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Sample records for portulaca oleracea electronic

  1. Pharmacognostical studies of Portulaca oleracea Linn

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    Bagepalli Srinivasa Ashok Kumar

    Full Text Available Portulaca oleracea Linn, belongs to family Portulaceae and is a widely distributed weed. It has been used as a folk medicine in many countries as diuretics, febrifuge, antiseptic, antispasmodic and vermifuge. This paper deals with the microscopic study of leaf; stem and root of Portulaca oleracea, along with the physico-chemical and preliminary phytochemical analyses that were also studied.

  2. The hepato-protective effects of Portulaca oleracea L. extract: review.

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    Farkhondeh, Tahereh; Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Hozeifi, Soroush

    2018-03-30

    Portulaca oleracea L. (Purslane) has been used in traditional medicine against hepatic injury, alt-hough its actual efficacy has not been fully understood. In addition, few studies have indicated that Portulaca oleracea L. possess protective effects against hepatotoxic agents. However, due to lack of information in human, more studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of Portulaca oleracea L. as a hepato-protective agent. The present study aimed to critically review the recent literature data from 1990 to 2017 regarding the hepato-protective effects of Portulaca oleracea L. and its underlying mechanisms. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Portulaca oleracea].

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    Liu, Ce-jia; Liu, Dian-yu; Xiang, Lan; Zhou, Wen; Shao, Ning-ning

    2009-11-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Portulaca oleracea. The constituents were isolated by column chromatography and identified on the basis of physicochemical and spectral data. Five compounds were isolated from 70% ethanol extract of this plant and their structures were elucidated as cyclo (Phe-Ile) (1), cycle (Tyr-Ala) (2), adenine (3), friedelin (4) and isoselachoceric acid (5). Compounds 1-5 are isolated from Portulaca oleracea for the first time.

  4. A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PORTULACA OLERACEA LINN. (PURSLANE

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    Cherukuri Vidyullatha Chowdhary; Anusha Meruva; Naresh K; Ranjith Kumar A. Elumalai

    2013-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea belongs to the family of Portulacaceae in the traditional system of medicine and consists of large number of various medicinal and pharmacological importances hence represents a priceless tank of new bioactive molecules. Portulaca oleracea consists of number of pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, neuronal, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity. This review helps to create an interest in Portulaca oleracea in developing new form...

  5. Portulaca oleracea L.: a review of phytochemistry and pharmacological effects.

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    Zhou, Yan-Xi; Xin, Hai-Liang; Rahman, Khalid; Wang, Su-Juan; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea L., belonging to the Portulacaceae family, is commonly known as purslane in English and Ma-Chi-Xian in Chinese. It is a warm-climate, herbaceous succulent annual plant with a cosmopolitan distribution. It is eaten extensively as a potherb and added in soups and salads around the Mediterranean and tropical Asian countries and has been used as a folk medicine in many countries. Diverse compounds have been isolated from Portulaca oleracea, such as flavonoids, alkaloids, polysaccharides, fatty acids, terpenoids, sterols, proteins vitamins and minerals. Portulaca oleracea possesses a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties such as neuroprotective, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerogenic, and anticancer activities. However, few molecular mechanisms of action are known. This review provides a summary of phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of this plant.

  6. Portulaca oleracea Linn seed extract ameliorates hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portulaca oleracea Linn seed extract ameliorates hydrogen ... induced cell death by inhibiting oxidative stress and ROS generation. Keywords: ... culture medium; therefore the stock solutions of ... acetic acid (1 %) and ethanol (50 %) to extract.

  7. Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation by Portulaca oleracea in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

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    Samarghandian, Saeed; Borji, Abasalt; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2017-10-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of the aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea against hyperglycemic, oxidative damage and inflammation in the serum of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In the present study, the rats were divided into the following groups of 8 animals each: control, untreated diabetic, 3 Portulaca oleracea (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/d)-treated diabetic groups. At the end of the 4-week period, glucose, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and total antioxidant status (TAS) levels were measured. STZ caused an elevation in the serum levels of glucose, MDA, IL-6, and TNF-α with reduction in the levels of GSH and TAS ( P Portulaca oleracea ameliorated glucose, MDA, IL-6, TNF-α, GSH, and TAS levels in diabetic groups versus to the untreated groups ( P Portulaca oleracea prevented hyperglycemia by preventing the oxidative stress and inflammation.

  8. Synthesis of silver nanoparticle using Portulaca oleracea L. extracts

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    Shahbazi Nafeseh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: To evaluate the influences of aqueous extracts of plant parts (stem, leaves, and root of Portulaca oleracea L. on bioformation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs.   Materials and Methods: Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by different plant part extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. was carried out and formation of nanoparticles were confirmed and evaluated using UV-Visible spectroscopy and AFM. Results: The plant extracts exposed with silver nitrate showed gradual change in color of the extract from yellow to dark brown. Different silver nanoperticles were formed using extracts of different plant parts. Conclusion: It seems that the plant parts differ in their ability to act as a reducing and capping agent.

  9. Adsorption of heavy metals ions on portulaca oleracea plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report the ability of portulaca oleracea (Fershi in Urdu) biomass grown in uncontaminated soils to adsorb or uptake lead, cadmium, arsenic, cobalt and copper from aqueous solutions. In order to help understand the metal binding mechanism, laboratory experiments performance to determine optimal binding, and binding capacity for each of the above mentioned metals. These experiments were carried out for the mass of crushed portulaca stems. Portulaca is a plant that grows abundantly in temperature climate in the area of Quetta Balochistan. It has reddish stem and thick succulent leaves. This plant has been found to be good adsorbent for heavy metals ions. (author)

  10. Amides and an alkaloid from Portulaca oleracea.

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    Kokubun, Tetsuo; Kite, Geoffrey C; Veitch, Nigel C; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2012-08-01

    A total of 16 phenolic compounds, including one new and five known N-cinnamoyl phenylethylamides, one new pyrrole alkaloid named portulacaldehyde, five phenylpropanoid acids and amides, and derivatives of benzaldehyde and benzoic acid, were isolated and identified from a polar fraction of an extract of Portulaca oleracea. Their structures were determined through spectroscopic analyses.

  11. Hypnotic Effect of Portulaca oleracea L on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep in Mice.

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    Hamedi, Shokouhsadat; Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Rakhshandeh, Hasan; Arian, Amirali

    2018-03-08

    In Iranian Traditional Medicine, the herbs with cold and wet temperament can help to improve insomnia. Portulaca oleracea has cold and wet temperament, so the present study was carried out to investigate the sleep-prolonging effect of Portulaca oleracea. This work was an experimental study on mice which were randomly divided into these groups: saline (control); Diazepam:) positive control); hydro-alcoholic extract of Portulaca oleracea (12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg) by Soxhlet apparatus and maceration; in the effective (dose25 mg/kg), different fractions of extract were tested. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF:); n-Hexane fraction (n-HF); water fraction (WF). All the test compounds were injected intraperitoneally (IP) 30 minutes before pentobarbital administration (30 mg/kg). Duration and latency of pentobarbital-induced sleep were recorded. Also, LD50 of Portulaca oleracea extract was determined and the possible neurotoxicity of the extract was tested on neural PC12 cells. Besides, 30 min after administration of hydro alcoholic extract (HAE) motor coordination (rota-rod test) were assessed. HAE increased the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep at doses of 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg The hypnotic effect of HAE was comparable to that induced by diazepam. Similarly, WF, EAF, and n-HF at 25 mg/kg could increase sleep duration. The sleep latency was decreased by HAE and NHF but not by WF and EAF. The LD50 value for HAE was found to be 4.8 g/Kg. HAE and its fractions did not show neurotoxic effect in cultured PC12-cell line, also HAE did not affect the animals' performance on the rotarod test. The present data demonstrated that Portulaca oleracea potentiates sleeping behaviors. The main component (s) responsible for the hypnotic effects of this plant is most likely a non-polar agent (s) which is found in n-HF. Isolation of the active constituents may yield a novel sedative drug. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Herbicide effects on cuticle ultrastructure in Eleusine indica and Portulaca oleracea.

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    Malpassi, Rosana N

    2006-04-01

    Eleusine indica and Portulaca oleracea are two common weeds in peanut crops in southern Córdoba. Two chemicals are frequently used to control them, quizalofop for grasses and lactofen for dicots. The objective is to study the effects of quizalofop and lactofen on cuticle ultrastructure in E. indica and P. oleracea, respectively. In the lab, quizalofop was applied on E. indica and lactofen on P. oleracea. Three plant categories were analyzed in each species: 3, 1-2, and no tiller in E. indica, and 8, 6, and 2 nomophylls in P. oleracea. Leaf samples from both species were collected at 7 and 16 days post-application and were treated for scanning electron microscopy. E. indica cuticle treated with lethal dose shows areas where epicuticular waxes disappear, specially in the youngest individuals. These areas are located predominantly on periclinal walls of typical epidermic cells and subsidiary cells. On the other hand, P. oleracea shows cuticle discontinuities that may be caused by lactofen entry. They are smaller and less frequent in plants having 8 or more nomophylls. The remaining waxes act as a herbicide accumulation compartment and, therefore, would partially prevent the active ingredient entry to epidermic cells.

  13. Immobilization of enzymatic extracts of Portulaca oleracea cv. roots for oxidizing aqueous bisphenol A.

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    Matsushima, Kazuki; Kaneda, Hirokazu; Harada, Kazuo; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Hirata, Kazumasa

    2015-05-01

    Water pollution from the release of industrial wastewater is a serious problem for almost every industry. Enzymes from portulaca, Portulaca oleracea cv., have been investigated for their ability to degrade bisphenol A (BPA), one of the well-known estrogenic pollutants. Enzymatic crude extracts from P. oleracea cv. roots were immobilized on aminopropyl-modified glass beads. They maintained BPA metabolic activity over a broad range of pH values and temperatures. The immobilized enzyme was reusable with more than 50 % of its initial activity retained after 12 batch reactions and no loss of activity after storage for 1 month at -30 °C. Thus, the immobilization of extracts from P. oleracea cv. roots is a useful method for removing BPA from industrial wastewater.

  14. Detoxification of microcystin-LR in water by Portulaca oleracea cv.

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    Isobe, Takatoshi; Okuhata, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Jeon, Bong-Seok; Park, Ho-Dong

    2014-03-01

    Microcystin-LR (0.02 μg/ml) in the hydroculture medium of Portulaca oleracea cv., became below the detection level (<0.0001 μg/ml) by HPLC analysis after 7 days. The toxicity of microcystin estimated with protein phosphatase inhibition assay, however, remained at 37% of the initial level, indicating that microcystin-LR was transformed by P. oleracea cv. into unknown compound(s) of lower toxicity. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Crude Extracts of Portulaca oleracea on Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of oral administration of aqueous (AEPO) and methanolic (MEPO) extracts of Portulaca oleracea at various doses (25mg/kg BW, 50mg/kgBW and 75mg/kgBW) on haematological and plasma biochemical parameters of albino rats were investigated. The extracts were administered on daily basis for 30 days and ...

  16. Effects of Extracts of Portulaca oleracea on Reproductive Functions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aqueous (AEPO) and methanolic (MEPO) extracts of Portulaca oleracea were investigated on estrous cycle and histopathology of the ovaries and uteri in female albino rats. Treatments of rats for 21 days with 75mg/kg BW AEPO produced no significant (P>0.05) change in the duration of all the phases of ...

  17. Portulaca oleracea extracts protect human keratinocytes and fibroblasts from UV-induced apoptosis.

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    Lee, Suyeon; Kim, Ki Ho; Park, Changhoon; Lee, Jong-Suk; Kim, Young Heui

    2014-10-01

    Portulaca oleracea extracts, known as Ma Chi Hyun in the traditional Korean medicine, show a variety of biomedical efficacies including those in anti-inflammation and anti-allergy. In this study, we investigate the protective activity of the P. oleracea extracts against UVB-induced damage in human epithelial keratinocytes and fibroblasts by several apoptosis-related tests. The results suggest that P. oleracea extracts have protective effects from UVB-induced apoptosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Characterization of bisphenol A metabolites produced by Portulaca oleracea cv. by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

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    Watanabe, Ippei; Harada, Kazuo; Matsui, Takeshi; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Okuhata, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Nakayama, Hideki; Kato, Ko; Bamba, Takeshi; Hirata, Kazumasa

    2012-01-01

    The garden plant portulaca (Portulaca oleracea cv.) efficiently removes bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, from a hydroponic solution, but the molecular mechanisms underlying BPA metabolism by portulaca remain unclear. In this study, BPA metabolites converted by portulaca were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. We observed the hydroxylation of BPA and the oxidization of it to quinone. Polyphenol oxidases are likely to contribute to BPA degradation by portulaca.

  19. Utilization of Portulaca Oleracea L. to Improve Quality of Yoghurt

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    Sallam, E.M.; Anwar, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to study the possibility of using Portulaca Oleracea L. as a source of Omega - 3 and Omega - 6 fatty acids as well as high vitamins and minerals, to improve the quality of yoghurt. Also, the microbial characteristics the treated yoghurt were evaluated. The obtained results showed that the replacement of milk fat by dry leaves of P. Oleracea had no effect on the chemical composition and the sensory properties of the treated yoghurt with 50 and 100% P. Oleracea L. leaves oil as milk fat substitute compared to the untreated one. In conclusion, manufacturing yoghurt is suitable as a rich nutrient food stuff for people suffering from blood hypertension, high blood cholesterol, liver and heart diseases

  20. Two new similar alkaloids from Portulaca oleracea L.

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    Li, Cuiyu; Ying, Zheming; Gao, Mingzhe; Wei, Wenjuan; Hao, Dong; Xu, Liang; Tao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Wenjie; Ying, Xixiang; Liu, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Two novel alkaloids named oleraciamide A (1) and oleraciamide B (2) were isolated from Portulaca oleracea L., and spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution electrospray ionisation quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer spectrometry techniques are employed to determine their structures. Oleraciamide A (1) was evaluated no cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 80 μM over 72 h against human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) by CCK-8 method.

  1. The anti-inflammation and pharmacokinetics of a novel alkaloid from Portulaca oleracea L.

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    Meng, Yihan; Ying, Zheming; Xiang, Zheng; Hao, Dong; Zhang, Wenjie; Zheng, Yu; Gao, Yucong; Ying, Xixiang

    2016-03-01

    This study was to elucidate the pharmacokinetics of a novel alkaloid, 6-acetyl-2,2,5-trimethyl-2,3-dihydrocyclohepta[b]pyrrol-8(1H)-one, named oleracone isolated from Portulaca oleracea L., and to examine the anti-inflammatory ability with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated macrophages. The novel alkaloid, oleracone, was isolated from Portulaca oleracea L., and its structure was determined by spectroscopic analysis including HRESIMS, 2D NMR spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The activity of anti-inflammation was assayed via the test with RAW 264.7 activated by LPS, and the pharmacokinetics of oleracone in rat plasma after intravenous and oral administration at dose of 2.5 mg/kg was, respectively, investigated by a rapid and sensitive ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method with bergapten as internal standard. Oleracone was a novel alkaloid first isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. and possessed unique structure in natural products, whose anti-inflammatory effecting on nitrite oxide production and several pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokines was found at the concentration of 50 μm, and the pharmacokinetic results indicated that oleracone was rapidly distributed with Tmax of 15.7 min after oral administration and presented a higher oral absolute bioavailability to be 74.91 ± 10.7%. Oleracone as novel alkaloid presented remarkably anti-inflammatory effect, which was rapid distributed in rat with high bioavailability of 74.91 ± 10.7%. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.

  2. Correction to Three Novel Alkaloids from Portulaca oleracea L. and Their Anti-inflammatory Effects.

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    Li, Cui-Yu; Meng, Yi-Han; Ying, Zhe-Ming; Xu, Nan; Hao, Dong; Gao, Ming-Zhe; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Xu, Liang; Gao, Yu-Cong; Stien, Didier; Ying, Xi-Xiang

    2017-02-01

    Oleracimine and oleracimine A were isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. and described in the J. Agric. Food Chem, but the alternative structures of the two compounds are proposed on the basis of NMR analyses.

  3. Portulaca oleracea L.: A Review of Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yan-Xi; Xin, Hai-Liang; Rahman, Khalid; Wang, Su-Juan; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea L., belonging to the Portulacaceae family, is commonly known as purslane in English and Ma-Chi-Xian in Chinese. It is a warm-climate, herbaceous succulent annual plant with a cosmopolitan distribution. It is eaten extensively as a potherb and added in soups and salads around the Mediterranean and tropical Asian countries and has been used as a folk medicine in many countrie...

  4. Portulaca oleracea Seed Oil Exerts Cytotoxic Effects on Human Liver Cancer (HepG2) and Human Lung Cancer (A-549) Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea (Family: Portulacaceae), is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, anti- bacterial, and anti-tumor activities. However, cytotoxic effects of seed oil of Portulaca oleracea against human liver cancer (HepG2) and human lung cancer (A-549) cell lines have not been studied previously. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Portulaca oleracea seed oil on HepG2 and A-549 cell lines. Both cell lines were exposed to various concentrations of Portulaca oleracea seed oil for 24h. After the exposure, percentage cell viability was studied by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) assays, and cellular morphology by phase contrast inverted microscopy. The results showed a concentration-dependent significant reduction in the percentage cell viability and an alteration in the cellular morphology of HepG2 and A-549 cells. The percentage cell viability was recorded as 73%, 63%, and 54% by MTT assay and 76%, 61%, and 50% by NRU assay at 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ml, respectively in HepG2 cells. Percentage cell viability was recorded as 82%, 72%, and 64% by MTT assay and 83%, 68%, and 56% by NRU assay at 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ml, respectively in A-549 cells. The 100 μg/ml and lower concentrations were found to be non cytotoxic to A-549 cells, whereas decrease of 14% and 12% were recorded by MTT and NRU assay, respectively in HepG2 cells. Both HepG2 and A-549 cell lines exposed to 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ ml of Portulaca oleracea seed oil lost their normal morphology, cell adhesion capacity, become rounded, and appeared smaller in size. The data from this study showed that exposure to seed oil of Portulaca oleracea resulted in significant cytotoxicity and inhibition of growth of the human liver cancer (HepG2) and human lung cancer (A-549) cell lines.

  5. Effect of Portulaca oleracea extracts on growth performance and microbial populations in ceca of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X H; He, X; Yang, X F; Zhong, X H

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Portulaca oleracea extracts on growth performance and microbial populations in the ceca of broilers. A total of 120 one-day-old broilers were randomly divided into 3 groups. Portulaca oleracea extracts were added to diets at 0.2 and 0.4% (wt/wt; POL-0.2, POL-0.4), respectively. The control (CON) group was administered with no P. oleracea extract supplementation. Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded every 2 wk. On d 28 and 42, the cecal contents were collected and assayed for Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium populations. Additionally, the pH of the ileum and cecum was measured. The results showed that both on d 28 and 42 BW gain of P. oleracea extract supplementation groups was significantly higher, whereas the feed conversion ratio was lower (P < 0.05) compared with CON. On d 28 and 42, significantly (P < 0.05) fewer E. coli were recovered from ceca of broilers provided with the POL-0.2 diet than from broilers provided with the control diet. The quantities of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium of POL-0.2 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than CON. Results showed P. oleracea extracts have no distinct influence on intestinal pH. These data suggest that P. oleracea extract supplementation significantly altered the cecal bacterial community without affecting the intestinal pH.

  6. A review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Portulaca oleracea L.

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    Iranshahy, Milad; Javadi, Behjat; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Jahanbakhsh, Seyedeh Pardis; Mahyari, Saman; Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2017-06-09

    Portulaca oleracea L. is a widespread medicinal plant that is used not only as an edible plant, but also as a traditional medicine for alleviating a wide spectrum of diseases. It is a well-known plant in the European Traditional Medicine. PA is mentioned by Dioscorides (40-90 CE), with the name of "andrachne". In this study, we provide detailed information on botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological uses, pharmacokinetics and safety of P. oleracea. An extensive search on electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scopus, conference papers, local herbal encyclopedias, articles, books (in English, French, Arabic, Persian, etc.) and also a number of unpublished handwritten manuscripts was done to find articles have been published between 1956 and 2015 on pharmacology and phytochemistry of P. oleracea. P. oleracea has been addressed in De Materia Medica as an astringent, and a remedy for headaches, inflammation of the eyes and other organs, burning of the stomach, erysipela, disorders of the bladder, numbness of the teeth, excessive sexual desire, burning fevers, worms, dysentery, hemorrhoids, eruptions of blood, and bites. Phytochemical investigations revealed that this plant a wide range of secondary metabolites including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and organic acids. The most important pharmacological activities are renoprotective activities and effects on metabolism. P. oleracea could successfully decrease blood glucose and lipid profile of patients with metabolic syndrome. The safety of P. oleracea has been reported in many clinical trials. Modern pharmacological studies have now proven many traditional uses of P. oleracea, including anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic, renoprotective and hepatoprotective effects. In addition, in many clinical trials P. oleracea showed no adverse effects and constipation was reported as the most frequent adverse effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  7. Ethanol extract from portulaca oleracea L. attenuated acetaminophen-induced mice liver injury

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    Liu, Xue-Feng; Zheng, Cheng-Gang; Shi, Hong-Guang; Tang, Gu-Sheng; Wang, Wan-Yin; Zhou, Juan; Dong, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen-induced liver injury represents the most frequent cause of drug-induced liver failure in the world. Portulaca oleracea L., a widely distributed weed, has been used as a folk medicine in many countries. Previously, we reported that the ethanol extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) exhibited significant anti-hypoxic activity. In the present study, we investigated the role of PO on acetaminophen (APAP) induced hepatotoxicity. The results demonstrated that PO was an effective anti-oxidative agent, which could, to some extent, reverse APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by regulating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the liver of mice. At the same time, PO treatment significantly decreased mice serum levels of IL-6 and TNFα and their mRNA expression in liver tissue IL-α and TNFα play an important role during APAP-induced liver injury. Furthermore, PO inhibited APAP and TNFα-induced activation of JNK, whose activation play an important effect during APAP induced liver injury. These findings suggested that administration of PO may be an effective strategy to prevent or treat liver injury induced by APAP. PMID:25901199

  8. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Portulaca Oleracea on the serum concentreation of Hepatic enzymes in Rats

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    Ali Zarei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Hyperlipidemia can be cause a variety of diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and fatty liver and subsequent liver enzyme increases. The Portulaca Oleracea plant has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. Therefore, in this study the effect of Portulca Oleracea herb extract on serum liver enzymes including aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT or AST, alanine aminotransferase (SGPT or ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in rats were studied. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 60 Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=10. Control group with normal diet, fat diet group and other groups, the experimental group received the same diet plus fat Portulaca oleracea extract maximum dose (800, the mean dose of (400, and a minimum dose of (200 mg / kg or intraperitoneally injection (ip and sort of Atorvastatin (10 mg kg. After the end of this period (21 days, blood sampling was performed and collected data were analyzed using the t and Tukey test, and SPSS software version 11.5. Results Comparison of statistical results indicated that alanine aminotransferase (ALT and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP increase in the control group that received only fatty foods, while the experimental groups received extract of Portulaca Oleracea, and groups receiving Atorvastatin had reduced levels of liver enzymes. Conclusion: Regarding hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic antioxidant activity of the extract and its effect on reducing liver enzymes, plant extracts can be recommended to improve liver function.

  9. Hypoglycemic and pancreatic protective effects of Portulaca oleracea extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

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    Ramadan, Basma K; Schaalan, Mona F; Tolba, Amina M

    2017-01-11

    Diabetes is a major public health concern. In spite of continuous new drug development to treat diabetes, herbal remedies remain a potential adjunct therapy to maintain better glycemic control while also imparting few side-effects. Portulaca oleracea has been traditionally used to manage several diseases due to the anti-oxidant and anti-atherogenic effects it imparts. To better understand the mechanisms associated with potential protective effect of P. oleracea extract against diabetes, alloxan-induced diabetic rats were used in this study. Forty Wistar rats (male, 7-8-wk-old, 140-160 g) were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): Group I (control), Group II (P. oleracea-treated; gavaged with P. oleracea extract daily [at 250 mg/kg] for 4 weeks), Group III (diabetic control; daily IP injection of alloxan [at 75 mg/kg] for 5 days) and Group IV (P. oleracea-pre-treated diabetic; gavaged with P. oleracea extract daily [at 250 mg/kg] for 4 weeks and then daily IP injection of alloxan [at 75 mg/kg] for 5 days). Body weight, food consumption, blood (serum) levels of glucose, C peptide, Hb A1C, insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 were determined for all groups. The results indicated that while Hb A1C, serum levels of glucose, TNF-α and IL-6 were all significantly decreased in the P. oleracea-pre-treated diabetic rats, these hosts also had significant increases in C peptide and insulin compared to levels in the counterpart diabetic rats. These results were confirmed by the histopathological assessments which showed marked improvement of the destructive effect on pancreatic islet cells induced by alloxan. P. oleracea extract is a general tissue protective and regeneartive agent, as evidenced by increasing β-cell mass and therefore improved the glucose metabolism. Thus, stimulation of Portulaca oleracea signaling in β- cells may be a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetes prevention.

  10. A novel alkaloid from Portulaca oleracea L.

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    Xu, Liang; Ying, Zheming; Wei, Wenjuan; Hao, Dong; Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Cuiyu; Jiang, Mingyue; Ying, Xixiang; Liu, Jing

    2017-04-01

    A novel alkaloid named oleraciamide C (1), with six known compounds, hydroxydihydrobovolide (2), uracil (3), catechol (4), 4-aminophenol (5), vanillic acid (6) as well as 3-hydroxypyridine (7), were isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. Additionally, hydroxydihydrobovolide (2), 4-aminophenol (5), 3-hydroxypyridine (7) were obtained from the plant for the first time. Structure of the new compound was determined using spectroscopic methods including HR-ESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR. Others were elucidated through 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR spectra and comparison with literature data. Notably, Compound 1 possessed an unusual bis-substituted eight-membered ring linked with the β-glucopyranose moiety. The cytotoxicity of compound 1 was evaluated against human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) by CCK-8 method.

  11. Responses of Portulaca oleracea Linn. to selenium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabha, D; Sivakumar, S; Subbhuraam, C V; Son, H K

    2015-05-01

    The present study was investigated to evaluate the uptake and accumulation of selenium (Se) by the stem cuttings of Portulaca oleracea L. grown in alfisol amended with various concentrations of Se. P. oleracea accumulated a maximum of 63.4 µg g(-1) dry weight in a short growth period of 42 days. The order of accumulation of Se among the plant parts was leaves (31.5 μg g(-1)) > stems (16.4 μg g(-1)) > roots (15.5 μg g(-1)). The accumulation potential was fourfold higher than the plant available concentration of 15.2 μg g(-1) of Se g(-1) of soil (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid extracted). Although the plant was able to accumulate Se in their tissues, increase in Se concentrations in soil caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the growth rate of plants (regeneration of leaves, number of leaves, number of roots, root length, stem length and biomass). © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Separation and Identification of Four New Compounds with Antibacterial Activity from Portulaca oleracea L.

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    Xia Lei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Portulaca oleracea L. (P. oleracea has been used to treat bacillary dysentery for thousands of years in China. Pharmacology studies on P. oleracea have also showed its significant antibacterial effects on the enteropathogenic bacteria, which might reveal the treatment of P. oleracea in cases of bacillary dysentery to some extent. To date, however, the therapeutic basis of P. oleracea treating on bacillary dysentery remains unknown. We determined the antibacterial effective fraction of P. oleracea in a previous study. The current study, which is based on our previous study, was first designed to isolate, identify and screen antibacterial active constituents from P. oleracea. As a result, four new compounds (1–4, portulacerebroside B (1, portulacerebroside C (2, portulacerebroside D (3 and portulaceramide A (4 along with five known compounds (5–9 were isolated, and structures were established by their physico-chemical constants and spectroscopic analysis. The antibacterial activities against common enteropathogenic bacteria were evaluated for all compounds and the new compounds 1–4 showed significant antibacterial effect on enteropathogenic bacteria in vitro, which might contribute to revealing the treatment of P. oleracea in cases of bacillary dysentery.

  13. Separation and Identification of Four New Compounds with Antibacterial Activity from Portulaca oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xia; Li, Jianmin; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Haiyang

    2015-09-10

    The Portulaca oleracea L. (P. oleracea) has been used to treat bacillary dysentery for thousands of years in China. Pharmacology studies on P. oleracea have also showed its significant antibacterial effects on the enteropathogenic bacteria, which might reveal the treatment of P. oleracea in cases of bacillary dysentery to some extent. To date, however, the therapeutic basis of P. oleracea treating on bacillary dysentery remains unknown. We determined the antibacterial effective fraction of P. oleracea in a previous study. The current study, which is based on our previous study, was first designed to isolate, identify and screen antibacterial active constituents from P. oleracea. As a result, four new compounds (1-4), portulacerebroside B (1), portulacerebroside C (2), portulacerebroside D (3) and portulaceramide A (4) along with five known compounds (5-9) were isolated, and structures were established by their physico-chemical constants and spectroscopic analysis. The antibacterial activities against common enteropathogenic bacteria were evaluated for all compounds and the new compounds 1-4 showed significant antibacterial effect on enteropathogenic bacteria in vitro, which might contribute to revealing the treatment of P. oleracea in cases of bacillary dysentery.

  14. Phytoremediation efficiency of Portulaca tuberosa rox and Portulaca oleracea L. naturally growing in an industrial effluent irrigated area in Vadodra, Gujrat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, K K; Dwivedi, S; Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Tripathi, R D; Singh, N K; Chakraborty, S

    2008-12-01

    Phytoremediation is a novel, solar-driven and cost-effective technology for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated environments through exploitation of plants ability to accumulate heavy metals in their harvestable shoot parts. In the present investigation, we collected plants of two species of Portulaca i.e. P. tuberosa and P. oleracea from field sites in Vadodra, Gujrat, India. At one site, field was being irrigated with industrial effluent while at other with tube well water. Analysis of heavy metals was performed in industrial effluent, tube well water, soils irrigated with them, and in different parts viz., roots, stem, leaves and flowers of the plant samples. Industrial effluent and soil irrigated with it had very high level of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, Cr and As) as compared to the tube well water and soil irrigated with that. Plants of both the species growing in effluent irrigated soils showed high accumulation of metals in all plant parts with the maximum being in roots and the least in flowers. Interestingly, both species of Portulaca hyperaccumulated more than one heavy metal viz., Cd, Cr and As. The total shoot concentrations (microg g(-1) dw) of Cd, Cr and As in P. tuberosa were 1,571, 7,957 and 3,118, respectively while in P. oleracea, these were 1,128, 7,552 and 2,476, respectively. Portulaca plants have good biomass and high regeneration potential; hence appear to be suitable for the remediation of effluent (metal) contaminated areas.

  15. Protective Effect of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Portulaca Oleracea Against Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity

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    Gholamreza Karimi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sPortulaca oleracea L. is a herbaceous weed from portulacaceae family. It can be found in many parts of the world. Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that P. oleracea have antioxidant effects. The protective effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of P. oleracea against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity was studied in rats.Materials and MethodsSingle intraperitoneal injection of 4 mg/kg cisplatin was administrated to rats. After 5 days, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum creatinine (Scr concentration were determined. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts, before and after cisplatin injection on BUN and Scr, as well as morphological renal damage, was evaluated. ResultsIt was indicated that treatment with aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. oleracea in the highest dose (0.8 and 2 g/ kg, 6 and 12 hr before cisplatin injection reduced BUN and Scr. Tubular necrotic damage was not observed either. ConclusionResults suggest that P. oleracea extract may protect against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity and might serve as a novel combination agent with cisplan to limit renal injury.

  16. Portulaca oleracea reduces triglyceridemia, cholesterolemia, and improves lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase activity in rats fed enriched-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Y; Bouderbala, S; Djellouli, F; Lacaille-Dubois, M A; Bouchenak, M

    2014-10-15

    The effects of Portulaca oleracea (Po) lyophilized aqueous extract were determined on the serum high-density lipoproteins (HDL2 and HDL3) amounts and composition, as well as on lecithin: cholesterol acyltansferase (LCAT) activity. Male Wistar rats (n = 12) were fed on 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 10 days. After this phase, hypercholesterolemic rats (HC) were divided into two groups fed the same diet supplemented or not with Portulaca oleracea (Po-HC) (0.5%) for four weeks. Serum total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerols (TG), and liver TG values were respectively 1.6-, 1.8-, and 1.6-fold lower in Po-HC than in HC group. Cholesterol concentrations in LDL-HDL1, HDL2, and HDL3 were respectively 1.8, 1.4-, and 2.4-fold decreased in Po-HC group. HDL2 and HDL3 amounts, which were the sum of apolipoproteins (apos), TG, cholesteryl esters (CE), unesterified cholesterol (UC), and phospholipids (PL) contents, were respectively 4.5-fold higher and 1.2-fold lower with Po treatment. Indeed, enhanced LCAT activity (1.2-fold), its cofactor-activator apo A-I (2-fold) and its reaction product HDL2-CE (2.1-fold) were observed, whereas HDL3-PL (enzyme substrate) and HDL3-UC (acyl group acceptor) were 1.2- and 2.4-fold lower. Portulaca oleracea reduces triglyceridemia, cholesterolemia, and improves reverse cholesterol transport in rat fed enriched-cholesterol diet, contributing to anti-atherogenic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Anti-hypoxic activity of the ethanol extract from Portulaca oleracea in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Jie; Wang, Wan-Yin; Wang, Xiao-Li; Dong, Li-Wei; Yue, Yi-Tian; Xin, Hai-Liang; Ling, Chang-Quan; Li, Min

    2009-07-15

    To investigate the effects of the ethanol extract from Portulaca oleracea (EEPO) on hypoxia models mice and to find the possible mechanism of its anti-hypoxic actions so as to elucidate the anti-hypoxia activity and provide scientific basis for the clinical use of Portulaca oleracea. EEPO was evaluated on anti-hypoxic activity in several hypoxia mice models, including closed normobaric hypoxia and sodium nitrite or potassium cyanide toxicosis. To verify the possible mechanism(s), we detected the activities of pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the level of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in mice cortices. Given orally, the EEPO at doses of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg could dose-dependently enhance the survival time of mice in both of the normobaric and chemical hypoxia models. The activity of the glycolysis enzymes and the level of ATP were higher than those of the control. In the pentobarbital sodium-induced sleeping time test and the open-field test, EEPO neither significantly enhanced the pentobarbital sodium-induced sleeping time nor impaired the motor performance, indicating that the observed anti-hypoxic activity was unlikely due to sedation or motor abnormality. These results demonstrated that the EEPO possessed notable anti-hypoxic activity, which might be related to promoting the activity of the key enzymes in glycolysis and improving the level of ATP in hypoxic mice.

  18. Phytoremediation of 4,4'-thiodiphenol (TDP) and other bisphenol derivatives by Portulaca oleracea cv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuhata, Hiroshi; Ninagawa, Masahiko; Takemoto, Naomichi; Ji, Hezhe; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Iwamoto, Ai; Nagae, Masaki; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Arizono, Koji

    2013-01-01

    4,4'-Thiodiphenol (TDP) is a bisphenol derivative, and there has been no report on TDP removal by any plants or pure bacterial cultures. The removal of TDP by Portulaca oleracea cv., a floricultural herbal plant, was examined with a hydroculture system, and 97% of TDP was removed after 4 days culture. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-Diabetic Effect of Portulaca oleracea L. Polysaccharideandits Mechanism in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu; Zang, Xueli; Ma, Jinshu; Xu, Guangyu

    2016-07-25

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic syndrome caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Traditional Chinese medicine preparations have shown a comprehensive and function-regulating characteristic. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an annual succulent herb. Currently, there have been some related reports on the treatment of diabetes with purslane. The current study was designed to separate and purify the polysaccharide, a systematic study of its physical and chemical properties, antioxidant activity, and anti-diabetic mechanism, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the development of drugs of purslane. A crude water soluble polysaccharide extracted from purslane was named CPOP (crude Portulaca oleracea L. polysaccharide). Effects of CPOP on bodyweight, glucose tolerance test (GTT), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA), and superoxygen dehydrogenises (SOD) were investigated. The results indicate that the oral administration of CPOP could significantly increase the body weight and significantly improve the glucose tolerance in diabetic rats. Meanwhile, CPOP could significantly reduce the FBG level, and elevate the FINS level and ISI value in diabetic rats. In addition, CPOP could significantly reduce TNF-α and IL-6 levels in diabetic rats; CPOP could also reduce MDA and SOD activities in the liver tissue of diabetic rats. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic effect of CPOP may be associated with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

  20. Anti-Diabetic Effect of Portulaca oleracea L. Polysaccharideandits Mechanism in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic syndrome caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Traditional Chinese medicine preparations have shown a comprehensive and function-regulating characteristic. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. is an annual succulent herb. Currently, there have been some related reports on the treatment of diabetes with purslane. The current study was designed to separate and purify the polysaccharide, a systematic study of its physical and chemical properties, antioxidant activity, and anti-diabetic mechanism, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the development of drugs of purslane. A crude water soluble polysaccharide extracted from purslane was named CPOP (crude Portulaca oleracea L. polysaccharide. Effects of CPOP on bodyweight, glucose tolerance test (GTT, fasting blood glucose (FBG, fasting serum insulin (FINS, insulin sensitivity index (ISI, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA, and superoxygen dehydrogenises (SOD were investigated. The results indicate that the oral administration of CPOP could significantly increase the body weight and significantly improve the glucose tolerance in diabetic rats. Meanwhile, CPOP could significantly reduce the FBG level, and elevate the FINS level and ISI value in diabetic rats. In addition, CPOP could significantly reduce TNF-α and IL-6 levels in diabetic rats; CPOP could also reduce MDA and SOD activities in the liver tissue of diabetic rats. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic effect of CPOP may be associated with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

  1. Two new alkaloids from Portulaca oleracea and their cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jin-Long; Liang, Xiao; Gao, Pin-Yi; Li, Dan-Qi; Sun, Qian; Li, Ling-Zhi; Song, Shao-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Two new alkaloids named (3R)-3,5-bis(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-2(1H)-pyridinone (1) and 1,5-dimethyl-6-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-3(2H)-one (2), together with two known compounds (7'R)-N-feruloyl normetanephrine (3) and N-trans-feruloyl tyramine (4) were isolated from the air-dried aerial parts of Portulaca oleracea L. Their structures and configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and HR-MS techniques. In addition, compounds 1-4 were tested for in vitro cytotoxic activities against human lung (K562 and A549) and breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-435) cancer cell lines.

  2. Ácidos grasos, actividad antioxidante y antibacterial en extractos de verdolaga. (Portulaca Oleracea)

    OpenAIRE

    Moncayo Espín, Cristian Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Desde tiempos prehistóricos las plantas medicinales han sido utilizadas para el tratamiento de diversas afecciones. Estas plantas han sido objeto de un sin número de investigaciones con el fin de encontrar propiedades antioxidantes, antimicrobianas y antimutagénicas. Portulaca oleracea o verdolaga, es una hierba nativa, rica en ácidos grasos omega3 y vitaminas, que ha sido usada con fines medicinales. En el Ecuador, un país rico en biodiversidad, se han encontrado dos especies endémicas perte...

  3. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea in combination with lycopene in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, M.; Venkateswarlu, M.; Prabhakaran, V.; Taj, S. Shareen; Kumari, B. Pushpa; Ranganayakulu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Portulaca oleracea (P. oleracea) in combination with lycopene against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (0.1 ml/kg b.w for 14 days). The aqueous extract of P. oleracea in combination with lycopene (50 mg/kg b.w) was administered to the experimental animals at two selected doses for 14 days. The hepatoprotective activity of the combination was evaluated by the liver function marker enzymes in the serum [aspartate transaminases (AST), alanine transaminases (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (Alk.P), total bilirubin (TB), total protein (TP) and total cholesterol (TC)], pentobarbitone induced sleeping time (PST) and histopathological studies of liver. Results: Both the treatment groups showed hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity by significantly restoring the levels of serum enzymes to normal which was comparable to that of silymarin group. Besides, the results obtained from PST and histopathological results also support the study. Conclusions: The oral administration of P. oleracea in combination with lycopene significantly ameliorates CCl4 hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:22022001

  4. Rapid screening for cyclo-dopa and diketopiperazine alkaloids in crude extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jie; Yang, Zijuan; Lv, Beibei; Xiang, Lan

    2008-05-01

    A simple and rapid qualitative liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed and validated for screening cyclo-dopa and diketopiperazine alkaloids in crude extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. at sub-ppm levels. An electrospray ionization orbitrap mass spectrometer, which provides accurate full scan MS and MS/MS data, was used in this study. After simple extraction with ethanol and purification by AB-8 resin, the extracts were subjected to LC/MS/MS analysis. A high mass tolerance (10 ppm) was used in the initial screening to filter the full scan MS data. The cyclo-dopa and diketopiperazine alkaloid standards gave limits of detection (LODs) at or below 5 ng/mL. The results also indicated that the method had an acceptable precision for day-to-day use in the identification of compounds. The alkaloids could be identified based on their MS/MS data, elemental compositions, and retention behavior. This system was used to assay trace amounts of cyclo-dopa and diketopiperazine alkaloids in crude extracts of Portulaca oleracea L., leading to the identification of 5/2 confirmed/unconfirmed cyclo-dopa and 7/6 confirmed/unconfirmed diketopiperazine alkaloids, respectively. The screening method considerably reduces the time and cost involved in the identification of cyclo-dopa and diketopiperazine alkaloids in Portulaca oleracea L., as well as being a simple and convenient approach to the identification of other structural families of natural products. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effects of open-air sun drying and pre-treatment on drying characteristics of purslane ( Portulaca oleracea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    İsmail, Osman; Kantürk Figen, Aysel; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2015-06-01

    Effects of open-air sun drying and pre-treatment on drying characteristic of purslanes ( Portulaca oleracea L.) were investigated. Drying times were determined as 31, 24 and 9 h for natural, salted and blanched, respectively. The higher "L" value and lower "-a/b" ratio values were obtained in natural dried purslane. The Aghbashlo et al. model gave a better fit to drying data.

  6. Portulaca oleracea L. alleviates liver injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

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    Zheng G

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Guoyin Zheng,1,* Fengfeng Mo,2,* Chen Ling,3,* Hao Peng,1 Wei Gu,1 Min Li,2 Zhe Chen1 1Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changhai Hospital, 2Department of Military Hygiene, Second Military Medical University, 3Department of Biology, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Purslane is a widespread succulent herb that exhibits various pharmacological effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Portulaca oleracea L. (purslane on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice. Oral glucose-tolerance tests were carried out to assess blood glucose levels and body weight and food intake were recorded. The biochemical parameters anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα were also measured. The pathological condition of liver tissues were examined by hematoxylin–eosin staining. Rho, ROCK1, ROCK2, NFκBp65, p-NFκBp65, IκBα, and p-IκBα expression in liver tissue were analyzed by Western blot. Purslane increased body weight and decreased food intake. Purslane also significantly reduced concentrations of glucose, anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine ­aminotransferase, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα in serum. Serum insulin was elevated with purslane treatment. In addition, pathologic liver changes in diabetic mice were also alleviated by purslane. Obtained data revealed that purslane restored the levels of Rho–NFκB signaling-related proteins in comparison with those of diabetic mice. Above all, it can be assumed that purslane might play a positive role in regulating streptozotocin-induced liver injury through suppressing the Rho–NFκB pathway. Keywords: Portulaca oleracea L., diabetes, liver injury, Rho–NFκB

  7. Response Surface Modelling of Noradrenaline Production in Hairy Root Culture of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.

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    Mehdi Ghorbani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. is an annual plant as one of the natural sources for noradrenaline hormone. In this research, hairy root culture of purslane was established by using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834. In the following, Box-Behnken model of response surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize B5 medium for the growth of P. oleracea L. hairy root line. According to the results, modelling and optimization conditions, including sucrose, CaCl2.H2O, H2PO4 and NO3-/NH4+ concentrations on maximum dry weight (0.155 g and noradrenaline content (0.36 mg.g-1 DW was predicted. These optimal conditions predicted by RSM were confirmed the enhancement of noradrenaline production as an application potential for production by hairy root cultures.

  8. Assessment of cytotoxicity of Portulaca oleracea Linn. against human colon adenocarcinoma and vero cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Prashant Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Portulaca oleracea Linn. (Portulacaceae) is commonly known as purslane in English. In traditional system it is used to cure diarrhea, dysentery, leprosy, ulcers, asthma, and piles, reduce small tumors and inflammations. Aim: To assess cytotoxic potential of chloroform extract of P. oleracea whole plant against human colon adenocarcinoma (HCT-15) and normal (Vero) cell line. Materials and Methods: Characterization of chloroform extract of P. oleracea by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed. Cytotoxicity (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay was used for assessment of cytotoxic potential of chloroform extract of P. oleracea. The concentrations of 1000–0.05 μg/ml were used in the experiment. Doxorubicin was considered as standard reference drug. Results: FTIR spectrum showed the peak at 1019.52 and 1396.21 center. The 50% cell growth inhibition (IC50) of chloroform extract of P. oleracea and doxorubicin was 1132.02 μg/ml and 460.13 μg/ml against human colon adenocarcinoma and 767.60 μg/ml and 2392.71 μg/ml against Vero cell line, respectively. Conclusion: Chloroform extract of P. oleracea whole plant was less efficient or does not have cytotoxic activity against human colon adenocarcinoma cell line. It was not safe to normal Vero cell line. But, there is a need to isolate, identify, and confirm the phytoconstituents present in extract by sophisticated analytical techniques. PMID:27833374

  9. Antitumor activity of Portulaca oleracea L. polysaccharides against cervical carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Gao, Xu; Cai, Yaping; Shao, Xingyue; Jia, Guiyan; Huang, Yulan; Qin, Xuegong; Wang, Jingwei; Zheng, Xiaoliang

    2013-07-25

    Portulaca oleracea L. has been used as folk medicine in different countries to treat different ailments in humans. P. oleracea L. polysaccharide (POL-P), extracted from P. oleracea L., is found to have bioactivities such as hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities, antioxidant and antitumor activities. In our study, a water-soluble polysaccharide (POL-P3b) was successfully purified from Galium verum L. by DEAE cellulose and Sephadex G-200 column chromatography. To evaluate the anticancer efficacy and associated mechanisms of POL-P3b on cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo, we showed that treatment of HeLa cell with POL-P3b inhibited cell proliferation. In addition, POL-P3b significantly inhibited tumor growth in U14-bearing mice. Further analysis indicated that POL-P3b possesses the activity of inhibiting cervical cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo at a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and the mechanisms were associated with Sub-G1 phase cell cycle arrest, triggering DNA damage and inducing apoptosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Phytoremediation of fluoride with garden ornamentals Nerium oleander, Portulaca oleracea, and Pogonatherum crinitum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Rahul V; Desai, Shaileshkumar B; Bhujbal, Sourabh S; Watharkar, Anuprita D; Biradar, Shivtej P; Pawar, Pankaj K; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2017-03-01

    Nursery grown plants of Nerium oleander, Pogonatherum crinitum, and Portulaca oleracea were observed to remove fluoride up to 92, 80, and 73%, respectively, from NaF solution at the concentration of 10 mg L -1 within 15 days. Concentration range of 10-50 mg L -1 of fluoride revealed a constant decrease of removal from 92 to 51% within 15 days by N. oleander, while the biomass (one to five plants) showed enhancement in removal from 74 to 98% in 10 days. Translocation and bioaccumulation factors calculated after fluoride contents in roots and leaves of N. oleander, P. crinitum, and P. oleracea were 1.85, 1.19, and 1.43, and 9.8, 3.6, and 2.2, respectively. P . oleracea, P. crinitum, and N. oleander showed reductions in chlorophyll contents by 40, 57 and 25 and 8%, carbohydrates by 50, 44, and 16%, and proteins by 38, 53, and 15%, respectively. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the roots of P. oleracea, P. crinitum, and N. oleander were observed to be induced by 400, 383, and 500%; 80, 105, and 424%; and 153, 77, and 71%, respectively, while the leaves showed induction in SOD, CAT, and GPX activities by 550, 315, and 165%; 196, 227, and 243%; and 280, 242, and 184%, respectively. Results endorsed the superiority of N. oleander for fluoride removal over other plant species.

  11. A rapid extraction and analysis method for the simultaneous determination of 26 bioflavonoids in Portulaca oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Li, Lingzhi; Tian, Jinlong; Wu, Yingying; Gao, Pinyi; Li, Danqi; Zhang, Qingyi; Song, Shaojiang

    2014-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea L. (P. oleracea, purslane) is an edible plant that is widely distributed around the world, and flavonoids are its main bioactive constituents. Therefore, the detection of flavonoids is very important for a better understanding of its pharmacological actions and to monitor the product quality control of P. oleracea. To develop a rapid method to extract and determine 26 bioflavonoids in P. oleracea, based on microwave extraction (MWE) and triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry. The optimal conditions of MWE for the extraction of flavonoids from P. oleracea involved the use of methanol as the extraction solvent, a microwave power of 300 W, an extraction time of 450 s, and a solvent-to-solid ratio of 30 mL/g. The samples were analysed using an ultra-performance liquid chromatograph coupled with a triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS) system. The calibration curves of all 26 analytes showed good linearity (r ≥ 0.999) and the intra- and interday precisions and repeatability were all within required limits. The mean recoveries measured at three concentrations were higher than 94.2%, with RSDs lower than 2.94% for the targets. The established MWE/UPLC-MS/MS method is a rapid and effective method for quality evaluation of P. oleracea from different production regions and different harvest periods. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Homoisoflavonoids from the medicinal plant Portulaca oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jian; Sun, Li-Rong; Zhou, Zhong-Yu; Chen, Yu-Chan; Zhang, Wei-Min; Dai, Hao-Fu; Tan, Jian-Wen

    2012-08-01

    Four homoisoflavonoids named portulacanones A-D, identified as 2'-hydroxy- 5,7-dimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, 2'-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, 5,2'-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, and 5,2'-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-3-benzylidene-chroman-4-one, were isolated from aerial parts of the plant Portulaca oleracea along with nine other known metabolites. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Portulacanones A-D is the first group of homoisoflavonoids so far reported from the family Portulacaceae. They represent a rare subclass of homoisoflavonoids in nature with a structural feature of a single hydroxyl group substituted at C-2' rather than at C-4' in ring B of the skeleton. Three homoisoflavonoids and the known compound 2,2'-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcone selectively showed in vitro cytotoxic activities towards four human cancer cell lines. Especially 2,2'-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcone showed cytotoxic activity against cell line SGC-7901 with an IC₅₀ value of 1.6 μg/ml, which was more potent than the reference compound mitomycin C (IC₅₀ 13.0 μg/ml). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-fatigue effects of polysaccharides extracted from Portulaca oleracea L. in mice.

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    Xu, Zhongxin; Shan, Ying

    2014-08-01

    Portulaca oleracea L. has been used as a food and medicinal plant for thousands of years in China. Polysaccharides extracted from P. oleracea L. (POP) are its main bioactive compound and have multiple pharmacological activities. However, anti-fatigue effects of POP have not yet been tested. This study was designed to investigate the anti-fatigue effects of POP in mice using the rotarod and forced swimming tests. The mice were randomly divided into four groups, namely normal control group, low-dose POP supplementation group, medium-dose POP supplementation group and high-dose POP supplementation group. The normal control group received distilled water and the supplementation groups received different doses of POP (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, respectively). The POP or distilled water was administered orally and daily for 30 day. After 30 days, the rotarod and forced swimming tests were performed and then several biochemical parameters related to fatigue were determined. The data showed that POP prolonged the riding times and exhaustive swimming times of mice, decreasing blood lactic acid and serum urea nitrogen levels, as well as increasing the liver and muscle glycogen contents. These results indicated that POP had the anti-fatigue effects.

  14. Neuroprotective effect of Portulaca oleracea extracts against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of dopaminergic neurons

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    WALESKA B. MARTINS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae is a cosmopolitan species with a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant and neuroprotective actions. We investigated the effects of P. oleracea extracts in a 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease, a debilitating disorder without effective treatments. Chemical profiles of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of whole plant were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and the antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrilhidrazila method. Male Wistar rats received intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine and were treated with vehicle or extracts (oral, 200 and 400 mg/kg daily for two weeks. The behavioral open field test was conducted at days 1 and 15. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed 4 weeks after surgery to quantify tyrosine-hydroxylase cell counts in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Extracts presented antioxidant activity in concentrations above 300 µg/kg. The chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of Levodopa, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids and polysaccharides. Both extracts improved motor recovery 15 days after lesion and protected from tyrosine-hydroxylase cell loss after 4 weeks, but these effects were more evident for the aqueous extract. Because the dopamine precursor is present, in addition to antioxidant compounds and neuroprotective effects, P. oleracea can be considered as potential strategy for treating Parkinson's disease.

  15. Neuroprotective effect of Portulaca oleracea extracts against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of dopaminergic neurons.

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    Martins, Waleska B; Rodrigues, Sheyla A; Silva, Hatamy K; Dantas, Camila G; Júnior, Waldecy DE Lucca; Filho, Lauro Xavier; Cardoso, Juliana C; Gomes, Margarete Z

    2016-09-01

    The Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae) is a cosmopolitan species with a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant and neuroprotective actions. We investigated the effects of P. oleracea extracts in a 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease, a debilitating disorder without effective treatments. Chemical profiles of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of whole plant were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and the antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrilhidrazila method. Male Wistar rats received intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine and were treated with vehicle or extracts (oral, 200 and 400 mg/kg) daily for two weeks. The behavioral open field test was conducted at days 1 and 15. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed 4 weeks after surgery to quantify tyrosine-hydroxylase cell counts in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Extracts presented antioxidant activity in concentrations above 300 µg/kg. The chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of Levodopa, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids and polysaccharides. Both extracts improved motor recovery 15 days after lesion and protected from tyrosine-hydroxylase cell loss after 4 weeks, but these effects were more evident for the aqueous extract. Because the dopamine precursor is present, in addition to antioxidant compounds and neuroprotective effects, P. oleracea can be considered as potential strategy for treating Parkinson's disease.

  16. Betacyanins from Portulaca oleracea L. ameliorate cognition deficits and attenuate oxidative damage induced by D-galactose in the brains of senescent mice.

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    Wang, Chang-Quan; Yang, Gui-Qin

    2010-06-01

    This experiment was designed to assess the protective effect of betacyanins from Portulaca oleracea L. against the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced neurotoxicity in mice. Betacyanins from Portulaca oleracea markedly reversed the D-gal-induced learning and memory impairments, as measured by behavioral tests. The activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) in D-gal-treated mice were enhanced, while the content of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) was decreased by betacyanin administration. Furthermore, significant negative correlations were found between mouse latency in finding the platform and the activities of SOD, CAT GR and GPx in the mouse brain, but the level of MDA correlated positively with the latency. These results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of betacyanins against D-gal-induced neurotoxicity might be caused, at least in part, by an increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes with a reduction in lipid peroxidation. In comparison with vitamin C (VC), the betacyanins had a more pronounced effect on ameliorating cognition deficits in mice.

  17. Three Novel Alkaloids from Portulaca oleracea L. and Their Anti-inflammatory Effects.

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    Li, Cui-Yu; Meng, Yi-Han; Ying, Zhe-Ming; Xu, Nan; Hao, Dong; Gao, Ming-Zhe; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Xu, Liang; Gao, Yu-Cong; Ying, Xi-Xiang

    2016-07-27

    Three novel carbon skeleton alkaloids, named oleracimine (1), oleracimine A (2), and oleracone A (3), with one novel azulene carbon skeleton compound, oleracone B (4), and one known compound, β-carboline (5), were first isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. The structures were determined using spectroscopic methods, including one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry techniques. In addition, oleracimine (1) was used to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. The results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that oleracimine (1) remarkably inhibited nitric oxide production and could dose-dependently decrease the secretions of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 in cell culture supernatants as well as the mRNA of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase.

  18. Comparative proteomic analysis of the thermotolerant plant Portulaca oleracea acclimation to combined high temperature and humidity stress.

