R.; Delfraissy, J. F.; Goujard, C.; Jung, C.; Vittecoq, D.; Fraisse, P.; Beck-Wirth, G.; Stahl, J. P.; Lecercq, P.; Gourdon, F.; Laurichesse, H.; Fresard, A.; Basse-Normandie, Corevih; Bazin, C.; Verdon, R.; Bourgogne, Corevih; Bretagne, Corevih; Arvieux, C.; Michelet, C.; Goudeau, A.; Maître, M. F.; Hoen, B.; Faller, J. P.; Haute-Normandie, Corevih; Borsa-Lebas, F.; Caron, F.; Daures, J. P.; Lorraine, Corevih; May, T.; Rabaud, C.; Berger, J. L.; Rémy, G.; Arlet-Suau, E.; Cuzin, L.; Massip, P.; Legrand, M. F. Thiercelin; Pontonnier, G.; de Calais, Corevih Nord-Pas; Yasdanpanah, Y.; Dellamonica, P.; Pugliese, P.; Quinsat, D.; Ravaux, I.; Tissot, H.; Delmont, J. P.; Moreau, J.; Gastaut, J. A.; Retornaz, F.; Soubeyrand, J.; Galinier, A.; Ruiz, J. M.; Allegre, T.; Blanc, P. A.; Bonnet, D.; Lepeu, G.; Granet-Brunello, P.; Esterni, J. P.; Cohen-Valensi, R.; Nezri, M.; Chadapaud, S.; Laffeuillade, A.; Raffi, F.; Boibieux, A.; Peyramond, D.; Livrozet, J. M.; Touraine, J. L.; Strobel, M.; Saint-Martin, C. H.; Bissuel, F.; Pradinaud, R.; Sobesky, M.; Martinique, Corevih; Guyon, Félix; Contant, M.; HC, Bucher; CA, Fux; HH, Hirsch; de Tejada B, Martinez; Casabona, J.; Miró, Jose M.; de Barcelona-Idibaps, Clínic; Gallois, A.; Esteve, A.; Podzamczer, D.; Murillas, J.; Gatell, J. M.; Manzardo, C.; Tural, C.; Clotet, B.; Ferrer, E.; Riera, M.; Segura, F.; Navarro, G.; Vilaró, J.; Masabeu, A.; García, I.; Guadarrama, M.; Cifuentes, C.; Dalmau, D.; Agustí, C.; Montoliu, A.; Pérez, I.; Gargoulas, Freyra; Blanco, J. L.; Garcia-Alcaide, F.; Martínez, E.; García-Goez, J. F.; Sirera, G.; Negredo, E.; Miranda, C.; Capitan, M. C.; Saumoy, M.; Imaz, A.; Tiraboschi, J. M.; Murillo, O.; Bolao, F.; Peña, C.; Cabellos, C.; Vila, A.; Sala, M.; Cervantes, M.; Amengual, Jose; Navarro, M.; Barrufet, P.; Molina, J.; Alvaro, M.; Mercadal, J.; Fernández, Juanse; Ospina, Jesús E.; Berenguer, J.; García, F.; Gutiérrez, F.; Labarga, P.; Moreno, S.; Caro-Murillo, A. M.; Sobrino, P.; Jarrín, I.; Sirvent, J. L. Gómez; Rodríguez, P.; Alemán, M. R.; Alonso, M. M.; López, A. M.; Hernández, M. I.; Soriano, V.; Barreiro, P.; Medrano, J.; Rivas, P.; Herrero, D.; Blanco, F.; Vispo, M. E.; Martín, L.; Ramírez, G.; Rubio, R.; Pulido, F.; Moreno, V.; Cepeda, C.; Iribarren, J. A.; Camino, X.; Rodríguez-Arrondo, F.; von Wichmann, M. A.; Pascual, L.; Goenaga, M. A.; Masiá, M.; Ramos, J. M.; Padilla, S.; Sánchez-Hellín, V.; Bernal, E.; Montolio, F.; Peral, Y.; Marañón, Gregorio; López, J. C.; Miralles, P.; Cosín, J.; Sánchez, M.; Gutiérrez, I.; Ramírez, M.; Padilla, B.; Vidal, F.; Veloso, S.; Viladés, C.; López-Dupla, M.; Olona, M.; Vargas, M.; Lacruz, J.; Salavert, M.; Montero, M.; Cuéllar, S.; Sanz, J.; Oteo, J. A.; Blanco, J. R.; Ibarra, V.; Metola, L.; Sanz, M.; Pérez-Martínez, L.; Sola, J.; Uriz, J.; Castiello, J.; Reparaz, J.; Arriaza, M. J.; Irigoyen, C.; Antela, A.; Casado, J. L.; Dronda, F.; Moreno, A.; Pérez, M. J.; López, D.; Gutiérrez, C.; Martí, P.; García, L.; Page, C.; Hernández, J.; Peña, A.; Muñoz, L.; Parra, J.; Viciana, P.; Leal, M.; López-Cortés, L. F.; Mata, R.; Justice, A. C.; Rimland, D.; Jones-Taylor, C.; Oursler, K. A.; Brown, S.; Garrison, S.; Rodriguez-Barradas, M.; Masozera, N.; Goetz, M.; Leaf, D.; Simberkoff, M.; Blumenthal, D.; Leung, J.; Peck, R.; Mattocks, K.; Braithwaite, S.; Cook, R.; Conigliaro, J.; Crothers, K.; Chang, J.; Crystal, S.; Day, N.; Erdos, J.; Freiberg, M.; Kozal, M.; Gerschenson, M.; Good, B.; Gordon, A.; Goulet, J. L.; Hernán, M. A.; Kraemer, K.; Lim, J.; Maisto, S.; O'Connor, P.; Papas, R.; Robins, J. M.; Rinaldo, C.; Roberts, M.; Samet, J.; Tierney, B.; Whittle, J.; Brettle, R.; Fidler, S.; Goldberg, D.; Hawkins, D.; Jaffe, H.; Johnson, A.; McLean, K.; Porter, Kholoud; Ewings, Fiona; Fairbrother, Keith; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Murphy, Brendan; Douglas, G.; Kennedy, N.; Pritchard, J.; Andrady, U.; Gwynedd, Ysbyty; Rajda, N.; Maw, R.; McKernan, S.; Drake, S.; Gilleran, G.; White, D.; Ross, J.; Toomer, S.; Hewart, R.; Wilding, H.; Woodward, R.; Dean, G.; Heald, L.; Horner, P.; Glover, S.; Bansaal, D.; Carne, C.; Browing, M.; Stanley, B.; O'Mahony, C.; Fraser, P.; Hayman, B.; Joshi, U.; Ralph, S.; Wade, A.; Mette, R.; Lalik, J.; Summerfield, H.; El-Dalil, A.; France, A. J.; White, C.; Robertson, R.; Gordon, S.; Lean, C.; Morris, S.; Vithayathil, K.; McLean, L.; Winter, A.; Gale, D.; Jacobs, S.; Tayal, S.; Short, L.; Williams, G.; Minton, J.; Dhar, J.; Nye, F.; DeSouza, C. B.; Isaksen, A.; McDonald, L.; Franca, A.; William, L.; Peters, B.; El, S.; Easterbrook, P. J.; Mazhude, C.; Johnstone, R.; Fakoya, A.; Mchale, J.; Waters, A.; Kegg, S.; Mitchell, S.; Byrne, P.; Rice, P.; Mullaney, S. A.; McCormack, S.; David, D.; Melville, R.; Phillip, K.; Balachandran, T.; Mabey, S.; Sukthankar, A.; Murphy, C.; Wilkins, E.; Ahmad, S.; Cook, James; Haynes, J.; Keynes, Milton; Evans, E.; Ong, E.; Das, R.; Grey, R.; Meaden, J.; Bignell, C.; Loay, D.; Peacock, K.; Eliot, George; Girgis, M. R.; Morgan, B.; Palfreeman, A.; Wilcox, J.; Tobin, J.; Tucker, L.; Saeed, A. M.; Williams, O.; Clwyd, Glan; Lacey, H.; Herman, S.; Kinghorn, D.; Devendra, S. V.; Wither, J.; Dawson, S.; Rowen, D.; Harvey, J.; Chauhan, M.; Kellock, D.; Young, S.; Dannino, S.; Kathir, Y.; Rooney, G.; Currie, J.; Fitzgerald, M.; Devendra, S.; Keane, F.; Booth, G.; Arumainayyagam, J.; Chandramani, S.; Robinson, T.; Curless, E.; Gokhale, R.; Tariq, A.; Luzzi, G.; Fairley, I.; Wallis, F.; Smit, E.; Ward, F.; Loze, B.; Morlat, P.; Bonarek, M.; Bonnet, F.; Nouts, C.; Louis, I.; Reliquet, V.; Sauser, F.; Biron, C.; Mounoury, O.; Hue, H.; Brosseau, D.; Ghosn, J.; Rannou, M. T.; Bergmann, J. F.; Badsi, E.; Rami, A.; Girard, P. M.; Samanon-Bollens, D.; Campa, P.; Tourneur, M.; Desplanques, N.; Jeanblanc, F.; Chiarello, P.; Makhloufi, D.; Herriot, E.; Blanc, A. P.; Allègre, T.; Baillat, V.; Lemoing, V.; de Boever, C. Merle; Tramoni, C.; Sobesky, G.; Abel, S.; Beaujolais, V.; Slama, L.; Fournier, I.; Gerbe, J.; Trepo, C.; Koffi, K.; Miailhes, P.; Thoirain, V.; Brochier, C.; Souala, F.; Ratajczak, M.; Beytoux, J.; Jacomet, C.; Montpied, G.; Olivier, C.; Paré, A.; Lortholary, O.; Dupont, B.; Maignan, A.; Raymond, I.; Leport, C.; Jadand, C.; Jestin, C.; Longuet, P.; Boucherit, S.; Sereni, D.; Lascoux, C.; Prevoteau, F.; Sobel, A.; Levy, Y.; Lelièvre, J. D.; Mondor, H.; Aumaître, H.; Delmas, B.; Saada, M.; Medus, M.; Salmon, D.; Tahi, T.; Yazdanpanah, Y.; Pavel, S.; Marien, M. C.; Dron, C. H.; Beck, C.; Benomar, M.; Muller, E.; Tubiana, R.; Mohand, H. Ait; Touam, F.; Folzer, A.; Obadia, M.; Prudhomme, L.; Bonnet, E.; Balzarin, F.; Pichard, E.; Chennebault, J. M.; Fialaire, P.; Loison, J.; Galanaud, P.; Bornarel, D.; Six, M.; Ferret, P.; Batisse, D.; Devidas, A.; Chevojon, P.; Turpault, I.; Philip, G.; Morel, P.; Timsit, J.; Amirat, N.; Cabane, J.; Tredup, J.; Chavanet, C.; Buisson, M.; Treuvetot, S.; Choutet, P.; Bastides, F.; Boyer, L.; Wassoumbou, S.; Oksenhendeler, E.; Gérard, L.; Bernard, L.; Berthé, H.; Poincaré, R.; Domart, Y.; Merrien, D.; Belan, A. Greder; Mignot, A.; Gayraud, M.; Bodard, L.; Meudec, A.; Pape, E.; Vinceneux, P.; Simonpoli, A. M.; Zeng, A.; Mourier, L.; Fournier, L.; Jacquet, M.; Fuzibet, J. G.; Sohn, C.; Rosenthal, E.; Quaranta, M.; Sabah, M.; Audhuy, B.; Schieber, A.; Pasteur, L.; Moreau, P.; Vaillant, O.; Huchon, G.; Compagnucci, A.; de Lacroix Szmania, I.; Lamaury, I.; Saint-Dizier, F.; Garipuy, D.; Drogoul, M. P.; Martin, I. Poizot; Fabre, G.; Lambert, G.; Lagarde, P.; David, F.; Roche-Sicot, J.; Saraux, J. L.; Leprêtre, A.; Veil, S.; Fampin, B.; Uludag, A.; Morin, A. S.; Bletry, O.; Zucman, D.; Regnier, A.; Girard, J. J.; Quinsat, D. T.; Heripret, L.; Grihon, F.; Houlbert, D.; Ruel, M.; Chemlal, K.; Debab, Y.; Nicolle, C.; Perronne, V.; Quesnay, F.; Slama, B.; Duffaut, H.; Perré, P.; Miodovski, C.; Guermonprez, G.; Dulioust, A.; Ballanger, R.; Patey, O.; Semaille, C.; Deville, J.; Beclere, Antoine; Boue, F.; Chambrin, V.; Pignon, C.; Estocq, G. A.; Levy, A.; Bicetre, Le Kremlin; Duracinsky, M.; Bras, P. Le; Ngussan, M. S.; Lambert, T.; Segeral, O.; Lezeau, P.; Laurian, Y.; Piketty, C.; Karmochkine, M.; Eliaszewitch, M.; Jayle, D.; Tisne, D.; Colasante, U.; Vilde, J. L.; Bollens, D.; Binet, D.; Diallo, B.; Lagneau, J. L.; Pietrie, M. P.; Sicard, D.; Stieltjes, N.; Michot, J.; Bourdillon, F.; Obenga, G.; Escaut, L.; Bolliot, C.; Schneider, L.; Iguertsira, M.; Stein, A.; Tomei, C.; Dhiver, C.; Gallais, J.; Gallais, H.; Durant, J.; Mondain, V.; Perbost, I.; Cassuto, J. P.; Karsenti, J. M.; Ceppi, C.; Krivitsky, J. A.; Honore, P.; Delgado, J.; Rouzioux, C.; Burgard, M.; Boufassa, L.; Peynet, J.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Schiaffino, A.; Monge, D. Alvarez S.; Pujol, I.; Muga, R.; Sanvisens, A.; Tor, J.; Rivas, I.; Vallecillo, G.; del Romero, J.; Raposo, P.; Rodríguez, C.; Vera, M.; Alastrue, E. Fernandez I.; Tasa, C. Santos T.; Juan, A.; Trullen, J.; de Olalla, P. Garcia; Cayla, J.; Sambeat, M. A.; Guerrero, R.; Rivera, E.; Marco, A.; Quintana, M.; Gonzalez, C.; Castilla, J.; Guevara, M.; de Mendoza, C.; Zahonero, N.; Ortíz, M.; G, Daikos; T, Kordossis; G, Panos; H, Sambatakou; M, Chini; Nelson, M.; Asboe, D.; Man, S.-L.; Smith, C.; Grabowska, H.; Gras, L. A. J.; Branger, J.; Scherpbier, H. J.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; van der Poll, T.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Lange, J. M. A.; Geerlings, S. E.; van Vugt, M.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Schouten, W. E. M.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D. W. M.; Claessen, F. A. P.; Peters, E. J. G.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; Leyten, E. M. S.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; Ziekenhuis, Catharina; Pronk, M. J. H.; Delsing, C. E.; Scholvinck, E. H.; Bierman, W. F. W.; ten Kate, R. W.; de Boer, M. G. J.; ter Vollaard, H. J. M.; Zuiderzee, M. C.; Schreij, G.; Keuter, M.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; ter Hofstede, H. J. M.; Dofferhoff, A. S. M.; van der Ende, M. E.; de Vries-Sluijs, T. E. M. S.; Schurink, C. A. M.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Smeulders, A. W. M.; den Hollander, J. G.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Schneider, M. M. E.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.; Arends, J. E.; Wassenberg, M. W. M.; Geelen, S. P. M.; Wolfs, T. F. W.; Cotte, L.; Tattevin, P.; Selinger-Leneman, H.; Diemer, M.; Sellier, P.; Crickx, B.; Lesprit, Ph; Rey, D.; Lucht, F.; Chavanet, P.; Eglinger, P.; Aleksandrowicz, K.; Pelissier, L.; Aubert, V.; Barth, J.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Cavassini, M.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fehr, J.; Fellay, J.; Furrer, H.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Hasse, B.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Metzner, K.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Tarr, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Yerly, S.; Force, L.; Mallolas, J.; López-Dieguez, M.; Romeu, J.; Jou, A.; Masó, M.; Bejarano, G.; del Amo, J.; Muñoz, M. A.; Arrizabalaga, A. J.; Aramburu, M. J.; Escolano, C.; Sanjuan, M.; Peraire, J.; Aldeguer, J. L.; Blanes, M.; de los Santos, I.; Hernández, B.; Pumares, M.; Trastoy, M.; Fiellin, D. A.; Titanji, R.; Butt, A.; Brandt, C.; Bryant, K.; Gandhi, N.; Gaziano, M.; Miller, P.; Mole, L.; Darbyshire, J.; Cursley, Adam; Eduards, S.; Estreich, S.; Magdy, A.; Jebakumar, S. P. R.; McMillan, S.; Green, S.; Sivakumar, K.; Monteiro, E.; Jendrulek, I.; Deheragada, A.; Rajamanoharan, S.; Parrinello, M.; Chakvetadze, C.; Berrebi, V.; Augustin-Normand, C.; Morelon, S.; Ragnaud, J. M.; Dominguez, S.; Dumont, C.; Drenou, B.; Drobacheff, C.; Gonzales-Canali, A.; Cheret, A.; Brancion, C.; Ravault, I.; Nau, P.; Beuscart, C.; Daniel, C.; Chaillou, S.; Niault, M.; Richier, L.; Abraham, B.; Perino, C.; Tremollieres, F.; Boudon, P.; Malbec, D.; Remy, G.; Béguinot, I.; Peretti, D.; Medintzeff, N.; Kazatchkine, M.; Fonquernie, L.; Lelievre, J. D.; Tissot Dupont, H.; Vallon, A.; Venti, H.; Bouchaud, O.; Hurtado, I.; Belda, J.; Gargalianos-Kakolyris, P.; Katsarou, O.; Lazanas, M.; Paparizos, V.; Paraskevis, D.; Skoutelis, A.; Touloumi, G.; Pantazis, N.; Bakoyannis, G.; Gioukari, V.; Antoniadou, A.; Papadopoulos, A.; Petrikkos, G.; Daikos, G.; Psichogiou, M.; Xylomenos, G.; Kouramba, A.; Ioannidou, P.; Kordossis, T.; Kontos, A.; Tsogas, N.; Leuow, K.; Kourkounti, S.; Sambatakou, H.; Mariolis, I.; Papastamopoulos, V.; Baraboutis, I.

    2015-01-01

    Recommendations have differed nationally and internationally with respect to the best time to start antiretroviral therapy (ART). We compared effectiveness of three strategies for initiation of ART in high-income countries for HIV-positive individuals who do not have AIDS: immediate initiation,

  9. ECL-IAA and ECL-GADA Can Identify High-Risk Single Autoantibody-Positive Relatives in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Andrea K; Fouts, Alexandra; Miao, Dongmei; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Dong, Fran; Sosenko, Jay; Gottlieb, Peter; Rewers, Marian J; Yu, Liping

    2016-07-01

    Relatives with single positive islet autoantibodies have a much lower risk of progression to diabetes than those with multiple autoantibodies. TrialNet subjects positive for single autoantibody to insulin (mIAA) (n = 50) or single autoantibody to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) (n = 50) were analyzed using new electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assays (ECL-IAA and ECL-GADA, respectively) at their initial visit and longitudinally over time. Affinity assays were performed on a subset of single autoantibody-positive subjects at initial and most recent visits. After a mean follow-up of 5.3 years, 20 subjects developed type 1 diabetes. Among either single GADA or single mIAA subjects, those who were positive in the ECL assay showed higher affinity at the initial visit, and affinity results stayed consistent over time. No converting events from low to high or high to low affinity were seen over time. Confirmed positivity for ECL is associated with high affinity and can help staging of risk for type 1 diabetes in single autoantibody-positive subjects.

  10. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Arlene; Delaloge, Suzette; Holmes, Frankie A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neratinib, an irreversible tyrosine-kinase inhibitor of HER1, HER2, and HER4, has clinical activity in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of 12 months of neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in patients w...

  11. The relationship between BMI and insulin resistance and progression from single to multiple autoantibody positivity and type 1 diabetes among TrialNet Pathway to Prevention participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meah, Farah A; DiMeglio, Linda A; Greenbaum, Carla J; Blum, Janice S; Sosenko, Jay M; Pugliese, Alberto; Geyer, Susan; Xu, Ping; Evans-Molina, Carmella

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes is increasing at a rate of 3-5% per year. Genetics cannot fully account for this trend, suggesting an influence of environmental factors. The accelerator hypothesis proposes an effect of metabolic factors on type 1 diabetes risk. To test this in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) cohort, we analysed the influence of BMI, weight status and insulin resistance on progression from single to multiple islet autoantibodies (Aab) and progression from normoglycaemia to diabetes. HOMA1-IR was used to estimate insulin resistance in Aab-positive PTP participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the effects of BMI, BMI percentile (BMI%), weight status and HOMA1-IR on the progression of autoimmunity or the development of diabetes. Data from 1,310 single and 1,897 multiple Aab-positive PTP participants were included. We found no significant relationships between BMI, BMI%, weight status or HOMA1-IR and the progression from one to multiple Aabs. Similarly, among all Aab-positive participants, no significant relationships were found between BMI, weight status or HOMA1-IR and progression to diabetes. Diabetes risk was modestly increased with increasing BMI% among the entire cohort, in obese participants 13-20 years of age and with increasing HOMA1-IR in adult Aab-positive participants. Analysis of the accelerator hypothesis in the TrialNet PTP cohort does not suggest a broad influence of metabolic variables on diabetes risk. Efforts to identify other potentially modifiable environmental factors should continue.

  12. Family income and young adolescents' perceived social position: associations with self-esteem and life satisfaction in the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Rienke; Pearce, Anna; Hope, Steven

    2016-10-01

    Self-esteem and life satisfaction are important aspects of positive mental health in young people, and both are socially distributed. However, the majority of evidence is based on socioeconomic characteristics of the family. As children enter adolescence and gain independence, perceptions of their own social position are likely to influence mental health. Using data on 11-year-olds from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, we investigated associations of both family income and young adolescents' perception of their social position with self-esteem and life satisfaction. We hypothesised that there would be differences in the impact of perceived social position on positive mental health when investigating the full scale scoring distribution or the bottom of the distribution. Therefore, we estimated proportional odds for having greater positive mental health (across the distribution of scores) and ORs for poor outcomes (lowest 10% scores). The likelihood of greater self-esteem and life satisfaction increased with income; similarly, the risk of having poor self-esteem and life satisfaction increased as income decreased. Young adolescents who perceived their family as poorer than their friends (instead of about the same) were less likely to have greater self-esteem and life satisfaction and were more likely to have poor outcomes. Young adolescents who perceived their family as richer were more likely to have poor self-esteem, but were not less likely to have greater self-esteem. For life satisfaction, young adolescents who perceived their families as richer were less likely to have greater and more likely to have poor life satisfaction. Policies to redistribute income in families with children are likely to benefit the mental health of young people. However, it is also important to consider the impact of social comparison on young people's mental health as they enter adolescence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  13. Family income and young adolescents’ perceived social position: associations with self-esteem and life satisfaction in the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Rienke; Pearce, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-esteem and life satisfaction are important aspects of positive mental health in young people, and both are socially distributed. However, the majority of evidence is based on socioeconomic characteristics of the family. As children enter adolescence and gain independence, perceptions of their own social position are likely to influence mental health. Design and objectives Using data on 11-year-olds from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, we investigated associations of both family income and young adolescents’ perception of their social position with self-esteem and life satisfaction. We hypothesised that there would be differences in the impact of perceived social position on positive mental health when investigating the full scale scoring distribution or the bottom of the distribution. Therefore, we estimated proportional odds for having greater positive mental health (across the distribution of scores) and ORs for poor outcomes (lowest 10% scores). Results The likelihood of greater self-esteem and life satisfaction increased with income; similarly, the risk of having poor self-esteem and life satisfaction increased as income decreased. Young adolescents who perceived their family as poorer than their friends (instead of about the same) were less likely to have greater self-esteem and life satisfaction and were more likely to have poor outcomes. Young adolescents who perceived their family as richer were more likely to have poor self-esteem, but were not less likely to have greater self-esteem. For life satisfaction, young adolescents who perceived their families as richer were less likely to have greater and more likely to have poor life satisfaction. Conclusions Policies to redistribute income in families with children are likely to benefit the mental health of young people. However, it is also important to consider the impact of social comparison on young people's mental health as they enter adolescence. PMID:26957529

  14. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a computer system, for example, typical discrete events ... This project brought out a series of influential reports on Petri net theory in the mid and late ... Technology became a leading centre for Petri net research and from then on, Petri nets ...

  15. Positive postpartum depression screening practices and subsequent mental health treatment for low-income women in Western countries: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansotte, Elinor; Payne, Shirley I; Babich, Suzanne M

    2017-01-01

    Left undiagnosed and/or untreated, the short-and long-term sequelae of postpartum depression may negatively impact both mother and child. In Western countries, access to mental health care is influenced by socioeconomic factors. The objective of this systematic literature review is to compile factors that hinder and improve access to postpartum depression treatment in low-income women after a positive screen for postpartum depression. The key question of focus is: what are the characteristics associated with access to mental health treatment for low-income women with a positive postpartum depression screen in Western countries? A PRISMA-based systematic literature review was conducted of studies published in English before February 2016 that looked at treatment for postpartum depression in low-income women who had been identified with the condition. PubMed and EBSCO databases were searched using MESH and key terms and found 100 articles that met the selection criteria. After review by two independent researchers, 18 studies with 17 unique populations were included in the literature review. Two independent abstractors searched the included articles for themes surrounding impediments and advantages for low-income women identified with postpartum depression in obtaining mental health treatment. Characteristics of successful mental health treatment included studies that employed the use of a home visitor and those that separated outcomes for women with previous mental health treatment. Themes that emerged as treatment obstacles included cultural barriers, physical barriers, systemic health care barriers, and social barriers. This review will help to better inform screening and treatment priorities for those in the medical field who may encounter women experiencing postpartum depression and are not aware of the various barriers to care specific to low-income women. This review will also help policymakers identify specific obstacles that are not addressed in postpartum

  16. Pro-Nets versus No-Nets: Differences in Urban Older Adults' Predilections for Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M. Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N.; Morrell, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Enthusiasm for information technology (IT) is growing among older adults. Many older adults enjoy IT and the Internet (Pro-Nets), but others have no desire to use it (No-Nets). This study found that Pro-Nets and No-Nets were different on a number of variables that might predict IT use. No-Nets were older, had less education and income, were…

  17. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  18. Development and Implementation of a Training-of-Trainers Program for Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Neonatal and Pediatric Patients in Five Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick T; Benckert, Megan M; Moresky, Rachel T; Morris, Marilyn C

    2017-10-01

    We describe a pragmatic training-of-trainers program for the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for neonatal and pediatric patients. The program is designed for medical professionals working in low- and middle-income countries and involves 2 days of in-class training followed by 1 day of in-service training. The program was created after training in Cambodia, Ghana, Honduras, Kenya and Rwanda and addresses the issues of resource availability, cultural context and local buy-in and partnership in low- and middle-income countries. We hope others will use the training program to increase knowledge and use of CPAP with the ultimate goal of improving neonatal and pediatric survival globally. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Blanket testing in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazalon, M.; Daenner, W.; Libin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The testing stages in NET for the performance assessment of the various breeding blanket concepts developed at the present time in Europe for DEMO (LiPb and ceramic blankets) and the requirements upon NET to perform these tests are reviewed. Typical locations available in NET for blanket testing are the central outboard segments and the horizontal ports of in-vessel sectors. These test positions will be connectable with external test loops. The number of test loops (helium, water, liquid metal) will be such that each major class of blankets can be tested in NET. The test positions, the boundary conditions and the external test loops are identified and the requirements for test blankets are summarized (author). 6

  20. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE ... In Part 1 of this two-part article, we have seen im- ..... mable logic controller and VLSI arrays, office automation systems, workflow management systems, ... complex discrete event and real-time systems; and Petri nets.