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    Yang, Yunqiang; Chen, Jinhui; Liu, Qi; Ben, Cécile; Todd, Christopher D; Shi, Jisen; Yang, Yongping; Hu, Xiangyang

    2012-07-06

    Elevated temperature and humidity are major environmental factors limiting crop yield and distribution. An understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to high temperature and humidity may facilitate the development of cultivars adaptable to warm or humid regions. Under conditions of 90% humidity and 35 °C, the thermotolerant plant Portulaca oleracea exhibits excellent photosynthetic capability and relatively little oxidative damage. To determine the proteomic response that occurs in leaves of P. oleracea following exposure to high temperature and high humidity, a proteomic approach was performed to identify protein changes. A total of 51 differentially expressed proteins were detected and characterized functionally and structurally; these identified proteins were involved in various functional categories, mainly including material and energy metabolism, the antioxidant defense responses, protein destination and storage, and transcriptional regulation. The subset of antioxidant defense-related proteins demonstrated marked increases in activity with exposure to heat and humidity, which led to lower accumulations of H(2)O(2) and O(2)(-) in P. oleracea compared with the thermosensitive plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The quickly accumulations of proline content and heat-shock proteins, and depleting abscisic acid (ABA) via increasing ABA-8'-hydroxylase were also found in P. oleracea under stress conditions, that resulted into greater stomata conductance and respiration rates. On the basis of these findings, we propose that P. oleracea employs multiple strategies to enhance its adaptation to high-temperature and high-humidity conditions.

  19. Purification and characterization of an antitumor polysaccharide from Portulaca oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huan; Tang, Guo; Zeng, Guang; Yang, Yongjin; Cai, Xingwei; Li, Dongli; Liu, Hongchen; Zhou, Ningxin

    2013-04-02

    In the present study, we purified a unique polysaccharide component (POP) from Portulaca oleracea and found that it had pronounced anti-tumor effects in vivo model. Tumor weight, immune organ index and T lymphocyte subsets were employed to detect the immunoregulatory and antitumor effects of POP after administration. Hematological and biochemical analyses were also investigated in order to evaluate the toxicological aspects related to POP treatment. POP could significantly inhibit the growth of transplantable sarcoma 180 and potentiate the animal's immune responses including an increase in the number of white blood cell (WBC) and CD4(+) T-lymphocytes, as well as the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+). Furthermore the serum aspartate transanimase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels in S180-bearing mice were significantly reversed by POP. Considering all these results, it is suggested that the anti-tumor effect elicited by POP could be associated with its immunostimulating properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modulation of lung inflammation and immune markers in asthmatic rats treated by Portulaca oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh, Mahsa; Eidi, Akram; Nemati, Ali; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies indicated anti-inflammatory effects for Portulaca oleracea in various inflammatory disorders. In this study, the effects of P. oleracea on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) levels of total protein (TP), Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and IgE in sensitized rats were examined. Materials and Methods: Male rats were randomly divided into six groups namely, control (group C), sensitized rats (group S), sensitized animal treated with three concentrations of the extract of P. oleracea and dexamethasone (n = 8 for each group). The levels of TP, PLA2 and IgE in BALF were measured. Results: The levels of TP, PLA2 and IgE were significantly increased in the BALF of group S compared to group C (p<0.001 for all cases). However, treatment of S rats with all concentrations of the extract, resulted in a significant and concentration-dependent reduction in BALF levels of TP, PLA2 and IgE compared to group S (p<0.001 for all cases except for the effect of the low extract concentration on TP). Dexamethasone treatment also led to significant reduction of TP, PLA2 and IgE (p<0.001 for all cases). The effect of dexamethasone treatment on PLA2 was significantly higher than the effects of all extract concentrations (p<0.001 for all cases). However, the effect of high extract concentration on TP and IgE was significantly higher than that of dexamethasone (p<0.001 both cases). Conclusion: The results indicated anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of P. oleracea in sensitized rats (as an animal model of asthma) which was equal or more marked than dexamethasone at studied concentrations. PMID:29062802

  1. Effects of Portulaca oleracea L. Polysaccharides on Phenotypic and Functional Maturation of Murine Bone Marrow Derived Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Hui; Cai, Yaping

    2015-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea L. is an annual plant widely distributed from the temperate to the tropical zones. POL-P3b, a polysaccharide fraction purified from Portulaca oleracea L., is able to enhance immunity and inhibit tumor formation. Induction of antitumor immunity by dendritic-tumor fusion cells can be modulated by their activation status. Mature dendritic cells are significantly better than immature dendritic cells at cytotoxic T-lymphocyte induction. In this study, we analyzed the effects of POL-P3b on the maturation and function of murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and relevant mechanisms. The phenotypic maturation of DCs was confirmed by flow cytometry. We found that POL-P3b upregulated the expression of CD80, CD86, CD83, and major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on DCs, stimulated production of more interleukin (IL)-12, tumor necrosis factor-α, and less IL-10. Also, DCs pulsed POL-P3b and freeze-thaw antigen increased DCs-driven T cells' proliferation and promoted U14 cells' apoptosis. Furthermore, the expression of TLR-4 was significantly increased on DCs treated by POL-P3b. These results suggested that POL-P3b may induce DCs maturation through TLR-4. Taken together, our results may have important implications for the molecular mechanisms of immunopotentiation of POL-P3b, and provide direct evidence to suggest that POL-P3b should be considered as a potent adjuvant nutrient supplement for DC-based vaccines.

  2. Deciphering the mechanisms involved in Portulaca oleracea (C4) response to drought: metabolic changes including crassulacean acid-like metabolism induction and reversal upon re-watering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Rodrigo Matías; Andreo, Carlos Santiago; Lara, María Valeria

    2014-11-01

    Portulaca oleracea is a C(4) plant; however, under drought it can change its carbon fixation metabolism into a crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)-like one. While the C(3) -CAM shift is well known, the C(4) -CAM transition has only been described in Portulaca. Here, a CAM-like metabolism was induced in P. oleracea by drought and then reversed by re-watering. Physiological and biochemical approaches were undertaken to evaluate the drought and recovery responses. In CAM-like plants, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were transitory affected and non-radiative energy dissipation mechanisms were induced. Induction of flavonoids, betalains and antioxidant machinery may be involved in photosynthetic machinery protection. Metabolic analysis highlights a clear metabolic shift, when a CAM-like metabolism is induced and then reversed. Increases in nitrogenous compounds like free amino acids and urea, and of pinitol could contribute to withstand drought. Reciprocal variations in arginase and urease in drought-stressed and in re-watered plants suggest urea synthesis is strictly regulated. Recovery of C(4) metabolism was accounted by CO(2) assimilation pattern and malate levels. Increases in glycerol and in polyamines would be of importance of re-watered plants. Collectively, in P. oleracea multiple strategies, from induction of several metabolites to the transitory development of a CAM-like metabolism, participate to enhance its adaptation to drought. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  3. Molecular phylogenetics, historical biogeography, and chromosome number evolution of Portulaca (Portulacaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Gilberto; Columbus, J Travis

    2012-04-01

    Portulaca is the only genus in Portulacaceae and has ca. 100 species distributed worldwide, mainly in the tropics and subtropics. Molecular data place the genus as one of the closest relatives of Cactaceae, but phylogenetic relationships within Portulaca are barely known. This study samples 59 species of Portulaca, 10 infraspecific taxa, and three cultivars, including multiple samples of widespread species. The sampled taxa represent all subgenera in the classifications of von Poellnitz (1934), Legrand (1958), and Geesink (1969) and come from around the world. Nuclear ITS and chloroplast ndhF, trnT-psbD intergenic spacer, and ndhA intron DNA sequences were analyzed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods to produce a hypothesis of relationships within Portulaca. Divergence times were estimated using Hawaiian endemics for calibration, and biogeographical patterns were examined using a Bayes-DIVA approach. In addition, the evolution of chromosome numbers in the genus was investigated using probabilistic models. The analyses strongly support the monophyly of Portulaca, with an age of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of 23 Myr. Within Portulaca are two major lineages: the OL clade (comprising opposite-leaved species) distributed in Africa, Asia, and Australia, and the AL clade (comprising alternate to subopposite-leaved species), which is more widespread and originated in the New World. Sedopsis, a genus sometimes recognized as distinct from Portulaca based on a long corolla tube, is nested within the OL clade and does not merit taxonomic recognition. Samples of Portulaca grandiflora, Portulaca halimoides, and Portulaca oleracea were found to be non-monophyletic. It is hypothesized that the ancestral distribution area of Portulaca included southern hemisphere continents and Asia. The OL clade remained restricted to the Old World (except Portulaca quadrifida, a pantropical weed), while the AL clade, with a South American origin, was able to disperse multiple

  4. Attenuated RANKL-induced cytotoxicity by Portulaca oleracea ethanol extract enhances RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkhembaatar, Munkhsoyol; Choi, Eun-Joo; Lee, Hak-Yong; Lee, Choong Hun; Lee, Young-Rae; Kim, Min Seuk

    2015-07-14

    Portulaca oleracea (PO) has been widely used as traditional medicine because of its pharmacological activities. However, the effects of PO on osteoclasts that modulate bone homeostasis are still elusive. In this study, we examined the effects of PO ethanol extract (POEE) on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization, nuclear factor of activated T-cell c1 (NFATc1) amplification, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) multinucleated cell (MNC) formation, and cytotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that POEE suppressed RANKL-induced Ca(2+) oscillations by inhibition of Ca(2+) release from internal Ca(2+) stores, resulting in reduction of NFATc1 amplification. Notably, POEE attenuated RANKL-mediated cytotoxicity and cleavage of polyadenosine 5'-diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP), resulted in enhanced formation of TRAP+ MNCs. These results present in vitro effects of POEE on RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis and suggest the possible use of PO in treating bone disorders, such as osteopetrosis.

  5. Indoline Amide Glucosides from Portulaca oleracea: Isolation, Structure, and DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ze-Zhao; Yue, Su; Sun, Hong-Xiang; Jin, Tian-Yun; Wang, Hai-Na; Zhu, Rong-Xiu; Xiang, Lan

    2015-11-25

    A polyamide column chromatography method using an aqueous ammonia mobile phase was developed for large-scale accumulation of water-soluble indoline amide glucosides from a medicinal plant, Portulaca oleracea. Ten new [oleraceins H, I, K, L, N, O, P, Q, R, S (1-10)] and four known [oleraceins A-D (11-14)] indoline amide glucosides were further purified and structurally characterized by various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The DPPH radical scavenging activities of oleraceins K (5) and L (6), with EC50 values of 15.30 and 16.13 μM, respectively, were twice that of a natural antioxidant, vitamin C; the EC50 values of the 12 other indoline amides, which ranged from 29.05 to 43.52 μM, were similar to that of vitamin C. Structure-activity relationships indicated that the DPPH radical scavenging activities of these indoline amides correlate with the numbers and positions of the phenolic hydroxy groups.

  6. Cytotoxicity of hydroxydihydrobovolide and its pharmacokinetic studies in Portulaca oleracea L. extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hydroxydihydrobovolide (HDB was for the first time isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. and then its cytotoxicity against SH-SYTY cells was studied. Moreover, a rapid and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic (UHPLC method with bergapten as internal standard (IS was developed and validated to investigate the pharmacokinetics of HDB in rats after intravenous and oral administrations of extract (POE. The UHPLC analysis was performed on a Diamonsil C18 analytical column, using acetonitrile-water (35:65, v/v as the mobile phase with UV detection at 220 nm. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.2-25 µg/mL in rat plasma. The average extraction recovery was from 90.1 to 98.9%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs of the intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 4.7 and 4.1%, respectively. The results showed that 50 µM HDB had significant cytotoxicity on the SH-SY5Y cells, which was rapidly distributed with a Tmax of 11 min after oral administration and presented a low absolute bioavailability, 4.12%.

  7. The Effects of Portulaca oleracea on Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Edema in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tan; Xiaosa, Wen; Ruirui, Qi; Wencai, Shi; Hailiang, Xin; Min, Li

    2015-03-01

    Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) is known as "a vegetable for long life" due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other pharmacological activities. However, the protective activity of the ethanol extract of PO (EEPO) against hypoxia-induced pulmonary edema has not been fully investigated. In this study, we exposed mice to a simulated altitude of 7000 meters for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h to observe changes in the water content and transvascular leakage of the mouse lung. It was found that transvascular leakage increased to the maximum in the mouse lung after 6 h exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Prophylactic administration of EEPO before hypoxic exposure markedly reduced the transvascular leakage and oxidative stress, and inhibited the upregulation of NF-kB in the mouse lung, as compared with the control group. In addition, EEPO significantly reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and cell adhesion molecules in the lungs of mice, as compared with the hypoxia group. Our results show that EEPO can reduce initial transvascular leakage and pulmonary edema under hypobaric hypoxia conditions.

  8. Salinity Reduction and Biomass Accumulation in Hydroponic Growth of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacerda, Laís Pessôa; Lange, Liséte Celina; Costa França, Marcel Giovanni; Zonta, Everaldo

    2015-01-01

    In many of the world's semi-arid and arid regions, the increase in demand for good quality water associated with the gradual and irreversible salinisation of the soil and water have raised the development of techniques that facilitate the safe use of brackish and saline waters for agronomic purposes. This study aimed to evaluate the salinity reduction of experimental saline solutions through the ions uptake capability of purslane (Portulaca oleracea), as well as its biomass accumulation. The hydroponic system used contained three different nutrient solutions composed of fixed concentrations of macro and micronutrients to which three different concentrations of sodium chloride had been added. Two conditions were tested, clipped and intact plants. It was observed that despite there being a notable removal of magnesium and elevated biomass accumulation, especially in the intact plants, purslane did not present the expected removal quantity of sodium and chloride. We confirmed that in the research conditions of the present study, purslane is a saline-tolerant species but accumulation of sodium and chloride was not shown as previously described in the literature.

  9. Clinical effects of Portulaca oleracea seeds on dyslipidemia in obese adolescents: a triple-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Kelishadi, Roya; Jelokhanian, Hadi; Asgary, Sedigheh; Ghannadi, Alireza; Badri, Shirinsadat

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health concern worldwide while the current epidemic may be secondary to over consumption of high-fat, energy-rich foods. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) has been traditionally used in medicine for several antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities. In this study the anti-dyslipidemic effects of Poleracea was evaluated in obese adolescents. In this triple-blinded randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial which was done from July 2011 to June 2012, obese adolescent patients whom were referred to the Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute (Iran) were randomly allocated to the two arms of cases and controls. The cases group was asked to take one capsule containing powdered P. oleracea seeds (500 milligrams) two times a day for one month, and the controls group were asked to take identical but placebo (lactose) capsules in the same way. Biochemical parameters including 12-hours fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were measured before the initiation and after the completion of the study protocol. Total cholesterol, LDL-C, and TG showed statistically significant changes over time (one month) in the P. oleracea group (p < 0.05). However, between-group analysis using general linear model (multivariate) test revealed that the differences in the mentioned parameters between two study groups were statistically significant just for LDL-C and TG, while others did not differ significantly. P. oleracea L. may have positive effects on serum lipids profile which may be attributed to its polyphenolic and antioxidant compounds. This herbal drug seems to be well-tolerated in adolescent population as well. Further studies are recommended.

  10. Effect of hydrothermal processing on total polyphenolics and antioxidant potential of underutilized leafy vegetables, Boerhaavia diffusa and Portulaca oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarani, Gunasekaran; Abirami, Arumugam; Nikitha, Prasad; Siddhuraju, Perumal

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of different processing methods on antioxidant properties of acetone extract of aerial parts from Boerhaavia diffusa and Portulaca oleracea. Methods The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride method, respectively. FRAP, metal chelating activity, DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities, carotene/linoleic acid bleaching activity were used for the determination of antioxidant capacity. Results The total phenolics in Boerhaavia diffusa (82.79-162.80 mg GAE/g extract) were found to be higher when compared to that of Portulaca oleracea (22.94-10.02 mg GAE/g extract). Hydrothermal processing enhanced the level of inhibition on synthetic radicals such as DPPH (3 439-309 549 mmol TE/g extract) and ABTS (17 808-53 818 mmol TE/g extract) as well as biologically relevant radicals such as superoxide anion (70%-90%) and nitric oxide (49%-57%). In addition, boiling of the vegetables were found to be maximum capacity of FRAP (6 404.95 mmol Fe (II)/g extract) and metal chelating activity (1.53 mg EDTA/g extract) than the respective raw samples. Conclusions The present investigation suggests that the processing enhance the functionality and improves the availability of bioactive substances of these vegetables. In addition, they also exhibited more potent antioxidant activity. Therefore these natural weeds from the crop land ecosystem could be suggested as cost effective indigenous green vegetables for human diet and potential feed resources for animals. Further extensive studies on role and importance of those weeds in sustaining the agro biodiversity are also needed. PMID:25183131

  11. Rapid determination of eight bioactive alkaloids in Portulaca oleracea L. by the optimal microwave extraction combined with positive-negative conversion multiple reaction monitor (+/-MRM) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Tian, Jinlong; Li, Lingzhi; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Qingyi; Gao, Pinyi; Song, Shaojiang

    2014-03-01

    A rapid and reliable microwave extraction and the triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of eight alkaloids in Portulaca oleracea L. The optimal microwave extraction (MWE) condition was performed at 60 °C for 12 min with ethanol-water (70:30, v/v) as the extracting solvent, and the solvent to solid ratio was 30:1. The alkaloids were first detected simultaneously by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry under positive-negative conversion multiple reaction monitor ((+/-)MRM) technique. With investigating three different columns, samples were separated in only 8 min on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 (50 × 2.1 mm(2), 1.8 μm) column using acetonitrile and formic acid-water solution as a mobile phase with a flow rate at 0.2 mL/min. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r>0.999) within the test ranges. The method developed was validated with acceptable sensitivity, intra- and inter-day precision, reproducibility, and extraction recoveries. It was successfully applied to the determination of eight alkaloids in Portulaca oleracea L. from different sources and different harvest periods. The method also provide a reference for extraction and determination of alkaloids in other complex systems. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of Atriplex halimus, Medicago lupulina and Portulaca oleracea for phytoremediation of Ni, Pb, and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Nasser; Al Chami, Ziad; Al Bitar, Lina; Mondelli, Donato; Dumontet, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Suitable plant species are able to accumulate heavy metals and to produce biomass useful for non-food purposes. In this study, three endemic Mediterranean plant species, Atriplex halimus, Portulaca oleracea and Medicago lupulina were grown hydroponically to assess their potential use in phytoremediation and biomass production. The experiment was carried out in a growth chamber using half strength Hoagland's solutions separately spiked with 5 concentrations of Pb and Zn (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg L(-1)), and 3 concentrations of Ni (1, 2 and 5 mg L(-1)). Shoot and root biomass were determined and analyzed for their metals contents. A. halimus and M. lupulina gave high shoot biomass with relatively low metal translocation to the above ground parts. Metals uptake was a function of both metals and plant species. It is worth noting that M. lupulina was the only tested plant able to grow in treatment Pb50 and to accumulate significant amount of metal in roots. Plant metal uptake efficiency ranked as follows: A. halimus > M. lupulina > P. oleracea. Due to its high biomass production and the relatively high roots metal contents, A. halimus and M. lupulina could be successfully used in phytoremediation, and in phytostabilization, in particular.

  13. Identification of genes involved in the drought adaptation and recovery in Portulaca oleracea by differential display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Rodrigo Matías; Triassi, Agustina; Casas, María Isabel; Andreo, Carlos Santiago; Lara, María Valeria

    2015-05-01

    Portulaca oleracea is one of the richest plant sources of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and other compounds potentially valuable for nutrition. It is broadly established in arid, semiarid and well-watered fields, thus making it a promising candidate for research on abiotic stress resistance mechanisms. It is capable of withstanding severe drought and then of recovering upon rehydration. Here, the adaptation to drought and the posterior recovery was evaluated at transcriptomic level by differential display validated by qRT-PCR. Of the 2279 transcript-derived fragments amplified, 202 presented differential expression. Ninety of them were successfully isolated and sequenced. Selected genes were tested against different abiotic stresses in P. oleracea and the behavior of their orthologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana was also explored to seek for conserved response mechanisms. In drought adapted and in recovered plants changes in expression of many protein metabolism-, lipid metabolism- and stress-related genes were observed. Many genes with unknown function were detected, which also respond to other abiotic stresses. Some of them are also involved in the seed desiccation/imbibition process and thus would be of great interest for further research. The potential use of candidate genes to engineer drought tolerance improvement and recovery is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular cloning and partial characterization of a peroxidase gene expressed in the roots of Portulaca oleracea cv., one potentially useful in the remediation of phenolic pollutants.

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    Matsui, Takeshi; Nomura, Yuki; Takano, Mai; Imai, Sofue; Nakayama, Hideki; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Okuhata, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Harada, Kazuo; Bamba, Takeshi; Hirata, Kazumasa; Kato, Ko

    2011-01-01

    Portulaca (Portulaca oleracea cv.) efficiently removes phenolic pollutants from hydroponic solution. In plant roots, peroxidase (PRX) is thought to be involved in the removal of phenolic pollutants by the cross-linking them to cell wall polysaccharides or proteins at the expense of reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). In this study, we found that portulaca roots secreted an acidic PRX isozyme that had relatively high H(2)O(2) affinity. We isolated five PRX genes, and the recombinant PRX proteins produced in cultured tobacco cells were partially characterized. Among these genes, PoPRX2 probably encoded the acidic PRX isozyme. PoPRX2 had an extra N-terminal region which has not been reported for other PRX proteins. We found that PoPRX2 oxidized phenolic pollutants, including bisphenol A, octylphenol, nonylphenol, and 17β-estradiol. In addition, we found that the Cys261 residue of PoPRX2 played an important role in the determination of affinity for H(2)O(2) and stability toward H(2)O(2).

  15. Revealing diversity in structural and biochemical forms of C4 photosynthesis and a C3-C4 intermediate in genus Portulaca L. (Portulacaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Koteyeva, Nuria K; Edwards, Gerald E; Ocampo, Gilberto

    2010-08-01

    Portulacaceae is one of 19 families of terrestrial plants in which species having C(4) photosynthesis have been found. Representative species from major clades of the genus Portulaca were studied to characterize the forms of photosynthesis structurally and biochemically. The species P. amilis, P. grandiflora, P. molokiniensis, P. oleracea, P. pilosa, and P. umbraticola belong to the subgenus Portulaca and are C(4) plants based on leaf carbon isotope values, Kranz anatomy, and expression of key C(4) enzymes. Portulaca umbraticola, clade Umbraticola, is NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME)-type C(4) species, while P. oleracea and P. molokiniensis in clade Oleracea are NAD-ME-type C(4) species, all having different forms of Atriplicoid-type leaf anatomy. In clade Pilosa, P. amilis, P. grandiflora, and P. pilosa are NADP-ME-type C(4) species. They have Pilosoid-type anatomy in which Kranz tissues enclose peripheral vascular bundles with water storage in the centre of the leaf. Portulaca cf. bicolor, which belongs to subgenus Portulacella, is an NADP-ME C(4) species with Portulacelloid-type anatomy; it has well-developed Kranz chlorenchyma surrounding lateral veins distributed in one plane under the adaxial epidermis with water storage cells underneath. Portulaca cryptopetala (clade Oleracea), an endemic species from central South America, was identified as a C(3)-C(4) based on its intermediate CO(2) compensation point and selective localization of glycine decarboxylase of the photorespiratory pathway in mitochondria of bundle sheath cells. The C(4) Portulaca species which were examined also have cotyledons with Kranz-type anatomy, while the stems of all species have C(3)-type photosynthetic cells. The results indicate that multiple structural and biochemical forms of C(4) photosynthesis evolved in genus Portulaca.

  16. Caracterização fitoquímica do óleo de soja adicionado de extrato de Portulaca oleracea L.

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    Neuza Jorge

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho teve como principais objetivos medir o teor de compostos fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante do extrato de Portulaca oleracea L., além de avaliar a estabilidade oxidativa e a retenção dos compostos fitoquímicos presentes no óleo de soja adicionado de antioxidantes sintéticos (TBHQ e BHT e naturais (Extrato de Portulaca oleracea L.. Os tratamentos: óleo de soja (OS, óleo de soja adicionado de 100 mg/kg TBHQ (TBHQ, óleo de soja adicionado de 100 mg/kg BHT (BHT e óleo de soja adicionado de 100 mg/kg extrato (Extrato foram submetidos à termoxidação a 180 oC, por cinco horas. O extrato apresentou 99,5 mg EAG/100 g de compostos fenólicos totais e 84,6%, 35,5% e 1,8 µM Trolox/100 g de atividade antioxidante para DPPH, sistema β-caroteno/ácido linoleico e FRAP, respectivamente. A estabilidade oxidativa do tratamento Extrato foi inferior à do TBHQ, que apresentou o maior período de indução (7,6 h. Após aquecimento, os tratamentos TBHQ e Extrato apresentaram maior capacidade de retenção de tocoferóis e fitosteróis, atingindo valores acima de 88 e 87%, respectivamente. Percentagens similares de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados foram encontradas nos tratamentos OS e Extrato. O extrato de beldroega na concentração 100 mg/kg foi capaz de reduzir as alterações sofridas pelo óleo de soja após aquecimento e pode ser utilizado como substituto natural de antioxidantes sintéticos.

  17. The Effect of Sugar Beet Broadleaf Herbicides on Fluorescence Induction Curves in Amaranthus retroflexus L. and Portulaca oleracea L.

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    Ali Asghar CHITBAND

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis is a simple and rapid method for detecting herbicide effects after a short time following their application in photosynthetic apparatus in plants. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were carried out against two broad of weeds to describe how the Kautsky curve and its parameters were affected by herbicides. Desmedipham + phenmedipham + ethofumesate changed the chlorophyll fluorescence induction curve at all time intervals except four hours after spring (HAS in Amaranthus retroflexus L. and at all doses of Portulaca oleracea L. 4 HAS. In contrast, chlorophyll fluorescence inhibition was evident by chloridazon at doses of 650 and 325 g a.i. ha-1 in P. oleracea and A. retroflexus respectively, for all time intervals. Furthermore, chlorophyll fluorescence decays only occurred by clopyralid in A. retroflexus at the highest dose. A biomass effective dose (ED50 and/or ED90 based on log-logistic dose-response curves for A. retroflexus were considerably higher than that of P. oleracea. The maximum quantum efficiency (FV/Fm was stable, whereas the relative changes at the J step (Fvj and area (the area between the Kautsky curve and the maximum fluorescence (Fm was more sensitive to all three herbicides. There was a relatively good correlation between fluorescence parameters taken 24 hours after the spraying and the dry matter taken three weeks later, for both species under study.

  18. Revealing diversity in structural and biochemical forms of C4 photosynthesis and a C3–C4 intermediate in genus Portulaca L. (Portulacaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskaya, Elena V.; Koteyeva, Nuria K.; Edwards, Gerald E.; Ocampo, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    Portulacaceae is one of 19 families of terrestrial plants in which species having C4 photosynthesis have been found. Representative species from major clades of the genus Portulaca were studied to characterize the forms of photosynthesis structurally and biochemically. The species P. amilis, P. grandiflora, P. molokiniensis, P. oleracea, P. pilosa, and P. umbraticola belong to the subgenus Portulaca and are C4 plants based on leaf carbon isotope values, Kranz anatomy, and expression of key C4 enzymes. Portulaca umbraticola, clade Umbraticola, is NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME)-type C4 species, while P. oleracea and P. molokiniensis in clade Oleracea are NAD-ME-type C4 species, all having different forms of Atriplicoid-type leaf anatomy. In clade Pilosa, P. amilis, P. grandiflora, and P. pilosa are NADP-ME-type C4 species. They have Pilosoid-type anatomy in which Kranz tissues enclose peripheral vascular bundles with water storage in the centre of the leaf. Portulaca cf. bicolor, which belongs to subgenus Portulacella, is an NADP-ME C4 species with Portulacelloid-type anatomy; it has well-developed Kranz chlorenchyma surrounding lateral veins distributed in one plane under the adaxial epidermis with water storage cells underneath. Portulaca cryptopetala (clade Oleracea), an endemic species from central South America, was identified as a C3–C4 based on its intermediate CO2 compensation point and selective localization of glycine decarboxylase of the photorespiratory pathway in mitochondria of bundle sheath cells. The C4 Portulaca species which were examined also have cotyledons with Kranz-type anatomy, while the stems of all species have C3-type photosynthetic cells. The results indicate that multiple structural and biochemical forms of C4 photosynthesis evolved in genus Portulaca. PMID:20591900

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant properties and mineral composition of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) at different growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Ali, Md Eaqub; Ismail, Mohd Razi

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to appraise the changes in mineral content and antioxidant attributes of Portulaca oleracea over different growth stages. The antioxidant activity was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The iodine titration method was used to determine the ascorbic acid content (AAC). DPPH scavenging (IC(50)) capacity ranged from 1.30 ± 0.04 to 1.71 ± 0.04 mg/mL, while the ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant activity (AEAC) values were 229.5 ± 7.9 to 319.3 ± 8.7 mg AA/100 g, total phenol content (TPC) varied from 174.5 ± 8.5 to 348.5 ± 7.9 mg GAE/100 g. AAC 60.5 ± 2.1 to 86.5 ± 3.9 mg/100 g and FRAP 1.8 ± 0.1 to 4.3 ± 0.1 mg GAE/g. There was good correlation between the results of TPC and AEAC, and between IC(50) and FRAP assays (r(2) > 0.9). The concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, Fe and Zn increased with plant maturity. Calcium (Ca) was negatively correlated with sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl), but positively correlated with magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Portulaca olerecea cultivars could be used as a source of minerals and antioxidants, especially for functional food and nutraceutical applications.

  20. Protective effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. aerial parts on H2O2-induced DNA damage in lymphocytes by comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behravan, Javad; Mosafa, Fatemeh; Soudmand, Negar; Taghiabadi, Elahe; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2011-09-01

    The comet assay is a standard method for measuring DNA damage. In this study, the protective effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. (P. oleracea) on human lymphocyte DNA lesions were evaluated with the comet assay. Lymphocytes were isolated from blood samples taken from healthy volunteers. Human lymphocytes were incubated in H(2)O(2) (50,100, and 200 μM), aqueous extract (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2.5mg/ml), and ethanolic extracts (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2.5mg/ml) of P. oleraceae aerial parts alone with a combination of H(2)O(2) (100 μM) with either 1 or 2.5mg/ml of both extracts at 4°C for 30 minutes. The extent of DNA migration was measured using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis approach assay, and DNA damage was expressed as percentage tail DNA. We found that the aqueous extract of P. oleracea significantly inhibited DNA damage, while there was no effect of the ethanolic extract. These data suggest that the aqueous extract of P. oleracea can prevent oxidative DNA damage to human lymphocytes, which is likely due to antioxidant constituents in the extract. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The Study of Effects of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of Portulaca oleracea Leaves on NT3 Gene Expression in Degeneration of Alpha Neurons after Sciatic Nerve Compression in Rats

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    Shokoufe Hejazi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The injuries of peripheral nervous system cause the death of a number of motor cells of the spinal cord. Neurotrophins family genes such as NT3 involve in neuronal survive after nerve injury and their expression changes after it. With due attention to the expansion of portulaca pleracea in the world study was conducted to determine the effects of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Potulaca oleracea on the NT3 gene expression after sciatic nerve compression in rat. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 88 male wistar rats that randomly were divided in 13 groups of 6 each. They consisted of control group, 4 compression groups (The sciatic nerve was compressed with locker pincer and 8 treatment groups: compression + treatment with dose of 75 mg/kg of alcoholic and aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea on days 1 and 7 (never compression was done on the first day. In all groups, Total RNA was extracted from the lumbar spinal cord segment in 1, 7, 14, 28 days and cDNA was synthesized, then NT3 expression changes were compared in groups. Results: There was a significant increase in NT3 gene expression in the compression group compared to control (p<0.001. The NT3 gene expression shows significant increase (p<0.05 in the treatment groups with alcoholic extract (except 1& 28 days. Also, there was no significant difference in gene expression between treatment group with acqueous extract and compression group in 1 and 7 days. A significant decrease was seen in the treatment groups with aqueous extract of purslane compared to compression (p<0.05. The NT3 gene expression shows significant increase in the treatment groups with alcoholic extract compared to treatment groups with aqueous extract in all days (p<0.05. Conclusion: The results reveal the Portulaca oleracea leaves extracts increase the NT3 gene expression after sciatic nerve injury. This effect is more in alcoholic extract than aqueous extract.

  2. LC determination and pharmacokinetic study of the main phenolic components of Portulaca oleracea L. extract in rat plasma after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhongzhe; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Wenjie; Du, Yang; Wang, Yunjiao; Zhai, Yanjun; Ying, Xixiang; Kang, Tingguo

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of hesperidin (HP), ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (CA) in rat plasma after oral administration of Portulaca oleracea L. extract (POE). The plasma concentrations were determined by HPLC with vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside (VR) as internal standard. The calibration curves were linear over the range 0.1-5 µg mL(-1), 0.1-5 µg mL(-1)and 0.015-3 µg mL(-1) for HP, FA and CA, respectively. The validated method was suitable to the pharmacokinetic study of HP, FA and CA in rats after oral administration at a single dose of POE.

  3. Cytotoxicity assessments of Portulaca oleracea and Petroselinum sativum seed extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The Pharmacological potential, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities of Portulaca oleracea (PO) and Petroselinum sativum (PS) extracts are well known. However, the preventive properties against hepatocellular carcinoma cells have not been explored so far. Therefore, the present investigation was designed to study the anticancer activity of seed extracts of PO and PS on the human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). The HepG2 cells were exposed with 5-500 μg/ml of PO and PS for 24 h. After the exposure, cell viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, neutral red uptake (NRU) assay, and cellular morphology by phase contrast inverted microscope were studied. The results showed that PO and PS extracts significantly reduced the cell viability of HepG2 in a concentration dependent manner. The cell viability was recorded to be 67%, 31%, 21%, and 17% at 50, 100, 250, and 500 μg/ml of PO, respectively by MTT assay and 91%, 62%, 27%, and 18% at 50, 100, 250, and 500 μg/ml of PO, respectively by NRU assay. PS exposed HepG2 cells with 100 μg/ml and higher concentrations were also found to be cytotoxic. The decrease in the cell viability at 100, 250, and 500 μg/ml of PS was recorded as 70%, 33%, and 15% by MTT assay and 63%, 29%, and 17%, respectively by NRU assay. Results also showed that PO and PS exposed cells reduced the normal morphology and adhesion capacity of HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells exposed with 50 μg/ml and higher concentrations of PO and PS lost their typical morphology, become smaller in size, and appeared in rounded bodies. Our results demonstrated preliminary screening of anticancer activity of Portulaca oleracea and Petroselinum sativum extracts against HepG2 cells, which can be further used for the development of a potential therapeutic anticancer agent.

  4. Portulaca oleracea L. alleviates liver injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Gu, Wei; Li, Min; Chen, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    Purslane is a widespread succulent herb that exhibits various pharmacological effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Portulaca oleracea L. (purslane) on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice. Oral glucose-tolerance tests were carried out to assess blood glucose levels and body weight and food intake were recorded. The biochemical parameters anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα were also measured. The pathological condition of liver tissues were examined by hematoxylin–eosin staining. Rho, ROCK1, ROCK2, NFκBp65, p-NFκBp65, IκBα, and p-IκBα expression in liver tissue were analyzed by Western blot. Purslane increased body weight and decreased food intake. Purslane also significantly reduced concentrations of glucose, anti-aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, total cholesterol, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα in serum. Serum insulin was elevated with purslane treatment. In addition, pathologic liver changes in diabetic mice were also alleviated by purslane. Obtained data revealed that purslane restored the levels of Rho–NFκB signaling-related proteins in comparison with those of diabetic mice. Above all, it can be assumed that purslane might play a positive role in regulating streptozotocin-induced liver injury through suppressing the Rho–NFκB pathway. PMID:29343942

  5. Screening of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) accessions for high salt tolerance.

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    Alam, Md Amirul; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Rafii, M Y; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Aslani, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an herbaceous leafy vegetable crop, comparatively more salt-tolerant than any other vegetables with high antioxidants, minerals, and vitamins. Salt-tolerant crop variety development is of importance due to inadequate cultivable land and escalating salinity together with population pressure. In this view a total of 25 purslane accessions were initially selected from 45 collected purslane accessions based on better growth performance and subjected to 5 different salinity levels, that is, 0.0, 10.0, 20.0, 30.0, and 40.0 dS m(-1) NaCl. Plant height, number of leaves, number of flowers, and dry matter contents in salt treated purslane accessions were significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) and the enormity of reduction increased with increasing salinity stress. Based on dry matter yield reduction, among all 25 purslane accessions 2 accessions were graded as tolerant (Ac7 and Ac9), 6 accessions were moderately tolerant (Ac3, Ac5, Ac6, Ac10, Ac11, and Ac12), 5 accessions were moderately susceptible (Ac1, Ac2, Ac4, Ac8, and Ac13), and the remaining 12 accessions were susceptible to salinity stress and discarded from further study. The selected 13 purslane accessions could assist in the identification of superior genes for salt tolerance in purslane for improving its productivity and sustainable agricultural production.

  6. Screening of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. Accessions for High Salt Tolerance

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    Md. Amirul Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. is an herbaceous leafy vegetable crop, comparatively more salt-tolerant than any other vegetables with high antioxidants, minerals, and vitamins. Salt-tolerant crop variety development is of importance due to inadequate cultivable land and escalating salinity together with population pressure. In this view a total of 25 purslane accessions were initially selected from 45 collected purslane accessions based on better growth performance and subjected to 5 different salinity levels, that is, 0.0, 10.0, 20.0, 30.0, and 40.0 dS m−1 NaCl. Plant height, number of leaves, number of flowers, and dry matter contents in salt treated purslane accessions were significantly reduced (P≤0.05 and the enormity of reduction increased with increasing salinity stress. Based on dry matter yield reduction, among all 25 purslane accessions 2 accessions were graded as tolerant (Ac7 and Ac9, 6 accessions were moderately tolerant (Ac3, Ac5, Ac6, Ac10, Ac11, and Ac12, 5 accessions were moderately susceptible (Ac1, Ac2, Ac4, Ac8, and Ac13, and the remaining 12 accessions were susceptible to salinity stress and discarded from further study. The selected 13 purslane accessions could assist in the identification of superior genes for salt tolerance in purslane for improving its productivity and sustainable agricultural production.

  7. Neuroprotective Effect of Portulaca oleraceae Ethanolic Extract Ameliorates Methylmercury Induced Cognitive Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Cerebellum and Cortex of Rat Brain.

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    Sumathi, Thangarajan; Christinal, Johnson

    2016-07-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is highly toxic, and its principal target tissue in human is the nervous system, which has made MeHg intoxication a public health concern for many decades. Portulaca oleraceae (purslane), a member of the Portulacaceae family, is widespread as a weed and has been ranked the eighth most common plant in the world. In this study, we sought for potential beneficial effects of Portulaca oleracea ethanolic extract (POEE) against the neurotoxicity induced by MeHg in cerebellum and cortex of rats. Male Wistar rats were administered with MeHg orally at a dose of 5 mg/kg b.w. for 21 days. Experimental rats were given MeHg and also administered with POEE (4 mg/kg, orally) 1 h prior to the administration of MeHg for 21 days. After MeHg exposure, we determine the mercury concentration by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS); mercury content was observed high in MeHg-induced group. POEE reduced the mercury content. We also observed that the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and the level of glutathione were reduced. The levels of glutathione reductase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance were found to be increased. The above biochemical changes were found to be reversed with POEE. Behavioral changes like decrease tail flick response, longer immobility time, and decreased motor activity were noted down during MeHg exposure. POEE pretreatment offered protection from these behavioral changes. MeHg intoxication also caused histopathological changes in cerebellum and cortex, which was found to be normalized by treatment with POEE. The present results indicate that POEE has protective effect against MeHg-induced neurotoxicity.

  8. Protective effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa L. and Portulaca oleracea L. on free radical induced hemolysis of RBCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, G; Aghasizadeh, M; Razavi, M; Taghiabadi, E

    2011-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study It has been shown that Nigella sativa L. and Portulaca oleracea L. have many antioxidant components. In the present study, the cytoprotective effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of N.sativa and P.oleracea against hemolytic damages induced by free radical initiator, AAPH [2, 2’ azobis (2- amidinopropane) hydrochloride] was evaluated. Methods Hemolysis was induced by addition of AAPH. To study the cytoprotective effect, aqueous (50, 200, 300, 400, 800 µg/ml) and ethanolic (25, 100, 150, 200 and 400 µg/ml) extracts of N. sativa and aqueous (25, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 400 µg/ml) and ethanolic (300, 600, 900, 1200 and 1800 µg/ml) extracts of P. oleracea were employed. RBCs were incubated with both extracts and AAPH at 37 °C for 6 hrs. In order to evaluate the impact of the time of addition, extracts were added one and 2 hrs after AAPH. Samples of suspensions were removed at different times and the degree of hemolysis was assessed spectrophotometrically by reading the absorption of supernatants at 540 nm. Results Aqueous (300, 400 and 800 µg/ml) and ethanolic (150, 200 and 400 µg/ml) extracts of N.sativa and also, aqueous (100, 150, 200 and 400 µg/ml) and ethanolic (1200, 1800 µg/ml) extracts of P.oleracea showed concentration-dependent cytoprotective effects. Addition of extracts one hour after AAPH reduced but did not eliminate protective activities of extracts. Conclusion Cytorotective effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of N. sativa and P. oleracea against AAPH- induced hemolysis may be related to antioxidant properties of these plants. PMID:22615672

  9. Portulaca oleracea extract can inhibit nodule formation of colon cancer stem cells by regulating gene expression of the Notch signal transduction pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Heiying; Chen, Li; Wang, Shuiming; Chao, Deng

    2017-07-01

    To investigate whether Portulaca oleracea extract affects tumor formation in colon cancer stem cells and its chemotherapy sensitivity. In addition, to analyze associated genetic changes within the Notch signal transduction pathway. Serum-free cultures of colon cancer cells (HT-29) and HT-29 cancer stem cells were treated with the chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil to assess sensitivity. Injections of the stem cells were also given to BALB/c mice to confirm tumor growth and note its characteristics. In addition, the effect of different concentrations of P. oleracea extract was tested on the growth of HT-29 colon cancer cells and HT-29 cancer stem cells, as determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. The effects of P. oleracea extract on the expression of β-catenin, Notch1, and Notch2 in the HT-29 cells were studied using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The tumor volume of the HT29 cells was two times larger than that of HT29 cancer stem cells. Treatment with P. oleracea extract inhibited the proliferation of both HT-29 cancer cells and HT-29 cancer stem cells at doses from 0.07 to 2.25 µg/mL. Apoptosis of HT-29 cancer cells and HT-29 cancer stem cells was assessed by flow cytometry; it was enhanced by the addition of P. oleracea extract. Finally, treatment with P. oleracea extract significantly downregulated the expression of the Notch1 and β-catenin genes in both cell types. The results of this study show that P. oleracea extract inhibits the growth of colon cancer stem cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, it inhibits the expression of the Notch1 and β-catenin genes. Taken together, this suggests that it may elicit its effects through regulatory and target genes that mediate the Notch signal transduction pathway.

  10. Optional use of CAM photosynthesis in two C4 species, Portulaca cyclophylla and Portulaca digyna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtum, Joseph A M; Hancock, Lillian P; Edwards, Erika J; Winter, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    Low levels of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) are demonstrated in two species with C 4 photosynthesis, Portulaca cyclophylla and P. digyna. The expression of CAM in P. cyclophylla and P. digyna is facultative, i.e. optional. Well-watered plants did not accumulate acid at night and exhibited gas-exchange patterns consistent with C 4 photosynthesis. CAM-type nocturnal acidification was reversible in that it was induced following drought and lost when droughted plants were rewatered. In P. cyclophylla, droughting was accompanied by a small but discernible net uptake of CO 2 during the dark, whereas in P. digyna, net CO 2 exchange at night approached the CO 2 compensation point but did not transition beyond it. This report brings the number of known C 4 species with a capacity for expressing CAM to six. All are species of Portulaca. The observation of CAM in P. cyclophylla and P. digyna is the first for species in the opposite-leaved (OL) Portulacelloid-anatomy lineage of Portulaca and for the Australian clade therein. The other four species are within the alternate-leaved (AL) lineage, in the Atriploid-anatomy Oleracea and the Pilosoid-anatomy Pilosa clades. Studies of the evolutionary origins of C 4 and CAM in Portulaca will benefit from a more wide-range survey of CAM across its species, particularly in the C 3 -C 4 intermediate-containing Cryptopetala clade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Portulaca oleracea L. aids calcipotriol in reversing keratinocyte differentiation and skin barrier dysfunction in psoriasis through inhibition of the nuclear factor κB signaling pathway

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    ZHAO, HENGGUANG; LI, SHUANG; LUO, FULING; TAN, QIAN; LI, HUI; ZHOU, WEIKANG

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis affects 2–4% of the population worldwide and its treatment is currently far from satisfactory. Calcipotriol and Portulaca oleracea have been reported to exhibit the capacity to inhibit inflammation in psoriatic patients and improve their clinical condition. However, the efficacy of a combination regimen of these two components remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the therapeutic efficacy of P. oleracea extract combined with calcipotriol on plaque psoriasis and its potential mechanism. Eleven patients with plaque psoriasis were treated with humectant containing the active ingredients of P. oleracea extract, with or without 0.005% calcipotriol ointment in a right-left bilateral lesion self-control study. Differences were evaluated by investigation of the clinical efficacy, adverse effects, skin barrier function, histological structure, expression and proliferation of keratinocytes, differentiation markers (cytokeratin 10, filaggrin and loricrin), inflammatory factors [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-8], as well as the status of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. The combination of P. oleracea and calcipotriol was revealed to decrease adverse effects, reduce transepidermal water loss, potently reverse keratinocyte differentiation dysfunction, and inhibit the expression of TNF-α and IL-8 and the phosphorylation of the NF-κB inhibitor IκBα. This treatment is therefore anticipated to be suitable for use as a novel adjuvant therapy for psoriatic patients. PMID:25574190

  12. Protective effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa L.and Portulaca oleracea L. on free radical induced hemolysis of RBCs

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    E Taghiabadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "n  Background and the purpose of the study: It has been shown that Nigella sativa L. and Portulaca oleracea L. have many antioxidant components. In the present study, the cytoprotective effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of N.sativa and P.oleracea against hemolytic damages induced by free radical initiator, AAPH [2, 2' azobis (2- amidinopropane hydrochloride] was evaluated. "n  Methods: Hemolysis was induced by addition of AAPH. To study the cytoprotective effect, aqueous (50, 200, 300, 400, 800 μg/ml and ethanolic (25, 100, 150, 200 and 400 μg/ml extracts of N. sativa and aqueous (25, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 400 μg/ml and ethanolic (300, 600, 900, 1200 and 1800 μg/ml extracts of P. oleracea were employed. RBCs were incubated with both extracts and AAPH at 37 °C for 6 hrs. In order to evaluate the impact of the time of addition, extracts were added one and 2 hrs after AAPH. Samples of suspensions were removed at different times and the degree of hemolysis was assessed spectrophotometrically by reading the absorption of supernatants at 540 nm. "n  Results: Aqueous (300, 400 and 800 μg/ml and ethanolic (150, 200 and 400 μg/ml extracts of N.sativa and also, aqueous (100, 150, 200 and 400 μg/ml and ethanolic (1200, 1800 μg/ml extracts of P.oleracea showed concentration-dependent cytoprotective effects. Addition of extracts one hour after AAPH reduced but did not eliminate protective activities of extracts. "n  Conclusion: Cytorotective effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of N. sativa and P. oleracea against AAPH- induced hemolysis may be related to antioxidant properties of these plants.

  13. Portulaca Extract Attenuates Development of Dextran Sulfate Sodium Induced Colitis in Mice through Activation of PPARγ

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    Kong, Rui; Luo, Hui; Wang, Nan; Li, Jingjing; Xu, Shizan; Chen, Kan; Feng, Jiao; Wu, Liwei; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Lu, Xiya; Xia, Yujing; Shi, Yanhong; Zhou, Yingqun; He, Weigang

    2018-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea L. is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been used as adjuvant therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanism of its activity in IBD still remains unclear. Since previous studies have documented the anti-inflammatory effect of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-γ (PPAR-γ), Portulaca regulation of PPAR-γ in inflammation was examined in current study. Ulcerative colitis (UC) was generated by 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice and fou...

  14. Physiological and metabolic changes of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. in response to drought, heat and combined stresses

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    Rui eJin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. is a fleshy herbaceous plant. So far, little information is available on the response of this plant to combined drought and heat stress. In this study, changes in physiological and metabolic levels were characterized after treatments with drought, heat and combined stresses. Both individual and combined stress treatments increased malondialdehyde (MDA, electrolyte leakage (EL, O2•− and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, while declined chlorophyll content. No significant differences were found between control and treatments in leaf water content (LWC and catalase (CAT activity. Additionally, 37 metabolic compounds were detected in purslane. Through pathway analysis, 17 metabolites were directly involved in the glycolysis metabolic pathway. The present study indicated that combined drought and heat stress caused more serious damage in purslane than individual stress. To survive, purslane has a high capability to cope with environmental stress conditions through activation of physiological and metabolic pathways.

  15. Physiological and Metabolic Changes of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) in Response to Drought, Heat, and Combined Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Ruijie; Gou, Junbo; Chan, Zhulong

    2016-01-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is a fleshy herbaceous plant. So far, little information is available on the response of this plant to combined drought and heat stress. In this study, changes in physiological and metabolic levels were characterized after treatments with drought, heat and combined stresses. Both individual and combined stress treatments increased malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage (EL), O2•− and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), while declined chlorophyll content. No significant differences were found between control and treatments in leaf water content (LWC) and catalase (CAT) activity. Additionally, 37 metabolic compounds were detected in purslane. Through pathway analysis, 17 metabolites were directly involved in the glycolysis metabolic pathway. The present study indicated that combined drought and heat stress caused more serious damage in purslane than individual stress. To survive, purslane has a high capability to cope with environmental stress conditions through activation of physiological and metabolic pathways. PMID:26779204

  16. Portulaca Extract Attenuates Development of Dextran Sulfate Sodium Induced Colitis in Mice through Activation of PPARγ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Rui; Luo, Hui; Wang, Nan; Li, Jingjing; Xu, Shizan; Chen, Kan; Feng, Jiao; Wu, Liwei; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Lu, Xiya; Xia, Yujing; Shi, Yanhong; Zhou, Yingqun; He, Weigang; Dai, Qi; Zheng, Yuejuan; Lu, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea L. is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been used as adjuvant therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanism of its activity in IBD still remains unclear. Since previous studies have documented the anti-inflammatory effect of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors- γ (PPAR- γ ), Portulaca regulation of PPAR- γ in inflammation was examined in current study. Ulcerative colitis (UC) was generated by 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice and four groups were established as normal control, DSS alone, DSS plus mesalamine, and DSS plus Portulaca . Severity of UC was evaluated by body weight, stool blood form, and length of colorectum. Inflammation was examined by determination of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1a). Portulaca extract was able to attenuate development of UC in DSS model similar to the treatment of mesalazine. Moreover, Portulaca extract inhibited proinflammatory cytokines release and reduced the level of DSS-induced NF- κ B phosphorylation. Furthermore, Portulaca extract restored PPAR- γ level, which was reduced by DSS. In addition, Portulaca extract protected DSS induced apoptosis in mice. In conclusion, Portulaca extract can alleviate colitis in mice through regulation of inflammatory reaction, apoptosis, and PPAR- γ level; therefore, Portulaca extract can be a potential candidate for the treatment of IBD.

  17. Effect of nitrogen source in the fertilizing solution on nutritional quality of three members of the Portulaca oleracea aggregate.

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    Szalai, Gabriella; Dai, Nir; Danin, Avinoam; Dudai, Nativ; Barazani, Oz

    2010-09-01

    Portulaca oleracea (purslane) is nutritious but, in addition to the essential alpha-linolenic acid, vitamin C and tocopherols, it contains undesirable oxalic acid. Knowing the effects of nitrate and ammonium on oxalate accumulation, we tested the agronomic potential of three members of the P. oleracea aggregate under various nitrogen fertilization conditions, by measuring biomass production and accumulation of fatty acids, organic acids and tocopherol in the commercial P. sativa (Pos) and two natural members: P. nitida (Pon) and P. papillato-stellulata (Pop). With nitrate as the sole N source, we measured differences between Pon and Pos in concentrations of the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid. Pos also gained less dry biomass under these conditions, implying a higher agronomical and nutritional value for Pon. Increasing the fertilizer ammonium concentration and reducing that of nitrate significantly decreased oxalic acid by factors of up to 1.7, 2.6 and 3.4 in Pos, Pop and Pon, respectively, significantly increased concentrations of tocopherol and malic acid, had no effect on fatty acids or ascorbic acid, but reduced biomass. In spite of the recumbent growth habit of Pon, the present findings indicate its agronomic potential. Because early flowering and seed production may be the limiting factors in purslane agriculture, growing Pon in nitrate-poor conditions might be agriculturally favorable. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Pharmacokinetics and Biodistribution of Aurantiamide and Aurantiamide Acetate in Rats after Oral Administration of Portulaca oleracea L. Extracts.

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    Chen, Lijiang; Liu, Yang; Jia, Dechao; Yang, Jia; Zhao, Jinhua; Chen, Changlan; Liu, Hongsheng; Liang, Xiao

    2016-05-04

    Aurantiamide and aurantiamide acetate are the main active constituents of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.), an edible plant with various biological activities. In this study, we developed a validated UHPLC-MS/MS method to quantitate the concentrations of aurantiamide and aurantiamide acetate in the plasma and various organ tissues of rat as the basis to study their pharmacological profile and distribution in vivo. Aurantiamide and aurantiamide acetate were rapidly absorbed following oral administration, both achieving a Cmax at around 0.2 h. The extent of their metabolisms also varied among different organ tissues, resulting in about 90% reduction in concentrations 4 h after their administration, thus leaving no long-term accumulation in the tissues. This is the first study to examine the pharmacokinetic and biodistribution of aurantiamide and aurantiamide acetate in rat, and our work may serve as the first step toward the investigation of the underlying mechanisms associated with the biological activity of purslane.

  19. Alternative Strategies in Response to Saline Stress in Two Varieties of Portulaca oleracea (Purslane).

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    Mulry, Kristina R; Hanson, Bryan A; Dudle, Dana A

    2015-01-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea) is a globally-distributed plant with a long history of use in folk medicine and cooking. We have developed purslane as a model system for exploring plant responses to stress. We exposed two varieties of purslane to saline stress with the objective of identifying differences between the varieties in the plasticity of morphological and physiological traits. The varieties responded to saline stress with significantly different changes in the measured traits, which included inter alia biomass, flower counts, proline concentrations and betalain pigment concentrations. The alternative responses of the two varieties consisted of complex, simultaneous changes in multiple traits. In particular, we observed that while both varieties increased production of betalain pigments and proline under saline stress, one variety invested more in betalain pigments while the other invested more in proline. Proline and betalain pigments undoubtedly play multiple roles in plant tissues, but in this case their role as antioxidants deployed to ameliorate saline stress appears to be important. Taken holistically, our results suggest that the two varieties employ different strategies in allocating resources to cope with saline stress. This conclusion establishes purslane as a suitable model system for the study of saline stress and the molecular basis for differential responses.

  20. Alternative Strategies in Response to Saline Stress in Two Varieties of Portulaca oleracea (Purslane.

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    Kristina R Mulry

    Full Text Available Purslane (Portulaca oleracea is a globally-distributed plant with a long history of use in folk medicine and cooking. We have developed purslane as a model system for exploring plant responses to stress. We exposed two varieties of purslane to saline stress with the objective of identifying differences between the varieties in the plasticity of morphological and physiological traits. The varieties responded to saline stress with significantly different changes in the measured traits, which included inter alia biomass, flower counts, proline concentrations and betalain pigment concentrations. The alternative responses of the two varieties consisted of complex, simultaneous changes in multiple traits. In particular, we observed that while both varieties increased production of betalain pigments and proline under saline stress, one variety invested more in betalain pigments while the other invested more in proline. Proline and betalain pigments undoubtedly play multiple roles in plant tissues, but in this case their role as antioxidants deployed to ameliorate saline stress appears to be important. Taken holistically, our results suggest that the two varieties employ different strategies in allocating resources to cope with saline stress. This conclusion establishes purslane as a suitable model system for the study of saline stress and the molecular basis for differential responses.