  1. Impact of antiretroviral therapy on tuberculosis incidence among HIV-positive patients in high-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago; Bucher, Heiner C.; Furrer, Hansjakob; Logan, Roger; Sterne, Jonathan; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Jarrín, Inma; Phillips, Andrew; Lodi, Sara; van Sighem, Ard; de Wolf, Frank; Sabin, Caroline; Bansi, Loveleen; Justice, Amy; Goulet, Joseph; Miró, José M.; Ferrer, Elena; Meyer, Laurence; Seng, Rémonie; Toulomi, Giota; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Costagliola, Dominique; Abgrall, Sophie; Hernán, Miguel A.; Ainsworth, J.; Anderson, J.; Babiker, A.; Delpech, V.; Dunn, D.; Easterbrook, P.; Fisher, M.; Gazzard, B.; Gilson, R.; Gompels, M.; Hill, T.; Johnson, M.; Leen, C.; Orkin, C.; Phillips, A.; Pillay, D.; Porter, K.; Sabin, C.; Schwenk, A.; Walsh, J.; Bansi, L.; Glabay, A.; Thomas, R.; Jones, K.; Perry, N.; Pullin, A.; Churchill, D.; Nelson, M.; Asboe, D.; Bulbeck, S.; Mandalia, S.; Clarke, J.; Munshi, S.; Post, F.; Khan, Y.; Patel, P.; Karim, F.; Duffell, S.; Man, S.-L.; Williams, I.; Dooley, D.; Youle, M.; Lampe, F.; Smith, C.; Grabowska, H.; Chaloner, C.; Ismajani Puradiredja, D.; Weber, J.; Kemble, C.; Mackie, N.; Winston, A.; Wilson, A.; Bezemer, D. O.; Gras, L. A. J.; Kesselring, A. M.; van Sighem, A. I.; Smit, C.; Zhang, S.; Zaheri, S.; Prins, J. M.; Boer, K.; Bos, J. C.; Geerlings, S. E.; Godfried, M. H.; Haverkort, M. E.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Lange, J. M. A.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Pajkrt, D.; van der Poll, T.; Reiss, P.; Scherpbier, H. J.; van der Valk, M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; van Vugt, M.; Schreij, G.; Lowe, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Bravenboer, B.; Pronk, M. J. H.; van der Ende, M. E.; van der Feltz, M.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; Nouwen, J. L.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; de Ruiter, E. D.; Slobbe, L.; Schurink, C. A. M.; Verbon, A.; de Vries-Sluijs, T. E. M. S.; Driessen, G.; Hartwig, N. G.; Branger, J.; Kauffmann, R. H.; Schippers, E. F.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.; Alleman, M. A.; Bouwhuis, J. W.; ten Kate, R. W.; Soetekouw, R.; Kroon, F. P.; Arend, S. M.; de Boer, M. G. J.; van den Broek, P. J.; van Dissel, J. T.; Jolink, H.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; den Hollander, J. G.; Pogany, K.; Bronsveld, W.; Kortmann, W.; van Twillert, G.; Vriesendorp, R.; Leyten, E. M. S.; van Houte, D.; Polée, M. B.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; ten Napel, C. H. H.; Kootstra, G. J.; Brinkman, K.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; Blok, W. L.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Schouten, W. E. M.; van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D. W. M.; Mulder, J. W.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Smit, P. M.; Weijer, S.; Juttmann, J. R.; Brouwer, A. E.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; Veenstra, J.; Lettinga, K. D.; Koopmans, P. P.; Brouwer, A. M.; Dofferhoff, A. S. M.; van der Flier, M.; de Groot, R.; ter Hofstede, H. J. M.; Keuter, M.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; Sprenger, H. G.; van Assen, S.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E. H.; Stek, C. J.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Arends, J. E.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; van der Hilst, J. C. H.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.; Maarschalk-Ellerbroek, L. J.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Peters, E. J. G.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M. M. E.; Wassenberg, M. W. M.; Geelen, S. P. M.; Wolfs, T. F. W.; Danner, S. A.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Bierman, W. F. W.; Claessen, F. A. P.; de Jong, E. V.; Perenboom, R. M.; bij de Vaate, E. A.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J.; Gisolf, E. H.; van den Berge, M.; Stegeman, A.; Duits, A. J.; Winkel, K.; Abgrall, S.; Barin, F.; Bentata, M.; Billaud, E.; Boué, F.; Burty, C.; Cabié, A.; Costagliola, D.; Cotte, L.; de Truchis, P.; Duval, X.; Duvivier, C.; Enel, P.; Fredouille-Heripret, L.; Gasnault, J.; Gaud, C.; Gilquin, J.; Grabar, S.; Katlama, C.; Khuong, M. A.; Lang, J. M.; Lascaux, A. S.; Launay, O.; Mahamat, A.; Mary-Krause, M.; Matheron, S.; Meynard, J. L.; Pavie, J.; Pialoux, G.; Pilorgé, F.; Poizot-Martin, I.; Pradier, C.; Reynes, J.; Rouveix, E.; Simon, A.; Tattevin, P.; Tissot-Dupont, H.; Viard, J. P.; Viget, N.; Jacquemet, N.; Guiguet, M.; Lanoy, E.; Lièvre, L.; Selinger-Leneman, H.; Lacombe, J. M.; Potard, V.; Bricaire, F.; Herson, S.; Desplanque, N.; Girard, P. M.; Meyohas, M. C.; Picard, O.; Cadranel, J.; Mayaud, C.; Clauvel, J. P.; Decazes, J. M.; Gerard, L.; Molina, J. M.; Diemer, M.; Sellier, P.; Honoré, P.; Jeantils, V.; Tassi, S.; Mechali, D.; Taverne, B.; Bouvet, E.; Crickx, B.; Ecobichon, J. L.; Picard-Dahan, C.; Yeni, P.; Berthé, H.; Dupont, C.; Chandemerle, C.; Mortier, E.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Weiss, L.; Salmon, D.; Auperin, I.; Roudière, L.; Fior, R.; Delfraissy, J. F.; Goujard, C.; Jung, C.; Lesprit, Ph; Vittecoq, D.; Fraisse, P.; Rey, D.; Beck-Wirth, G.; Stahl, J. P.; Lecercq, P.; Gourdon, F.; Laurichesse, H.; Fresard, A.; Lucht, F.; Bazin, C.; Verdon, R.; Chavanet, P.; Arvieux, C.; Michelet, C.; Choutet, P.; Goudeau, A.; Maître, M. F.; Hoen, B.; Eglinger, P.; Faller, J. P.; Borsa-Lebas, F.; Caron, F.; Daures, J. P.; May, T.; Rabaud, C.; Berger, J. L.; Rémy, G.; Arlet-Suau, E.; Cuzin, L.; Massip, P.; Thiercelin Legrand, M. F.; Pontonnier, G.; Yasdanpanah, Y.; Dellamonica, P.; Pugliese, P.; Aleksandrowicz, K.; Quinsat, D.; Ravaux, I.; Delmont, J. P.; Moreau, J.; Gastaut, J. A.; Retornaz, F.; Soubeyrand, J.; Galinier, A.; Ruiz, J. M.; Allegre, T.; Blanc, P. A.; Bonnet-Montchardon, D.; Lepeu, G.; Granet-Brunello, P.; Esterni, J. P.; Pelissier, L.; Cohen-Valensi, R.; Nezri, M.; Chadapaud, S.; Laffeuillade, A.; Raffi, F.; Boibieux, A.; Peyramond, D.; Livrozet, J. M.; Touraine, J. L.; Trepo, C.; Strobel, M.; Saint-Martin, C. H.; Bissuel, F.; Pradinaud, R.; Sobesky, M.; Contant, M.; Aebi, C.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Brazzola, P.; Bucher, H. C.; Bürgisser, Ph; Calmy, A.; Cattacin, S.; Cavassini, M.; Cheseaux, J.-J.; Drack, G.; Dubs, R.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fischer, M.; Flepp, M.; Fontana, A.; Francioli, P.; Furrer, H. J.; Fux, C.; Gayet-Ageron, A.; Gerber, S.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Gyr, Th; Hirsch, H.; Hirschel, B.; Hösli, I.; Hüsler, M.; Kaiser, L.; Kahlert, Ch; Karrer, U.; Kind, C.; Klimkait, Th; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez, B.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Paccaud, F.; Pantaleo, G.; Raio, L.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Wyler, C.-A.; Yerly, S.; Casabona, J.; Miró, J. M.; Alquézar, A.; Isern, V.; Esteve, A.; Podzamczer, D.; Murillas, J.; Gatell, J. M.; Agüero, F.; Tural, C.; Clotet, B.; Ferrer, E.; Segura, F.; Riera, M.; Navarro, G.; Force, L.; Vilaró, J.; Masabeu, A.; García, I.; Guadarrama, M.; Romero, A.; Agustí, C.; Montoliu, A.; Ortega, N.; Lazzari, E.; Puchol, E.; Sanchez, M.; Blanco, J. L.; Garcia-Alcaide, F.; Mallolas, J.; Martínez, E.; López-Dieguez, M.; García-Goez, J. F.; Sirera, G.; Romeu, J.; Jou E Negredo, A.; Miranda, C.; Capitan, M. C.; Olmo, M.; Barragan, P.; Saumoy, M.; Bolao, F.; Cabellos, C.; Peña, C.; Sala, M.; Cervantes, M.; Navarro, M.; Jose Amengual, M.; Penelo, E.; Barrufet, P.; Berenguer, J.; del Amo, J.; García, F.; Gutiérrez, F.; Labarga, P.; Moreno, S.; Muñoz, M. A.; Sobrino, P.; Alejos, B.; Monge, S.; Hernando, V.; Alvarez, D.; Jarrín, I.; Gómez Sirvent, J. L.; Rodríguez, P.; Alemán, M. R.; Alonso, M. M.; López, A. M.; Hernández, M. I.; Soriano, V.; Barreiro, P.; Medrano, J.; Rivas, P.; Herrero, D.; Blanco, F.; Vispo, M. E.; Martín, L.; Ramírez, G.; de Diego, M.; Rubio, R.; Pulido, F.; Moreno, V.; Cepeda, C.; Hervás, R. l; Iribarren, J. A.; Arrizabalaga, J.; Aramburu, M. J.; Camino, X.; Rodríguez-Arrondo, F.; von Wichmann, M. A.; Pascual, L.; Goenaga, M. A.; Masiá, M.; Ramos, J. M.; Padilla, S.; Sánchez-Hellín, V.; Bernal, E.; Escolano, C.; Montolio, F.; Peral, Y.; López, J. C.; Miralles, P.; Cosín, J.; Sánchez, M.; Gutiérrez, I.; Ramírez, M.; Padilla, B.; Vidal, F.; Sanjuan, M.; Peraire, J.; Veloso, S.; Viladés, C.; López-Dupla, M.; Olona, M.; Vargas, M.; Aldeguer, J. L.; Blanes, M.; Lacruz, J.; Salavert, M.; Montero, M.; Cuéllar, S.; de los Santos, I.; Sanz, J.; Oteo, J. A.; Blanco, J. R.; Ibarra, V.; Metola, L.; Sanz, M.; Pérez-Martínez, L.; Sola, J.; Uriz, J.; Castiello, J.; Reparaz, J.; Arriaza, M. J.; Irigoyen, C.; Antela, A.; Casado, J. L.; Dronda, F.; Moreno, A.; Pérez, M. J.; López, D.; Gutiérrez, C.; Hernández, B.; Pumares, M.; Martí, P.; García, L.; Page, C.; Hernández, J.; Peña, A.; Muñoz, L.; Parra, J.; Viciana, P.; Leal, M.; López-Cortés, L. F.; Trastoy, M.; Mata, R.; Justice, A. C.; Fiellin, D. A.; Rimland, D.; Jones-Taylor, C.; Oursler, K. A.; Titanji, R.; Brown, S.; Garrison, S.; Rodriguez-Barradas, M.; Masozera, N.; Goetz, M.; Leaf, D.; Simberkoff, M.; Blumenthal, D.; Leung, J.; Butt, A.; Hoffman, E.; Gibert, C.; Peck, R.; Mattocks, K.; Braithwaite, S.; Brandt, C.; Bryant, K.; Cook, R.; Conigliaro, J.; Crothers, K.; Chang, J.; Crystal, S.; Day, N.; Erdos, J.; Freiberg, M.; Kozal, M.; Gandhi, N.; Gaziano, M.; Gerschenson, M.; Good, B.; Gordon, A.; Goulet, J. L.; Hernán, M. A.; Kraemer, K.; Lim, J.; Maisto, S.; Miller, P.; Mole, L.; O'Connor, P.; Papas, R.; Robins, J. M.; Rinaldo, C.; Roberts, M.; Samet, J.; Tierney, B.; Whittle, J.; Brettle, R.; Darbyshire, J.; Fidler, S.; Goldberg, D.; Hawkins, D.; Jaffe, H.; Johnson, A.; McLean, K.; Porter, Kholoud; Cursley, Adam; Ewings, Fiona; Fairbrother, Keith; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Murphy, Brendan; Douglas, G.; Kennedy, N.; Pritchard, J.; Andrady, U.; Rajda, N.; Maw, R.; McKernan, S.; Drake, S.; Gilleran, G.; White, D.; Ross, J.; Toomer, S.; Hewart, R.; Wilding, H.; Woodward, R.; Dean, G.; Heald, L.; Horner, P.; Glover, S.; Bansaal, D.; Eduards, S.; Carne, C.; Browing, M.; Das, R.; Stanley, B.; Estreich, S.; Magdy, A.; O'Mahony, C.; Fraser, P.; Hayman, B.; Jebakumar, S. P. R.; Joshi, U.; Ralph, S.; Wade, A.; Mette, R.; Lalik, J.; Summerfield, H.; El-Dalil, A.; France, A. J.; White, C.; Robertson, R.; Gordon, S.; McMillan, S.; Morris, S.; Lean, C.; Vithayathil, K.; McLean, L.; Winter, A.; Gale, D.; Jacobs, S.; Tayal, S.; Short, L.; Green, S.; Williams, G.; Sivakumar, K.; Bhattacharyya, D. N.; Monteiro, E.; Minton, J.; Dhar, J.; Nye, F.; DeSouza, C. B.; Isaksen, A.; McDonald, L.; Franca, A.; William, L.; Jendrulek, I.; Peters, B.; Shaunak, S.; El-Gadi, S.; Easterbrook, P. J.; Mazhude, C.; Johnstone, R.; Fakoya, A.; Mchale, J.; Waters, A.; Kegg, S.; Mitchell, S.; Byrne, P.; Rice, P.; Mullaney, S. A.; McCormack, S.; David, D.; Melville, R.; Phillip, K.; Balachandran, T.; Mabey-Puttock, S.; Sukthankar, A.; Murphy, C.; Wilkins, E.; Ahmad, S.; Haynes, J.; Evans, E.; Ong, E.; Grey, R.; Meaden, J.; Bignell, C.; Loay, D.; Peacock, K.; Girgis, M. R.; Morgan, B.; Palfreeman, A.; Wilcox, J.; Tobin, J.; Tucker, L.; Saeed, A. M.; Chen, F.; Deheragada, A.; Williams, O.; Lacey, H.; Herman, S.; Kinghorn, D.; Devendra, S. V.; Wither, J.; Dawson, S.; Rowen, D.; Harvey, J.; Bridgwood, A.; Singh, G.; Chauhan, M.; Kellock, D.; Young, S.; Dannino, S.; Kathir, Y.; Rooney, G.; Currie, J.; Fitzgerald, M.; Devendra, S.; Keane, F.; Booth, G.; Green, T.; Arumainayyagam, J.; Chandramani, S.; Rajamanoharan, S.; Robinson, T.; Curless, E.; Gokhale, R.; Tariq, A.; Luzzi, G.; Fairley, I.; Wallis, F.; Smit, E.; Ward, F.; Loze, B.; Morlat, P.; Bonarek, M.; Bonnet, F.; Nouts, C.; Louis, I.; Reliquet, V.; Sauser, F.; Biron, C.; Mounoury, O.; Hue, H.; Brosseau, D.; Ghosn, J.; Rannou, M. T.; Bergmann, J. F.; Badsi, E.; Rami, A.; Parrinello, M.; Samanon-Bollens, D.; Campa, P.; Tourneur, M.; Desplanques, N.; Jeanblanc, F.; Chiarello, P.; Makhloufi, D.; Blanc, A. P.; Allègre, T.; Baillat, V.; Lemoing, V.; Merle de Boever, C.; Tramoni, C.; Sobesky, G.; Abel, S.; Beaujolais, V.; Slama, L.; Chakvetadze, C.; Berrebi, V.; Fournier, I.; Gerbe, J.; Koffi, K.; Augustin-Normand, C.; Miailhes, P.; Thoirain, V.; Brochier, C.; Souala, F.; Ratajczak, M.; Beytoux, J.; Jacomet, C.; Montpied, G.; Morelon, S.; Olivier, C.; Lortholary, O.; Dupont, B.; Maignan, A.; Ragnaud, J. M.; Raymond, I.; Leport, C.; Jadand, C.; Jestin, C.; Longuet, P.; Boucherit, S.; Sereni, D.; Lascoux, C.; Prevoteau, F.; Sobel, A.; Levy, Y.; Lelièvre, J. D.; Dominguez, S.; Dumont, C.; Aumaître, H.; Delmas, B.; Saada, M.; Medus, M.; Guillevin, L.; Tahi, T.; Yazdanpanah, Y.; Pavel, S.; Marien, M. C.; Drenou, B.; Beck, C.; Benomar, M.; Muller, E.; Tubiana, R.; Ait Mohand, H.; Chermak, A.; Ben Abdallah, S.; Touam, F.; Drobacheff, C.; Folzer, A.; Obadia, M.; Prudhomme, L.; Bonnet, E.; Balzarin, F.; Pichard, E.; Chennebault, J. M.; Fialaire, P.; Loison, J.; Galanaud, P.; Bornarel, D.; Six, M.; Ferret, P.; Batisse, D.; Gonzales-Canali, G.; Devidas, A.; Chevojon, P.; Turpault, I.; Lafeuillade, A.; Cheret, A.; Philip, G.; Morel, P.; Timsit, J.; Amirat, N.; Brancion, C.; Cabane, J.; Tredup, J.; Stein, A.; Ravault, I.; Chavanet, C.; Buisson, M.; Treuvetot, S.; Nau, P.; Bastides, F.; Boyer, L.; Wassoumbou, S.; Oksenhendeler, E.; Gérard, L.; Bernard, L.; Poincaré, R.; Domart, Y.; Merrien, D.; Greder Belan, A.; Mignot, A.; Gayraud, M.; Bodard, L.; Meudec, A.; Beuscart, C.; Daniel, C.; Pape, E.; Vinceneux, P.; Simonpoli, A. M.; Zeng, A.; Mourier, L.; Fournier, L.; Jacquet, M.; Fuzibet, J. G.; Sohn, C.; Rosenthal, E.; Quaranta, M.; Chaillou, S.; Sabah, M.; Audhuy, B.; Schieber, A.; Pasteur, L.; Moreau, P.; Niault, M.; Vaillant, O.; Huchon, G.; Compagnucci, A.; de Lacroix Szmania, I.; Richier, L.; Lamaury, I.; Saint-Dizier, F.; Garipuy, D.; Drogoul, M. P.; Poizot Martin, I.; Fabre, G.; Lambert, G.; Abraham, B.; Perino, C.; Lagarde, P.; David, F.; Roche-Sicot, J.; Saraux, J. L.; Leprêtre, A.; Veil, S.; Fampin, B.; Uludag, A.; Morin, A. S.; Bletry, O.; Zucman, D.; Regnier, A.; Girard, J. J.; Quinsat, D. T.; Heripret, L.; Grihon, F.; Houlbert, D.; Ruel, M.; Chemlal, K.; Debab, Y.; Tremollieres, F.; Perronne, V.; Slama, B.; Perré, P.; Miodovski, C.; Guermonprez, G.; Dulioust, A.; Boudon, P.; Malbec, D.; Patey, O.; Semaille, C.; Deville, J.; Remy, G.; Béguinot, I.; Boue, F.; Chambrin, V.; Pignon, C.; Estocq, G. A.; Levy, A.; Duracinsky, M.; Le Bras, P.; Ngussan, M. S.; Peretti, D.; Medintzeff, N.; Lambert, T.; Segeral, O.; Lezeau, P.; Laurian, Y.; Piketty, C.; Karmochkine, M.; Eliaszewitch, M.; Jayle, D.; Tisne, D.; Kazatchkine, M.; Colasante, U.; Nouaouia, W.; Vilde, J. L.; Bollens, D.; Binet, D.; Diallo, B.; Fonquernie, L.; Lagneau, J. L.; Pietrie, M. P.; Sicard, D.; Stieltjes, N.; Michot, J.; Bourdillon, F.; Lelievre, J. D.; Obenga, G.; Escaut, L.; Bolliot, C.; Schneider, L.; Iguertsira, M.; Tomei, C.; Dhiver, C.; Tissot Dupont, H.; Vallon, A.; Gallais, J.; Gallais, H.; Durant, J.; Mondain, V.; Perbost, I.; Cassuto, J. P.; Karsenti, J. M.; Venti, H.; Ceppi, C.; Krivitsky, J. A.; Bouchaud, O.; Honore, P.; Delgado, J.; Rouzioux, C.; Burgard, M.; Boufassa, L.; Peynet, J.; Ferreros, I.; Hurtado, I.; González, C.; Caro, A. M.; Muga, R.; Sanvicens, A.; Tor, J.; del Romero, J.; Raposo, P.; Rodríguez, C.; Vera, M.; Garcia de Olalla, P.; Cayla, J.; Alastrue, I.; Belda, J.; Trullen, P.; Fernández, E.; Santos, C.; Tasa, T.; Zafra, T.; Guerrero, R.; Marco, A.; Quintana, M.; Ruiz, I.; Nuñez, R.; Pérez, R.; Castilla, J.; Guevara, M.; de Mendoza, C.; Zahonero, N.; Antoniadou, A.; Chrysos, G.; Daikos, G.; Gargalianos-Kakolyris, P.; Gogos, H. A.; Katsarou, O.; Kordossis, T.; Lazanas, M.; Nikolaidis, P.; Panos, G.; Paparizos, V.; Paraskevis, D.; Sambatakou, H.; Skoutelis, A.; Touloumi, G.; Pantazis, N.; Bakoyannis, G.; Vourli, G.; Gioukari, V.; Papadopoulos, A.; Petrikkos, G.; Paraskeva, D.; Hatziastros, P.; Psichogiou, M.; Xylomenos, G.; Maragos, M. N.; Kouramba, A.; Ioannidou, P.; Kontos, A.; Chini, M.; Tsogas, N.; Kolaras, P.; Metallidis, S.; Haratsis, G.; Leuow, K.; Kourkounti, S.; Mariolis, I.; Papastamopoulos, V.; Baraboutis, I.

    2012-01-01

    The lower tuberculosis incidence reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is difficult to interpret causally. Furthermore, the role of unmasking immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is unclear. We aim to

  2. Incidence and risk factors of herpes zoster among hiv-positive patients in the german competence network for HIV/AIDS (KompNet): a cohort study analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Klaus; Haastert, Burkhard; Michalik, Claudia; Guignard, Adrienne; Esser, Stefan; Dupke, Stephan; Plettenberg, Andreas; Skaletz-Rorowski, Adriane; Brockmeyer, Norbert H

    2013-08-10

    HIV infection is a risk factor for the development of Herpes zoster (HZ) and its complications. Prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HZ incidence in HIV-infected individuals ranged from 2.9-5.1/100 person-years. There is limited evidence for the impact of ART on HZ occurrence among HIV-infected adults. We analysed the incidence of, and risk factors for, HZ in a large cohort of German HIV-positive patients. The study population was taken from the German KompNet cohort, a nationwide multicenter HIV cohort study. The study population was defined by age (≥ 18 years), year of first positive HIV diagnosis, CD4 values ± 6 months from HIV diagnosis (t0), and month of HZ diagnosis. Incidences were estimated using a Poisson distribution, and uni- and multivariate Cox proportional Hazard ratio (HR) regression models were fitted to identify risk factors for developing an initial HZ episode. Independent variables were sex, age at HIV diagnosis, route of HIV transmission, ART status, CD4 count before HZ episode, immunosuppressive medication, and mode of data documentation (retrospective or prospective). HZ incidence in the overall study population was 1.2/100 person-years. In a subset of patients for that we were able to examine risk factors the following was observed: We examined 3,757 individuals whose mean age at t0 was 38 years. Of those individuals, 96% were diagnosed with HIV in 1996 or later, with a mean observation time of 5.8 years. HZ episodes (n = 362) were recorded in 326 patients (8.7%), resulting in annual HZ incidences of 1.7/100 person-years overall, and 1.6/100 person-years for initial HZ cases. The main risk factors associated with an initial HZ episode were: not partaking in ART compared with an ART regimen containing a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (HR 0.530, p study HZ incidences were lower than in previous studies relating to HIV-positive patients. We showed that ART is an important protective factor for HZ episodes.

  3. Yield and net income of unripe corn in function of the hilling dates / Produção e renda líquida de milho verde em função da época de amontoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diovany Doffinger Ramos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Agromen 2029 unripe corn was studied without and with hilling on 14; 28; 42; 14-28; 14-42; 28-42 and 14-28-42 days after sowing (DAS. Those eight treatments were arranged in a randomized experimental block design, with four replications. The highest heights of plant (176.9 cm and of first ear (83.9 cm were from those with no hilling (SA and the smallest ones (162.4 and 72.9 cm, respectively were from those with hilling on 28 DAS. The greatest yield of ears (56,000 ears ha-1 was obtained from 14-28-42 DAS treatments and the smallest one was from SA (47,000 ears ha-1. The greatest yield of non commercial ears (15,000 ears ha-1 was obtained from 14-42 and 14-28-42 DAS treatments and the smallest one was from SA (7,000 ears ha-1. Yield of commercial ears varied from 38,000 ears ha-1, on 28 DAS treatment to 41,000 ears ha-1, on 14, 42, 28-42 and 14-28-42 DAS treatments. Costs of yield varied from R$ 1,315.90 ha-1, in SA treatment, to R$ 1,774.17 ha-1, with hilling on 14-28-42 DAS. The greatest net income was R$ 2,684.10 ha-1 with no hilling and the smallest was R$ 2,166.81 ha-1 with hilling on 14-42 DAS. In the conditions that the experiment was carried out it was concluded that the cultivation with no hilling is recommended because it showed the smallest yield cost and the greatest net income.Foi estudado o milho-verde Agromen 2029, sem amontoa e com amontoa aos 14; 28; 42; 14-28; 14-42; 28-42 e 14-28-42 dias após a semeadura-DAS. Os oito tratamentos foram arranjados no delineamento experimental blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As maiores alturas da planta (176,9 cm e da primeira espiga (83,9 cm foram encontradas no tratamento sem amontoa e as menores (162,4 e 72,9 cm, respectivamente no tratamento com amontoa aos 28 DAS. A maior produção total de espigas (56.000 espigas ha-1 foi obtida no tratamento 14-28-42 DAS e a menor foi no sem amontoa (47.000 espigas ha-1. A maior produção de espigas não comerciais (15.000 espigas ha-1

  4. Perceived spatial stigma, body mass index and blood pressure: a global positioning system study among low-income housing residents in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin T. Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has highlighted the salience of spatial stigma on the lives of low-income residents, but has been theoretical in nature and/or has predominantly utilised qualitative methods with limited generalisability and ability to draw associations between spatial stigma and measured cardiovascular health outcomes. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate relationships between perceived spatial stigma, body mass index (BMI, and blood pressure among a sample of low-income housing residents in New York City (NYC. Data come from the community-based NYC Low-income Housing, Neighborhoods and Health Study. We completed a crosssectional analysis with survey data, which included the four items on spatial stigma, as well objectively measured BMI and blood pressure data (analytic n=116; 96.7% of the total sample. Global positioning systems (GPS tracking of the sample was conducted for a week. In multivariable models (controlling for individual-level age, gender, race/ethnicity, education level, employment status, total household income, neighborhood percent non-Hispanic Black and neighborhood median household income we found that participants who reported living in an area with a bad neighborhood reputation had higher BMI (B=4.2, 95%CI: -0.01, 8.3, P=0.051, as well as higher systolic blood pressure (B=13.2, 95%CI: 3.2, 23.1, P=0.01 and diastolic blood pressure (B=8.5, 95%CI: 2.8, 14.3, P=0.004. In addition, participants who reported living in an area with a bad neighborhood reputation had increased risk of obesity/overweight [relative risk (RR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.1, 1.4, P=0.02 and hypertension/pre-hypertension (RR=1.66, 95%CI: 1.2, 2.4, P=0.007. However, we found no differences in spatial mobility (based GPS data among participants who reported living in neighborhoods with and without spatial stigma (P>0.05. Further research is needed to investigate how placebased stigma may be associated with impaired cardiovascular health among individuals

  5. Income and Self-Rated Mental Health: Diminished Returns for High Income Black Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The minorities’ diminished return theory suggests that socioeconomic position (SEP generates smaller health gains for racial/ethnic minorities compared to Whites. The current study was a Black–White comparison of the association between household income and self-rated mental health (SRMH. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the 2017 State of the State Survey (SOSS. With representative sampling, the SOSS generates results that are generalizable to the state of Michigan. This study included 881 adults, (n = 92 Black and (n = 782 White. The independent variable was household income. The dependent variable was SRMH, measured using a single item. Age, gender, and participation in the labor force were covariates. Race/ethnicity was the focal moderator. Logistic regression models were used for data analysis. Results: Overall, higher household income was associated with better SRMH, net of covariates. An interaction was found between race/ethnicity and household income on SRMH, suggesting a smaller, or nonexistent, protective effect for Blacks compared to Whites. In race/ethnicity-stratified models, higher household income was associated with better SRMH for Whites but not Blacks. Conclusion: Supporting the minorities’ diminished return theory, our study documents differential effects for income on SRHM for Blacks and Whites, where Whites but not Blacks appear to benefit from their income. Given this, researchers and policy makers are cautioned against making assumptions that racial groups benefit equally from similar economic resources.

  6. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  7. Improved netting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramley, A.; Clabburn, R.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for producing netting composed of longitudinal and transverse threads of irradiation cross linked thermoplastic material, the threads being joined together at their crossings by moulded masses of cross linked thermoplastic material. The thread may be formed of polyethylene filaments, subjected to a radiation dose of 15 to 25 MR. The moulding can be conducted at 245 0 to 260 0 C or higher. The product is claimed to be an improved quality of netting, with bonds of increased strength between crossing threads. (U.K.)

  8. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52 ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  9. Net Gain

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Describing the effect of tax incentives for import, production, and sale of nets and insecticides; and ..... So far, China is the only country where a system for the routine treatment of ...... 1993), and the trials in Ecuador and Peru (Kroeger et al.

  10. A Longitudinal Evaluation of the Positive Action Program in a Low-Income, Racially Diverse, Rural County: Effects on Self-Esteem, School Hassles, Aggression, and Internalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shenyang; Wu, Qi; Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L

    2015-12-01

    Positive Action is a school-based program that aims to decrease problem behaviors (e.g., violence, substance use) and increase positive behaviors (e.g., school engagement, academic achievement). Although a number of studies have shown that Positive Action successfully achieves these goals, few studies have evaluated the program's effectiveness in rural schools. Given that rural youth are at an increased risk for risky behaviors (e.g., violence, substance use), this is a critical gap in the existing Positive Action research base. The current study assesses the impact of Positive Action on change rates of self-esteem, school hassles, aggression, and internalizing symptoms in a group (N = 1246, 52% female) of ethnically/racially diverse (27% White, 23% African American, 12% mixed race/other, 8% Latino, 30% as American Indian) middle school youth (age range 9-20) located in two violent, low-income rural counties in North Carolina. One county engaged in Positive Action over the 3-year study window while the other county did not. Following multiple imputation and propensity score analysis, 4 two-level hierarchical linear models were run using each of the outcome measures as dependent variables. The results indicate that the program generates statistically significant beneficial effects for youth from the intervention county on self-esteem scores and school hassles scores. Although the program generates beneficial effects for intervention youth on the change in aggression scores, the finding is not statistically significant. The finding on the change in internalizing scores shows a non-significant detrimental effect: the youth from the comparison county have lower internalizing scores than those from the intervention county. Implications are discussed.

  11. 20 CFR 404.1096 - Self-employment income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-employment income. 404.1096 Section 404... INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1096 Self-employment income. (a) General. Self-employment income is the amount of your net...

  12. Neuronal nets in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Sanchez, Raul

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives a generic idea of the solutions that the neuronal nets contribute to the robotics. The advantages and the inconveniences are exposed that have regarding the conventional techniques. It also describe the more excellent applications as the pursuit of trajectories, the positioning based on images, the force control or of the mobile robots management, among others

  13. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps......, to location-based social networks and games, such as Foursquare and facebook. Warns of the threats these technologies, such as data surveillance, present to our sense of privacy, while also outlining the opportunities for pro-social developments. Provides a theory of the web in the context of the history...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  14. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-2 - Computation of net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-2 Computation of net earnings from self-employment. (a) General rule. In general, the gross income and... ascertaining his net earnings from self-employment, are to be determined by reference to the provisions of law...

  15. Can income redistribution help changing rising inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this article compares the rise in inequality concerning net household incomes in a number of European countries and Canada, the USA and Australia. Two important factors are used to explain this worrying trend: a growing of unequal market incomes and/or a declining redistribution of income through

  16. Measuring the income process in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.

    2012-01-01

    We use a panel dataset from the SHIW survey to study the features of household income in Italy. Income is described as a combination of deterministic and random components. In aggregate deterministic income grows at an average annual rate of 1.8% net of inflation, shocks feature stationarity, and

  17. Volunteering, income and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detollenaere, Jens; Willems, Sara; Baert, Stijn

    2017-01-01

    Separate literatures have related volunteering to health gains and income gains. We study the association between volunteering, income and health within one statistical framework. A state-of-the-art mediation analysis is conducted on data concerning the health, volunteering and sociodemographic characteristics of 42926 individuals within 29 European countries. We find that volunteering is positively associated to self-rated health. This association is partially mediated by household income.

  18. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  19. The Distribution of Income and Taxes/Transfers In Canada: A Cohort Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Crisan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Who pays and how much? These are crucial questions for any tax system and, given the complexity of the economy, they are also among the most difficult to answer. This paper undertakes an analysis of the distribution of taxes and transfers in Canada using a static approach based on annual income combined with the novel approach of breaking down taxpayers by age cohort. The paper examines how tax rates net of transfers differ by age and income group, and how those rates change over taxpayers’ lifetimes. It clearly reveals the progressive nature of Canada’s tax system. In our base case scenario, when all age cohorts are considered together and transfers are treated as negative taxes, the first two quintiles of the income distribution are net recipients of government transfers with negative net tax rates equal to about -48 percent for the first quintile and -33 percent for the second quintile. For middle to high-income individuals net tax rates are positive and increase with income, from 10 percent for the median group, to 24 percent for the fourth quintile and 34 percent for the fifth quintile. Looking at net tax rates by age cohort, we find that overall the bottom 20 percent of the income distribution is a net recipient of fiscal transfers at all ages. However, on average for individuals 65 and over all but the top 20 percent of the income distribution are net recipients of fiscal transfers, with negative net tax rates. The age related redistributive nature of Canada’s tax system is further emphasized by an examination of the Gini coefficients for each age cohort, calculated here for the first time. Starting at age 30, before taxes and transfers income inequality is found to rise monotonically with age, leveling off at 65. Taxes and transfers reduce the degree of income inequality significantly for all ages, but substantially more so for the elderly due to age related features of the tax and transfer system. If redistribution can be thought

  20. N-acetylgalactosamine positive perineuronal nets in the saccade-related-part of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus do not maintain saccade gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Mueller

    Full Text Available Perineuronal nets (PNNs accumulate around neurons near the end of developmental critical periods. PNNs are structures of the extracellular matrix which surround synaptic contacts and contain chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Previous studies suggest that the chondroitin sulfate chains of PNNs inhibit synaptic plasticity and thereby help end critical periods. PNNs surround a high proportion of neurons in the cerebellar nuclei. These PNNs form during approximately the same time that movements achieve normal accuracy. It is possible that PNNs in the cerebellar nuclei inhibit plasticity to maintain the synaptic organization that produces those accurate movements. We tested whether or not PNNs in a saccade-related part of the cerebellar nuclei maintain accurate saccade size by digesting a part of them in an adult monkey performing a task that changes saccade size (long term saccade adaptation. We use the enzyme Chondroitinase ABC to digest the glycosaminoglycan side chains of proteoglycans present in the majority of PNNs. We show that this manipulation does not result in faster, larger, or more persistent adaptation. Our result indicates that intact perineuronal nets around saccade-related neurons in the cerebellar nuclei are not important for maintaining long-term saccade gain.

  1. Stateless Income

    OpenAIRE

    Edward D Kleinbard

    2012-01-01

    This paper and its companion, The Lessons of Stateless Income, together comprehensively analyze the tax consequences and policy implications of the phenomenon of “stateless income.” Stateless income comprises income derived for tax purposes by a multinational group from business activities in a country other than the domicile of the group’s ultimate parent company, but which is subject to tax only in a jurisdiction that is not the location of the customers or the factors of production through...

  2. Tenure and forest income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according...... to the extent of rule enforcement, and congruence (i.e., overlap of user rights between owners and users). We find negative associations between enforcement and smallholder forest income for state-owned and community forests, and positive associations for privately owned forests. Where user rights are limited...... to formal owners we find negative associations for state-owned forests. Overlapping user rights are positively associated with forest income for community forests. Our findings suggest that policy reforms emphasizing enforcement and reducing overlapping claims to forest resources should consider possible...

  3. The Path Analysis of Farmers' Income Structure in Yunnan Province

    OpenAIRE

    XIAO, Yongtian; CUI, Yu; HU, Lijia

    2015-01-01

    The problem of farmers' income growth is the key of issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers, so the farmers’ income growth is the fundamental starting point for agricultural and rural economic development. In this paper, we use the statistics concerning farmers' income in Yunnan Province from 1995 to 2012, to perform the path analysis of components of farmers' income in Yunnan Province, study the path of influence of components of farmers' income on farmers' net income, and t...

  4. Socioeconomic hierarchy and health gradient in Europe: the role of income inequality and of social origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvel, Louis; Leist, Anja K

    2015-11-14

    Health inequalities reflect multidimensional inequality (income, education, and other indicators of socioeconomic position) and vary across countries and welfare regimes. To which extent there is intergenerational transmission of health via parental socioeconomic status has rarely been investigated in comparative perspective. The study sought to explore if different measures of stratification produce the same health gradient and to which extent health gradients of income and of social origins vary with level of living and income inequality. A total of 299,770 observations were available from 18 countries assessed in EU-SILC 2005 and 2011 data, which contain information on social origins. Income inequality (Gini) and level of living were calculated from EU-SILC. Logit rank transformation provided normalized inequalities and distributions of income and social origins up to the extremes of the distribution and was used to investigate net comparable health gradients in detail. Multilevel random-slope models were run to post-estimate best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) and related standard deviations of residual intercepts (median health) and slopes (income-health gradients) per country and survey year. Health gradients varied across different measures of stratification, with origins and income producing significant slopes after controls. Income inequality was associated with worse average health, but income inequality and steepness of the health gradient were only marginally associated. Linear health gradients suggest gains in health per rank of income and of origins even at the very extremes of the distribution. Intergenerational transmission of status gains in importance in countries with higher income inequality. Countries differ in the association of income inequality and income-related health gradient, and low income inequality may mask health problems of vulnerable individuals with low status. Not only income inequality, but other country characteristics such

  5. Income inequality and adolescent fertility in low-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Castro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The well-known socioeconomic gradient in health does not imply that income inequality by itself has any effect on well-being. However, there is evidence of a positive association between income inequality and adolescent fertility across countries. Nevertheless, this key finding is not focused on low-income countries. This study applies a multilevel logistic regression of country-level adolescent fertility on country-level income inequality plus individual-level income and controls to the Demographic and Health Surveys data. A negative association between income inequality and adolescent fertility was found among low-income countries, controlling for income (OR = 0.981; 95%CI: 0.963-0.999. Different measures and different subsamples of countries show the same results. Therefore, the international association between income inequality and adolescent fertility seems more complex than previously thought.

  6. Income inequality and adolescent fertility in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ruben; Fajnzylber, Eduardo

    2017-09-28

    : The well-known socioeconomic gradient in health does not imply that income inequality by itself has any effect on well-being. However, there is evidence of a positive association between income inequality and adolescent fertility across countries. Nevertheless, this key finding is not focused on low-income countries. This study applies a multilevel logistic regression of country-level adolescent fertility on country-level income inequality plus individual-level income and controls to the Demographic and Health Surveys data. A negative association between income inequality and adolescent fertility was found among low-income countries, controlling for income (OR = 0.981; 95%CI: 0.963-0.999). Different measures and different subsamples of countries show the same results. Therefore, the international association between income inequality and adolescent fertility seems more complex than previously thought.

  7. 26 CFR 1.1301-1 - Averaging of farm income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... January 1, 2003, rental income based on a share of a tenant's production determined under an unwritten... the Collection of Income Tax at Source on Wages (Federal income tax withholding), or the amount of net... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Averaging of farm income. 1.1301-1 Section 1...

  8. Use of bed nets and factors that influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-wei; Liao, Yuan-mei; Liu, Hui; Nie, Ren-hua; Havumaki, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are an integral part of vector control recommendations for malaria elimination in China. This study investigated the extent to which bed nets were used and which factors influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority in China-Myanmar-Laos border areas. This study combined a quantitative household questionnaire survey and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews (SDI). Questionnaires were administered to 352 heads of households. SDIs were given to 20 key informants. The bed net to person ratio was 1∶2.1 (i.e., nearly one net for every two people), however only 169 (48.0%) households owned at least one net and 623 (47.2%) residents slept under bed nets the prior night. The percentages of residents who regularly slept under nets (RSUN) and slept under nets the prior night (SUNPN) were similar (48.0% vs. 47.2%, P>0.05), however the percentage correct use of nets (CUN) was significantly lower (34.5%, Pcash income per person (ACIP) was an independent factor that influenced bed net use (PHigh bed net availability does not necessarily mean higher coverage or bed net use. Household income, house type and knowledge of the ability of bed nets to prevent malaria are all independent factors that influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority.

  9. Rare, but challenging tumors: NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, D.; Balev, B.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (GEP - NET) are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different locations and many different clinical, histological, and imaging performance. In a part of them a secretion of various organic substances is present. The morbidity of GEP - NET in the EU is growing, and this leads to increase the attention to them. What you will learn: Imaging methods used for localization and staging of GEP - NET, characteristics of the study’s protocols; Classification of GEP - NET; Demonstration of typical and atypical imaging features of GEP - NET in patients registered at the NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’, Varna; Features of metastatic NET, The role of imaging in the evaluation of treatment response and follow-up of the patients. Discussion: The image semiotics analysis is based on 19 cases of GEP - NET registered NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’. The main imaging method is multidetector CT (MDCT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ) has advantages in the evaluation of liver lesions and the local prevalence of anorectal tumors. In patients with advanced disease and liver lesions the assessment of skeletal involvement (MRI/ nuclear medical method) is mandatory. The majority of GEP - NET have not any specific imaging findings. Therefore it is extremely important proper planning and conducting of the study (MDCT and MR enterography; accurate assessment phase of scanning, positive and negative contrast). Conclusion: GEP - NET is a major diagnostic challenge due to the absence of typical imaging characteristics and often an overlap with those of the tumors of different origin can be observed. Therefore, a good knowledge of clinical and imaging changes occurring at different locations is needed. MDCT is the basis for the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of these neoplasms

  10. Correlation between national income, HIV/AIDS and political status and mortalities in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, S Y; Umezaki, M; Nakamura, K; Kizuki, M; Takano, T

    2006-07-01

    To investigate associations between mortalities in African countries and problems that emerged in Africa in the 1990s (reduction of national income, HIV/AIDS and political instability) by adjusting for the influences of development, sanitation and education. We compiled country-level indicators of mortalities, national net income (the reduction of national income by the debt), infection rate of HIV/AIDS, political instability, demography, education, sanitation and infrastructure, from 1990 to 2000 of all African countries (n=53). To extract major factors from indicators of the latter four categories, we carried out principal component analysis. We used multiple regression analysis to examine the associations between mortality indicators and national net income per capita, infection rate of HIV/AIDS, and political instability by adjusting the influence of other possible mortality determinants. Mean of infant mortality per 1000 live births (IMR); maternal mortality per 100,000 live birth (MMR); adult female mortality per 1000 population (AMRF); adult male mortality per 1000 population (AMRM); and life expectancy at birth (LE) in 2000 were 83, 733, 381, 435, and 51, respectively. Three factors were identified as major influences on development: education, sanitation and infrastructure. National net income per capita showed independent negative associations with MMR and AMRF, and a positive association with LE. Infection rate of HIV/AIDS was independently positively associated with AMRM and AMRF, and negatively associated with LE in 2000. Political instability score was independently positively associated with MMR. National net income per capita, HIV/AIDS and political status were predictors of mortality indicators in African countries. This study provided evidence for supporting health policies that take economic and political stability into account.

  11. Income inequality and population health: an analysis of panel data for 21 developed countries, 1975-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Roberta; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2014-03-01

    The relative income-health hypothesis postulates that income distribution is an important determinant of population health, but the age and sex patterns of this association are not well known. We tested the relative income-health hypothesis using panel data collected for 21 developed countries over 30 years. Net of trends in gross domestic product per head and unobserved period and country factors, income inequality measured by the Gini index is positively associated with the mortality of males and females at ages 1-14 and 15-49, and with the mortality of females at ages 65-89 albeit less strongly than for the younger age groups. These findings suggest that policies to decrease income inequality may improve health, especially that of children and young-to-middle-aged men and women. The mechanisms behind the income inequality-mortality association remain unknown and should be the focus of future research.

  12. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...... the impact of the increased number of immigrants differs between the two countries. We find higher inequality for immigrants than natives in Denmark but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this particular inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution...... of immigrants to overall inequality has increased, primarily caused by increased between-group inequality. The share of immigrants in the population is more important for the change in overall inequality in Denmark than in Germany, while the opposite is the case for inequality among immigrants....

  13. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1987-01-01

    The author describes a Petri net model, called coloured Petri nets (CP-nets), by means of which it is possible to describe large systems without having to cope with unnecessary details. The author introduces CP-nets and provide a first impression of their modeling power and the suitability...

  14. Learning Visual Basic NET

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Learning Visual Basic .NET is a complete introduction to VB.NET and object-oriented programming. By using hundreds of examples, this book demonstrates how to develop various kinds of applications--including those that work with databases--and web services. Learning Visual Basic .NET will help you build a solid foundation in .NET.

  15. Interregional income differentials and migration: their interrelationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, T

    1988-02-01

    "The major objective of this paper is to demonstrate that interregional income differential is exogenous to interregional net migration, but not conversely. Utilizing Japanese prefectural-based data for 1954-82, we conduct the following three kinds of analyses to confirm this statement. Firstly, a simple comparison of the crests of interregional time-series plots was made to see which occurred first. Secondly, Sims', 1972, test of causality was done to investigate causation between urban/rural income differential and net migration. Finally, per capita income and population share were examined by two-dimensional phase diagram for nine regions." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND GER) excerpt

  16. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET): 5-year analysis of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Miguel; Holmes, Frankie A; Ejlertsen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ExteNET showed that 1 year of neratinib, an irreversible pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor, significantly improves 2-year invasive disease-free survival after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in women with HER2-positive breast cancer. We report updated efficacy outcomes from...... cancer, who had completed neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab with no evidence of disease recurrence or metastatic disease at study entry. Patients who were eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via permuted blocks stratified according to hormone receptor status (hormone....../day or matching placebo. Treatment was given continuously for 1 year, unless disease recurrence or new breast cancer, intolerable adverse events, or consent withdrawal occurred. Patients, investigators, and trial funder were masked to treatment allocation. The predefined endpoint of the 5-year analysis...

  17. Capital Income Tax Coordination and the Income Tax Mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2005-01-01

    in the mix of capital and labor taxes brought on by capital income tax coordination can potentially be welfare reducing. This reflects that in a non-cooperative equilibrium capital income taxes may be more distorting from an international perspective than are labor income taxes. Simulations with a simple...... model calibrated to EU public finance data suggest that countries indeed lower their labor taxes in response to higher coordinated capital income taxes. The overall welfare effects of capital income tax coordination, however, are estimated to remain positive.JEL Classification: F20, H87......Europe has seen several proposals for tax coordination only in the area of capital income taxation, leaving countries free to adjust their labor taxes. The expectation is that highercapital income tax revenues would cause countries to reduce their labor taxes. This paper shows that such changes...

  18. Income Migration and Home Price Trajectories in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel M. Otterstrom

    2015-01-01

    This paper models one facet of the relationship between housing market price shifts and income migration among U.S. regions: how income migration relates to regional housing price clusters. The tremendous negative slide in national housing prices from 2006 to 2012 had an uneven spatial distribution. These differences are explored within the context of net income and net population migration (movement of money with people). Median housing prices for urban areas from 2005 to 2010 and IRS county...

  19. County level socioeconomic position, work organization and depression disorder: a repeated measures cross-classified multilevel analysis of low-income nursing home workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Li, Yong; Xue, Xiaonan; Thompson, Theresa; O'Campo, Patricia; Chung, Haejoo; Eaton, William W

    2006-12-01

    This study simultaneously tests the effect of county, organizational, workplace, and individual level variables on depressive disorders among low-income nursing assistants employed in US nursing homes. A total of 482 observations are used from two waves of survey data collection, with an average two-year interval between initial and follow-up surveys. The overall response rate was 62 percent. The hierarchically structured data was analyzed using multilevel modeling to account for cross-classifications across levels of data. Nursing assistants working in nursing homes covered by a single union in three states were asked about aspects of their working conditions, job stress, physical and mental health status, individual and family health-care needs, household economics and household strain. The 241 nursing assistants who participated in this study were employed in 34 nursing homes and lived in 49 counties of West Virginia, Ohio and Kentucky. The study finds that emotional strain, related to providing direct care to elderly and disabled clients, is associated with depressive disorder, as is nursing home ownership type (for-profit versus not-for-profit). However, when controlling for county level socioeconomic variables (Gini index and proportion of African Americans living in the county), neither workplace nor organizational level variables were found to be statistically significant associated with depressive disorder. This study supports previous findings that emotional demand in health-care environments is an important correlate of mental health. It also adds empirical evidence to support a link between financial strain and depression in US women. While this study does not find that lack of a seniority wage benefits--a factor that can conceivably exacerbate financial strain over time--is associated with depressive disorder among low-income health-care workers, it does find county level measures of poverty to be statistically significant predictors of depressive

  20. 26 CFR 1.1502-21 - Net operating losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., gain, deduction, and loss, including the member's losses and deductions actually absorbed by the group... income, gain, deduction, and loss. For this purpose— (A) Consolidated taxable income is computed without... the group has no Year 2 capital gain, it cannot absorb any capital losses in Year 2. T's Year 1 net...

  1. Income, income inequality and youth smoking in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David X; Guindon, G Emmanuel

    2013-04-01

    To examine the relationships between income, income inequality and current smoking among youth in low- and middle-income countries. Pooled cross-sectional data from the Global Youth Tobacco Surveys, conducted in low- and middle-income countries, were used to conduct multi-level logistic analyses that accounted for the nesting of students in schools and of schools in countries. A total of 169 283 students aged 13-15 from 63 low- and middle-income countries. Current smoking was defined as having smoked at least one cigarette in the past 30 days. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was our measure of absolute income. Contemporaneous and lagged (10-year) Gini coefficients, as well as the income share ratio of the top decile of incomes to the bottom decile, were our measures of income inequality. Our analyses reveal a significant positive association between levels of income and youth smoking. We find that a 10% increase in GDP per capita increases the odds of being a current smoker by at least 2.5%, and potentially considerably more. Our analyses also suggest a relationship between the distribution of incomes and youth smoking: youth from countries with more unequal distributions of income tend to have higher odds of currently smoking. There is a positive association between gross domestic product and the odds of a young person in a low- and middle-income country being a current smoker. Given the causal links between smoking and a wide range of youth morbidities, the association between smoking and income inequality may underlie a substantial portion of the health disparities observed that are currently experiencing rapid economic growth. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Planning of nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carberry, M

    1996-01-01

    The paper is about the planning of nets in areas of low density like it is the case of the rural areas. The author includes economic and technological aspects, planning of nets, demands and management among others

  3. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets) can be used for several fundamentally different purposes like functional analysis, performance analysis, and visualisation. To be able to use the corresponding tool extensions and libraries it is sometimes necessary to include extra auxiliary information in the CP......-net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... of the same basic CP-net. One solution to this problem is that the auxiliary information is not integrated into colour sets and arc inscriptions of a CP-net, but is kept separately. This makes it easy to disable this auxiliary information if a CP-net is to be used for another purpose. This paper proposes...

  4. Medical rehabilitation in low and middle income countries for adult acquired disability: challenges posed by rapidity of health system change and position on the individualistic-collectivist axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Sandin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic illness prevalence has rapidly increased in low or middle income countries (LMIC and with it, the need for medical rehabilitation for adults with acquired conditions that stem from aging and long-term conditions. While Western medical rehabilitation programs have had at least two generations to develop, in LMIC, post-acute health care delivery change has been much more rapid. As a result, there has been little opportunity for models of medical rehabilitation to deliberately emerge in LMIC that reflect societal values. While adaptation of an independence-foremost model of medical rehabilitation may succeed in non-Western societies, there is a risk that adaptation of such a model will be ineffective where many value collectivism more than individualism. The rapid change in medical rehabilitation service delivery in LMIC gives Christian providers and organizations an opportunity to pause and reflect whether the dominant Western medical rehabilitation paradigm serves LMIC cultures and reflects Biblical principles.

  5. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Azhar, Hussain

    Four income inequality measures (Gini-coefficient, 90/10-decile ratio, and two generalized entropy indices) are applied to analyse immigrants’ income position relative to natives in a comparative perspective. Administrative data is used for Denmark, while survey data is used for Germany. We find...... higher inequality among immigrants than natives in Denmark, but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution of immigrants to overall inequality has increased systematically, primarily caused by the increased...... share of immigrants in the population....

  6. Household economic modelsof gill net fishermen at Madura strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primyastanto, M.

    2018-04-01

    The purposes of this research was to analyze household economic models of gill net fishermen at Madura strait. 30 families of gillnet fishermenwere used for purposive sampling. Data analysis used descriptive qualitative and quantitative (regression analysis). Quantitative descriptive analysis was used to analyze research and compare to factors that affecting household economic models of gill net fishermen family. Research results showed tha thousehold economic models of gill net fishermen at Madura strait was production value level or fishermen revenue at sea was strongly influenced byp roduction asset production, education level, fuel, and work flow. Work flow rate of fishermen families affected by asset production, non fisheries workflow and number of male workforce. Non fishing income level was strongly influenced by non-fishery business assets, number of family members owned andnon-fishing work flow. Spending levels of gill net fishermen at Madura strait was affected by fishing income, non-fishing income, fishermen wife education and fishermen family members.

  7. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  8. 20 CFR 404.1094 - Options available for figuring net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... income and net profit from operating the grocery store in 1978 through 1980 are as follows: 1978 1979...-employment of $400 or more in 1975 and in 1976. Her gross income and net profit from operating both a grocery... method of reporting after your tax return is filed, you may change it by filing an amended tax return...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1502-21T - Net operating losses (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating losses (temporary). 1.1502-21T...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Computation of Consolidated Items § 1.1502-21T Net operating losses...)(B). (C) Partial waiver of carryback period for 2001 and 2002 losses—(1) Application. The acquiring...

  10. 29 CFR 4062.4 - Determinations of net worth and collective net worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... financial condition, and business history. (6) The economic outlook for the person's industry and the market... do not produce income for the business being valued or are not used in the business. (c) Factors for... to sell, or offer to purchase or sell the business of the person made on or about the net worth...

  11. Joint determinants of fiscal policy, income inequality and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Leonel Muinelo-Gallo; Oriol Roca-Sagalés

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between income inequality and economic growth through fiscal policy. To this end, we present and estimate two systems of structural equiation with error components through which gross income inequality determines different fiscal policy outcomes, which subsequently affects the evolution of economic growth and net income inequality. The empirical results, obtained using an unbalanced panel data of 21 high-income OCDE countries during the period 1972-2006, s...

  12. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET): 5-year analysis of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Miguel; Holmes, Frankie A; Ejlertsen, Bent; Delaloge, Suzette; Moy, Beverly; Iwata, Hiroji; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Chia, Stephen K L; Mansi, Janine; Barrios, Carlos H; Gnant, Michael; Tomašević, Zorica; Denduluri, Neelima; Šeparović, Robert; Gokmen, Erhan; Bashford, Anna; Ruiz Borrego, Manuel; Kim, Sung-Bae; Jakobsen, Erik Hugger; Ciceniene, Audrone; Inoue, Kenichi; Overkamp, Friedrich; Heijns, Joan B; Armstrong, Anne C; Link, John S; Joy, Anil Abraham; Bryce, Richard; Wong, Alvin; Moran, Susan; Yao, Bin; Xu, Feng; Auerbach, Alan; Buyse, Marc; Chan, Arlene

    2017-12-01

    ExteNET showed that 1 year of neratinib, an irreversible pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor, significantly improves 2-year invasive disease-free survival after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in women with HER2-positive breast cancer. We report updated efficacy outcomes from a protocol-defined 5-year follow-up sensitivity analysis and long-term toxicity findings. In this ongoing randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, eligible women aged 18 years or older (≥20 years in Japan) with stage 1-3c (modified to stage 2-3c in February, 2010) operable breast cancer, who had completed neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab with no evidence of disease recurrence or metastatic disease at study entry. Patients who were eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via permuted blocks stratified according to hormone receptor status (hormone receptor-positive vs hormone receptor-negative), nodal status (0 vs 1-3 vs or ≥4 positive nodes), and trastuzumab adjuvant regimen (given sequentially vs concurrently with chemotherapy), then implemented centrally via an interactive voice and web-response system, to receive 1 year of oral neratinib 240 mg/day or matching placebo. Treatment was given continuously for 1 year, unless disease recurrence or new breast cancer, intolerable adverse events, or consent withdrawal occurred. Patients, investigators, and trial funder were masked to treatment allocation. The predefined endpoint of the 5-year analysis was invasive disease-free survival, analysed by intention to treat. ExteNET is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00878709, and is closed to new participants. Between July 9, 2009, and Oct 24, 2011, 2840 eligible women with early HER2-positive breast cancer were recruited from community-based and academic institutions in 40 countries and randomly assigned to receive neratinib (n=1420) or placebo (n=1420). After a median follow-up of 5·2 years (IQR 2·1-5·3), patients in the neratinib

  13. Determinants and Consequences of Non-Interest Income Diversification of Commercial Banks in OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Ho Hahm

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies determinants and consequences of theThis paper studies determinants and consequences of the changing income structure of commercial banks in the era of financial conglomeration. Utilizing a dataset of 662 relatively large commercial banks in 29 OECD countries from 1992 to 2006, we find that banks with relatively large asset sizes, low net interest margins, high impaired loan ratios, and high cost-income ratios tend to exhibit higher non-interest income shares. As for macroeconomic factors, banks in countries with slow economic growth, a stable inflation environment, and well- developed stock markets tend to show higher non-interest income shares. Second, we investigate the consequences of non-interest income expansion on bank profitability and risks. While the positive effects on profit and capital adequacy seem to become weaker under the consideration of macroeconomic factors and endogeneity problems, the adverse impact on profit variability remains robust. Overall, these findings suggest that expanding toward non-interest income may not produce desired income diversification effects, and it does not necessarily imply a shift toward superior return-risk frontiers.

  14. Net energy benefits of carbon nanotube applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Pei; Isaacs, Jacqueline A.; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle net energy benefits are examined. • CNT-enabled and the conventional technologies are compared. • Flash memory with CNT switches show significant positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with MWCNT cathodes show positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with SWCNT anodes tend to exhibit negative net energy benefit. - Abstract: Implementation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various applications can reduce material and energy requirements of products, resulting in energy savings. However, processes for the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are energy-intensive and can require extensive purification. In this study, we investigate the net energy benefits of three CNT-enabled technologies: multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) reinforced cement used as highway construction material, single-walled CNT (SWCNT) flash memory switches used in cell phones and CNT anodes and cathodes used in lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. We explore the avoided or additional energy requirement in the manufacturing and use phases and estimate the life cycle net energy benefits for each application. Additional scenario analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of parameter uncertainties resulted in probability distributions of net energy benefits, indicating that net energy benefits are dependent on the application with confidence intervals straddling the breakeven line in some cases. Analysis of simulation results reveals that SWCNT switch flash memory and MWCNT Li-ion battery cathodes have statistically significant positive net energy benefits (α = 0.05) and SWCNT Li-ion battery anodes tend to have negative net energy benefits, while positive results for MWCNT-reinforced cement were significant only under an efficient CNT production scenario and a lower confidence level (α = 0.1).

  15. Taxation, Transfer Income and Stock Market Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    We study a redistributive tax system that taxes income and redistributes tax revenues in such a way that relatively rich agents are net contributors to relatively poor agents. The closed-form solution of our model allows two main conclusions: (i) Despite ongoing transfers, wealth levels are not h......We study a redistributive tax system that taxes income and redistributes tax revenues in such a way that relatively rich agents are net contributors to relatively poor agents. The closed-form solution of our model allows two main conclusions: (i) Despite ongoing transfers, wealth levels...... are not harmonized because poorer agents mainly use their transfer income to finance present consumption. (ii) Since the evolution of the economy determines both the level of tax revenues and the evolution of the stock market, transfer income is subject to stock market risk. Hence, poorer agents optimally reduce...

  16. Family income and young adolescents' perceived social position: Associations with self-esteem and life satisfaction in the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bannink (Rienke); A. Pearce (Anna); S. Hope (Steven)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Self-esteem and life satisfaction are important aspects of positive mental health in young people, and both are socially distributed. However, the majority of evidence is based on socioeconomic characteristics of the family. As children enter adolescence and gain independence,

  17. Quantum net dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, D.

    1989-01-01

    The quantum net unifies the basic principles of quantum theory and relativity in a quantum spacetime having no ultraviolet infinities, supporting the Dirac equation, and having the usual vacuum as a quantum condensation. A correspondence principle connects nets to Schwinger sources and further unifies the vertical structure of the theory, so that the functions of the many hierarchic levels of quantum field theory (predicate algebra, set theory, topology,hor-ellipsis, quantum dynamics) are served by one in quantum net dynamics

  18. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-1 - Definition of net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of net earnings from self-employment... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-1 Definition of net earnings from self-employment. (a) Subject to the special rules set forth in §§ 1.1402(a)-3...

  19. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  20. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  1. Effects of inflation on the distribution of income in Italy, 1953-1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Spaventa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the ten years 1953-62, the average price level in Italy rose every year, with the exception of 1959. The present article examines the effects of this inflationary process on income distribution. To do so the author first determines the extent to which each productive sector contributed to the creation of the total surplus of money product over real product, and how such excess was distributed amongst the various income categories in each sector. Then, the losses in real purchasing power these categories suffered are examined. Finally, the net outcome between gains in money product and losses for each category is found. According to the author, the data suggests peculiarly Ricardian features: the increase in prices was largely due to a rise in rents and of sectoral incomes in which are hidden some forms of rent, in the twofold aspect of privileged positions and inefficiency.

  2. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...

  3. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available the national grid. The unfortunate situation with water is that there is no replacement technology for water. Water can be supplied from many different sources. A net zero energy development will move closer to a net zero water development by reducing...

  4. Construction of monophase nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez A, Jose Antonio

    1996-01-01

    The paper refers to the use of monophase loads in commercial residential urbanizations and in small industries, for this reason it is considered unnecessary the construction of three-phase nets. The author makes a historical recount of these nets in Bogota, his capacities, uses and energy savings

  5. Fusion through the NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the next generation of fusion machines which are intended to demonstrate the technical viability of fusion. In Europe, the device that will follow on from JET is known as NET - the Next European Torus. If the design programme for NET proceeds, Europe could start to build the machine in 1994. The present JET programme hopes to achieve breakeven in the early 1990's. NET hopes to reach ignition in the next century, and so lay the foundation for a demonstration reactor. A description is given of the technical specifications of the components of NET, including: the first wall, the divertors to protect the wall, the array of magnets that provide the fields containing the plasma, the superconducting magnets, and the shield of the machine. NET's research programme is briefly outlined, including the testing programme to optimise conditions in the machine to achieve ignition, and its safety work. (U.K.)

  6. 17 CFR 210.5-03 - Income statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in a note thereto amounts of (a) losses on securities (net of profits) and (b) miscellaneous income... sales and gross revenues. State separately: (a) Net sales of tangible products (gross sales less... system of accounts or a form for annual report prescribed by federal or state authorities, or a similar...

  7. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Gustavsen, Arild

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...

  8. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  9. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  10. Globalization and Income Inequality Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Dorn, Florian; Fuest, Clemens; Potrafke, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    This paper re-examines the link between globalization and income inequality. We use data for 140 countries over the period 1970-2014 and employ an IV approach to deal with the endogeneity of globalization measures. We find that the link between globalization and income inequality differs across different groups of countries. There is a robust positive relationship between globalization and inequality in the transition countries including China and most countries of Middle and Eastern Europe. ...

  11. Green net national product for the sustainability and social welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the theory of green national accounting and, emphasizes on social welfare and sustainable accounting. Weitzman provides a foundation for net national product as the stationary equivalent of a wealth maximizing path when there is a constant interest rate and no exogenous technological progress. An attempt has been taken here to make the relationship with different incomes and green net national product, under no exogenous technological progress and a constant utility disco...

  12. 77 FR 17004 - Child Nutrition Programs-Income Eligibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Office of Management and Budget. This notice has been determined to be not significant and was reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget in conformance with Executive Order 12866. The affected... persons not living in the household; (13) net royalties; and (14) other cash income. Other cash income...

  13. 78 FR 17628 - Child Nutrition Programs; Income Eligibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Office of Management and Budget. This notice has been determined to be not significant and was not reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget in conformance with Executive Order 12866. The affected... persons not living in the household; (13) net royalties; and (14) other cash income. Other cash income...

  14. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  15. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  16. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  17. NET SALARY ADJUSTMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Finance Division

    2001-01-01

    On 15 June 2001 the Council approved the correction of the discrepancy identified in the net salary adjustment implemented on 1st January 2001 by retroactively increasing the scale of basic salaries to achieve the 2.8% average net salary adjustment approved in December 2000. We should like to inform you that the corresponding adjustment will be made to your July salary. Full details of the retroactive adjustments will consequently be shown on your pay slip.

  18. Dutch social housing sector reforms : Exploring the effects on low income households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groen, A.; Pruyt, E.; Boumeester, H.J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Social rental housing ought to function as safety net for the lower income groups in the housing system. However, the Dutch housing system has a relatively large social housing stock in relation to other housing systems in Europe – larger than would be required for a safety net for lower income

  19. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH mine drainage treatment can lead to systems with insufficient Alkalinity to neutralize metal and H+ acidity and is not recommended. The use of net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity titration is recommended for the planning of mine drainage treatment. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Aciditycalculated) is recommended with some cautions

  20. Net-zero building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In its experimental work on research and development of innovative technologies for low income housing on the Innovation Site on the CSIR campus in Pretoria, the Building Science and Technology (BST) competence area identified a number...