  1. Portulaca oleracea Ameliorates Diabetic Vascular Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction in db/db Mice

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    Lee, An Sook; Lee, Yun Jung; Lee, So Min; Yoon, Jung Joo; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with significantly accelerated rates of micro- and macrovascular complications such as diabetic vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of the aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea L. (AP), an edible plant used as a folk medicine, on diabetic vascular complications. The db/db mice were treated with AP (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 10 weeks, and AP treatment markedly lowered blood glucose, plasma triglyceride, plasma level of LDL-cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure in diabetic db/db mice. Furthermore, AP significantly increased plasma level of HDL-cholesterol and insulin level. The impairment of ACh- and SNP-induced vascular relaxation of aortic rings were ameliorated by AP treatment in diabetic db/db mice. This study also showed that overexpression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, MMP-2, and ET-1 were observed in aortic tissues of untreated db/db mice, which were significantly suppressed by treatment with AP. We also found that the insulin immunoreactivity of the pancreatic islets remarkably increased in AP treated db/db mice compared with untreated db/db mice. Taken together, AP suppresses hyperglycemia and diabetic vascular inflammation, and prevents the development of diabetic endothelial dysfunction for the development of diabetes and its vascular complications. PMID:22474522

  2. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of olerciamide A from Portulaca oleracea L. in rats by UHPLC-UV and UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Zheming; Li, Cuiyu; Gao, Mingzhe; Ying, Xixiang; Yang, Guanlin

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the pharmacokinetics of olerciamide A in rats after oral and intravenous administration of Portulaca oleracea L. extract by a simple and rapid ultra high-performance liquid chromatography method with bergapten as internal standard. The pharmacokinetic results indicated that olerciamide A was rapidly distributed with a time to peak concentration of 30 min after oral administration and presented a low oral absolute bioavailability of 4.57%. The metabolism of olerciamide A in rats was also investigated using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry to elucidate the reason for the low absolute bioavailability of olerciamide A and seven metabolites of oleraciamide A were found in rat plasma and urine. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The influence of hydro-ethanolic extract of Portulaca oleracea L. on Th1/Th2 balance in isolated human lymphocytes.

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    Askari, Vahid Reza; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim; Abnous, Khalil; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-12-24

    The anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidants activity of Portulaca oleracea L. (P. oleracea) were mentioned in traditional texts. In previous studies, different anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of P. oleracea were demonstrated. However, the mechanism of action and immunomodulatory property of this plant are greatly unknown. In the present study, the effect of the extract of this plant on IL-4, IL10, IFN-γ and T helper (h)1/Th2 balance in non-stimulated and stimulated human lymphocytes was examined. The effect of three concentrations (160, 40 and 10µg/ml) of P. oleracea or dexamethasone were evaluated on percentage of cell proliferation and nitric oxide (NO) production as well as secretion of cytokines (IL-4, IL10 and IFN-γ) in PHA-stimulated and non-stimulated lymphocytes, and compared to control and dexamethasone as positive control (n=15 for each group). In stimulated cells, dexamethasone significantly inhibited the percentage of cell proliferation, NO production, and secretion of cytokines in comparison to control group (P<0.001 for all cases). The percentage of cell proliferation, NO production, and secretion of cytokines were significantly decreased while Th1/Th2 (IFN-γ/IL-4) and Treg/Th2 (IL-10/IL-4) balances significantly enhanced in treated groups with all three concentrations of extract compared to control group (P<0.001 for all cases). The effect of all concentrations of the extract on cell proliferation, NO production and secretion of cytokines as well as Treg/Th2 balance were significantly lower than dexamethasone (P<0.001 for all cases), but Th1/Th2 ratio obtained in the presence of only low extract concentration was lower than dexamethasone (P<0.01). Different concentrations of extract promoted Th1/Th2 and Treg/Th2 balances which may suggest the therapeutic value of the plant in inflammatory disease associated with decreased Th1/Th2 balance such as asthma or cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anti-TNF-α activity of Portulaca oleracea in vascular endothelial cells.

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    Lee, An Sook; Kim, Jin Sook; Lee, Yun Jung; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-01-01

    Vascular inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis, a main complication of diabetes. The present study investigated whether an aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea (AP) prevents the TNF-α-induced vascular inflammatory process in the human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC). The stimulation of TNF-α induced overexpression of adhesion molecules affects vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and E-selectin for example. However, AP significantly suppressed TNF-α-induced over-expression of these adhesion molecules in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, pretreatment with AP dose-dependently reduced an increase of the adhesion of HL-60 cells to TNF-α-induced HUVEC. Furthermore, we observed that stimulation of TNF-α significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, pretreatment with AP markedly blocked TNF-α-induced ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. The western blot and immunofluorescence analysis showed that AP inhibited the translocation of p65 NF-κB to the nucleus. In addition, AP suppressed the TNF-α-induced degradation of IκB-α and attenuated the TNF-α-induced NF-κB binding. AP also effectively reduced TNF-α-induced mRNA expressions of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and interleukin (IL)-8 in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, AP prevents the vascular inflammatory process through the inhibition of intracellular ROS production and NF-κB activation as well as the reduction of adhesion molecule expression in TNF-α-induced HUVEC. These results suggested that AP might have a potential therapeutic effect by inhibiting the vascular inflammation process in vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis.

  5. Diversity in growth and expression pattern of PoHKT1 and PoVHA transporter genes under NaCl stress in Portulaca oleracea taxa

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    El-Bakatoushi R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth and the expression of two transporter genes; PoHKT1 and PoVHA transcripts in root and shoot tissues were studied under salt stress of three Portulaca oleracea s.l. taxa. The study showed no significant differences in ratios between root lengths in saline and non-saline treatments of the three taxa, which was correlated with a clear down-regulation of the PoHKT1 transcripts in the root after 150mM NaCl. All measured growth parameters except root length increased in P. oleraceae, decreased in P. granulatostellulata and remain unchanged after 100mM NaCl in P. nitida compared to control under saline conditions. The result was consistent with the type of taxon which had significant effect on the shoot length, number of leaves and dry weight (P< 0.05. All measured growth parameters except root length showed a significant negative correlation with the shoot fold change of PoHKT1 transcripts (r = -0.607, -0.693 and -0.657 respectively. The regulation of PoVHA in root and shoot tissues in the three taxa are significantly different. Under salt stress, both decreased uptake of Na+ into the cytosol by decreasing the expression of PoHKT1 and increased vascular compartmentalization ability of Na+ by inducing the expression of PoVHA seem to work more efficiently in P. oleraceae and P. nitida than in P. granulato-stellulata.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase genes isolated from purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.): expression in different tissues and response to cold and wound stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Monica C; Carvalho, Isabel S; Brodelius, Maria

    2010-02-10

    Two full-length cDNA clones PoleFAD7 and PoleFAD8, encoding plastidial omega-3 fatty acid desaturases were isolated from purslane (Portulaca oleracea). The encoded enzymes convert linoleic to alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3). Three histidine clusters characteristic of fatty acid desaturases, a putative chloroplast transit peptide in the N-terminal, and three putative transmembrane domains were identified in the sequence. Both genes were expressed in all analyzed tissues showing different levels of expression. PoleFAD7 was up-regulated by wounding but not by low temperature. PoleFAD8 was up-regulated by cold stress but not by wounding. Total fatty acid and linolenic acid content were higher both, in wounded and intact leaves of plants exposed to low temperature.

  7. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of three omega-6 desaturase genes from purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, M C; Coelho, N; Olsson, M E; Brodelius, P E; Carvalho, I S; Brodelius, M

    2009-07-01

    Two full-length cDNA clones of PoleFAD2 and one full-length cDNA clone of PoleFAD6, encoding omega-6 fatty acid desaturases, the key enzymes for the conversion of oleic into linoleic acid, were isolated from purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) leaves and seeds. The deduced amino acid sequence of both isoforms of PoleFAD2 showed higher similarities to other microsomal omega-6 desaturases then to PoleFAD6 or other plastidial orthologues, and vice versa. Expression analysis by RT-PCR showed that all genes are expressed in all tissues of purslane tested, but higher levels of mRNA accumulation were detected in reproductive organs and cells that proliferate rapidly or store lipids. Wounding affected the levels of mRNA accumulation of both, FAD2 and FAD6 genes in purslane leaves, while chilling stress affected only FAD2 transcript level. The expression patterns observed reflect the discrete roles of these genes in membrane synthesis for cell division, thylakoid development, and lipid storage or in the biosynthetic pathway for the production of signaling molecules that influence plant development or defense.

  8. Effect of Salinity and Silicon on Seed Yield and Yield Components of Purslane Portulaca oleracea L.(

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    Z Rahimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effects on salinity and silicon application on yield and yield components of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L., an experiment was conducted in a completely randomized desgin with three replications and two factors consisted of four different levels of salinity using NaCl (0, 7, 14, 21dS/m and two levels of silicon (application of one mMol sodium silicate and not application. Increasing salinity concentration significantly caused a negative effect on seed yield. But yield components such as number and weight of seed were more sensitive than number of capsul in main stem in final seed yield. Application of silicon increased seed yield in control but was not significant in salinity levels and leaves and stem biomass. Seed yield and total seed weight in branches was significantly decresed. Weight of 1000 seed in main stem and branches was not significantly different in salinity levels. As a result, purslane could be extremely tolerated to saline conditions, so it seems that it can be cultivated in saline soils and arid regions. Also applied silicon can be increase yield and plant tolerance to environmental stress. Keywords: 1000 seed, Branches, Capsul, Dry weight

  9. The neuroprotective effects of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) on rotenone-induced biochemical changes and apoptosis in brain of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2013-09-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleraceae L.), a member of the Portulacaceae family, is widespread as a weed and has been ranked as the eighth most common plant in the world. In order to evaluate purslane herbal aqueous juice as a neuroprotective agent, the antioxidant activity of purslane juice was assessed in vitro and the neuroprotective effects of purslane (1.5 mL/Kg bwt) on rotenone (12 mg/Kg bwt for 12 days) induced biochemical changes and apoptosis in striatum of rats were also examined. The repeated administration of rotenone produced dramatic increases in intercellular content of calcium, dopamine metabolites and apoptosis in the striatum. In addition, rotenone administration caused significant decrease in complex I activity. These biochemical changes and apoptosis inductions were effectively counteracted by administration of purslane. Overall, the present study demonstrated the neuroprotective role of purslane in the striatum and proposes its prophylactic potential against developing brain damage and Parkinson's disease induction followed by rotenone administration, and that purslane may be considered as a potential neuroprotective agent against environmental factors affecting the function of the dopaminergic system.

  10. Genetic improvement of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) and its future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirul Alam, Md; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Rafii, M Y; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Kamal Uddin, Md; Alam, M Z; Latif, M A

    2014-11-01

    Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea), also known as pigweed, fatweed, pusle, and little hogweed, is an annual succulent herb in the family Portulacaceae that is found in most corners of the globe. From the ancient ages purslane has been treated as a major weed of vegetables as well as other crops. However, worldwide researchers and nutritionists have studied this plant as a potential vegetable crop for humans as well as animals. Purslane is a nutritious vegetable with high antioxidant properties and recently has been recognized as the richest source of α-linolenic acid, essential omega-3 and 6 fatty acids, ascorbic acid, glutathione, α-tocopherol and β-carotene. The lack of vegetable sources of ω-3 fatty acids has resulted in a growing level of attention to introduce purslane as a new cultivated vegetable. In the rapid-revolutionizing worldwide atmosphere, the ability to produce improved planting material appropriate to diverse and varying rising conditions is a supreme precedence. Though various published reports on morphological, physiological, nutritional and medicinal aspects of purslane are available, research on the genetic improvement of this promising vegetable crop are scant. Now it is necessary to conduct research for the genetic improvement of this plant. Genetic improvement of purslane is also a real scientific challenge. Scientific modernization of conventional breeding with the advent of advance biotechnological and molecular approaches such as tissue culture, protoplast fusion, genetic transformation, somatic hybridization, marker-assisted selection, qualitative trait locus mapping, genomics, informatics and various statistical representation have opened up new opportunities of revising the relationship between genetic diversity, agronomic performance and response to breeding for varietal improvement. This review is an attempt to amalgamate the assorted scientific information on purslane propagation, cultivation, varietal improvement, nutrient

  11. Effects of aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea L. on oxidative stress and liver, spleen leptin, PARα and FAS mRNA expression in high-fat diet induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bendong; Zhou, Haining; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhou, Wenyan; Yuan, Quan; Yang, Guangshun

    2012-08-01

    We reported that an aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea L. inhibited high-fat-diet-induced oxidative injury in a dose-dependent manner. Male kunming mice (5-weeks-old, 24 g) were used in this experiment. After a 4-day adaptation period, animals were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 in each group); Group 1: animals received normal powdered rodent diet; Group 2: animals received high fat diet; Groups 3 and 4: animals received high fat diet and were fed by gavage to mice once a day with aqueous extract at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively. In mice fed with high-fat diet, blood and liver lipid peroxidation level was significantly increased, whereas antioxidant enzymes activities were markedly decreased compared to normal control mice. Administration of an aqueous extract of P. oleracea L. significantly dose-dependently reduced levels of blood and liver lipid peroxidation and increased the activities of blood and liver antioxidant enzymes activities in high fat mice. Moreover, administration of an aqueous extract of P. oleracea L. significantly dose-dependently increase liver Leptin/β-actin (B), and Liver PPARα/β-actin, decrease liver, spleen FAS mRNA, p-PERK and p-PERK/PERK protein expression levels. Taken together, these data demonstrate that aqueous extract of P. oleracea L. can markedly alleviate high fat diet-induced oxidative injury by enhancing blood and liver antioxidant enzyme activities, modulating Leptin/β-actin (B), and Liver PPARα/β-actin, decrease liver, spleen FAS mRNA, p-PERK and p-PERK/PERK protein expression levels in mice.

  12. Effects of Portulaca oleracea ethanolic extract on reproductive system of aging female mice

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    Akram Ahangarpour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging contains morphological and functional deterioration in biological systems. D-galactose (D-gal generates free radicals and accelerates aging. Portulaca oleracea (Purslane may have protective effect against oxidative stress. Objective: Purslane ethanolic extract effects were evaluated on antioxidant indices and sex hormone in D-gal aging female mice. Materials and Methods: 48 female NMRI mice (25-35 gr were randomly divided into, 6 groups: 1- control (normal saline for 45 days, 2- Purslane (200 mg/kg for last 3 weeks, 3-D-gal (500 mg/kg for 45 days, 4-D-gal+Purslane, 5- Aging, 6-Aging+Purslane. Sex hormones, antioxidants and malondialdehyde (MDA level of ovary and uterus were measured. Histological assessment was also done. Results: In D-gal treated and aging animals, LH and FSH levels were significantly increased (p<0.001 while estrogen and progesterone levels were significantly reduced (p<0.001 in comparison with control group. MDA contents were significantly increased in ovaries and uterus of D-gal and aging groups (p<0.01. Superoxide dismutase (SOD (p<0.001 and catalase (p<0.01 activities were significantly decreased in both aging and D-gal treated animals. Ovarian follicles were degenerated and atrophy on uterine wall and endometrial glands was observed in D-gal and aging groups. Alteration in hormone levels, MDA contents and antioxidant activity were significantly reversed by Purslane (p<0.05. Purslane could also improve histological changes such as atrophy of endometrium. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Purslane can attenuate aging alternations induced by D-gal and aging in female reproductive system.

  13. Effects of Portulaca oleracea ethanolic extract on reproductive system of aging female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Lamoochi, Zohreh; Fathi Moghaddam, Hadi; Mansouri, Seyed Mohamad Taghi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aging contains morphological and functional deterioration in biological systems. D-galactose (D-gal) generates free radicals and accelerates aging. Portulaca oleracea (Purslane) may have protective effect against oxidative stress. Objective: Purslane ethanolic extract effects were evaluated on antioxidant indices and sex hormone in D-gal aging female mice. Materials and Methods: 48 female NMRI mice (25-35 gr) were randomly divided into, 6 groups: 1- control (normal saline for 45 days), 2- Purslane (200 mg/kg for last 3 weeks), 3-D-gal (500 mg/kg for 45 days), 4-D-gal+Purslane, 5- Aging, 6-Aging+Purslane. Sex hormones, antioxidants and malondialdehyde (MDA) level of ovary and uterus were measured. Histological assessment was also done. Results: In D-gal treated and aging animals, LH and FSH levels were significantly increased (p<0.001) while estrogen and progesterone levels were significantly reduced (p<0.001) in comparison with control group. MDA contents were significantly increased in ovaries and uterus of D-gal and aging groups (p<0.01). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p<0.001) and catalase (p<0.01) activities were significantly decreased in both aging and D-gal treated animals. Ovarian follicles were degenerated and atrophy on uterine wall and endometrial glands was observed in D-gal and aging groups. Alteration in hormone levels, MDA contents and antioxidant activity were significantly reversed by Purslane (p<0.05). Purslane could also improve histological changes such as atrophy of endometrium. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Purslane can attenuate aging alternations induced by D-gal and aging in female reproductive system. PMID:27294220

  14. The Aqueous Extract of Portulaca Oleracea Ameliorates Neurobehavioral Dysfunction and Hyperglycemia Related to Streptozotocin-Diabetes Induced in Ovariectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza; Rashno, Masome; Ghaderi, Shahab; Askaripour, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common causes of neuropathy. Although antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of the aqueous extract of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) (AEOP) have been demonstrated before by other researchers, we did not find any study that assessed the psychobiological effects of AEOP in diabetes induced animals. Thirty ovariectomized (OVX) female Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of control, Dia and Dia+AEOP. The latter group was orally treated by 300 mg/kg of AEOP for 35 days. Dia and Dia+AEOP groups were made diabetic by IP injection of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ). The psychobiological effects of AEOP were assessed by Morris water maze (MWM), elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swimming test (FST) and tail pinch stressor (TPS). AEOP significantly decreased hyperglycemia (p0.05). Diabetes significantly increased their non-functional masticatory activity in TPS (p≤0.001) while it was improved in Dia+AEOP group. We showed that AEOP has significant anxiolytic effects and it can improve spatial cognitive performance, locomotor deficit and stress in diabetic OVX rats. PMID:27642327

  15. Chemical Composition and Yield of Six Genotypes of Common Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.): An Alternative Source of Omega-3 Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Spyridon Α; Karkanis, Anestis; Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ntatsi, Georgia; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Lykas, Christos; Khah, Ebrahim

    2015-12-01

    Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an annual weed rich in omega-3 fatty acids which is consumed for its edible leaves and stems. In the present study six different genotypes of common purslane (A-F) were evaluated for their nutritional value and chemical composition. Nutritional value and chemical composition depended on genotype. Oxalic acid content was the lowest for genotype D, whereas genotypes E and F are more promising for commercial cultivation, since they have low oxalic acid content. Genotype E had a very good antioxidant profile and a balanced composition of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Regarding yield, genotype A had the highest yield comparing to the other genotypes, whereas commercial varieties (E and F) did not differ from genotypes B and C. This study provides new information regarding common purslane bioactive compounds as affected by genotype and could be further implemented in food industry for products of high quality and increased added value.

  16. The Effect of Different Dietary Purslane Seed (Portulaca Oleracea L. Levels on Carcass, Blood Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Activity in Quails

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    Yusuf Konca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effect of dietary purslane seed (Portulaca oleracea L. diets on the carcass, serum lipid profile and antioxidant activity in quails. A total of 140 one-day-old quail chicks allocated into 4 treatment groups with 5 replicates. The treatment groups as follows: (1 Control (C, without purslane seed addition, (2 2.5% purslane seed addition to the control diet, (3 5% purslane seed addition to the control diet, (4 10% purslane seed addition to the control diet. The treatments did not affect the slaughter weight, carcass, and carcass part yields (p>0.05 of the birds in the treatment groups. However, the total intestinal weights of the birds in the 2.5% purslane supplemented group were lower than those of the other groups (p0.05. The dietary inclusion of 10% purslane seed caused an increase to MDA level compared to C and 2.5% purslane seed supplemented groups (p

  17. Hepatoprotective effects of Portulaca oleracea extract against CCl4-induced damage in rats.

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    Eidi, Akram; Mortazavi, Pejman; Moghadam, Jalal Zarringhalam; Mardani, Parisa Mousavi

    2015-07-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L., Portulacaceae) has been traditionally used in folk medicine to afford protection against liver injury, although its actual efficacy remains uncertain. To evaluate purslane as a hepatoprotective agent, we investigated the protective effect of its ethanol extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic toxicity in rats. A total of 108 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 12 groups. The first group was maintained as normal control, whereas CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg bw, 50% CCl4 in olive oil, i.p.), purslane extract (0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 g/kg bw, intragastrically), and purslane extract (five doses as above) along with CCl4 were administered to the Groups II, III-VII, and VIII-XII, respectively. The rats were sacrificed on the 30th day, and blood was withdrawn by cardiac puncture. Liver damage was assessed by measuring hepatic marker enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, and SOD) and histopathological observation. Treatment with CCl4 resulted in increased serum activities of marker enzymes with a concomitant decrease in SOD. Histological alterations were also observed in the liver tissue upon CCl4 treatment. Administration of purslane extract (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 g/kg b.w.) significantly showed a marked tendency towards normalization of all measured biochemical parameters in CCl4-treated rats. Histopathological changes also paralleled the detected alteration in markers of liver function. These results demonstrate that purslane exerts protective effects against CCl4-induced damage in rat liver and supports a potential therapeutic use of purslane as an alternative for patients with liver diseases.

  18. Purslane weed (Portulaca oleracea): a prospective plant source of nutrition, omega-3 fatty acid, and antioxidant attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hossain, Md Sabir; Nahar, Most Altaf Un; Ali, Md Eaqub; Rahman, M M

    2014-01-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an important plant naturally found as a weed in field crops and lawns. Purslane is widely distributed around the globe and is popular as a potherb in many areas of Europe, Asia, and the Mediterranean region. This plant possesses mucilaginous substances which are of medicinal importance. It is a rich source of potassium (494 mg/100 g) followed by magnesium (68 mg/100 g) and calcium (65 mg/100 g) and possesses the potential to be used as vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acid. It is very good source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and gamma-linolenic acid (LNA, 18 : 3 w3) (4 mg/g fresh weight) of any green leafy vegetable. It contained the highest amount (22.2 mg and 130 mg per 100 g of fresh and dry weight, resp.) of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid (26.6 mg and 506 mg per 100 g of fresh and dry weight, resp.). The oxalate content of purslane leaves was reported as 671-869 mg/100 g fresh weight. The antioxidant content and nutritional value of purslane are important for human consumption. It revealed tremendous nutritional potential and has indicated the potential use of this herb for the future.

  19. Remediation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contaminated site by successive methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and sunflower oil enhanced soil washing - Portulaca oleracea L. cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Hu, Feng; Kengara, Fredrick Orori; Jiang, Xin; Luo, Yongming; Yang, Xinlun

    2014-06-01

    An innovative ex situ soil washing technology was developed in this study to remediate organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)-contaminated site. Elevated temperature (50 °C) combined with ultrasonication (35 kHz, 30 min) at 25 g L(-1) methyl-β-cyclodextrin and 100 mL L(-1) sunflower oil were effective in extracting OCPs from the soil. After four successive washing cycles, the removal efficiency for total OCPs, DDTs, endosulfans, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexanes, heptachlors, and chlordanes were all about 99%. The 4th washed soil with 3 months cultivation of Portulaca oleracea L. and nutrient addition significantly increase (p<0.05) the number, biomass carbon, nitrogen, and functioning diversity of soil microorganisms. This implied that the microbiological functioning of the soil was at least partially restored. This combined cleanup strategy proved to be effective and environmental friendly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Portulaca oleracea L. as a Prospective Candidate Inhibitor of Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Serine Protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Sobia; Hussain, Ishtiaq; Tariq, Muhammad Ilyas; Ijaz, Bushra; Iqbal, Shahid; Qamar-ul-Zaman; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide health problem affecting about 300 million individuals. HCV causes chronic liver disease, liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. Many side effects are associated with the current treatment options. Natural products that can be used as anti-HCV drugs are thus of considerable potential significance. NS3 serine protease (NS3-SP) is a target for the screening of antiviral activity against HCV. The present work explores plants with anti-HCV potential, isolating possible lead compounds. Ten plants, used for medicinal purposes against different infections in rural areas of Pakistan, were collected. The cellular toxicity effects of methanolic extracts of the plants on the viability of Huh-7 cells were studied through the Trypan blue dye exclusion method. Following this, the anti-HCV potential of phytoextracts was assessed by infecting liver cells with HCV-3a-infected serum inoculum. Only the methanolic extract of Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) exhibited more than 70% inhibition. Four fractions were obtained through bioassay-guided extraction of PO. Subsequent inhibition of all organic extract fractions against NS3 serine protease was checked to track the specific target in the virus. The results showed that the PO methanolic crude and ethyl acetate extract specifically abridged the HCV NS3 protease expression in a dose-dependent fashion. Hence, PO extract and its constituents either alone or with interferon could offer a future option to treat chronic HCV.

  1. An in vitro study of antileishmanial effect of Portulaca oleracea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Elham Gharirvand; Doudi, Monir; Abedi, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by protozoa of Leishmania genus and is considered as a zoonotic disease. It is a major public health problem worldwide, with high endemicity in developing countries like Iran. Various chemical drugs are used for leishmaniasis treatment, but their side-effects and the emergence of drug resistance have led to look for new effective compounds. The aim of this study was to introduce purslane (Portulaca oleracea) as a traditional and medicinal herb which might act as a valuable source for designing new pharmaceutical drug/lead against Leishmania sp. This study was conducted in the laboratory of Seddigheh Tahereh Infectious Disease Research Center, Isfahan, Iran during the spring of 2015. The essence from the purslane plant was prepared through water distillation and the alcoholic extract was prepared through maceration method. The essence was dried, and diluted with DMSO (5%). Leishmania major promastigotes were cultured in 25 ΁ 2΀C temperature in the stationary phase of RPMI-1640 medium, enriched with 10% fetal calf serum and penicillin-streptomycin to yield higher quantity. The biological activity of herb essence was evaluated on L. major promastigotes and compared to glucantime reference drug using methylthiazole tetrazolium (MTT) colorometric assay. The optical density absorbance was measured with Eliza reader set, and the IC50 value was calculated at different time intervals. All tests were repeated thrice. Results were analyzed by using Tukey test and t-test. The IC50 values after 48 h, for glucantime against standard parasite promastigotes and clinical strains were equal to 12 and 19 mg/ml, respectively, whereas for purslane herb leaves and stems essence; it was equal to 360 and 680 mg/ml, respectively. Although, the glucantime pharmaceutical drug was more efficient compared to the investigated herb essence, the essense had significant effect on L. major promastigotes with increasing density (p <0.05). The ingredients of the herb leaves

  2. A comparison of the effects of Portulaca oleracea seeds hydro-alcoholic extract and Vitamin C on biochemical, hemodynamic and functional parameters in cardiac tissue of rats with subclinical hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Hadi; Pakdel, Roghayeh; Khazaei, Majid; Niazmand, Said; Bavarsad, Kowsar; Hadjzadeh, Mousa AL-Reza

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Portulaca oleracea (P. oleracea) seeds and Vitamin C on biochemical and hemodynamic parameters in cardiac tissue of rats with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Materials and Methods: Forty eight male rats were divided into six groups of 8 and treated for 4 weeks. T4 group received daily injection of levothyroxine sodium (20 μg/kg) and control group was given daily injection of saline. T4-Po groups were given T4 plus 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of P. oleracea seeds extract in drinking water daily. T4-Vit C group received T4 plus daily injection of Vitamin C (100 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, body weight, serum free T4 level, left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total thiol levels were measured. Results: Free T4 levels were increased in all groups that were treated with T4. Weight gain was decreased in T4 and T4-Po100 groups compared to control group (p<0.001 and p<0.05). However, body weight was increased in T4-Po (200 and 400) and T4-Vit C groups compared to T4 group. LVDP was increased in T4 group compared to control group but, LVDP was decreased in T4-Po and T4-Vit C groups. Malondialdehyde was decreased in T4-Po groups and T4-Vit C group compared to T4 group. Total thiol groups were increased in T4-Po (200 and 400) and T4-Vit C groups compared to T4 group. Conclusion: The results showed that P. oleracea extract has a protective effect on cardiac dysfunction due to subclinical hyperthyroidism induced by levothyroxine sodium in rats. PMID:29632847

  3. Hydro-ethanolic Extract of Portulaca oleracea Affects Beta-adrenoceptors of Guinea Pig Tracheal Smooth Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Hashemzehi, Milad; Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Askari, Vahid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Thestimulatory effect of the extract of Portulaca oleracea (P. olerace) on β-adrenoceptor of tracheal smooth muscle was examined.To examine β-adrenoceptor stimulatory effect, concentration response curve to isoprenaline was obtained in pre-contracted tracheal smooth muscle in the presence of three concentrations of aqueous-ethanolic extract, propranolol, and saline. Values of EC50 (the effective concentration of isoprenaline, causing 50% of maximum response) and dose ratio-1(CR-1) were measured. This effect was tested innon-incubated tracheal smooth muscle (group 1) and incubated tissues with chlorpheniramine (group 2). Concentration-response curves to isoprenaline in the presence of two higher concentrations of the extract in group 1 and all three concentrations in group 2 showed leftward shifts compared to isoprenaline curves produced in the presence of saline in both groups. EC50 obtained in the presence of propranolol was significantly higher than that of saline in both groups of experiments (p<0.05 for both cases). However, the EC50 obtained in the presence of two higher concentrations of the extract in group 1 and lower concentration in group 2 were non-significantly but those obtained of medium and high extract concentrations in the group 2 were significantly (p<0.05 for both cases)lower than those of saline. The values of (CR-1) obtained in the presence of all concentrations of the extract in groups1 and 2 were significantly lower than that of propranolol (p<0.05 to p<0.001).The results indicated a stimulatory effect of the P. olerace extract on ß 2-adrenoceptors of tracheal smooth muscle. PMID:28243284

  4. Ethanol extract of Portulaca oleracea L. protects against hypoxia-induced neuro damage through modulating endogenous erythropoietin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanyin, Wang; Liwei, Dong; Lin, Jia; Hailiang, Xin; Changquan, Ling; Min, Li

    2012-04-01

    In addition to its role in erythropoiesis, erythropoietin is also appreciated for its neuroprotective effects, and it has been suggested for treatment of some ischemic-hypoxic neurovascular diseases. The protective effects of endogenous erythropoietin in the brain give rise to the hypothesis that modulating erythropoietin expression might be a better way for treatment of ischemia-hypoxia neurovascular diseases. We have found that ethanol extract of Portulaca oleracea L. (EEPO) could increase erythropoietin expression in hypoxic mouse brain in our previous study. The present study is to investigate whether EEPO exerts its neuroprotective effects against hypoxia injury through regulating endogenous erythropoietin expression. The results demonstrated that EEPO decreased the serum neuron specific enolase level in hypoxia mice and the activity of caspase-3 in neuron, increased the neuron viability and attenuated the pathological damages caused by the hypoxia condition. Importantly, we also found that EEPO stimulated the endogenous erythropoietin expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Using the conditioned medium containing soluble erythropoietin receptor, we found that the neuroprotective effects of EEPO were dependent, at least partly, on erythropoietin expression. Although EEPO did not affect transcription of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), it did stabilize expression of HIF-1α. It is concluded that EEPO has neuroprotective effects against hypoxia injury, which is at least partly through stimulating endogenous erythropoietin expression by stabilizing HIF-1α. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of three endemic Mediterranean plant species Atriplex halimus, Medicago lupulina and Portulaca oleracea for Phytoremediation of Ni, Pb and Zn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chami, Ziad Al; Amer, Nasser; Bitar, Lina Al; Mondelli, Donato; Dumontet, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The success of phytoremediation depends upon the identification of suitable plants species that hyperaccumulate/tolerate heavy metals and produce large amounts of biomass. In this study, three endemic Mediterranean plant species Atriplex halimus, Medicago lupulina and Portulaca oleracea, were grown hydroponically to assess their potential use in phytoremediation of Ni, Pb and Zn and biomass production. The objective of this research is to improve phytoremediation procedures by searching for a new endemic Mediterranean plant species which can be used for phytoremediation of low/moderate contamination in the Mediterranean arid and semiarid conditions and bioenergy production. The hydroponics experiment was carried out in a growth chamber using half strength Hoagland's solution as control (CTR) and 5 concentrations for Pb and Zn (5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg L-1) and 3 concentrations for Ni (1, 2, and 5 mg L-1). Complete randomized design with five replications was adopted. Main growth parameters (shoot and root dry weight, shoot and root length and chlorophyll content) were determined. Shoots and roots were analyzed for their metals contents. Some interesting contributions of this research are: (i) plant metal uptake efficiency ranked as follows: A. halimus > M. lupulina > P. oleracea, whereas heavy metal toxicity ranked as follows: Ni > Zn > Pb, (ii) none of the plant species was identified as hyperaccumulator, (iii) Atriplex halimus and Medicago lupulina can accumulate Ni, Pb and Zn in their roots, (iv) translocate small fraction to their above ground biomass, and (v) indicate moderate pollution levels of the environment. In addition, as they are a good biomass producer, they can be used in phytostabilisation of marginal lands and their above ground biomass can be used for livestock feeding as well for bioenergy production.

  6. Portulaca oleracea L. prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced passive avoidance learning and memory and TNF-α impairments in hippocampus of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhshnia, Maryam; Karimi-Zandi, Leila

    2017-02-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that neuroinflammation can impair memory. It has been indicated that Portulaca oleracea Linn. (POL), possess anti-inflammatory activity and might improve memory disruption caused by inflammation. In this study the effect of pre-treatment with the hydro-alcoholic extract of POL on memory retrieval investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated rats. Male Wistar rats (200-220g) received either a control diet or a diet containing of POL (400mg/kg, p.o.) for 14days. Then, they received injections of either saline or LPS (1mg/kg, i.p.). In all the experimental groups, 4h following the last injection, passive avoidance learning (PAL) and memory test was performed. The retention test was done 24h after the training and then the animals were sacrificed. Hippocampal TNF-α levels measured using ELISA as one criteria of LPS-induced neuroinflammation. The results indicated that LPS significantly impaired PAL and memory and increased TNF-α levels in hippocampus tissue. Pre-treatment with POL improved memory in control rats and prevented memory and TNF-α deterioration in LPS treated rats. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the hydro-alcoholic extract of POL may improve memory deficits in LPS treated rats, possibly via inhibition of TNF-α and anti-inflammatory activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Co-planted Purslane (Portulaca Oleracea L.) on Cd Accumulation by Sunflower in Different Levels of Cd Contamination and Salinity: A Pot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Ali; Zahedi, Morteza; Soleimani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal bioaccumulation can be affected by various crop-weed interactions that potentially exist in agroecosystems. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of rhizosphere interaction of sunflower and purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) weed on cadmium (Cd) uptake and its allocation to sunflower grains. The experimental treatments consisted of two cropping systems (mono and mixed culture), two adjusted salinity levels (0 and 0.5% NaCl) and three artificial levels of Cd in soil (Control, 3 and 6 mg kg(-1)). The results showed that the growth of sunflower in the presence of purslane in comparison to mono culture of sunflower led to change of total Cd content and Cd allocated to grains only in saline conditions. Promoting effects of salinity on Cd concentration of grain were alleviated where sunflower was co-planted with purslane. Besides, supply of Zn in grains of co-planted sunflower was strongly affected by salinity. Results of this study revealed that although co-planted purslane could alter conditions in the shared rhizosphere, it had no effect on enhancing Cd uptake by neighboring sunflower directly.

  8. The effect of Aqueous Purslane (Portulaca Oleracea Extract on Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    syead Reza Fatemi Tabatabaei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the previous studies Portulaca oleracea (PO has antioxidative effects and several factors such as oxidative stress is involved in the renal injury caused by ischemia - reperfusion (I/R. Therefore, the goal of present study is to evaluate the renal I/R injury in rats received aqueous extracts of PO (AEPO. Material and Methods: First, the right nephrectomy was performed in adult male Wistar rats and after 20 days they were divided into 5 groups (6=n. Sham operated+vehicle (sham, sham operated+ AEPO300mg/kg (AEPO group, I/R, AEPO150+I/R and AEPO300+I/R. Each group was treated orally for 5 consecutive days by 150 or 300 mg/kg of either AEPO or saline. On the fifth day of treatment, I/R (45 min ischemia/24 hours reperfusion or sham operation was performed on the left kidney and amounts of urea and creatinine in serum and malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione (GSH and total antioxidant activity (TAA in the kidney tissue were measured. Comparisons between groups were analyzed by ANOVA and LSD test. P values of 0.05 or less were considered statistically significant. Results: Induction of I/R increased urea and creatinine levels. AEPO had no effect on serum urea and creatinine, of non-ischemic animals, but increased the levels of urea and creatinine in I/R and treatment groups. SOD activity was significantly higher in all groups (except AEPO300 group compared to the sham group. However the levels of MDA, GSH and TAA of I/R and treatment groups did not show any significant differences in comparison to sham group. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the PO aqueous extract did not ameliorate the I/R injury and even possibly some ingredients in the extract aggravate the renal I/R injury.

  9. Synergestic effect of aqueous purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) extract and fish oil on radiation-induced damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Azime, Afrag S H; Hussein, Elham M; Ashry, Omaima M

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of oral administration of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) extract or fish oil and their co-treatments in the modulation of radiation-induced damage. Purslane (P) (400 mg/kg body weight) or fish oil (Fo) (60 mg/kg body weight) was administrated to male albino rats via gastric intubation for 15 days after whole body exposure to a single dose of 6 Gy gamma rays. The animals were sacrificed after the elapse of 15 days. The results revealed that irradiation induced a significant elevation of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and atherogenic index: TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in addition to aspartate and alanine transaminase (AST, ALT), alkaline phophatase (ALP), bilirubin, as well as urea, creatinine and uric acid. Moreover, liver, kidney and heart malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly elevated, whereas nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and HDL-c were depressed. Purslane and/or fish oil treatment significantly attenuated lipids alteration, liver and kidney functions as well as oxidative stress in irradiated rats. The results pointed out that dietary fish oil supplementation, at adequate doses, may provide a cushion for a prolonged therapeutic option against radiation-induced damage without harmful side-effects. It could be concluded that purslane extract and fish oil may have therapeutic potential to improve hepatic and renal functions as well as oxidative stress in irradiated rats. Moreover, their co-administration showed a better improved liver function.

  10. Protective effects of ethanol extract from Portulaca oleracea L on dextran sulphate sodium-induced mice ulcerative colitis involving anti-inflammatory and antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohang; Yan, Yongmei; Li, Jiankang; Tang, Zhishu; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Huan; Hao, Siyang; Wen, Aidong; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea L., (POL) is one of commonly used medicine-food herbs and has a cosmopolitan distribution in many countries. Many studies showed that POL exhibited a wide range of pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory and liver complaints. In the clinical studies, POL was usually used for the treatment of UC disease and the clinical efficacy was well, but the mechanism and scientific intension was still unknown. In the present study, we studied the protective effects of the ethanol extract from POL on dextran sulphate sodium-induced UC in C57BL/6 mice model through oxidative stress and inflammatory pathway. The results demonstrated that the ethanol extract from POL could exhibit the effective protection for the DSS induced UC by increasing the colon length, decreasing body weight loss and the disease activity index score, inhibiting oxidative stress response through the MDA, NO, SOD activities, reducing the mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and the protein expressions of TNF-α and NF-kB p65. These results may prove that POL could be considered as a useful and effective botanical compound from the edible plant to be used in UC through the oxidative stress and inflammatory activities. PMID:27347321

  11. Ethanol extract of Portulaca Oleracea L. reduced the carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in mice involving enhancement of NF-κB activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongguang; Liu, Xuefeng; Tang, Gusheng; Liu, Haiyan; Zhang, Yinghui; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Xuezhi; Wang, Wanyin

    2014-01-01

    Acute hepatic injury causes high morbidity and mortality world-wide. Management of severe acute hepatic failure continues to be one of the most challenging problems in clinical medicine. In present study, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was used to induce acute liver damage in mice and the protective effects of ethanol extract of Portulaca Oleracea L. (PO) were examined. The aminotransferase activities were biochemical estimated and the liver damage was tested by morphological histological analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The role of PO on the activity of NF-κB was determined by luciferase reporter gene assay and immunohistochemistry. The level of p-p65 was tested by western blot. Our results showed that PO administration on mice would decrease the serum aminotransferase level and reduced the liver histological damage. We also found that nuclear translocation of p65 was enhanced in liver tissues of mice treated with PO compared with control animals. In addition, in cultured hepatic cells, PO increased the NF-κB luciferase reporter gene activity and upregulated the level of phosphorylation of p65, but had no effects on mice liver SOD activity and MDA level. Collectively, PO attenuated CCl4 induced mice liver damage by enhancement of NF-κB activity. PMID:25628785

  12. Protective effect of a phenolic extract containing indoline amides from Portulaca oleracea against cognitive impairment in senescent mice induced by large dose of D-galactose /NaNO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peipei; Sun, Hongxiang; Liu, Dianyu; Jiao, Zezhao; Yue, Su; He, Xiuquan; Xia, Wen; Ji, Jianbo; Xiang, Lan

    2017-05-05

    Portulaca oleracea L. is a potherb and also a widely used traditional Chinese medicine. In accordance with its nickname "longevity vegetable", pharmacological study demonstrated that this plant possessed antioxidant, anti-aging, and cognition-improvement function. Active principles pertaining to these functions of P. oleracea need to be elucidated. The present study evaluated the effect of a phenolic extract (PAAs) from P. oleracea which contained specific antioxidant indoline amides on cognitive impairment in senescent mice. PAAs was prepared through AB-8 macroporous resin column chromatography. Total phenol content was determined using colorimetric method, and contents of indoline amides were determined using HPLC-UV method. Senescent Kunming mice with cognitive dysfunction were established by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose (D-gal, 1250mg/kg/day) and NaNO 2 (90mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks, L-PAAs (360mg/kg/day), H-PAAs (720mg/kg/day), and nootropic drug piracetam (PA, 400mg/kg/day) as the positive control were orally administered. Spatial learning and memory abilities were evaluated by Morris water maze experiment. Activities of AChE, SOD, CAT, and levels of GSH and MDA in the brain or plasma were measured. Hippocampal morphology was observed by HE staining. Chronic treatment of large dose of D-gal/NaNO 2 significantly reduced lifespan, elevated AChE activity, decreased CAT activity, compensatorily up-regulated SOD activity and GSH level, increased MDA level, induced neuronal damage in hippocampal CA1, CA3 and CA4 regions, and impaired cognitive function. Similar to PA, PAAs prolonged the lifespan and improved spatial memory ability. Moreover, PAAs improved learning ability. H-PAAs significantly reversed compensatory increase in SOD activity to the normal level, elevated serum CAT activity, and reduced MDA levels in brain and plasma, more potent than L-PAAs. Besides these, PAAs evidently inhibited hippocampal neuronal damage. However, it had no effect on

  13. Effect of Water Extract Originated from Different Part of Russian Knapweed (Acroptilon repens L. on Growth of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza PIRZAD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate probable allelopathic effect of water extract originated from different parts of russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens L. on growth of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L., a factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at greenhouse condition in 2011. Treatments were water extract concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 percent obtained from different part of russian knapweed (aerial part, flower and root. Results showed the significant effect of extract type on seedling length, and extract concentration on shoot length, root length and seedling length. Interaction effect between extract type and concentration on the ratio of root/shoot length, seedling fresh weight, seedling dry weight and germination percentage was significant, too. Means comparison indicated that the longest root (3.55 cm, shoot (4.65 cm and seedling (8.20 cm were obtained from control treatment, reducing with higher concentration of extract. The longest shoot (6.95 cm belonged to extract originated from russian knapweed flowers. The highest ratio of root/shoot length (0.73, seedling fresh weight (0.61g and seedling dry weight (0.044 g belonged to control treatment. In general, increasing of extract concentration caused in reduction of germination and seedling traits. Meanwhile, extracts of aerial part had more sever reducing effect than root and flower extracts.

  14. Ethanol extracts from Portulaca oleracea L. attenuated ischemia/reperfusion induced rat neural injury through inhibition of HMGB1 induced inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chenggang; Liu, Chen; Wang, Wanyin; Tang, Gusheng; Dong, Liwei; Zhou, Juan; Zhong, Zhengrong

    2016-01-01

    It is well demonstrated that the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) mediated inflammation has been implicated as one of the important causes for brain damage induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). In the present study, we assessed the neuro-protective and anti-inflammation effects of the ethanol extracts from Portulaca oleracea L. (EEPO) against cerebral I/R injury in the rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model. Rats were administrated with their respective treatment for 7 days before the MCA occlusion. After that, rats were intraperitoneal injection with chloral hydrate and sacrificed by decapitation, then the serum and brain tissue were collected. The neurological deficit score, infarct size and brain edema were tested. The levels of serum cytokine as TNF-α, IL-1β, INF-γ, IL-6, and HMGB1 and LDH were detected. The protein level of tissue or nucleus HMGB1, IκB and p-p65 were tested, too. The results showed that pretreatment with EEPO significantly decreased the neurological deficit score, infarct size and brain edema. Moreover, EEPO decreased rat serum cytokine level and rat right cortices p-p65 and IκB protein level. In conclusion all these results suggested that pretreatment with EEFPO provided significant protection against cerebral I/R injury in rats might by virtue of its anti-inflammation property through inhibition of increase of neuleus HMGB1. PMID:27904702

  15. Study of the UV Light Conversion of Feruloyl Amides from Portulaca oleracea and Their Inhibitory Effect on IL-6-Induced STAT3 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joo Tae; Kim, Yesol; Jang, Hyun-Jae; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lim, Chi-Hwan; Lee, Seung Woong; Rho, Mun-Chual

    2016-06-30

    Two new feruloyl amides, N-cis-hibiscusamide (5) and (7'S)-N-cis-feruloylnormetanephrine (9), and eight known feruloyl amides were isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. and the geometric conversion of the ten isolated feruloyl amides by UV light was verified. The structures of the feruloyl amides were determined based on spectroscopic data and comparison with literature data. The NMR data revealed that the structures of the isolated compounds showed cis/trans-isomerization under normal laboratory light conditions. Therefore, cis and trans-isomers of feruloyl amides were evaluated for their convertibility and stability by UV light of a wavelength of 254 nm. After 96 h of UV light exposure, 23.2%-35.0% of the cis and trans-isomers were converted to trans-isomers. Long-term stability tests did not show any significant changes. Among all compounds and conversion mixtures collected, compound 6 exhibited the strongest inhibition of IL-6-induced STAT3 activation in Hep3B cells, with an IC50 value of 0.2 μM. This study is the first verification of the conversion rates and an equilibrium ratio of feruloyl amides. These results indicate that this natural material might provide useful information for the treatment of various diseases involving IL-6 and STAT3.

  16. Sensory quality of mayonnaise formulated with eggs produced by laying hens fed diet enriched with purslane meal (Portulaca oleracea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, L. R.; Hertanto, B. S.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the sensory quality of mayonnaise formulated by egg yolks produced by hens fed purslane meal as a source of omega-3 (n-3) fats, alpha-linolenic acid. Eggs used were produced by Hy-Line Brown hens (38 weeks old) fed five diets suplemented with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% purslane meal. A total of 40 eggs of day 29 (n = 8 eggs for each treatment) were collected to formulate mayonnaise. The ingredient composition of mayonnaise was 14% egg yolks, 9% vinegar, 74% corn oil, 1% salt, 1% sugar, and 1% mustard. The parameters included colour, emulsion stability, texture, homogeneity, aroma, taste and flavour of mayonnaise. The findings of sensory evaluation by quantitative descriptive analysis showed that the use of egg yolk from hens fed dietary purslane meal up to 8% resulted in a significant effect on the yellow color of mayonnaise, but did not significantly affect emulsion stability, texture, homogeneity, aroma, taste, and flavour. Based on consumer preference, consumers did not detect any differences in the sensory characteristics between mayonnaise prepared from control eggs and those formulated with eggs produced from dietary treatment. Apparently, there was an increase in colour liking by inclusion of purslane meal. In conclusion, eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with purslane meal improved the colour intensity of mayonnaise. Mayonnaise formulation using eggs from diets added with Portulaca oleraceae meal up to a level of 8% can be applied without influencing mayonnaise sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance.

  17. In vitro antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds and protective effect against DNA damage provided by leaves, stems and flowers of Portulaca oleracea (Purslane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rúben; Carvalho, Isabel S

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the antioxidant properties of Portulaca oleracea L., known as purslane. The samples (leaves, flowers and stems) were collected at two different locations in Portugal: Tavira (L1) and Vendas Novas (L2). Assays for total antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and ferric-reducing antioxidant power were conducted and, for both locations, significantly higher values (P < 0.05) were observed for stems (508.8 and 982.3 mg AAE/100 g DW, 1008.6 and 2285.5 mg GAE/100 g DW, 121.0 and 166.3 mg TE/100 g DW, respectively for each location), than in leaves or flowers. In the DPPH assay, the three-plant parts from L2 reached the 50% inhibition rate in lower concentrations than plants from L1. On the other hand, higher concentrations of total monomeric anthocyanins were found in samples from L1 (95.5, 88.8 and 86.0 mg/L) than in samples from L2 (81.7, 70.5 and 59.8 mg/L). The same was true for phenolic acids, estimated by liquid-chromatography, where methanol extracts were used. Phenolic extracts from all three-plant parts from both locations showed protective effects on DNA against hydroxyl radicals. This work suggests the possibility of benefit to human health from its consumption, related to the high antioxidant activity of purslane, even the stems, usually discarded in daily consumption.

  18. Effects of Portulaca oleracea L. seeds in treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus patients as adjunctive and alternative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Mohamed-I Kotb

    2011-09-01

    ETHNPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: To investigate antidiabetic activity of purslane seeds on type-2 diabetic subjects and to provide scientific basis for the clinical use of Portulaca oleracea (PO). A thirty subject with type-2 diabetes divided into two groups, to receive 5 g of PO seeds twice daily while in the second group, their participants receive 1,500 mg of metformin/day. All participants were requested to report the effects of treatments on diabetic manifestations, their weights, body mass index (BMI), adverse effects, fasting and post-prandial blood glucose during treatment schedule. Blood samples from participants before and after treatment were taken for serum separation, which are used for measurement of serum lipids, liver enzymes, total and direct bilirubin, albumin, and insulin. It showed a significant decrease in serum levels of triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (T(C)), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL(C)), liver alanine-, aspartate- and gamma glutamyl transaminase (ALT, AST, and GGT), total and direct bilirubin, fasting and post-prandial blood glucose, insulin, body weight and BMI while a significant increase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL(C)) and albumin but non-significant change of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in PO seeds treated subjects. Metformin (M) group has the same results of PO group except in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL(C)), LDL(C), and ALP levels had a different pattern. PO seeds could be effective and safe as adjuvant therapy for Type-2 diabetic subjects. These results demonstrated that PO seeds possessed notable hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic and insulin resistance reducer effects; possibly due to its contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids, flavonoids, and polysaccharides. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antitumor Activity of Portulaca Oleracea L. Polysaccharide on HeLa Cells Through Inducing TLR4/NF-κB Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Baoling; Li, Xing

    2017-01-01

    Abstarct We have previously shown that Portulaca oleracea L. polysaccharide (POL-P3b) possesses the ability to inhibit cervical cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we explored how toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling correlated with the antitumor mechanism of POL-P3b. Western blotting was utilized to detect the expression of TLR4 and the downstream signaling pathway. The level of inflammatory mediator was quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The effects of POL-P3b on the proliferation and apoptosis in HeLa cells were determined by WST-8 assay and Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide (PI) assay. Our results demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding to TLR4 on tumor cells could enhance HeLa cell proliferation and increase the expression of TLR4 and the downstream molecules. Treating HeLa cells with POL-P3b could decrease the proliferation of HeLa cells, and upregulate Bax level and downregulate Bcl-2 level in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, POL-P3b inhibited the protein expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, TRAF6, Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) subunit P65 in HeLa cells. Furthermore, POL-P3b also reduced the production of cytokine/chemokine. Taken together, the present work suggested the antitumor mechanism of POL-P3b by downregulating TLR4 downstream signaling pathway and inducing cell apoptosis. Our results may provide direct evidence to suggest that POL-P3b should be considered as a potent nutrient supplement for oncotherapy.

  20. An aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea ameliorates diabetic nephropathy through suppression of renal fibrosis and inflammation in diabetic db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, An Sook; Lee, Yun Jung; Lee, So Min; Yoon, Jung Joo; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. In the present study, we investigated the renoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea (AP) on diabetic nephropathy accelerated by renal fibrosis and inflammation in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. The mice were treated with AP (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for ten weeks to examine the long-term effects on diabetic nephropathy and renal dysfunction. We found that AP treatment markedly lowered blood glucose to 412 ± 11.4 mg/dl and plasma creatinine level to 2.3 ± 0.8 mg/dl compared to db/db mice (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively). This study also showed that treatment with AP significantly decreased water intake and urine volume in diabetic db/db mice (p < 0.05). In immunohistological study, the renal expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), advanced glycation end products (AGE), and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 markedly increased in the renal cortex of untreated db/db mice (p < 0.01). In contrast, AP treatment significantly reduced these expressions to 50 ± 2.1%, 48 ± 2.8%, 61 ± 1.1%, respectively (p < 0.01). Furthermore, NF-κB p65 activation in renal tissues markedly increased in untreated db/db mice, which was significantly suppressed by AP treatment. Taken together, these findings suggest that AP attenuates diabetic nephropathy through inhibition of renal fibrosis and inflammation in db/db mice.

  1. Analysis and Comparison of the Antioxidant Component of Portulaca Oleracea Leaves Obtained by Different Solid-Liquid Extraction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Esterina

    2017-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea is a wild plant pest of orchards and gardens, but is also an edible vegetable rich in beneficial nutrients. It possesses many antioxidant properties due to the high content of vitamins, minerals, omega-3 essential fatty acids and other healthful compounds; therefore, the intake of purslane and/or its bioactive compounds could help to improve the health and function of the whole human organism. Accordingly, in this work it was analyzed and compared to the extractive capacity of the antioxidant component of purslane leaves obtained by solid-liquid extraction techniques such as: hot-maceration, maceration with ultrasound, rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction using the Naviglio extractor, and a combination of two techniques (mix extraction). The chromatographic analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) of the methanolic extract of dried purslane leaves allowed the identification of various polyphenolic compounds for comparison with the standards. In addition, the properties of the different extracts were calculated on dry matter and the antioxidant properties of the total polyphenol components analyzed by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. The results showed that mix extraction was the most efficient compared to other techniques. In fact, it obtained a quantity of polyphenols amounting to 237.8 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/100 g of fresh weight, while in other techniques, the range varied from 60–160 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight. In addition, a qualitative analysis by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) of the phenolic compounds present in the purslane leaves examined was carried out. The compounds were identified by comparison of their molecular weight, fragmentation pattern and retention time with those of standards, using the “Multiple Reaction Monitoring” mode (MRM). Therefore, this study allowed the re-evaluation of a little-known plant that possesses as its beneficial properties, a

  2. Antihepatocarcinoma Effect of Portulaca oleracea L. in Mice by PI3K/Akt/mTOR and Nrf2/HO-1/NF-κB Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guoyin, Zheng; Hao, Peng; Min, Li; Wei, Gu; Zhe, Chen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacological effects of Portulaca oleracea L. (Purslane) (PL) on N-nitrosodiethylamine- (NDEA-) induced hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and explore its potential mechanism. Mice were randomly assigned to four groups: control group, NDEA group, NDEA + Purslane (100 mg/kg) group, and NDEA + Purslane (200 mg/kg) group. The animal of each group was given NDEA (100 ppm) in drinking water. 1 h later, Purslane dissolved in PBS was intragastrically administered for continuous seven days. The results showed that Purslane reduced the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in liver and serum. Purslane also reduced the contents of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) and restored the activity of superoxygen dehydrogenises (SOD) in serum. Purslane could obviously attenuate the hepatic pathological alteration. Furthermore, treatment with Purslane effectively inhibited the phosphorylations of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and inhibitor of NF-κBα (IκBα) and upregulated the expressions of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase- (HO-) 1. In conclusion, our research suggested that Purslane exhibited protective effects on NDEA-induced hepatocellular carcinomas by anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and Nrf2/HO-1/NF-κB pathway. PMID:28659990

  3. Studying of Salinity Stress Effect on Germination, Proline, Sugar, Protein, Lipid and Chlorophyll Content in Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Rahdari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 30% of country regions are under influence of salt and one of the main important methods for increasing of hectare performance in salt soils, using of resistant plant against with salt such as medicinal annual plant of Purslane (Portulaca oleraceae L..Studying of the salt stress effect on germination and some physiological parameters in Purslane was carried out in completely random framework and with three replications and under controlled conditions. In this study, salinity was imposed by sodium chloride (NaCl and in five levels of framework included of Control (distilled water, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Mmol from NaCl. Studied physiological parameters included of proline, sugar, protein, lipid and chlorophyll in Purslane leaves.In relation with observed germination that increasing of salt level, germination rate was reduced that the least germination rate in 200 Mmol and the highest germination was observed in control which in statistical level 0.01 showed meaningful difference. Also, results showed an increasing of leaf proline and sugar that was synchronize with increasing of sodium chloride, this increasing in statistical level of P<0.01 was meaningful, while blank had the least rate and salt level 200 Mmol was observed. Synchronize with increasing of salinity level, lipid and protein concentration decreasing that was meaningful (P<0.01 which highest of leaf lipid and protein content in control level and least concentration was observed in 200 Mmol of salinity level. Also, salinity stress due to increasing of chlorophyll a and b levels in Purslane leaves which this increasing in leaf chlorophyll b concentrations in 0.01 statistical level was meaningful and the least level chlorophyll a and b in blank and the highest level of chlorophyll a and b by order in 150 and 200 Mmol of NaCl was observed. The results showed that plant for resistance against salinity increasing of proline, sugar and chlorophyll content in leaves are useful for

  4. O gênero Portulaca L. (Portulacaceae no Brasil The genus Portulaca L. (Portulacaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Araujo de Oliveira Paes Coelho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Portulaca tem distribuição principalmente pantropical, com algumas espéciesocorrendo em áreas subtropicais das Américas e África e poucas espécies na Austrália, Ásia e Europa. Portulaca inclui plantas herbáceas, com folhas geralmente alternas, portando na axila tricomas muito ou pouco desenvolvidos e flores com duas sépalas, 4-5 pétalas livres, estames numerosos e ovário ínfero. No Brasil foram reconhecidas 13 espécies, com distribuição da Amazônia até o Sul do país, mas as maiores populações estão concentradas na região semi-árida. Para cada espécie é apresentada descrição morfológica, comentários e ilustrações.The genus Portulaca has a mainly pantropical distribution, while some African and New World species are subtropical and a few occur in Australia, Europe and Asia. Portulaca is composed of herbs usually with alternate leaves, bearing long, usually conspicuous, axillary trichomes, and with flowers composed of 2 sepals and 4-5 petals free at the base, numerous stamens and an inferior ovary. In Brazil 13 species are recognized and each taxa is characterized morphologically, with taxonomic notes and illustrations.