  1. Probabilistic income-maximizing behavior in regional migration: an empirical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, R I; Evans, R D

    1980-01-01

    "This paper provides an empirical test of the hypothesis that migrants consider income risk in their evaluation of the returns to migration in that higher levels of income risk for a given region reduce the rate of net migration into that region." Theoretical approaches to the incorporation of income risk in migration models are first considered, and alternative approaches are then tested using data on white and nonwhite net migration in the United States between 1960 and 1970. The results indicate support for the hypothesis that the extent of net migration is inversely affected by income risk. excerpt

  2. Evaluating the income and employment impacts of gas cooling technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Laitner, S.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential employment and income benefits of the emerging market for gas cooling products. The emphasis here is on exports because that is the major opportunity for the U.S. heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry. But domestic markets are also important and considered here because without a significant domestic market, it is unlikely that the plant investments, jobs, and income associated with gas cooling exports would be retained within the United States. The prospects for significant gas cooling exports appear promising for a variety of reasons. There is an expanding need for cooling in the developing world, natural gas is widely available, electric infrastructures are over-stressed in many areas, and the cost of building new gas infrastructure is modest compared to the cost of new electric infrastructure. Global gas cooling competition is currently limited, with Japanese and U.S. companies, and their foreign business partners, the only product sources. U.S. manufacturers of HVAC products are well positioned to compete globally, and are already one of the faster growing goods-exporting sectors of the U.S. economy. Net HVAC exports grew by over 800 percent from 1987 to 1992 and currently exceed $2.6 billion annually (ARI 1994). Net gas cooling job and income creation are estimated using an economic input-output model to compare a reference case to a gas cooling scenario. The reference case reflects current policies, practices, and trends with respect to conventional electric cooling technologies. The gas cooling scenario examines the impact of accelerated use of natural gas cooling technologies here and abroad.

  3. Elliptic net and its cryptographic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Norliana; Said, Mohamad Rushdan Md

    2017-11-01

    Elliptic net is a generalization of elliptic divisibility sequence and in cryptography field, most cryptographic pairings that are based on elliptic curve such as Tate pairing can be improved by applying elliptic nets algorithm. The elliptic net is constructed by using n dimensional array of values in rational number satisfying nonlinear recurrence relations that arise from elliptic divisibility sequences. The two main properties hold in the recurrence relations are for all positive integers m>n, hm +nhm -n=hm +1hm -1hn2-hn +1hn -1hm2 and hn divides hm whenever n divides m. In this research, we discuss elliptic divisibility sequence associated with elliptic nets based on cryptographic perspective and its possible research direction.

  4. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  5. Reconfiguration of distribution nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre Bayona, Gerardo; Angarita Marquez, Jorge Luis

    2000-01-01

    Starting of the location of the reconfiguration problem inside the context of the operation of distribution nets, of the quality indicators definition and of the presentation of the alternatives more used for reduction of technical losses, they are related diverse reconfiguration methodologies proposed in the technical literature, pointing out their three principals limitations; also are presents the results of lost obtained starting from simulation works carried out in distribution circuits of the ESSA ESP, which permitting to postulate the reconfiguration of nets like an excellent alternative to reduce technical losses

  6. NET system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Mitchell, N.; Salpietro, E.; Buzzi, U.; Gritzmann, P.

    1985-01-01

    The NET system integration procedure is the process by which the requirements of the various Tokamak machine design areas are brought together to form a compatible machine layout. Each design area produces requirements which generally allow components to be built at minimum cost and operate with minimum technical risk, and the final machine assembly should be achieved with minimum departure from these optimum designs. This is carried out in NET by allowing flexibility in the maintenance and access methods to the machine internal components which must be regularly replaced by remote handling, in segmentation of these internal components and in the number of toroidal field coils

  7. Is College Affordable? Are Loans Manageable? What Do Colleges' Net Price Calculators Show? Policy Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2012

    2012-01-01

    A review of net price calculators--a financial aid tool mandated by the "Higher Education Opportunity Act" of 2008--reveals that students from low-, moderate-, and middle-income families face record-level net prices at 4-year public colleges today. These net prices will translate into levels of average total loan burden far in excess of…

  8. 76 FR 16345 - Net Worth and Equity Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... acquisition must be measured under generally accepted accounting principles as referenced in the Act. 12 U.S.C... equity or member interest in the acquirer. Generally accepted accounting principles require this excess... generally accepted accounting principles. For low income-designated credit unions, net worth also includes...

  9. 47 CFR 32.4341 - Net deferred tax liability adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... income tax charges and credits pertaining to Account 32.4361, Deferred tax regulatory adjustments—net. (b... be recorded in Account 4361 as required by paragraph (a) of this section. (3) The tax effects of... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32...

  10. 14 CFR Section 14 - Objective Classification-Nonoperating Income and Expense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Income and Expense 80Interest Income. Included under account 89 Other Nonoperating Income and Expense—Net.... 84.2Amortization of premium on debt. Record here for all classes of debt the amortizations of premium on short-term and long-term obligations. (b) [Reserved] [ER-1401, 50 FR 245, Jan. 3, 1985, as amended...

  11. 26 CFR 301.7654-1 - Coordination of U.S. and Guam individual income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... determination of the source of income shall be based on the principles contained in sections 861 through 863... collections attributable to income from sources within the United States shall be covered into the Treasury of the United States. (ii) Net collections attributable to income from sources within Guam shall be...

  12. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  13. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  14. Net4Care platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , that in turn enables general practitioners and clinical staff to view observations. Use the menus above to explore the site's information resources. To get started, follow the short Hello, World! tutorial. The Net4Care project is funded by The Central Denmark Region and EU via Caretech Innovation....

  15. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism an...

  16. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  17. BacillusRegNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misirli, Goksel; Hallinan, Jennifer; Röttger, Richard

    2014-01-01

    As high-throughput technologies become cheaper and easier to use, raw sequence data and corresponding annotations for many organisms are becoming available. However, sequence data alone is not sufficient to explain the biological behaviour of organisms, which arises largely from complex molecular...... the associated BacillusRegNet website (http://bacillus.ncl.ac.uk)....

  18. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  19. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... result that the NRI statistic calculated on a large test dataset using risk models derived from a training set is likely to be positive even when the new marker has no predictive information. A related theoretical example is provided in which an incorrect risk function that includes an uninformative...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  20. Analysis of Income Inequality Based on Income Mobility for Poverty Alleviation in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the reform and opening up, the Chinese economy has achieved sustained high-speed growth. However, the widening gaps in income, especially for rural China, seem to be a dark lining to these extraordinary achievements. Taking the duration of poverty into the consideration, this article analyzes the income inequality of rural per capita net income (RPCNI based on income mobility in rural China. Analysis results showed that Gini coefficient of RPCNI declined, but that income mobility was mainly limited in the interior for low- and high-income groups. Income inequalities rose sharply within eastern and western China from 1990 to 2010. Benefiting from the developed economy, the upward mobility was universal in eastern China. The spillover effect on neighboring poor counties was feeble in western China, which directly caused long-term rich and poor. The Gini coefficient of RPCNI in central China was always at a low level, corresponding to the phenomenon of short-term rich and long-term poor. In northeastern China, the Gini coefficient sharply decreased and the large body of income mobility between non-neighboring groups was quite remarkable. The spatial pattern of intra-provincial Gini coefficient and income mobility of RPCNI has been divided by the “HU line”, which is a “geo-demographic demarcation line” discovered by Chinese population geographer HU Huanyong in 1935. In southeastern China, the characteristics of income mobility of each county depended on the distance between the county and the capital city. The spatial pattern of income mobility of RPCNI in agricultural provinces was different from that in non-agricultural provinces. According to the income inequality and income mobility, appropriate welfare and development policies was proposed to combat rural poverty at both regional and provincial scales.

  1. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-3 - Special rules for computing net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... self-employment. 1.1402(a)-3 Section 1.1402(a)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-3 Special rules for computing net earnings from self-employment. For the purpose of computing...

  2. Income distribution and mortality in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lindholm

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The hypothesis that a high income inequality on a societal level is associated with poor health outcomes has been both rejected and accepted in empirical studies. Whether the influence of economic circumstances on health operates at the individual level or societal level has important implications on policy and intervention alternatives. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between income inequality and mortality in Swedish municipalities and if the relationship varies depending on the mean income or on the time-lag between income inequality and mortality.

    Methods: The study was based on register data on mean income and income inequality (Gini coefficients from Statistics Sweden 1982 and 1998, aggregated on the municipality level. Data on age-standardised death rates per 100,000 persons were obtained for 1983, 1988, 1993, 1998 and 2002. The analysis on 1998 was a test of the robustness of the results.

    Results: The relationship between high income inequality in 1982 and mortality in 1983 was negative with a similar relationship in 1998. Using latency periods, the results show a decreasing trend of mortality in relation to higher Gini coefficients. A positive relationship between Gini and mean income implies that municipalities with larger income distribution also had a higher mean income and vice versa.

    Conclusions: High income inequality does not have a negative effect on mortality in Swedish municipalities. The municipalities with high income inequality have also high mean income as opposed to many other countries. The income level seems to be more substantial for mortality than the income inequality.

  3. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    -accompanying Master courses, placements of internships, and PhD scholarship projects. A new scholarship project, “SHINE”, was launched in autumn 2013 in the frame work of the Marie Curie program of the European Union (Initial Training Network, ITN). 13 PhD-scholarships on solar district heating, solar heat......SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...... for industrial processes, as well as sorption stores and materials started in December 2013. Additionally, the project comprises a training program with five PhD courses and several workshops on solar thermal engineering that will be open also for other PhD students working in the field. The research projects...

  4. FDI, Human Capital and Income Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völlmecke, Dominik; Jindra, Björn; Marek, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    within Central and East European countries (CEECs), where we find indications of a poverty trap. In contrast to FDI, regional human capital seems to be associated with higher income levels. However, we identify a positive interaction of FDI and human capital in their relation with income growth dynamics....

  5. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  6. Social Captial and Relative Income Concerns: Evidence from 26 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Justina A. V.; Torgler, Benno

    2007-01-01

    Research evidence on the impact of relative income position on individuals’ attitudes and behaviour is sorely lacking. Therefore, using the International Social Survey Programme 1998 data from 26 countries this paper investigates the impact of relative income on 14 measurements of social capital. We find support for a considerable deleterious positional concern effect of persons below the reference income. This effect is more sizeable by far than the beneficial impact of a relative income a...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1081 - General rules for figuring net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... self-employment. 404.1081 Section 404.1081 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1081 General rules for figuring net earnings from self...

  8. 26 CFR 1.9002-4 - Election to pay net increase in tax in installments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-4 Election to pay net... installments shall be paid upon notice and demand from the district director if any installment under such... unpaid installments shall be paid upon notice and demand from the district director if: (i) In the case...

  9. Netting down gross earnings data in the LIS database: an evaluation of two procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Rense; Munzi, Teresa; Gornick, Janet C.

    2013-01-01

    LIS researchers who seek to perform country-comparative and / or trend analyses have to account for the fact that in some LIS datasets income variables were reported net of taxes and social security contributions, while in other datasets income variables were reported gross of taxes and social

  10. The effect of netting solidity ratio and inclined angle on the hydrodynamic characteristics of knotless polyethylene netting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Hu, Fuxiang; Xu, Liuxiong; Dong, Shuchuang; Zhou, Cheng; Wang, Xuefang

    2017-10-01

    Knotless polyethylene (PE) netting has been widely used in aquaculture cages and fishing gears, especially in Japan. In this study, the hydrodynamic coefficient of six knotless PE netting panels with different solidity ratios were assessed in a flume tank under various attack angles of netting from 0° (parallel to flow) to 90° (perpendicular to flow) and current speeds from 40 cm s-1 to 130 cm s-1. It was found that the drag coefficient was related to Reynolds number, solidity ratio and attack angle of netting. The solidity ratio was positively related with drag coefficient for netting panel perpendicular to flow, whereas when setting the netting panel parallel to the flow the opposite result was obtained. For netting panels placed at an angle to the flow, the lift coefficient reached the maximum at an attack angle of 50° and then decreased as the attack angle further increased. The solidity ratio had a dual influence on drag coefficient of inclined netting panels. Compared to result in the literature, the normal drag coefficient of knotless PE netting measured in this study is larger than that of nylon netting or Dyneema netting.

  11. Linking urban sprawl and income segregation : findings from a stylized agent-based model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, C.; Buchmann, C.M.; Schwarz, N.

    2017-01-01

    Urban sprawl and income segregation are two undesired urban patterns that occur during urban development. Empirical studies show that income level and inequality are positively correlated with urban sprawl and income segregation, respectively. However, the relationship between urban sprawl and

  12. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  13. 26 CFR 1.1402(b)-1 - Self-employment income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-employment income. 1.1402(b)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(b)-1 Self-employment income. (a) In general... this section, the term “self-employment income” means the net earnings from self-employment derived by...

  14. Is comprehensive income required by IAS 1 relevant for users? A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Le Manh-Béna , Anne

    2009-01-01

    Professional accountants have accepted for decades net income a the key performance measure of a business. The IASB decision in 2007 to require the publication of comprehensive income as it has been the case since 1997 in the United States, has fed the long time debate regarding the concept of income. In this paper, we will go through some background about both approaches of income and their consequences in terms of financial reporting. We will then review the related literature, classified a...

  15. HUD Program Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...

  16. Limited Income and Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information for those with limited income and resources (those who may qualify for or already have the Low Income Subsidy to lower their prescription drug coverage...

  17. HOME Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOME Income Limits are calculated using the same methodology that HUD uses for calculating the income limits for the Section 8 program. These limits are based on HUD...

  18. Disability Income Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Hayhoe, Celia Ray; Smith, Mike, CPF

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of disability income insurance is to partially replace your income if you are unable to work because of sickness or an accident. This guide reviews the types of disability insurance, important terms and concepts and employer provided benefits.

  19. Proof Nets for Lambek Calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    1992-01-01

    The proof nets of linear logic are adapted to the non-commutative Lambek calculus. A different criterion for soundness of proof nets is given, which gives rise to new algorithms for proof search. The order sensitiveness of the Lambek calculus is reflected by the planarity condition on proof nets;

  20. Net metering: zero electricity bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangi, A.; Khan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide move towards renewable energy sources, environmental concerns and decentralization of the power sector have made net metering an attractive option for power generation at small scale. This paper discusses the net metering, economical issues of renewable sources in Pakistan, technical aspects, installation suitability according to varying terrain, existing utility rules and formulation of legislation for net metering making it economically attractive. (author)

  1. The Net Advance of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE NET ADVANCE OF PHYSICS Review Articles and Tutorials in an Encyclopædic Format Established 1995 [Link to MIT] Computer support for The Net Advance of Physics is furnished by The Massachusetts Newest Additions SPECIAL FEATURES: Net Advance RETRO: Nineteenth Century Physics History of Science

  2. Horizontal ichthyoplankton tow-net system with unobstructed net opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    The larval fish sampler described here consists of a modified bridle, frame, and net system with an obstruction-free net opening and is small enough for use on boats 10 m or less in length. The tow net features a square net frame attached to a 0.5-m-diameter cylinder-on-cone plankton net with a bridle designed to eliminate all obstructions forward of the net opening, significantly reducing currents and vibrations in the water directly preceding the net. This system was effective in collecting larvae representing more than 25 species of fish at sampling depths ranging from surface to 10 m and could easily be used at greater depths.

  3. Intergenerational Top Income Persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Bonke, Jens; Hussain, M. Azhar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate intergenerational top earnings and top income mobility in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the population. We find that intergenerational mobility is lower in the top when including capital income in the income...... measure— for the rich top 0.1% fathers and sons the elasticity is 0.466. Compared with Sweden, however, the intergenerational top income persistence is about half the size in Denmark....

  4. GOLD NETTING TO STRENGTHEN FINANCIAL SYSTEM STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamed Kameel Mydin Meera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic and financial crises seem to occur with increased frequency. Indeed now most countries, including several advanced economies like the US, Europe and Japan, are in serious economic recession. Employment and business opportunities have been much dampened. Inflation seems to be soaring globally and nations are witnessing widening gaps in income and wealth distribution. Many of these advanced economies are also facing shrinking population sizes that translate into aging problems and labor shortages. On top of those, there are environmental issues, including global warming. All these, in turn, have caused regional and global political conflicts and turmoil. The Arab Spring and the sovereign debt problems faced by some European countries like Greece are examples of this. Sustainability of economics and environment is thus of paramount concern of today. This paper considers those problems and suggests Interest-free Gold-based Electronic Netting System (IGENS as an effective way of injecting liquidity into the economy, practically free, that can spur business and employment while bringing about structural stability, inflation checked with both economic and environmental sustainability. Netting or muqassah is a transaction allowed in shari’ah and is practiced worldwide in different forms. Examples include the highly successful WIR Bank of Switzerland, various Local Exchange Trading Schemes (LETS and Bilateral and Multilateral Payment Arrangements between central banks.   Keywords:  Global crisis, Payment system, Gold, Netting, Muqassah, Liquidity, Sustainability, Financial system stability JEL Classification: E40, E42, E51

  5. Break-Even Income Analysis of Pharmacy Graduates Compared to High School and College Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To project the net cumulative income break-even point between practicing pharmacists and those who enter the workforce directly after high school graduation or after obtaining a bachelor's degree. Methods. Markov modeling and break-even analysis were conducted. Estimated costs of education were used in calculating net early career earnings of high school graduates, bachelor's degree holders, pharmacists without residency training, and pharmacists with residency training. Results. Models indicate that over the first 10 years of a pharmacist's career, they accumulate net earnings of $716 345 to $1 064 840, depending on cost of obtaining the PharmD degree and career path followed. In the break-even analysis, all pharmacy career tracks surpassed net cumulative earnings of high school graduates by age 33 and bachelor's degree holders by age 34. Conclusion. Regardless of the chosen pharmacy career track and the typical cost of obtaining a PharmD degree, the model under study assumptions demonstrates that pharmacy education has a positive financial return on investment, with a projected break-even point of less than 10 years upon career entry.

  6. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  7. Pattern of Ownership and Income Distribution:In View of “Middle-Income Trap”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Rui Na

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available China comes into the ranks of middle-income countries, “middle-income trap” problem become highly attention. Income inequality is the most important factor of fall into this trap. By analyzing the actual information and data, finds out that the main reason for this widening gap between income distributions is the vigorous developments of the private owned company, led to the big gap of the income between owner of the company and normal workers. Then by analyzing and validating the actual mathematical model, and turns out the same result. To solve the problem of “middle-income trap”, we must deal with the income inequality, need to strengthen the guidance and supervision while encourage the development of the private economy. Unswervingly adhere to the public sector of the economy’s dominant position, and continue to develop and perfect the public sector of the economy, along with the corresponding supporting measures.

  8. The Great Recession and the Social Safety Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    The social safety net responded in significant and favorable ways during the Great Recession. Aggregate per capita expenditures grew significantly, with particularly strong growth in the SNAP, EITC, UI, and Medicaid programs. Distributionally, the increase in transfers was widely shared across demographic groups, including families with and without children, single-parent and two-parent families. Transfers grew as well among families with more employed members and with fewer employed members. However, the increase in transfer amounts was not strongly progressive across income classes within the low-income population, increasingly slightly more for those just below the poverty line and those just above it, compared to those at the bottom of the income distribution. This is mainly the result of the EITC program, which provides greater benefits to those with higher family earnings. The expansions of SNAP and UI benefitted those at the bottom of the income distribution to a greater extent. PMID:27065356

  9. Assessing Demographic Changes and Income Inequalities: A Case Study of West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Hailu, Yohannes G.; Gebremedhin, Tesfa G.; Jackson, Randall W.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates demographic change and income inequalities, and relationship between economic growth and income inequality in West Virginia. Income growth was positively related with population and employment growth, but is significantly and negatively related with income inequality. This indicates that higher income inequality is associated with slower economic growth.

  10. Limitations of shallow nets approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shao-Bo

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at analyzing the approximation abilities of shallow networks in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs). We prove that there is a probability measure such that the achievable lower bound for approximating by shallow nets can be realized for all functions in balls of reproducing kernel Hilbert space with high probability, which is different with the classical minimax approximation error estimates. This result together with the existing approximation results for deep nets shows the limitations for shallow nets and provides a theoretical explanation on why deep nets perform better than shallow nets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Shielding calculations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschuur, K.A.; Hogenbirk, A.

    1991-05-01

    In the European Fusion Technology Programme there is only a small activity on research and development for fusion neutronics. Never-the-less, looking further than blanket design now, as ECN is getting involved in design of radiation shields for the coils and biological shields, it becomes apparent that fusion neutronics as a whole still needs substantial development. Existing exact codes for calculation of complex geometries like MCNP and DORT/TORT are put over the limits of their numerical capabilities, whilst approximate codes for complex geometries like FURNACE and MERCURE4 are put over the limits of their modelling capabilities. The main objective of this study is just to find out how far we can get with existing codes in obtaining reliable values for the radiation levels inside and outside the cryostat/shield during operation and after shut-down. Starting with a 1D torus model for preliminary parametric studies, more dimensional approximation of the torus or parts of it including the main heterogeneities should follow. Regular contacts with the NET-Team are kept, to be aware of main changes in NET design that might affect our calculation models. Work on the contract started 1 July 1990. The technical description of the contract is given. (author). 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  12. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...

  13. Neighborhood income inequality, social capital and emotional distress among adolescents: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Arndis; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2016-08-01

    Theory holds that income inequality may harm adolescent mental health by reducing social capital within neighborhood communities. However, research on this topic has been very limited. We use multilevel data on 102 public schools and 5958 adolescents in Iceland (15 and 16 years old) to examine whether income inequality within neighborhoods is associated with emotional distress in adolescents. Moreover, we test whether indicators of social capital, including social trust and embeddedness in neighborhood social networks, mediate this contextual effect. The findings show that neighborhood income inequality positively influences emotional distress of individual adolescents, net of their personal household situations and social relations. However, although the indicators of social capital negatively influence emotional distress, they do not mediate the contextual effect of neighborhood income inequality. The study illustrates the role of economic disparities in adolescent mental health, but calls for more research on the underlying social and social-psychological mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  15. The Equivalency between Logic Petri Workflow Nets and Workflow Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented. PMID:25821845

  16. Net returns, fiscal risks, and the optimal patient mix for a profit-maximizing hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozatalay, S; Broyles, R

    1987-10-01

    As is well recognized, the provisions of PL98-21 not only transfer financial risks from the Medicare program to the hospital but also induce institutions to adjust the diagnostic mix of Medicare beneficiaries so as to maximize net income or minimize the net loss. This paper employs variation in the set of net returns as the sole measure of financial risk and develops a model that identifies the mix of beneficiaries that maximizes net income, subject to a given level of risk. The results indicate that the provisions of PL98-21 induce the institution to deny admission to elderly patients presenting conditions for which the net return is relatively low and the variance in the cost per case is large. Further, the paper suggests that the treatment of beneficiaries at a level commensurate with previous periods or the preferences of physicians may jeopardize the viability and solvency of Medicare-dependent hospitals.

  17. Siblings, Language, and False Belief in Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Guo, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between number of siblings and false belief understanding (FBU) in 94 low-income 4-5-year-olds. Previous research with middle-income children has shown a positive association between number of siblings and FBU. However, it is unclear whether having multiple siblings in low-income families is related to better…

  18. National Income, Inequality and Global Patterns of Cigarette Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampel, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Declining tobacco use in high-income nations and rising tobacco use in low- and middle-income nations raises questions about the sources of worldwide patterns of smoking. Theories posit a curvilinear influence of national income based on the balance of affordability and health-cost effects. In addition, however, economic inequality, gender…

  19. Comparison of imatinib 400 mg and 800 mg daily in the front-line treatment of high-risk, Philadelphia-positive chronic myeloid leukemia: a European LeukemiaNet Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baccarani, Michele; Rosti, Gianantonio; Castagnetti, Fausto

    2009-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate (IM), 400 mg daily, is the standard treatment of Philadelphia-positive (Ph(+)) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Preclinical data and results of single-arm studies raised the suggestion that better results could be achieved with a higher dose. To investigate whether the systematic...

  20. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... on the ‘network’ itself as a phenomenon and are often using technological networks as a mean of production and distribution. This changes the artistic practice and the distribution channels of art works – and the traditional notions of ‘work’, ‘origin’ and ‘rights’ are increasingly perceived as limiting...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  1. Net4Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2012-01-01

    , health centers are getting larger and more distributed, and the number of healthcare professionals does not follow the trend in chronic diseases. All of this leads to a need for telemedical and mobile health applications. In a Danish context, these applications are often developed through local...... (innovative) initiatives with little regards for national and global (standardization) initiatives. A reason for this discrepancy is that the software architecture for national (and global) systems and standards are hard to understand, hard to develop systems based on, and hard to deploy. To counter this, we...... propose a software ecosystem approach for telemedicine applications, providing a framework, Net4Care, encapsulating national/global design decisions with respect to standardization while allowing for local innovation. This paper presents an analysis of existing systems, of requirements for a software...

  2. 75 FR 53368 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... of the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation's Default or Insolvency August 26, 2010. Pursuant to Section... netting of the Government Securities Division (``GSD'') in the event of FICC's default or insolvency. II...

  3. Social position and health in old age. The relevance of different indicators of social position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Osler, Merete

    2002-01-01

    Social medicine, social position, chronic diseases, material wealth, income, tenure, oral health, functional ability, well-being, mobility......Social medicine, social position, chronic diseases, material wealth, income, tenure, oral health, functional ability, well-being, mobility...

  4. Systematic Review of Willingness to Pay for Health Insurance in Low and Middle Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratnejad, Shirin; Rashidian, Arash; Dror, David Mark

    2016-01-01

    Access to healthcare is mostly contingent on out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) by health seekers, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This would require many LMICs to raise enough funds to achieve universal health insurance coverage. But, are individuals or households willing to pay for health insurance, and how much? What factors positively affect WTP for health insurance? We wanted to examine the evidence for this, through a review of the literature. We systematically searched databases up to February 2016 and included studies of individual or household WTP for health insurance. Two authors appraised the identified studies. We estimated the WTP as a percentage of GDP per capita, and adjusted net national income per capita of each country. We used meta-analysis to calculate WTP means and confidence intervals, and vote-counting to identify the variables that more often affected WTP. 16 studies (21 articles) from ten countries met the inclusion criteria. The mean WTP of individuals was 1.18% of GDP per capita and 1.39% of adjusted net national income per capita. The corresponding figures for households were 1.82% and 2.16%, respectively. Increases in family size, education level and income were consistently correlated with higher WTP for insurance, and increases in age were correlated with reduced WTP. The WTP for healthcare insurance among rural households in LMICs was just below 2% of the GPD per capita. The findings demonstrate that in moving towards universal health coverage in LMICs, governments should not rely on households' premiums as a major financing source and should increase their fiscal capacity for an equitable health care system using other sources.

  5. Systematic Review of Willingness to Pay for Health Insurance in Low and Middle Income Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Nosratnejad

    Full Text Available Access to healthcare is mostly contingent on out-of-pocket spending (OOPS by health seekers, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. This would require many LMICs to raise enough funds to achieve universal health insurance coverage. But, are individuals or households willing to pay for health insurance, and how much? What factors positively affect WTP for health insurance? We wanted to examine the evidence for this, through a review of the literature.We systematically searched databases up to February 2016 and included studies of individual or household WTP for health insurance. Two authors appraised the identified studies. We estimated the WTP as a percentage of GDP per capita, and adjusted net national income per capita of each country. We used meta-analysis to calculate WTP means and confidence intervals, and vote-counting to identify the variables that more often affected WTP.16 studies (21 articles from ten countries met the inclusion criteria. The mean WTP of individuals was 1.18% of GDP per capita and 1.39% of adjusted net national income per capita. The corresponding figures for households were 1.82% and 2.16%, respectively. Increases in family size, education level and income were consistently correlated with higher WTP for insurance, and increases in age were correlated with reduced WTP.The WTP for healthcare insurance among rural households in LMICs was just below 2% of the GPD per capita. The findings demonstrate that in moving towards universal health coverage in LMICs, governments should not rely on households' premiums as a major financing source and should increase their fiscal capacity for an equitable health care system using other sources.

  6. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    various journals and collections. As a result, much of this knowledge is not readily available to people who may be interested in using high-level nets. Within the Petri net community this problem has been discussed many times, and as an outcome this book has been compiled. The book contains reprints...... of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make......High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...

  7. Effetti distributivi del processo inflazionistico in Italia nel decennio 1953-1962 (Effects of inflation on the distribution of income in Italy, 1953-1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. SPAVENTA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the ten years 1953-62, the average price level in Italy rose every year, with the exception of 1959. The present article examines the effects of this inflationary process on income distribution. To do so the author first determines the extent to which each productive sector contributed to the creation of the total surplus of money product over real product, and how such excess was distributed amongst the various income categories in each sector. Then, the losses in real purchasing power these categories suffered are examined. Finally, the net outcome between gains in money product and losses for each category is found. According to the author, the data suggests peculiarly Ricardian features: the increase in prices was largely due to a rise in rents and of sectoral incomes in which are hidden some forms of rent, in the twofold aspect of privileged positions and inefficiency.JEL: E24, E31, O15

  8. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Arlene; Delaloge, Suzette; Holmes, Frankie A; Moy, Beverly; Iwata, Hiroji; Harvey, Vernon J; Robert, Nicholas J; Silovski, Tajana; Gokmen, Erhan; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Ejlertsen, Bent; Chia, Stephen K L; Mansi, Janine; Barrios, Carlos H; Gnant, Michael; Buyse, Marc; Gore, Ira; Smith, John; Harker, Graydon; Masuda, Norikazu; Petrakova, Katarina; Zotano, Angel Guerrero; Iannotti, Nicholas; Rodriguez, Gladys; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Wong, Alvin; Bryce, Richard; Ye, Yining; Yao, Bin; Martin, Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Neratinib, an irreversible tyrosine-kinase inhibitor of HER1, HER2, and HER4, has clinical activity in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of 12 months of neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in patients with early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer. We did this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial at 495 centres in Europe, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and North and South America. Eligible women (aged ≥18 years, or ≥20 years in Japan) had stage 1-3 HER2-positive breast cancer and had completed neoadjuvant and adjuvant trastuzumab therapy up to 2 years before randomisation. Inclusion criteria were amended on Feb 25, 2010, to include patients with stage 2-3 HER2-positive breast cancer who had completed trastuzumab therapy up to 1 year previously. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive oral neratinib 240 mg per day or matching placebo. The randomisation sequence was generated with permuted blocks stratified by hormone receptor status (hormone receptor-positive [oestrogen or progesterone receptor-positive or both] vs hormone receptor-negative [oestrogen and progesterone receptor-negative]), nodal status (0, 1-3, or ≥4), and trastuzumab adjuvant regimen (sequentially vs concurrently with chemotherapy), then implemented centrally via an interactive voice and web-response system. Patients, investigators, and trial sponsors were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was invasive disease-free survival, as defined in the original protocol, at 2 years after randomisation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00878709. Between July 9, 2009, and Oct 24, 2011, we randomly assigned 2840 women to receive neratinib (n=1420) or placebo (n=1420). Median follow-up time was 24 months (IQR 20-25) in the neratinib group and 24 months (22-25) in the placebo group. At 2 year follow-up, 70

  9. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    OpenAIRE

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication networks: the control over the distribution of audiovisual services constitutes a vital part of the problem. In this contribution, the phenomenon of net neutrality is described first. Next, the European a...

  10. NetView technical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  11. Initial CAD investigations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, F.; Leinemann, K.; Ludwig, A.; Marek, U.; Olbrich, W.; Schlechtendahl, E.G.

    1985-11-01

    This report summarizes the work done under contract no. 164/84-7/FU-D-/NET between the Commission of the European Communities and KfK during the period from June 1, 1984, through May 31, 1985. The following topics are covered in this report: Initial modelling of NET version NET2A, CAD system extension for remote handling studies, analysis of the CAD information structure, work related to the transfer of CAD information between KfK and the NET team. (orig.) [de

  12. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid...

  13. Increasing income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks...... that shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....

  14. Determinants of income inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Afandi, Akhsyim; Rantung, Vebryna Permatasari; Marashdeh, Hazem

    2017-01-01

    This study examines whether changing economic structure, social conditions, and financialization are responsible for increased income inequality in Indonesia. By employing panel data of 32 provinces in Indonesia that spans from 2007 to 2013, it finds that structural change affects income inequality, increased share of finance reduces inequality, which is against the financialization hypothesis, and social conditions have expected effects on income inequality. While an increased share of both ...

  15. Corporate income tax

    OpenAIRE

    Popová, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    1 RESUMÉ Corporate Income Tax The aim of this diploma thesis on "Corporate Income Tax" is to outline the current legal background of the corporate income tax and asses and evaluate the most substantial changes regarding the Act no. 586/1992 Coll., Income Tax Act, as amended that have become effective as of January 1, 2014. The changes discussed in this thesis include especially, but are not limited to, the changes adopted in connection with the recodification of Czech Civil Law. This thesis c...

  16. Net smart how to thrive online

    CERN Document Server

    Rheingold, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Like it or not, knowing how to make use of online tools without being overloaded with too much information is an essential ingredient to personal success in the twenty-first century. But how can we use digital media so that they make us empowered participants rather than passive receivers, grounded, well-rounded people rather than multitasking basket cases? In Net Smart, cyberculture expert Howard Rheingold shows us how to use social media intelligently, humanely, and, above all, mindfully. Mindful use of digital media means thinking about what we are doing, cultivating an ongoing inner inquiry into how we want to spend our time. Rheingold outlines five fundamental digital literacies, online skills that will help us do this: attention, participation, collaboration, critical consumption of information (or "crap detection"), and network smarts. He explains how attention works, and how we can use our attention to focus on the tiny relevant portion of the incoming tsunami of information. He describes the quality...

  17. Correlations between Income inequality and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Andrew; Herbert, Annie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if correlations exist between income inequality and antimicrobial resistance. This study's hypothesis is that income inequality at the national level is positively correlated with antimicrobial resistance within developed countries. Income inequality data were obtained from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database. Antimicrobial resistance data were obtained from the European antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network and outpatient antimicrobial consumption data, measured by Defined daily Doses per 1000 inhabitants per day, from the European Surveillance of antimicrobial Consumption group. Spearman's correlation coefficient (r) defined strengths of correlations of: > 0.8 as strong, > 0.5 as moderate and > 0.2 as weak. Confidence intervals and p values were defined for all r values. Correlations were calculated for the time period 2003-10, for 15 European countries. Income inequality and antimicrobial resistance correlations which were moderate or strong, with 95% confidence intervals > 0, included the following. Enterococcus faecalis resistance to aminopenicillins, vancomycin and high level gentamicin was moderately associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.54 for all three antimicrobials). Escherichia coli resistance to aminoglycosides, aminopenicillins, third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones was moderately-strongly associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.7 for all four antimicrobials). Klebsiella pneumoniae resistance to third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones was moderately associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.5 for all three antimicrobials). Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistance and income inequality were strongly associated (r=0.87). As income inequality increases in European countries so do the rates of antimicrobial resistance for bacteria including E. faecalis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus. Further studies are needed to confirm these

  18. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-15 - Options available to farmers in computing net earnings from self-employment for taxable years...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... earnings from self-employment for taxable years ending on or after December 31, 1956. 1.1402(a)-15 Section...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-15 Options available to farmers in computing net earnings from self-employment for taxable years ending on or after December 31...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-14 - Options available to farmers in computing net earnings from self-employment for taxable years...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... earnings from self-employment for taxable years ending after 1954 and before December 31, 1956. 1.1402(a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-14 Options available to farmers in computing net earnings from self-employment for taxable years ending after 1954 and...

  20. Progressive taxation, income inequality, and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Kushlev, Kostadin; Schimmack, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Income inequality has become one of the more widely debated social issues today. The current article explores the role of progressive taxation in income inequality and happiness. Using historical data in the United States from 1962 to 2014, we found that income inequality was substantially smaller in years when the income tax was more progressive (i.e., a higher tax rate for higher income brackets), even when controlling for variables like stock market performance and unemployment rate. Time lag analyses further showed that higher progressive taxation predicted increasingly lower income inequality up to 5 years later. Data from the General Social Survey (1972-2014; N = 59,599) with U.S. residents (hereafter referred to as "Americans") showed that during years with higher progressive taxation rates, less wealthy Americans-those in the lowest 40% of the income distribution-tended to be happier, whereas the richest 20% were not significantly less happy. Mediational analyses confirmed that the association of progressive taxation with the happiness of less wealthy Americans can be explained by lower income inequality in years with higher progressive taxation. A separate sample of Americans polled online (N = 373) correctly predicted the positive association between progressive taxation and the happiness of poorer Americans but incorrectly expected a strong negative association between progressive taxation and the happiness of richer Americans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Income and poverty in a developing economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, A. K.; Ackland, G. J.; Mallick, S. K.

    2010-09-01

    We present a stochastic agent-based model for the distribution of personal incomes in a developing economy. We start with the assumption that incomes are determined both by individual labour and by stochastic effects of trading and investment. The income from personal effort alone is distributed about a mean, while the income from trade, which may be positive or negative, is proportional to the trader's income. These assumptions lead to a Langevin model with multiplicative noise, from which we derive a Fokker-Planck (FP) equation for the income probability density function (IPDF) and its variation in time. We find that high earners have a power law income distribution while the low-income groups have a Levy IPDF. Comparing our analysis with the Indian survey data (obtained from the world bank website: http://go.worldbank.org/SWGZB45DN0) taken over many years we obtain a near-perfect data collapse onto our model's equilibrium IPDF. Using survey data to relate the IPDF to actual food consumption we define a poverty index (Sen A. K., Econometrica., 44 (1976) 219; Kakwani N. C., Econometrica, 48 (1980) 437), which is consistent with traditional indices, but independent of an arbitrarily chosen "poverty line" and therefore less susceptible to manipulation.

  2. Income dynamics and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore-Sheppard, Lara D

    2014-12-01

    To examine the sources of family income dynamics leading to movement into and out of Medicaid expansion and subsidy eligibility under the Affordable Care Act. Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008 panels. Considering four broad subsidy eligibility categories for monthly Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) (400 percent FPL), I use duration analysis to examine determinants of movements between categories over the course of a year. Using detailed monthly data, I determine the members of tax-filing units and calculate an approximation of MAGI at the monthly level. The analysis sample is adults ages 22-64 years. Incomes are highly variable within a year, particularly at the lower end of the income distribution. Employment transitions, including transitions not involving a period of nonemployment, and family structure changes strongly predict sufficient income volatility to trigger a change in subsidy category. Income volatility arising from employment and family structure changes is likely to trigger changes in subsidy eligibility within the year, but the sources and effects of the volatility differ substantially depending on the individual's position in the income distribution. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  3. Institutional Variation in Enrollment of Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, James

    2018-01-01

    Socioeconomic diversity in tertiary education has come under heightened scrutiny in the past few years. This paper estimates the relationship between prices (both sticker price and net price), financial aid policies, and selectivity on the variation of low-income students across postsecondary institutions. All three factors are significant in…

  4. Aggregate Production Function and Income Identity - Empirical Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čadil, J.; Vltavská, K.; Krejčí, I.; Hartman, David; Brabec, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-17 ISSN 1804-9796 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : aggregate production function * income identity * capital services * labour services Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability http://www.iises.net/international-journal-of- economic -sciences/publication-detail-1223

  5. Labour Supply and the Incidence of Income Tax on Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Lanot, Gauthier

    1999-01-01

    worker to employer. Higher marginal tax rates are associated with increases in gross wages and earnings. A traditional estimate of the elasticity of labour supply with respect to the net wage, which assumes no shifting of the burden of income tax, is found to overstate incentive effects by a factor...

  6. How Low-Income Children Use the Internet at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A.; von Eye, Alexander; Biocca, Frank; Barbatsis, Gretchen; Zhao, Yong; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2005-01-01

    HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine home Internet use by low-income families in the United States. Participants were 140 children, mostly African American, whose Internet use was continuously and automatically recorded for one year. This article focuses on relationships between children's main computer activities, academic…

  7. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  8. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  9. Does Home Internet Use Influence the Academic Performance of Low-Income Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A.; von Eye, Alexander; Biocca, Frank A.; Barbatsis, Gretchen; Zhao, Yong; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2006-01-01

    HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine the antecedents and consequences of home Internet use in low-income families http://www.HomeNetToo.org). The study was done between December 2000 and June 2002. Among the consequences considered was children's academic performance. Participants were 140 children, mostly African…

  10. Impact of income and income inequality on infant health outcomes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Maren E; Diekema, Douglas; Elliott, Barbara A; Renier, Colleen M

    2010-12-01

    The goal was to investigate the relationships of income and income inequality with neonatal and infant health outcomes in the United States. The 2000-2004 state data were extracted from the Kids Count Data Center. Health indicators included proportion of preterm births (PTBs), proportion of infants with low birth weight (LBW), proportion of infants with very low birth weight (VLBW), and infant mortality rate (IMR). Income was evaluated on the basis of median family income and proportion of federal poverty levels; income inequality was measured by using the Gini coefficient. Pearson correlations evaluated associations between the proportion of children living in poverty and the health indicators. Linear regression evaluated predictive relationships between median household income, proportion of children living in poverty, and income inequality for the 4 health indicators. Median family income was negatively correlated with all birth outcomes (PTB, r = -0.481; LBW, r = -0.295; VLBW, r = -0.133; IMR, r = -0.432), and the Gini coefficient was positively correlated (PTB, r = 0.339; LBW, r = 0.398; VLBW, r = 0.460; IMR, r = 0.114). The Gini coefficient explained a significant proportion of the variance in rate for each outcome in linear regression models with median family income. Among children living in poverty, the role of income decreased as the degree of poverty decreased, whereas the role of income inequality increased. Both income and income inequality affect infant health outcomes in the United States. The health of the poorest infants was affected more by absolute wealth than relative wealth.

  11. Internal migration and income of immigrant families

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Saman

    2004-01-01

    Using a longitudinal dataset from the years 1995 and 2000, respectively, this study examines whether migration within the host country of Sweden generates higher total annual income for (two-earner) immigrant families. The empirical findings indicate that internal migration generates a positive outcome in terms of higher family income for newly arrived refugee-immigrant families. Further, with the length of residence in the host country, the monetary gain accruing from internal migration decr...

  12. Income Elasticity Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following advice from the SAB Council, when estimating the economic value of reductions in air pollution-related mortality and morbidity risk, EPA accounts for the effect of personal income on the willingness to pay to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes. These income grow...

  13. Income pooling within families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Uldall-Poulsen, Hans

    This paper analyses the phenomenon of income-pooling by applying the Danish household expenditure survey, merged with authoritative register information. Responses to additional questions on income sharing among 1696 couples also allows us to analyses whether the intra-household distribution...

  14. Earned Income Tax Credit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van Oers; R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn recent policy discussions in the Netherlands, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) has been put forward as an effective instrument to reduce the unemployment rate among low-skilled workers. Using the MIMIC model, this article shows that a targeted EITC at low incomes indeed seems

  15. Properties of porous netted materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daragan, V.D.; Drozdov, B.G.; Kotov, A.Yu.; Mel'nikov, G.N.; Pustogarov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Hydraulic and strength characteristics, efficient heat conduction and inner heat exchange coefficient are experimentally studied for porous netted materials on the base of the brass nets as dependent on porosity, cell size and method of net laying. Results of the studies are presented. It is shown that due to anisotropy of the material properties the hydraulic resistance in the direction parallel to the nets plane is 1.3-1.6 times higher than in the perpendicular one. Values of the effective heat conduction in the direction perpendicular to the nets plane at Π>0.45 agree with the data from literature, at Π<0.45 a deviation from the calculated values is marked in the direction of the heat conduction decrease

  16. NET remote workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinemann, K.

    1990-10-01

    The goal of this NET study was to define the functionality of a remote handling workstation and its hardware and software architecture. The remote handling workstation has to fulfill two basic functions: (1) to provide the man-machine interface (MMI), that means the interface to the control system of the maintenance equipment and to the working environment (telepresence) and (2) to provide high level (task level) supporting functions (software tools) during the maintenance work and in the preparation phase. Concerning the man-machine interface, an important module of the remote handling workstation besides the standard components of man-machine interfacing is a module for graphical scene presentation supplementing viewing by TV. The technique of integrated viewing is well known from JET BOOM and TARM control using the GBsim and KISMET software. For integration of equipment dependent MMI functions the remote handling workstation provides a special software module interface. Task level support of the operator is based on (1) spatial (geometric/kinematic) models, (2) remote handling procedure models, and (3) functional models of the equipment. These models and the related simulation modules are used for planning, programming, execution monitoring, and training. The workstation provides an intelligent handbook guiding the operator through planned procedures illustrated by animated graphical sequences. For unplanned situations decision aids are available. A central point of the architectural design was to guarantee a high flexibility with respect to hardware and software. Therefore the remote handling workstation is designed as an open system based on widely accepted standards allowing the stepwise integration of the various modules starting with the basic MMI and the spatial simulation as standard components. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Income and outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    Much empirical work in the social sciences relies on the accuracy of survey responses. Of all the questions answered by survey respondents, few are as common as those concerning income: Income is a crucial determinant of an individual’s attitudes and behaviors and a standard correlate in political...... science survey research. This paper uses Danish administrative records to identify systematic error in survey respondents’ self-reported income. We show that income overreporting is most pronounced among individuals who share the characteristics of high-income individuals, in ways that suggest...... the presence of social desirability bias. Further, this leads to biased estimates and distorted conclusions in a number of common applications in political science, but a simple logarithmic transformation eliminates the bias. More broadly, our results indicate that to understand the income–attitudes nexus...

  18. Valuing ecosystem services. A shadow price for net primary production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, Amy; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the contribution of ecosystem services to GDP and use this contribution to calculate an empirical price for ecosystem services. Net primary production is used as a proxy for ecosystem services and, along with capital and labor, is used to estimate a Cobb Douglas production function from an international panel. A positive output elasticity for net primary production probably measures both marketed and nonmarketed contributions of ecosystems services. The production function is used to calculate the marginal product of net primary production, which is the shadow price for ecosystem services. The shadow price generally is greatest for developed nations, which have larger technical scalars and use less net primary production per unit output. The rate of technical substitution indicates that the quantity of capital needed to replace a unit of net primary production tends to increase with economic development, and this rate of replacement may ultimately constrain economic growth. (author)

  19. Bed net ownership in Kenya: the impact of 3.4 million free bed nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulule John

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In July and September 2006, 3.4 million long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs were distributed free in a campaign targeting children 0-59 months old (CU5s in the 46 districts with malaria in Kenya. A survey was conducted one month after the distribution to evaluate who received campaign LLINs, who owned insecticide-treated bed nets and other bed nets received through other channels, and how these nets were being used. The feasibility of a distribution strategy aimed at a high-risk target group to meet bed net ownership and usage targets is evaluated. Methods A stratified, two-stage cluster survey sampled districts and enumeration areas with probability proportional to size. Handheld computers (PDAs with attached global positioning systems (GPS were used to develop the sampling frame, guide interviewers back to chosen households, and collect survey data. Results In targeted areas, 67.5% (95% CI: 64.6, 70.3% of all households with CU5s received campaign LLINs. Including previously owned nets, 74.4% (95% CI: 71.8, 77.0% of all households with CU5s had an ITN. Over half of CU5s (51.7%, 95% CI: 48.8, 54.7% slept under an ITN during the previous evening. Nearly forty percent (39.1% of all households received a campaign net, elevating overall household ownership of ITNs to 50.7% (95% CI: 48.4, 52.9%. Conclusions The campaign was successful in reaching the target population, families with CU5s, the risk group most vulnerable to malaria. Targeted distribution strategies will help Kenya approach indicator targets, but will need to be combined with other strategies to achieve desired population coverage levels.

  20. 14 CFR Section 15 - Objective Classification-Income Taxes for Current Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Profit and Loss Classification Section 15 Objective Classification—Income Taxes for..., State, local, and foreign taxes based upon net income, computed at the normal tax and surtax rates in... carryback of losses in the year in which the loss occurs, credits for the carry-forward of losses in the...

  1. 45 CFR 2551.44 - What is considered income for determining volunteer eligibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... deductions for business or farm expenses; (3) Regular payments for public assistance, Social Security...; and (5) Income from dividends, interest, net rents, royalties, or income from estates and trusts. (b... produced and consumed on farms and the imputed value of rent from owner-occupied farm or non-farm housing...

  2. 45 CFR 2552.44 - What is considered income for determining volunteer eligibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... deductions for business or farm expenses; (3) Regular payments for public assistance, Social Security...; and (5) Income from dividends, interest, net rents, royalties, or income from estates and trusts. (b... produced and consumed on farms and the imputed value of rent from owner-occupied farm or non-farm housing...

  3. Environmental income as a pathway out of poverty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Larsen, Helle Overgaard

    2017-01-01

    environmental resources on average contribute 16 per cent of the total household income, the contribution to asset accumulation is limited. Hence, environmental income does not constitute a pathway out of poverty in Nepal under the current set of regulations and tenure regimes. Asset accumulation was instead......Using unique, environmentally augmented household panel data reflecting households’ annual cash and subsistence income portfolios, we model change over time in the value of four assets – livestock, implements, savings, and jewellery. A seemingly unrelated regression model reveals that although...... associated (both negatively and positively) with agricultural income (particularly as subsistence income), wage and business income. Most environmental income was obtained as subsistence income indicating that the environmental resources that households have access to present little opportunity for cash...

  4. Can a fifty percent increase in public sector wages improve the position of public sector employees in the long run? An assessment of the public-private income gap in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Szilvia Hamori; Anna Lovasz

    2011-01-01

    We provide a detailed descriptive analysis of the long-term effects of the 50 percent public sector wage increase initiated by the government in 2002 in order to improve the relative situation of public sector workers. The aim of this policy was to attract high quality workers to the public sector, and to counteract the problem of "brain drain," the loss of high-skilled workers to abroad. To study the effects on the public-private income gap - and on high-skilled workers in particular - we em...

  5. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  6. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  7. Collecting the tax on Income from Investments and Income Statement

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Andreea MIHALACHE

    2015-01-01

    Taxpayers who carried out individually or in a form of association income from self-employment, income from the lease of property, income from agricultural activities determined in real system are required to file a statement of income received from the competent tax authority for each fiscal year no later than 15 May of the year following that of income. The statement of income (tax declaration) must be completed for each source and category of income. For the income obtained in a form of As...

  8. Positive Catch & Economic Benefits of Periodic Octopus Fishery Closures: Do Effective, Narrowly Targeted Actions ‘Catalyze’ Broader Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Thomas A.; Oleson, Kirsten L. L.; Ratsimbazafy, Hajanaina; Raberinary, Daniel; Benbow, Sophie; Harris, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    Overview Eight years of octopus fishery records from southwest Madagascar reveal significant positive impacts from 36 periodic closures on: (a) fishery catches and (b) village fishery income, such that (c) economic benefits from increased landings outweigh costs of foregone catch. Closures covered ~20% of a village’s fished area and lasted 2-7 months. Fishery Catches from Each Closed Site Octopus landings and catch per unit effort (CPUE) significantly increased in the 30 days following a closure’s reopening, relative to the 30 days before a closure (landings: +718%, poctopus fishery income doubled in the 30 days after a closure, relative to 30 days before (+132%, p<0.001, n = 28). Control villages not implementing a closure showed no increase in income after “no ban” closures and modest increases after “ban” closures. Villages did not show a significant decline in income during closure events. Net Economic Benefits from Each Closed Site Landings in closure sites generated more revenue than simulated landings assuming continued open-access fishing at that site (27/36 show positive net earnings; mean +$305/closure; mean +57.7% monthly). Benefits accrued faster than local fishers’ time preferences during 17-27 of the 36 closures. High reported rates of illegal fishing during closures correlated with poor economic performance. Broader Co-Management We discuss the implications of our findings for broader co-management arrangements, particularly for catalyzing more comprehensive management. PMID:26083862

  9. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  10. Pickering nuclear fish diversion net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, J.; Lew, A. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Pickering Fish Diversion Net - An Engineered Environmental Solution that has significantly reduced fish impingement at the Pickering Nuclear Facility. Note: As a recent urgent request/discussed by Mark Elliot, CNE-OPG and Jacques Plourde, CNS.

  11. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  12. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  13. Speed and income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between speed and income is established in a microeconomic model focusing on the trade-off between travel time and the risk of receiving a penalty for exceeding the speed limit. This is used to determine when a rational driver will choose to exceed the speed limit. The relationship...... between speed and income is found again in the empirical analysis of a cross-sectional dataset comprising 60,000 observations of car trips. This is used to perform regressions of speed on income, distance travelled, and a number of controls. The results are clearly statistically significant and indicate...... an average income elasticity of speed of 0.02; it is smaller at short distances and about twice as large at the longest distance investigated of 200 km....

  14. Income and Ideology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Rebecca; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Wengström, Erik Roland

    We find that cognitive abilities, educational attainment, and some personality traits indirectly affect ideological preferences through changes in income. The effects of changes in personality traits on ideology directly and indirectly through income are in the same direction. However, the indirect...... effects of cognitive abilities and education often offset the direct effects of these variables on ideological preferences. That is, increases in cognitive abilities and education significantly increase income, which reduces the tendency of individuals to express leftist preferences. These indirect...... effects are in some cases sizeable relative to direct effects. The indirect effects of cognitive abilities through income overwhelm the direct effects such that increasing IQ increases rightwing preferences. For ideological preferences over economic policy the indirect effects of advanced education also...

  15. Explicit Versus Implicit Income Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Kniesner; James P. Z‎iliak

    2001-01-01

    October 2001 (Revised from July 2001). Abstract: By supplementing income explicitly through payments or implicitly through taxes collected, income-based taxes and transfers make disposable income less variable. Because disposable income determines consumption, policies that smooth disposable income also create welfare improving consumption insurance. With data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics we find that annual consumption variation is reduced by almost 20 percent due to explicit and ...

  16. Analisis Determinan Net Ekspor Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Daulay, Rahmawaty

    2010-01-01

    This study is to analyzing empirically among Indonesia GDP, trade partnership GDP (Malaysia, Singapore, US and Thailand) and real exchange rate toward Indonesia Net Export. To find out which one from those three variables is significant in order to fluctuating (increasing or decreasing) Indonesia Net Export either in the short run or in the long run. Data collection is obtained using secondary data, namely Indonesia GDP, Malaysia GDP, Singapura GDP, US GDP, Thailand GDP and real exchange rate...

  17. NetBeans GUI Builder

    OpenAIRE

    Pusiankova, Tatsiana

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at making readers familiar with the powerful tool NetBeans IDE GUI Builder and helping them make their first steps to creation of their own graphical user interface in the Java programming language. The work includes theoretical description of NetBeans IDE GUI Builder, its most important characteristics and peculiarities and also a set of practical instructions that will help readers in creation of their first GUI. The readers will be introduced to the environment of this tool ...

  18. Positive and Negative Affect More Concurrent among Blacks than Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Assari, Shervin

    2017-08-01

    While positive and negative affect are inversely linked, people may experience and report both positive and negative emotions simultaneously. However, it is unknown if race alters the magnitude of the association between positive and negative affect. The current study compared Black and White Americans for the association between positive and negative affect. We used data from MIDUS (Midlife in the United States), a national study of Americans with an age range of 25 to 75. A total number of 7108 individuals were followed for 10 years from 1995 to 2004. Positive and negative affect was measured at baseline (1995) and follow-up (2004). Demographic (age and gender), socioeconomic (education and income) as well as health (self-rated health, chronic medical conditions, and body mass index) factors measured at baseline were covariates. A series of linear regressions were used to test the moderating effect of race on the reciprocal association between positive and negative affect at baseline and over time, net of covariates. In the pooled sample, positive and negative affect showed inverse correlation at baseline and over time, net of covariates. Blacks and Whites differed in the magnitude of the association between positive and negative affect, with weaker inverse associations among Blacks compared to Whites, beyond all covariates. Weaker reciprocal association between positive and negative affect in Blacks compared to Whites has implications for cross-racial measurement of affect and mood, including depression. Depression screening programs should be aware that race alters the concordance between positive and negative affect domains and that Blacks endorse higher levels of positive affect compared to Whites in the presence of high negative affect.

  19. Multiflavor string-net models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Hung

    2017-05-01

    We generalize the string-net construction to multiple flavors of strings, each of which is labeled by the elements of an Abelian group Gi. The same flavor of strings can branch, while different flavors of strings can cross one another and thus they form intersecting string nets. We systematically construct the exactly soluble lattice Hamiltonians and the ground-state wave functions for the intersecting string-net condensed phases. We analyze the braiding statistics of the low-energy quasiparticle excitations and find that our model can realize all the topological phases as the string-net model with group G =∏iGi . In this respect, our construction provides various ways of building lattice models which realize topological order G , corresponding to different partitions of G and thus different flavors of string nets. In fact, our construction concretely demonstrates the Künneth formula by constructing various lattice models with the same topological order. As an example, we construct the G =Z2×Z2×Z2 string-net model which realizes a non-Abelian topological phase by properly intersecting three copies of toric codes.

  20. Income situation of households as a social status indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The net financial income of households plays a crucial role in assessing their living standard. It determines of which social class they are members and, thus, their social status as well. In order to monitor their income situation, this paper uses survey data of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU SILC. An abundance of identification data, such as economic activity, industrial classification or sector of economic activity, level of education, age, number of household members, place of residence, household type and others, makes it possible to identify factors that demonstrably influence the household income level. On this basis, it is possible not only to determine the commonly available social class definitions using income intervals, but also to identify specific causes affecting household income and, thus, link a particular household to a given social class. The goal of this article is to establish which factors influence the income level of households. The authors of this paper focused on four factors: social group membership, occupation classified according to the national economy sectors, the highest level of education attained by the household leader and their age. To analyse the influence of selected factors including their interaction and impact on the income situation of households, the authors applied the method of analysing variance between groups (ANOVA using STATA statistical software. The Scheffe’s method of contrasts was used to determine specific differences between factor levels.

  1. Comparison of dynamic monitoring strategies based on CD4 cell counts in virally suppressed, HIV-positive individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries: a prospective, observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caniglia, Ellen C.; Cain, Lauren E.; Sabin, Caroline A.; Robins, James M.; Logan, Roger; Abgrall, Sophie; Mugavero, Michael J.; Hernández-Díaz, Sonia; Meyer, Laurence; Seng, Remonie; Drozd, Daniel R.; Seage, George R.; Bonnet, Fabrice; Dabis, Francois; Moore, Richard D.; Reiss, Peter; van Sighem, Ard; Mathews, William C.; del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago; Deeks, Steven G.; Muga, Roberto; Boswell, Stephen L.; Ferrer, Elena; Eron, Joseph J.; Napravnik, Sonia; Jose, Sophie; Phillips, Andrew; Justice, Amy C.; Tate, Janet P.; Gill, John; Pacheco, Antonio; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Bucher, Heiner C.; Egger, Matthias; Furrer, Hansjakob; Porter, Kholoud; Touloumi, Giota; Crane, Heidi; Miro, Jose M.; Sterne, Jonathan A.; Costagliola, Dominique; Saag, Michael; Hernán, Miguel A.

    2017-01-01

    Clinical guidelines vary with respect to the optimal monitoring frequency of HIV-positive individuals. We compared dynamic monitoring strategies based on time-varying CD4 cell counts in virologically suppressed HIV-positive individuals. In this observational study, we used data from prospective

  2. Boosting Low-Income Children's Opportunities to Succeed Through Direct Income Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Arloc; DeBot, Brandon; Huang, Chye-Ching

    2016-04-01

    Direct income supports have long been known to substantially reduce the extent and depth of poverty. Evidence suggests that they can also bolster children's opportunities to succeed and enhance long-term mobility. A growing body of research, for example, links income from 2 related tax credits for working families-the Earned Income Tax Credit and the Child Tax Credit-to benefits for children in those families, such as improved birth weight, better school outcomes, and increased rates of employment in adulthood. Similarly, the introduction of food stamps has been found to improve not only the birth weight of infants given access to the program but also their educational achievement, as well as indicators of health, well-being, and self-sufficiency decades later. These are striking research results for income support that is not typically thought of as improving children's health or education. The mechanisms through which these income supports lead to such benefits are likely varied and complex, but emerging research suggests that helping families with children afford basic necessities can reduce the added stress of financial difficulties, preventing downstream neuroendocrine and biochemical changes that affect children's longer-term outcomes. These findings have important implications for policy makers. Research suggests that potential weakening of the safety net would not only substantially increase poverty, but also have damaging long-term effects on children. Policy makers should reject funding cuts and instead strengthen the safety net, which this analysis suggests could reduce poverty further and also enhance children's opportunities to succeed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Income inequality, individual income, and mortality in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Prescott, Eva; Grønbaek, Morten

    2002-01-01

    To analyse the association between area income inequality and mortality after adjustment for individual income and other established risk factors.......To analyse the association between area income inequality and mortality after adjustment for individual income and other established risk factors....

  4. Assessing Patient Activation among High-Need, High-Cost Patients in Urban Safety Net Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoles, Tessa M; Burke, Nancy J; Shim, Janet K; Davis, Elizabeth; Moskowitz, David; Yen, Irene H

    2017-12-01

    We sought to examine the literature using the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) or the Patient Enablement Instrument (PEI) with high-need, high-cost (HNHC) patients receiving care in urban safety net settings. Urban safety net care management programs serve low-income, racially/ethnically diverse patients living with multiple chronic conditions. Although many care management programs track patient progress with the PAM or the PEI, it is not clear whether the PAM or the PEI is an effective and appropriate tool for HNHC patients receiving care in urban safety net settings in the United States. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PsycINFO for articles published between 2004 and 2015 that used the PAM and between 1998 and 2015 that used the PEI. The search was limited to English-language articles conducted in the United States and published in peer-reviewed journals. To assess the utility of the PAM and the PEI in urban safety net care settings, we defined a HNHC patient sample as racially/ethnically diverse, low socioeconomic status (SES), and multimorbid. One hundred fourteen articles used the PAM. All articles using the PEI were conducted outside the U.S. and therefore were excluded. Nine PAM studies (8%) included participants similar to those receiving care in urban safety net settings, three of which were longitudinal. Two of the three longitudinal studies reported positive changes following interventions. Our results indicate that research on patient activation is not commonly conducted on racially and ethnically diverse, low SES, and multimorbid patients; therefore, there are few opportunities to assess the appropriateness of the PAM in such populations. Investigators expressed concerns with the potential unreliability and inappropriate nature of the PAM on multimorbid, older, and low-literacy patients. Thus, the PAM may not be able to accurately assess patient progress among HNHC patients receiving care in urban safety net settings. Assessing

  5. 26 CFR 1.1(i)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the tax on unearned income certain minor children (Temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Questions and answers relating to the tax on unearned income certain minor children (Temporary). In General... parent's taxable income. Thus, the allocable parental tax is not computed with reference to unearned... same ratio to the total allocable parental tax as the child's net unearned income bears to the total...