  5. De identiteit van Portulaca advena Reichg. & Von Poellnitz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geesink, R.

    1969-01-01

    Portulaca advena Reichg. & Von Poellnitz (1939), based on adventive specimens collected near Erp, prov. N.-Brabant, Netherlands, and afterwards cultivated in a garden at Nijmegen, appears to be identical with the South American P. papulosa Schldl. (1853). The adventive species of Portulaca found in

  6. Effect of Salinity on Germination and Seedling Growth of Four Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dadkhah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in germinator in order to study the effects of water potential on seed germination, rate of germination and seedlings growth of four medicinal plants (Coriandrum sativum, Plantago psyllium, Discorinia sophia and Portulaca oleracea. Four water potential inclouding distilled water as control (0, -0.37, -0.59 and –0.81 Mpa which made by different salts (NaCl, CaCl2 and NaCl+CaCl2 in 5 to 1 molar ratio. The experiment was carried out based on completly randomized design with six replications. Results showed that the effects of water potential, type of salt on germination percentage, rate of germination, root and shoot length were significant. With decreasing water potential, germination percentage and rate of germination declined but the response of plant were differ. Germination of Portulaca oleracea was not affected by decreasing water potential where as other significantly decreased. The effect of salt composition was significant on rate and percentage germination. The percentage of germination at lower water potential (–0.37 MPa which made by NaCl + CaCl2 significantly was higher than the same water potential made by only NaCl and CaCl2. Although, percentage and rate germination of Portulaca oleracea were not affected by different water potential, seedling growth of Portulaca oleracea significantly decreased.

  7. White blister rusts and downy mildews from bajaur agency fata, with some new records from pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, M.A.; Shahzad, S.

    2015-01-01

    In a species diversity study of Oomycyctes of Bajaur Agency FATA, Pakistan, infection of white blister rusts and downy mildews recorded on three cultivated and four wild plants. Capsella bursa-pastoris showed mixed infection of Albugo candida and Hyaloperonospora parasitica (syn: Peronospora parasitica). Similarly, A. candida and H. brassicae (syn: P. brassicae) parasitized Brassica campestris. Wilsoniana portulacae (syn: Albugo portulacae) and W. occidentalis com. nov. (syn: Albugo occidentalis) recovered from Portulaca oleracea and Spinacia oleracea, respectively. Bremia taraxaci, B. sonchicola and B. saussureae recorded on Taraxicum officinale, Sonchus sp., and Saussurea sp., respectively. All these obligate parasites are new records from Bajaur Agency, while H. parasitica, W. occidentalis, B. taraxaci, and B. saussureae on the mentioned hosts are new records from Pakistan. (author)

  8. Effect of sodium chloride on photosynthetic 14CO2 assimilation in Portulaca oleracea Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, G.V.; Karadge, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    Effect of NaCl on ion uptake, photosynthetic rate and photosynthetic products in a C 4 non-CAM succulent, P. oleracea has been investigated. NaCl causes accumulation of Na as well as Cl ions with decrease in K and Ca contents. Chlorophylls and photosynthetic 14 CO 2 fixation rates are adversely affected due to sodium chloride salinity. Plants grown in the presence of NaCl show increase in C 4 acid percentage with increase in labelling of organic acids in light. Labelling of amino acids (particularly alanine) and sugars (sucrose) is affected by NaCl. Enzyme studies reveal that PEP-carboxylase is stimulated at all concentrations of NaCl but higher concentrations affected the activity of RuBP-Carboxylase. (author)

  9. Characterization of Cd-, Pb-, Zn-resistant endophytic Lasiodiplodia sp. MXSF31 from metal accumulating Portulaca oleracea and its potential in promoting the growth of rape in metal-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zujun; Zhang, Renduo; Shi, Yang; Hu, Li'ao; Tan, Hongming; Cao, Lixiang

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the features of a Cd-, Pb-, and Zn-resistant endophytic fungus Lasiodiplodia sp. MXSF31 and to investigate the potential of MXSF31 to remove metals from contaminated water and soils. The endophytic fungus was isolated from the stem of Portulaca oleracea growing in metal-contaminated soils. The maximum biosorption capacities of MXSF31 were 3.0 × 10(3), 1.1 × 10(4), and 1.3 × 10(4) mg kg(-1) for Cd, Pb, and Zn, respectively. The biosorption processes of Cd, Pb, and Zn by MXSF31 were well characterized with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The biosorption isotherm processes of Pb and Zn by the fungus were fitted better with the Langmuir model, while the biosorption processes of Cd was better fitted with the Freundlich model. The biosorption process of MXSF31 was attributed to the functional groups of hydroxyl, amino, carbonyl, and benzene ring on the cell wall. The active biomass of the strain removed more Cd, Pb, and Zn (4.6 × 10(4), 5.6 × 10(5), and 7.0 × 10(4) mg kg(-1), respectively) than the dead biomass. The inoculation of MXSF31 increased the biomass of rape (Brassica napus L.), the translocation factor of Cd, and the extraction amount of Cd by rape in the Cd+Pb-contaminated soils. The results indicated that the endophytic fungus strain had the potential to remove heavy metals from water and soils contaminated by multiple heavy metals, and plants accumulating multiple metals might harbor diverse fungi suitable for bioremediation of contaminated media.

  10. The genus Portulaca L. (Portulacaceae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Alexa Araujo de Oliveira Paes; Giulietti, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    O gênero Portulaca tem distribuição principalmente pantropical, com algumas espéciesocorrendo em áreas subtropicais das Américas e África e poucas espécies na Austrália, Ásia e Europa. Portulaca inclui plantas herbáceas, com folhas geralmente alternas, portando na axila tricomas muito ou pouco desenvolvidos e flores com duas sépalas, 4-5 pétalas livres, estames numerosos e ovário ínfero. No Brasil foram reconhecidas 13 espécies, com distribuição da Amazônia até o Sul do país, mas as maiores p...

  11. Molecular evaluation of herbal compounds as potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Xiu; Li, Guan-Zeng; Zhang, Bin; Xia, Zhang-Yong; Zhang, Mei

    2016-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive disease and the predominant cause of dementia. Common symptoms include short-term memory loss, and confusion with time and place. Individuals with AD depend on their caregivers for assistance, and may pose a burden to them. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme is a key target in AD and inhibition of this enzyme may be a promising strategy in the drug discovery process. In the present study, an inhibitory assay was carried out against AChE using total alkaloidal plants and herbal extracts commonly available in vegetable markets. Subsequently, molecular docking simulation analyses of the bioactive compounds present in the plants were conducted, as well as a protein‑ligand interaction analysis. The stability of the docked protein‑ligand complex was assessed by 20 ns molecular dynamics simulation. The inhibitory assay demonstrated that Uncaria rhynchophylla and Portulaca oleracea were able to inhibit AChE. In addition, molecular docking simulation analyses indicated that catechin present in Uncaria rhynchophylla, and dopamine and norepinephrine present in Portulaca oleracea, had the best docking scores and interaction energy. In conclusion, catechin in Uncaria rhynchophylla, and dopamine and norepinephrine in Portulaca oleracea may be used to treat AD.

  12. A pospiviroid from symptomless portulaca plants closely related to iresine viroid 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J Th J; Roenhorst, J W; Hooftman, M; Meekes, E T M; Flores, R; Serra, P

    2015-07-02

    In symptomless plants of portulaca a potential new pospiviroid was characterized. Analysis by both double and return PAGE showed the presence of a circular RNA. RT-PCR and sequencing revealed a genome of 351 nt with properties characteristic of members of the genus Pospiviroid and with highest sequence identity (circa 80%) with iresine viroid 1 (IrVd-1). The circular RNA from portulaca was shown to replicate independently in its original host, thus showing that it is indeed a viroid. Based on its molecular characteristics, it should be considered a new species. However, since no biological differences have yet been found with its closest relative IrVd-1, the viroid from portulaca does not fulfil all criteria for species demarcation of the ICTV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Seed mutagenesis in Portulaca grandiflora (Hook)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennani, F.; Rossi-Hassani, B.D.

    2001-01-01

    Betalain pigments have been used as natural additives. Despite their importance, the biochemistry and genetics of betalain synthesis remain relatively undetermined. Portulaca grandiflora represents an ideal material for genetic analysis. In the present work, seed mutagenesis was examined with a view to enhance the chance of detection of new genetic markers in this species

  14. African Journal of Biomedical Research - Vol 13, No 3 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Extracts of Portulaca oleracea on Reproductive Functions in Female Albino Rats · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. KO Oyedeji, AF Bolarinwa, 213-218 ...

  15. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    Portulaca. Oleraceae. Laibakkundo. Portulacaceae. H. Whole plant. Moyna. Meyna laxiflora. Heibi. Rubiaceae. T. Leaves. Mugwort. Artimisia vulgaris. Laibakgou. Asteraceae. H. Leaves. Nisinda. Vitexnegundo. Urikshibi. Verbenaceae. S. Tender shoot and. Leaves. Nutgall tree. Rhuschinensis. Heimang. Annacardaceae. T.

  16. Análise morfométrica dos elementos traqueais em quatro espécies de Portulaca (Portulacaceae Morphometric analysis of tracheary elements in four Portulaca species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hernandes-Lopes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho aborda aspectos da caracterização morfológica dos elementos traqueais dos órgãos vegetativos de quatro espécies de Portulacaceae (Portulaca hirsutissima Camb., P. halimoides L., P. werdermannii Poelln., e de P. mucronata Link. ocorrentes na região Sudeste e Nordeste do Brasil. Os elementos de vaso observados são todos pequenos (This paper deals with the morphological features of the tracheary elements of the vegetative organs in four Portulaca species (Portulaca hirsutissima Camb., P. halimoides L., P. wedermannii Poelln. and P. mucronata Link. occurring in Southeast and Northeast Brazil. The vessel elements are small (< 25 μm and with simple perforation plate. The pattern of wall thickening varied from bordered pitting (in roots to scalariform and helicoidal (stem and leaves. Statistical methods show variation in vessel-element diameter in different vegetative organs; wider elements were observed in roots. Tracheids occurring in leaves of P. hirsutissima and P.wedermannii, have morphological features that are similar to terminal tracheids or tracheoid idiolasts frequently associated with xerophytes. The paedomorphic features (juvenlism observed here may be related, in part, to aspects of water transport and storage as described in Cactaceae.

  17. The Effect of PSII Inhibitors on Kautsky Curve and Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Common Lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. and Common Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Chitband

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Desmedipham + phenmedipham + ethofumesate, phenylcarbamates + benzofuranyl alkanesulfonate herbicides, is widely used for post-emergence broad-leaved weed control in sugar beet. Chloridazon, a pyridazinone herbicide, is used as a pre- and post- emergence herbicide in sugar beet. Desmedipham, phenmedipham and chloridazon, are photosystem II (PSII inhibitors, their translocation via xylem are slow, mostly absorbed not only by roots, but also by foliage. Their mode of action is through the blocking of electron transfer between the primary and secondary quinones (QA and QB of PSII by binding to the QB-binding site and accepting electrons from QA in the chloroplasts. Measures of changes to the chlorophyll fluorescence induction curve (Kautsky curve, is a rapid, non-invasive and simple method for monitoring the physiological status of the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. There are three phases found on the O, J, I and P steps. These phases primarily point out photochemical events relevant to PSII. The three phases are described as follows: at the O-J phase complete reduction of the primary electron acceptor QA of PSII takes place from 50 μs to 2 ms, the J-I phase corresponds to electron transfer from QA to QB happens between 2 to 30 ms and the I-P phase corresponds to the release of fluorescence quenching by the oxidized plastoquinone pool taking place within 30-500 ms. Materials and Methods: In order to determine how exposure affects the fluorescence induction curve (Kautsky curve and its parameters, two dose-response experiments carried out for chlorophyll fluorescence measuring. The treatments involved desmedipham + phenmedipham + ethofumesate at 0, 51.38, 102.75, 205.5, 308.25, 411, 616.5 and 822 g a.i. ha-1 and chloridazon at 0, 81.25, 162.5, 325, 650, 1300, 1950 and 2600 g a.i. ha-1 on common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. and common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. at the research glasshouse of Agricultural Faculty of

  18. The complete nucleotide sequence of Alternanthera mosaic virus infecting Portulaca grandiflora represents a new strain distinct from phlox isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Peter A; Mukhamedzhanova, Anna A; Smirnov, Alexander A; Rodionova, Nina P; Karpova, Olga V; Atabekov, Joseph G

    2011-04-01

    A southeastern European isolate of Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV-MU) of the genus Potexvirus (family Flexiviridae) was purified from the ornamental plant Portulaca grandiflora. The complete nucleotide sequence (6606 nucleotides) of AltMV-MU genomic RNA was defined. The AltMV-MU genome is different from those of all isolates described earlier and is most closely related to genomes of partly sequenced portulaca isolates AltMV-Po (America) and AltMV-It (Italy). Phylogenetic analysis supports the view that AltMV-MU belongs to a new "portulaca" genotype distinguishable from the "phlox" genotype.

  19. Unique photosynthetic phenotypes in Portulaca (Portulacaceae): C3-C4 intermediates and NAD-ME C4 species with Pilosoid-type Kranz anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Koteyeva, Nuria K; Edwards, Gerald E; Ocampo, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    Portulacaceae is a family that has considerable diversity in photosynthetic phenotypes. It is one of 19 families of terrestrial plants where species having C 4 photosynthesis have been found. Most species in Portulaca are in the alternate-leaved (AL) lineage, which includes one clade (Cryptopetala) with taxa lacking C 4 photosynthesis and three clades having C 4 species (Oleracea, Umbraticola and Pilosa). All three species in the Cryptopetala clade lack Kranz anatomy, the leaves have C 3 -like carbon isotope composition and they have low levels of C 4 cycle enzymes. Anatomical, biochemical and physiological analyses show they are all C 3 -C 4 intermediates. They have intermediate CO 2 compensation points, enrichment of organelles in the centripetal position in bundle sheath (BS) cells, with selective localization of glycine decarboxylase in BS mitochondria. In the three C 4 clades there are differences in Kranz anatomy types and form of malic enzyme (ME) reported to function in C 4 (NAD-ME versus NADP-ME): Oleracea (Atriplicoid, NAD-ME), Umbraticola (Atriplicoid, NADP-ME) and Pilosa (Pilosoid, NADP-ME). Structural and biochemical analyses were performed on Pilosa clade representatives having Pilosoid-type leaf anatomy with Kranz tissue enclosing individual peripheral vascular bundles and water storage in the center of the leaf. In this clade, all species except P. elatior are NADP-ME-type C 4 species with grana-deficient BS chloroplasts and grana-enriched M chloroplasts. Surprisingly, P. elatior has BS chloroplasts enriched in grana and NAD-ME-type photosynthesis. The results suggest photosynthetic phenotypes were probably derived from an ancestor with NADP-ME-type C 4 , with two independent switches to NAD-ME type. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Comparison on hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of the fresh and dried Portulaca oleracea L. in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and streptozotocin-induced C57BL/6J diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jun-Fei; Zheng, Zhi-Yin; Yuan, Jia-Rui; Zhao, Bing-Jie; Wang, Chun-Fei; Zhang, Li; Xu, Qing-Yu; Yin, Guo-Wen; Feng, Liang; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2015-02-23

    Fresh Portulaca oleracea L. (family: Portulacaceae; POL) has been used as a folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus for a long time. More bioactive components with higher activity could be retained in fresh medicinal herbs compared to the dried ones. The present study was conducted to compare different antidiabetic activity between fresh and dried POL, including hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, in order to explore which components were responsible for the antidiabetic activity, the difference on chemical components between fresh and dried POL was analyzed and compared. Insulin-resistant HepG2 cells induced by insulin were used to evaluate the promoting effect of the fresh and dried POL on glucose utilization in vitro. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced C57BL/6J diabetic mice were used to compare the differences on hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of fresh and dried POL, including the fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, serum insulin level, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in vivo. UPLC/Q-TOF-MS method was performed to analyze the difference of antidiabetic components between fresh and dried POL. Compared with the dried POL extract, the fresh POL extract significantly increased the consumption of extracellular glucose in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells (P<0.05). In STZ-induced C57BL/6J diabetic mice, both fresh and dried extracts decreased markedly the fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, and improved significantly oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), as well as enhanced significantly insulin secretion and antioxidative activities (P<0.05; P<0.01). Furthermore, the fresh extract showed stronger antidiabetic activity (P<0.05). The UPLC/Q-TOF-MS analysis results also revealed that the relative contents of polyphenols and alkaloids in the fresh herbs were more abundant than those in the dried POL. Our results indicated that both fresh and dried POL possessed antidiabetic

  1. B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage ...

  2. Plants diversity and phytoaccumulators identification on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dominant taxa on the old waste dumpsite having an average density superior to 5 plants/m2 and occurring less frequently on the control site were Alternanthera sessilis, Amaranthus spinosus, Cyperus rotundus, Cyperus iria, Eleusine indica, Euphorbia glomerifera, Ipomoea triloba, Portulaca oleracea and Trianthema ...

  3. Preparation and antidiabetic activity of polysaccharide from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extraction parameters of polysaccharide from Portulaca oleracea L. (POP) and antidiabetic activity of POP on alloxan induced diabetic mice were studied. Better extraction parameters of POP were obtained by the single factor test, as follows: extraction temperature 95°C, extraction time 5 h, and ratio of solvent to raw ...

  4. Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Université de Lomé - Vol 8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacite de Portulaca Oleracea Linn. et de extra EGG® dans la stimulation de la ponte d'ceufs chez les poules Isa Brown: Etude comparative · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JT Dougnon, C Anago, TM Kpodekon, AP Edorh, F Loko, M Gbeassor ...

  5. Portulaca psammotropha Hance (Portulacaceae, a Neglected Species in the Flora of Taiwan and the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wen Chung

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A neglected species in the Flora of Taiwan and the Philippines (the Batan islets, Portulaca psammotropha Hance, is described and illustrated. Herein, Portulaca quadrifida var. formosana and P. insularis are treated as synonym of P. psammotropha. This species is a typical littoral plant that is scattered on coral sands and coral reef in the archipelago around SE China. It can be characterized by leaves alternate; leaf blade quite fleshy, oblong to obovate-oblong, 3-10 mm long, apex obtuse; petals 5, yellowish, ca. 3-5 mm long. The stamen number and stigma lobes of this species vary among the populations observed.

  6. EFEITO DE CYNAZINE E LINURON NO CONTROLE DE PLANTAS DANINHAS E NA PRODUTIVIDADE DA CEBOLA (Allium cepa L.d EFFECT OF CYANAZINE AND LINURON ON WEEDS AND PRODUCTIVITY IN ONION CROP (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natan Fontoura da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foi realizado um experimento com cebola (Allium cepa L. cv . Texas Early Grano - 502, transplantada em Goiânia, Goiás, no período de junho a novembro de 1988, visando ao controle de plantas daninhas com cyanazine e linuron aplicados após o transplante da cultura. Nas condições em que o ensaio foi realizado, concluiu-se que cyanazine e linuron provocaram fitotoxicidade na cultura da cebola, causando redução na produção em relação à testemunha. Cyanazine controlou Portulaca oleracea e Amaranthus spp. até 45 dias e Commelina virginica, Eleusine indica e Brachiaria plantaginea até 30 dias após a aplicação. Linuron controlou P. oleracea, Amaranthus spp. e B. plantaginea até 45 dias após a aplicação, mas não controlou eficientemente C. virginica, E. indica e Digitaria horizontalis.

    This work presents the results of a field experiment carried out in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil, to estimate the efficiency of herbicides in controlling weeds in onion crop of Texas Early Grano 502. Cyanazine controlled Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus spp. till 45 days, and Commelina virginica. Eleusine indica and Brachiaria plantaginea till 30 days after application. Linuron controlled P. oleracea, Amaranthus spp. and B. plantaginea during 45 days. Both herbicides showed phytotoxicity decreasing the onion productivity.

  7. Efeito do bentazon e bentazon + dichlorprop na cultura do arroz irrigado e sobre as plantas daninhas Effect of bentazon and bentazon + dichlorprop on irrigated rice and weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.L. dos Santos

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi instalado um experimento de campo, em solo barrento, com a finalidade de se verificar o efeito do bentazon e da mistura de bentazon + dichlorprop sobre o desenvolvimento do arroz em cultura irrigada e sobre o controle das plantas daninhas. Os tratamentos utilizados foram os seguintes: bentazon á 0,75-1,00 e1,50 kg/ha; bentazon + dichlorprop a 0,80 + 1,00 e 1,00 + 1,40 kg/ha; propanil a 4,20 kg/ha (tratamento padrão; testemunha capinada e testemunha sem capina. Todas as pulverizações foram realizadas em pósemergência. As plantas daninhas encontradas no experimento foram: capituva - Echinochloa colonum (L Link, tiririca amarela - Cyperus esculentus L., beldroega - Portulaca oleracea L. e carurú comum - Amaranthus viridis L. Bentazon a 1,00 e 1,50 kg/ha e bentazon + dichlorprop a 1,00 + 1,40 kg/ha foram eficientes no controle de P. oleracea, A. viridis e C. esculentus; já a dose menor de bentazon apresentou bons resultados contra P. oleracea e A. viridis, enquanto que a dose menor de bentazon + dichlorprop controlou apenas P. oleracea. Propanil, de uma maneira geral, proporcionou eficiente ação sobre as plantas daninhas. Nas condições em que foi realizado o experimento nenhum dos herbicidas, nas suas respectivas doses, apresentou fitotoxicidade para as plantas de arroz da variedade IAC-435 ou prejudicou a produção da cultura.Bentazon at 0.75 - 1.00 and 1.50 kg/ha a.i ., bentazon + dichlorprop at 0.80 + 1.00 and 1.00 + 1.40 kg and propanil at 4.20 kg were applied in post-emergence on irrigated rice, against the following weeds: Echinochloa colonum (L. Link, Cy-perus esc-ulentus L., Portulaca oleracea L. and Amaranthus viridis L. Bentazon at 1.00 - 1.50 kg and bentazon + dichlorprop at 1.00 + 1.40 kg gave good control of P. oleracea, A. viridis and C. esculentus; bentazon at 0.75 kg controlled P. oleracea and A. viridis; bentazon + dichlorprop at 0.80 + 1.00 kg only showed effeciency for P. oleracea; propanil, in general, gave good

  8. Brassica oleracea: the dog of the plant world

    Science.gov (United States)

    The horticultural crop Brassica oleracea L. plays an important role in global food systems. Brassica oleracea is unique in that it has been domesticated into several morphotypes (cultivars), including broccoli, Brussels sprout, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, kohlrabi, and several lesser well known morp...

  9. Brassica oleracea; The dog of the plant world

    Science.gov (United States)

    The horticultural crop Brassica oleracea L. plays an important role in global food systems. Brassica oleracea is unique in that it has been domesticated into several morphotypes (cultivars), including broccoli, Brussels sprout, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, kohlrabi, and several lesser well known morp...

  10. Genetic analisys of a cross of gaillon (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) with cauliflower (B.oleracea var. botrytis)

    OpenAIRE

    Spini, Vanessa B.M.G.; Kerr, Warwick Estevam

    2000-01-01

    The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) is an annual vegetable cultivated in Southern and Southwestern Brazil with limited production in the Northeast and Centralwest. A variety of Chinese kale, "kaai laan" or "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra), produces seeds at high temperatures and therefore can do so in North and Northeastern Brazil. Gaillon and cauliflower were crossed 55 times using 10 gaillon plants as mothers and 4 cauliflower plants as pollen donors. From these c...

  11. Scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding by Avicenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobli, Masumeh; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Amin, Gholamreza; Haririan, Ismaeil; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Rahimi, Roja

    2015-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is one of the prevalent gynecological disorders that cause considerable morbidity and management of that plays an important role in protecting women's health. This review focuses on medicinal plants mentioned by Avicenna, a great Iranian philosopher and physician (A.D. 980-1037), in his book Canon for treatment of AUB. Medicinal plants mentioned in Canon for treatment of AUB were elicited and searched in electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Cochrane library to find studies that confirmed their efficacy. Data were collected for the years 1980-2014. The findings included 23 plants belonging to 18 families. Scientific findings have revealed that these plants control AUB through four mechanisms of action including inhibition of inflammatory process, inhibition of prostaglandins production, antiproliferative activity on human cervical cancer cells (HeLa), and estrogenic activity. All of the plants exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and/or in vivo. Cuscuta chinensis and Portulaca oleracea exhibited estrogenic activity. Boswellia carteri, Lens culinaris, Myrtus communis, Polygonum aviculare, Pistacia lentiscus, and Punica granatum have revealed inhibitory activity on biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Some of the mentioned plants including: Ceratonia siliqua, Cuscuta chinensis, Cuscuta epithymum, Cydonia oblonga, Paeonia sp., Portulaca oleracea, Solanum nigrum, Rumex acetosa and Onopordum acanthium have shown antiproliferative activity on HeLa cells. Investigation of traditional Iranian medicine literatures can lead to the identification of effective natural medicines for the management of AUB; however, conclusive confirmation of the efficacy and safety of these treatments needs more evaluations.

  12. Tolerance of Portulaca grandiflora to individual and combined application of Ni, Pb and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovic, N; Andrejić, G; Dželetović, Ž

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, metal accumulation capacity and tolerance of Portulaca grandiflora were investigated. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots on soil amended with Ni, Pb and Zn to the final concentration of 2 mmol kg(-1) for each metal. Results show considerable accumulating capacity and translocation of Ni and Zn, as well as significant accumulation of Pb in roots. A slight decrease of biomass with Zn and of chlorophyll content with Zn and Ni were observed, as well as an increase of proline content with each of the metals. Combinations of metals revealed mutual interference affecting both the uptake and translocation of the metals and their impact on physiological parameters. Results suggest that Portulaca grandiflora, although not a hyperaccumulator, shows a good tolerance and accumulation capacity for Ni, Pb and Zn, but, for the purposes of remediation, interference of the metals must be taken into account.

  13. Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem A. H. Kataya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective action against oxidative stress of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea extract was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight. Throughout the experimental period (60 days, diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, renal enlargement and renal dysfunction. Significant increase in malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation marker, was observed in diabetic kidney. This was accompanied by a significant increase in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease in catalase activity and in the total antioxidant capacity of the kidneys. Daily oral ingestion (1 g/kg body weight of B. oleracea extract for 60 days reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats. B. oleracea extract lowered blood glucose levels and restored renal function and body weight loss. In addition, B. oleracea extract attenuated the adverse effect of diabetes on malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity as well as catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity of diabetic kidneys. In conclusion, the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of B. oleracea extract may offer a potential therapeutic source for the treatment of diabetes.

  14. [Allelopathic effects of invasive weed Solidago canadensis on native plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lingxiao; Chen, Xin; Tang, Jianjun

    2005-12-01

    With growth chamber method, this paper studied the allelopathic potential of invasive weed Solidago canadensis on native plant species. Different concentration S. canadensis root and rhizome extracts were examined, and the test plants were Trifolium repens, Trifolium pretense, Medicago lupulina, Lolium perenne, Suaeda glauca, Plantago virginica, Kummerowia stipulacea, Festuca arundinacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Portulaca oleracea, and Amaranthus spinosus. The results showed that the allelopathic inhibitory effect of the extracts from both S. canadensis root and rhizome was enhanced with increasing concentration, and rhizome extracts had a higher effect than root extracts. At the lowest concentration (1:60), root extract had little effect on the seed germination and seedling growth of T. repens, but rhizome extract could inhibit the germination of all test plants though the inhibitory effect varied with different species. The inhibition was the greatest for grass, followed by forb and legume. 1:60 (m:m) rhizome extract had similar effects on seed germination and radicel growth, but for outgrowth, the extract could inhibit Kummerowia stipulacea, Amaranthus spinosus and Festuca arundinacea, had no significant impact on Lolium perenne, Plantago virginica, Ageratum conyzoides, Portulaca oleracea and Amaranthus spinosus, and stimulated Trifolium repens, Trifolium pretense and Medicago lupulina.

  15. Analysis of morphological traits in different host plants associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximum trichome density per plant was 444±72.4 in sunflower followed by 411.6±19.6, 399±52, 391.6±22.0, in C. bonariensis, Abelmoschus esculentus and Withania somnifera respectively but minimum were 2.33±1.45 in Chinopodium morale, followed by 2.66±1.4, and 3±2.08 in Portulaca oleracea and Trianthema ...

  16. Influence of intra-row spacing and mulching on weed growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2006-02-02

    Feb 2, 2006 ... response of weed growth and bulb yield of garlic to intra-row spacing and mulching. ... advantageous effects on the growth and yield of this crop. ... Portulaca oleracea L x xx .... 50DAP. 60DAP. Spacing (cm). 20 x 10. 2.60b. 4.69. 6.34b. 12.54b. 2.68. 3.90 .... Effect of plant spacing and nitrogen fertilization on.

  17. Atividade Antimicrobiana de Extratos Etanólicos de Peperomia pellucida e Portulaca pilosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORENA PAULA MERCêS MENDES

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As plantas utilizadas na medicina tradicional estão sendo cada vez mais estudadas por serem possíveis fontes de substâncias com atividades antimicrobianas. Dentre elas, destacando-se a Peperomia pellucida (erva-de-jabuti e a Portulaca pilosa (amor-crescido, utilizadas comumente na Amazônia. A P. pellucida é utilizada, popularmente, em casos de hemorragia, como curativo para feridas, dores abdominais, abscessos, acne, furúnculos, cólicas, problemas renais, hipertensão e colesterol, enquanto a P. pilosa é utilizada como hepato-protetor, antidiarreico, diurético, para queimaduras, erisipelas e ferimentos. Neste trabalho, foram realizadas a abordagem fitoquímica e a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro desses dois materiais vegetais. A prospecção fitoquímica revelou a presença de açúcares redutores, fenóis e taninos, esteroides e triterpenoides, glicosídios cardíacos e carotenoides no extrato etanólico seco (EES de P. pillosa, e a presença de proteínas e aminoácidos, fenóis e taninos, flavonoides, esteroides e triterpenoides, azulenos, carotenoides, depsídios e depsidonas no EES de P. pellucida. Para avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos etanólicos brutos, foi empregado o método de disco difusão em ágar, nas concentrações de 500; 250; 125 e 62,5 μg/mL. Os extratos testados que apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana na avaliação preliminar foram submetidos à determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM pela técnica de microdiluição em caldo. O extrato de P. pellucida possui atividade antimicrobiana frente a S. aureus e P. aeruginosa, e o de P. pilosa contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Palavras-chave: Atividade antimicrobiana. Peperomia pellucida. Portulaca pilosa. Erva-de-jabuti. Amor-crescido. ABSTRACT Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanol Extracts of Peperomia pellucida and Portulaca pilosa Plants used in traditional medicine are under increasing scrutiny as possible sources of substances with

  18. Polysaccharides from Portulaca oleracea L Improve Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    POP) on exercise endurance and oxidative stress in forced-swimming mice. Methods: Forty-eight mice were divided into four groups of twelve animals each. All treatments were administered orally and daily for 28 days. Group A received isotonic ...

  19. Polysaccharides from Portulaca oleracea L Improve Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research February 2014; 13 (2): 229-234 ... 7.51 ± 0.78 mmol/L) were significantly lower than that of the control group (11.39 ± 1.17 mmol/L) (p <. 0.05). .... Biological Engineering Institute (Nanjing, China).

  20. Intoxicação por Portulaca elatior (Portulacaceae em caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco J.N. Galiza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Portulaca elatior foi diagnosticado no município de Aroeiras, Paraíba, na época das chuvas. Entre os meses de fevereiro e abril, em um rebanho de 316 caprinos, 16 adoeceram, sendo 15 de um lote de 16 caprinos que tinham sido introduzidos recentemente na fazenda e um animal do rebanho já existente na fazenda. Os caprinos apresentaram intensa salivação, relutância em se movimentar, tremores de lábios, marcha incoordenada, diarreia, timpanismo, dor abdominal, gemidos, desidratação e berros constantes. A evolução da enfermidade variou de 2 a 48 horas; 13 caprinos morreram e três se recuperaram. As lesões macroscópicas caracterizavam-se por mucosa ruminal e do retículo avermelhadas, serosa do rúmen hemorrágica, mucosa abomasal avermelhada com áreas ulceradas e mucosa do intestino delgado com equimoses. No exame histopatológico observou-se degeneração e necrose das células epiteliais dos pré-estômagos com formação de vesículas e infiltrado inflamatório neutrofílico. Suspeita de ter causado o surto, Portulaca elatior foi administrada a três caprinos nas doses de 40, 20 e 10 gramas de planta fresca por kg de peso animal (g/kg. Esses caprinos apresentaram sinais semelhantes aos casos espontâneos. Os animais que ingeriram 20 e 40g/kg morreram e o que ingeriu 10g/kg se recuperou. Microscopicamente foram observadas lesões do sistema digestivo semelhantes às dos casos espontâneos. A reprodução experimental da intoxicação, com sinais clínicos e lesões histológicas semelhantes às dos casos espontâneos, comprova que a doença foi causada por Portulaca elatior. P. elatior apresentou níveis de oxalatos de 6,37% e outra planta, identificada como Blutaparon vermiculare e que ocorria em grande quantidade nas pastagens, apresentou níveis de oxalatos de 5,29%. B. vermiculare foi administrada experimentalmente a um caprino na dose de 40g/kg, sem que o animal apresentasse sinais cl

  1. 1702-IJBCS -Article-Adamou Haougui +

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pr GATSING

    en juin la densité de Glomus sp sur Portulaca oleracea du site 2 est plus importante. La fréquence moyenne d'apparition des espèces de M.V.A. varie de 16,6 à 100%. Densité des spores par sites. La Figure 2 montre la densité moyenne des spores par site. La densité moyenne générale de spores obtenue est de 28,48.

  2. Database derived microsatellite markers (SSRs) for cultivar differentiation in Brassica oleracea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louarn, Sébastien Jean Yves; Torp, Anna Maria; Holme, I.B.

    2007-01-01

     Fifty-nine Brassica oleracea cultivars, belonging to five botanical varieties, were evaluated for microsatellite (SSR) polymorphisms using 11 database sequence derived primer pairs. The cultivars represented 12 broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), ten Brussels sprouts (B. o. var. gemmifera...

  3. Hot-air drying of purslane ( Portulaca oleracea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymaz, İbrahim

    2013-06-01

    Drying characteristics of purslane was experimentally studied in a cabinet dryer. The experimental drying data were fitted best to Modified Henderson and Pabis and Midilli et al. models apart from other models to predict the drying kinetics. The effective moisture diffusivity varied from 1.12 × 10-9 to 3.60 × 10-9 m2/s over the temperature range studied and activation energy was 53.65 kJ/mol.

  4. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and

  5. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Nayak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared with various commonly used suspending agents, such as, tragacanth, bentonite, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/v. The results obtained indicated that the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves could be used as a suspending agent, and the performance was found to be superior to both tragacanth and bentonite.

  6. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Pany, Dipti Ranjan; Mohanty, Biswaranjan

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae) as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v) were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared with various commonly used suspending agents, such as, tragacanth, bentonite, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/v. The results obtained indicated that the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves could be used as a suspending agent, and the performance was found to be superior to both tragacanth and bentonite. PMID:22247868

  7. Ornithine carbamoyltransferase from Spinacea oleracea: purification and characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bellocco, E.; Di Salvo, C.; Lagana, G.; Galtieri, A.; Ficarra, S.; Kotyk, Arnošt; Leuzzi, U.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2002), s. 533-538 ISSN 0006-3134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : ornithine carbomoyltransferase * Spinacea oleracea Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.583, year: 2002

  8. Role of phi cells and the endodermis under salt stress in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, N; Lopez-Perez, L; Hernandez, M; Olmos, E

    2009-01-01

    Phi cell layers were discovered in the 19th century in a small number of species, including members of the Brassicaceae family. A mechanical role was first suggested for this structure; however, this has never been demonstrated. The main objective of the present work was to analyse the ultrastructure of phi cells, their influence on ion movement from the cortex to the stele, and their contribution to salt stress tolerance in Brassica oleracea. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis studies were used to analyse the subcellular structure and distribution of ions in phi cells and the endodermis under salt stress. Ion movement was analysed using lanthanum as an apoplastic tracer. The ultrastructural results confirm that phi cells are specialized cells showing cell wall ingrowths in the inner tangential cell walls. X-ray microanalysis confirmed a build-up of sodium. Phi thickenings were lignified and lanthanum moved periplasmically at this level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the possible role of the phi cells as a barrier controlling the movement of ions from the cortex to the stele. Therefore, the phi cell layer and endodermis seem to be regulating ion transport in Brassica oleracea under salt stress.

  9. Genetic analisys of a cross of gaillon (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with cauliflower (B.oleracea var. botrytis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa B.M.G. Spini

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis is an annual vegetable cultivated in Southern and Southwestern Brazil with limited production in the Northeast and Centralwest. A variety of Chinese kale, "kaai laan" or "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra, produces seeds at high temperatures and therefore can do so in North and Northeastern Brazil. Gaillon and cauliflower were crossed 55 times using 10 gaillon plants as mothers and 4 cauliflower plants as pollen donors. From these crosses, in the F2 generation, 612 plants with inflorescence like gaillon and 48 plants with inflorescence like cauliflower were obtained, in a proportion similar to 15:1, implying that 2 pairs of genes entered into formation of the cauliflower inflorescence type. In order to study flower color, 339 plants were analyzed: 274 presented white flowers and 65, yellow flowers, denoting that this caracter is determined by 1 pair of genes, white being dominant over yellow; white flowers had a slighly higher adaptive value in our population. The characteristic waxy leaf showed a proportion of 3 waxy plants for 1 not waxy, indicating the action of one pair of genes.A couve-flor (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis é um vegetal anual e tem seu cultivo no Brasil limitado às regiões Sul e Sudeste, com pequena produção no Nordeste e Centro-Oeste. Uma variedade de couve da China, "kaai laan" ou "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra, produz sementes em altas temperaturas e, portanto, é apta a produzir sementes no Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Gaillon e couve-flor foram cruzados. Foram feitos 55 cruzamentos usando 10 plantas de gaillon como mãe e 4 plantas de couve-flor como doadores de pólen. Desses cruzamentos, na geração F2, 612 plantas com inflorescência tipo gaillon e 48 plantas com inflorescência tipo couve-flor foram obtidas, em proporção similar a 15:1, demonstrando que 2 pares de genes estão envolvidos na formação da inflorescência em couve

  10. NEW ACCESSIONS OF BRASSICA OLERACEA L. IN VIR PLANT COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Artemieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of Brassica oleracea L. are widespread and favorite crops, where among them the head cabbage and cauliflower are the most economically important. Russia takes third place after India and Chine among countries with largest production areas and gross yield for the crop. In Russia, the area sown to cabbage is about 27 thousand hectares. 728 cultivars and hybrids of eight cabbage crops including 528 hybrids have been added in State Register of Breeding Achievements of Russian Federation in 2017. The collection of Brassica oleracea L. totally contains of 2421 accessions and takes first place at number of collected items among the world’s plant genbanks. The phenotyping, genotyping, passportization, development of core collection and trait collection as well as initial breeding accessions, covering all genetic diversity have been carried out at department of genetic resources of vegetables and melons at VIR. Selection of most promising accessions is performed to find genes and sources for economically valuable traits to develop proper lines and hybrids. There are the enrichment of the collection by means of ordering and gathering in expeditions, the improvement of methods of phenotyping and development of database for all biological accessions studied at the department. In 2007-2016, 255 accessions of Brassica oleracea L. have been included into collection to be used in different national breeding programs.

  11. Construction and analysis of a high-density genetic linkage map in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wanxing

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brassica oleracea encompass a family of vegetables and cabbage that are among the most widely cultivated crops. In 2009, the B. oleracea Genome Sequencing Project was launched using next generation sequencing technology. None of the available maps were detailed enough to anchor the sequence scaffolds for the Genome Sequencing Project. This report describes the development of a large number of SSR and SNP markers from the whole genome shotgun sequence data of B. oleracea, and the construction of a high-density genetic linkage map using a double haploid mapping population. Results The B. oleracea high-density genetic linkage map that was constructed includes 1,227 markers in nine linkage groups spanning a total of 1197.9 cM with an average of 0.98 cM between adjacent loci. There were 602 SSR markers and 625 SNP markers on the map. The chromosome with the highest number of markers (186 was C03, and the chromosome with smallest number of markers (99 was C09. Conclusions This first high-density map allowed the assembled scaffolds to be anchored to pseudochromosomes. The map also provides useful information for positional cloning, molecular breeding, and integration of information of genes and traits in B. oleracea. All the markers on the map will be transferable and could be used for the construction of other genetic maps.

  12. Plant regeneration of Brassica oleracea subsp. italica (Broccoli) CV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul. Ehsan, Malaysia. Accepted 20 March, 2009. Hypocotyls and shoot tips were used as explants in in vitro plant regeneration of broccoli (Brassica oleracea subsp.italica) cv. Green Marvel.

  13. Atmospheric NH3 as plant nutrient: A case study with Brassica oleracea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Ana; Stulen, Ineke; De Kok, Luit J.

    2008-01-01

    Nutrient-sufficient and nitrate- or sulfate-deprived plants of Brassica oleracea L. were exposed to 4 μl l -1 NH 3 (2.8 mg m -3 ), and effects on biomass production and allocation, N-compounds and root morphology investigated. Nitrate-deprived plants were able to transfer to atmospheric NH 3 as nitrogen source, but biomass allocation in favor of the root was not changed by exposure to NH 3 . NH 3 reduced the difference in total root length between nitrate-sufficient and nitrate-deprived plants, and increased the specific root length in the latter. The internal N status, therefore, might be involved in controlling root length in B. oleracea. Root surface area, volume and diameter were unaffected by both nitrate deprivation and NH 3 exposure. In sulfate-deprived plants an inhibitory effect of NH 3 on root morphological parameters was observed. These plants, therefore, might be more susceptible to atmospheric NH 3 than nitrate-deprived plants. The relevance of the present data under field conditions is discussed. - Atmospheric NH 3 can serve as sole N source for Brassica oleracea, but does not change root biomass allocation in nitrate-deprived plants

  14. Bioinformatics analysis of the ς-carotene desaturase gene in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Zheng, Aihong; Jiang, Min; Xue, Shengling; Zhang, Fen; Tang, Haoru

    2018-04-01

    ς-carotene desaturase (ZDS) is an important enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis. Here, the Brassica oleracea var. capitata ZDS (BocZDS) gene sequences were obtained from Brassica database (BRAD), and preformed for bioinformatics analysis. The BocZDS gene mapped to Scaffold000363, and contains an open reading frame of 1,686 bp that encodes a 561-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 62.00 kD and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.2. Subcellular localization predicted the BocZDS gene was in the chloroplast. The conserved domain of the BocZDS protein is PLN02487, indicating that it belongs the member of zeta-carotene desaturase. Homology analysis indicates that the ZDS protein is apparently conserved during plant evolution and is most closely related to B. oleracea var. oleracea, B. napus, and B. rapa. The findings of the present study provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of ZDS gene function in cabbage.

  15. The dietary inclusion of Portulaca oleracea to the diet of laying hens increases the n-3 fatty acids content and reduces the cholesterol content in the egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA-enriched diet on yolk fatty acid profile and cholesterol content was evaluated. Dried Poutulaca oleracea (purslane: PO diet was added to a commercial diet (C diet at 20% of inclusion level. The effect of the supplemented diet was compared to that of C diet. Twenty-six laying hens were fed ad libitum for 21 days with the 2 diets, supplemented also with 300 mg α-tocopherol acetate/kg. Eggs were collected and then the fatty acids (FA profile and the cholesterol content were analysed. The PO diet significantly reduced the saturated FA content (P<0.05 and increased that of the polyunsaturated FA (PUFA: 18:2 n-6 (P<0.001, 18:3 n-3 (P<0.001 and 22:6 n-3 (DHA; P<0.01. Both n-6 and n-3 PUFA significantly increased with the PO diet and the n-6/n-3 ratio was improved (10.4 vs 11.3; P<0.05.

  16. Fungos conidiais em Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaizeiro na Ilha do Combu, Pará-Brasil Conidial Fungi on Euterpe oleracea Mart. on Combu Island, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Corrêa de Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a ocorrência de fungos conidiais (hyphomycetes associados à decomposição de material vegetal morto de Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaizeiro na Área de Proteção Ambiental da ilha do Combu, município de Belém, Pará. Entre agosto de 2008 e abril de 2009, foram coletadas partes em decomposição de palmeiras de E. oleracea e mantidas em câmara-úmida durante sete dias. As estruturas reprodutivas dos fungos foram retiradas e montadas em lâminas semipermanentes para o estudo morfológico em microscopia óptica. O presente trabalho contém descrições, comentários, distribuição geográfica e ilustrações dos novos registros para o Brasil. Como resultados deste estudo foram identificados 45 táxons de hifomicetos. Todos são novos registros para a área de estudo, destes 11 representam novos registro para o Brasil e 12 para a Amazônia brasileira.The objective of this study was look for conidial fungi (hyphomycetes associated with decomposing, dead vegetative material of Euterpe oleracea Mart. collected on Combu Island (Belém, Pará, an environmentally protected area. From August 2008 to April 2009, decomposing parts of E. oleracea were collected and kept in a moist chamber for seven days. Somatic and reproductive fungal structures were extracted from the substrate and mounted on semi-permanent slides for morphological study using optical microscopy. This paper includes descriptions, comments, geographical distributions and illustrations of new records for Brazil. All these records are new for the study area, 11 are new records for Brazil, and 12 are new for the Brazilian Amazon.

  17. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale.

  18. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Various Local Plant Extracts in the Control of Phoma sorghina (Sacc. Boerema et al. and Colletotrichum graminicola (Ces. Wilson, as Sorghum Seed Mold Pathogen in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonzi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of phytosanitary products is becoming increasingly restricted, due to their high cost, as well as the unavailability of certain products on the local market and their damaging effects on the environment and health. These different reasons motivated the search for alternative solutions to the use of synthetic pesticides. On this basis, we took on the task of evaluating the anti-fungal effectiveness of aqueous plant extracts from Balanites aegyptiaca, Cymbopogon citratus, Cassia occidentalis and Portulaca oleracea. These extracts, at 30% concentration, were obtained after different maceration periods (6, 12, 24 and 48 hours and tested in vitro against Colletotrichum graminicola and Phoma sorghina. The effect of the extracts on the mycelium growth of various fungi, when evaluated 10 days after incubation (DAI, shows that extracts of C. citratus, B. aegyptiaca, P. oleracea and C. occidentalis inhibit the growth of C. graminicola by 100%, 65%, 43% and 38%, respectively. The extract of C. citratus prevents the development of C. graminicola, regardless of the maceration period. This extract produces a greater inhibitory effect than the fungicide Calthio DS (20% Lindane and 25% Thirame. Compared to P. sorghina, inhibition percentages of 100, 72 and 16 were recorded for extracts of C. citratus, P. oleracea and C. occidentalis. However, extracts of C. citratus (macerated for 24 and 48 hours and extract of P. oleracea (macerated for 48 hours were more effective than the other extracts.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Disease-Linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers from Brassica rapa for Their Applicability to Brassica oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Il; Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Tripathi, Swati; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Do-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea genomic sequence data registered in the NCBI database, 256 genes for which SNPs had been identified in B. rapa were found in B. oleracea. These genes were classified into three functional groups: molecular function (64 genes), biological process (96 genes), and cellular component (96 genes). A total of 693 SNP markers, including 145 SNP markers [BRH—developed from the B. rapa genome for high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis], 425 SNP markers (BRP—based on the B. rapa genome that could be applied to B. oleracea), and 123 new SNP markers (BRS—derived from BRP and designed for HRM analysis), were investigated for their ability to amplify sequences from cabbage genomic DNA. In total, 425 of the SNP markers (BRP-based on B. rapa genome), selected from 7,645 SNPs, were successfully applied to B. oleracea. Using PCR, 108 of 145 BRH (74.5%), 415 of 425 BRP (97.6%), and 118 of 123 BRS (95.9%) showed amplification, suggesting that it is possible to apply SNP markers developed based on the B. rapa genome to B. oleracea. These results provide valuable information that can be utilized in cabbage genetics and breeding programs using molecular markers derived from other Brassica species. PMID:25790283

  20. AFLP analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Brassica oleracea in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Esawi, Mohamed A; Germaine, Kieran; Bourke, Paula; Malone, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea L. is one of the most economically important vegetable crop species of the genus Brassica L. This species is threatened in Ireland, without any prior reported genetic studies. The use of this species is being very limited due to its imprecise phylogeny and uncompleted genetic characterisation. The main objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of a set of 25 Irish B. oleracea accessions using the powerful amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. A total of 471 fragments were scored across all the 11 AFLP primer sets used, out of which 423 (89.8%) were polymorphic and could differentiate the accessions analysed. The dendrogram showed that cauliflowers were more closely related to cabbages than kales were, and accessions of some cabbage types were distributed among different clusters within cabbage subgroups. Approximately 33.7% of the total genetic variation was found among accessions, and 66.3% of the variation resided within accessions. The total genetic diversity (HT) and the intra-accessional genetic diversity (HS) were 0.251 and 0.156, respectively. This high level of variation demonstrates that the Irish B. oleracea accessions studied should be managed and conserved for future utilisation and exploitation in food and agriculture. In conclusion, this study addressed important phylogenetic questions within this species, and provided a new insight into the inclusion of four accessions of cabbages and kales in future breeding programs for improving varieties. AFLP markers were efficient for assessing genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in Irish B. oleracea species. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Local cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) populations from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In previous experiments, we were able to augment cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) with two new local open pollinated (OP) populations and one cultivar. The type of use indicated that these are cabbages with thinner and juicier leaves, which predisposes their heads for fine grating and also makes their ...

  2. Salinity Effects on Germination Properties ofPurslane (Portulaca oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Kafi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study seed germination and seedling growth responses of purslane to different levels of salinity, an experiment was conducted in a completely randomized desgin with six levels of salinity (0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 dS/m using NaCl and five replications. Persentage and rate of germination, length and dry weight of radicle and plumule were measured, and ratio radicle to plumule length, mean germination time and seedling vigor index were calculated. The results showed that up to 28 dS/m salinity did not impose any significant different in germination percentage compared with control, but in 35 dS/m salinity it decreased to 19%. germination rate did not show any significant different up to 14 dS/m in comparison with control but beyond this level it significantly decreased with increasing salt stress. Mean germination time up to 21 dS/m did not have significant different in comparison with control, but increased with increasing salinity significantly. Length, fresh and dry weight of radicle and plumule, and seedling vigor index significantly decreased by increasing salinity. Ratio of radicle to plumule length decreased with increasing salt concentration, but there were not significant different among salt levels. According to the results, the germination stage of purslane is remarkably resistant to elevated levels of salinity and it seems that by exerting proper management in farms, it could be established in saline environments. Keywords: Plumule, Radicle, Seedlings of purslane

  3. Susceptibility of Several Common Subtropical Weeds to Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N

    2012-06-01

    Experiments were conducted in the greenhouse to assess root galling and egg production of three root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica, on several weeds common to Florida agricultural land. Weeds evaluated were Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed), Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge), Eleusine indica (goosegrass), Portulaca oleracea (common purslane), and Solanum americanum (American black nightshade). Additionally, although it is recommended as a cover crop in southern regions of the U.S., Aeschynomene americana (American jointvetch) was evaluated as a weed following the detection of root galling in a heavy volunteer infestation of an experimental field in southeastern Florida. Weeds were propagated from seed and inoculated with 1000 nematode eggs when plants reached the two true-leaf stage. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Rutgers') was included as a positive control. Aeschynomene americana and P. oleracea roots supported the highest number of juveniles (J2) and had the highest number of eggs/g of root for all three species of Meloidogyne tested. However, though P. oleracea supported very high root levels of the three nematode species tested, its fleshy roots did not exhibit severe gall symptoms. Low levels of apparent galling, combined with high egg production, increase the potential for P. oleracea to support populations of these three species of root-knot nematodes to a degree that may not be appropriately recognized. This research quantifies the impact of P. oleracea as a host for M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica compared to several other important weeds commonly found in Florida agricultural production, and the potential for A. americana to serve as an important weed host of the three species of root-knot nematode tested in southern regions of Florida.

  4. Changes in the Proteome of Xylem Sap in Brassica oleracea in Response to Fusarium oxysporum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zijing; Ino, Yoko; Kimura, Yayoi; Tago, Asumi; Shimizu, Motoki; Natsume, Satoshi; Sano, Yoshitaka; Fujimoto, Ryo; Kaneko, Kentaro; Shea, Daniel J; Fukai, Eigo; Fuji, Shin-Ichi; Hirano, Hisashi; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conlutinans (Foc) is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change > = 2-fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and 10 of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions.

  5. Changes in the proteome of xylem sap in Brassica oleracea in response to Fusarium oxysporum stress

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    Zijing ePu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conlutinans (Foc is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change >=2 fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and ten of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions.

  6. A Comparative Study Environmental and Radiological Causes Of Cancer In River Nile State, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Eyad; Khair, Hatim

    The causes of cancer in River Nile state are differ between environmental and radiological, this paper tried to make comparison between the two causes, to determine the real cause behind the large rising of cancer cases in this state, considering the daily habits for the patients and the possible contamination in the natural resources around them. The noticeable thing that most of cancer cases are might be due to the high concentration of nitrate pollutant detected in natural resources such as drinking water; also by looking to the radioactive elements we see there's high concentration of some radioactive elements specially the K-40 which found in Portulaca Oleracea.

  7. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on Euterpe oleracea mart. (açaí seedlings Efeitos da inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em mudas de Euterpe oleracea mart. (açaí

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    Elizabeth Ying Chu

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of verifying the response of Euterpe oleracea seedlings to seven arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species, an experimental trial was carried out under greenhouse conditions. Seeds of E. oleracea were sown in carbonized rice husk. Germinating seeds were initially transferred to plastic cups, containing fumigated Reddish Yellow Quartz Sand and inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Two months later, seedlings were transferred to 2 kg black plastic bags, containing the same soil without fumigation. Plant growth and mineral nutrients were evaluated nine months after mycorrhizal inoculation. Differential effects were observed among the species tested, with Scutellispora gilmorei being the most effective ones in promoting growth and nutrient content of E. oleracea seedlings. The increment resulted from inoculation with S. gilmorei were 92% in total plant height, 116% in stem diameter, 361% in dry matter production, 191% in N, 664% in P, 46% in K, 562% in Ca, 363% in Mg and 350% in Zn contents, comparing to uninoculated controls. Infected root length was positively correlated to nutrient content and plant growth. It was concluded that growth and nutrient uptake of E. oleracea seedlings could be significantly improved by inoculation of effective arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.Com objetivo de verificar a resposta das plântulas de Euterpe oleracea Mart. à inoculação de sete espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares, foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação. Sementes de E. oleracea germinadas em casca de arroz carbonizada foram inicialmente transferidas para copos de plástico contendo Areia Quartzosa Vermelho-Amarela fumigada, e nelas inoculados fungos micorrízicos arbusculares. Dois meses depois, as plântulas foram repassadas para sacos de plástico preto contendo o mesmo solo, sem fumigação. Foram avaliados o crescimento e a nutrição mineral das plantas nove meses após a inoculação. Efeitos diferenciados

  8. Genome-wide comparative analysis of 20 miniature inverted-repeat transposable element families in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea.