  6. Earnings, employment and income inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Haas, C.; Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Checchi, D.; Marx, I.; McKnight, A.; Tóth, I.G.; van de Werfhorst, H.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates the importance of labour earnings for income and income inequality -also among top incomes. With a focus on employees and Europe, the chapter elaborates on the relationship between the household income distribution and the individual earnings distribution. On the one hand,

  7. N-player mosquito net game: individual and social rationality in the misuse of insecticide-treated nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Keita; Satake, Akiko

    2014-02-07

    Many governmental and non-governmental organizations have distributed insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to malaria endemic areas, which contributed to the reduction of malaria deaths. However, some people in malaria endemic areas used ITNs for alternative purposes such as fishery and agriculture. It is unclear why people threatened by malaria misuse ITNs. Here we develop a N-player mosquito net game, and theoretically show that the misuse of ITNs might be underpinned by individual and social rationality. In the mosquito net game, each player uses ITNs for malaria prevention or alternative purposes. The proper ITN use decreases the probability of malaria infection, while the improper ITN use increases the player's labor productivity. Each player's expected payoff is influenced by other players' strategies. We found that the misuse of ITNs can be a Pareto efficient Nash equilibrium. The maximum number of players using ITNs for malaria prevention is limited by insecticidal effectiveness of ITNs and extra income from ITN misuse. Furthermore, we found that players in a low-income community are attracted to the misuse of ITNs even if the probability of malaria infection is high. Introduction of a tax on ITN misuse was shown to be effective to motivate the players to use ITNs for malaria prevention. Our results demonstrate that understanding decision making of people in malaria endemic areas is essential to design more effective malaria control programs. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Recent Tax Changes on Taxable Income: Evidence from a New Panel of Tax Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Bradley T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the elasticity of taxable income to the net-of-tax share using a panel of tax returns that follows a random sample of taxpayers from 1999 to 2005, spanning the EGTRRA 2001 and JGTRRA 2003 tax changes. Results suggest that the elasticity of taxable income to the current year's net-of-tax share lies between 0.3 and 0.4 overall,…

  9. Broadband Internet and Income Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    HOUNGBONON , Georges Vivien; Liang , Julienne

    2017-01-01

    Policy makers are aiming for a large coverage of high-speed broadband Internet. However , there is still a lack of evidence about its effects on income distribution. In this paper, we investigate the effects of fixed broadband Internet on mean income and income inequality using a unique town-level data on broadband adoption and quality in France. We find that broadband adoption and quality raise mean income and lower income inequality. These results are robust to initial conditions, and yield...

  10. The sensitivity of income polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Azhar

    2009-01-01

    This study looks at polarization and its components' sensitivity to assumptions about equivalence scales, income definition, ethical income distribution parameters, and the income accounting period. A representative sample of Danish individual incomes from 1984 to 2002 is utilised. Results show....... Increasing the accounting period confirms the reduction in inequality found for shorter periods, but polarization is virtually unchanged, because income group identification increases. Applying different equivalence scales does not change polarization ranking for different years, but identification ranks...

  11. MATT: Multi Agents Testing Tool Based Nets within Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Kerraoui

    2016-12-01

    As part of this effort, we propose a model based testing approach for multi agent systems based on such a model called Reference net, where a tool, which aims to providing a uniform and automated approach is developed. The feasibility and the advantage of the proposed approach are shown through a short case study.

  12. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  13. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  14. Income Shocks and Adolescent Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Sarah; de Hoop, Jacobus; Ozler, Berk

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of a positive income shock on mental health among adolescent girls using evidence from a cash transfer experiment in Malawi. Offers of cash transfers strongly reduced psychological distress among baseline schoolgirls. However, these large beneficial effects declined with increases in the transfer amount offered to the…

  15. Income generation strategy in the overall hierarchy of business strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Shastun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To comply with claims of a modern economy significantly increases the role of strategic revenue management in enterprises, and in the first place, strategic management of income generation. The concept of an income generation strategy is not disclosed in the scientific literature, in this connection in article describes and analyzes the main concepts which are similar in content to the category of income generation strategy of enterprises (strategy analysis of income, revenue strategy, development strategy of income. Defines the role and importance of income generation strategy in modern management practices and presented the author's definition of income generation strategy. In article considered income generation strategy a compared to financial strategy of the enterprise and proved the difference between them. Show the position of income generation strategy in the hierarchy of strategies of enterprises and spheres of influence at all levels of the company. Income generation strategy described as interlevel, components of which are elements of all the functional and resource strategies and established a direct and feedback between the income generation strategy and corporate, competitive, functional and resource strategy.

  16. Coloured Petri Nets and the Invariant Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1981-01-01

    processes to be described by a common subnet, without losing the ability to distinguish between them. Our generalization, called coloured Petri nets, is heavily influenced by predicate transition-nets introduced by H.J. Genrich and K. Lautenbach. Moreover our paper shows how the invariant-method, introduced...... for Petri nets by K. Lautenbach, can be generalized to coloured Petri nets....

  17. Trends in income inequality, pro-poor income growth and income mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Stephen P.; Van Kerm, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    We provide an analytical framework within which changes in income inequality over time are related to the pattern of income growth across the income range, and the reshuffling of individuals in the income pecking order. We use it to explain how it was possible both for ?the poor? to have fared badly relatively to ?the rich? in the USA during the 1980s (when income inequality grew substantially), and also for income growth to have been pro-poor. Income growth was also pro-poor in Western Germa...

  18. Income responses to tax changes : evidence from the Norwegian tax reform

    OpenAIRE

    Thoresen, Thor Olav; Aarbu, Karl Ove

    1999-01-01

    Several studies, conducted on U.S. data, have found rather strong income responses to changes in marginal tax rates, when treating tax reforms as "natural experiments" and applying the differences-of-differences estimator on individual income data. The Norwegian tax reform of 1992 implied substantial increases in the net-of-tax rate (1 minus the change in the marginal tax rate) for high-income earners, and this paper provides measures of the elasticity of taxable income with respect to these ...

  19. Regional features of the individual income tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Demina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax on income of physical persons according to the method of establishing refers to federal taxes, however, is the establishment of a regional peculiarities. Currently, in accordance with the distribution of taxes between the budgets of the order, the share of this tax in the regional budgets is directly dependent on the level and income level received by the population, to carry on activity in a particular area of the country. The article discusses the possibility of impact on the taxation of income of different categories of individuals from the regions. Since the tax on personal income has expressed toms-social orientation, in the Tax Code of the Russian Federation provided for the regions eligible for the establishment of a number of benefits for certain categories of taxpayers. This article describes the possible impact on the taxation of income of different categories of individuals from the regions by establishing incentives. The issues of granting tariff preferences income owners of private farms on the example of the Moscow region. An important social task of the state related to the support of family and birth rate increase, which is be implemented in the Russian Federation in the framework of the tax on personal income, is exemption from personal income tax funds regional maternal (family capital. The regional legislation can be traced virtually the same position on the determination of the number of children in the case of birth (adoption of which the inhabitants of the region there is a right to additional measures of state support and tax benefits. The data on the size of the analysis of the results of the regional maternity capital and the terms of its provision. We describe the benefits that the regions were able to provide 2016 individuals - payers of personal income tax on income from the sale of real estate. We consider the benefits that are currently install or may be establish by laws of subjects of federation in the

  20. Hydrodynamic characteristics of knotted and knotless purse seine netting panels as determined in a flume tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Xu, Liuxiong; Hu, Fuxiang

    2018-01-01

    Nylon (PA) netting is widely used in purse seines and other fishing gears due to its high strength and good sinking performance. However, hydrodynamic properties of nylon netting of different characteristics are poorly understood. This study investigated hydrodynamic characteristics of nylon netting of different knot types and solidity ratios under different attack angles and flow velocities. It was found that the hydrodynamic coefficient of netting panels was related to Reynolds number, solidity ratio, attack angle, knot type and twine construction. The solidity ratio was found to positively correlate with drag coefficient when the netting was normal to the flow (CD90), but not the case when the netting was parallel to the flow (CD0). For netting panels inclined to the flow, the inclined drag coefficient had a negative relationship with the solidity ratio for attack angles between 0° and 50°, but a positive relationship for attack angles between 50° and 90°. The lift coefficient increased with the attack angle, reaching the culminating point at an attack angle of 50°, before subsequent decline. We found that the drag generated by knot accounted for 15-25% of total drag, and the knotted netting with higher solidity ratio exhibited a greater CD0, but it was not the case for the knotless netting. Compared to knotless polyethylene (PE) netting, the drag coefficients of knotless PA netting were dominant at higher Reynolds number (Re>2200).

  1. Hydrodynamic characteristics of knotted and knotless purse seine netting panels as determined in a flume tank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tang

    Full Text Available Nylon (PA netting is widely used in purse seines and other fishing gears due to its high strength and good sinking performance. However, hydrodynamic properties of nylon netting of different characteristics are poorly understood. This study investigated hydrodynamic characteristics of nylon netting of different knot types and solidity ratios under different attack angles and flow velocities. It was found that the hydrodynamic coefficient of netting panels was related to Reynolds number, solidity ratio, attack angle, knot type and twine construction. The solidity ratio was found to positively correlate with drag coefficient when the netting was normal to the flow (CD90, but not the case when the netting was parallel to the flow (CD0. For netting panels inclined to the flow, the inclined drag coefficient had a negative relationship with the solidity ratio for attack angles between 0° and 50°, but a positive relationship for attack angles between 50° and 90°. The lift coefficient increased with the attack angle, reaching the culminating point at an attack angle of 50°, before subsequent decline. We found that the drag generated by knot accounted for 15-25% of total drag, and the knotted netting with higher solidity ratio exhibited a greater CD0, but it was not the case for the knotless netting. Compared to knotless polyethylene (PE netting, the drag coefficients of knotless PA netting were dominant at higher Reynolds number (Re>2200.

  2. Business Profile of Boat Lift Net and Stationary Lift Net Fishing Gear in Morodemak Waters Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapsari, Trisnani D.; Jayanto, Bogi B.; Fitri, Aristi D. P.; Triarso, I.

    2018-02-01

    Lift net is one of the fishing gears that is used widely in the Morodemak coastal fishing port (PPP) for catching pelagic fish. The yield of fish captured by these fishing gear has high economic value, such as fish belt (Trichiurus sp), squids (Loligo sp) and anchovies (Stelophorus sp). The aims of this research were to determine the technical aspects of boat lift net and stationary lift net fishing gear in Morodemak Waters Demak Regency; to find out the financial aspect of those fishing gears and to analyze the financial feasibility by counting PP, NPV, IRR, and B/C ratio criteria. This research used case study method with descriptive analysis. The sampling method was purposive sampling with 22 fishermen as respondents. The result of the research showed that the average of boat lift net acceptance was Rp 388,580,000. The financial analysis of fisheries boat lift net with the result of NPV Rp 836,149,272, PP 2.44 years, IRR value 54%, and B/C ratio 1.73. The average of stationary lift net acceptance was Rp 27,750,000. The financial analysis lift net with the result of NPV Rp 37,937,601; PP 1.96 years, IRR value 86%, and B/C ratio 1.32. This research had a positive NPV value, B/C ratio >1, and IRR > discount rate (12 %). This study concluded that the fishery business of boat lift net and stationary lift net in Morodemak coastal fishing port (PPP) was worth running.

  3. Population characteristics of markets of safety-net and non-safety-net hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, D J; Hadley, J

    1999-09-01

    To compare and contrast the markets of urban safety-net (USN) hospitals with the markets of other urban hospitals. To develop profiles of the actual inpatient markets of hospitals, we linked 1994 patient-level information from hospital discharge abstracts from nine states with 1990 data at the ZIP code level from the US Census Bureau. Each hospital's market was characterized by its racial and ethnic composition, median household income, poverty rate, and educational attainment. Measures of hospital competition were also calculated for each hospital. The analysis compared the market profiles of USN hospitals to those of other urban hospitals. We also compared the level of hospital competition and financial status of USN and other urban hospitals. The markets of USN hospitals had higher proportions of racial and ethnic minorities and non-English-speaking residents. Adults residing in markets of USN hospitals were less educated. Families living in markets of USN hospitals had lower incomes and were more likely to be living at or below the federal poverty level. USN hospitals and other urban hospitals faced similar levels of competition and had similar margins. However, USN hospitals were more dependent on Medicare disproportionate share payments and on state and local government subsidies to remain solvent. USN hospitals disproportionately serve vulnerable minority and low-income communities that otherwise face financial and cultural barriers to health care. USN hospitals are dependent on the public subsidies they receive from federal, state, and local governments. Public policies and market pressures that affect the viability of USN hospitals place the access to care by vulnerable populations at risk. Public policy that jeopardizes public subsidies places in peril the financial health of these institutions. As Medicare and Medicaid managed care grow, USN hospitals may lose these patient revenues and public subsidies based on their Medicaid and Medicare patient

  4. The Middle Income Squeeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Steve

    1978-01-01

    Complaints about a middle income family's hardships in sending their children to private colleges and universities are examined. The difficulty may be attributable to a progressive College Scholarship Service (CSS) taxation rate schedule that causes larger proportionate reductions in the standard of living for some families than others.…

  5. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  6. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    The mission was defined to build, “A society where information and ... innovative ideas and projects around different themes (using ICT), and piloting them to test .... like D.Net with several projects that had moved beyond their pilot phase.

  7. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...

  8. Complexity metrics for workflow nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassen, K.B.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc., are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system

  9. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Met behulp van het rapport kunnen ontwikkelaars, beheerders en betrokken managers bij ICT projecten meer inzicht krijgen in de .NET technologie en een goede keuze maken in de inzetbaarheid van deze technologie. Het rapport geeft de bevindingen en conclusies van een verkennende studie naar het

  10. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  11. Communicating with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    resource investment is necessary to sustain a high quality all-volunteer force. 9 Leadership Technique for the Net Generation Army Regulation 600...Generations at Work, Millenials at Work, http://www.generationsatwork. com /articles_millennials_at_work.php (accessed November 21, 2010). 31 Thomas

  12. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  13. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  14. Net4Care PHMR Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    Goal To demonstrate how to use the Net4Care PHMR builder module to a) Create a SimpleClinicalDocument instance and populate it with relevant administrative and medical information to form a tele medical report of a set of measurements, b) Use the provided DanishPHMRBuilder to generate a correctly...

  15. Community income and surgical rates in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westert, G.P.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Polder, J.J.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    - Background: The study describes variations in use of surgical procedures by community income in the Netherlands. From the literature it is known that surgical rates have a socioeconomic gradient. Both positive and negative associations of socioeconomic factors of patients (for example, income,

  16. 26 CFR 1.1348-2 - Computation of the fifty-percent maximum tax on earned income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... compensation for A's personal services rendered by him in his laundry business would be $12,000. The net... earned income. 1.1348-2 Section 1.1348-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... account in determining the net profits of a trade or business in which both personal services and capital...

  17. Wider income gaps, wider waistbands? An ecological study of obesity and income inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Kate E; Kelly, Shona; Brunner, Eric; Lobstein, Tim; Wilkinson, Richard G

    2005-08-01

    To see if obesity, deaths from diabetes, and daily calorie intake are associated with income inequality among developed countries. Ecological study of 21 developed countries.Countries: Countries were eligible for inclusion if they were among the top 50 countries with the highest gross national income per capita by purchasing power parity in 2002, had a population over 3 million, and had available data on income inequality and outcome measures. Percentage of obese (body mass index >30) adult men and women, diabetes mortality rates, and calorie consumption per capita per day. Adjusting for gross national per capita income, income inequality was positively correlated with the percentage of obese men (r = 0.48, p = 0.03), the percentage of obese women (r = 0.62, p = 0.003), diabetes mortality rates per 1 million people (r = 0.46, p = 0.04), and average calories per capita per day (r = 0.50, p = 0.02). Correlations were stronger if analyses were weighted for population size. The effect of income inequality on female obesity was independent of average calorie intake. Obesity, diabetes mortality, and calorie consumption were associated with income inequality in developed countries. Increased nutritional problems may be a consequence of the psychosocial impact of living in a more hierarchical society.

  18. Income Inequality and Transnational Corporate Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Beer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether the positive association between national income inequality and transnational corporate penetration found previously by Bornschier and Chase-Dunn (1985 and others circa the late 1960s still holds for the mid-l980s. Both methodological and theoretical problems of earlier studies are discussed and solutions are offered. Economic development, political-institutional and regional variables are also included inthe analyses. While further research is warranted, the results provide support for a World-System/Dependency perspective in understanding income inequality cross-nationally.

  19. Organizing seniors to protect the health safety net: the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Leena; Regan, Carol; Villers, Katherine S

    2018-04-12

    Over the past century, the organized voice of seniors has been critical in building the U.S. health safety net. Since the 2016 election, that safety net, particularly the Medicaid program, is in jeopardy. As we have seen with the rise of the Tea Party, senior support for health care programs-even programs that they use in large numbers-cannot and should not be taken for granted. This article provides a brief history of senior advocacy and an overview of the current senior organizing landscape. It also identifies opportunities for building the transformational organizing of low-income seniors needed to defend against sustained attacks on critical programs. Several suggestions are made, drawn from years of work in philanthropy, advocacy, and campaigns, for strengthening the ability to organize seniors-particularly low-income seniors-into an effective political force advocating for Medicaid and other safety net programs.

  20. Night lights and regional income inequality in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mveyange, Anthony Francis

    Estimating regional income inequality in Africa has been challenging due to the lack of reliable and consistent sub-national income data. I employ night lights data to circumvent this limitation. I find significant and positive associations between regional inequality visible through night lights...... and income in Africa. Thus, in the absence of income data, we can construct regional inequality proxies using night lights data. Further investigation on the night lights-based regional inequality trends reveals two main findings: first, increasing regional inequality trends between 1992 and 2003; and second......, declining regional inequality trends between 2004 and 2012....

  1. .net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Comité de Rédaction d' EspacesTemps.net

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available EspacesTemps lance aujourd'hui deux objets différents : un site internet et, sur ce site, Le Journal . Il s'agit donc de bien plus, et, au fond, de tout autre chose qu'un simple outil de communication destiné à informer nos lecteurs de nos parutions. Ce n'est pas non plus la « mise en ligne » de nos numéros-papier. L'internet nous donne au contraire l'occasion de réaliser, dans de meilleures conditions, ce que nous avons tenté de faire depuis quelques ...

  2. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  3. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Energy Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    recovery and cogeneration opportunities, offsetting the remaining demand with the production of renewable energy from onsite sources so that the Net...implementing energy recovery and cogeneration opportunities, and then offsetting the remaining demand with the production of renewable energy from on-site...they impact overall energy performance. The use of energy modeling in the design stage provides insights that can contribute to more effective design

  4. The links between implementing ISA 540 and mitigating the practice of smoothing reported net earnings using write-offs of accounts receivable and inventory by reporting entities in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Krystian Piosik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the question of the links between implementing ISA 540 and mitigating the practice of smoothing reported net earnings using write-offs of accounts receivable and inventory by reporting entities in Poland. The research question stems from the previous analysis carried out by the author in which evidence was provided that reporting entities in Poland in the period 2000–2010 effectively used write-offs of accounts receivable and inventory in order to mitigate fluctuations of reported net earnings. This paper provides evidence that before implementing ISA 540 reporting entities used write-offs of receivables and inventory for income smoothing in effective manner, however in the period after implementing the standard (2009–2014 no link was observed between the write-offs and reduced fluctuations of reported net earnings. The research has been carried out using Wilcoxon signed-rank test used to check equality of medians of mean deviations of net earnings before write-offs of receivables and inventory and mean deviations of net earnings after write-offs. For the period before implementing ISA 540 there are grounds to reject the hypothesis of equality of medians of mean deviations of net earnings, however in the post-adoption period there is no justification to reject the hypothesis of equality of medians. The research provides evidence of positive impact of ISA 540 mitigating the processes of accounting earnings management. The indicated regularity does not apply to banks, because within this group of companies we have not observed the use of write-offs of loan receivables in order to reduce the variability of net earnings before implementing ISA 540 and in the period following the implementation of the standard.

  5. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Carl S.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO 2 , and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined 'CO 2 -acidity' is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO 2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass-action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mgL -1 as CaCO 3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved Fe II , Fe III , Mn, and Al in mgL -1 ):acidity calculated =50{1000(10 -pH )+[2(Fe II )+3(Fe III )]/56+2(Mn) /55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO 4 - and H + , but overestimates the acidity due to Fe 3+ and Al 3+ . However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that 'net alkalinity' is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the

  6. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined "CO 2-acidity" is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass- action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mg L -1 as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeII, FeIII, Mn, and Al in mg L -1):aciditycalculated=50{1000(10-pH)+[2(FeII)+3(FeIII)]/56+2(Mn)/ 55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO4- and H+, but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+ and Al3+. However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that "net alkalinity" is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation, (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the value obtained in a

  7. 26 CFR 1.1402(f)-1 - Computation of partner's net earnings from self-employment for taxable year which ends as result...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(f)-1 Computation of partner's net earnings from self...—(1) In general. The rules for the computation of a partner's net earnings from self-employment are... self-employment computed under such rules for the last taxable year of a deceased partner, if a partner...

  8. Risk assessment for invasive species produces net bioeconomic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Reuben P; Lodge, David M; Finnoff, David C

    2007-01-02

    International commerce in live organisms presents a policy challenge for trade globalization; sales of live organisms create wealth, but some nonindigenous species cause harm. To reduce damage, some countries have implemented species screening to limit the introduction of damaging species. Adoption of new risk assessment (RA) technologies has been slowed, however, by concerns that RA accuracy remains insufficient to produce positive net economic benefits. This concern arises because only a small proportion of all introduced species escape, spread, and cause harm (i.e., become invasive), so a RA will exclude many noninvasive species (which provide a net economic benefit) for every invasive species correctly identified. Here, we develop a simple cost:benefit bioeconomic framework to quantify the net benefits from applying species prescreening. Because invasive species are rarely eradicated, and their damages must therefore be borne for long periods, we have projected the value of RA over a suitable range of policy time horizons (10-500 years). We apply the model to the Australian plant quarantine program and show that this RA program produces positive net economic benefits over the range of reasonable assumptions. Because we use low estimates of the financial damage caused by invasive species and high estimates of the value of species in the ornamental trade, our results underestimate the net benefit of the Australian plant quarantine program. In addition, because plants have relatively low rates of invasion, applying screening protocols to animals would likely demonstrate even greater benefits.

  9. Income Inequality and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Breen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many commentators have seen the growing gap in earnings and income between those with a college education and those without as a major cause of increasing inequality in the United States and elsewhere. In this article we investigate the extent to which increasing the educational attainment of the US population might ameliorate inequality. We use data from NLSY79 and carry out a three-level decomposition of total inequality into within-person, between-person and between-education parts. We find that the between-education contribution to inequality is small, even when we consider only adjusted inequality that omits the within-person component. We carry out a number of simulations to gauge the likely impact on inequality of changes in the distribution of education and of a narrowing of the differences in average incomes between those with different levels of education. We find that any feasible educational policy is likely to have only a minor impact on income inequality.

  10. Income tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  11. Income Tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  12. Neuronal nets in robotics; Redes neuronales en robotica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Sanchez, Raul

    1999-06-01

    The paper gives a generic idea of the solutions that the neuronal nets contribute to the robotics. The advantages and the inconveniences are exposed that have regarding the conventional techniques. It also describe the more excellent applications as the pursuit of trajectories, the positioning based on images, the force control or of the mobile robots management, among others.

  13. Les dispositifs du Net art

    OpenAIRE

    Fourmentraux, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    La pratique du Net art radicalise la question du potentiel communicationnel d’un média —Internet— qui constitue tout à la fois le support technique, l’outil créatif et le dispositif social de l’œuvre. Les technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC) placent en effet l’œuvre d’art au cœur d’une négociation socialement distribuée entre l’artiste et le public. L’article est focalisé sur cette construction collective du Net art et sur ses mises en scènes. Il montre le travail artist...

  14. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    analysts have difficulties grasping the dynamics implied by a process model. Recent empirical studies show that people make numerous errors when modeling complex business processes, e.g., about 20 percent of the EPCs in the SAP reference model have design flaws resulting in potential deadlocks, livelocks......, etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...... for a subclass of Petri nets named Workflow nets, but the results can easily be applied to other languages. To demonstrate the applicability of these metrics, we have applied our approach and tool to 262 relatively complex Protos models made in the context of various student projects. This allows us to validate...

  15. dotNet som multimediaplattform

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    As the speed and complexity of computers have increased so have software and the expectations of users. Software development follows a straightforward evolution where complicated tasks are made easier by better tools; this repeats itself as those tasks in turn are automated. Software mechanics that were seen as revolutionary a decade ago are seen as obvious requirements that no multimedia application can be without. dotNet is the next step in line and makes it easier and faster to build softw...

  16. Natural Resources, Openness and Income Inequality in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mahdi Mostafavi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to survey the relationship among natural resource, income inequality and openness in Iran by using the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL model in the period 1980-2009. The stationary test reveals that our variables are both I(0 and I(1, so for that reason, we used the ARDL approach to estimate long run and the short run relations between the variables. The results show that, in the long-run and the short-run, the GDP per capita, Land, Openness and literacy rate have a negative effect on income equality; the total natural resource rents has a positive effect on income equality. The oil revenue has a negative effect on income inequality in the short run, and it has a positive effect on income equality in the long run.

  17. NET model coil test possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, J.; Gruenhagen, A.; Herz, W.; Jentzsch, K.; Komarek, P.; Lotz, E.; Malang, S.; Maurer, W.; Noether, G.; Ulbricht, A.; Vogt, A.; Zahn, G.; Horvath, I.; Kwasnitza, K.; Marinucci, C.; Pasztor, G.; Sborchia, C.; Weymuth, P.; Peters, A.; Roeterdink, A.

    1987-11-01

    A single full size coil for NET/INTOR represents an investment of the order of 40 MUC (Million Unit Costs). Before such an amount of money or even more for the 16 TF coils is invested as much risks as possible must be eliminated by a comprehensive development programme. In the course of such a programme a coil technology verification test should finally prove the feasibility of NET/INTOR TF coils. This study report is almost exclusively dealing with such a verification test by model coil testing. These coils will be built out of two Nb 3 Sn-conductors based on two concepts already under development and investigation. Two possible coil arrangements are discussed: A cluster facility, where two model coils out of the two Nb 3 TF-conductors are used, and the already tested LCT-coils producing a background field. A solenoid arrangement, where in addition to the two TF model coils another model coil out of a PF-conductor for the central PF-coils of NET/INTOR is used instead of LCT background coils. Technical advantages and disadvantages are worked out in order to compare and judge both facilities. Costs estimates and the time schedules broaden the base for a decision about the realisation of such a facility. (orig.) [de

  18. NET-2 Network Analysis Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmberg, A.F.

    1974-01-01

    The NET-2 Network Analysis Program is a general purpose digital computer program which solves the nonlinear time domain response and the linearized small signal frequency domain response of an arbitrary network of interconnected components. NET-2 is capable of handling a variety of components and has been applied to problems in several engineering fields, including electronic circuit design and analysis, missile flight simulation, control systems, heat flow, fluid flow, mechanical systems, structural dynamics, digital logic, communications network design, solid state device physics, fluidic systems, and nuclear vulnerability due to blast, thermal, gamma radiation, neutron damage, and EMP effects. Network components may be selected from a repertoire of built-in models or they may be constructed by the user through appropriate combinations of mathematical, empirical, and topological functions. Higher-level components may be defined by subnetworks composed of any combination of user-defined components and built-in models. The program provides a modeling capability to represent and intermix system components on many levels, e.g., from hole and electron spatial charge distributions in solid state devices through discrete and integrated electronic components to functional system blocks. NET-2 is capable of simultaneous computation in both the time and frequency domain, and has statistical and optimization capability. Network topology may be controlled as a function of the network solution. (U.S.)

  19. The proof of the pudding is in the eating: Net neutrality in practice, the Dutch example

    OpenAIRE

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the few countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. It was the first country to do so in the European Union. Contrary to the original European Union approach, which lacks a material implementation of net neutrality principles, the Dutch parliament decided to take a firmer position and introduced a quite detailed regimen on net neutrality. Providers of public electronic communications networks via which Internet access services are delivered and...

  20. Environmental income and rural livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsen, Arild; Jagger, Pamela; Babigumira, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a comparative analysis of environmental income from approximately 8000 households in 24 developing countries collected by research partners in CIFOR’s Poverty Environment Network (PEN). Environmental income accounts for 28% of total household income, 77% of which ...

  1. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  2. 20 CFR 404.1087 - Figuring partner's net earnings from self-employment for taxable year which ends as a result of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1087 Figuring partner's net earnings from self-employment for taxable year which ends as a result of death. (a) General. In... earnings from self-employment includes the amount of his or her distributive share of partnership ordinary...

  3. 26 CFR 1.996-8 - Effect of carryback of capital loss or net operating loss to prior DISC taxable year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of carryback of capital loss or net operating loss to prior DISC taxable year. 1.996-8 Section 1.996-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales...

  4. The Changing Safety Net for Low-Income Parents and Their Children: Structural or Cyclical Changes in Income Support Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Bradley; Smeeding, Timothy; Ziliak, James P

    2018-02-01

    Refundable tax credits and food assistance are the largest transfer programs available to able-bodied working poor and near-poor families in the United States, and simultaneous participation in these programs has more than doubled since the early 2000s. To understand this growth, we construct a series of two-year panels from the 1981-2013 waves of the Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement to estimate the effect of state labor-market conditions, federal and state transfer program policy choices, and household demographics governing joint participation in food and refundable tax credit programs. Overall, changing policy drives much of the increase in the simultaneous, biennial use of food assistance and refundable tax credits. This stands in stark contrast from the factors accounting for the growth in food assistance alone, where cyclical and structural labor market factors account for at least one-half of the growth, and demographics play a more prominent role. Moreover, since 2000, the business cycle factors as the leading determinant in biennial participation decisions in food programs and refundable tax credits, suggesting a recent strengthening in the relationship between economic conditions and transfer programs.

  5. Spectral estimates of net radiation and soil heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daughtry, C.S.T.; Kustas, W.P.; Moran, M.S.; Pinter, P.J. Jr.; Jackson, R.D.; Brown, P.W.; Nichols, W.D.; Gay, L.W.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional methods of measuring surface energy balance are point measurements and represent only a small area. Remote sensing offers a potential means of measuring outgoing fluxes over large areas at the spatial resolution of the sensor. The objective of this study was to estimate net radiation (Rn) and soil heat flux (G) using remotely sensed multispectral data acquired from an aircraft over large agricultural fields. Ground-based instruments measured Rn and G at nine locations along the flight lines. Incoming fluxes were also measured by ground-based instruments. Outgoing fluxes were estimated using remotely sensed data. Remote Rn, estimated as the algebraic sum of incoming and outgoing fluxes, slightly underestimated Rn measured by the ground-based net radiometers. The mean absolute errors for remote Rn minus measured Rn were less than 7%. Remote G, estimated as a function of a spectral vegetation index and remote Rn, slightly overestimated measured G; however, the mean absolute error for remote G was 13%. Some of the differences between measured and remote values of Rn and G are associated with differences in instrument designs and measurement techniques. The root mean square error for available energy (Rn - G) was 12%. Thus, methods using both ground-based and remotely sensed data can provide reliable estimates of the available energy which can be partitioned into sensible and latent heat under non advective conditions

  6. Income Analysis in South American Domestic Camelid Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ansaloni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the production costs and income of eight groups of farms: five private farms and three belonging to the Andean rural community. These farms are located in Peru and Bolivia and breed alpacas and llama for both meat and fibre. The research is based on case studies. Each case study includes several farms, grouped according to similar characteristics: available resources; breeding techniques and geographical location. A farm economic data analysis was undertaken by determining economic budget income. Statistics and data from 2003 were analysed to determine farm resources and farm production costs, per animal head and net farm income per labour unit and livestock head. This paper is relevant as regards economic data for production systems which are more often analysed for sociological and cultural aspects and less often for economic data and identification of real productive economic data which are not generally market driven.

  7. Personal Values as Mitigating Factors in the Link between Income and Life Satisfaction: Evidence from the European Social Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgellis, Yannis; Tsitsianis, Nicholas; Yin, Ya Ping

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey, we examine the link between income, reference income and life satisfaction across Western Europe. We find that whilst there is a strong positive relationship between income and life satisfaction, reference or comparison income exerts a strong negative influence. Interestingly, our…

  8. Comparing the Income Elasticity of Health Spending in Middle-Income and High-Income Countries: The Role of Financial Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; V Shimoga, Sandhya

    2017-07-19

    As middle-income countries become more affluent, economically sophisticated and productive, health expenditure patterns are likely to change. Other socio-demographic and political changes that accompany rapid economic growth are also likely to influence health spending and financial protection. This study investigates the relationship between growth on per-capita healthcare expenditure and gross domestic product (GDP) in a group of 27 large middle-income economies and compares findings with those of 24 high-income economies from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) group. This comparison uses national accounts data from 1995-2014. We hypothesize that the aggregated income elasticity of health expenditure in middle-income countries would be less than one (meaning healthcare is a normal good). An initial exploratory analysis tests between fixed-effects and random-effects model specifications. A fixed-effects model with time-fixed effects is implemented to assess the relationship between the two measures. Unit root, Hausman and serial correlation tests are conducted to determine model fit. Additional explanatory variables are introduced in different model specifications to test the robustness of our regression results. We include the out-of-pocket (OOP) share of health spending in each model to study the potential role of financial protection in our sample of high- and middle-income countries. The first-difference of study variables is implemented to address non-stationarity and cointegration properties. The elasticity of per-capita health expenditure and GDP growth is positive and statistically significant among sampled middle-income countries (51 per unit-growth in GDP) and high-income countries (50 per unit-growth in GDP). In contrast with previous research that has found that income elasticity of health spending in middle-income countries is larger than in high-income countries, our findings show that elasticity estimates can change if

  9. Comparing the Income Elasticity of Health Spending in Middle-Income and High-Income Countries: The Role of Financial Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Shimoga, Sandhya V.

    2018-01-01

    Background: As middle-income countries become more affluent, economically sophisticated and productive, health expenditure patterns are likely to change. Other socio-demographic and political changes that accompany rapid economic growth are also likely to influence health spending and financial protection. Methods: This study investigates the relationship between growth on per-capita healthcare expenditure and gross domestic product (GDP) in a group of 27 large middle-income economies and compares findings with those of 24 high-income economies from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) group. This comparison uses national accounts data from 1995-2014. We hypothesize that the aggregated income elasticity of health expenditure in middle-income countries would be less than one (meaning healthcare is a normal good). An initial exploratory analysis tests between fixed-effects and random-effects model specifications. A fixed-effects model with time-fixed effects is implemented to assess the relationship between the two measures. Unit root, Hausman and serial correlation tests are conducted to determine model fit. Additional explanatory variables are introduced in different model specifications to test the robustness of our regression results. We include the out-of-pocket (OOP) share of health spending in each model to study the potential role of financial protection in our sample of high- and middle-income countries. The first-difference of study variables is implemented to address non-stationarity and cointegration properties. Results: The elasticity of per-capita health expenditure and GDP growth is positive and statistically significant among sampled middle-income countries (51 per unit-growth in GDP) and high-income countries (50 per unit-growth in GDP). In contrast with previous research that has found that income elasticity of health spending in middle-income countries is larger than in high-income countries, our findings show that

  10. Risk Exposure and Net Flow in Investment Funds: Do Shareholders Monitor Asset Allocation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe Schiozer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of asset allocation on the net flow of fixed income funds in the Brazilian market, by exploiting the exogenous variation in the risk perception of bank liabilities (CDs caused by the financial turmoil that followed Lehman Brothers’ demise in September 2008. The central hypothesis is that the exposure to assets negatively affected by the crisis impacts negatively the fund’s net flow. We find that, for mutual funds, the larger proportion of assets negatively affected by the crisis the larger the net outflow of resources, indicating that shareholders monitor asset allocation and exert disciplining power on fund managers by withdrawing their resources. In exclusive (fundos exclusivos, i.e., funds with a single shareholder, for which the shareholder is presumed to exert more influence on asset reallocation, we find no significant relationship between the exposure to assets negatively affected by the crisis and net flows.

  11. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  12. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  13. Special Section on Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications.......Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications....

  14. The School Breakfast Program strengthens household food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartfeld, Judith S; Ahn, Hong-Min

    2011-03-01

    The School Breakfast Program is an important component of the nutritional safety net and has been linked to positive changes in meal patterns and nutritional outcomes. By offering a breakfast, which for low-income children is available either at no cost or reduced price, the program also has the potential to increase household food security. This study examined the relationship between availability of the School Breakfast Program and household food security among low-income third-grade students by using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort. The primary sample included 3010 students. Availability of school breakfast was assessed by surveys of school administrators. Food security was assessed by parents' reports by using the standard 18-item food security scale and considering 2 different food security thresholds. A probit model was estimated to measure the relationship between school breakfast availability and household food security while controlling for a range of other characteristics. Access to school breakfast reduced the risk of marginal food insecurity but not the risk of food insecurity at the standard threshold. That is, the program appeared beneficial in offsetting food-related concerns among at-risk families, although not necessarily in alleviating food insecurity once hardships had crossed the food insecurity threshold. Increasing the availability of school breakfast may be an effective strategy to maintain food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

  15. The income-pollution relationship and the role of income distribution: An analysis of Swedish household data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braennlund, Runar [Department of Economics, Umeaa University, S-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S-901 83 Umeaa (Sweden); Ghalwash, Tarek [Department of Economics, Umeaa University, S-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2008-08-15

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between pollution and income at household level. The study is motivated by the recent literature emphasizing the importance of income distribution for the aggregate relation between pollution and income. The main findings from previous studies are that if the individual pollution-income relationship is non-linear, then aggregate pollution for, say, a whole country, will depend not only on average income, but also on how income is distributed. To achieve our objective we formulate a model for determining the choice of consumption of goods in different types of household. Furthermore we link the demand model to emission functions for various goods. The theoretical analysis shows that without imposing very restrictive assumptions on preferences and the emission functions, it is not possible to determine a priori the slope or the curvature of the pollution-income relation. The empirical analysis shows that, given the model used, the pollution-income relation has a positive slope in Sweden and is strictly concave for all three pollutants under study (CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}), at least in the neighbourhood of the observed income for an average household. We also show that altering the prevailing income distribution, holding average income constant, will affect aggregate emissions in the sense that an equalization of incomes will give rise to an increase in emissions. One implication is then that the development of aggregate pollution due to growth depends not only on the income level, but also on how growth is distributed. (author)

  16. Income non-reporting: implications for health inequalities research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrell, G

    2000-03-01

    To determine whether, in the context of a face to face interview, socioeconomic groups differ in their propensity to provide details about the amount of their personal income, and to discuss the likely consequences of any differences for studies that use income based measures of socioeconomic position. The study used data from the 1995 Australian Health Survey. The sample was selected using a stratified multi-stage area design that covered urban and rural areas across all States and Territories and included non-institutionalised residents of private and non-private dwellings. The response rate was 91.5% for selected dwellings and 97.0% for persons within dwellings. Data were collected using face to face interviews. Income response, the dependent measure, was binary coded (0 if income was reported and 1 for refusals, "don't knows" and insufficient information). Socioeconomic position was measured using employment status, occupation, education and main income source. The socioeconomic characteristics of income non-reporters were initially examined using sex specific age adjusted proportions with 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Persons aged 15-64 (n = 33,434) who were reportedly in receipt of an income from one or more sources during the data collection reference period. The overall rate of income non-response was 9.8%. Propensity to not report income increased with age (15-29 years 5.8%, 30-49 10.6%, 50-64 13.8%). No gender differences were found (men 10.2%, women 9.3%). Income non-response was not strongly nor consistently related to education or occupation for men, although there was a suggested association among these variables for women, with highly educated women and those in professional occupations being less likely to report their income. Strong associations were evident between income non-response, labour force status and main income source. Rates were highest among the employed and those in receipt of

  17. Income-related health inequalities across regions in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Byung

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In addition to economic inequalities, there has been growing concern over socioeconomic inequalities in health across income levels and/or regions. This study measures income-related health inequalities within and between regions and assesses the possibility of convergence of socioeconomic inequalities in health as regional incomes converge. Methods We considered a total of 45,233 subjects (≥ 19 years drawn from the four waves of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. We considered true health as a latent variable following a lognormal distribution. We obtained ill-health scores by matching self-rated health (SRH to its distribution and used the Gini Coefficient (GC and an income-related ill-health Concentration Index (CI to examine inequalities in income and health, respectively. Results The GC estimates were 0.3763 and 0.0657 for overall and spatial inequalities, respectively. The overall CI was -0.1309, and the spatial CI was -0.0473. The spatial GC and CI estimates were smaller than their counterparts, indicating substantial inequalities in income (from 0.3199 in Daejeon to 0.4233 Chungnam and income-related health inequalities (from -0.1596 in Jeju and -0.0844 in Ulsan within regions. The results indicate a positive relationship between the GC and the average ill-health and a negative relationship between the CI and the average ill-health. Those regions with a low level of health tended to show an unequal distribution of income and health. In addition, there was a negative relationship between the GC and the CI, that is, the larger the income inequalities, the larger the health inequalities were. The GC was negatively related to the average regional income, indicating that an increase in a region's average income reduced income inequalities in the region. On the other hand, the CI showed a positive relationship, indicating that an increase in a region's average income reduced health

  18. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  19. History-dependent stochastic Petri nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonenberg, H.; Sidorova, N.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hee, van K.M.; Pnueli, A.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic Petri Nets are a useful and well-known tool for performance analysis. However, an implicit assumption in the different types of Stochastic Petri Nets is the Markov property. It is assumed that a choice in the Petri net only depends on the current state and not on earlier choices. For many

  20. Putting Petri nets to work in Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Petri nets exist for over 30 years. Especially in the last decade Petri nets have been put into practive extensively. Thanks to several useful extensions and the availability of computer tools, Petri nets have become a mature tool for modelling and analysing industrial systems. This paper describes

  1. Aplicació Microsoft .Net : Hotel Spa

    OpenAIRE

    Marquès Palmer, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    Desenvolupament d'una aplicació amb Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, d'un Hotel Spa. Desarrollo de una aplicación con Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, de un Hotel Spa. Application development using Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, for a Spa Hotel.

  2. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  3. The K-NET - A year after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, S.; Ohtani, K.; Katayama, T.

    2001-01-01

    We started to release the K-NET strong-motion data from June 1996 and about one year passed. In this article, we report the development of K-NET and some applications using the K-NET information released on the Internet. (author)

  4. INMARSAT-C SafetyNET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunamis 406 EPIRB's National Weather Service Marine Forecasts INMARSAT-C SafetyNET Marine Forecast Offices greater danger near shore or any shallow waters? NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE PRODUCTS VIA INMARSAT-C SafetyNET Inmarsat-C SafetyNET is an internationally adopted, automated satellite system for promulgating

  5. Numerical simulation of the knotted nylon netting panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A piece of netting, consists of the 8 8 meshes, fixed on a square frame, was simulated and the tensions and their distribution, the positions of knots and netting shape were calculated by means of MATLAB in computer. The dynamic mathematic model was developed based on lumped mass method, the netting was treated as spring-mass system, the Runge-Kutta fifth-order and sixth-order method was used to solve the differential equations for every step, then the displacement and tension of each mass point were obtained. For verify this model, the tests have been carried out in a flume tank. The results of the numerical simulation fully agreed with the experiments.

  6. Characteristic features of net information measures for constrained Coulomb potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S H; Sen, K D; Watson, N A; Jr, H E Montgomery

    2007-01-01

    The dimensional analyses of the position and momentum variance based quantum mechanical Heisenberg uncertainty measure and the other useful net entropic information measures for the bound states of two constrained Coulomb potentials are reported for the first time. The potentials describe an electron moving in the central field due to a nucleus of charge Z with radius R defining the constraints as (a) the truncated potential given by -Z/(r n +R n ) 1/n , and (b) the radius of the impenetrable spherical wall. The net information measures for the two potentials are explicitly shown to be independent of the scaling of the set [Z, R] at a fixed value of ZR. Analytic proof is presented, for the first time, showing the presence of a characteristic extremum in the variation of the net information entropy as a function of the radius R with its location scaling as Z -1 . Numerical results are presented which support the validity of the scaling properties

  7. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  8. Income Inequality, Income, and Internet Searches for Status Goods: A Cross-National Study of the Association Between Inequality and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walasek, Lukasz; Brown, Gordon D A

    Is there a positive association between a nation's income inequality and concerns with status competition within that nation? Here we use Google Correlate and Google Trends to examine frequency of internet search terms and find that people in countries in which income inequality is high search relatively more frequently for positional brand names such as Prada, Louis Vuitton, or Chanel. This tendency is stronger among well-developed countries. We find no evidence that income alone is associated with searches for positional goods. We also present evidence that the concern with positional goods does not reflect non-linear effects of income on consumer spending, either across nations or (extending previous findings that people who live in unequal US States search more for positional goods) within the USA. It is concluded that income inequality is associated with greater concerns with positional goods, and that this concern is reflected in internet searching behaviour.

  9. Implementation of Zakat on Income Management for Coastal Community Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Kasim, Nur

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of the research is to explain the substance of zakat on income regulation, to examine the government role in the management, utilization, and the importance of zakat on income management. Furthermore, the study aims to determine and analyze the constraints that obstruct the management of zakat on income in Gorontalo. The research is a socio-legal research, which uses a qualitative analysis technique. The data is comprised of primary and secondary data. This research used the legislation, law concepts or theories, and case approach. Moreover, the research employed literature review, observation, and interview as the data collecting techniques. The results showed that the management of the zakat on income in Gorontalo is still low. There is a substantial weakness in the management of zakat on income, as the existing regulation has not accommodated the interest of Islamic community, especially those who are obligated in giving zakat. Meanwhile, there are a lot of professional groups who are not aware on the obligation of giving their zakat on income. Hence, there is a necessity to penalize those who did not obey the regulation to raise awareness in the importance of paying zakat. Other factors that affect such phenomena are the lack of reliable and professional human resources as well as less supervision from the government. In addition, lack of community awareness of zakat on income culture and government role in zakat distribution also result in low attention on the management of zakat on income. Zakat on income can empower the less fortunate people by underlying the importance of zakat on income management and by doing a proper administration of the process of collecting, distributing, utilizing, as well as enhancing the process of zakat on income. In addition, the management of zakat on income must be done as professional, transparent, and proportional as possible. Therefore, it can give a positive contribution to the local government especially

  10. Income Inequality, Income, and Internet Searches for Status Goods: A Cross-National Study of the Association Between Inequality and Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Walasek, Lukasz; Brown, Gordon D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Is there a positive association between a nation’s income inequality and concerns with status competition within that nation? Here we use Google Correlate and Google Trends to examine frequency of internet search terms and find that people in countries in which income inequality is high search relatively more frequently for positional brand names such as Prada, Louis Vuitton, or Chanel. This tendency is stronger among well-developed countries. We find no evidence that income alone is associat...

  11. Internet application: production-technical information system MoNET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiga, J.

    2004-01-01

    MoNET is the production-technical information system supporting engineering, operational and maintenance processes of distribution network administrator. It utilizes the model of distribution network that is situated in the geo-space relational database. The geo-space database represents an information base of operational-technical processes. It contains elements and equipment s of the distribution network, failures, operational events, maintenance records, but also, parcels, reference planimetry, e.g. and other subjects for which is relevant the positional datum - geo-space information. MoNET is typically exploited in the fields: - evidence of the subjects and equipment of network, technical documentation; - property administration; - planning of network development, support of designing and construction; - technical calculation; - breakdown controller centre; - maintenance management. MoNET can be implemented as the desktop application, however its first benefit is derived from its usage as the intranet application MoNET WEB for the whole enterprise or organisation. This version enables an unrestricted number of end-users to enter this system. The end-users don't need any special software to enter the data of MoNet WEB application, the pre-installed Internet Explorer will do. (author)

  12. Buffer zone income dynamics for the sub-district producer community: Implications for rural off-farm income, income inequality and the development of household agriculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Taruvinga, Amon; Mushunje, Abbyssinia

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role of buffer zones in household welfare in Zimbabwe by using primary household level data collected between November and December 2010 from communities that share boundaries with Nyatana Game Park. The descriptive statistics suggest that the contribution of buffer zone activities to household income may be significant, with a positive correlation to household agricultural income for communities that reside inside or close to the Park. Using the Gini decomposition app...

  13. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    concepts could or should be subject to import and export in high-level Petri nets. In this paper, we formalise a minimal version of modular high-level Petri nets, which is based on the concepts of modular PNML. This shows that modular PNML can be formalised once a specific version of Petri net is fixed....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high-level...

  14. Child Poverty, the Great Recession, and the Social Safety Net in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitler, Marianne; Hoynes, Hiliary; Kuku, Elira

    In this paper, we comprehensively examine the effects of the Great Recession on child poverty, with particular attention to the role of the social safety net in mitigating the adverse effects of shocks to earnings and income. Using a state panel data model and data for 2000 to 2014, we estimate the relationship between the business cycle and child poverty, and we examine how and to what extent the safety net is providing protection to at-risk children. We find compelling evidence that the safety net provides protection; that is, the cyclicality of after-tax-and-transfer child poverty is significantly attenuated relative to the cyclicality of private income poverty. We also find that the protective effect of the safety net is not similar across demographic groups, and that children from more disadvantaged backgrounds, such as those living with Hispanic or single heads, or particularly those living with immigrant household heads—or immigrant spouses—experience larger poverty cyclicality than those living with non- Hispanic white or married heads, or those living with native household heads with native spouses. Our findings hold across a host of choices for how to define poverty. These include measures based on absolute thresholds or more relative thresholds. They also hold for measures of resources that include not only cash and near-cash transfers net of taxes but also several measures of the value of public medical benefits.

  15. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.

    2003-01-01

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  16. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income (as...

  17. 24 CFR 570.504 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 570.504 Section 570... income. (a) Recording program income. The receipt and expenditure of program income as defined in § 570... of program income received by recipients. (1) Program income received before grant closeout may be...

  18. 7 CFR 277.10 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 277.10 Section 277.10 Agriculture... § 277.10 Program income. (a) Program income is gross income resulting from activities financed with program funds. Such earnings exclude interest income but include income from service fees, usage or rental...

  19. Why Income Comparison is Rational

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2010-01-01

    A major factor affecting a person s happiness is the gap between their income and their neighbors , independent of their own income. This effect is strongest when the neighbor has moderately higher income. In addition a person s lifetime happiness often follows a "U" shape. Previous models have explained subsets of these phenomena, typically assuming the person has limited ability to assess their own (hedonic) utility. Here I present a model that explains all the phenomena, without such assumptions. In this model greater income of your neighbor is statistical data that, if carefully analyzed, would recommend that you explore for a new income-generating strategy. This explains unhappiness that your neighbor has greater income, as an emotional "prod" that induces you to explore, in accord with careful statistical analysis. It explains the "U" shape of happiness similarly. Another benefit of this model is that it makes many falsifiable predictions.

  20. Low income product innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Sobral

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At affluent markets, the literature on product development management tells us to aggregate value and technology, to differentiate products and to launch fast. And at the low-income markets? This exploratory research defines a popular product, characterizes and measures their markets in Brazil, and identifies innovation strategies for them. The results suggest that the effective strategic orientation differs from affluent markets. It includes: to enhance the auto service component; to identify and service the key functionalities to the targeted public; to standardize products and increase the production scale; to extend the product life cycle; to use convenient distribution and marketing channels; to build product images that have appeal in the popular market; to offer longer financing horizons with befittingly lower installments. Data came from market researches and general demographic census. General media published stories were used to identify companies and their strategies. And a few case studies allowed the authors a deeper exploration of the relevant themes.

  1. Counterfeit Goods and Income Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Scandizzo

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of counterfeit goods in a world where consumers are differentiated by level of income and innovation is quality enhancing. Counterfeit goods are defined as products with the same characteristics as “originals”, but of lower quality. The effect of imitation on firms’ profits and consumer welfare depends on the distribution of income within the country. In particular, the greater the level of income inequality the larger the increase in consumer welfare due to the...

  2. Positive Catch & Economic Benefits of Periodic Octopus Fishery Closures: Do Effective, Narrowly Targeted Actions 'Catalyze' Broader Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Thomas A; Oleson, Kirsten L L; Ratsimbazafy, Hajanaina; Raberinary, Daniel; Benbow, Sophie; Harris, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    Eight years of octopus fishery records from southwest Madagascar reveal significant positive impacts from 36 periodic closures on: (a) fishery catches and (b) village fishery income, such that (c) economic benefits from increased landings outweigh costs of foregone catch. Closures covered ~20% of a village's fished area and lasted 2-7 months. Octopus landings and catch per unit effort (CPUE) significantly increased in the 30 days following a closure's reopening, relative to the 30 days before a closure (landings: +718%, poctopus fishery income doubled in the 30 days after a closure, relative to 30 days before (+132%, p<0.001, n = 28). Control villages not implementing a closure showed no increase in income after "no ban" closures and modest increases after "ban" closures. Villages did not show a significant decline in income during closure events. Landings in closure sites generated more revenue than simulated landings assuming continued open-access fishing at that site (27/36 show positive net earnings; mean +$305/closure; mean +57.7% monthly). Benefits accrued faster than local fishers' time preferences during 17-27 of the 36 closures. High reported rates of illegal fishing during closures correlated with poor economic performance. We discuss the implications of our findings for broader co-management arrangements, particularly for catalyzing more comprehensive management.

  3. Income inequality, redistribution and the position of the decisive voter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.F.M.; van der Linde, D.E.

    2016-01-01

    A large literature explaining patterns of redistribution makes use of the median voter theorem. Using a novel approach, this contribution shows that in OECD countries the decisive voter, determined by the earner who sees her preferred tax rate being implemented, on average sits around the 50th

  4. Net Reclassification Indices for Evaluating Risk-Prediction Instruments: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Kathleen F.; Wang, Zheyu; Janes, Holly; McClelland, Robyn L.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Pepe, Margaret S.

    2014-01-01

    Net reclassification indices have recently become popular statistics for measuring the prediction increment of new biomarkers. We review the various types of net reclassification indices and their correct interpretations. We evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of quantifying the prediction increment with these indices. For pre-defined risk categories, we relate net reclassification indices to existing measures of the prediction increment. We also consider statistical methodology for constructing confidence intervals for net reclassification indices and evaluate the merits of hypothesis testing based on such indices. We recommend that investigators using net reclassification indices should report them separately for events (cases) and nonevents (controls). When there are two risk categories, the components of net reclassification indices are the same as the changes in the true-positive and false-positive rates. We advocate use of true- and false-positive rates and suggest it is more useful for investigators to retain the existing, descriptive terms. When there are three or more risk categories, we recommend against net reclassification indices because they do not adequately account for clinically important differences in shifts among risk categories. The category-free net reclassification index is a new descriptive device designed to avoid pre-defined risk categories. However, it suffers from many of the same problems as other measures such as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. In addition, the category-free index can mislead investigators by overstating the incremental value of a biomarker, even in independent validation data. When investigators want to test a null hypothesis of no prediction increment, the well-established tests for coefficients in the regression model are superior to the net reclassification index. If investigators want to use net reclassification indices, confidence intervals should be calculated using bootstrap

  5. Global income related health inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Safaei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Income related health inequalities have been estimated for various groups of individuals at local, state, or national levels. Almost all of theses estimates are based on individual data from sample surveys. Lack of consistent individual data worldwide has prevented estimates of international income related health inequalities. This paper uses the (population weighted aggregate data available from many countries around the world to estimate worldwide income related health inequalities. Since the intra-country inequalities are subdued by the aggregate nature of the data, the estimates would be those of the inter-country or international health inequalities. As well, the study estimates the contribution of major socioeconomic variables to the overall health inequalities. The findings of the study strongly support the existence of worldwide income related health inequalities that favor the higher income countries. Decompositions of health inequalities identify inequalities in both the level and distribution of income as the main source of health inequality along with inequalities in education and degree of urbanization as other contributing determinants. Since income related health inequalities are preventable, policies to reduce the income gaps between the poor and rich nations could greatly improve the health of hundreds of millions of people and promote global justice. Keywords: global, income, health inequality, socioeconomic determinants of health

  6. Remote assessment of net shore drift along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.; Sugimori, Y.

    -directional, net major sediment transport is southward. The geomorphic study identified possible sediment sources and sinks. Contributions of sources and losses due to sinks are assessed. The sediment balance is positive overall, and is reflected in large spits...

  7. Influence of capital expenditure and income original region to the income per capita in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, Iskandar; Annisa Fitri Hutapea, Azura

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to determine the Capital Expenditure and Income Original Region is considered to have a significantly positive effect on the increase in income per capita in the Government of North Sumatera Province and West Java Province. The method of research in this thesis is by using a causal research design, with a sample of 25 districts/cities in North Sumatera Province and West Java Province. This study was conducted for the period 2012-2015. The type of data used is secondary data. The method of analysis used in this research is SEM method using software AMOS. The result of this hypothesis shows that simultaneously both independent variables significantly influence to increase of income per capita.

  8. Bound states in string nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Vidal, Julien

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  9. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  10. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S [Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark); Theel, C [Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark)

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  11. Higher-moment measurements of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Amal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the measurements of the various moments, such as mean, standard deviation (σ), skewness (S) and kurtosis (κ) of the net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at mid-rapidity in Au + Au collisions from √(s NN )=7.7 to 200 GeV with the STAR experiment at RHIC. This work has been done with the aim to locate the critical point on the QCD phase diagram. These moments and their products are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of conserved quantities such as net baryon number, net charge, and net strangeness as well as to the correlation length of the system which diverges in an ideal infinite thermodynamic system at the critical point. For a finite system, existing for a finite time, a non-monotonic behavior of these variables would indicate the presence of the critical point. Furthermore, we also present the moment products Sσ, κσ 2 of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions as a function of collision centrality and energy. The energy and the centrality dependence of higher moments and their products have been compared with different models

  12. First study of the negative binomial distribution applied to higher moments of net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnowsky, Terence J.; Westfall, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    A study of the first four moments (mean, variance, skewness, and kurtosis) and their products (κσ 2 and Sσ) of the net-charge and net-proton distributions in Au + Au collisions at √(s NN )=7.7–200 GeV from HIJING simulations has been carried out. The skewness and kurtosis and the collision volume independent products κσ 2 and Sσ have been proposed as sensitive probes for identifying the presence of a QCD critical point. A discrete probability distribution that effectively describes the separate positively and negatively charged particle (or proton and anti-proton) multiplicity distributions is the negative binomial (or binomial) distribution (NBD/BD). The NBD/BD has been used to characterize particle production in high-energy particle and nuclear physics. Their application to the higher moments of the net-charge and net-proton distributions is examined. Differences between κσ 2 and a statistical Poisson assumption of a factor of four (for net-charge) and 40% (for net-protons) can be accounted for by the NBD/BD. This is the first application of the properties of the NBD/BD to describe the behavior of the higher moments of net-charge and net-proton distributions in nucleus–nucleus collisions

  13. Income inequality and child maltreatment in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenrode, John; Smith, Elliott G; McCarthy, Margaret E; Dineen, Michael

    2014-03-01

    To examine the relation between county-level income inequality and rates of child maltreatment. Data on substantiated reports of child abuse and neglect from 2005 to 2009 were obtained from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. County-level data on income inequality and children in poverty were obtained from the American Community Survey. Data for additional control variables were obtained from the American Community Survey and the Health Resources and Services Administration Area Resource File. The Gini coefficient was used as the measure of income inequality. Generalized additive models were estimated to explore linear and nonlinear relations among income inequality, poverty, and child maltreatment. In all models, state was included as a fixed effect to control for state-level differences in victim rates. Considerable variation in income inequality and child maltreatment rates was found across the 3142 US counties. Income inequality, as well as child poverty rate, was positively and significantly correlated with child maltreatment rates at the county level. Controlling for child poverty, demographic and economic control variables, and state-level variation in maltreatment rates, there was a significant linear effect of inequality on child maltreatment rates (P income inequality across US counties was significantly associated with higher county-level rates of child maltreatment. The findings contribute to the growing literature linking greater income inequality to a range of poor health and well-being outcomes in infants and children.

  14. Effect of Climate Variability on Crop Income in Central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arega Shumetie Ademe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopian agriculture is a vulnerable sector from effects of climate variability. This study identified how strong is the effect of climate variability on smallholders’ crop income in Central highlands and Arssi grain plough farming systems of the country. The unbalanced panel data (1994-2014 of the study collected for eight rounds analysed through fixed effect regression. The model result shows that successive increment of crop season rainfall keeping the temperature constant has negative and significant effect on households’ crop income in the study area. The crop income responds similarly for temperature increment if the rainfall remains constant. Given this, simultaneous increment of the two climate related inputs has positive and significant effect on crop income. Other variables like flood, frost, storm, and rainfall inconsistency in the onset and cessation time affected households’ crop income negatively and significantly. Similarly, draught power and human labour, which are critical inputs in the crop production of Ethiopian smallholders, have positive and significant effect on crop income as to the model result. Thus, this study recommended that there should be supplementing the rainfall through irrigation, check dam and other activities to have consistent water supply for the crop production that enable smallholders to collect better income. Additionally, negative effect of temperature increment should be curved through adopting long lasting strategies like afforestation.

  15. NucNet's growing impact on the media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, Remy [Electricite de France (France)

    1995-07-01

    In the four years since the birth of NucNet there has been a gradual but radical change In the original concept of the network. In the beginning, the focus of attention was to make nuclear communicators better-informed and more efficient. What had been desperately needed for some time was an Information exchange system which would enable those communicators to do a better Job whether working proactlvely or reactively. The idea was primarily for positive nuclear news from Europe to be disseminated to people on the network so that they could pass it on to media contacts in their respective countries, as part of their regular dialogue with journalists. However, once NucNet was up-and-running a strong body of opinion emerged, arguing in favour of NucNet's most urgent, important or off-beat news - the 'A' category releases - to be sent direct to national and international news agencies. Quite rightly, it was felt that, in this way, the nuclear community could clearly demonstrate Its transparency and Its desire to Inform the public openly. At the same time, it was clear that sending to just a few national news agencies in Europe would not be enough. It was clear that NucNet would have to expand into a truly worldwide network and that, to reflect this, the main International news agencies would have to be put online as well. NucNet's growing impact on the media is a result of teamwork, and this teamwork takes different forms. It is: between the network's information suppliers and Central Office, among the Central Office staff themselves, between Central Office and the agencies, and between network members and their news media contacts. Through this continuing teamwork process, NucNet will achieve its goal of providing the media and the public with a balanced picture of nuclear energy.

  16. NucNet's growing impact on the media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, Remy

    1995-01-01

    In the four years since the birth of NucNet there has been a gradual but radical change In the original concept of the network. In the beginning, the focus of attention was to make nuclear communicators better-informed and more efficient. What had been desperately needed for some time was an Information exchange system which would enable those communicators to do a better Job whether working proactlvely or reactively. The idea was primarily for positive nuclear news from Europe to be disseminated to people on the network so that they could pass it on to media contacts in their respective countries, as part of their regular dialogue with journalists. However, once NucNet was up-and-running a strong body of opinion emerged, arguing in favour of NucNet's most urgent, important or off-beat news - the 'A' category releases - to be sent direct to national and international news agencies. Quite rightly, it was felt that, in this way, the nuclear community could clearly demonstrate Its transparency and Its desire to Inform the public openly. At the same time, it was clear that sending to just a few national news agencies in Europe would not be enough. It was clear that NucNet would have to expand into a truly worldwide network and that, to reflect this, the main International news agencies would have to be put online as well. NucNet's growing impact on the media is a result of teamwork, and this teamwork takes different forms. It is: between the network's information suppliers and Central Office, among the Central Office staff themselves, between Central Office and the agencies, and between network members and their news media contacts. Through this continuing teamwork process, NucNet will achieve its goal of providing the media and the public with a balanced picture of nuclear energy

  17. The effect of migration on income growth and convergence: Meta-analytic evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozgen, C.; Nijkamp, P.; Poot, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    We compare a set of econometric studies that measure the effect of net internal migration in neoclassical models of long-run real income convergence and derive 67 comparable effect sizes. The precision-weighted estimate of beta convergence is about 2.7 per cent. An increase of one percentage point

  18. 75 FR 62899 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... criteria specified in the Financial Accounting Standards Board's Interpretation No. 39, Offsetting of... Clarity With Respect to the Close Out Netting of the Government Securities Division in the Event of the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation's Default or Insolvency October 5, 2010. I. Introduction On August 12...