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    Perumal Sampath

    Full Text Available Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs are ubiquitous, non-autonomous class II transposable elements. Here, we conducted genome-wide comparative analysis of 20 MITE families in B. rapa, B. oleracea, and Arabidopsis thaliana. A total of 5894 and 6026 MITE members belonging to the 20 families were found in the whole genome pseudo-chromosome sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively. Meanwhile, only four of the 20 families, comprising 573 members, were identified in the Arabidopsis genome, indicating that most of the families were activated in the Brassica genus after divergence from Arabidopsis. Copy numbers varied from 4 to 1459 for each MITE family, and there was up to 6-fold variation between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In particular, analysis of intact members showed that whereas eleven families were present in similar copy numbers in B. rapa and B. oleracea, nine families showed copy number variation ranging from 2- to 16-fold. Four of those families (BraSto-3, BraTo-3, 4, 5 were more abundant in B. rapa, and the other five (BraSto-1, BraSto-4, BraTo-1, 7 and BraHAT-1 were more abundant in B. oleracea. Overall, 54% and 51% of the MITEs resided in or within 2 kb of a gene in the B. rapa and B. oleracea genomes, respectively. Notably, 92 MITEs were found within the CDS of annotated genes, suggesting that MITEs might play roles in diversification of genes in the recently triplicated Brassica genome. MITE insertion polymorphism (MIP analysis of 289 MITE members showed that 52% and 23% were polymorphic at the inter- and intra-species levels, respectively, indicating that there has been recent MITE activity in the Brassica genome. These recently activated MITE families with abundant MIP will provide useful resources for molecular breeding and identification of novel functional genes arising from MITE insertion.

  9. Glutathione Transferases Superfamily: Cold-Inducible Expression of Distinct GST Genes in Brassica oleracea

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    Harshavardhanan Vijayakumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants, as sessile organisms, can suffer serious growth and developmental consequences under cold stress conditions. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18 are ubiquitous and multifunctional conjugating proteins, which play a major role in stress responses by preventing oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS. Currently, understanding of their function(s during different biochemical and signaling pathways under cold stress condition remain unclear. In this study, using combined computational strategy, we identified 65 Brassica oleracea glutathione transferases (BoGST and characterized them based on evolutionary analysis into 11 classes. Inter-species and intra-species duplication was evident between BoGSTs and Arabidopsis GSTs. Based on localization analyses, we propose possible pathways in which GST genes are involved during cold stress. Further, expression analysis of the predicted putative functions for GST genes were investigated in two cold contrasting genotypes (cold tolerance and susceptible under cold condition, most of these genes were highly expressed at 6 h and 1 h in the cold tolerant (CT and cold susceptible (CS lines, respectively. Overall, BoGSTU19, BoGSTU24, BoGSTF10 are candidate genes highly expressed in B. oleracea. Further investigation of GST superfamily in B. oleracea will aid in understanding complex mechanism underlying cold tolerance in plants.

  10. The Brassica oleracea genome reveals the asymmetrical evolution of polyploid genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Yumei; Yang, Xinhua; Tong, Chaobo; Edwards, David; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Zhao, Meixia; Ma, Jianxin; Yu, Jingyin; Huang, Shunmou; Wang, Xiyin; Wang, Junyi; Lu, Kun; Fang, Zhiyuan; Bancroft, Ian; Yang, Tae-Jin; Hu, Qiong; Wang, Xinfa; Yue, Zhen; Li, Haojie; Yang, Linfeng; Wu, Jian; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Wanxin; King, Graham J; Pires, J. Chris; Lu, Changxin; Wu, Zhangyan; Sampath, Perumal; Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Hui; Pan, Shengkai; Yang, Limei; Min, Jiumeng; Zhang, Dong; Jin, Dianchuan; Li, Wanshun; Belcram, Harry; Tu, Jinxing; Guan, Mei; Qi, Cunkou; Du, Dezhi; Li, Jiana; Jiang, Liangcai; Batley, Jacqueline; Sharpe, Andrew G; Park, Beom-Seok; Ruperao, Pradeep; Cheng, Feng; Waminal, Nomar Espinosa; Huang, Yin; Dong, Caihua; Wang, Li; Li, Jingping; Hu, Zhiyong; Zhuang, Mu; Huang, Yi; Huang, Junyan; Shi, Jiaqin; Mei, Desheng; Liu, Jing; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Jinpeng; Jin, Huizhe; Li, Zaiyun; Li, Xun; Zhang, Jiefu; Xiao, Lu; Zhou, Yongming; Liu, Zhongsong; Liu, Xuequn; Qin, Rui; Tang, Xu; Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Yupeng; Zhang, Yangyong; Lee, Jonghoon; Kim, Hyun Hee; Denoeud, France; Xu, Xun; Liang, Xinming; Hua, Wei; Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Jun; Chalhoub, Boulos; Paterson, Andrew H

    2014-01-01

    Polyploidization has provided much genetic variation for plant adaptive evolution, but the mechanisms by which the molecular evolution of polyploid genomes establishes genetic architecture underlying species differentiation are unclear. Brassica is an ideal model to increase knowledge of polyploid evolution. Here we describe a draft genome sequence of Brassica oleracea, comparing it with that of its sister species B. rapa to reveal numerous chromosome rearrangements and asymmetrical gene loss in duplicated genomic blocks, asymmetrical amplification of transposable elements, differential gene co-retention for specific pathways and variation in gene expression, including alternative splicing, among a large number of paralogous and orthologous genes. Genes related to the production of anticancer phytochemicals and morphological variations illustrate consequences of genome duplication and gene divergence, imparting biochemical and morphological variation to B. oleracea. This study provides insights into Brassica genome evolution and will underpin research into the many important crops in this genus. PMID:24852848

  11. Genome-wide identification of aquaporin encoding genes in Brassica oleracea and their phylogenetic sequence comparison to Brassica crops and Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehn, Till A.; Pommerrenig, Benjamin; Bernhardt, Nadine; Hartmann, Anja; Bienert, Gerd P.

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are essential channel proteins that regulate plant water homeostasis and the uptake and distribution of uncharged solutes such as metalloids, urea, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Despite their importance as crop plants, little is known about AQP gene and protein function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and other Brassica species. The recent releases of the genome sequences of B. oleracea and Brassica rapa allow comparative genomic studies in these species to investigate the evolution and features of Brassica genes and proteins. In this study, we identified all AQP genes in B. oleracea by a genome-wide survey. In total, 67 genes of four plant AQP subfamilies were identified. Their full-length gene sequences and locations on chromosomes and scaffolds were manually curated. The identification of six additional full-length AQP sequences in the B. rapa genome added to the recently published AQP protein family of this species. A phylogenetic analysis of AQPs of Arabidopsis thaliana, B. oleracea, B. rapa allowed us to follow AQP evolution in closely related species and to systematically classify and (re-) name these isoforms. Thirty-three groups of AQP-orthologous genes were identified between B. oleracea and Arabidopsis and their expression was analyzed in different organs. The two selectivity filters, gene structure and coding sequences were highly conserved within each AQP subfamily while sequence variations in some introns and untranslated regions were frequent. These data suggest a similar substrate selectivity and function of Brassica AQPs compared to Arabidopsis orthologs. The comparative analyses of all AQP subfamilies in three Brassicaceae species give initial insights into AQP evolution in these taxa. Based on the genome-wide AQP identification in B. oleracea and the sequence analysis and reprocessing of Brassica AQP information, our dataset provides a sequence resource for further investigations of the physiological and molecular functions of

  12. The chromoplasts of Or mutants of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolillo, D J; Garvin, D F; Parthasarathy, M V

    2004-12-01

    The Or mutation in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) leads to abnormal accumulations of beta-carotene in orange chromoplasts, in tissues in which leucoplasts are characteristic of wild-type plants. Or chromoplasts were investigated by light microscopy of fresh materials and electron microscopy of glutaraldehyde- and potassium permanganate-fixed materials. Carotenoid inclusions in Or chromoplasts resemble those found in carrot root chromoplasts in their optical activity and angular shape. Electron microscopy revealed that the inclusions are made up of parallel, membrane-bound compartments. These stacks of membranes are variously rolled and folded into three-dimensional objects. We classify Or chromoplasts as "membranous" chromoplasts. The Or mutation also limits plastid replication so that a single chromoplast constitutes the plastidome in most of the affected cells. There are one to two chromoplasts in each cell of a shoot apex. The ability of differentiated chromoplasts to divide in the apical meristems of Or mutant plants resembles the ability of proplastids to maintain plastid continuity from cell to cell in meristems of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in which plastid replication is drastically limited. The findings are used to discuss the number of levels of regulation involved in plastid replication.

  13. Distribución e identificación de especies hospedantes de Heterodera glycines Ichinohe raza 3 en el Valle del Cauca

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    Varón de Agudelo Francia

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Se dividió la parte plana del Valle del Cauca en tres zonas (norte, centro y sur, habiéndose visitado 33 fincas. En la zona norte las malezas con mayor porcentaje de frecuencia y distribución en los cultivos de soya fueron Digitaria horizontalis, Echinochloa colonum y Leptochloa filiformis; en la zona centro Ipomoea hirta, Amaranthus dubius y Echinochloa colonum y en la zona sur predominaron Ipomoea hirta, Portulaca oleracea Cyperus rotundus. Los análisis de muestras de suelo y raíces indicaron que H. glycines se encuentra distribuido en todo el Valle del Cauca, presentando la zona sur (Candelaria, Palmira y Puerto Tejada las mayores poblaciones. Entre las especies evaluadas (malezas, cultivos, leguminosas forrajeras y silvestres, solamente Glycine max y Phaseolus vulgaris se consideraron como susceptibles a H. glycines raza 3. y P. angularis y P. multiflora permitieron muy poca infección y multiplicación del nemátodo.A nematode recognition of Heterodera glycines was focused on crops of soybean. Valle del Cauca was divided in three zones (northen, central and southern and 33 farms were visited. The results of the analysis on samples of soils and roots showe that Heterodera glycines is scattered throughout Valle del Cauca, being the southern zone (Palmira, Candelaria and Puerto Tejada the one having the highest standards in nematode population. Weeds showing a greater frequency percentage were : Digitaria horizontalis, Echinochloa colonum and Leptochloa filiformis, in the northen zone; Ipomoea hirta, Amaranthus dubius and Echinochloa colonum, in the central zone, and Ipomoea hirta, Portulaca oleracea and Cyperus rotundus, in the southern zone , From among the whole species evaluated (weeds, crops, leguminous a n d fodder plants, Glycine max and Phaseolus vulgaris were considered to be susceptible to H. Glycines race 3. Phaseolus angularis y P. multiflora let low population levels.

  14. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-10-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea accessions representing various morphotypes and identified signals of selection at the mesohexaploid subgenome level. For cabbage morphotypes with their typical leaf-heading trait, we identified four subgenome loci that show signs of parallel selection among subgenomes within B. rapa, as well as four such loci within B. oleracea. Fifteen subgenome loci are under selection and are shared by these two species. We also detected strong subgenome parallel selection linked to the domestication of the tuberous morphotypes, turnip (B. rapa) and kohlrabi (B. oleracea). Overall, we demonstrated that the mesohexaploidization of the two Brassica genomes contributed to their diversification into heading and tuber-forming morphotypes through convergent subgenome parallel selection of paralogous genes.

  15. Phytohormone profile in Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea plants grown under Zn deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Albacete, Alfonso; Torre-González, Alejandro de la; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-10-01

    Phytohormones, structurally diverse compounds, are involved in multiple processes within plants, such as controlling plant growth and stress response. Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants and its deficiency causes large economic losses in crops. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse the role of phytohormones in the Zn-deficiency response of two economically important species, i.e. Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea. For this, these two species were grown hydroponically with different Zn-application rates: 10 μM Zn as control and 0.1 μM Zn as deficiency treatment and phytohormone concentration was determined by U-HPLC-MS. Zn deficiency resulted in a substantial loss of biomass in L. sativa plants that was correlated with a decline in growth-promoting hormones such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), and gibberellins (GAs). However these hormones increased or stabilized their concentrations in B. oleracea and could help to maintain the biomass in this species. A lower concentration of stress-signaling hormones such as ethylene precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and also CKs might be involved in Zn uptake in L. sativa while a rise in GA4, isopentenyl adenine (iP), and ACC and a fall in JA and SA might contribute to a better Zn-utilization efficiency (ZnUtE), as observed in B. oleracea plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A seed treatment to prevent shoot apical meristem arrest in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Goffman, Fernando D.; Kodde, J.; Angenent, G.C.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2018-01-01

    Brassica oleracea plants can suffer from shoot apical meristem arrest, when sown at cold temperatures, giving rise to so-called blind seedlings that stop development and the formation of new leaves. We developed a seed treatment that strongly reduces the occurrence of this meristem arrest in

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of Brassica oleracea germplasm in Ireland using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Esawi, Mohamed A; Germaine, Kieran; Bourke, Paula; Malone, Renee

    2016-01-01

    The most economically important Brassica oleracea species is endangered in Ireland, with no prior reported genetic characterization studies. This study assesses the genetic diversity, population structure and relationships of B. oleracea germplasm in Ireland using microsatellite (SSRs) markers. A total of 118 individuals from 25 accessions of Irish B. oleracea were genotyped. The SSR loci used revealed a total of 47 alleles. The observed heterozygosity (0.699) was higher than the expected one (0.417). Moreover, the average values of fixation indices (F) were negative, indicating excess of heterozygotes in all accessions. Polymorphic information content (PIC) values of SSR loci ranged from 0.27 to 0.66, with an average of 0.571, and classified 10 loci as informative markers (PIC>0.5) to differentiate among the accessions studied. The genetic differentiation among accessions showed that 27.1% of the total genetic variation was found among accessions, and 72.9% of the variation resided within accessions. The averages of total heterozygosity (H(T)) and intra-accession genetic diversity (H(S)) were 0.577 and 0.442, respectively. Cluster analysis of SSR data distinguished among kale and Brussels sprouts cultivars. This study provided a new insight into the exploitation of the genetically diverse spring cabbages accessions, revealing a high genetic variation, as potential resources for future breeding programs. SSR loci were effective for differentiation among the accessions studied. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of Brassica oleracea early stage abiotic stress responses reveals tolerance in multiple crop types and for multiple sources of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacham, Andrew M; Hand, Paul; Pink, David Ac; Monaghan, James M

    2017-12-01

    Brassica oleracea includes a number of important crop types such as cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli and kale. Current climate conditions and weather patterns are causing significant losses in these crops, meaning that new cultivars with improved tolerance of one or more abiotic stress types must be sought. In this study, genetically fixed B. oleracea lines belonging to a Diversity Fixed Foundation Set (DFFS) were assayed for their response to seedling stage-imposed drought, flood, salinity, heat and cold stress. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) variation in stress tolerance response was found for each stress, for each of four measured variables (relative fresh weight, relative dry weight, relative leaf number and relative plant height). Lines tolerant to multiple stresses were found to belong to several different crop types. There was no overall correlation between the responses to the different stresses. Abiotic stress tolerance was identified in multiple B. oleracea crop types, with some lines exhibiting resistance to multiple stresses. For each stress, no one crop type appeared significantly more or less tolerant than others. The results are promising for the development of more environmentally robust lines of different B. oleracea crops by identifying tolerant material and highlighting the relationship between responses to different stresses. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) from Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garzón, G.A.; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos Eduardo; Vincken, Jean Paul; Gruppen, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Berries of Colombian Euterpe oleracea Mart. were analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC), anthocyanin (ACN) content, and antioxidant activity. Additionally, reversed-phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (RP-UHPLC-PDA) and heated electrospray

  20. Variation and Distribution of Glucosinolates in 42 Cultivars of Brassica oleracea Vegetable Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Tebbenhoff, S.; Dekker, M.

    2010-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are known to contain glucosinolates that are precursors for bioactive compounds like isothiocyanates that have been shown to play an important role in human health. This study reports the results of a screening of 11 Brassica oleracea crops consisting of 42 cultivars (6 white

  1. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Eleusine indica, Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species.

  2. Plastids features and transfer cells occurrence in the phloem of Portulaca mucronata and P. hirsutissima (Portulacaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Maranhão Estelita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The species of the Portulacaceae of the Serra do Cipó, State of Minas Gerais, Brasil, were studied. In Portulaca mucronata and P. hirsutissima transfer cells are companion and phloem parenchyma cells; they have the same secondary cell wall features, that is, short papillate protuberances which are uniformly distributed around the primary cell wall. These features are similar in both species but they are very distinct from others referred in the literature; this could be useful in Taxonomy. The phloem plastids have a globular protein crystalloid, surrounded by proteinaceous filaments. In P. hirsutissima few starch grains may also be present, and this occurrence is considered primitive in the phylogenetic scale. These features agree with presumptive evolution of those of leaf structure: P. hirsutissima has C3 photosynthesis structure, and P. mucronata C4 or Kranz anatomy.

  3. The fate of populations of Euterpe oleracea harvested for palm heart in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallejo, M.I.; Galeano, G.; Bernal, R.; Zuidema, P.

    2014-01-01

    Palm heart is an important non-timber forest product obtained from various palm species in tropical forests. We studied the effect of four decades of palm heart extraction from the clonal palm Euterpe oleracea at the southern Pacific coast of Colombia. We monitored populations that had been subject

  4. Bactericidal activity of bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles against human pathogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abalkhil, Tarad Abdulaziz; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Salmen, Saleh Hussein; Wainwright, Milton

    2017-01-01

    Green synthesis is an attractive and eco-friendly approach to generate potent antibacterial silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). Such particles have long been used to fight bacteria and represent a promising tool to overcome the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this study, green synthesis of Ag-NPs was attempted using plant extracts of Aloe vera, Portulaca oleracea and Cynodon dactylon. The identity and size of Ag-NPs was characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscopy. Monodispersed Ag-NPs were produced with a range of different sizes based on the plant extract used. The bactericidal activity of Ag-NPs against a number of human pathogenic bacteria was determined using the disc diffusion method. The results showed that Gram positive bacteria were more susceptible than Gram negative ones to these antibacterial agents. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined using the 96- well plate method. Finally, the mechanism by which Ag-NPs affect bacteria was investigated by SEM analysis. Bacteria treated with Ag-NPs were seen to undergo shrinkage and to lose their viability. This study provides evidence for a cheap and effective method for synthesizing potent bactericidal Ag-NPs and demonstrates their effectiveness against human pathogenic bacteria

  5. Attività chemioprotettiva di estratti di spinacio (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Milano, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) has a variety of biological functions, such as antitumor and chemoprotective activity, but little is known about the modulation of secondary metabolites induction by abiotic stress (i.e. hypoxia) and it’s correlation to human health. In this study I demonstrate that 24 h hypoxia alter the production of secondary metabolites in spinach. In vitro studies on human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line of different spinach aqueous extracts,show ...

  6. In vtro adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explant of brassica oleracea subsp. Italica and brassica oleracea subsp. capitata using tdz and naa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, S.; Rashid, A.

    2014-01-01

    Broccoli(Brassica oleracea subsp. italica) cv. Green Dragon King and cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) cv. Gianty are important vegetable crops grown in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The cotyledons of both cultivars were used as explant source for in vitro shoot regeneration. The objective of this research was to examine the influence of the growth regulators thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation in these cultivars. This system of adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explants could be useful as a tool for genetic transformation of the subspecies. Cotyledon explants of both cultivars excised from 5-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings were placed on shoot induction medium containing basal salts of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and various concentrations of TDZ and NAA. The highest percentage of cotyledon explant of broccoli cv. Green Dragon King producing shoot (76.66%) and the highest mean number of shoots produced per explant (0.9) were obtained on 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Meanwhile, the highest percentage of cotyledon explant of cabbage cv. Gianty producing shoots (86.67%) and highest number of shoots produced per explant (1.1) were recorded on 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Therefore, 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1mg/l NAA are the recommended combinations for adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledonary explants of broccoli cv. Dragon King and cabbage cv. Gianty respectively. (author)

  7. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9-12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3-9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6-12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants.

  8. Linkage mapping of a dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Lou, P.; Bonnema, A.B.; Yang, Boujun; He, H.; Zhang, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 (c, cabbage; d, dominant) was identified as a spontaneous mutation in the spring cabbage line 79-399-3. The Ms-cd1 gene is successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several Brassica oleracea cultivars in China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism

  9. Misturas de herbicidas para o controle de plantas daninhas anuais na cultura de citrus (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck Herbicides mixtures for the control of annual weeds in citrus crop (Citrus sinensis (L, Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.B. Galli

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se avaliar a eficiência das misturas de glyphosate com diuron ou simazine para o controle de plantas daninhas anuais na cultura de citrus, foram conduzidos dois experimentos durante o ano agrícola 83/84, sendo um em Jaguariúna e outro em Catanduva, ambos no estado de São Paulo. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que, embora todos os tratamentos tenham sido altamente eficientes, o controle de Digitaria horizontalis, Brachiaria plantaginea e portulaca oleracea aos 10 DAT foi um pouco inferior quando se aplicou as misturas de tanque (glyphosate + diuron ou simazine, em relação à aplicação seqüencial desses mesmos produtos. A adição do sulfato de amônio nas misturas de tanque minimizou esse problema, o qual não foi observado na avaliação realizada aos 30 DAT. Ainda com relação às misturas, o controle das gramíneas foi superior quando se utilizou diuron em relação à simazine. As misturas de herbicidas residuais com glyphosate proporcionaram melhor controle aos 60 DAT quando comparados às aplicações de glyphosate isoladamente.With the aim of evaluating the efficiency of glyphosate mixtures with diuron and simazine, in the control of annual weeds in citrus, two experiments were conducted in Catanduva and Jaguariúna, SP, during the 83/84 season. The results showed high efficiency of all treatments, but the control of Digitaria horizontalis, Brachiaria plantaginea and Portulaca oleracea at 10 DAT, has been slightly inferior when tank mistures were applied, in contrast with the sequencial application of these products. The addition of ammonium sulphate to the tank mixtures minimized the problem which was not observed at 30 DAT. Concerning mixtures, grass control was better with diuron than simazine. The use of glyphosate in mixtures with residuals offered better control at 60 DAT when compared to Glyphosate alone.

  10. Eficácia de herbicidas no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da cebola em semeadura direta Efficacy of herbicides on weed control in onion direct sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino R. Ferreira

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available As plantas de cebola provenientes da semeadura direta no campo são mais danificadas pelo cultivo mecânico e são mais sensíveis aos herbicidas, principalmente os latifolicidas, do que quando transplantadas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia dos herbicidas oxyfluorfen, ioxynil-octanoato e fluazifop-p-butil, aplicados em pós-emergência, isoladamente ou em mistura no tanque, com ou sem aplicação de paraquat, antes da emergência das plantas de cebola, conduziu-se este trabalho no município de Monte Alto, SP. Nenhum dos herbicidas aplicados isoladamente foi eficiente no controle de todas as espécies daninhas presentes na área experimental. As misturas no tanque de fluazifop-p-butil com oxyfluorfen ou ioxynil-octanoato, independente da aplicação ou não de paraquat aos cinco dias após a semeadura, controlaram eficientemente Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus lividus, Echinochloa crusgalli, Eragrostis pilosa, Digitaria horizontalis, Eleusine indica e Brachiaria plantaginea, com produção de bulbos semelhante à da testemunha capinada.Onion plants, from direct sowing to the field, are more damaged by mechanical cultivation and more sensitive to herbicides, especially to broadleaf herbicides, than transplanted onions. With the purpose of evaluating the efficacy of the herbicides oxyfluorfen, ioxynyl-octanoato and fluazifop-p-butyl, applied in post-emergence, alone or tank mix, with or without paraquat application, before onion plants emergence, this investigation was carried out at Monte Alto County, São Paulo State, Brazil. None of the herbicides sprayed alone were efficient in the control of all the weeds present in the experimental area. The tank mix of fluazifop-p-butyl plus oxyfluorfen or ioxynyl-octanoato, regardless of paraquat application, at five days after sowing, controlled efficiently Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus lividus, Echinoclhoa crusgalli, Eragrostis pilosa, Digitaria horizontalis, Eleusine indica and Brachiaria

  11. Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo Periods of weed interference in okra crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P.S Bachega

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Poucas pesquisas têm sido realizadas sobre interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar os períodos de interferência da comunidade infestante no quiabeiro. Um experimento de campo foi conduzido sob dois grupos de tratamentos, mantendo períodos crescentes de 0 (testemunha, 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91 e 105 dias após a emergência da cultura (DAE, com e sem controle das plantas daninhas. As plantas daninhas com maior importância relativa foram Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides e Eleusine indica. A convivência do quiabeiro com as plantas daninhas por todo o ciclo de cultivo reduziu a produtividade da cultura em 95%. O período anterior à interferência foi de 57 DAE, enquanto o período total de prevenção à interferência foi de 14 DAE. Não houve período crítico de prevenção à interferência, sendo um único controle das plantas daninhas entre 14 e 57 DAE suficiente para prevenir a interferência na cultura do quiabo.Few research works have been carried out on weed interference in okra crop. The aim of this study was to estimate the periods of weed interference in okra crop. Thus, a field trial was carried out under two groups of treatments, using increased periods of 0 (check, 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91, and 105 days after crop emergence (DAE with weed control and without weed control. Weeds with highest relative importance were Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides, and Eleusine indica. Coexistence of okra crop and weeds throughout the season reduced crop yield by 95%. The period before interference was 57 DAE, while total period of interference prevention was 14 DAE. There was no critical period of interference prevention, with a single weed control between 14 and 57 DAE being sufficient for interference prevention in okra crop.

  12. Bleogens: Cactus-Derived Anti-Candida Cysteine-Rich Peptides with Three Different Precursor Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shining Loo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs play important host-defense roles in plants. However, information concerning CRPs in the Cactaceae (cactus family is limited, with only a single cactus-derived CRP described to date. Here, we report the identification of 15 novel CRPs with three different precursor architectures, bleogens pB1-15 from Pereskia bleo of the Cactaceae family. By combining proteomic and transcriptomic methods, we showed that the prototype, bleogen pB1, contained 36 amino acid residues, a six-cysteine motif typical of the six-cysteine-hevein-like peptide (6C-HLP family, and a type I two-domain precursor consisting of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER and a mature domain. In contrast, the precursors of the other 14 bleogens contained a type II three-domain architecture with a propeptide domain inserted between the ER and the mature bleogen domain. Four of these 14 bleogens display a third type of architecture with a tandemly repeating bleogen domain. A search of the Onekp database revealed that <1% plant species possess three different precursor architectures for the biosynthesis of 6C-HLPs, including Lophophora williamsii, Pereskia aculeate, Portulaca cryptopetala, Portulaca oleracea, Portulaca suffruticosa, and Talinum sp. NMR analysis confirmed that bleogen pB1 has cystine-knot disulfide connectivity as well as a two-beta-sheet and a four-loop structural fold that is similar to other 6C-HLPs. Sequence analysis, structural studies, and in silico modeling revealed that bleogen pB1 has a cation-polar-cation motif, a signature heparin-binding motif that was confirmed by heparin affinity chromatography. Cell-based assays showed that bleogen pB1 is non-toxic to mammalian cells but functions as an anti-Candida peptide. Taken together, our findings provide insight into the occurrence, functions and precursor architectures of CRPs in the cactus family.

  13. Assessment of Seed Germination and Dormancy of Thirty Seeds Lots of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R Ehyaee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most seeds of medicinal plants due to ecological adaptation to environmental conditions have several types of dormancy. Hence, it's necessary to recognize ecological factors that affect dormancy and provide optimum conditions for germination in medicinal plant species. Thirty seed lots were used to estimate germination and dormancy of medicinal plants. Treatments were KNO3, (2% and scarification of seeds by sand paper, hypochlorite sodium and removing the seed coat with four replicates of 25 seeds. Maximum and minimum germination observed in H2O for Digitalis purpure 100% and Saponaria officinalis 0%. In KNO3 treatment, Portulaca oleracea had the highest germination of 91% and Hyocyamus niger had no any germinated seeds. In sand paper treatment, the Saponaria officinalis and Datura stramonium had maximum, 33% and minimum 0% germination respectively.

  14. Determination of aflatoxins in medicinal plants by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Nadeem A; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ahmad, Sayeed; Panda, Bibhu P; Makhmoor, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The intention of the proposed work is to study the presence of the aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in medicinal plants, namely Mucuna pruriens, Delphinium denudatum and Portulaca oleraceae. The aflatoxins were extracted, purified by immunoaffinity column chromatography and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation (HPLC-MS/MS). Fungal count was carried out in PDA media. A good linear relationship was found for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 at 1-10 ppb (r>0.9995). The analyte accuracy under three different spiking levels was 86.7-108.1 %, with low per cent relative standard deviations in each case. The aflatoxins can be separated within 5 to7 min using an Agilent XDB C18-column. We found that AFB1 and AFB2 were in trace amounts below the detection limit in M. pruriens whilst they were not detected in D. denudatum. P. oleraceae was found to be contaminated with AFB1 and AFB2. AFG1 and AFG2 were not detected in M. pruriens, P. oleraceae and were below the detection limit in D. denudatum. This was consistent with very low numbers of fungal colonies observed after 6 hr of incubation. The analytical method developed is simple, precise, accurate, economical and can be effectively used to determine the aflatoxins in medicinal plants and therefore to control the quality of products. The aflatoxin levels in the plant extracts examined were related to the minimal fungal load in the medicinal plants examined.

  15. High-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array mapping in Brassica oleracea: identification of QTL associated with carotenoid variation in broccoli florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Allan F; Yousef, Gad G; Chebrolu, Kranthi K; Byrd, Robert W; Everhart, Koyt W; Thomas, Aswathy; Reid, Robert W; Parkin, Isobel A P; Sharpe, Andrew G; Oliver, Rebekah; Guzman, Ivette; Jackson, Eric W

    2014-09-01

    A high-resolution genetic linkage map of B. oleracea was developed from a B. napus SNP array. The work will facilitate genetic and evolutionary studies in Brassicaceae. A broccoli population, VI-158 × BNC, consisting of 150 F2:3 families was used to create a saturated Brassica oleracea (diploid: CC) linkage map using a recently developed rapeseed (Brassica napus) (tetraploid: AACC) Illumina Infinium single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. The map consisted of 547 non-redundant SNP markers spanning 948.1 cM across nine chromosomes with an average interval size of 1.7 cM. As the SNPs are anchored to the genomic reference sequence of the rapid cycling B. oleracea TO1000, we were able to estimate that the map provides 96 % coverage of the diploid genome. Carotenoid analysis of 2 years data identified 3 QTLs on two chromosomes that are associated with up to half of the phenotypic variation associated with the accumulation of total or individual compounds. By searching the genome sequences of the two related diploid species (B. oleracea and B. rapa), we further identified putative carotenoid candidate genes in the region of these QTLs. This is the first description of the use of a B. napus SNP array to rapidly construct high-density genetic linkage maps of one of the constituent diploid species. The unambiguous nature of these markers with regard to genomic sequences provides evidence to the nature of genes underlying the QTL, and demonstrates the value and impact this resource will have on Brassica research.

  16. A physical map of Brassica oleracea shows complexity of chromosomal changes following recursive paleopolyploidizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giattina Emily

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of the Brassica species has been recursively affected by polyploidy events, and comparison to their relative, Arabidopsis thaliana, provides means to explore their genomic complexity. Results A genome-wide physical map of a rapid-cycling strain of B. oleracea was constructed by integrating high-information-content fingerprinting (HICF of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones with hybridization to sequence-tagged probes. Using 2907 contigs of two or more BACs, we performed several lines of comparative genomic analysis. Interspecific DNA synteny is much better preserved in euchromatin than heterochromatin, showing the qualitative difference in evolution of these respective genomic domains. About 67% of contigs can be aligned to the Arabidopsis genome, with 96.5% corresponding to euchromatic regions, and 3.5% (shown to contain repetitive sequences to pericentromeric regions. Overgo probe hybridization data showed that contigs aligned to Arabidopsis euchromatin contain ~80% of low-copy-number genes, while genes with high copy number are much more frequently associated with pericentromeric regions. We identified 39 interchromosomal breakpoints during the diversification of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, a relatively high level of genomic change since their divergence. Comparison of the B. oleracea physical map with Arabidopsis and other available eudicot genomes showed appreciable 'shadowing' produced by more ancient polyploidies, resulting in a web of relatedness among contigs which increased genomic complexity. Conclusions A high-resolution genetically-anchored physical map sheds light on Brassica genome organization and advances positional cloning of specific genes, and may help to validate genome sequence assembly and alignment to chromosomes. All the physical mapping data is freely shared at a WebFPC site (http://lulu.pgml.uga.edu/fpc/WebAGCoL/brassica/WebFPC/; Temporarily password-protected: account

  17. Development of Brassica oleracea-nigra monosomic alien addition lines: genotypic, cytological and morphological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chen; Cui, Cheng; Xiang, Yi; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun

    2017-12-01

    We report the development and characterization of Brassica oleracea - nigra monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) to dissect the Brassica B genome. Brassica nigra (2n = 16, BB) represents the diploid Brassica B genome which carries many useful genes and traits for breeding but received limited studies. To dissect the B genome from B. nigra, the triploid F 1 hybrid (2n = 26, CCB) obtained previously from the cross B. oleracea var. alboglabra (2n = 18, CC) × B. nigra was used as the maternal parent and backcrossed successively to parental B. oleracea. The progenies in BC 1 to BC 3 generations were analyzed by the methods of FISH and SSR markers to screen the monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) with each of eight different B-genome chromosomes added to C genome (2n = 19, CC + 1B 1-8 ), and seven different MAALs were established, except for the one with chromosome B2 which existed in one triple addition. Most of these MAALs were distinguishable morphologically from each other, as they expressed the characters from B. nigra differently and at variable extents. The alien chromosome remained unpaired as a univalent in 86.24% pollen mother cells at diakinesis or metaphase I, and formed a trivalent with two C-genome chromosomes in 13.76% cells. Transmission frequency of all the added chromosomes was far higher through the ovules (averagely 14.40%) than the pollen (2.64%). The B1, B4 and B5 chromosomes were transmitted by female at much higher rates (22.38-30.00%) than the other four (B3, B6, B7, B8) (5.04-8.42%). The MAALs should be valuable for exploiting the genome structure and evolution of B. nigra.

  18. A physical map of Brassica oleracea shows complexity of chromosomal changes following recursive paleopolyploidizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Evolution of the Brassica species has been recursively affected by polyploidy events, and comparison to their relative, Arabidopsis thaliana, provides means to explore their genomic complexity. Results A genome-wide physical map of a rapid-cycling strain of B. oleracea was constructed by integrating high-information-content fingerprinting (HICF) of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones with hybridization to sequence-tagged probes. Using 2907 contigs of two or more BACs, we performed several lines of comparative genomic analysis. Interspecific DNA synteny is much better preserved in euchromatin than heterochromatin, showing the qualitative difference in evolution of these respective genomic domains. About 67% of contigs can be aligned to the Arabidopsis genome, with 96.5% corresponding to euchromatic regions, and 3.5% (shown to contain repetitive sequences) to pericentromeric regions. Overgo probe hybridization data showed that contigs aligned to Arabidopsis euchromatin contain ~80% of low-copy-number genes, while genes with high copy number are much more frequently associated with pericentromeric regions. We identified 39 interchromosomal breakpoints during the diversification of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, a relatively high level of genomic change since their divergence. Comparison of the B. oleracea physical map with Arabidopsis and other available eudicot genomes showed appreciable 'shadowing' produced by more ancient polyploidies, resulting in a web of relatedness among contigs which increased genomic complexity. Conclusions A high-resolution genetically-anchored physical map sheds light on Brassica genome organization and advances positional cloning of specific genes, and may help to validate genome sequence assembly and alignment to chromosomes. All the physical mapping data is freely shared at a WebFPC site (http://lulu.pgml.uga.edu/fpc/WebAGCoL/brassica/WebFPC/; Temporarily password-protected: account: pgml; password: 123qwe123

  19. Response of yield and quality of cauliflower varieties (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) to nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rather, K.; Schenk, M.K.; Everaarts, A.P.; Vethman, S.

    1999-01-01

    The fertilizer nitrogen (N) inputs to some vegetables such as cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) can be large. One approach to decreasing the input of N may be to select for cultivars efficient in the use of nitrogen. The objective of this investigation was to identify a cultivar which

  20. Portulaca grandiflora as green roof vegetation: Plant growth and phytoremediation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan

    2017-06-03

    Finding appropriate rooftop vegetation may improve the quality of runoff from green roofs. Portulaca grandiflora was examined as possible vegetation for green roofs. Green roof substrate was found to have low bulk density (360.7 kg/m 3 ) and high water-holding capacity (49.4%), air-filled porosity (21.1%), and hydraulic conductivity (5270 mm/hour). The optimal substrate also supported the growth of P. grandiflora with biomass multiplication of 450.3% and relative growth rate of 0.038. Phytoextraction potential of P. grandiflora was evaluated using metal-spiked green roof substrate as a function of time and spiked substrate metal concentration. It was identified that P. grandiflora accumulated all metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from metal-spiked green roof substrate. At the end of 40 days, P. grandiflora accumulated 811 ± 26.7, 87.2 ± 3.59, 416 ± 15.8, 459 ± 15.6, 746 ± 20.9, 357 ± 18.5, 565 ± 6.8, and 596 ± 24.4 mg/kg of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively. Results also indicated that spiked substrate metal concentration strongly influenced metal accumulation property of P. grandiflora with metal uptake increased and accumulation factor decreased with increase in substrate metal concentration. P. grandiflora also showed potential to translocate all the examined metals with translocation factor greater than 1 for Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn, indicating hyperaccumulation property.

  1. Gene expression programs during Brassica oleracea seed maturation, osmopriming and germination process and the stress tolerance level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeda, Y.; Konings, M.C.J.M.; Vorst, O.F.J.; Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Stoopen, G.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Kodde, J.; Bino, R.J.; Groot, S.P.C.; Geest, van der A.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    During seed maturation and germination, major changes in physiological status, gene expression, and metabolic events take place. Using chlorophyll sorting, osmopriming, and different drying regimes, Brassica oleracea seed lots of different maturity, stress tolerance, and germination behavior were

  2. Antioxidant defense gene analysis in Brassica oleracea and Trifolium repens exposed to Cd and/or Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, F; Dumez, S; Brulle, F; Lemière, S; Platel, A; Nesslany, F; Cuny, D; Deram, A; Vandenbulcke, F

    2016-02-01

    This study focused on the expression analysis of antioxidant defense genes in Brassica oleracea and in Trifolium repens. Plants were exposed for 3, 10, and 56 days in microcosms to a field-collected suburban soil spiked by low concentrations of cadmium and/or lead. In both species, metal accumulations and expression levels of genes encoding proteins involved and/or related to antioxidant defense systems (glutathione transferases, peroxidases, catalases, metallothioneins) were quantified in leaves in order to better understand the detoxification processes involved following exposure to metals. It appeared that strongest gene expression variations in T. repens were observed when plants are exposed to Cd (metallothionein and ascorbate peroxidase upregulations) whereas strongest variations in B. oleracea were observed in case of Cd/Pb co-exposures (metallothionein, glutathione transferase, and peroxidase upregulations). Results also suggest that there is a benefit to use complementary species in order to better apprehend the biological effects in ecotoxicology.

  3. Impact of different drying trajectories on degradation of nutritional compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Oliviero, T.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This work concerns the degradation of the nutritional compounds glucoraphanin (GR) and vitamin C (Vc), and the inactivation of the enzyme myrosinase (MYR) in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) during drying with air temperatures in the range of 30e60 C. Dynamic optimization is applied to find

  4. Phylogeny-dominant classification of J-proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Qiu, Han-Lin; Qu, Dong-Hai; Ruan, Ying; Chen, Dong-Hong

    2018-04-05

    Hsp40s or DnaJ/J-proteins are evolutionarily conserved in all organisms as co-chaperones of molecular chaperone HSP70s that mainly participate in maintaining cellular protein homeostasis, such as protein folding, assembly, stabilization, and translocation under normal conditions as well as refolding and degradation under environmental stresses. It has been reported that Arabidopsis J-proteins are classified into four classes (types A-D) according to domain organization, but their phylogenetic relationships are unknown. Here, we identified 129 J-proteins in the world-wide popular vegetable Brassica oleracea, a close relative of the model plant Arabidopsis, and also revised the information of Arabidopsis J-proteins based on the latest online bioresources. According to phylogenetic analysis with domain organization and gene structure as references, the J-proteins from Arabidopsis and B. oleracea were classified into 15 main clades (I-XV) separated by a number of undefined small branches with remote relationship. Based on the number of members, they respectively belong to multigene clades, oligo-gene clades, and mono-gene clades. The J-protein genes from different clades may function together or separately to constitute a complicated regulatory network. This study provides a constructive viewpoint for J-protein classification and an informative platform for further functional dissection and resistant genes discovery related to genetic improvement of crop plants.

  5. Phenolic acid contents of kale (Brassica oleraceae L. var. acephala DC.) extracts and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ayaz, F. A.; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, S.; Karaoglu, S.A.; Grúz, Jiří; Valentová, K.; Ulrichová, J.; Strnad, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2008), s. 19-25 ISSN 0308-8146 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Black cabbage * Kale * Brassica oleraceae var. acephala Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.696, year: 2008

  6. WHITE BLISTER SPECIES (Albuginaceae ON WEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Vrandečić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The obligate fungi inside the family Albuginaceae are widespread world wide and cause white rust or white blister disease. Mycopopulation of weeds has been researched within the project „The role of weeds in epidemiology of row-crop diseases“. The aim of this research was to identify white blister species occurring on weeds in Eastern Croatia. Weed plants with disease symptoms characteristic for white blister species have been collected since 2001 on location Slavonia and Baranja country. Determination of white blister species was based on morphological characters of pathogen and the host. Wilsoniana bliti was determined on Amaranthus retroflexus and Amaranthus hybridus leaves. Capsella bursa pastoris is a host for Albugo candida. Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a host for Pustula sp. and Cirsium arvense was found to be host for Pustula spinulosa. Wilsoniana portulaceae was determined on Portulaca oleracea.

  7. Comparative evolution history of SINEs in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea: evidence for a high rate of SINE loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, A; Pélissier, T; Bousquet-Antonelli, C; Deragon, J M

    2005-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana belong to the Brassicaceae(Cruciferae) family and diverged 16 to 19 million years ago. Although the genome size of B. oleracea (approximately 600 million base pairs) is more than four times that of A. thaliana (approximately 130 million base pairs), their gene content is believed to be very similar with more than 85% sequence identity in the coding region. Therefore, this important difference in genome size is likely to reflect a different rate of non-coding DNA accumulation. Transposable elements (TEs) constitute a major fraction of non-coding DNA in plant species. A different rate in TE accumulation between two closely related species can result in significant genome size variations in a short evolutionary period. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retroposons that have invaded the genome of most eukaryote species. Several SINE families are present in B. oleracea and A. thaliana and we found that two of them (called RathE1 and RathE2) are present in both species. In this study, the tempo of evolution of RathE1 and RathE2 SINE families in both species was compared. We observed that most B. oleracea RathE2 SINEs are "young" (close to the consensus sequence) and abundant while elements from this family are more degenerated and much less abundant in A. thaliana. However, the situation is different for the RathE1 SINE family for which the youngest elements are found in A. thaliana. Surprisingly, no SINE was found to occupy the same (orthologous) genomic locus in both species suggesting that either these SINE families were not amplified at a significant rate in the common ancestor of the two species or that older elements were lost and only the recent (lineage-specific) insertions remain. To test this latter hypothesis, loci containing a recently inserted SINE in the A. thaliana col-0 ecotype were selected and characterized in several other A. thaliana ecotypes. In addition to the expected SINE containing

  8. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-04

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops.

  9. Phytoremediation potential of Portulaca grandiflora Hook. (Moss-Rose) in degrading a sulfonated diazo reactive dye Navy Blue HE2R (Reactive Blue 172).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Rahul V; Kabra, Akhil N; Kurade, Mayur B; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-06-01

    Wild and tissue cultured plants of Portulaca grandiflora Hook. have shown to be able to decolorize a sulfonated diazo dye Navy Blue HE2R (NBHE2R) up to 98% in 40 h. A significant induction in the activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and DCIP reductase was observed in the roots during dye decolorization. The wild plants and tissue cultures could independently decolorize and degrade NBHE2R into metabolites viz. N-benzylacetamide and 6-diazenyl-4-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid. A dye mixture and a textile effluent were also decolorized efficiently by P. grandiflora. The phytotoxicity study revealed reduction in the toxicity due to metabolites formed after dye degradation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R.; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of a Kale (Brassica oleracea L.) Root Endophyte, Pseudomonas sp. Strain C9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugraud, Aurelie; Young, Sandra; Gerard, Emily; O'Callaghan, Maureen; Wakelin, Steven

    2017-04-13

    Pseudomonas sp. strain C9 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium isolated from the root tissue of Brassica oleracea L. grown in soil from Marlborough, New Zealand. Its draft genome of 6,350,161 bp contains genes associated with plant growth promotion and biological control. Copyright © 2017 Laugraud et al.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of the extrinsic PsbP protein of photosystem II from Spinacia oleracea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohoutová, J.; Kutá Smatanová, I.; Brynda, J.; Lapkouski, M.; Revuelta, J. L.; Arellano, J. B.; Ettrich, R.

    2009-01-01

    Degradation-free crystalization of thrombin-digested recombinant His-tagged PsbP protein of photosystem II from Spinacia oleracea resulting in crystals diffracting to 2.06 Å. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the extrinsic PsbP protein of photosystem II from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) was performed using N-terminally His-tagged recombinant PsbP protein overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant PsbP protein (thrombin-digested recombinant His-tagged PsbP) stored in bis-Tris buffer pH 6.00 was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique with PEG 550 MME as a precipitant and zinc sulfate as an additive. SDS–PAGE analysis of a dissolved crystal showed that the crystals did not contain the degradation products of recombinant PsbP protein. PsbP crystals diffracted to 2.06 Å resolution in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 38.68, b = 46.73, c = 88.9 Å

  13. Genetic diversity analysis among collected purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) accessions using ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M Amirul; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Rafii, Mohd Yusop; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Arolu, Ibrahim Wasiu; Abdul Latif, M

    2015-01-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships among 45 collected purslane accessions were evaluated using ISSR markers. The 28 primers gave a total of 167 bands, among which 163 were polymorphic (97.6%). The genetic diversity as estimated by Shannon's information index was 0.513, revealing a quite high level of genetic diversity in the germplasm. The average number of observed allele, effective allele, expected heterozygosity, polymorphic information content (PIC) and Nei's index were 5.96, 1.59, 0.43, 0.35 and 0.35, respectively. The UPGMA dendrogram based on Nei's genetic distance grouped the whole germplasm into 7 distinct clusters. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 89% of total variation occurred within population, while 11% were found among populations. Based on the constructed dendrogram using ISSR markers those accessions that are far from each other by virtue of genetic origin and diversity index (like Ac1 and Ac42; Ac19 and Ac45; Ac9 and Ac23; Ac18 and A25; Ac24 and Ac18) are strongly recommended to select as parent for future breeding program to develop high yielding and stress tolerant purslane variety in contribution to global food security. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of black mustard (Brassica nigra; BB) and comparison with Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Terachi, Toru

    2014-11-01

    Crop species of Brassica (Brassicaceae) consist of three monogenomic species and three amphidiploid species resulting from interspecific hybridizations among them. Until now, mitochondrial genome sequences were available for only five of these species. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the sixth species, Brassica nigra (nuclear genome constitution BB), and compared it with those of Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC). The genome was assembled into a 232 145 bp circular sequence that is slightly larger than that of B. oleracea (219 952 bp). The genome of B. nigra contained 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 17 tRNA genes. The cox2-2 gene present in B. oleracea was absent in B. nigra. Although the nucleotide sequences of 52 genes were identical between B. nigra and B. carinata, the second exon of rps3 showed differences including an insertion/deletion (indel) and nucleotide substitutions. A PCR test to detect the indel revealed intraspecific variation in rps3, and in one line of B. nigra it amplified a DNA fragment of the size expected for B. carinata. In addition, the B. carinata lines tested here produced DNA fragments of the size expected for B. nigra. The results indicate that at least two mitotypes of B. nigra were present in the maternal parents of B. carinata.

  15. Phenolic compounds in external leaves of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreres, F.; Valentão, P.; Llorach, R.; Pinheiro, C.; Cardoso, L.; Pereira, J.A.; Seabra, R.M.; Andrade, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Glycosylated kaempferol derivatives from the external leaves of tronchuda cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. var. costataDC) characterized by reversed-phase HPLC-DAD-MS/MS-ESI were kaempferol 3- Osophorotrioside- 7-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O- (methoxycaffeoyl/caffeoyl)sophoroside-7- O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside-7-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophorotrioside-7-O-sophoroside, kaempferol 3- O-sophoroside-7- O-sophoroside, kaempferol 3- O-tetraglucoside-7- O-sophoroside, kaempf...

  16. Isothiocyanates, Nitriles, and Epithionitriles from Glucosinolates Are Affected by Genotype and Developmental Stage in Brassica oleracea Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschen, Franziska S; Schreiner, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Vegetables of the Brassica oleracea group, such as broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage, play an important role for glucosinolate consumption in the human diet. Upon maceration of the vegetable tissue, glucosinolates are degraded enzymatically to form volatile isothiocyanates, nitriles, and epithionitriles. However, only the uptake of isothiocyanates is linked to the cancer-preventive effects. Thus, it is of great interest to evaluate especially the isothiocyanate formation. Here, we studied the formation of glucosinolates and their respective hydrolysis products in sprouts and fully developed vegetable heads of different genotypes of the five B. oleracea varieties: broccoli, cauliflower as well as white, red, and savoy cabbages. Further, the effect of ontogeny (developmental stages) during the head development on the formation of glucosinolates and their respective hydrolysis products was evaluated at three different developmental stages (mini, fully developed, and over-mature head). Broccoli and red cabbage were mainly rich in 4-(methylsulfinyl)butyl glucosinolate (glucoraphanin), whereas cauliflower, savoy cabbage and white cabbage contained mainly 2-propenyl (sinigrin) and 3-(methylsulfinyl)propyl glucosinolate (glucoiberin). Upon hydrolysis, epithionitriles or nitriles were often observed to be the main hydrolysis products, with 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane being most abundant with up to 5.7 μmol/g fresh weight in white cabbage sprouts. Notably, sprouts often contained more than 10 times more glucosinolates or their hydrolysis products compared to fully developed vegetables. Moreover, during head development, both glucosinolate concentrations as well as hydrolysis product concentrations changed and mini heads contained the highest isothiocyanate concentrations. Thus, from a cancer-preventive point of view, consumption of mini heads of the B. oleracea varieties is recommended.

  17. Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Induce Subspecies-Specific Patterns of Glucosinolate Accumulation and Gene Expression in Brassica oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Go-Eun; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Hwang, Byung Ho; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-10-24

    Glucosinolates have anti-carcinogenic properties. In the recent decades, the genetics of glucosinolate biosynthesis has been widely studied, however, the expression of specific genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis under exogenous phytohormone treatment has not been explored at the subspecies level in Brassica oleracea . Such data are vital for strategies aimed at selective exploitation of glucosinolate profiles. This study quantified the expression of 38 glucosinolate biosynthesis-related genes in three B. oleracea subspecies, namely cabbage, broccoli and kale, and catalogued associations between gene expression and increased contents of individual glucosinolates under methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) treatments. Glucosinolate accumulation and gene expression in response to phytohormone elicitation was subspecies specific. For instance, cabbage leaves showed enhanced accumulation of the aliphatic glucoiberin, progoitrin, sinigrin and indolic neoglucobrassicin under both MeJA and SA treatment. MeJA treatment induced strikingly higher accumulation of glucobrassicin (GBS) in cabbage and kale and of neoglucobrassicin (NGBS) in broccoli compared to controls. Notably higher expression of ST5a (Bol026200), CYP81F1 (Bol028913, Bol028914) and CYP81F4 genes was associated with significantly higher GBS accumulation under MeJA treatment compared to controls in all three subspecies. CYP81F4 genes, trans-activated by MYB34 genes, were expressed at remarkably high levels in all three subspecies under MeJA treatment, which also induced in higher indolic NGBS accumulation in all three subspecies. Remarkably higher expression of MYB28 (Bol036286), ST5b , ST5c , AOP2 , FMOGS-OX5 (Bol031350) and GSL-OH (Bol033373) was associated with much higher contents of aliphatic glucosinolates in kale leaves compared to the other two subspecies. The genes expressed highly could be utilized in strategies to selectively increase glucosinolate compounds in B. oleracea

  18. A theoretical model for explaining the effect of physical manipulation on nitrate uptake in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    terSteege, MW; Stulen, [No Value

    1997-01-01

    Experiments with spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Subito) plants in which net nitrate uptake rate (NNUR) and nitrate influx and efflux were measured showed that handling the plants affected the results considerably. Both nitrate influx and efflux changed after physical manipulation of the plants,

  19. Impact of cadmium on forage kale (Brassica oleracea var. viridis cv "Prover") after 3-,10- and 56-day exposure to a Cd-spiked field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Fabien; Dumez, Sylvain; Lemière, Sébastien; Platel, Anne; Nesslany, Fabrice; Deram, Annabelle; Vandenbulcke, Franck; Cuny, Damien

    2018-03-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element for living organisms and is widespread in metal-contaminated soils. As organisms which can grow up on these polluted areas, plants have some protection mechanisms against Cd issues. Among the plant kingdom, the Brassicaceae family includes species which are known to be able to tolerate and accumulate Cd in their tissues. In this study, Brassica oleracea var. viridis cv "Prover" was exposed to a range of artificially Cd-contaminated soils (from 2.5 up to 20 mg kg -1 ) during 3, 10, and 56 days and the effects on life traits, photosynthesis activity, antioxidant enzymatic activities were studied. Metal accumulation was quantified, as well as DNA damage, by means of the comet assay and immunodetection of 8-OHdG levels. Globally, B. oleracea was relatively tolerant to those Cd exposures. However, comet assay and detection of 8-OHdG revealed some DNA damage but which are not significant. According to metal accumulation analysis, B. oleracea var. viridis cv Prover could be a good candidate for alternative growing in contaminated areas.

  20. Conformational changes in spinach (Spinacia oleracea leaves chloroplasts in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Godziemba-Czyż

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the surface area of chloroplasts from intact cells of spinach leaves (\tSpinacia oleracea induced by blue (370—500 nm and red (600- 850 nm light of various intensity (102 - 5x105 erg cm-1s-1 were investigated. The changes are deseribed in terms of mean surface area in , μm2 and frequency of oocurrence of surface size classes. Low intensity blue light caused enlargement of the chloroplast surface (as compared with that in darkness, whereas high intensity light markedly reduced it. Exposure of chloroplasts to red light produces an increase of the surface in proportion to the intensity of the light and irradiation time.

  1. Introgression of Black Rot Resistance from Brassica carinata to Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis Group) through Embryo Rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Brij B; Kalia, Pritam; Singh, Dinesh; Sharma, Tilak R

    2017-01-01

    Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris ( Xcc ) is a very important disease of cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea botrytis group) resulting into 10-50% yield losses every year. Since there is a dearth of availability of resistance to black rot disease in B. oleracea (C genome), therefore exploration of A and B genomes was inevitable as they have been reported to be potential reservoirs of gene(s) for resistance to black rot. To utilize these sources, interspecific hybrid and backcross progeny (B 1 ) were generated between cauliflower "Pusa Sharad" and Ethiopian mustard "NPC-9" employing in vitro embryo rescue technique. Direct ovule culture method was better than siliqua culture under different temperature regime periods. Hybridity testing of F 1 inter-specific plants was carried out using co-dominant SSR marker and Brassica B and C genome-specific (DB and DC) primers. Meiosis in the di-genomic (BCC) interspecific hybrid of B. oleracea botrytis group (2 n = 18, CC) × B. carinata (2 n = 4x = 34, BBCC) was higly disorganized and cytological analysis of pollen mother cells revealed chromosomes 2 n = 26 at metaphase-I. Fertile giant pollen grain formation was observed frequently in interspecific F 1 hybrid and BC 1 plants. The F 1 inter-specific plants were found to be resistant to Xcc race 1. Segregation distortion was observed in BC 1 generation for black rot resistance and different morphological traits. The At1g70610 marker analysis confirmed successful introgression of black rot resistance in interspecific BC 1 population. This effort will go a long way in pyramiding gene(s) for resistance against black rot in Cole crops, especially cauliflower and cabbage for developing durable resistance, thus minimize dependency on bactericides.

  2. Introgression of Black Rot Resistance from Brassica carinata to Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis Group) through Embryo Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Brij B.; Kalia, Pritam; Singh, Dinesh; Sharma, Tilak R.

    2017-01-01

    Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is a very important disease of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis group) resulting into 10–50% yield losses every year. Since there is a dearth of availability of resistance to black rot disease in B. oleracea (C genome), therefore exploration of A and B genomes was inevitable as they have been reported to be potential reservoirs of gene(s) for resistance to black rot. To utilize these sources, interspecific hybrid and backcross progeny (B1) were generated between cauliflower “Pusa Sharad” and Ethiopian mustard “NPC-9” employing in vitro embryo rescue technique. Direct ovule culture method was better than siliqua culture under different temperature regime periods. Hybridity testing of F1 inter-specific plants was carried out using co-dominant SSR marker and Brassica B and C genome-specific (DB and DC) primers. Meiosis in the di-genomic (BCC) interspecific hybrid of B. oleracea botrytis group (2n = 18, CC) × B. carinata (2n = 4x = 34, BBCC) was higly disorganized and cytological analysis of pollen mother cells revealed chromosomes 2n = 26 at metaphase-I. Fertile giant pollen grain formation was observed frequently in interspecific F1 hybrid and BC1 plants. The F1 inter-specific plants were found to be resistant to Xcc race 1. Segregation distortion was observed in BC1 generation for black rot resistance and different morphological traits. The At1g70610 marker analysis confirmed successful introgression of black rot resistance in interspecific BC1 population. This effort will go a long way in pyramiding gene(s) for resistance against black rot in Cole crops, especially cauliflower and cabbage for developing durable resistance, thus minimize dependency on bactericides. PMID:28769959

  3. Introgression of Black Rot Resistance from Brassica carinata to Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis Group through Embryo Rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brij B. Sharma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc is a very important disease of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis group resulting into 10–50% yield losses every year. Since there is a dearth of availability of resistance to black rot disease in B. oleracea (C genome, therefore exploration of A and B genomes was inevitable as they have been reported to be potential reservoirs of gene(s for resistance to black rot. To utilize these sources, interspecific hybrid and backcross progeny (B1 were generated between cauliflower “Pusa Sharad” and Ethiopian mustard “NPC-9” employing in vitro embryo rescue technique. Direct ovule culture method was better than siliqua culture under different temperature regime periods. Hybridity testing of F1 inter-specific plants was carried out using co-dominant SSR marker and Brassica B and C genome-specific (DB and DC primers. Meiosis in the di-genomic (BCC interspecific hybrid of B. oleracea botrytis group (2n = 18, CC × B. carinata (2n = 4x = 34, BBCC was higly disorganized and cytological analysis of pollen mother cells revealed chromosomes 2n = 26 at metaphase-I. Fertile giant pollen grain formation was observed frequently in interspecific F1 hybrid and BC1 plants. The F1 inter-specific plants were found to be resistant to Xcc race 1. Segregation distortion was observed in BC1 generation for black rot resistance and different morphological traits. The At1g70610 marker analysis confirmed successful introgression of black rot resistance in interspecific BC1 population. This effort will go a long way in pyramiding gene(s for resistance against black rot in Cole crops, especially cauliflower and cabbage for developing durable resistance, thus minimize dependency on bactericides.

  4. Avaliação da estabilidade oxidativa do óleo bruto de açaí (Euterpe oleracea na presença de compostos fenólicos puros ou de extratos vegetais amazônicos Evaluation of oxidative stability of crude açai (Euterpe oleracea oil in the presence of pure phenolic compounds or Amazonian plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Joaquim Mangabeira da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A final 241 µM of ascorbyl palmitate and 555 µM of the following antioxidants separately: BHA, myricetin and quercetin standards, and extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia, Inga edulis or Euterpe oleracea, were added to crude açai oil and submitted to the oxidation process at 60 ºC for 11 days. Among the antioxidants used, only the myricetin standard showed the ability to defer the oxidation process until the third day of treatment. B. crassifolia, I. edulis and E. oleracea extracts showed no preventive capacity against the oxidation process, despite their high concentration phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities.

  5. Phytotoxic Effects of Cinnamic Acid on Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, N. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effects of exogenous application of cinnamic acid (CA on growth and metabolism in growing seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage in hydroponic culture. CA was added at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM concentrations. CA has shown inhibitory effects on shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings. CA significantly decreased the photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content. Graded concentrations of CA increased lipid peroxidation and sugar content. The increasing concentrations of CA significantly increased the antioxidative enzyme activities viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase against the oxidative stress caused by CA.

  6. Herbivore-induced plant responses in Brassica oleracea prevail over effects of constitutive resistance and result in enhanced herbivore attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, E.H.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dam, van N.M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    2. Here we studied the effect of early-season herbivory by caterpillars of Pieris rapae on the composition of the insect herbivore community on domesticated Brassica oleracea plants. We compared the effect of herbivory on two cultivars that differ in the degree of susceptibility to herbivores to

  7. Salinity Induced Changes in β-carotene, Thiamine, Riboflavin and Ascorbic Acid Content in Spinacia oleracea L. var. All Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Ratnakar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are the functional components of various enzyme-regulated biochemical reactions occurring to create energy. Vitamin contents of plants are known to show altered metabolism under the influence of salinity. Not much of work has been done on the influence of salinity on the vitamin content in higher plants. Present study was carried out to study the influence of NaCl salinity on vitamin content in the leaves of Spinacia oleracea. Spinacia oleracea plants were grown in earthen pots and were subjected to different concentrations of saline water (NaCl treatment. Control plants were irrigated with tap water. Treatments started after the seedling emergence and continued till the plants were 45 day old. Mature leaves of these plants were harvested and used for studies. Thiamine and riboflavin content were found to increase with increase in NaCl concentration, however, β-carotene was found to decrease with increasing level of NaCl in the growth medium.

  8. Neuroprotective Effects of Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart. against Rotenone In Vitro Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alencar Kolinski Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric diseases, such as bipolar disorder (BD and schizophrenia (SCZ, have a very complex pathophysiology. Several current studies describe an association between psychiatric illness and mitochondrial dysfunction and consequent cellular modifications, including lipid, protein, and DNA damage, caused by cellular oxidative stress. Euterpe oleracea (açaí is a powerful antioxidant fruit. Açaí is an Amazonian palm fruit primarily found in the lowlands of the Amazonian rainforest, particularly in the floodplains of the Amazon River. Given this proposed association, this study analyzed the potential in vitro neuropharmacological effect of Euterpe oleracea (açaí extract in the modulation of mitochondrial function and oxidative metabolism. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with rotenone to induce mitochondrial complex I dysfunction and before and after we exposed the cells to açaí extract at 5 μg/mL. Treated and untreated cells were then analyzed by spectrophotometric, fluorescent, immunological, and molecular assays. The results showed that açaí extract can potentially increase protein amount and enzyme activity of mitochondrial complex I, mainly through NDUFS7 and NDUFS8 overexpression. Açaí extract was also able to decrease cell reactive oxygen species levels and lipid peroxidation. We thus suggest açaí as a potential candidate for drug development and a possible alternative BD therapy.

  9. Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis reveal a rapid expansion and functional divergence of duplicated genes in the WRKY gene family of cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiu-Yang; Xia, En-Hua; Liu, Fei-Hu; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2015-02-15

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs), one of the ten largest TF families in higher plants, play important roles in regulating plant development and resistance. To date, little is known about the WRKY TF family in Brassica oleracea. Recently, the completed genome sequence of cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata) allows us to systematically analyze WRKY genes in this species. A total of 148 WRKY genes were characterized and classified into seven subgroups that belong to three major groups. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses revealed that the repertoire of cabbage WRKY genes was derived from a common ancestor shared with Arabidopsis thaliana. The B. oleracea WRKY genes were found to be preferentially retained after the whole-genome triplication (WGT) event in its recent ancestor, suggesting that the WGT event had largely contributed to a rapid expansion of the WRKY gene family in B. oleracea. The analysis of RNA-Seq data from various tissues (i.e., roots, stems, leaves, buds, flowers and siliques) revealed that most of the identified WRKY genes were positively expressed in cabbage, and a large portion of them exhibited patterns of differential and tissue-specific expression, demonstrating that these gene members might play essential roles in plant developmental processes. Comparative analysis of the expression level among duplicated genes showed that gene expression divergence was evidently presented among cabbage WRKY paralogs, indicating functional divergence of these duplicated WRKY genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing the anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates in Se-biofortified broccoli (brassica oleracea L. var. italica) sprouts and florets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a rich source of chemopreventive compounds. Here, we evaluated and compared the effect of selenium (Se) treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts and florets. Total Se ...

  11. Comportamento fisiológico de sementes de açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart. submetidas à desidratação Physiology behavior of Euterpe oleracea seeds submitted to desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walnice Maria Oliveira do Nascimento

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, objetivando verificar os efeitos imediatos da desidratação sobre o comportamento fisiológico das sementes de açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart., utilizou lote oriundo de população de 25 progênies de meio-irmãos, pertencente à Coleção de Germoplasma da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental (Belém/PA. Anteriormente à secagem, foi determinado o grau de umidade das sementes e coletado o tratamento que continha o maior grau de umidade (45%. As demais sementes foram submetidas à secagem, em câmara com circulação de ar (30ºC±2ºC, visando à obtenção dos demais tratamentos com 39%, 33%, 27%, 22% e 15% de água. O efeito da desidratação sobre a qualidade das sementes foi avaliado através das seguintes determinações: grau de umidade, teste de germinação, índice de velocidade de emergência e emergência de plântulas. Foi verificado que a desidratação até 39% de água não produz efeitos fisiológicos imediatos sobre as sementes de açaí; a partir de 33% de água, a dessecação favorece progressivamente a redução da germinação e, ao atingir 15% de água, a capacidade germinativa foi anulada.The objective of this article was to verify the physiological effects of desiccation of Euterpe oleracea Mart. seeds. Açai palm seeds from twenty five progenies from the germoplasm collection of Embrapa Amazônia Oriental (Belém, State of Pará, Brazil were used. Before the desiccation, it was determined the moisture content of the lot and it was removed the treatment with the highest moisture content (45%. The other seeds of the lot were submitted to drying in a chamber with air circulation at 30±2ºC aiming to reach the treatments at 39%, 33%, 27%, 22% and 15% of water. The effects of dehydration were evaluated by means of the following determinations: moisture content, germination test, speed and emergency of seedlings. It was concluded that the desiccation to 39% moisture content does not affect the physiology of

  12. The biology of Meteorus gyrator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a solitary endoparasitoid of the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, H A; Marris, G C; Bell, J; Edwards, J P

    2000-08-01

    There is a need to identify potential biological control agents for use against lepidopterous pests in greenhouses. The solitary endoparasitoid Meteorus gyrator (Thunberg) attacks a range of macrolepidopterous larvae, including those of some important horticultural pest species. Laboratory trials designed to investigate the biology of M. gyrator on larvae of the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea Linnaeus, reveal that this parasitoid is capable of parasitizing all larval stages of its host, third instars being parasitized most frequently. Each female parasitoid lives for up to 40 days (at 25 degrees C), ovipositing into an average of 78 hosts. Preadult development is rapid ( approximately 2 weeks), and the sex ratio of offspring is 1:1. Parasitism by M. gyrator suppresses the growth of both early and late host instars, and there is a concomitant reduction in the amount of food consumed (overall feeding reduction over a 12 day period is 68%). Our results indicate that inoculative releases of M. gyrator could provide effective biological control of L. oleracea and other noctuid pests of greenhouses.

  13. Morpho-physiological and mineral nutrient characterization of 45 collected Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. accessions

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    Amirul Alam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine, evaluation and characterization of the morphological, physiological as well as mineral nutrient vitiations among all forty five purslane accessions collected from different locations of West Peninsular, Malaysia. Significant differences (p<0.05 were observed for all those traits measured regarding morphological, physiological and mineral composition. Morphological traits viz. plant height varied between 20.06-40.8 cm; number of main branch, 1.4-4.4; number of nodes, 8.4-31; internode distance, 2.1-3.43 cm; stem diameter, 2.12-3.8 mm; number of leaves, 97-1019; leaf area, 1.03-2.21 cm², number of flowers, 14-826.8; root length, 5.09-11.7 cm; fresh weight, 40-280 g; and dry weight varied between 2.71-29.16 g. Among physiological traits, total chlorophyll content varied between 26.2-39.52 (SPAD value, net photosynthesis, 20.8-28.73 µmol CO2/m²/sec; stomatal conductance, 0.02-0.28 cm/sec; transpiration rate, 0.46-2.48 mol/m²/sec; and water vapor deficit varied between 0.51-2.65 mol H2O/m²/sec. Analysis of mineral macro and micro nutrient compositions showed that all accessions contained appreciable amount of essential nutrients. Among the macro nutrient elements; N, P, K, Ca and Mg contents ranged respectively between 31.2-100, 2.51-8.2, 78.4-276, 9.1-62.2 and 8.7-32.55 ppm. Whereas micro nutrient elements; Zn, Fe and Mn ranged respectively between 0.31-1.09; 1.01-13.09 and 0.06-1.32 ppm. This great variability among the purslane accessions may contribute enhancing the genetic improvement of the species for desired traits.

  14. Chemical composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal, phytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Mediterranean Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea resin essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukanli, Zeynep; Karabörklü, Salih; Bozok, Fuat; Ates, Burhan; Erdogan, Selim; Cenet, Menderes; Karaaslan, Merve Göksin

    2014-12-01

    Essential oils of the resins of Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea were evaluated for their biological potential. Essential oils were characterized using GC-MS and GC/FID. in vitro antimicrobial, phytotoxic, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities were carried out using the direct contact and the fumigant assays, respectively. The chemical profile of the essential oils of the resins of P. pinea and P. brutia included mainly α-pinene (21.39% and 25.40%), β-pinene (9.68% and 9.69%), and caryophyllene (9.12% and 4.81%). The essential oils of P. pinea and P. brutia exerted notable antimicrobial activities on Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, insecticidal activities on Ephestia kuehniella eggs, phytotoxic activities on Lactuca sativa, Lepidium sativum, and Portulaca oleracea, as well as antioxidant potential. Indications of the biological activities of the essential oils suggest their use in the formulation of ecofriendly and biocompatible pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Willigen, de P.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was studied in four field experiments. The methods of application were broadcast application vs band placement and split application. Maximum uptake of nitrogen

  16. Impact of Selenium Supplementation on Growth and Selenium Accumulation on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Azadeh SAFFARYAZDI; Mehrdad LAHOUTI; Ali GANJEALI; Hassan BAYAT

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has been proved to be an essential element for humans and animals. However, less is known about its effects on plants. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of selenium on growth, selenium accumulation and some physiological characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. �Missouri�) plants. Plants were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution amended with sodium selenite at 0 (control), 1, 2, 4, 6 and 10 mg.L-1 for 28 days. Growth parameters like sh...

  17. Somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos of Euterpe oleracea Mart. Embriogênese somática em embriões zigóticos de Euterpe oleracea Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana da Silva Ledo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the morphogenetic responses of zygotic embryos of açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart. submitted to several conditions of in vitro culture. Several research experiments were conducted, in laboratory, using vegetable material collected from açai palm plants at Embrapa Amazon Oriental, Belém-PA, Brazil. It was possible to verify the expression of a direct, repetitive and no-synchronized model of somatic embryogenesis in mature zygotic embryos cultivated in primary MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (339.36 muM and transferred to a secondary MS medium in the presence of NAA (0.537 muM and 2iP (12.30 muM. The conversion of somatic embryos into seedlings was reached after 210 days with the transfer of the cultures to a third medium with sucrose and mineral salts concentrations reduced to a half, without growth regulators.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar as diferentes respostas morfogenéticas de embriões zigóticos de açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Mart. submetidos a várias condições de cultura in vitro. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório, com material vegetal coletado de plantas de açaí da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, Belém-PA, Brasil. Foi possível verificar a expressão de um modelo de embriogênese somática direto, repetitivo e assincronizado em embriões zigóticos maduros cultivados em meio primário MS, suplementado com 339,36 miM de 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D, e transferidos para meio secundário MS na presença de 0,537 miM de ácido 1-naftalenoacético (ANA e 12,30 miM de 2-isopenteniladenina (2iP. A conversão de embriões somáticos em plântulas foi alcançada aos 210 dias da inoculação com a transferência das culturas para um terceiro meio com a concentração de sais e sacarose reduzida pela metade e ausência de reguladores de crescimento.

  18. Fruto de naidi (Euterpe oleracea y su perspectiva en la seguridad alimentaria colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Montenegro-Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Euterpe oleracea es una palma originaria de Suramérica, su distribución es netamente tropical y subtropical. Su fruto es altamente aprove - chado en Brasil, donde se conoce como açai. Comercializado tanto dentro como fuera del país, sus niveles de exportación han aumentado debido a resultados científicos que indican altas propiedades antioxidantes y nutritivas. Es considerado alimento funcional y de impor - tancia en el sostenimiento de la seguridad alimentaria. En Colombia, E. oleracea hace presencia en la región pacífica, principalmente en valles medios de los ríos Atrato y Magdalena, su fruto conocido como naidí se aprovecha en los departamentos de Nariño, Cauca, Valle del Cauca y Chocó. Habitantes del Pacífico valoran su fruto por sus cualidades nutritivas y por ser fuente de ingresos para muchas familias que comercializan en mercados locales. Su aprovechamiento se ve afectado debido a que las cosechas abundantes se dan solamente en dos épocas del año, originando priorización por el aprovechamiento del palmito (cogollo sobre el fruto, comprometiéndose el uso sustentable del recurso y la seguridad alimentaria, ya que la extracción de palmito, primero afecta la fructificación, y segundo no favorece la economía de la región, porque su explotación la hacen empresas extranjeras exportadoras. Por lo tanto, este recurso fitogenético requiere atención de entes gubernamentales e instituciones que contribuyan en el fortalecimiento de la comercialización del fruto teniendo como base sus bondades nutritivas y saludables.

  19. High-throughput multiplex cpDNA resequencing clarifies the genetic diversity and genetic relationships among Brassica napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jiangwei; Cai, Mengxian; Yan, Guixin; Wang, Nian; Li, Feng; Chen, Binyun; Gao, Guizhen; Xu, Kun; Li, Jun; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Brassica napus (rapeseed) is a recent allotetraploid plant and the second most important oilseed crop worldwide. The origin of B. napus and the genetic relationships with its diploid ancestor species remain largely unresolved. Here, chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from 488 B. napus accessions of global origin, 139 B. rapa accessions and 49 B. oleracea accessions were populationally resequenced using Illumina Solexa sequencing technologies. The intraspecific cpDNA variants and their allelic frequencies were called genomewide and further validated via EcoTILLING analyses of the rpo region. The cpDNA of the current global B. napus population comprises more than 400 variants (SNPs and short InDels) and maintains one predominant haplotype (Bncp1). Whole-genome resequencing of the cpDNA of Bncp1 haplotype eliminated its direct inheritance from any accession of the B. rapa or B. oleracea species. The distribution of the polymorphism information content (PIC) values for each variant demonstrated that B. napus has much lower cpDNA diversity than B. rapa; however, a vast majority of the wild and cultivated B. oleracea specimens appeared to share one same distinct cpDNA haplotype, in contrast to its wild C-genome relatives. This finding suggests that the cpDNA of the three Brassica species is well differentiated. The predominant B. napus cpDNA haplotype may have originated from uninvestigated relatives or from interactions between cpDNA mutations and natural/artificial selection during speciation and evolution. These exhaustive data on variation in cpDNA would provide fundamental data for research on cpDNA and chloroplasts. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Induction of apoptosis in HT-29 cells by extracts from isothiocyanates-rich varieties of Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Sergi; Crescenti, Anna; Gassó, Patricia; Deulofeu, Ramon; Molina, Rafael; Ballesta, Antonio; Kensler, Thomas W; Lafuente, Amalia

    2007-01-01

    Among the vegetables with anti-carcinogenic properties, members of the genus Brassica are the most effective at reducing the risk of cancer. This property may be explained by their principle bioactive compounds, isothiocyanates (ITCs). The aim of this study was to measure the amounts of ITCs in extracts from vegetables of the Brasssica genus and assay them for potency of induction of apoptosis in a colorectal cancer cell line (HT-29). ITCs were determined by the cyclocondensation assay with 1,2-benzenedithiol and induction of apoptosis by assessment of cell viability, caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation. Purple cabbage extract showed the highest ITC concentration per gram, fresh weight, followed by black cabbage and Romanesco cauliflower. At ITC concentrations of 7.08 microg/mL these extracts decreased cell viability and induced caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation at 48h. Brussels sprouts showed the strongest effects on cell viability and caspase-3 activity. Varieties of Brassica Oleracea are rich sources of ITCs that potently inhibit the growth of colon cancer cells by inducting apoptosis. All the extracts showed anticancer activity at ITC concentrations of between 3.54 to 7.08 mug/mL, which are achievable in vivo. Our results showed that ITC concentration and the chemopreventive responses of plant extracts vary among the varieties of Brassica Oleracea studied and among their cultivars.

  1. Infestação de Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae em Plantas de Euterpe oleracea Martius (Arecaceae no Estado do Acre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos

    2015-04-01

    Abstract. The açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Martius is a native palm tree from the Amazon region floodplains and may be indicated as the most economically profitable species of this genus. Its fruit pulp is extracted and widely consumed by the population of northern Brazil in several ways. With the expansion of the planted area many factors may affect the production and limit the cultivation, highlighting the occurrence of insect pests that cause losses in production. This report presents the first occurrence of the leafhopper Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae in E. oleracea plants. The occurrence of this insect associated with açai palms in Rio Branco, Acre, increases the list of hosts for this leafhopper in Brazil and reinforces the need for studies of population dynamics, survey of natural enemies, levels of damage and control methods in order to anticipate population outbreaks of this pest in commercial plantations of açai palms in the State.

  2. Efeito de diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na produtividade da cultura da cebola Effect of different weed control periods on onion crop yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Soares

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento em Monte Alto-SP, visando estudar os efeitos de diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas sobre a produção de bulbos da cultura da cebola (Allium cepa, cultivar 'Mercedes', no sistema de transplantio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Parte dos tratamentos experimentais foi disposta num esquema fatorial 4 x 6, em que constituíram variáveis quatro períodos em que se fez o controle (0-0, 0-7, 0-14 e 0-21 DAT e seis períodos em que se reiniciou o controle das plantas daninhas prolongando até a colheita: 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 DAT. Duas testemunhas foram adotadas: uma com controle e outra sem controle das plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo da cultura. Lycopersicon esculentum, Portulaca oleracea, Eragrostis pilosa e Galinsoga parviflora foram as plantas daninhas mais importantes na área. Não houve interação entre os diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas. O controle inicial destas plantas deve se prolongar até 14 DAT e ser reiniciado aos 28 DAT, a fim de prevenir reduções significativas na produtividade em relação à testemunha no limpo A convivência com as plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo da cebola reduziu a produtividade em 94,5%.An experiment was carried out in Monte Alto, SP to study the effects of different of weed control periods on the yield of onion (Allium cepa bulb, 'Mercedes' cultivar, under the transplanting system. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design, with four replications. The treatments were arranged in 4 x 6 factorial design with four initial weed removal periods (after transplanting until 0, 7, 14 and 21 days and six final weed removal periods (from 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 or 98 days after transplanting until harvest. Two controls were adapted with and without weed control throughout the onion cycle. Lycopersicon esculentum, Portulaca oleracea, Eragrostis pilosa and

  3. Krokot (Portulaca oleracea L As a Natural Sensitizer for TiO2 Dye-sensitized Solar Cells: The Effect of Temperature Extract

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    Reyza Anni Mufidah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The solar cell is formed by a sandwich structure, in which two electrodes flank the primary electrolyte that is containing redox I-/based on PEG (Polyethylene Glycol. The working-electrode which is TiO2 layer on an ITO glass substrate is sensitized with krokot dye as the electron donor. The counter electrode is a layer of carbon. The fabrication cell is immersed with the krokot dye with 40°C, 50°C, 60°C extract temperature. The result of the UV-Vis shows that the absorption of wave-length from dye extract of krokot is located in the visible region with the absorbance peak in 420,5 nm and 665,5 nm which are the peak of chlorophyll. For the UV-Vis solid system, there are the highest band gap  in  50°C extract temperature that make the capability of absorption toward UV spectrum is large. Furthermore, in the functional group analysed by FT-IR, there are shiften-carbonil and hydroxyl group after they are sensitized. From the current and voltage test with I-V meter keithley 2400 is resulted that on the 50°C extract temperature produces the highest efficiency of reaches which is 2.63 x 10-3 %.

  4. POTENSI ALELOPAT DAUN PINUS (Pinus spp. SEBAGAI BIOHERBISIDA PRA TUMBUH PADA GULMA KROKOT (Portulaca oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfy Ditya Cahyanti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to study the effectof pine leaf as allelophaty on purslane germination. Theexperiment were conducted at screen house Departmentof Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, BrawijayaUniversity. The research is experimental design by nonfactorial Completely Randomized Blok Design, with threereplications, consisted of eleven levels. Purslane seeds sprout with control treatment, signifi cantly different from seedssprout ability in treatment solution leaves Pinus merkusii 2000ppm, and solution leaves of P. longaeva 2000 ppm. The resultshowed that 2000 ppm of P. merkusii extraction signifi cantlysuppressed 46% of purslane germination whereas 2000 ppmPinus longeava extraction signifi cantly suppressed of 41%campared to without any treatments (control.

  5. Light influence in the nutritional composition of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Peixoto, V; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    Brassica sprouts are considered a healthy food product, whose nutritional quality can be influenced by several factors. The aim of this work was to monitor the nutritional composition changes promoted by different sprouting conditions of four varieties of Brassica oleracea (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage). Sprouts were grown under light/darkness cycles and complete darkness. Standard AOAC methods were applied for nutritional value evaluation, while chromatographic methods with UV-VIS and FID detection were used to determine the free amino acids and fatty acids, respectively. Mineral content was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Sprouts composition revealed them as an excellent source of protein and dietary fiber. Selenium content was one of the most distinctive feature of sprouts, being the sprouting conditions determinant for the free amino acid and fatty acids profile. The use of complete darkness was beneficial to the overall nutritional quality of the brassica sprouts studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The socioeconomic context of the use of Euterpe precatoria Mart. and E. oleracea Mart. in Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua-Zambrana, Narel; Bussmann, Rainer W; Macía, Manuel J

    2017-06-02

    Traditional knowledge (TK) has enabled communities to adapt to changes in life conditions over centuries. However, this local context is being dramatically affected by recent changes through globalization and modernization of societies. In this paper we seek to identify socio-economic factors that are related to the knowledge and use of two palm species in mestizo and indigenous communities in the Amazonian of Peru and Bolivia. Both species are known in the region under the main vernacular name of Asaí, and are source of two highly commercialized resources: palm-hearts and fruits. Euterpe precatoria Mart. is native to the region whereas E. oleracea Mart. is being introduced for the use of both resources. We compare TK about the two Euterpe species in both countries in relation to 14 socioeconomic factors in seven use categories. We performed a Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to elucidate the influence of each socioeconomic factor on the overall palm knowledge or on individual use categories. In the two countries, we found that mestizos, speaking only Spanish, and migrants in the same ecoregion, knew more uses in all use categories for E. precatoria than for E. oleracea, even in use categories such as Medicinal and veterinary and Construction, for which indigenous participants had more uses in case of other species. In Peru, the use of E. precatoria was higher among participants with greater wealth, which could be related to the commercial importance that both the fruits and the palm-hearts have had in the markets of the region. In contrast, in Bolivia, although some income generation from Euterpe sp. was observed, the use of E. precatoria was much more homogeneously distributed. The use of E. oleracea in Bolivia is recent, and although its most important uses are related to the consumption of fruits and palm-hearts (Human food), it is now being slowly used for Medicinal and Construction purposes, similar to E. precatoria. The use of each of the species

  7. Influence of Light and Temperature on Gene Expression Leading to Accumulation of Specific Flavonol Glycosides and Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives in Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugart, Susanne; Krumbein, Angelika; Zrenner, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Light intensity and temperature are very important signals for the regulation of plant growth and development. Plants subjected to less favorable light or temperature conditions often respond with accumulation of secondary metabolites. Some of these metabolites have been identified as bioactive compounds, considered to exert positive effects on human health when consumed regularly. In order to test a typical range of growth parameters for the winter crop Brassica oleracea var. sabellica, plants were grown either at 400 μmol m(-2) s(-1) or 100 μmol m(-2) s(-1) at 10°C, or at 400 μmol m(-2) s(-1) with 5 or 15°C. The higher light intensity overall increased flavonol content of leaves, favoring the main quercetin glycosides, a caffeic acid monoacylated kaempferol triglycoside, and disinapoyl-gentiobiose. The higher temperature mainly increased the hydroxycinnamic acid derivative disinapoyl-gentiobiose, while at lower temperature synthesis is in favor of very complex sinapic acid acylated flavonol tetraglycosides such as kaempferol-3-O-sinapoyl-sophoroside-7-O-diglucoside. A global analysis of light and temperature dependent alterations of gene expression in B. oleracea var. sabellica leaves was performed with the most comprehensive Brassica microarray. When compared to the light experiment much less genes were differentially expressed in kale leaves grown at 5 or 15°C. A structured evaluation of differentially expressed genes revealed the expected enrichment in the functional categories of e.g. protein degradation at different light intensities or phytohormone metabolism at different temperature. Genes of the secondary metabolism namely phenylpropanoids are significantly enriched with both treatments. Thus, the genome of B. oleracea was screened for predicted genes putatively involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. All identified B. oleracea genes were analyzed for their most specific 60-mer oligonucleotides present on the

  8. Growth and Tissue Elemental Composition Response of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) to Hydroponic and Aquaponic Water Quality Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel A. Vandam; Tyler S. Anderson; David de Villiers; Michael B. Timmons

    2017-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea cv. Carmel) was grown in a conventional glass greenhouse under three different nutrient solution treatments. Lighting and temperature conditions were identical. Six growing systems were used to provide a duplicate trough system for each of these three treatments. Six trials were harvested from each system over a two month time period. Two treatments received hydroponic nutrient inputs, with one treatment at pH 7.0 (referred to as H7) and the other at pH 5.8 (H5), an...

  9. Combating against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - two fatty acids from Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) exhibit synergistic effects with erythromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ben C L; Han, X Q; Lui, Sau Lai; Wong, C W; Wang, Tina B Y; Cheung, David W S; Cheng, Sau Wan; Ip, Margaret; Han, Simon Q B; Yang, Xiao-Sheng; Jolivalt, Claude; Lau, Clara B S; Leung, Ping Chung; Fung, Kwok Pui

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the active ingredients from Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) that could provide synergism with antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and their possible mechanisms of resistance inhibition. High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and a panel of laboratory MRSA strains were used for checkerboard and efflux inhibitory assays. Linoleic and oleic acids were identified from HSCCC fraction 18 of PO with synergistic antibacterial activity when combined with erythromycin against RN4220/pUL5054. Ethidium bromide efflux inhibitory studies revealed that linoleic and oleic acids may interfere the activity of MsrA pump. By comparing among a panel of linoleic and oleic acids analogues, unsaturated fatty acids in salt form with cis configuration and an increase in number of double bonds were found to further increase the antibacterial activity when used alone or in combination with antibiotics. This study reported for the first time that two active ingredients, namely linoleic and oleic acids, were identified from PO with synergistic antibacterial activity when combined with erythromycin against MRSA RN4220/pUL5054 and possibly act by inhibiting the efflux pumps of the bacteria cells. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Identification of creat (Andrographis paniculata Ness as basic for concervation and make use of germ plasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAMBANG PUJIASMANTO

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is to learn the creat potention for cultivated as medical material producer plant. So that, the limited creat as medical material not occur. The method of research which used is survey. The survai include identification and creat distribution pattern. There was used vegetative analysis with quadrat method. The research result showed that 1 in creat habitat find out 11 species of tree, 20 species herba (include creat, and 16 species grasses, 2 The highest of importance value indeks Tectona grandis L. (tree group, Andrographis paniculata Ness (herb group, and Portulaca oleraceae L. (grasses group, 3 Distribution pattern of creat is clumped, and the herb others is uniform, 4 The creat growth on the common under shading Tectona grandis L. tree. The results of this research are domestication concept and theories which to basic the cultivated technology packet of creat wild plant which the statue increased be medical material produce crop. In the next ,expected can used for get conclusion policy of medical crop and planning, especially on creat propertion of creat medical material.

  11. Effects of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) expressed in tomato leaves on larvae of the tomato moth Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and the effect of GNA on the development of the endoparasitoid Meteorus gyrator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, M E; Bell, H A; Fitches, E C; Edwards, J P; Gatehouse, A M R

    2006-02-01

    The effect of ingestion of transgenic tomato leaves expressing the plant lectin Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) on development of larvae of Lacanobia oleracea (Linnaeus) was studied under laboratory conditions. When L. oleracea larvae were fed on tomato line 14.1H, expressing approximately 2.0% GNA, significant increases in the mean larval weight and in the amount of food consumed were found. This resulted in an overall reduction in the mean development time to the pupal stage of approximately 7 days. A significant increase in the percentage survival to the adult moth was also recorded when newly hatched larvae were reared on transgenic tomato leaves (72%) compared to larvae reared on untransformed leaves (40%). The effects of ingestion of GNA by L. oleracea larvae, via artificial diet or the leaves of transgenic tomato or potato plants, on the subsequent development of its solitary endoparasitoid Meteorus gyrator (Thunberg) was also studied. No significant effects on the life cycle parameters of M. gyrator developing in L. oleracea fed on GNA-containing diets were observed. Experiments with transgenic potato plants indicated that the stadium of the host larvae at parasitism had a greater influence on M. gyrator development than the presence of GNA. Potential GNA-binding glycoproteins were detected in the gut and body tissues of larval M. gyrator. Despite detection in host tissues, GNA could not be detected in adult M. gyrator and therefore it is likely that at the time of pupation M. gyrator are able to void the GNA in the meconial pellet.

  12. A study on the GC-MS analysis of bioactive components and pancreato-protective effect of methanolic extract of Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapriya, Sadanandan; Geetha, Arumugam; Ganesan Kripa, Kavasseri

    2017-09-01

    The ever-increasing problem of pancreatitis due to alcohol abuse demands evaluation of novel drugs of plant origin. This study explores the therapeutic effects of the methanolic extract of Brassica oleraceae (MEBO) on ethanol and cerulein induced pancreatitis in rats. The MEBO was subjected to GC-MS and HPLC analysis. Male albino Wistar rats were divided into various groups, fed with alcohol (36% of total calories for 5 weeks) and cerulein (20 μg/kg b.wt i.p, weekly thrice for last three weeks) with or without MEBO (40 mg/kg b.wt). Serum lipase, amylase, IL-1β, IL-18, caspase-1, lipid peroxides, oxidative stress index and antioxidant status were assessed in pancreas. Six compounds were identified in GC-MS analysis. Co-administration of MEBO reduced the pancreatic marker enzymes in serum, IL-1β, IL-18 and caspase-1 and increased the antioxidant status of pancreas. The pancreato-protective effect of Brassica oleraceae may be attributed to well-known anti-inflammatory flavonoids, luteolin, quercetin and myricetin.

  13. Evaluation of composition of acai berry oil (Euterpe oleracea) submitted to sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Ana Carolina H.R.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Bustillos, Jose Oscar V.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: acmachado@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Acai berry (Euterpe oleracea) is a native palm of Brazil, distributed for the entire Amazonian basin. Rich in essentials fatty acids (mainly oleic acid and linoleic acid), the Acai oil prevents abnormal conditions of the skin, as dermatitis and drying, and assists in the regeneration of the epidermis. Therefore, it is proposed a more effective topical administration of the Acai oil by its immobilization in BandGel type hydrogels, which is crosslinked and sterilized by ionizing radiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the composition of the oil when submitted to a sterilizing dose of ionizing radiation. The oil composition was determined by gas chromatography connected with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed a small decrease in the concentration of ester acids and increase of some main products, i.e., ethyl oleic and palmitic acids. (author)

  14. Evaluation of composition of acai berry oil (Euterpe oleracea) submitted to sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Ana Carolina H.R.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Bustillos, Jose Oscar V.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.

    2007-01-01

    Acai berry (Euterpe oleracea) is a native palm of Brazil, distributed for the entire Amazonian basin. Rich in essentials fatty acids (mainly oleic acid and linoleic acid), the Acai oil prevents abnormal conditions of the skin, as dermatitis and drying, and assists in the regeneration of the epidermis. Therefore, it is proposed a more effective topical administration of the Acai oil by its immobilization in BandGel type hydrogels, which is crosslinked and sterilized by ionizing radiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the composition of the oil when submitted to a sterilizing dose of ionizing radiation. The oil composition was determined by gas chromatography connected with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed a small decrease in the concentration of ester acids and increase of some main products, i.e., ethyl oleic and palmitic acids. (author)

  15. Colorless chlorophyll catabolites in senescent florets of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiser, Matthias H; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2015-02-11

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  16. Avaliação da estabilidade oxidativa do óleo bruto de açaí (Euterpe oleracea na presença de compostos fenólicos puros ou de extratos vegetais amazônicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Joaquim Mangabeira da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A final 241 µM of ascorbyl palmitate and 555 µM of the following antioxidants separately: BHA, myricetin and quercetin standards, and extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia, Inga edulis or Euterpe oleracea, were added to crude açai oil and submitted to the oxidation process at 60 ºC for 11 days. Among the antioxidants used, only the myricetin standard showed the ability to defer the oxidation process until the third day of treatment. B. crassifolia, I. edulis and E. oleracea extracts showed no preventive capacity against the oxidation process, despite their high concentration phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities.

  17. Identification of a novel MLPK homologous gene MLPKn1 and its expression analysis in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiguo; Shi, Songmei; Liu, Yudong; Pu, Quanming; Liu, Xiaohuan; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Liquan

    2016-09-01

    M locus protein kinase, one of the SRK-interacting proteins, is a necessary positive regulator for the self-incompatibility response in Brassica. In B. rapa, MLPK is expressed as two different transcripts, MLPKf1 and MLPKf2, and either isoform can complement the mlpk/mlpk mutation. The AtAPK1B gene has been considered to be the ortholog of BrMLPK, and AtAPK1B has no role in self-incompatibility (SI) response in A. thaliana SRK-SCR plants. Until now, what causes the MLPK and APK1B function difference during SI response in Brassica and A. thaliana SRKb-SCRb plants has remained unknown. Here, in addition to the reported MLPKf1/2, we identified the new MLPKf1 homologous gene MLPKn1 from B. oleracea. BoMLPKn1 and BoMLPKf1 shared nucleotide sequence identity as high as 84.3 %, and the most striking difference consisted in two fragment insertions in BoMLPKn1. BoMLPKn1 and BoMLPKf1 had a similar gene structure; both their deduced amino acid sequences contained a typical plant myristoylation consensus sequence and a Ser/Thr protein kinase domain. BoMLPKn1 was widely expressed in petal, sepal, anther, stigma and leaf. Genome-wide survey revealed that the B. oleracea genome contained three MLPK homologous genes: BoMLPKf1/2, BoMLPKn1 and Bol008343n. The B. rapa genome also contained three MLPK homologous genes, BrMLPKf1/2, BraMLPKn1 and Bra040929. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BoMLPKf1/2 and BrMLPKf1/2 were phylogenetically more distant from AtAPK1A than Bol008343n, Bra040929, BraMLPKn1 and BoMLPKn1, Synteny analysis revealed that the B. oleracea chromosomal region containing BoMLPKn1 displayed high synteny with the A. thaliana chromosomal region containing APK1B, whereas the B. rapa chromosomal region containing BraMLPKn1 showed high synteny with the A. thaliana chromosomal region containing APK1B. Together, these results revealed that BoMLPKn1/BraMLPKn1, and not the formerly reported BoMLPKf1/2 (BrMLPKf1/2), was the orthologous genes of AtAPK1B, and no ortholog of Bo

  18. Interaction between metabolism of atmospheric H2S in the shoot and sulfate uptake by the roots of curly kale (Brassica oleracea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, S; De Kok, LJ; Stulen, I.; Stuiver, C.Elisabeth E.

    Exposure of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L.,) to gaseous H2S resulted in a decreased sulfate uptake by the roots. At 0.2 mu l l(-1) H2S, a level sufficient to meet the sulfur need of plants for growth, the sulfate uptake was maximally decreased by 50% after 3 or 4 days of exposure. Higher levels up

  19. Effects of Biofertilizer Containing Microbial of N-fixer, P Solubilizer and Plant Growth Factor Producer on Cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. Capitata Growth And Soil Enzymatic Activities: A Greenhouse Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarjiya Antonius

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this greenhouse study was to evaluate the effects of four different concentrations of biofertilizers containing Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. and Streptomyces sp. on soil properties and to evaluate the growth of Brassica oleraceae var. capitata. The application treatments included control (no fertilizer and four concentration of diluted biofertilizer per pot (20 ml, 40 ml, 60 mland 80 ml. The application of biofertilizer containing benefi cial bacteria signifi cantly increased the growth of B. oleraceae. The useof biofertilizer resulted higher biomass weight and length as well as root length. This greenhouse study also indicated that differentamount of biofertilizer application had almost similar effects. Microbial inoculum not only increased plant harvest, but also improvedsoil properties, such as number of microorganisms, respiration and urease activities.

  20. The broccoli (Brassica oleracea) phloem tissue proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstead, James A; Hartson, Steven D; Thompson, Gary A

    2013-11-07

    The transport of sugars, hormones, amino acids, proteins, sugar alcohols, and other organic compounds from the sites of synthesis to the sites of use or storage occurs through the conducting cells of the phloem. To better understand these processes a comprehensive understanding of the proteins involved is required. While a considerable amount of data has been obtained from proteomic analyses of phloem sap, this has mainly served to identify the soluble proteins that are translocated through the phloem network. In order to obtain more comprehensive proteomic data from phloem tissue we developed a simple dissection procedure to isolate phloem tissue from Brassica oleracea. The presence of a high density of phloem sieve elements was confirmed using light microscopy and fluorescently labeled sieve element-specific antibodies. To increase the depth of the proteomic analysis for membrane bound and associated proteins, soluble proteins were extracted first and subsequent extractions were carried out using two different detergents (SDS and CHAPSO). Across all three extractions almost four hundred proteins were identified and each extraction method added to the analysis demonstrating the utility of an approach combining several extraction protocols. The phloem was found to be enriched in proteins associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses and structural proteins. Subsequent expression analysis identified a number of genes that appear to be expressed exclusively or at very high levels in phloem tissue, including genes that are known to express specifically in the phloem as well as novel phloem genes.

  1. Flavonoids in baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.): Changes during plant growth and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergquist, S. Å. M.; Gertsson, U. E.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2005-01-01

    were analyzed by reversed phase HPLC. Twelve flavonoid peaks were detected. The main flavonoid, making up on average 43% of the total flavonoid concentration, was identified as 5,3',4'-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-6:7-methylenedioxyflavone-4'-glucuronide. Four other flavonoids each contributed 7......The variation in flavonoid concentration and composition was investigated in baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cv. Emilia sown on three occasions, each harvested at three growth stages at 6-day intervals. After harvest, leaves were stored in polypropylene bags at 2 or 10 degrees C. Flavonoids......-12% of the total flavonoid content. Total flavonoid content was relatively stable during normal retail storage conditions, although some of the individual flavonoid compounds showed considerable variation. The youngest plants had the highest flavonoid concentration, indicating that by harvesting the baby spinach...

  2. Identification of metabolic QTLs and candidate genes for glucosinolate synthesis in Brassica oleracea leaves, seeds and flower buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Sotelo

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are major secondary metabolites found in the Brassicaceae family. These compounds play an essential role in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses, but more interestingly they have beneficial effects on human health. We performed a genetic analysis in order to identify the genome regions regulating glucosinolates biosynthesis in a DH mapping population of Brassica oleracea. In order to obtain a general overview of regulation in the whole plant, analyses were performed in the three major organs where glucosinolates are synthesized (leaves, seeds and flower buds. Eighty two significant QTLs were detected, which explained a broad range of variability in terms of individual and total glucosinolate (GSL content. A meta-analysis rendered eighteen consensus QTLs. Thirteen of them regulated more than one glucosinolate and its content. In spite of the considerable variability of glucosinolate content and profiles across the organ, some of these consensus QTLs were identified in more than one tissue. Consensus QTLs control the GSL content by interacting epistatically in complex networks. Based on in silico analysis within the B. oleracea genome along with synteny with Arabidopsis, we propose seven major candidate loci that regulate GSL biosynthesis in the Brassicaceae family. Three of these loci control the content of aliphatic GSL and four of them control the content of indolic glucosinolates. GSL-ALK plays a central role in determining aliphatic GSL variation directly and by interacting epistatically with other loci, thus suggesting its regulatory effect.

  3. Effect of Deinococcus radiodurans on uptake of 134Cs by Brassica oleracea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Cong; Guo Jiangfeng

    2008-01-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans was inoculated into the soil which was spiked with 134 Cs to investigate its effect on chemical speciation of 134 Cs. The relationship between chemical speciation of 134 Cs and its absorbtion capacity by cabbage (Brassica oleracea) in the presence of D. radiodurans was also investigated. The results showed that an increase of 28.64%-38.17 % in content of 134 Cs in residual phase was observed with presence of D. radiodurans in comparison with the aseptic control. The amounts of radiocesium uptaken by cabbage were about 12100Bq/g under aseptic conditions, however, which were about 8500Bq/g with the presence of D. radiodurans. The proportion of 134 Cs taken up by cabbage decreased about 29% in comparison with the aseptic control. The chemical speciation could be influenced by D. radiodurans so that its uptake by plants could be reduced. (authors)

  4. Structural analysis of an innate immunostimulant from broccoli, Brassica oleracea var. italica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urai, Makoto; Kataoka, Keiko; Nishida, Satoshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2017-11-22

    Vegetables are eaten as part of a healthy diet throughout the world, and some are also applied topically as a traditional medicine. We evaluated the innate immunostimulating activities of hot water extracts of various vegetables using the silkworm muscle contraction assay system, and found that broccoli, Brassica oleracea var. italica, contains a strong innate immunostimulant. We purified the innate immunostimulant from broccoli, and characterized the chemical structure by chemical analyses and NMR spectroscopy. The innate immunostimulant comprised galacturonic acid, galactose, glucose, arabinose, and rhamnose, and had a pectic-like polysaccharide structure. To determine the structural motif involved in the innate immunostimulating activity, we modified the structure by chemical and enzymatic treatment, and found that the activity was attenuated by pectinase digestion. These findings suggest that a pectic-like polysaccharide purified from broccoli has innate immune-stimulating activity, for which the polygalacturonic acid structure is necessary.

  5. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation in minimally processed vegetables of Brassica oleracea species; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama em vegetais da especie Brassica oleracea minimamente processados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    The consumption of collard greens (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has been inversely associated with morbidity and mortality caused by degenerative diseases. These species are highly consumed in Brazil, which enables its use as minimally processed (MP). The growing worldwide concern with the storage, nutritional quality and microbiological safety of food has led to many studies aimed at microbiological analysis, vitamin and shelf life. To improve the quality of these products, radiation processing can be effective in maintaining the quality of the product, rather compromising their nutritional values and sensory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co at doses of 0, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy on the reduction of microbiota in these plants, and analyze their nutritional and sensory characteristics. The methodology used in this study was microbiological analysis, colorimetric analysis, analysis of phenolic compounds, antioxidant analysis and sensory analysis. The microbiological analysis showed a decrease in the development of populations of aerobic microorganisms, psychotropic and yeast and mold with increasing doses of radiation. The sensory analysis showed no significant difference between different times of cooking analyzed. The analysis of phenolic compounds, significant differences between the samples, suggesting that with increasing dose of irradiation was an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds found in broccoli and collard greens MP. It can be observed that the sample of control collard greens showed high antioxidant activity and for the samples treated by irradiation was a decrease of percentage. In contrast the samples of broccoli show an increase in the rate of scavenging DPPH with increase of the dose of radiation. The colorimetric analysis revealed that for samples of MP collard greens and broccoli foil of no significant differences, but for samples of

  6. The Effect of Priming Treatments on Germination and Seedling Performance of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea Seed Lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren OZDEN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to test the effect of a priming combination on the seed germination percentage and seedling emergence performance of purslane under climate chamber and field conditions. Four purslane seed lots were treated according five different methods, which were T1: Seeds kept at a hundred percent relative humidity for four hours at 20 °C; T2: Seeds kept at a hundred percent relative humidity for four hours at 20 °C, and then soaked in distilled water for 8 hours at 5 °C; T3: Seeds kept at a hundred percent relative humidity for four hours at 20 °C, and then soaked in distilled water for 8 hours at 20 °C; T4: Seeds soaked in distilled water for 8 hours at 5 °C; T5: Seeds soaked in distilled water for 8 hours at 20 °C; and C: Control (untreated. Seed germination was calculated for 14 days at 20 °C, seedling emergence percentages were calculated in the climatically-controlled chamber for 21 days at 22 °C, and in the field for 35 days at 15-25 °C. The highest seed germination (94% and seedling emergence in the climatically-controlled chamber (87% and field (82% were obtained from seeds that had been kept at a hundred percent relative humidity for four hours at 20 °C, then soaked in distilled water for eight hours at 5 °C. Results indicated that farm-priming, can be an efficient priming method in purslane seeds.

  7. Cambios en la vegetacion de un campo abandonado despues de un cultivo de trigo Vegetation changes in a field abandoned after a wheat crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Irene Boccanelli

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available La vegetación prístina de los campos altos del sur de Santa Fe (Argentina son distintos tipos de flechillares caracterizados por la abundancia de varias especies del género Stipa. Cuando un campo agrícola se abandona suele revertir a las comunidades prístinas. El objeto de este trabajo es analizar los diez primeros años de la sucesión secundaria de un campo sometido a agricultura durante largo tiempo que se abandonó después de un cultivo de trigo (Triticum aestivum. En el primer año aparece trigo acompañado de malezas anuales (Chenopodium album y Portulaca oleracea; después del primer año una parcela fue colonizada por Baccharis salicifolia y las otras por Carduus acanthoides, Cerastium glomeratum, Ammi majus, etc. Los últimos años constituyen una etapa en la que disminuye la diversidad y se establece una fuerte dominancia de Baccharis salicifolia o Carduus acanthoides. El Sorgo de Alepo (Sorghum halepense aparece en las etapas tempranas y perdura durante todo el período con valores altos de abundancia. Aún, prácticamente no han aparecido especies de los flechillares, por lo tanto se concluye que no ha transcurrido suficiente tiempo para que se regenere el flechillar, o porque sus especies no se encuentran en los bancos de semillas o en las proximidades.The natural vegetation of well drained fields of Southern Santa Fe (Argentina are a different kind of communities characterized by the abundance of several species of Stipa. When agricultural lands are abandoned, they are often recolonized by the original vegetation. The object of this paper is to analize the first ten years of secondary succession on a field under a long time of agriculture abandoned after a wheat crop. On the first year, wheat with annual weeds (Chenopodium album and Portulaca oleracea appeared. After the first year, one plot was colonized by Baccharis salicifolia and the others by Carduus acanthoides, Cerastium glomeratum, Ammi majus, etc. The last years

  8. Adubação e o período anterior à interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do amendoim Effect of fertilization on weeds and on the period before weed interference in the peanut culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Yamauti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o efeito da adubação sobre a comunidade infestante e sobre o período anterior à interferência (PAI das plantas daninhas na cultura do amendoim, cv. IAC Runner 886, em sistema convencional. Os períodos de convivência estudados foram: 0, 7, 15, 20, 30, 45, 55 e 126 dias após a emergência (DAE, totalizando oito tratamentos, dispostos em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em dois níveis de adubação: 0 e 150 kg ha-1 da formulação 00-20-20 (N-P-K. A adubação não alterou a composição da comunidade infestante, destacando-se Cyperus rotundus, Eleusine indica, Indigofera hirsuta, Portulaca oleraceae e Sida rhombifolia como as espécies de maior importância relativa. Contudo, a densidade de plantas daninhas foi maior na área não adubada, mas sem afetar de modo diferenciado a massa seca acumulada por elas. O cultivar de amendoim IAC Runner 886 pode conviver com essa comunidade com e sem adubação por até 15 e 17 DAE (PAI, respectivamente, sem sofrer perdas significativas na produção. A interferência das plantas daninhas reduziu entre 31 e 34% a produtividade do amendoim para as áreas sem adubação e com adubação, respectivamente.This experiment was carried out to study the effect of fertilization on weed community and on the period before weed interference (PBI in peanut culture, IAC Runner 886, under a conventional till system. The weed control periods studied were: 0, 7, 15, 20, 30, 45, 55, and 126 days after emergence (DAE, totaling eight treatments, arranged in a randomized block design, with four replications and two levels of fertilization (0 and 150 kg ha-1 of formulation 00-20-20 (N-P-K. Fertilization did not affect the weed community, with the species Cyperus rotundus, Eleusine indica, Indigofera hirsuta, Portulaca oleracea and Sida rhombifolia being the most prominent at all levels of fertilization. However, weed density was higher in the non- fertilized

  9. Ultrastructural response of cabbage outer leaf mesophyll cells (Brassica oleracea L. to excess of nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Molas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the structure and in the ultrastructure of cabbage outer leaf mesophyll cells [Brassica oleracea L.] cv. Sława from Enkhouizen were examined by means of light and electron microscopy. The examined plants were grown on the basic Murashige and Skoog medium with addition of excesive concentrations of nickel (added as NiSO4 x 7H2O,i.e. Ni 5, Ni 10 and Ni 20 mg/dm3. In Ni 5 mg samples mainly adaptation changes to the conditions of stress were observed. These changes were manifested by the increase of cytoplasm content and by cytoplasm vacuolization, by the increase of nucleus and nucleous volume, nucleolus vacuolization, the increase of plasmalemma invaginations and of the amount of rough ER, by the central arrangement of smooth ER and of the thylakoids of chloroplasts; it was also shown by the growth of the number of mitochondria and of peroxisomes in the cell. In Ni 10 mg samples, apart from adaptation changes, such as the increase of the nucleus volume, increase of plasmalemma invaginations, cytoplasm and nucleolus vacuolization, degeneration changes were also observed. They concerned mainly the nucleus (the increasing amount of condensed chromatin, ER (swelling and fragmentation of rER and sER, mitochondrium (swelling and reduction of cristae, Golgi apparatus (disintegration and decay and chloroplasts (changes of shape, swelling and reduction of thylakoids, disappearance of starch and presence of big plastoglobuli. In Ni 20 mg samples cell protoplasts were in different stages of degeneration and the cell organelles that were identifiable, were usually damaged.

  10. Overcoming interspecific incompatibility in the cross Brassica campestris ssp. japonica x Brassica oleracea var. botrytis using irradiated mentor pollen page

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarla, N.

    1988-01-01

    The cross B. campestris ssp. japonica x B. oleracea var. botrytis fails due to incompatibility barrier at the stigma. To realize this cross, irradiated compatible pollen (mentor pollen) was used before the incompatible pollination. The presence of mentor pollen stimulated the incompatible pollen to germinate and effect fertilization and seed set. One hybrid was thus obtained. Most of the seeds were inviable. Of the 5 plants raised one was a hybrid and 4 resembled the female parent. 1 tab., 7 refs

  11. Diversity of Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica): Glucosinolate Content and Phylogenetic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Christoph; Müller, Anja; Kuhnert, Nikolai; Albach, Dirk

    2016-04-27

    Recently, kale has become popular due to nutritive components beneficial for human health. It is an important source of phytochemicals such as glucosinolates that trigger associated cancer-preventive activity. However, nutritional value varies among glucosinolates and among cultivars. Here, we start a systematic determination of the content of five glucosinolates in 25 kale varieties and 11 non-kale Brassica oleracea cultivars by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) and compare the profiles with results from the analysis of SNPs derived from a KASP genotyping assay. Our results demonstrate that the glucosinolate levels differ markedly among varieties of different origin. Comparison of the phytochemical data with phylogenetic relationships revealed that the common name kale refers to at least three different groups. German, American, and Italian kales differ morphologically and phytochemically. Landraces do not show outstanding glucosinolate levels. Our results demonstrate the diversity of kale and the importance of preserving a broad genepool for future breeding purposes.