  19. Implications of new accounting rules for income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, A; Carmichael, B J; Spaulding, A D

    1994-02-01

    The provisions of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Statement No. 109, Accounting for Income Taxes, require all organizations that issue financial statements to shift the focus of their accounting for income taxes from the income statement to the balance sheet. This change can alter significantly a healthcare organization's financial position. The change also may affect the way in which investors, lenders, regulators, and other users of financial statements evaluate corporations in the healthcare industry. Hospitals and other healthcare organizations, particularly for-profit organizations, therefore, should review carefully their methods of accounting for such items as deferred tax assets and loss and expense reserves.

  20. Relationship between income and repeat criminal victimization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Justus

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effect of income on repeat criminal victimization in Brazil using data from the 2009 National Household Sample Survey and its special supplement on victimization and access to justice. Two count-data models were estimated for four types of crime: theft, robbery, attempted theft/robbery, and physical assault. A positive nonlinear effect of income on repeat victimization for the three types of property crimes and a negative nonlinear effect of income on physical assault were observed.

  1. Heroin purchasing is income and price sensitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Juliette; Steinmiller, Caren L; Greenwald, Mark K

    2011-06-01

    Semi-structured interviews were used to assess behavioral economic drug demand in heroin dependent research volunteers. Findings on drug price, competing purchases, and past 30-day income and consumption, established in a previous study, are replicated. We extended these findings by having participants indicate whether hypothetical environmental changes would alter heroin purchasing. Participants (n = 109) reported they would significantly (p purchasing amounts (DPA) from past 30-day levels (M = $60/day) if: (a) they encountered a 33% decrease in income (DPA = $34), (b) family/friends no longer paid their living expenses (DPA = $32), or (c) they faced four-fold greater likelihood of police arrest at their purchasing location (DPA = $42). Participants in higher income quartiles (who purchase more heroin) show greater DPA reductions (but would still buy more heroin) than those in lower income quartiles. For participants receiving government aid (n = 31), heroin purchasing would decrease if those subsidies were eliminated (DPA = $28). Compared to participants whose urine tested negative for cocaine (n = 31), cocaine-positive subjects (n = 32) reported more efficient heroin purchasing, that is, they live closer to their primary dealer; are more likely to have heroin delivered or walk to obtain it (and less likely to ride the bus), thus reducing purchasing time (52 vs. 31 min, respectively); and purchase more heroin per episode. These simulation results have treatment and policy implications: Daily heroin users' purchasing repertoire is very cost-effective, more so for those also using cocaine, and only potent environmental changes (income reductions or increased legal sanctions) may impact this behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. [Mental income inequality: a "virus" which affects health and happiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Léandre; Dubé, Micheline

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the impact of income inequality on various indexes of mental health and on happiness in wealthy nations. Initially, the unequal distribution of income is documented in wealthy nations, especially in the United States of America. After the World War II, income equality was at a level never reached before, but since the eighties, income inequality has raised dramatically in many industrialized countries. The 2008 crisis has worsened the situation in many of them, particularly in the United States. Furthermore, prejudices have increased against women, Blacks, Spanish-speakers and those who receive social welfare. A selective review of the literature is made in order to document the impact of income inequality on a few indicators of mental health (from WHO, UN, UNICEF, OCDE and World Bank) and on happiness, defined here as life satisfaction. Income inequality is positively related to the following indexes: Index of Mental Illness from the WHO (0.73), Index of the United Nations' Office on Drug Consumption (0.63) and a composite Index of ten psychosocial problems, constituted by Wilkinson and Pickett, 2013 (0.87). On the other hand, income inequality is negatively associated to the UNICEF Index of Child Well-Being (-0.71). Furthermore, the level of anxiety and of depression is higher in countries where income inequality is greater. The correlation between happiness and income inequality in the 23 wealthy nations is -0.48; this correlation becomes -0.41 after control of the effect of the GNP (Gross National Product). These results support the idea that it is relative income - not absolute income - which matters in the evaluation of our life and of our happiness. In underdeveloped nations, any increase in GNP promotes the well-being of the citizens; whereas in wealthy nations, it is the equality of the distribution that is more important. Many arguments supporting the causal relation from income inequality to psychosocial

  3. Income Inequality in Rural India: Decomposing the Gini by Income Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Mehtabul Azam; Abusaleh Shariff

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines income inequality in rural India in 1993 and 2005. It attempts to ascertain the contribution of different income sources to overall income inequality, and change in their relative importance between 1993 and 2005 through decomposition of Gini coefficient. The paper finds that income inequality has increased between 1993 and 2005. Agriculture income continues to contribute majorly in total income and income inequality; however its share in total income and total income ineq...

  4. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  5. TwiddleNet: Smartphones as Personal Servers

    OpenAIRE

    Gurminder, Singh; Center for the Study of Mobile Devices and Communications

    2012-01-01

    TwiddleNet uses smartphones as personal servers to enable instant content capture and dissemination for firstresponders. It supports the information sharing needs of first responders in the early stages of an emergency response operation. In TwiddleNet, content, once captured, is automatically tagged and disseminated using one of the several networking channels available in smartphones. TwiddleNet pays special attention to minimizing the equipment, network set-up time, and content...

  6. Income Satisfaction Inequality and its Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada; Praag, Bernard M.S. Van

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the concept of Income Satisfaction Inequality is operationalized on the basis of individual responses to an Income Satisfaction question posed in the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP). Income satisfaction is the subjective analogue of the objective income concept and includes objective income inequality as a special case. The paper introduces a method to decompose Income Satisfaction Inequality according to the contributions from variables such as income, education, and the n...

  7. Exploring the link between household debt and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasianos, Apostolos; Raza, Hamid; Kinsella, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between household debt and income inequality in the USA, allowing for asymmetry, using data over the period 1913–2008. We find evidence of an asymmetric cointegration between household debt and inequality for different regimes. Our results indicate household debt...... only responds to positive changes in income inequality, while there is no evidence of falling inequality significantly affecting household debt. The presence of this asymmetry provides further empirical insights into the emerging literature on household debt and inequality....

  8. Income trusts and limited partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toews, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    This author provided a conceptual overview of income trusts and limited partnerships that are designed to pass operating cash flow directly to investors without the imposition of corporate taxes, discussed the evolution of the market, the mechanism used to price income funds, past and present performance of the sector, and made some predictions concerning the sector's future performance. 13 figs

  9. Does Microfinance Reduce Income Inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question whether participation of the poor in microfinance contributes to reducing a country’s level of income inequality. Using data from 70 developing countries, we show that higher levels of microfinance participation are indeed associated with a reduction of the income

  10. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  11. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  12. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  13. Income Tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FI Departments and the Legal Service concerning the new internal taxation provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations, the annual internal taxation certificate for 2007 and the declaration of income for 2007. I - New provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations concerning internal taxation Following the revision of the Staff Rules and Regulations (see CERN Bulletin Nos. 16 and 17 of 16 and 23 April 2007), the provisions relating to internal taxation are now set out in Articles S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules and in Articles R V 2.01 to R V 2.05 of the Staff Regulations, in force since 1st January 2007 (11th edition). Pursuant to Article S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules, each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel. The Finance Committee has laid down the provisions governing the application of internal taxation in the Staff Regulations (see Articles R V 2.01 to R V 2.05). ...

  14. Income inequality in today's China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Zhou, Xiang

    2014-05-13

    Using multiple data sources, we establish that China's income inequality since 2005 has reached very high levels, with the Gini coefficient in the range of 0.53-0.55. Analyzing comparable survey data collected in 2010 in China and the United States, we examine social determinants that help explain China's high income inequality. Our results indicate that a substantial part of China's high income inequality is due to regional disparities and the rural-urban gap. The contributions of these two structural forces are particularly strong in China, but they play a negligible role in generating the overall income inequality in the United States, where individual-level and family-level income determinants, such as family structure and race/ethnicity, play a much larger role.

  15. 26 CFR 1.1402(g)-1 - Treatment of certain remuneration erroneously reported as net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reported as net earnings from self-employment. 1.1402(g)-1 Section 1.1402(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... self-employment. (a) General rule. If an amount is erroneously paid as self-employment tax, for any... self-employment income on a return filed on or before the due date prescribed for filing such return...

  16. The Optimal Income Taxation of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Saez, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the general nonlinear optimal income tax for couples, a multidimensional screening problem. Each couple consists of a primary earner who always participates in the labor market, but makes an hours-of-work choice, and a secondary earner who chooses whether or not to work....... If second-earner participation is a signal of the couple being better (worse) off, we prove that optimal tax schemes display a positive tax (subsidy) on secondary earnings and that the tax (subsidy) on secondary earnings decreases with primary earnings and converges to zero asymptotically. We present...... calibrated microsimulations for the United Kingdom showing that decreasing tax rates on secondary earnings is quantitatively significant and consistent with actual income tax and transfer programs....

  17. The net effects of the Project NetWork return-to-work case management experiment on participant earnings, benefit receipt, and other outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfeld, R; Rupp, K

    2000-01-01

    The Social Security Administration (SSA) initiated Project NetWork in 1991 to test case management as a means of promoting employment among persons with disabilities. The demonstration, which targeted Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) beneficiaries and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) applicants and recipients, offered intensive outreach, work-incentive waivers, and case management/referral services. Participation in Project NetWork was voluntary. Volunteers were randomly assigned to the "treatment" group or the "control" group. Those assigned to the treatment group met individually with a case or referral manager who arranged for rehabilitation and employment services, helped clients develop an individual employment plan, and provided direct employment counseling services. Volunteers assigned to the control group could not receive services from Project NetWork but remained eligible for any employment assistance already available in their communities. For both treatment and control groups, the demonstration waived specific DI and SSI program rules considered to be work disincentives. The experimental impact study thus measures the incremental effects of case and referral management services. The eight demonstration sites were successful in implementing the experimental design roughly as planned. Project NetWork staff were able to recruit large numbers of participants and to provide rehabilitation and employment services on a substantial scale. Most of the sites easily reached their enrollment targets and were able to attract volunteers with demographic characteristics similar to those of the entire SSI and DI caseload and a broad range of moderate and severe disabilities. However, by many measures, volunteers were generally more "work-ready" than project eligible in the demonstration areas who did not volunteer to receive NetWork services. Project NetWork case management increased average annual earnings by $220 per year over the first 2 years following

  18. Random a-adic groups and random net fractals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yin [Department of Mathematics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)], E-mail: Lyjerry7788@hotmail.com; Su Weiyi [Department of Mathematics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)], E-mail: suqiu@nju.edu.cn

    2008-08-15

    Based on random a-adic groups, this paper investigates the relationship between the existence conditions of a positive flow in a random network and the estimation of the Hausdorff dimension of a proper random net fractal. Subsequently we describe some particular random fractals for which our results can be applied. Finally the Mauldin and Williams theorem is shown to be very important example for a random Cantor set with application in physics as shown in E-infinity theory.

  19. Randomized controlled trial of storytelling compared to a personal risk tool intervention on colorectal cancer screening in low-income patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkey, Linda K; McClain, Darya; Roe, Denise J; Hector, Richard D; Lopez, Ana Maria; Sillanpaa, Brian; Gonzalez, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Screening rates for colorectal cancer (CRC) lag for low-income, minority populations, contributing to poorer survival rates. A model of storytelling as culture-centric health promotion was tested for promoting CRC screening. A two-group parallel randomized controlled trial. Primary care, safety-net clinics. Low-income patients due for CRC screening, ages 50 to 75 years, speaking English or Spanish. Patients were exposed to either a video created from personal stories composited into a drama about "Papa" receiving CRC screening, or an instrument estimating level of personal cancer risk. Patients received a health care provider referral for CRC screening and were followed up for 3 months to document adherence. Behavioral factors related to the narrative model (identification and engagement) and theory of planned behavior. Main effects of the interventions on screening were tested, controlling for attrition factors, and demographic factor associations were assessed. Path analysis with model variables was used to test the direct effects and multiple mediator models. Main effects on CRC screening (roughly half stool-based tests, half colonoscopy) did not indicate significant differences (37% and 42% screened for storytelling and risk-based messages, respectively; n = 539; 33.6% male; 62% Hispanic). Factors positively associated with CRC screening included being female, Hispanic, married or living with a partner, speaking Spanish, having a primary care provider, lower income, and no health insurance. Engagement, working through positive attitudes toward the behavior, predicted CRC screening. A storytelling and a personalized risk-tool intervention achieved similar levels of screening among unscreened/underscreened, low-income patients. Factors usually associated with lower rates of screening (e.g., no insurance, being Hispanic) were related to more adherence. Both interventions' engagement factor facilitated positive attitudes about CRC screening associated with behavior

  20. The evolving role and care management approaches of safety-net Medicaid managed care plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmano, Michael K; Sparer, Michael S; Brown, Lawrence D; Rowe, Catherine; Gray, Bradford

    2002-12-01

    This article provides new empirical data about the viability and the care management activities of Medicaid managed-care plans sponsored by provider organizations that serve Medicaid and other low-income populations. Using survey and case study methods, we studied these "safety-net" health plans in 1998 and 2000. Although the number of safety-net plans declined over this period, the surviving plans were larger and enjoying greater financial success than the plans we surveyed in 1998. We also found that, based on a partnership with providers, safety-net plans are moving toward more sophisticated efforts to manage the care of their enrollees. Our study suggests that, with supportive state policies, safety-net plans are capable of remaining viable. Contracting with safety-net plans may not be an efficient mechanism for enabling Medicaid recipients to "enter the mainstream of American health care," but it may provide states with an effective way to manage and coordinate the care of Medicaid recipients, while helping to maintain the health care safety-net for the uninsured.

  1. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  2. SMARTPHONES AND THEIR IMPACT ON NET INCOME PER EMPLOYEE FOR SELECTED U.S. FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Amod Choudhary

    2014-01-01

    For the last few years, the number of smartphone users has been on a remarkable rise. The number of users increased from 62.6 million in 2010 to 115.8 million in 2012, and expected to increase to 192.4 million by 2016. This increased usage of smartphones by employees poses a dilemma for organizations. Since smartphones can do almost all the tasks (email, internet, and run applications of popular Microsoft software) of a traditional desktop computer, laptop, and phone; smartphone users are exp...

  3. Net farm income and land use under a U.S. greenhouse gas cap and trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin S. Baker; Bruce A. McCarl; Brian C. Murray; Steven K. Rose; Ralph J. Alig; Darius Adams; Greg Latta; Robert Beach; Adam. Daigneault

    2010-01-01

    During recent years, the U.S. agricultural sector has experienced high prices for energy related inputs and commodities, and a rapidly developing bioenergy market. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation would further alter agricultural markets and increase land competition in forestry and agriculture by shifting input costs, creating an agricultural GHG abatement...

  4. Depression Care for Low-Income, Minority, Safety Net Clinic Populations with Comorbid Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Kathleen; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Xie, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Increasingly, mental health care is provided within the general health care sector. Accompanying this significant change is the demand for evidence-based as well as cost-effective or cost-neutral care models. Method: The authors present a pooled analysis of three large randomized clinical trials in which social workers provide…

  5. 26 CFR 53.4940-1 - Excise tax on net investment income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., for $100,000. Fair market value on December 31, 1969, less straight line depreciation of $5,100 ($104... cost depletion, without regard to whether the foundation deducted such depreciation or depletion during... property shall be the greater of: (A) Fair market value on December 31, 1969, plus or minus all adjustments...

  6. Financing the response to HIV in low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izazola-Licea, José Antonio; Wiegelmann, Jan; Arán, Christian; Guthrie, Teresa; De Lay, Paul; Avila-Figueroa, Carlos

    2009-12-01

    To describe levels of national HIV spending and examine programmatic allocations according to the type of epidemic and country income. Cross-sectional analysis of HIV expenditures from 50 low-income and middle-income countries. Sources of information included country reports of domestic spending by programmatic activity and HIV services. These HIV spending categories were cross tabulated by source of financing, stratified by type of HIV epidemic and income level of the country and reported in international dollars (I$). Fifty low-income and middle-income countries spent US $ 2.6 billion (I$ 5.8 billion) on HIV in 2006; 87% of the funding among the 17 low-income countries came from international donors. Average per capita spending was I$ 2.1 and positively correlated with Gross National Income. Per capita spending was I$ 1.5 in 9 countries with low-level HIV epidemics, I$ 1.6 in 27 countries with concentrated HIV epidemics and I$ 9.5 in 14 countries with generalized HIV epidemics. On average, spending on care and treatment represented 50% of AIDS spending across all countries. The treatment-to-prevention spending ratio was 1.5:1, 3:1, and 2:1 in countries with low-level, concentrated and generalized epidemics, respectively. Spending on prevention represented 21% of total AIDS spending. However, expenditures addressing most-at-risk populations represented less than 1% in countries with generalized epidemics and 7% in those with low-level or concentrated epidemics. The most striking finding is the mismatch between the types of HIV epidemics and the allocation of resources. The current global economic recession will force countries to rethink national strategies, especially in low-income countries with high aid dependency. Mapping HIV expenditures provides crucial guidance for reallocation of resources and supports evidence-based decisions. Now more than ever, countries need to know and act on their epidemics and give priority to the most effective programmatic

  7. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  8. Near net shape of powder metallurgy rhenium parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, T.; Downs, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a description of the stages of processing necessary to produce a near-net shape (NNS) powder metallurgy (PM) rhenium component through the use of cold isostatic pressing (CIP) to form a complex shape will be explained. This method was primarily developed for the production of the 440 N and 490 N liquid apogee engine combustion chambers used in satellite positioning systems. The CIP to NNS process has been used in the manufacture and production of other rhenium aerospace components as well. Cold isostatic pressing (CIP) to a near net shape utilizing a one or two-part mandrel greatly reduces the quantity of rhenium required to produce the component, and also significantly reduces the number of secondary machining operations necessary to complete the manufacturing process. Further, the developments in near-net shape powder metallurgy rhenium manufacturing techniques have generated significant savings in the area of both time and budget. Overall, cost declined by as much as 35 % for the quantity of rhenium chambers, and manufacturing time was decreased by 30-40 %. The quantity of rhenium metal powder used to produce a rhenium chamber was reduced by approximately 70 %, with a subsequent reduction of nearly 50 % in secondary machining operation schedules. Thus, it is apparent that the overall savings provided by the production of near-net shape powder metallurgy rhenium components will be more than merely another aspect of any project involving high temperature applications, it will constitute significant benefit. (author)

  9.  NET and NETosis – new phenomenon in immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Matoszka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  Neutrophils are one of the first cells of the immune system recruited to the site of infection, representing the host’s most effective and numerous front-line defenders. Recently, a novel antimicrobial mechanism of neutrophils has been described: upon activation, they release DNA and a subset of their granule content, forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. These extracellular, chromatin structures, which contain histones and neutrophil granule proteins, can trap and kill a broad spectrum of microbes, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. Some of the pathogens, which are trapped and exposed to high local concentrations of antimicrobial compounds, employ strategies against NET binding, including surface modification and/or degradation of NET by DNases. It has been suggested that NETs are formed during active cell death, recently named NETosis. New data indicate that this novel mechanism of cell death requires interaction between three processes – reactive oxygen species generation, histone citrullination and autophagy – and significantly differs from previously known types of cell death, including apoptosis and necrosis. Moreover, the release of nuclear chromatin was also described for other types of cells – mast cells and eosinophils. Mast cells, like neutrophils, under certain conditions release nuclear chromatin and may undergo a similar active cell death program, while eosinophils release only mitochondrial chromatin, and its release does not lead to the death of these cells.

  10. 7 CFR 248.13 - FMNP income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FMNP income. 248.13 Section 248.13 Agriculture... FMNP income. Program income means gross income the State agency earns from grant supported activities... property. The State agency shall retain Program income earned during the agreement period and use it for...

  11. 24 CFR 236.60 - Excess Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excess Income. 236.60 Section 236... § 236.60 Excess Income. (a) Definition. Excess Income consists of cash collected as rent from the... Rent. The unit-by-unit requirement necessitates that, if a unit has Excess Income, the Excess Income...

  12. 28 CFR 66.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 66.25 Section 66.25... Administration § 66.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real...

  13. 45 CFR 1174.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 1174.25 Section 1174.25 Public....25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or...

  14. 34 CFR 80.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 80.25 Section 80.25 Education Office of... income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or personal property...

  15. 20 CFR 437.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 437.25 Section 437.25....25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or...

  16. 49 CFR 18.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 18.25 Section 18.25 Transportation... income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or personal property...

  17. 44 CFR 13.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 13.25 Section... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 13.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees...

  18. 22 CFR 135.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 135.25 Section 135.25 Foreign... income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or personal property...

  19. 45 CFR 2541.250 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 2541.250 Section 2541.250 Public... Post-Award Requirements § 2541.250 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the...

  20. 36 CFR 1207.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 1207.25... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for...

  1. 40 CFR 31.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 31.25 Section 31.25... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the...

  2. 38 CFR 43.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 43.25... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1086 - Community income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Community income. 404.1086 Section 404.1086...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1086 Community income. If community property laws apply to income that an individual derives from a trade or business...

  4. 29 CFR 1470.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 1470.25 Section 1470.25 Labor Regulations... Financial Administration § 1470.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or...

  5. 29 CFR 97.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Program income. 97.25 Section 97.25 Labor Office of the... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 97.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees...

  6. 45 CFR 1183.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 1183.25 Section 1183.25 Public....25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or...

  7. 20 CFR 627.450 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 627.450 Section 627.450... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Administrative Standards § 627.450 Program income. (a) Definition of program income. (1) Program income means income received by the recipient or subrecipient that...

  8. 24 CFR 85.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 85.25 Section 85.25... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees...

  9. 7 CFR 249.13 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 249.13 Section 249.13 Agriculture....13 Program income. Program income means gross income the State agency earns from grant supported... property. The State agency must retain Program income earned during the agreement period and use it for...

  10. 21 CFR 1403.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 1403.25 Section 1403.25 Food and....25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use of rental of real or...

  11. 14 CFR 1273.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 1273.25 Section 1273.25... Administration § 1273.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real...

  12. 10 CFR 600.225 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 600.225 Section 600.225 Energy DEPARTMENT....225 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or...

  13. 45 CFR 602.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 602.25 Section 602.25 Public... Requirements § 602.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real...

  14. 24 CFR 1003.503 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 1003.503 Section....503 Program income. (a) Program income requirements for ICDBG grantees are set forth in 24 CFR 85.25, as modified by this section. (b) Program income means gross income received by the grantee or a...

  15. 43 CFR 12.65 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 12.65 Section 12.65 Public... to State and Local Governments Post-Award Requirements § 12.65 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for...

  16. 45 CFR 92.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 92.25 Section 92.25 Public Welfare... Administration § 92.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real...

  17. 32 CFR 33.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 33.25 Section 33.25 National... Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 33.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services...

  18. 15 CFR 24.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 24.25 Section 24.25... Administration § 24.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real...

  19. 20 CFR 322.8 - Miscellaneous income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Miscellaneous income. 322.8 Section 322.8... REMUNERATION § 322.8 Miscellaneous income. (a) Income from self-employment. In determining whether income from... shall be given to whether, and to what extent, (1) such income can be related to services performed on...

  20. 7 CFR 3016.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 3016.25 Section 3016.25 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for...

  1. 45 CFR 1157.25 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 1157.25 Section 1157.25 Public... income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or personal property...

  2. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  3. A non-conventional isotope separation cascade without any mixing: net cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Shi; Jiang Dongjun; Ying Zhengen

    2012-01-01

    A component has different concentrations in the incoming flows at a confluent point in all existing isotope separations cascades for multi-component isotope separation and mixing is inevitable, which results in deterioration of separation performance of the separation cascade. However, realization of no-mixing at a confluent point is impossible with a conventional cascade. A non-conventional isotope separation cascade, net cascade, is found to be able to realize no mixings for all components at confluent points, and its concept is further developed here. No-mixing is fulfilled by requiring symmetrical separation of two specified key components at every stage, and the procedure of realizing no-mixing is presented in detail. Some properties of net cascade are investigated preliminarily, and the results demonstrated the no-mixing property is indeed realized. Net cascade is the only separation cascade that so far possesses the no-mixing property. (authors)

  4. Area-level income inequality and oral health among Australian adults-A population-based multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ankur; Harford, Jane; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Peres, Marco A

    2018-01-01

    A lack of evidence exists on the association between area-level income inequality and oral health within Australia. This study examined associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes (inadequate dentition (income inequality and oral health outcomes according to area-level mean income were also assessed. Finally, household-income gradients in oral health outcomes according to area-level income inequality were compared. For the analyses, data on Australian dentate adults (n = 5,165 nested in 435 Local Government Areas (LGAs)) was obtained from the National Dental Telephone Interview Survey-2013. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression models with random intercept and fixed slopes were fitted to test associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes, examine variations in associations according to area-level mean income, and examine variations in household-income gradients in outcomes according to area-level income inequality. Covariates included age, sex, LGA-level mean weekly household income, geographic remoteness and household income. LGA-level income inequality was not associated with poor self-rated oral health and inversely associated with inadequate dentition (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.87) after adjusting for covariates. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition at the individual level was limited to LGAs within the highest tertile of mean weekly household income. Household income gradients in both outcomes showed poorer oral health at lower levels of household income. The household income gradients for inadequate dentition varied according to the LGA-level income inequality. Findings suggest that income inequality at the LGA-level in Australia is not positively associated with poorer oral health outcomes. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition is likely due to the contextual differences between Australia and other high-income countries.

  5. Area-level income inequality and oral health among Australian adults—A population-based multilevel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background A lack of evidence exists on the association between area-level income inequality and oral health within Australia. This study examined associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes (inadequate dentition (income inequality and oral health outcomes according to area-level mean income were also assessed. Finally, household-income gradients in oral health outcomes according to area-level income inequality were compared. Methods For the analyses, data on Australian dentate adults (n = 5,165 nested in 435 Local Government Areas (LGAs)) was obtained from the National Dental Telephone Interview Survey-2013. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression models with random intercept and fixed slopes were fitted to test associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes, examine variations in associations according to area-level mean income, and examine variations in household-income gradients in outcomes according to area-level income inequality. Covariates included age, sex, LGA-level mean weekly household income, geographic remoteness and household income. Results LGA-level income inequality was not associated with poor self-rated oral health and inversely associated with inadequate dentition (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.87) after adjusting for covariates. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition at the individual level was limited to LGAs within the highest tertile of mean weekly household income. Household income gradients in both outcomes showed poorer oral health at lower levels of household income. The household income gradients for inadequate dentition varied according to the LGA-level income inequality. Conclusion Findings suggest that income inequality at the LGA-level in Australia is not positively associated with poorer oral health outcomes. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition is likely due to the contextual differences between Australia

  6. Area-level income inequality and oral health among Australian adults-A population-based multilevel study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Singh

    Full Text Available A lack of evidence exists on the association between area-level income inequality and oral health within Australia. This study examined associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes (inadequate dentition (<21 teeth and poor self-rated oral health among Australian adults. Variations in the association between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes according to area-level mean income were also assessed. Finally, household-income gradients in oral health outcomes according to area-level income inequality were compared.For the analyses, data on Australian dentate adults (n = 5,165 nested in 435 Local Government Areas (LGAs was obtained from the National Dental Telephone Interview Survey-2013. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression models with random intercept and fixed slopes were fitted to test associations between area-level income inequality and oral health outcomes, examine variations in associations according to area-level mean income, and examine variations in household-income gradients in outcomes according to area-level income inequality. Covariates included age, sex, LGA-level mean weekly household income, geographic remoteness and household income.LGA-level income inequality was not associated with poor self-rated oral health and inversely associated with inadequate dentition (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.87 after adjusting for covariates. Inverse association between income inequality and inadequate dentition at the individual level was limited to LGAs within the highest tertile of mean weekly household income. Household income gradients in both outcomes showed poorer oral health at lower levels of household income. The household income gradients for inadequate dentition varied according to the LGA-level income inequality.Findings suggest that income inequality at the LGA-level in Australia is not positively associated with poorer oral health outcomes. Inverse association between income

  7. Attitudes towards income inequality : ‘Winners’ versus ‘losers’ of the perceived meritocracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roex, Karlijn; Huijts, T.; Sieben, I.J.P.

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with a higher social position are more tolerant of current income inequality than individuals with a lower social position. Besides this, attitudes towards income inequality are influenced by inequality-legitimising myths in a given society. Little is known about how these two factors

  8. Minimal Edge-Transitive Nets for the Design and Construction of Metal-Organic Frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2017-04-05

    Highly-connected and minimal edge-transitive nets (with one or two kinds of edge) can be regarded as ideal blueprints for the rational design and construction of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Here we report and affirm the prominence of highly-connected nets as suitable targets in reticular chemistry for the design and synthesis of MOFs. Of special interest are augmented highly-connected binodal edge-transitive nets embedding a unique and precise positioning and connectivity of the net vertex figures, regarded as net-coded building units (net-cBUs). Explicitly, a definite net-cBU encompasses precise geometrical information that codes uniquely and matchlessly a selected net, a compelling perquisite for the rational design of MOFs. Interestingly, the double six-membered ring (d6R) building unit offers great prospective to be deployed as a net-cBU for the deliberate reticulation of the sole two edge-transitive nets with a vertex figure as a d6R, namely the (4,12)-coordinated shp net (square and hexagonal prism) and the (6,12)-coordinated alb net (aluminium diboride, hexagonal prism and trigonal prism). Conceivably, we envisioned and proposed various MOF structures based on the derived shp and alb nets. Gaining access to the requisite net-cBUs is essential for the successful practice of reticular chemistry; correspondingly organic and organic chemistries were deployed to afford concomitant molecular building blocks (MBBs) with the looked-for shape and connectivity. Practically, the combination of the 12-connected (12-c) rare-earth (RE) polynuclear, points of extension matching the 12 vertices of the hexagonal prism (d6R) with a 4-connected tetracarboxylate ligand or a 6-connected hexacarboxylate ligand afforded the targeted shp-MOF or alb-MOF, respectively. Intuitively, a dodecacarboxylate ligand can be conceived and purported as a compatible 12-c MBB, plausibly affording the positioning of the carbon centers of the twelve carboxylate groups on the vertices of the

  9. Reduction rules for reset/inhibitor nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, H.M.W.; Wynn, M.T.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Reset/inhibitor nets are Petri nets extended with reset arcs and inhibitor arcs. These extensions can be used to model cancellation and blocking. A reset arc allows a transition to remove all tokens from a certain place when the transition fires. An inhibitor arc can stop a transition from being

  10. Verifying generalized soundness for workflow nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hee, van K.M.; Oanea, O.I.; Sidorova, N.; Voorhoeve, M.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2007-01-01

    We improve the decision procedure from [10] for the problem of generalized soundness of workflow nets. A workflow net is generalized sound iff every marking reachable from an initial marking with k tokens on the initial place terminates properly, i.e. it can reach a marking with k tokens on the

  11. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  12. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  13. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...

  14. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  15. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters

    2009-01-01

    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...

  16. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by subtracting life cycle costs based on the proposed project from life cycle costs based on not having it. For a...

  17. Net Neutrality and Inflation of Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its sensitivity to delay.

  18. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  19. Net neutrality and inflation of traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, Florian

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate the short-run effects of different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its

  20. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section 4.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net...