  12. Cgl2 plays an essential role in cuticular wax biosynthesis in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongming; Tang, Jun; Liu, Zezhou; Dong, Xin; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Ye, Zhibiao; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei

    2017-11-28

    The aerial parts of most land plants are covered with cuticular wax which is important for plants to avoid harmful factors. There is still no cloning study about wax synthesis gene of the alcohol-forming pathway in Brassica species. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that, compared with wild type (WT), wax crystal are severely reduced in both the adaxial and abaxial sides of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) leaves from the LD10GL mutant. Genetic analysis results revealed that the glossy trait of LD10GL is controlled by a single recessive gene, and fine mapping results revealed that the target gene Cgl2 (Cabbage glossy 2) is located within a physical region of 170 kb on chromosome 1. Based on sequence analysis of the genes in the mapped region, the gene designated Bol013612 was speculated to be the candidate gene. Gene Bol013612 is homologous to Arabidopsis CER4, which encodes fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase. Sequencing identified a single nucleotide substitution at an intron/exon boundary that results in an insertion of six nucleotides in the cDNA of Bol013612 in LD10GL. The phenotypic defect of LD10GL was confirmed by a functional complementation test with Arabidopsis mutant cer4. Our results indicated that wax crystals of cabbage mutant LD10GL are severely reduced and mutation of gene Bol013612 causes a glossy phenotype in the LD10GL mutant.

  13. Multispectral imaging as a potential tool for seed health testing of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M. Halkjaer; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Boelt, B.

    2011-01-01

    Seed health tests are time consuming and require substantial training for characterization of pathogenic fungi on seed. A new approach to use a multispectral vision system for identifying surface properties of different fungal infections has been tested in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) at Aarhus...... University. Our study demonstrates that multispectral imaging with wavelengths ranging from 395-970 nm can be used to distinguish between uninfected spinach seeds and seeds infected with Verticillium spp., Fusarium spp., Stemphylium botryosum, Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria alternata. Analytical separation...... based on mean pixel intensity, Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) and classification by Jeffries-Matusita (JM) distance illustrates that a combination of Near Infrared spectra (NIR) and Visual spectra (VIS) is able to identify uninfected seeds from infected seeds ranging from 80-100%. Classification...

  14. UTILIZACIÓN DEL SUBPRODUCTO DE FIQUE: LICOR VERDE, COMO CONTROLADOR DE PLAGAS EN EL CULTIVO DE REPOLLO (Brassica oleracea DO FIQUE SUBPRODUTOS UTILIZAÇÃO: LICOR VERDE COMO UM CONTROLADOR DE PRAGAS NA CULTURA DO REPOLHO (Brassica oleracea FIQUE SUBPRODUCT UTILIZATION: GREEN LIQUOR AS A PEST CONTROL IN THE CULTURE OFCABBAGE (Brassica oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHON F. IMBACHÍ-HOYOS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En el vivero forestal 'La Florida' de la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Cauca CRC, se evaluó el efecto del extracto de fique (Furcraea sp como controlador de plagas en el cultivo de repollo (Brassica oleracea. Se utilizaron cuatro tratamientos (blanco, solución extracto de fique al 30% v/v, 20% v/v, 10% v/v. Las mediciones se hicieron durante seis semanas para vigor, altura, diámetro, daño por plagas y daño por enfermedades. La aplicación fue de una vez durante las tres primeras semanas; y las tres siguientes la aplicación fue de dos por semana. Los resultados se analizaron utilizando el paquete estadístico SPSS 11.5, se realizó una ANOVA con un nivel de confianza del 95% (p = 0,05 y una prueba de Tuckey. El análisis muestra que la aplicación del extracto dos veces por semana (extracto de fique al 30% v/v, presentó el mejor control de plagas, disminuyendo la presencia de daños por las plagas: mariposa blanca (Pieris sp. palomilla (Plutella xylostella y áfidos (Brevicoryne brassicae y Myzus persicae.No viveiro floresta 'La Florida' da Corporação Autônoma Regional do Cauca (CRC se abalizou o efeito do extrato de fique (Furcraea sp como controlador de plagas no cultivo de repolho (Brassica oleracea. Utilizarão- se quatro tratamentos (Branco, solução extrato de fique a 30% v/v, 20% v/v e 10% v/v. As medições fizeram-se durante seis semanas para vigor, altura, diâmetro, dano por pragas y dano por enfermidades. A aplicação foi de uma vez durante as três primeiras semanas; y as três seguintes a aplicação foi de duas por semanas. Os resultados analisaram-se utilizando o paquete estadístico SPSS 11.5, realizaram-se uma ANOVA com um nível de confiança dos 95% (p = 0,05 e uma proba de Tuckey. A análise mostra que a aplicação do extrato duas vezes por semana (extrato de fique a 30% v/v, apresentou o melhor controle de pragas reduzindo a presencia de danos por as pragas: Borboleta branca (Pieris sp, mariposa (Plutella

  15. Bioinformatics analysis of the phytoene synthase gene in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Jiang, Min; Xue, Shengling; Zheng, Aihong; Zhang, Fen; Tang, Haoru

    2018-04-01

    Phytoene Synthase (PSY) is an important enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis. Here, the Brassica oleracea var. capitata PSY (BocPSY) gene sequences were obtained from Brassica database (BRAD), and preformed for bioinformatics analysis. The BocPSY1, BocPSY2 and BocPSY3 genes mapped to chromosomes 2,3 and 9, and contains an open reading frame of 1,248 bp, 1,266 bp and 1,275 bp that encodes a 415, 421, 424 amino acid protein, respectively. Subcellular localization predicted all BocPSY genes were in the chloroplast. The conserved domain of the BocPSY protein is PLN02632. Homology analysis indicates that the levels of identity among BocPSYs were all more than 85%, and the PSY protein is apparently conserved during plant evolution. The findings of the present study provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of PSY gene function in cabbage.

  16. PENERAPAN PANJANG TALANG DAN JARAK TANAM DENGAN SISTEM HIDROPONIK NFT (Nutrient Film Technique PADA TANAMAN KAILAN (Brassica oleraceae var. alboglabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daviv Zali Vidianto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kailan vegetables is one kind of high economic value that can be grown in hydroponic NFT (Nutrient Film Technique. The purpose of this study to determine the effect of chamfer length and spacing of the system hydroponic NFT (Nutrient Film Technique on the growth and yield kailan (Brassica oleraceae var. Alboglabra. The research has been done in the greenhouse of the Faculty of Agriculture, University Department Agroekoteknologi Trunojoyo Madura District Kamal village Telang Bangkalan. Tat is was conducted in February-May 2012. Research using methods completely randomized design (CRD with non factorial treatment chamfer length 2 m with spacing of 15 cm (P1J1, chamfer length 2 m with spacing of 20 cm (P1J2, chamfer length of 4 m with spacing of 15 cm (P2J1 and chamfer length of 4 m with spacing of 20 cm (P2J2. The materials used are kailan seeds, fertilizers and hydroponics Goodplant acetic acid (CH3COOH. Observations were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan continued Test Distance (UJD level of 5%. P1J1 (chamfer length of 2 meters and 15 cm plant spacing gives the best effect on the variable root length, number of leaves and plant canopy wet weight. The treatment does’n effect to variable leaf area, root wet weight, dry weight, and root dry weight of the plant canopyKeyword : Brassica oleraceae var. Alboglabra, hydroponik NFT, chamfer length and spacing

  17. Effect of chlormequat (cycocel) on the growth of ornamental cabbage and kale (Brassica oleracea) cultivars 'Kamome White' and 'Nagoya Red'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour, Abdollah; Hashemabadi, Davood; Sedaghathoor, Shahram; Kaviani, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of concentration and application method of chlormequat (cycocel), a plant growth retardant, on plant height and some other traits in Brassica oleracea cultivars 'Kamome White' and 'Nagoya Red' was assessed. Plant growth retardants are commonly applied to limit stem elongation and produce a more compact plant. The experiment was done as a factorial in randomized completely blocks design (RCBD) with four replications. Plants (40 days after transplanting) were sprayed and drenched with 500, 1000 and 1500 mg l(-1) cycocel. In each experiment, control untreated plants. Data were recorded the 60 and 90 days after transplanting. Based on analysis of variance (ANOVA), the effect of different treatments and their interaction on all traits was significant at 0.05 or 0.01 level of probability. Treatment of 1500 mg I(-1) cycocel resulted in about 50 and 20% shorter plants than control plants, 60 and 90 days after transplant. The growth of Brassica oleracea cultivar 'Kamome White' and 'Nagoya Red' decreased with increased cycocel concentration. Foliar sprays of cycocel controlled plant height of both cultivars. Results indicated that the shortest plants (9.94 and 11.59 cm) were those sprayed with 1500 mg l(-1) cycocel in cultivar 'Kamome White' after 60 and 90 days, respectively. The largest number of leaves (33.94) and highest leaf diameter (9.39 cm) occurred in cv. 'Nagoya Red', when drench was used. Maximum dry matter (14.31%) accumulated in cv. 'Nagoya Red', treated with spray.

  18. Toxic action of Acmella oleracea extract on the male reproductive system of Amblyomma cajennense ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholeto, Luís Adriano; Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa de; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira; Yamane, Lais Thiemi; Castro, Karina Neoob de Carvalho; Ferreira, Allan Roberto Fernandes; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2017-09-15

    The present study evaluated through morphohistological and histochemical techniques the effects of different concentrations of crude ethanolic extract of A. oleracea (EEAO) (Jambu) on the male reproductive system of Amblyomma cajennense sensu stricto (s.s.) ticks. The toxicity of this natural chemical was stablished, signalizing the promising potential of the compound as a strategy to control ectoparasites in the near future. For the experiment, 100 males fed on host rabbits with homogeneous weight (p>0.05) were used. The ticks were divided into five groups (10 animals each): Control 1-exposed to distilled water; Control 2-exposed to ethanol 50% and DMSO 1%; Treatment 1-3-exposed to the concentrations of 6.2, 12.5 and 25mg/mL of the EEAO, respectively, diluted in ethanol 50% and DMSO 1%, with exposure by immersion. After exposure, the males were dissected for the removal of the reproductive system and subjected to routine histological analysis with HE staining and histochemical techniques (PAS for the detection of neutral polysaccharides and Bromophenol blue to detect total proteins). The exposed individuals showed alterations in the glandular complex cells; however, the testes remained intact. The secretory cells of the multilobulated accessory glands presented intense cytoplasmic vacuolation. Additionally, the synthesis and secretion were reduced in the secretion granules, mainly concerning the polysaccharides, glyco- and lipoprotein elements, substances that will constitute the seminal fluid and enable the capacitation of spermatozoa in the female genital tract and also necessary for the formation of the spermatophore, which will encapsulate the mature spermatids. The alterations were dose-dependent, i.e., more intense and severe as the concentration of the product increased. .This experiment confirmed the cytotoxic potential of A. oleracea ethanolic extract in the concentrations of 6.2, 12.5 and 25mg/mL on the reproductive system of A. cajennense s.s. male

  19. The effect of silicon foliar application on the development of Seasonal ornamental plants. Part I: Sanvitalia speciosa 'Sunbini', Verbena 'Patio Blue' and Portulaca umbraticola 'Duna Red'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Dębicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Silicon is known as an element stimulating plant immunity and resistance to unfavorable conditions. Additional treatment with silicon may also cause a positive change in plant performance, improving the quality of ornamental plants. In the years 2009-2010, a two-factorial experiment was conducted involving three cultivars of seasonal ornamental plant species: creeping zinnia Sanvitalia speciosa 'Sunbini', vervain Verbena 'Patio Blue', and purslane Portulaca umbraticola 'Duna Red'. The first experimental factor was the concentration of Actisil preparation being an equivalent of 60, 120, and 180 mg Si×dm-3, applied three times by spraying, the second one was the type of medium: peat substrate and peat substrate with sand. The experiment proved the beneficial effect of fertilization with silicon on plant development of Verbena and the number of shoots of all examined plant species. The higher concentrations of Actisil were applied, the higher number of shoots the plants developed. Plants treated with Actisil also produced a higher number of buds and flowers or inflorescences featuring an increased diameter. Plants cultivated in peat substrate flowered better.

  20. Purification and characterization of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) myrosinase (β-thioglucosidase glucohydrolase).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Andrea; Angulo, Alejandro; Cabañas, Fernanda

    2014-12-03

    Myrosinase (β-thioglucosidase glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.147) from broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by concanavalin A affinity chromatography, with an intermediate dialysis step, resulting in 88% recovery and 1318-fold purification. These are the highest values reported for the purification of any myrosinase. The subunits of broccoli myrosinase have a molecular mass of 50-55 kDa. The native molecular mass of myrosinase was 157 kDa, and accordingly, it is composed of three subunits. The maximum activity was observed at 40 °C and at pH below 5.0. Kinetic assays demonstrated that broccoli myrosinase is subjected to substrate (sinigrin) inhibition. The Michaelis-Menten model, considering substrate inhibition, gave Vmax equal to 0.246 μmol min(-1), Km equal to 0.086 mM, and K(I) equal to 0.368 mM. This is the first study about purification and characterization of broccoli myrosinase.

  1. In vivo examination of the anticoagulant effect of the Brassica oleracea methanol extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rafeeq Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticoagulant effect of the methanol extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (MEB was examined in rabbits. The animals were divided into five groups, each comprising seven animals. Three groups were administered increasing doses of MEB (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg, respectively; one group received warfarin (0.54 mg/kg; animals in the control group received saline (1 ml/day equivalent to the volume of doses applied to the treated and standard animals. Biochemical tests were performed on the 16th and 31st days of dosing. Animals that were administered MEB (500 mg MEB/kg 30 days displayed increases of 24.07 s, 28.79 s and 4.08 s in activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT, fibrinogen (Fg and thrombin time (TT. Compared to the control, the increase in aPTT and Fg was highly significant and the increase in TT was significant. The anticoagulant effect exhibited by MEB in rabbits may be due to inactivation or inhibition of factors affecting coagulation.

  2. Evaluation of antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activities, and mineral composition of 13 collected purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Amirul; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Rafii, M Y; Abdul Hamid, Azizah; Aslani, Farzad; Hasan, M M; Mohd Zainudin, Mohd Asraf; Uddin, Md Kamal

    2014-01-01

    The methanolic extracts of 13 accessions of purslane were analyzed for their total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), and total carotenoid contents (TCC) and antioxidant activity of extracts was screened using FRAP assay and DPPH radical scavenging methods. The TPC, TFC, and TCC ranged from 0.96 ± 0.04 to 9.12 ± 0.29 mg GAE/g DW, 0.13 ± 0.04 to 1.44 ± 0.08 mg RE/g DW, and 0.52 ± 0.06 to 5.64 ± 0.09 mg (β-carotene equivalent) BCE/g DW, respectively. The DPPH scavenging (IC50) activity varied between 2.52 ± 0.03 mg/mL and 3.29 ± 0.01 mg/mL and FRAP ranged from 7.39 ± 0.08 to 104.2 ± 6.34  μmol TE/g DW. Among all the measured micro- and macrominerals K content was the highest followed by N, Na, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Zn, and Mn. The overall findings proved that ornamental purslane was richer in antioxidant properties, whereas common purslane possesses more mineral contents than ornamental ones.

  3. Salinity-induced changes in the morphology and major mineral nutrient composition of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Amirul; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Rafii, M Y; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Aslani, Farzad; Hakim, M A

    2016-04-18

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of varied salinity regimes on the morphological traits (plant height, number of leaves, number of flowers, fresh and dry weight) and major mineral composition of 13 selected purslane accessions. Most of the morphological traits measured were reduced at varied salinity levels (0.0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 dS m(-1)), but plant height was found to increase in Ac1 at 16 dS m(-1) salinity, and Ac13 was the most affected accession. The highest reductions in the number of leaves and number of flowers were recorded in Ac13 at 32 dS m(-1) salinity compared to the control. The highest fresh and dry weight reductions were noted in Ac8 and Ac6, respectively, at 32 dS m(-1) salinity, whereas the highest increase in both fresh and dry weight was recorded in Ac9 at 24 dS m(-1) salinity compared to the control. In contrast, at lower salinity levels, all of the measured mineral levels were found to increase and later decrease with increasing salinity, but the performance of different accessions was different depending on the salinity level. A dendrogram was also constructed by UPGMA based on the morphological traits and mineral compositions, in which the 13 accessions were grouped into 5 clusters, indicating greater diversity among them. A three-dimensional principal component analysis also confirmed the output of grouping from cluster analysis.

  4. Diet supplementation with açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp improves biomarkers of oxidative stress and the serum lipid profile in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Melina Oliveira de; Silva, Maísa; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Oliveira, Riva de Paula; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the antioxidant potential and hypocholesterolemic effects of acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp ingestion in rats fed a standard or hypercholesterolemic diet. Methods: Female Fischer rats were fed a standard AIN-93 M diet (control) or a hypercholesterolemic diet that contained 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol. The test diet was supplemented with 2% acai pulp (dry wt/wt) for control (group CA) and hypercholesterolemic rats (group HA) for 6 wk. At the end of the experim...

  5. Carotenoids and flavonoids in organically grown spinach (Spinacia oleracea L) genotypes after deep frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidmose, U.; Knuthsen, Pia; Edelenbos, M.

    2001-01-01

    storage the green colour was determined by sensory evaluation and HunterLab colorimetry. The content of individual chlorophylls, carotenoids and flavonoids was determined using HPLC. Lutein, beta -carotene, violaxanthin and 9 '-(Z)-neoxanthin were the main carotenoids in processed spinach. The total......After frozen storage the content of individual carotenoids and flavonoids was determined in organically grown spinach genotypes (Spinacia oleracea L) which differed in leaf colour and shape. The spinach was sorted, washed, blanched in steam for 3 min and frozen in liquid nitrogen. After frozen...... of lutein and neoxanthin varied significantly between genotypes, and the highest content was found in the dark green genotype (76.0 and 25.4 mg kg(-1) 'wet weight' as eaten respectively). The total flavonoid content and the relative content of individual flavonoids were found to vary between the six...

  6. Reduction of cadmium uptake in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) by soil amendment with animal waste compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Atsushi, E-mail: asatou@ari.pref.niigata.jp [Niigata Horticultural Research Center, 177 Mano, Seiro, Niigata 957-0111 (Japan); Takeda, Hiroyuki [Niigata Horticultural Research Center, 177 Mano, Seiro, Niigata 957-0111 (Japan); Oyanagi, Wataru [Niigata Livestock Research Center, 178 Tanahire, Sanjo, Niigata 955-0143 (Japan); Nishihara, Eiji [Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8550 (Japan); Murakami, Masaharu [Soil Environment Division, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of animal waste compost (AWC) in reducing Cd uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Spinach was grown in a field that had been treated by having cattle, swine, or poultry waste compost incorporated into the soil before each crop throughout 4 years of rotational vegetable production. Cadmium concentration was 34-38% lower in spinach harvested from the AWC-treated soils than in the chemical fertilizer-treated soil. Although the repeated application of swine and poultry compost caused significant P accumulation in the cropped soils, that of cattle compost did not. These results indicate that cattle compost with high affinity for Cd and low P content should be the preferred soil amendment when used to reduce Cd uptake by spinach.

  7. Reduction of cadmium uptake in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) by soil amendment with animal waste compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Atsushi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Oyanagi, Wataru; Nishihara, Eiji; Murakami, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of animal waste compost (AWC) in reducing Cd uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Spinach was grown in a field that had been treated by having cattle, swine, or poultry waste compost incorporated into the soil before each crop throughout 4 years of rotational vegetable production. Cadmium concentration was 34-38% lower in spinach harvested from the AWC-treated soils than in the chemical fertilizer-treated soil. Although the repeated application of swine and poultry compost caused significant P accumulation in the cropped soils, that of cattle compost did not. These results indicate that cattle compost with high affinity for Cd and low P content should be the preferred soil amendment when used to reduce Cd uptake by spinach.

  8. Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) as a superfood: Review of the scientific evidence behind the statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šamec, Dunja; Urlić, Branimir; Salopek-Sondi, Branka

    2018-03-20

    Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) is a cruciferous vegetable, characterized by leaves along the stem, which, in recent years, have gained a great popularity as a ´superfood´. Consequently, in a popular culture it is listed in many ´lists of the healthiest vegetables´. Without the doubt, a scientific evidences support the fact that cruciferous vegetables included in human diet can positively affect health and well-being, but remains unclear why kale is declared superior in comparison with other cruciferous. It is questionable if this statement about kale is triggered by scientific evidence or by some other factors. Our review aims to bring an overview of kale's botanical characteristics, agronomic requirements, contemporary and traditional use, macronutrient and phytochemical content and biological activity, in order to point out the reasons for tremendous kale popularity.

  9. Synchronizing legume residue nutrient release with Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) uptake in a Nitrosol of Kabete, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onwonga, Richard N.; Chepkoech, Caroline; Wahome, R.G.

    fertility improvement for crop production e.g. kales (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) under organic farming systems. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) are leguminous crops commonly intercropped with kales (Genga, 2014) and their influence on crop yield and soil nutrient status...... has been widely studied (Nduku 2014, Genga 2014; Onwonga et al., 2015). There is however a dearth of information with respect to synchronization of nutrient released by legume residues with pattern of nutrient uptake by kales to match their demand. The objective of the current study was therefore...... to assess decomposition and nutrient release rates of chickpea and lupin residues and kale nutrient uptake patterns for better synchrony of nutrient supply and demand....

  10. EFEITOS DOS PERÍODOS DE COMPETIÇÃO DO MATO NA CULTURA DO AMENDOIM: I. SAFRA DA SECA DE 1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO SEIITI KASAI

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado em 1988, na Estação Experimental de Agronomia da Alta Paulista, em Adamantina, na safra da seca, para estudar o efeito de diferentes períodos de competição do mato no amendoim. Os tratamentos foram vinte, a saber: com e sem presença do mato em todo o ciclo da cultura e, os resultantes da combinação fatorial entre a presença e a ausência de mato no início da cultura e as épocas de remoção da flora infestante - 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 e 100 dias após a semeadura. Cada parcela foi constituída de quatro linhas, com bordadura comum entre as unidades experimentais, perfazendo, com a área útil, 6,0 m2. As espécies da flora infestante que ocorreram com maior freqüência foram Cyperus lanceolatus Poir., Digitaria horizontallis Willd., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. e Portulaca oleracea L. A convivência do mato com o amendoim diminuiu a produção de vagens e de grãos e a biomassa seca da planta. Não se observou efeito do mato sobre o índice de colheita e o rendimento de grãos em nenhum dos períodos estudados. Uma capina aplicada oito dias ou aos 73 dias após a semeadura, respectivamente, para os tratamentos sem e com mato no início, foi suficiente para a produção de vagens de amendoim estatisticamente igual à obtida quando a cultura foi mantida sem competição durante todo o ciclo.A field experiment was carried out at Adamantina, State of São Paulo, Brazil, to study different periods of weed competition with peanut. The treatments were 20: with and without weed presence through the crop cycle and those resulting from factorial combinations among presence and ausence of weed in the beginning of crop and the time of weed removal - 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 days after sowing. Each plot was constituted of four lines, with common border among experimental units, with useful area reading 6.0 m2. Weed species, occurring with higher frequencies were Cyperus lanceolatus Poir

  11. Effect of age of a sorghum-sudangrass hybrid on its allelopathic action Efeito da idade de um híbrido de sorgo com capim-sudão em sua ação alelopática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Marchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrids of Sorghum sudanensis (sudangrass and Sorghum bicolor genotypes can produce high amounts of biomass, sorgoleone (a long chain hydroquinone, and other phytotoxic substances. Shoots and roots of a sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (cv. Trudan 8 were collected 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 days after emergence. Four concentrations of aqueous extracts from the shoots and roots (0, 0.4, 2, and 10 g L-1, w/v were used to treat seeds of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, tomato (Lycopersicum sculentum, purslane (Portulaca oleracea, and pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus. Seed germination of lettuce, tomato, and pigweed was inhibited by extracts from sorghum-sudangrass shoots at 10 g L-1 when made from sorghum-sudangrass plants 20 days or less in age. Seed germination of purslane was not inhibited by any sorghum-sudangrass extract. Growth of the four species evaluated were systematically inhibited when treated with 10 g L-1 extracts from sorghum-sudangrass shoots harvested up to 10 days after emergence.Os capins híbridos obtidos pelo cruzamento entre Sorghum sudanensis (capim-sudão e genótipos de Sorghum bicolor possuem alto potencial para produção de biomassa e para controle de plantas daninhas pela produção de substâncias fitotóxicas, como o sorgoleone (uma hidroquinona de cadeia longa. Sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa, tomate (Lycopersicum sculentum, beldroega (Portulaca oleracea e caruru (Amaranthus retroflexus foram submetidas a tratamentos com extratos aquosos da parte aérea e das raízes do híbrido de sorgo com capim-sudão, cv. Trudan 8, colhido em cinco diferentes estádios de crescimento (10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 dias após a emergência. Os extratos foram preparados em quatro concentrações (0, 0,4, 2 e 10 g L-1, p/v e aplicados em quatro repetições. Após os tratamentos, a germinação e o comprimento de plântulas das espécies foram avaliados. A germinação de sementes de tomate, caruru e alface foi inibida pelos extratos da parte aérea das

  12. Alteration in antioxidant potential of spinacia oleracea in response to selected plant growth regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.; Sultana, B.; Ali, S.; Rehman, K.U.

    2013-01-01

    The spinach (Spinacia oleracea) plants treated with certain seed priming (bio-fertilizer and Humic acid) and foliar treatments (Humic acid, Moringa leaf extract, 6-Benzyl amino purine etc.) were tested for total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity. Methanolic extracts of all spinach samples were assessed performing three different protocols including Folin-Ciocalteu, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging assays. TPC value ranged 4.678-13.236 mg GAE/g of dry matter. Reducing power assay showed values (absorbance at lambda max=700nm) in the range of 0.351-1.874 at 10 mg/mL extract concentration. The range of IC 50 values in DPPH radical scavenging assay was 0.499-1.063 mu g/mL extract concentration. The one way ANOVA under CRD showed significant differences among treatments. Among various plant growth regulators, fresh Moringa leaf extract proved as the potent enhancer of antioxidant activity of spinach leaves. (author)

  13. Antioxidant potency of white (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and Chinese (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour.)) cabbage: The influence of development stage, cultivar choice and seed selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šamec, D.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.; Bogovic, M.; Habjanic, K.; Grúz, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 2 (2011), s. 78-83 ISSN 0304-4238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial activity * Antioxidant capacity * Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata * rapa L. var. pekinensis Lour * Cabbage Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2011

  14. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation in minimally processed vegetables of Brassica oleracea species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    The consumption of collard greens (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has been inversely associated with morbidity and mortality caused by degenerative diseases. These species are highly consumed in Brazil, which enables its use as minimally processed (MP). The growing worldwide concern with the storage, nutritional quality and microbiological safety of food has led to many studies aimed at microbiological analysis, vitamin and shelf life. To improve the quality of these products, radiation processing can be effective in maintaining the quality of the product, rather compromising their nutritional values and sensory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60 Co at doses of 0, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy on the reduction of microbiota in these plants, and analyze their nutritional and sensory characteristics. The methodology used in this study was microbiological analysis, colorimetric analysis, analysis of phenolic compounds, antioxidant analysis and sensory analysis. The microbiological analysis showed a decrease in the development of populations of aerobic microorganisms, psychotropic and yeast and mold with increasing doses of radiation. The sensory analysis showed no significant difference between different times of cooking analyzed. The analysis of phenolic compounds, significant differences between the samples, suggesting that with increasing dose of irradiation was an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds found in broccoli and collard greens MP. It can be observed that the sample of control collard greens showed high antioxidant activity and for the samples treated by irradiation was a decrease of percentage. In contrast the samples of broccoli show an increase in the rate of scavenging DPPH with increase of the dose of radiation. The colorimetric analysis revealed that for samples of MP collard greens and broccoli foil of no significant differences, but for samples of stems of

  15. Proteomic analysis of broccoli (Brassica oleracea) under high temperature and waterlogging stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Hung; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Chen, Su-Ching; Shen, Yu-Hsing; Lo, Hsiao-Feng

    2015-12-01

    The production of broccoli (Brassica oleracea) is largely reduced by waterlogging and high temperature stresses. Heat-tolerant and heat-susceptible broccoli cultivars TSS-AVRDC-2 and B-75, respectively, were used for physiological and proteomic analyses. The objective of this study was to identify TSS-AVRDC-2 and B-75 proteins differentially regulated at different time periods in response to waterlogging at 40 °C for three days. TSS-AVRDC-2 exhibited significantly higher chlorophyll content, lower stomatal conductance, and better H 2 O 2 scavenging under stress in comparison to B-75. Two-dimensional liquid phase fractionation analyses revealed that Rubisco proteins in both varieties were regulated under stressing treatments, and that TSS-AVRDC-2 had higher levels of both Rubisco large and small subunit transcripts than B-75 when subjected to high temperature and/or waterlogging. This report utilizes physiological and proteomic approaches to discover changes in the protein expression profiles of broccoli in response to heat and waterlogging stresses. Higher levels of Rubisco proteins in TSS-AVRDC-2 could lead to increased carbon fixation efficiency to provide sufficient energy to enable stress tolerance under waterlogging at 40 °C.

  16. Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hae Won; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2015-02-04

    Samples prepared from fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) sprouts by water distillation or freeze-drying were examined for antioxidant activity using three assays. All samples exhibited dose-dependent antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity ranged from 74.48 ± 0.46% (less volatile sample) to 93.2 ± 0.2% (dichloromethane extract sample) at the level of 500 μg/mL. Both dichloromethane extract samples from a water distillate of broccoli sprouts and freeze-dried broccoli sprouts showed potent antioxidant activity, which was comparable to that of BHT. Among the 43 compounds positively identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 5-methylthiopentylnitrile (31.64 μg/g) was found in the greatest concentration, followed by 4-methylthiobutylisothiocyanate (14.55 μg/g), 4-methylthiobutylnitrile (10.63 μg/g), 3-methylthiopropylisothiocyanate (3.00 μg/g), and 4-methylpentylisothiocyanate (2.48 μg/g). These isothiocyanates are known to possess antioxidant properties. Possible phenolic antioxidants found are 4-(1-methylpropyl)phenol (0.012 μg/g), 4-methylphenol (0.159 μg/g), and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (0.009 μg/g). The present study demonstrates that broccoli sprouts are a good source of natural antioxidants.

  17. Halogenated 1-Hydroxynaphthalene-2-Carboxanilides Affecting Photosynthetic Electron Transport in Photosystem II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Gonec

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Series of seventeen new multihalogenated 1-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxanilides was prepared and characterized. All the compounds were tested for their activity related to the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. 1-Hydroxy-N-phenylnaphthalene-2-carboxamides substituted in the anilide part by 3,5-dichloro-, 4-bromo-3-chloro-, 2,5-dibromo- and 3,4,5-trichloro atoms were the most potent PET inhibitors (IC50 = 5.2, 6.7, 7.6 and 8.0 µM, respectively. The inhibitory activity of these compounds depends on the position and the type of halogen substituents, i.e., on lipophilicity and electronic properties of individual substituents of the anilide part of the molecule. Interactions of the studied compounds with chlorophyll a and aromatic amino acids present in pigment-protein complexes mainly in PS II were documented by fluorescence spectroscopy. The section between P680 and plastoquinone QB in the PET chain occurring on the acceptor side of PS II can be suggested as the site of action of the compounds. The structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  18. Characterization and Functional Identification of a Novel Plant 4,5-Extradiol Dioxygenase Involved in Betalain Pigment Biosynthesis in Portulaca grandiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christinet, Laurent; Burdet, Frédéric X.; Zaiko, Maïa; Hinz, Ursula; Zrÿd, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Betalains are pigments that replace anthocyanins in the majority of families of the plant order Caryophyllales. Betalamic acid is the common chromophore of betalains. The key enzyme of the betalain biosynthetic pathway is an extradiol dioxygenase that opens the cyclic ring of dihydroxy-phenylalanine (DOPA) between carbons 4 and 5, thus producing an unstable seco-DOPA that rearranges nonenzymatically to betalamic acid. A gene for a 4,5-DOPA-dioxygenase has already been isolated from the fungus Amanita muscaria, but no homolog was ever found in plants. To identify the plant gene, we constructed subtractive libraries between different colored phenotypes of isogenic lines of Portulaca grandiflora (Portulacaceae) and between different stages of flower bud formation. Using in silico analysis of differentially expressed cDNAs, we identified a candidate showing strong homology at the level of translated protein with the LigB domain present in several bacterial extradiol 4,5-dioxygenases. The gene was expressed only in colored flower petals. The function of this gene in the betalain biosynthetic pathway was confirmed by biolistic genetic complementation in white petals of P. grandiflora genotypes lacking the gene for color formation. This gene named DODA is the first characterized member of a novel family of plant dioxygenases phylogenetically distinct from Amanita sp. DOPA-dioxygenase. Homologs of DODA are present not only in betalain-producing plants but also, albeit with some changes near the catalytic site, in other angiosperms and in the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. These homologs are part of a novel conserved plant gene family probably involved in aromatic compound metabolism. PMID:14730069

  19. Metabolism of the insecticide metofluthrin in cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Daisuke; Fukushima, Masao; Fujisawa, Takuo; Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2012-03-14

    The metabolic fate of metofluthrin [2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(methoxymethyl)benzyl (E,Z)-(1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(prop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate] separately labeled with (14)C at the carbonyl carbon and the α-position of the 4-methoxymethylbenzyl ring was studied in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ). An acetonitrile solution of (14)C-metofluthrin at 431 g ai ha(-1) was once applied topically to cabbage leaves at head-forming stage, and the plants were grown for up to 14 days. Each isomer of metofluthrin applied onto the leaf surface rapidly volatilized into the air and was scarcely translocated to the untreated portion. On the leaf surface, metofluthrin was primarily degraded through ozonolysis of the propenyl side chain to produce the secondary ozonide, which further decomposed to the corresponding aldehyde and carboxylic acid derivatives. In the leaf tissues, the 1R-trans-Z isomer was mainly metabolized to its dihydrodiol derivative probably via an epoxy intermediate followed by saccharide conjugation in parallel with the ester cleavage, whereas no specific metabolite was dominant for the 1R-trans-E isomer. Isomerization of metofluthrin at the cyclopropyl ring was negligible for both isomers. In this study, the chemical structure of each secondary ozonide derivative was fully elucidated by the various modes of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy together with cochromatography with the synthetic standard, and their cis/trans configuration was examined by the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) difference NMR spectrum.

  20. Characterization and quantification of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. Convar. acephala Var. sabellica) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Helle; Aaby, Kjersti; Borge, Grethe Iren A

    2009-04-08

    Kale is a leafy green vegetable belonging to the Brassicaceae family, a group of vegetables including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts, with a high content of health-promoting phytochemicals. The flavonoids and hydroxycinammic acids of curly kale ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. oleracea convar. acephala (DC.) Alef. var. sabellica L.), a variety of kale, were characterized and identified primarily through HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analysis. Thirty-two phenolic compounds including glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol and derivatives of p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, and caffeic acid were tentatively identified, providing a more complete identification of phenolic compounds in curly kale than previously reported. Moreover, three hydroxycinnamic acids and one flavonoid with an unusual high grade of glycosylation, quercetin-3-disinapoyl-triglucoside-7-diglucoside, have been tentatively identified for the first time. The influence of different extraction conditions (extraction method, solvent type, solvent/solid ratio, and duration of extraction) was investigated. The total flavonol and hydroxycinnamic acid contents in curly kale determined as rutin equivalents (RE) were 646 and 204 mg of RE/100 g of fresh weight (fw), respectively. The contents of individual flavonoids ranged from 2 to 159 mg of RE/100 g of fw, with main compounds kaempferol-3-sinapoyl-diglucoside-7-diglucoside (18.7%) and quercetin-3-sinapoyl-diglucoside-7-diglucoside (16.5%). After acidic hydrolysis, two flavonol aglycones were identified in curly kale, quercetin and kaempferol, with total contents of 44 and 58 mg/100 g of fw, respectively.

  1. BIO-ORGANIC CHEMISTRY QUARTERLY REPORT. December 1962 throughFebruary 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    1963-03-29

    This report covers the following titles: (1) A versatile solvent to replace phenol for the paper chromatography of radioactive intermediary metabolites; (2) Chromatography of plant lipids on alumina paper; (3) Quinone and pigment composition of chloroplasts and quantasomes from Spinacea oleracea; (4) The lipid composition of chloroplast lamellae from Spinacea oleracea; (5) Metal chelates and photochemistry of flavins; (6) Photoinduced ESR in some solutions of organic electron donors and acceptors; (7) Fluorescence of oriented dye-macromolecule complexes--Theoretical study; (8) Formation of adenine by electron irradiation of methane, ammonia, and water; (9) Uptake of organic compounds by planarians; (10) The planaria: Absorption spectrum, cell disaggregation, and studies on homogenates.

  2. Evaluation of various soaking agents as a novel tool for pesticide residues mitigation from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Asghar, Ali; Pasha, Imran; Usman, Rabia; Shamoon, Muhammad; Bhatti, Muhammad Arslan; Irshad, Muhammad Asim; Ahmad, Naveed

    2016-08-01

    The increasing use of pesticides for boosting the yield of agricultural crops also impart toxic residues which ultimately extend to numerous physiological disorders upon consumption. The present study was designed as an effort to assess the reduction potential of various chemical solutions and to minimize the pesticide residues in cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis ). The samples were soaked in various solutions along with tap water to mitigate pesticide residues. Afterwards, the extracted supernatant was passed through column containing anhydrous sodium sulfate trailed by activated carbon for clean-up. Eluents were first evaporated and then completely dried under gentle stream of Nitrogen. Finally, the residues were determined using gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Results revealed the highest reduction of endosulfan, bifenthrin and cypermethrin residues with acetic acid (10 %) was 1.133 ± 0.007 (41 %), 0.870 ± 0.022 (60 %) and 0.403 ± 0.003 (75 %), respectively among the tested solutions. However, simple tap water treatment also resulted in 0.990 ± 0.02 (12 %), 1.323 ± 0.015 (14 %) and 1.274 ± 0.002 (21 %) elimination of endosulfan, bifenthrin and cypermethrin residues, respectively. Moreover, among various solutions, acetic acid depicted maximum reduction potential followed by citric acid, hydrogen peroxide, sodium chloride and sodium carbonate solutions. The percent reduction by various solutions ranged from 12 to 41, 14 to 60 and 21 to 75 % for the elimination of endosulfan, bifenthrin and cypermethrin residues, respectively.

  3. Identificação e quantificação das antocianinas do fruto do açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Mart Identification and quantification of the anthocyanins from the fruit of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinda O. BOBBIO

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Do extrato aquoso, congelado e liofilizado dos frutos do açaizeiro, foram extraídas as antocianinas e após purificação e separação das duas principais frações as mesmas foram identificadas usando métodos químicos, espectroscópicos e CLAE. As antocianinas foram identificadas como cianidina-3- arabinosídeo e cianidina-3-arabinosil-arabinosídeo. O teor de antocianinas totais no caso do fruto do açaizeiro foi determinado e o valor encontrado foi de 263mg/100g casca.From the liophylized commercialy frozen extract of the fruit of Euterpes oleracea (açaí two anthocyanins were isolated and identified as cianidin-3-arabinoside and cyanidin-3-arabinosylarabinoside. The percentage of total anthocyanins in the peels of the fruits was 263 mg/100g peel.

  4. EFFECTS OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF BROCOLI (BRASSICA OLERACEA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kandil

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in research and production station, El- Nubaria location, National Research Centre, Egypt during winter season, 2008, to study the effect of different solution fertilizers formula and organic manure on vegetative growth, heads yield quantity and quality as well as nutrient composition of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica.The obtained results showed that all mineral solution fertilizers gave a significant synergistic effect for broccoli growth, yield quantity and quality as well as nutrients composition compared the control (mineral N, P, K recommended fertilizers. The mineral formula 19: 19: 19 recorded the highest growth heads, yield and quality along with mineral content in broccoli. Using farmyard manure plus inorganic fertilizers enhanced all growth and yield parameters. Applying farmyard manure plus the mineral solution fertilizer formula 19: 19: 19 caused the superior and optimum figures of broccoli growth, mineral composition as well as heads yield quantity and quality. Organic manure alone recorded the lowest one.

  5. Histological Evaluation of Radioprotection by Silymarin and Brassica Oleracea Extract on Eye of Albino Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, N.I.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of two different antioxidant agents (an ethanolic seed extract of cabbage B rassica oleracea a nd silymarin) on irradiated rat eye tissues. Silymarin, known for its potent antioxidant activity, was used as a reference. Rats were divided into 6 groups; group I contained control rats, group II rats received gamma radiation (6 Gy) in three fractionated doses for 3 consecutive days, group III rats received silymarin orally through the experiment , group IV rats received ethanolic extract of brassica seeds orally through the experiment, group V rats received silymarin one week before radiation, during radiation and one week after radiation, and group VI rats received brassica extract one week before radiation, during radiation and one week after radiation . The histological study revealed that ethanolic extract of brassica seeds alleviated the manifestations of radiation injury in the eye tissues as compared with the untreated animals and also with those who received the silymarin.

  6. Transcriptome analysis and metabolic profiling of green and red kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, HyeRan; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Park, Yun Ji; Kim, Sun Ju; Kim, Changsoo; Park, Sang Un

    2018-02-15

    Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) is a rich source of numerous health-benefiting compounds, including vitamins, glucosinolates, phenolic compounds, and carotenoids. However, the genetic resources for exploiting the phyto-nutritional traits of kales are limited. To acquire precise information on secondary metabolites in kales, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome of green and red kale seedlings. Kale transcriptome datasets revealed 37,149 annotated genes and several secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes. HPLC analysis revealed 14 glucosinolates, 20 anthocyanins, 3 phenylpropanoids, and 6 carotenoids in the kale seedlings that were examined. Red kale contained more glucosinolates, anthocyanins, and phenylpropanoids than green kale, whereas the carotenoid contents were much higher in green kale than in red kale. Ultimately, our data will be a valuable resource for future research on kale bio-engineering and will provide basic information to define gene-to-metabolite networks in kale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of salinity and salinity-induced augmented bioactive compounds in purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) for possible economical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirul Alam, Md; Juraimi, A S; Rafii, M Y; Hamid, A A; Aslani, F; Alam, M Z

    2015-02-15

    Dry matter (DM), total phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoid contents, and antioxidant activity of 12 purslane accessions were investigated against five levels of salinity (0, 8, 16, 24 and 32dSm(-1)). In untreated plants, the DM contents ranged between 8.0-23.4g/pot; total phenolics contents (TPC) between 0.96-9.12mgGAEg(-1)DW; total flavonoid contents (TFC) between 0.15-1.44mgREg(-1)DW; and total carotenoid contents (TCC) between 0.52BCEg(-1)DW. While FRAP activity ranged from 8.64-104.21mgTEg(-1)DW (about 12-fold) and DPPH activity between 2.50-3.30mgmL(-1) IC50 value. Different levels of salinity treatment resulted in 8-35% increases in TPC; about 35% increase in TFC; and 18-35% increases in FRAP activity. Purslane accessions Ac4, Ac5, Ac6 and Ac8 possessed potentials for salinity-induced augmented production of bioactive compounds which in turn can be harnessed for possible human health benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. First report of tomato chlorotic spot virus in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) and purslane (Portulaca oleracea) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) has been recently detected in tomato, pepper, hoya and vinca in Florida. Observations of additional crops in 2016 and 2017 revealed TCSV-like symptoms. Testing of these symptomatic plants identified three new hosts of TCSV in Florida: sweet basil (Ocimum basilicu...

  9. DESENVOLVIMENTO E AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DE SORVETE DE IOGURTE SIMBIÓTICO, DE LEITE DE BÚFALA ENRIQUECIDO COM POLPA DE AÇAÍ (Euterpe oleracea)

    OpenAIRE

    MONTEIRO, Ranna Catarine da Rocha; VELOSO, Carlos Ribeiro; NERES, Lilaine de Sousa; LOURENÇO JÚNIOR, José de Brito; PACHECO, Evelyn Azevedo; ABE SATO, Suenne Taynah; SANTOS, Marcos Antônio Souza dos; NAHUM, Benjamim de Souza; RIBEIRO, Illana de Araujo

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods as prebiotics and probiotics, ensure balanced and healthy intestinal flora and help in preventing chronic degenerative diseases, however, little use is made of these foods because of the difficulty of developing products with attractive sensory characteristics and viable micro-organisms throughout the useful life of the product. The objective of this study was to develop a symbiotic yogurt ice cream enriched with açaí (Euterpe oleracea) prepared from buffalo milk. For the pre...

  10. Neofunctionalization of duplicated Tic40 genes caused a gain-of-function variation related to male fertility in Brassica oleracea lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Xiaoling; Shen, Wenhao; Hu, Kaining; Zhou, Zhengfu; Xia, Shengqian; Wen, Jing; Yi, Bin; Shen, Jinxiong; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2014-11-01

    Gene duplication followed by functional divergence in the event of polyploidization is a major contributor to evolutionary novelties. The Brassica genus evolved from a common ancestor after whole-genome triplication. Here, we studied the evolutionary and functional features of Brassica spp. homologs to Tic40 (for translocon at the inner membrane of chloroplasts with 40 kDa). Four Tic40 loci were identified in allotetraploid Brassica napus and two loci in each of three basic diploid Brassica spp. Although these Tic40 homologs share high sequence identities and similar expression patterns, they exhibit altered functional features. Complementation assays conducted on Arabidopsis thaliana tic40 and the B. napus male-sterile line 7365A suggested that all Brassica spp. Tic40 homologs retain an ancestral function similar to that of AtTic40, whereas BolC9.Tic40 in Brassica oleracea and its ortholog in B. napus, BnaC9.Tic40, in addition, evolved a novel function that can rescue the fertility of 7365A. A homologous chromosomal rearrangement placed bnac9.tic40 originating from the A genome (BraA10.Tic40) as an allele of BnaC9.Tic40 in the C genome, resulting in phenotypic variation for male sterility in the B. napus near-isogenic two-type line 7365AB. Assessment of the complementation activity of chimeric B. napus Tic40 domain-swapping constructs in 7365A suggested that amino acid replacements in the carboxyl terminus of BnaC9.Tic40 cause this functional divergence. The distribution of these amino acid replacements in 59 diverse Brassica spp. accessions demonstrated that the neofunctionalization of Tic40 is restricted to B. oleracea and its derivatives and thus occurred after the divergence of the Brassica spp. A, B, and C genomes. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Acmella oleracea and Achyrocline satureioides as Sources of Natural Products in Topical Wound Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Lais Thiemi; de Paula, Eneida; Jorge, Michelle Pedroza; de Freitas-Blanco, Verônica Santana; Junior, Ílio Montanari; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Anholeto, Luís Adriano; de Oliveira, Patricia Rosa; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian forests have one of the world's biggest biodiversities. Achyrocline satureioides (macela) and Acmella oleracea (jambu) are native species from Brazil with a huge therapeutic potential, with proved anti-inflammatory and anesthetic action, respectively. The jambu's crude extract after depigmentation with activated charcoal and macela's essential oil were incorporated in a film made with hydroxyethyl cellulose. Those films were evaluated by mechanical test using a texturometer and anti-inflammatory and anesthetic activities by in vivo tests: wound healing and antinociceptive. The film containing the highest concentration of depigmented jambu's extract and macela's essential oil obtained an anesthesia time of 83.6 (±28.5) min longer when compared with the positive control EMLA®; the same occurred with the wound healing test; the film containing the highest concentration had a higher wound contraction (62.0% ± 12.1) compared to the positive control allantoin and the histopathological analysis demonstrated that it increases collagen synthesis and epidermal thickening. The results demonstrate that the films have a potential use in skin wounds, pressure sore, and infected surgical wounds treatment.

  12. Molecular mapping of QTL alleles of Brassica oleracea affecting days to flowering and photosensitivity in spring Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Habibur; Bennett, Rick A; Kebede, Berisso

    2018-01-01

    Earliness of flowering and maturity are important traits in spring Brassica napus canola-whether grown under long- or short-day condition. By use of a spring B. napus mapping population carrying the genome content of B. oleracea and testing this population under 10 to 18 h photoperiod and 18 to 20 0C (day) temperature conditions, we identified a major QTL on the chromosome C1 affecting flowering time without being influenced by photoperiod and temperature, and a major QTL on C9 affecting flowering time under a short photoperiod (10 h); in both cases, the QTL alleles reducing the number of days to flowering in B. napus were introgressed from the late flowering species B. oleracea. Additive effect of the C1 QTL allele at 14 to18 h photoperiod was 1.1 to 2.9 days; however, the same QTL allele exerted an additive effect of 6.2 days at 10 h photoperiod. Additive effect of the C9 QTL at 10 h photoperiod was 2.8 days. These two QTL also showed significant interaction in the control of flowering only under a short-day (10 h photoperiod) condition with an effect of 2.3 days. A few additional QTL were also detected on the chromosomes C2 and C8; however, none of these QTL could be detected under all photoperiod and temperature conditions. BLASTn search identified several putative flowering time genes on the chromosomes C1 and C9 and located the physical position of the QTL markers in the Brassica genome; however, only a few of these genes were found within the QTL region. Thus, the molecular markers and the genomic regions identified in this research could potentially be used in breeding for the development of early flowering photoinsensitive B. napus canola cultivars, as well as for identification of candidate genes involved in flowering time variation and photosensitivity.

  13. Hıyarda (Cucumis sativus L. yabancı ot çıkış zamanın tahminine yönelik araştırmalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Tursun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available İstatistiki modellerin geliştirilmesi için hıyar bitkisinde on bir önemli yabancı otun çıkış zamanın belirlenmesinde modellemeler yapılmıştır. Hıyar deneme arazisinde bulunan önemli yabancı otlar çıkış zamanlarına göre gruplara ayrılmıştır. Bu yabancı otlardan; Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Heliotropium europaeum, Polygonum aviculare ve Solanum nigrum erken, Convolvulus arvensis, Cyperus rotundus, Cynodon dactylon, Portulaca oleracea ve Sorghum halepense bütün vejetasyon boyunca ve Tribulus terrestris ise geç çimlenen yabancı ot türü olarak belirlenmiştir. Farklı doğrusal olmayan büyüme eğrileri (Chapman-Richard, Weibull, logistic, Gompertz ve cubic spline farklı yabancı ot türleri ve yıllar için çıkış yüzdeleri verileri esas alınarak uyarlanmıştır. Cubic splin model birçok yabancı ot türü için en iyi model olarak saptanmıştır.

  14. Chemical control of weeds during the acclimatization of in vitro sugarcane plants cv. 'CP52-43'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoel García Ruiz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Control of weeds in the acclimatization phase of in vitro sugarcane (Saccharum spp. plants is done manually which raises the cost of production. In order to determine the effectiveness of the chemical control of weeds with Dual Gold CE 96 (Mesotrione, in vitro plants of sugar cane cv. 'CP52-43' were acclimatized in worm humus and cachaça compost. Doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 l ha-1 p.c. Dual Gold CE 96 herbicide, were applied before and immediately to in vitro plants transplantation and the results were compared to manual weeding. After 50 days of culture, 15 plants were extracted per treatment and the number of leaves and shoots were quantified, the length was measured and the fresh mass of the aerial part and of the roots were determined. The results showed that Dual Gold CE 96 at doses of 0.5 l ha-1 applied before or after transplant, controls the weeds Portulaca oleracea (L., Amaranthus sp. (Mart, Sida acuta (Burm. F. and Eleusine indica (L., without affecting the growth of sugarcane cv. ‘CP52-43’ plants, compared to manual weeding.   Keywords: herbicides, Saccharum, substrate, survival

  15. Weeds and ground-dwelling predators' response to two different weed management systems in glyphosate-tolerant cotton: A farm-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, Esteban; Loureiro, Íñigo; Farinós, Gema P; Gómez, Pablo; Gutiérrez, Elena; Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Escorial, María Concepción; Ortego, Félix; Chueca, María Cristina; Castañera, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    The use of glyphosate, as a post-emergence broad-spectrum herbicide in genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant (GT) cotton, supposes a big change in weed management programs with respect to a conventional regime. Thus, alterations in arable flora and arthropod fauna must be considered when evaluating their potential impacts. A 3-year farm-scale study was conducted in a 2-ha GT cotton crop, in southern Spain, to compare the effects of conventional and glyphosate herbicide regimes on weed abundance and diversity and their consequences for ground-dwelling predators. Surveys reveal that weed density was relatively low within all treatments with a few dominant species, with significantly higher weed densities and modifications of the floristic composition in glyphosate-treated plots that led to an increase in the abundance of Portulaca oleracea and to a reduction in plant diversity. The activity-density of the main predatory arthropod taxa (spiders, ground beetles, rove beetles and earwigs) varied among years, but no significant differences were obtained between conventional and glyphosate herbicide regimes. However, significant differences between treatments were obtained for ground beetles species richness and diversity, being higher under the glyphosate herbicide regime, and a positive correlation with weed density could be established for both parameters. The implications of these findings to weed control in GT cotton are discussed.

  16. Plant occurrence on burning coal waste – a case study from the Katowice-Wełnowiec dump, Poland

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    Ciesielczuk Justyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal-waste dumps superimposed on former rubbish dump frequently undergo selfheating and selfignition of organic matter dispersed in the waste. The special conditions for plant growth generated as a result have been investigated since 2008 on the municipal dump reclaimed with coal wastes in Katowice-Wełnowiec, Poland. The plants observed most frequently where heating has occurred are Sisymbrium loeselii, Artemisia vulgaris, Sonchus arvensis, Chenopodium album, Achillea millefolium, Cirsium arvense, Amaranthus retroflexus, Atriplex nitens and Solanum nigrum. Some new, rare species such as Portulaca oleracea, first noticed in 2011, may be added. Most of encroaching species are annual, alien archeophytes and neophytes. Native species are mainly perennials. The majority of these species show a tendency to form specimens of huge size (gigantism. The abundance of emitted CO2 and nitrogen compounds is the likely cause of this. Additionally, the plants growing there are not attacked by insects. The heating of the ground liquidates the natural seed bank. After cooling, these places are seeded by species providing seeds at that very moment (pioneer species. Heated places on the dumps allow plant growth even in the middle of winter. As the seasonal vegetation cycle is disturbed, plants may be found seeding, blooming and fruiting at the same time.

  17. Effect of visible light treatments on postharvest senescence of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchert, Agustin M; Gómez Lobato, Maria E; Villarreal, Natalia M; Civello, Pedro M; Martínez, Gustavo A

    2011-01-30

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) is a rapidly perishable vegetable crop. Several postharvest treatments have been applied in order to delay de-greening. Since light has been shown to have an effect on pigment accumulation during development and darkness is known to induce senescence, the effect of continuous and periodic exposure to low-intensity white light at 22 °C on postharvest senescence of broccoli heads was assayed. Exposure to a constant dose of 12 micromol m(-2) s(-1) was selected as the most suitable treatment and was employed for subsequent experiments. During the course of the treatments, hue and L* values as well as chlorophyll content and visual observation of florets indicated an evident delay in yellowing in treated samples compared with controls. No statistically significant differences in total protein content were found, but soluble protein content was higher in treated samples. Total and reducing sugar as well as starch levels decreased during postharvest senescence, with lower values in control samples. The results of this study indicate that storage under continuous low-intensity light is an efficient and low-cost treatment that delays postharvest senescence while maintaining the quality of harvested broccoli florets. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Purification and characterization of peroxidase from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Ekrem; Gülçin, Ilhami

    2008-01-01

    Peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7; donor: hydrogen peroxide oxidoreductase) are part of a large group of enzymes. In this study, peroxidase, a primer antioxidant enzyme, was purified with 19.3 fold and 0.2% efficiency from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, CM-Sephadex ion-exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-25 purification steps. The substrate specificity of peroxidase was investigated using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (catechol), 1,2,3-trihyidroxybenzene (pyrogallol) and 4-methylcatechol. Also, optimum pH, optimum temperature, optimum ionic strength, stable pH, stable temperature, thermal inactivation conditions were determined for guaiacol/H(2)O(2), pyrogallol/H(2)O(2), ABTS/H(2)O(2), catechol/H(2)O(2) and 4-methyl catechol/H(2)O(2) substrate patterns. The molecular weight (M(w)) of this enzyme was found to be 44 kDa by gel filtration chromatography method. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was performed for isoenzyme determination and a single band was observed. K(m) and V(max) values were calculated from Lineweaver-Burk graph for each substrate patterns.

  19. High frequency organogenesis in hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, D K

    2015-04-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important, nutritionally rich vegetable crop, but severely affected by environmental stresses, pests and diseases which cause massive yield and quality losses. Genetic manipulation is becoming an important method for broccoli improvement. In the present study, a reproducible and highly efficient protocol for obtaining organogenesis from hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica cv. Solan green head) has been developed. Hypocotyl and cotyledon explants were used from 10 to 12 days old aseptically grown seedlings whereas leaf and petiole explants were excised from 18 to 20 days old green house grown seedlings and surface sterilized. These explants were cultured on shoot induction medium containing different concentration and combination of BAP and NAA. High efficiency shoot regeneration has been achieved in hypocotyl (83.33 %), cotyledon (90.11 %), leaf (62.96 %) and petiole (91.10 %) explants on MS medium supplemented with 3.5 mg/l BAP + 0.019 mg/l NAA 2.5 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l NAA, 4.0 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l NAA and 4.5 mg/l BAP + 0.019 mg/l NAA respectively. Petiole explants showed maximum shoot regeneration response as compared to other explants. MS medium supplemented with 0.10 mg/l NAA was found best for root regeneration (100 %) from in vitro developed shoots. The regenerated complete plantlets were transferred to the pots containing cocopeat and successfully acclimatized. This optimized regeneration protocol can be efficiently used for genetic transformation in broccoli. This is the first comparative report on multiple shoot induction using four different types of explants viz. hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole.

  20. Genetics and fine mapping of a purple leaf gene, BoPr, in ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Ping; Gao, Bao-Zhen; Han, Feng-Qing; Fang, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Li-Mei; Zhuang, Mu; Lv, Hong-Hao; Liu, Yu-Mei; Li, Zhan-Sheng; Cai, Cheng-Cheng; Yu, Hai-Long; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Yang-Yong

    2017-03-14

    Due to its variegated and colorful leaves, ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) has become a popular ornamental plant. In this study, we report the fine mapping and analysis of a candidate purple leaf gene using a backcross population and an F 2 population derived from two parental lines: W1827 (with white leaves) and P1835 (with purple leaves). Genetic analysis indicated that the purple leaf trait is controlled by a single dominant gene, which we named BoPr. Using markers developed based on the reference genome '02-12', the BoPr gene was preliminarily mapped to a 280-kb interval of chromosome C09, with flanking markers M17 and BoID4714 at genetic distances of 4.3 cM and 1.5 cM, respectively. The recombination rate within this interval is almost 12 times higher than the usual level, which could be caused by assembly error for reference genome '02-12' at this interval. Primers were designed based on 'TO1000', another B. oleracea reference genome. Among the newly designed InDel markers, BRID485 and BRID490 were found to be the closest to BoPr, flanking the gene at genetic distances of 0.1 cM and 0.2 cM, respectively; the interval between the two markers is 44.8 kb (reference genome 'TO1000'). Seven annotated genes are located within the 44.8 kb genomic region, of which only Bo9g058630 shows high homology to AT5G42800 (dihydroflavonol reductase), which was identified as a candidate gene for BoPr. Blast analysis revealed that this 44.8 kb interval is located on an unanchored scaffold (Scaffold000035_P2) of '02-12', confirming the existence of assembly error at the interval between M17 and BoID4714 for reference genome '02-12'. This study identified a candidate gene for BoPr and lays a foundation for the cloning and functional analysis of this gene.

  1. Clonación del cDNA del gen de la insulina humana en raíces aéreas de Brassica oleracea var italica (brócoli)

    OpenAIRE

    Berenice García Reyes; María del Carmen Montes Horcasitas; Emma Gloria Ramos Ramírez; Armando Ariza Castolo; Josefina Pérez Vargas; Octavio Gómez Guzmán; Graciano Calva Calva

    2010-01-01

    La insulina humana es una proteína de actividad hormonal que regula los niveles de glucosa en sangre. Cuando la insulina falla se desarrolla el padecimiento conocido como diabetes. La insulina se ha expresado en bacterias, levaduras, hongos, células animales y sistemas vegetales por biotecnología vegetal. En este trabajo presentamos los resultados del uso de raíces transformadas de Brassica oleracea var italica (Brocoli) para producir insulina humana. Materiales y Métodos: El cDNA del corresp...

  2. Purple head broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck), a functional food crop for antioxidant and anticancer potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ashun; Choudhary, Sonika; Sharma, Upendra; Vig, Adarsh Pal; Singh, Bikram; Arora, Saroj

    2018-05-01

    Natural foods are used in many folks and household treatments and have immense potential to treat a serious complication and health benefits, in addition to the basic nutritional values. These food products improve health, delay the aging process, increase life expectancy, and possibly prevent chronic diseases. Purple head Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck is one of such foods and in current studies was explored for chemical compounds at different development stages by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antioxidant potential was explored employing different assays like molybdate ion reduction, DPPH, superoxide anion radical scavenging and plasmid nicking assay. Inspired by antioxidant activity results, we further explored these extracts for antiproliferative potential by morphological changes, cell cycle analysis, measurement of intracellular peroxides and mitochondrial membrane potential changes. Current study provides the scientific basis for the use of broccoli as easily affordable potent functional food.

  3. Levantamento fitossociológico de plantas daninhas na cultura da cenoura em monocultivo e consorciada com rabanete

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    A. P. M. S. Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na horta da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, no período de setembro a dezembro de 2009, com o objetivo de realizar o levantamento fitossociológico nos seguintes tratamentos: sistema de monocultivo da cenoura (Daucus carota e sistema de cultivo da cenoura consorciada com rabanete (Raphanus sativus. Para cada sistema de plantio foram realizadas 24 amostragens em quadrados vazados de 0,50 m de lado, onde as plantas daninhas foram coletadas e separadas por espécie, para determinação das seguintes características: número total de indivíduos por espécie, número total de parcelas que contém a espécie, freqüência, freqüência relativa, densidade, densidade relativa, abundância, abundância relativa, massa seca, massa seca relativa, índice de valor de importância (IVI, e o índice de valor de importância incluindo a massa seca (IVI-MS. Foram identificadas 19 espécies, distribuídas em 12 famílias botânicas. A família mais representativa foi a Poaceae, seguida por Portulacaceae, Cyperaceae, Tumeraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Amaranthaceae, Rubiaceae, Fabaceae, Molluginaceae, Convolvulaceae e Asteraceae. As áreas conduzidas no sistema de consórcio apresentaram redução de 13,2% na massa seca pelas plantas daninhas, embora a densidade não tenha sido alterada. A espécie de planta daninha Portulaca oleracea se destacou em relação às demais por ter acumulado 40,21 e 47,31% da massa seca produzidas infestantes em monocultivo e consórcio, respectivamente.Phyto-sociological survey of weed in carrot’s cultivation in monocrop and intercropped with radishAbstract: Was conducted the experiment in didact garden at the Rural Federal University of Semi-Arid, from September to December 2009, in order to carry out the phytosociological survey in the treatments: monocrop system of carrot (Daucus carota and intercropping system of carrot with radish (Raphanus sativus. For each planting system

  4. Influência da posição e da profundidade de semeadura na emergência de plântulas de açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart. - Arecaceae Influence of the position and the depth of sowing in the emergency of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart. - Arecaceae seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Marques da Silva e Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a posição e a profundidade de semeadura mais adequadas para a emergência de plântulas de açaizeiro. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar nas profundidades de 0; 3 e 6 cm e nas seguintes posições: sementes com a rafe perpendicular à superfície do substrato e poro germinativo para cima, rafe perpendicular e poro germinativo para baixo, rafe paralela à superfície e poro germinativo para baixo e rafe paralela à superfície e poro germinativo para cima. A emergência de plântulas de açaizeiro com a rafe perpendicular à superfície do substrato e poro germinativo para cima é a mais adequada, pois proporciona igual porcentagem e menor tempo médio de emergência. Profundidades iguais ou superiores a 3 cm são inadequadas para semeadura de Euterpe oleracea Mart.The present work had the objective to determine the most suitable depth and position of sowing for the emergency of açaizeiro seedlings. The seeds were placed to germinate at the depths of 0; 3 and 6 cm and in the following positions: with the raphe perpendicular to the surface of the substratum and germinative aperture up, the raphe perpendicular and germinative aperture down, the raphe parallel to the low surface and germinative aperture down, and raphe parallel to the surface and germinative aperture up. The emergency of açaizeiro seedlings with rafe perpendicular to the surface of the substratum and germinative aperture up is the most suitable, as it provides an equal percentage and minor average time of emergency. Depths equal or superior to 3 cm are inadequate for sowing of Euterpe oleracea Mart.

  5. Agronomic parameters in broccoli ( Brassica oleraceae L. var. Italica in convencional, organic and natural crop systems/ Parâmetros agronômicos em couve-brócolos ( Brassica oleraceae L. var. Italica em sistema convencional, orgânico e natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manoel Oliveira Janeiro Neves

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Agronomic parameters were assessed in broccoli ( Brassica oleraceae L. var. italica, cv. Legacy, in different cultivation systems: Natural 1 [incorporation of elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher cv. “Napier” (50 ton/ha, Bokashi compost (1,5 ton/ ha and EM-4 spraying (20 l/ha]; Natural 2 [Bokashi compost (1,5 ton/ ha and EM-4 spraying (20 l/ha]; Conventional (NPK in the planting + bórax + dressing N]; Organic [organic compost (1 kg/plant]. Plants high were assessed 30, 45 and 60 days after planting; cycle; fresh weight; shelf life and dried weight were also evaluated. Fresh weight of leaves and stems in conventional was higher then in organic treatment. Inflorescence fresh weight, leaves and stems dried weight and shelf life were similar among treatments. The inflorescence fresh and dried weight from conventional were higher than those from Organic and Natural 1. Cycle found in Natural 1 was longer than the other treatments.Parâmetros agronômicos foram avaliados em couve-brócolos ( Brassica oleraceae L . var. italica, cv. Legacy, em quatro sistemas de cultivo: Natural 1 [incorporação de capim elefante Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher cv. “Napier” (50 ton/ha, composto Bokashi (1,5 ton/ ha e pulverização de EM-4 (20 l/ha]; Natural 2 [incorporação de composto Bokashi (1,5 ton/ ha e pulverização de EM-4 (20 l/ha]; Convencional [NPK no plantio + bórax + N em cobertura]; Orgânico [aplicação de composto (1 kg/planta]. Avaliou-se a altura das plantas aos 30, 45 e 60 dias após o transplantio; duração do ciclo, peso fresco, período de conservação pós-colheita e peso seco. O peso fresco da parte vegetativa obtido no sistema convencional foi superior ao sistema orgânico. O peso fresco e seco da inflorescência obtido no sistema convencional, foi superior àquele obtido nos sistemas Orgânico e Natural 1. O ciclo no sistema Natural 1 foi mais longo do que nos outros tratamentos.

  6. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins).

  7. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata in hydroponics

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    Sajid Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu2+ in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu2+ indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu2+ the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins.

  8. Acmella oleracea and Achyrocline satureioides as Sources of Natural Products in Topical Wound Care

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    Lais Thiemi Yamane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian forests have one of the world’s biggest biodiversities. Achyrocline satureioides (macela and Acmella oleracea (jambu are native species from Brazil with a huge therapeutic potential, with proved anti-inflammatory and anesthetic action, respectively. The jambu’s crude extract after depigmentation with activated charcoal and macela’s essential oil were incorporated in a film made with hydroxyethyl cellulose. Those films were evaluated by mechanical test using a texturometer and anti-inflammatory and anesthetic activities by in vivo tests: wound healing and antinociceptive. The film containing the highest concentration of depigmented jambu’s extract and macela’s essential oil obtained an anesthesia time of 83.6 (±28.5 min longer when compared with the positive control EMLA®; the same occurred with the wound healing test; the film containing the highest concentration had a higher wound contraction (62.0%±12.1 compared to the positive control allantoin and the histopathological analysis demonstrated that it increases collagen synthesis and epidermal thickening. The results demonstrate that the films have a potential use in skin wounds, pressure sore, and infected surgical wounds treatment.

  9. Glucosinolate biosynthesis in hairy root cultures of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Woo Tae; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Nam, Sang-Yong; Jho, Kwang Hyun; Park, Sang Un

    2013-02-01

    Here we present previously unreported glucosinolate production by hairy root cultures of broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica). Growth media greatly influenced the growth and glucosinolate content of hairy root cultures of broccoli. Seven glucosinolates, glucoraphanin, gluconapin, glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, gluconasturtiin, and neoglucobrassicin, were identified by analysis of the broccoli hairy root cultures. Both half and full strength B5 and SH media enabled the highest accumulation of glucosinolates. In most cases, the levels of glucosinolates were higher in SH and BS media. Among the 7 glucosinolates, the accumulation of neoglucobrassicin was very high, irrespective of growth medium. The neoglucobrassicin content was 7.4-fold higher in SH medium than 1/2 MS, in which its level was the lowest. The 1/2 B5 medium supported the production of the highest amounts of glucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, the levels for which were 36.2- and 7.9- fold higher, respectively, than their lowest content in 1/2 MS medium. The 1/2 SH medium enabled the highest accumulation of glucoraphanin and gluconapin in the broccoli hairy root cultures, whose levels were 1.8- and 4.6-fold higher, respectively, than their lowest content in 1/2 MS medium. Our results suggest that hairy root cultures of broccoli could be a valuable alternative approach for the production of glucosinolate compounds.

  10. Polifenoles y Actividad Antioxidante del Fruto Liofilizado de Palma Naidi (Açai Colombiano (Euterpe oleracea Mart Polyphenols and Antioxidant Activity of the Freeze-Dried Palm Naidi (Colombian Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Alberto Rojano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Euterpe oleracea es una palmera indígena autóctona de América del Sur. El fruto conocido como açaí en Brasil y palma naidi en Colombia, es de gran valor económico para los pueblos nativos. Para los análisis se usó una pulpa liofilizada, proveniente del Pacifico colombiano. Entre los muchos hallazgos, se presenta un alto porcentaje de minerales (6,94%, específicamente sodio, hierro y potasio. La palma naidi es rica en compuestos polifenólicos, tipo antocianinas (268,5 mg Cianidin-3-Glucosido/ 100 g de liofilizado donde el 95% de las antocianinas corresponden al Cianidin-3-Glucosido (255,1 mg/ 100 g de liofilizado y de otros compuestos fenólicos como los ácidos fenólicos: ferúlico (10,27 mg/100 g de liofilizado, caféico (7,06 mg/100 g de liofilizado, p-coumárico (2,81 mg/100 g de liofilizado y menor cantidad clorogénico 0,30 mg/100 g de liofilizado. Los polifenoles contribuyen a la capacidad antioxidante del naidi; medida por las técnicas ABTS, DPPH y FRAP y específicamente un valor ORAC (Hidrofílico (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity de 98142,0 Micromol Tx/100 g de liofilizado; además un valor ORAC Lipofílico de 3194,1 Micromol Tx/ 100 g de liofilizado. Un valor ORAC total igual a 101336,1 Micromol Tx/ 100 g de liofilizado.Euterpe oleracea Mart is a native palm tree native of South America. The fruit known as açaí in Brazil and naidi palm in Colombia and is of great economic value to the native peoples. For the analysis was used freeze-dried pulp, from the Colombian Pacific. This fruit has a high percentage of minerals (6.94%, specifically sodium, potassium and iron. Naidi palm is rich in polyphenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins (268.5 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside per 100 g of freeze dried and phenolic acid as ferulic (10.27 mg/100 g of freeze dried , caffeic (7.06 mg/100 g of freeze dried, p-Coumaric (2.81 mg/100 g of freeze dried and fewer chlorogenic (0.30 mg/100 g of freeze dried; which provides high antioxidant

  11. Caracterización y optimización de las operaciones de procesado y conservación de la berza gallega ("Brassica oleracea" L. var. "acephala" cv. Galega)

    OpenAIRE

    Armesto Barge, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    El cultivo de la berza gallega (Brassica oleracea var. acephala cv. Galega) está ampliamente distribuido por todo el noroeste de España, formando esta hortaliza parte importante de la dieta tradicional de la población. Se cultivan y comercializan dos fenotipos diferenciados, uno de hoja rizada y otro de hoja lisa, cuyas características y diferencias composicionales se encuentran todavía por estudiar. Este vegetal se consume siempre tras un proceso de cocción que repercute de forma directa o i...

  12. Effect of salinity on biomass yield and physiological and stem-root anatomical characteristics of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Amirul; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Rafii, M Y; Abdul Hamid, Azizah

    2015-01-01

    13 selected purslane accessions were subjected to five salinity levels 0, 8, 16, 24, and 32 dS m(-1). Salinity effect was evaluated on the basis of biomass yield reduction, physiological attributes, and stem-root anatomical changes. Aggravated salinity stress caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction in all measured parameters and the highest salinity showed more detrimental effect compared to control as well as lower salinity levels. The fresh and dry matter production was found to increase in Ac1, Ac9, and Ac13 from lower to higher salinity levels but others were badly affected. Considering salinity effect on purslane physiology, increase in chlorophyll content was seen in Ac2, Ac4, Ac6, and Ac8 at 16 dS m(-1) salinity, whereas Ac4, Ac9, and Ac12 showed increased photosynthesis at the same salinity levels compared to control. Anatomically, stem cortical tissues of Ac5, Ac9, and Ac12 were unaffected at control and 8 dS m(-1) salinity but root cortical tissues did not show any significant damage except a bit enlargement in Ac12 and Ac13. A dendrogram was constructed by UPGMA based on biomass yield and physiological traits where all 13 accessions were grouped into 5 clusters proving greater diversity among them. The 3-dimensional principal component analysis (PCA) has also confirmed the output of grouping from cluster analysis. Overall, salinity stressed among all 13 purslane accessions considering biomass production, physiological growth, and anatomical development Ac9 was the best salt-tolerant purslane accession and Ac13 was the most affected accession.

  13. Effect of Salinity on Biomass Yield and Physiological and Stem-Root Anatomical Characteristics of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. Accessions

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    Md. Amirul Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 13 selected purslane accessions were subjected to five salinity levels 0, 8, 16, 24, and 32 dS m−1. Salinity effect was evaluated on the basis of biomass yield reduction, physiological attributes, and stem-root anatomical changes. Aggravated salinity stress caused significant (P<0.05 reduction in all measured parameters and the highest salinity showed more detrimental effect compared to control as well as lower salinity levels. The fresh and dry matter production was found to increase in Ac1, Ac9, and Ac13 from lower to higher salinity levels but others were badly affected. Considering salinity effect on purslane physiology, increase in chlorophyll content was seen in Ac2, Ac4, Ac6, and Ac8 at 16 dS m−1 salinity, whereas Ac4, Ac9, and Ac12 showed increased photosynthesis at the same salinity levels compared to control. Anatomically, stem cortical tissues of Ac5, Ac9, and Ac12 were unaffected at control and 8 dS m−1 salinity but root cortical tissues did not show any significant damage except a bit enlargement in Ac12 and Ac13. A dendrogram was constructed by UPGMA based on biomass yield and physiological traits where all 13 accessions were grouped into 5 clusters proving greater diversity among them. The 3-dimensional principal component analysis (PCA has also confirmed the output of grouping from cluster analysis. Overall, salinity stressed among all 13 purslane accessions considering biomass production, physiological growth, and anatomical development Ac9 was the best salt-tolerant purslane accession and Ac13 was the most affected accession.

  14. Obtenção de corante do repolho roxo (Brassica oleracea por dois métodos de extração

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    J. C. Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O repolho é uma hortaliça folhosa, com grande versatilidade, não somente pelo seu valor nutritivo. Além de colorir a mistura, destaca-se pelo elevado teor de antocianinas e compostos fenólicos, contribuindo para a prevenção de doenças cardiovasculares, bem como de alguns tipos de câncer. As antocianinas são largamente encontradas na natureza e responsáveis pela maioria das colorações azuis, violeta e vermelhas de flores e frutos, sendo sua principal utilização como corante natural na indústria. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo a obtenção de um corante, antocianina, de repolho roxo (Brassica oleracea por dois métodos distintos de extração. No corrente estudo, o extrato foi obtido por meio de procedimento alcoólico e aquoso. As características avaliadas foram: pH; acidez total titulável; Teor de sólidos solúveis (°Brix; umidade; cinzas; proteínas; extração e quantificação de antocianinas totais; Vitamina C. O resultado encontrado para antocianina no repolho roxo in natura foi de 6,58 mg/100g, para o extrato por método alcoólico foi de 4,58 mg/100g e 5,33 mg/100g para o extrato aquoso. Observou-se que a extração pelo método aquoso teve um rendimento melhor, correspondente a 50% do seu valor inicial, a extração alcoólica foi de 30% do seu volume inicial.Red cabbage dye obtaining (Brassica oleracea by two extraction methodsAbstract: Cabbage is avegetable crop with great versatility, not limited to its nutritional value. Besides coloring the mixture, it stands out for its high quantity of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds, which contribute to prevention of cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer. Anthocyanins are widely found in nature and are responsible for the majority of blue, violet and red present in flowers and fruits. Thus, its main utilization is in industries as a natural dye. This study aims to obtain a colorant, anthocyanin, the red cabbage (Brassica oleracea by two different

  15. The effect of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide on the ecdysteroid content in the leaves of Spinacia oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamlar, Marek; Rothova, Olga; Salajkova, Sarka; Tarkowska, Dana; Drasar, Pavel; Kocova, Marie; Harmatha, Juraj; Hola, Dana; Kohout, Ladislav; Macek, Tomas

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to show whether/how the application of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide can affect the content of ecdysteroids in spinach leaves. Brassinosteroids and ecdysteroids, structurally related phytosterols, show effect on a range of processes in plants. Brassinosteroids increase biomass yield in some species, photosynthesis and resistance to stress, and ecdysteroids show effect on proteins responsible for binding of CO2 or water cleavage. The mutual interaction of these sterols in plants is unclear. The UPLC-(+)ESI-MS/MS analyses of extracts of treated and untreated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves show that the application of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide does influence the ecdysteroid content in plant tissues. The response differs for the major ecdysteroids and also differs from that for the minor ones and is dependent on the developmental stage of the leaves within the same plant or the 24-epibrassinolide concentration applied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spinacia oleracea extract attenuates disease progression and sub-chondral bone changes in monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats.

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    Choudhary, Dharmendra; Kothari, Priyanka; Tripathi, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Sonu; Adhikary, Sulekha; Ahmad, Naseer; Kumar, Sudhir; Dev, Kapil; Mishra, Vijay Kumar; Shukla, Shubha; Maurya, Rakesh; Mishra, Prabhat R; Trivedi, Ritu

    2018-02-20

    Spinacia oleracea is an important dietary vegetable in India and throughout the world and has many beneficial effects. It is cultivated globally. However, its effect on osteoarthritis that mainly targets the cartilage cells remains unknown. In this study we aimed to evaluate the anti-osteoarthritic and chondro-protective effects of SOE on chemically induced osteoarthritis (OA). OA was induced by intra-patellar injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) at the knee joint in rats. SOE was then given orally at 250 and 500 mg.kg - 1  day - 1 doses for 28 days to these rats. Anti-osteoarthritic potential of SOE was evaluated by micro-CT, mRNA and protein expression of pro-inflammatory and chondrogenic genes, clinically relevant biomarker's and behavioural experiments. In vitro cell free and cell based assays indicated that SOE acts as a strong anti-oxidant and an anti-inflammatory agent. Histological analysis of knee joints at the end of the experiment by safranin-o and toluidine blue staining established its protective effect. Radiological data corroborated the findings with improvement in the joint space and irregularity of the articular and atrophied femoral condyles and tibial plateau. Micro-CT analysis of sub-chondral bone indicated that SOE had the ability to mitigate OA effects by increasing bone volume to tissue volume (BV/TV) which resulted in decrease of trabecular pattern factor (Tb.Pf) by more than 200%. SOE stimulated chondrogenic marker gene expression with reduction in pro-inflammatory markers. Purified compounds isolated from SOE exhibited increased Sox-9 and Col-II protein expression in articular chondrocytes. Serum and urine analysis indicated that SOE had the potential to down-regulate glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, clinical markers of osteoarthritis like cartilage oligometric matrix protein (COMP) and CTX-II. Overall, this led to a significant improvement in locomotion and balancing activity in rats as assessed by Open-field and Rota

  17. Plantas daninhas como hospedeiras alternativas para Pratylenchus brachyurus

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    Guilherme Braga Pereira Braz

    Full Text Available RESUMO Uma das ações indiretas exercidas pelas plantas daninhas na interferência sob espécies cultivadas é o potencial de hospedar agentes causadores de enfermidades. O nematoide das lesões radiculares (Pratylenchus brachyurus vem causando uma série de danos em diversas culturas no Brasil. Para o manejo deste fitoparasita, o cultivo de diferentes espécies de crotalárias tem sido empregado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a hospedabilidade de plantas daninhas para P. brachyurus, bem como o efeito de supressão de diferentes espécies de crotalária. Para isso, foi instalado um experimento em casa de vegetação no delineamento inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial (2x17, com seis repetições. O primeiro fator consistiu na presença ou ausência da inoculação do nematoide. O segundo correspondeu a dezessete espécies vegetais, sendo onze plantas daninhas, quatro crotalárias (C. breviflora, C. juncea, C. ochroleuca e C spectabilis e duas variedades de soja, as quais serviram como testemunha sendo hospedeiras de P. brachyurus. A inoculação do nematoide das lesões radiculares não influenciou a altura de plantas e massa seca de parte aérea das diferentes espécies avaliadas. Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus viridis e Sida rhombifolia foram as espécies com maior número de nematoides por sistema radicular, e apenas a S. rhombifolia apresentou comportamento semelhante a testemunha (variedade de soja BMX Potência RR®. Com relação ao número de nematoides por grama de raiz, os maiores valores foram observados para A. viridis, seguido por P. oleracea. Excluindo-se a C. juncea, todas as demais espécies de crotalária apresentaram-se como boas opções para o manejo em áreas infestadas com P. brachyurus.

  18. Bioavailability and bioaccumulation characterization of essential and heavy metals contents in R. acetosa, S. oleracea and U. dioica from copper polluted and referent areas.

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    Balabanova, Biljana; Stafilov, Trajče; Bačeva, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability of metals occurring in soil is the basic source of its accumulation in vegetables and herbs. The impact of soil pollution (due to urban and mining areas) on the food chain presents a challenge for many investigations. Availability of metals in a potentially polluted soil and their possible transfer and bioaccumulation in sorrel (Rumex acetosa), spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and common nettle (Urtica dioica), were examined. Microwave digestion was applied for total digestion of the plant tissues, while on the soil samples open wet digestion with a mixture of acids was applied. Three extraction methods were implemented for the bioavailable metals in the soil. Atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma was used for determination of the total contents of 21 elements. Significant enrichments in agricultural soil for As, Pb and Zn (in urban area), Cd, Cu and Ni (in a copper mine area), compared with the respective values from European standards were detected. On the basis of three different extraction methods, higher availability was assumed for both lithogenic and anthropogenic elements. Translocation values >1 were obtained for As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Higher bioconcentrating value was obtained only for Cd, while the bioaccumulation values vary from 0.17 for Cd to 0.82 for Zn. The potential availability of hazardous metals in urban and mining soils is examined using DTPA-TEA-CaCl2 (urban) and HCl (Cu-mines areas). Our results suggested that S. oleracea and R. acetosa have a phytostabilization potential for Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb, while U. dioica only for Cu. R. acetosa has a potential for phytoextraction of Cd in urban and copper polluted areas.

  19. Mild Fe-deficiency improves biomass production and quality of hydroponic-cultivated spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chong-Wei; Liu, Yue; Mao, Qian-Qian; Wang, Qian; Du, Shao-Ting

    2013-06-15

    It is of great practical importance to improve yield and quality of vegetables in soilless cultures. This study investigated the effects of iron-nutrition management on yield and quality of hydroponic-cultivated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). The results showed that mild Fe-deficient treatment (1 μM FeEDTA) yielded a greater biomass of edible parts than Fe-omitted treatment (0 μM FeEDTA) or Fe-sufficient treatments (10 and 50 μM FeEDTA). Conversely, mild Fe-deficient treatment had the lowest nitrate concentration in the edible parts out of all the Fe treatments. Interestingly, all the concentrations of soluble sugar, soluble protein and ascorbate in mild Fe-deficient treatments were higher than Fe-sufficient treatments. In addition, both phenolic concentration and DPPH scavenging activity in mild Fe-deficient treatments were comparable with those in Fe-sufficient treatments, but were higher than those in Fe-omitted treatments. Therefore, we concluded that using a mild Fe-deficient nutrition solution to cultivate spinach not only would increase yield, but also would improve quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Enzyme-assisted extraction enhancing the phenolic release from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) outer leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Nguyen Thai; Smagghe, Guy; Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Van Camp, John; Raes, Katleen

    2014-07-30

    Phenolic compounds are highly present in byproducts from the cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) harvest and are thus a valuable source for valorization toward phenolic-rich extracts. In this study, we aimed to optimize and characterize the release of individual phenolic compounds from outer leaves of cauliflower, using two commercially available polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, Viscozyme L and Rapidase. As major results, the optimal conditions for the enzyme treatment were: enzyme/substrate ratio of 0.2% for Viscozyme L and 0.5% for Rapidase, temperature 35 °C, and pH 4.0. Using a UPLC-HD-TOF-MS setup, the main phenolic compounds in the extracts were identified as kaempferol glycosides and their combinations with different hydroxycinnamic acids. The most abundant components were kaempferol-3-feruloyldiglucoside and kaempferol-3-glucoside (respectively, 37.8 and 58.4 mg rutin equiv/100 g dry weight). Incubation of the cauliflower outer leaves with the enzyme mixtures resulted in a significantly higher extraction yield of kaempferol-glucosides as compared to the control treatment.

  1. Neofunctionalization of Duplicated Tic40 Genes Caused a Gain-of-Function Variation Related to Male Fertility in Brassica oleracea Lineages1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Xiaoling; Shen, Wenhao; Hu, Kaining; Zhou, Zhengfu; Xia, Shengqian; Wen, Jing; Yi, Bin; Shen, Jinxiong; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Gene duplication followed by functional divergence in the event of polyploidization is a major contributor to evolutionary novelties. The Brassica genus evolved from a common ancestor after whole-genome triplication. Here, we studied the evolutionary and functional features of Brassica spp. homologs to Tic40 (for translocon at the inner membrane of chloroplasts with 40 kDa). Four Tic40 loci were identified in allotetraploid Brassica napus and two loci in each of three basic diploid Brassica spp. Although these Tic40 homologs share high sequence identities and similar expression patterns, they exhibit altered functional features. Complementation assays conducted on Arabidopsis thaliana tic40 and the B. napus male-sterile line 7365A suggested that all Brassica spp. Tic40 homologs retain an ancestral function similar to that of AtTic40, whereas BolC9.Tic40 in Brassica oleracea and its ortholog in B. napus, BnaC9.Tic40, in addition, evolved a novel function that can rescue the fertility of 7365A. A homologous chromosomal rearrangement placed bnac9.tic40 originating from the A genome (BraA10.Tic40) as an allele of BnaC9.Tic40 in the C genome, resulting in phenotypic variation for male sterility in the B. napus near-isogenic two-type line 7365AB. Assessment of the complementation activity of chimeric B. napus Tic40 domain-swapping constructs in 7365A suggested that amino acid replacements in the carboxyl terminus of BnaC9.Tic40 cause this functional divergence. The distribution of these amino acid replacements in 59 diverse Brassica spp. accessions demonstrated that the neofunctionalization of Tic40 is restricted to B. oleracea and its derivatives and thus occurred after the divergence of the Brassica spp. A, B, and C genomes. PMID:25185122

  2. BoS: a large and diverse family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wessler, Susan R

    2005-05-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are nonautonomous non-LTR retrotransposons that populate eukaryotic genomes. Numerous SINE families have been identified in animals, whereas only a few have been described in plants. Here we describe a new family of SINEs, named BoS, that is widespread in Brassicaceae and present at approximately 2000 copies in Brassica oleracea. In addition to sharing a modular structure and target site preference with previously described SINEs, BoS elements have several unusual features. First, the head regions of BoS RNAs can adopt a distinct hairpin-like secondary structure. Second, with 15 distinct subfamilies, BoS represents one of the most diverse SINE families described to date. Third, several of the subfamilies have a mosaic structure that has arisen through the exchange of sequences between existing subfamilies, possibly during retrotransposition. Analysis of BoS subfamilies indicate that they were active during various time periods through the evolution of Brassicaceae and that active elements may still reside in some Brassica species. As such, BoS elements may be a valuable tool as phylogenetic makers for resolving outstanding issues in the evolution of species in the Brassicaceae family.

  3. Evaluation of genotypic variation of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) in response to selenium treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Silvio J; Yuan, Youxi; Faquin, Valdemar; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto G; Li, Li

    2011-04-27

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) fortified with selenium (Se) has been promoted as a functional food. Here, we evaluated 38 broccoli accessions for their capacity to accumulate Se and for their responses to selenate treatment in terms of nutritional qualities and sulfur gene expresion. We found that the total Se content varied with over 2-fold difference among the leaf tissues of broccoli accessions when the plants were treated with 20 μM Na(2)SeO(4). Approximately half of total Se accumulated in leaves was Se-methylselenocysteine and selenomethionine. Transcriptional regulation of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate sulfurylase and selenocysteine Se-methyltransferase gene expression might contribute to the different levels of Se accumulation in broccoli. Total glucosinolate contents were not affected by the concentration of selenate application for the majority of broccoli accessions. Essential micronutrients (i.e., Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) remained unchanged among half of the germplasm. Moreover, the total antioxidant capacity was greatly stimulated by selenate in over half of the accessions. The diverse genotypic variation in Se, glucosinolate, and antioxidant contents among accessions provides the opportunity to breed broccoli cultivars that simultaneously accumulate Se and other health benefit compounds.

  4. Effect of the treatment with Euterpe oleracea Mart. oil in rats with Triton-induced dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Souza, Belmira S Faria; Carvalho, Helison O; Ferreira, Irlon M; da Cunha, Edilson L; Barros, Albenise Santana; Taglialegna, Talisson; Carvalho, José C T

    2017-06-01

    Dyslipidemias are defined as changes in lipid metabolism that have abnormal concentrations of lipids or lipoproteins in the bloodstream. Chronic increase in triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c) levels are known as risk factors for the atherogenesis process as well as other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The magnitude of the problems caused by dyslipidemias impels research by new agents that act in the prevention and control. Thus, products from the Amazonian biodiversity, such as Euterpe oleracea oil (OFEO), rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), constitutes a study source for the treatment of alterations in lipid metabolism. The present study aims to investigate the effect of OFEO treatment in rats with Triton-induced dyslipidemia (Tyloxapol WR1339). The physicochemical and chromatographic results confirmed the chemical composition of OFEO with a predominance of UFAs (67.83%), with Oleic acid being the majority (54.32%). At Triton-induced dyslipidemia, the animals treated with OFEO and Simvastatin showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol levels, with values ​​of 121.7±29.5 (pdyslipidemia, acting as antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertriglyceridemic, thus possibly contributing as a preventive agent for CVDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Two novel bioactive glucosinolates from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survay, Nazneen Shaik; Kumar, Brajesh; Jang, Mi; Yoon, Do-Young; Jung, Yi-Sook; Yang, Deok-Chun; Park, Se Won

    2012-09-01

    Two novel glucosinolates along with one known glucosinolate were isolated from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets. Their structures were established mainly by 1D ((1)H and (13)C NMR), 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, DEPT 135°, HSQC and HMBC), and Tandem MS-MS spectrometric data as 2-mercaptomethyl sulfinyl glucosinolate [(Z)-4-(methylsulfinyl)-N-(sulfooxy)-2-((2'S,3'R,4'S,5'S,6'R)-3',4',5'-trihydroxy-6'(hydroxylmethyl)-2'-mercapto tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl) butane amide] 1, (Z)-1-((2S,5S)-5-hydroxytetra-hydro-2H-pyran-2-ylthio)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl) ethylidene amino sulfate 2 and a known cinnamoyl [6'-O-trans-(4″-hydroxy cinnamoyl)4-(methylsulphinyl)butyl glucosinolate] 3. Compound 1 exhibited scavenging activity against DPPH with an inhibitory concentration IC(50) of 20 mM, whereas compound 3 was a weak antioxidant when compared to the standard quercetin (5 mM) as a positive control. Both the compounds showed a significant and similar antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with an IC(50) of <625 μg/mL when compared to antibiotic duricef. Against Salmonella typhimurium the IC(50) of 1 and 3 was determined as <625 μg/mL and <1250 μg/mL, respectively, when compared to ampicillin (IC(50) ≤ 39 μg/mL) as a positive control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular Modeling of Myrosinase from Brassica oleracea: A Structural Investigation of Sinigrin Interaction

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    Sathishkumar Natarajan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrosinase, which is present in cruciferous plant species, plays an important role in the hydrolysis of glycosides such as glucosinolates and is involved in plant defense. Brassicaceae myrosinases are diverse although they share common ancestry, and structural knowledge about myrosinases from cabbage (Brassica oleracea was needed. To address this, we constructed a three-dimensional model structure of myrosinase based on Sinapis alba structures using Iterative Threading ASSEmbly Refinement server (I-TASSER webserver, and refined model coordinates were evaluated with ProQ and Verify3D. The resulting model was predicted with β/α fold, ten conserved N-glycosylation sites, and three disulfide bridges. In addition, this model shared features with the known Sinapis alba myrosinase structure. To obtain a better understanding of myrosinase–sinigrin interaction, the refined model was docked using Autodock Vina with crucial key amino acids. The key nucleophile residues GLN207 and GLU427 were found to interact with sinigrin to form a hydrogen bond. Further, 20-ns molecular dynamics simulation was performed to examine myrosinase–sinigrin complex stability, revealing that residue GLU207 maintained its hydrogen bond stability throughout the entire simulation and structural orientation was similar to that of the docked state. This conceptual model should be useful for understanding the structural features of myrosinase and their binding orientation with sinigrin.

  7. The Effect of Organic and Bio Fertilizers on Maize (Zea mays, and HydroMax Adjuvants Application on Optimizing of Nicosulfuron Herbicide Efficacy

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    ebrahim Mamnoie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of adjuvant on nicosulfuron herbicide efficacy improvement in maize weed control under organic fertilizers application, field study was conducted during 2013- 2014 at research field of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with factorial arrangement of treatments with 16 treatments and three replications. Factors in this experiment were application of organic fertilizers (cow manure and vermicompost and bio fertilizer mycorrhiza, and a plot without fertilizer as control, nicosulfuron dose at 40, and 80 g a.i ha-1 (Cruz®,4% SC with and without the adjuvant of HydroMax™. Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea, black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L., and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L were the dominant weeds in the experimental fields. Black nightshade and common purslane had the highest relative density 20 and 45 days after spraying (DAS. Results showed that application of hydromax adjuvant increased herbicide efficiency, significantly. However dry weight of common purslane, black nightshade and redroot pigweed decreased 84, 71, 86 and 71, 79, 100 %, when nicosulfuron applied at reduced dose (40 g a.i. ha-1 with adjuvant 20 and 45 DAS, respectively. On the other hand, seed yield and dry weight of maize increased 49 and 60 % respectively, when nicosulfuron applied at 40 g a.i. ha-1 with Hydromax pulse cow manure. 

  8. EKSPLORASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI GULMA, HIJAUAN PAKAN DAN LIMBAH PERTANIAN YANG DIMANFAATKAN SEBAGAI PAKAN TERNAK DI WILAYAH LAHAN KERING LOMBOK UTARA

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    Ni Made Laksmi Ernawati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties on weeds control and fodder scarcity in dry season are the major problems at dry land. Aim of this research was to identify and to explore the potency of several kinds of weeds, forages, and agricultural wastes that can be used as fodder, and further might be processed to make hay and silage. Explorative research to identify, observe, and collect data has been done using descriptive method of dominant weeds, forages, and agricultural waste that frequently used as fodder by farmers. The farmer’s decision to use weeds, forages, and agricultural wastes were determined by preference level of cattles and farmers empirical experiences. Result showed that dominant weeds found were broad leafed weeds with domination level 34.62-81.45% and narrow leafed weeds (grasses and teki with domination level 28.65-65.38%. Broad leafed weeds that generally used as fodder were Cintella asiatica, Amaranthus spp., Mikania sp., Cyclosorous aridus, Gleichenia linearis, Physalis angulata, Portulaca oleracea, Mucaena pruriens, and Desmodium scalpe. Grasses weeds and teki were potential fodder with preference level of cattle from very much like to extremely like. Forage and agricultural waste that be potential as fodder were gamal leaf, sengon leaf, banana leaf and stem and coconut, agricultural waste of peanuts, corn, and sweet potato. (Key words: Animal feed, Agricultural wastes, Dry land, Fodder, Forage, Identification and exploration, Weeds

  9. Exterior and interior physical quality of egg of laying hens fed diets containing different dietary purslane levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, L. R.; Hertanto, B. S.; Pranoto, D.; Salim, W. N.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.

    2017-04-01

    Purslane is considered a rich vegetable source of alpha-linolenic acid, beta-carotene and various antioxidants. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of different dietary levels of purslane meal (Portulaca oleracea) in the diets of laying hens on physical quality of eggs. A total of 125 Hy-Line Brown hens (54 weeks old) were placed at individual cages and assigned to five dietary treatments. The diets were supplemented with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% purslane meal. Laying hens were fed for 5 weeks after a typical period of adaptation (7 days). Water and feed were provided ad libitum. A total of 25 egg samples of day 28 and day 35 (n = 5 egg yolks for each treatment) were collected to analyse exterior and interior physical quality of eggs. The data were analysed using ANOVA. Differences between treatment means were further analysed using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Results showed that feeding different purslane meal levels in the diets improved egg weight, yolk weight, albumen weight and yolk colour. The highest intensity of yolk colour was obtained with the diet containing 8% purslane meal. However, dietary treatments did not affect egg index, albumen index, yolk index, shell weight, shell thickness and Haugh Unit. It is concluded that including purslane meal to laying hen diets increases the physical qualities of the eggs.

  10. Weeds and ground-dwelling predators′ response to two different weed management systems in glyphosate-tolerant cotton: A farm-scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinós, Gema P.; Gómez, Pablo; Gutiérrez, Elena; Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Escorial, María Concepción; Ortego, Félix; Chueca, María Cristina; Castañera, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    The use of glyphosate, as a post-emergence broad-spectrum herbicide in genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant (GT) cotton, supposes a big change in weed management programs with respect to a conventional regime. Thus, alterations in arable flora and arthropod fauna must be considered when evaluating their potential impacts. A 3-year farm-scale study was conducted in a 2-ha GT cotton crop, in southern Spain, to compare the effects of conventional and glyphosate herbicide regimes on weed abundance and diversity and their consequences for ground-dwelling predators. Surveys reveal that weed density was relatively low within all treatments with a few dominant species, with significantly higher weed densities and modifications of the floristic composition in glyphosate-treated plots that led to an increase in the abundance of Portulaca oleracea and to a reduction in plant diversity. The activity-density of the main predatory arthropod taxa (spiders, ground beetles, rove beetles and earwigs) varied among years, but no significant differences were obtained between conventional and glyphosate herbicide regimes. However, significant differences between treatments were obtained for ground beetles species richness and diversity, being higher under the glyphosate herbicide regime, and a positive correlation with weed density could be established for both parameters. The implications of these findings to weed control in GT cotton are discussed. PMID:29351549

  11. Facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants: powerful tools for unravelling the functional elements of CAM photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Klaus; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2014-07-01

    Facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) describes the optional use of CAM photosynthesis, typically under conditions of drought stress, in plants that otherwise employ C3 or C4 photosynthesis. In its cleanest form, the upregulation of CAM is fully reversible upon removal of stress. Reversibility distinguishes facultative CAM from ontogenetically programmed unidirectional C3-to-CAM shifts inherent in constitutive CAM plants. Using mainly measurements of 24h CO2 exchange, defining features of facultative CAM are highlighted in five terrestrial species, Clusia pratensis, Calandrinia polyandra, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, Portulaca oleracea and Talinum triangulare. For these, we provide detailed chronologies of the shifts between photosynthetic modes and comment on their usefulness as experimental systems. Photosynthetic flexibility is also reviewed in an aquatic CAM plant, Isoetes howellii. Through comparisons of C3 and CAM states in facultative CAM species, many fundamental biochemical principles of the CAM pathway have been uncovered. Facultative CAM species will be of even greater relevance now that new sequencing technologies facilitate the mapping of genomes and tracking of the expression patterns of multiple genes. These technologies and facultative CAM systems, when joined, are expected to contribute in a major way towards our goal of understanding the essence of CAM. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Development of enhanced radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Park, K B; Lee, Y I [and others

    1999-04-01

    Biological model systems such as TSH mutations, animals and their reproductive organs, and cultured cell lines has been set up for screening radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities of natural products. About 100 natural plants were in vivo and in vitro tested. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, and Portulaca oleracea showed 20% of radioprotective activities. On the other hand, Acanthopanax sessiliflous, Melia japonica, and Agastache rugosa revealed radiosensitizing activities. Experimental studies on the farnesyltransferase inhibitors showed the results that some of the inhibits lead to higher levels of cell death after {gamma} -irradiation and increased radiosensitivity in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells and MCF-10A human tumor cells. Molecular biochemical studies on the mechanism of radioprotection was carried out using cultured cells. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. Samples shown excellent radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities will be subjected to purification to develop radioprotectants and radiosensitizers applicable to human beings. The result of mechanism studies will be applied to elucidate the radioprotection mechanism and the develop enhanced radioprotectors. (author). 145 refs., 21 tabs., 29 figs.

  13. Evaluation of Effects of Zingiber officinale on Salivation in Rats

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    Goli Chamani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are some herbal plants in Iranian traditional system of medicine which are believed to be excellent remedies to alleviate the symptoms of xerostomia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of systemic administration of seven different herbal extracts on the rate of salivation in rats. The extracts of 7 herbs; Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck (Rutaceae, Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae, Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae, Pimpinella anisum L.(Apiaceae, Portulaca oleracea L.(Portulacaceae, Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae were prepared. Nine groups of animals (including negative and positive control groups were used and seven rats were tested in each group. After the injection of extracts, saliva volume was measured gravimetrically in four continuous seven-minute intervals. The results showed that after injection of ginger extracts salivation was significantly higher as compared to the negative control group and other herbal extracts in all of the four intervals (P<0.01. The peak action of the ginger was during the first 7-minute interval and following this, salivation decreased to some extent. The present study suggests that the extract of Zingiber offiicianle can increase the rate of salivation significantly in animal model. Further investigations on different constituents of ginger seem to be essential to identify the responsible constituent for stimulation of saliva secretion.

  14. Purslane Effect on GLP-1 and GLP-1 receptor in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roja Daliri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Background: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of purslane seeds in glucagon-like peptide-1 concentration and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor in women with diabetes.Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. The population was consisted of the city of Sari where diabetic women with diabetes II who had no history of using purslane seeds. All individuals used the same dose of metformin under the specialist supervision. Among these individuals, 16 were assigned at random to Purslane group and control group. The purslane group consumed 2.5 grams Purslane with lunch and along with 5 grams of purslane (Portulaca oleracea seeds 7.5 g daily with dinner meals twice daily for 8 weeks. Blood sample was taken before and after 8 weeks, after 12 hours of fasting to 5 ml of the left brachial vein.Results: After 8 weeks using purslane seeds in the experimental group, a significant increase was seen in glucagon-like peptide-1 concentrations (p<0.007, but there was no significant difference in the concentration of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (p <0.455. No significant relationship was found between changes in glucagon-like peptide-1 and its receptor.Conclusion: The use of purslane seeds improved Type II diabetes; therefore it can be effective in improving the health of women with diabetes.

  15. Development of enhanced radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Park, K.B.; Lee, Y.I.

    1999-04-01

    Biological model systems such as TSH mutations, animals and their reproductive organs, and cultured cell lines has been set up for screening radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities of natural products. About 100 natural plants were in vivo and in vitro tested. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, and Portulaca oleracea showed 20% of radioprotective activities. On the other hand, Acanthopanax sessiliflous, Melia japonica, and Agastache rugosa revealed radiosensitizing activities. Experimental studies on the farnesyltransferase inhibitors showed the results that some of the inhibits lead to higher levels of cell death after γ -irradiation and increased radiosensitivity in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells and MCF-10A human tumor cells. Molecular biochemical studies on the mechanism of radioprotection was carried out using cultured cells. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation, decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. Samples shown excellent radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities will be subjected to purification to develop radioprotectants and radiosensitizers applicable to human beings. The result of mechanism studies will be applied to elucidate the radioprotection mechanism and the develop enhanced radioprotectors. (author). 145 refs., 21 tabs., 29 figs

  16. Metabolite profiling approach reveals the interface of primary and secondary metabolism in colored cauliflowers (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. botrytis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Yun; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Yeo, Yunsoo; Park, Woo Tae; Kwon, Do Yeon; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2013-07-17

    In the present study, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and phenolic acids of cauliflowers ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. botrytis) with various colored florets (white, yellow, green, and purple) were characterized to determine their phytochemical diversity. Additionally, 48 metabolites comprising amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols were identified using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS). Carotenoid content was considerably higher in green cauliflower; anthocyanins were detected only in purple cauliflower. Phenolic acids were higher in both green and purple cauliflower. Results of partial least-squares discriminant, Pearson correlation, and hierarchical clustering analyses showed that green cauliflower is distinct on the basis of the high levels of amino acids and clusters derived from common or closely related biochemical pathways. These results suggest that GC-TOFMS-based metabolite profiling, combined with chemometrics, is a useful tool for determining phenotypic variation and identifying metabolic networks connecting primary and secondary metabolism.

  17. Catolé palm (Syagrus oleracea Mart fruits: fatty and amino acids composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira, Rosalynd V. R.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Catolé Palm (Syagrus oleracea Mart Fruits were analysed for their chemical composition. The pulp and kernel portions contained 0.7 and 40.0% lipids. Freshly extracted kernel oil showed a small concentration (0.4 meq/kg of peroxides but did not contain free fatty acids. The iodine and saponification values were 27.4 and 226, respectively. A large qualitative as well as quantitative difference in the fatty acid composition between the catolé pulp and kernel oil was observed. Fifteen and 19 fatty acids were identified in the pulp and kernel oil, respectively. These oils contained 48.9 and 73.2 % saturated fatty acids. The principal saturated fatty acids of the pulp oil was palmitic (C16 acid, while that of kernel oil was lauric (C12 acid. Oleic acid was the main monounsaturated fatty acid in both oils. In pulp oil, linoleic (C18:2 and linolenic (C18:3 were present at 23.5 and 11,3% concentrations, while kernel oil contained only linoleic acid (3.59%. In relation to amino acid composition of proteins, pulp proteins presented better amino acid profile than kernel proteins. In pulp proteins, the essential amino acids were present at concentrations higher than recommended by FAO except for methionine and lysine, while kernel proteins were deficient in all essential amino acids except phenylalanine, isoleucine and threonine.Los frutos de la Palmera catolé (Syagrus oleracea Mart fueron analizados para determinar su composición química. Las fracciones de la pulpa y almendra contenían 0,7 y 40.0 % de lípidos. El aceite de almendra fresca mostró una pequeña concentración de peróxidos pero no presentó ácidos grasos libres. El índice de iodo y de saponificación fueron 27,4 y 226, respectivamente. Fue observada una gran diferencia cualitativa como también cuantitativa en la composición de ácidos grasos entre el aceite de la pulpa y de la almendra. 15 y 19 ácidos grasos fueron identificados en el aceite de la pulpa y de la almendra

  18. Anthocyanins standards (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside isolation from freeze-dried açaí (Euterpe oleraceae Mart. by HPLC Isolamento de padrões de antocianinas (cianidina-3-O-glucosídeo e cianidina -3-O-rutinosídeo de açaí liofilizado (Euterpe oleraceae Mart. por CLAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Miranda Senna Gouvêa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Availability of analytical standards is a critical aspect in developing methods for quantitative analysis of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside were isolated from samples of freeze-dried açaí (Euterpe oleraceae Mart., which is a round and purple well-known palm fruit in Brazil, and then used as standards. The isolation of the anthocyanins was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, using an adapted six-channel selection valve. The identification of anthocyanin pigments in açaí was based on mass spectrometric data for molecular ions and MS-MS product ions and on previous published data. After the collection procedure, standards with a high purity grade were obtained and an external standard curve of each anthocyanin was plotted.Disponibilidade de padrões analíticos é um aspecto crítico no desenvolvimento de métodos de análises quantitativas de antocianinas. Para a obtenção dos padrões isolados de antocianinas cianidina-3-O-glicosídeo e cianidina-3-O-rutinosídeo foram utilizadas amostras liofilizadas de açaí (Euterpe oleraceae Mart., que é um conhecido fruto de palmeiras no Brasil de forma arredondada e roxo. O isolamento das antocianinas foi realizado por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE, utilizando uma válvula seletora de seis canais. A identificação de antocianinas no açaí foi baseada em dados publicados na literatura e por espectrometria de massas. Após a coleta, padrões com um alto grau de pureza foram obtidos e uma curva para padronização externa de cada antocianina foi feita.

  19. Les principaux ravageurs des choux pommés [Brassica oleracea var capitata subs sabouda à Bukavu et ses environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walangululu, JM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Major Pests of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata subs sabouda in Bukavu and Around. As stated by farmers growing vegetables and as observed on local markets, cabbage in Bukavu and around is damaged by pests. The present work was intended to identify pests damaging this crop, which is now a cash crop in this region, in order to design control methods. Results revealed that one aphid species (Brevicoryne brassicaej, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum and some Caterpillar species (Plutella xylostella, Hellula undalis, Spodoptera exempta and Trichoplusia ni are major pests causing a loss of plantlets estimated from 0 to 53.8 %, mainly one month after planting. Damage on the first five leaves of the head of cabbage, estimated from 3.5 to 55.8 % of plants were attributed to sporadic pests as the tobacco cricket (Brachytrupes mem-branaceus, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum, chickens, some grasshoppers, snails and a tortoise beetle species (Henosepilachna elateris.

  20. Effect of inorganic and organic copper fertilizers on copper nutrition in Spinacia oleracea and on labile copper in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrador, Ana; Gonzalez, Demetrio; Alvarez, Jose M

    2013-05-22

    To ensure an optimal concentration of Cu in food crops, the effectiveness of eight liquid Cu fertilizers was studied in a spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) crop grown on Cu-deficient soil under greenhouse conditions. Plant dry matter yields, Cu concentrations in spinach plants (total and morpholino acid (MES)- and ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS)-extractable), and Cu uptakes were studied. The behavior of Cu in soil was evaluated by both single and sequential extraction procedures. The highest quantities of Cu in labile forms in the soil, total uptakes, and Cu concentrations in the plants were associated with the application of the two sources that contained Cu chelated by EDTA and/or DTPA. The fertilizers containing these Cu chelates represent a promising approach to achieve high levels of agronomic biofortification. The stronger correlations obtained between low-molecular-weight organic acid-extractable Cu in soil and the Cu concentrations and Cu uptakes by the plants show the suitability of this soil extraction method for predicting Cu available to spinach plants.

  1. Comportamento do herbicida metribuzin, aplicado isolado e em mistura com outros herbicidas, no controle de plantas daninhas em cafeeiros novos por dois anos consecutivos Effect of metribuzin, sprayed alone or in mixture with another herbicides, for weed control on young coffee trees, during two years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S.P. Cruz

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Para se conhecer o comportamento do herbicida metribuzin, aplicado isolaso ou em mistura com outros herbicidas residuais (napropamide, pendimethalin, alchlor, oryzalin e diuron no controle de plantas daninhas que comumente infestam cafeeiros em formação, foi conduzido um experimento de campo onde esse herbicida a 0,28; 0,42; 0,56 e 0,70 kg/ha em mistura com napropamide a 4,00 kg/ha pendimethalin a 1,00 kg/ha, alachlor a 2,40kg/ha, oryzalin a 1,50 kg/ha ou com diuron a 1,20 kg/ha, comparado com duas testemunhas , onde, em uma, o mato foi mantido a níveis não competitivos com a cultura, por meios mecânicos, e outra onde o mato foi deixado desenvolver-se naturalmente, sem nenhuma interferência. Foi incluído também um tratamento com diuron a 1,20 kg/ha. A infestação natural de plantas daninhas da área do experimento era formada pelas gramínas, capim-de-colçhão (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop, capim - marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea (Link. Hitch capim-pé-de-galinha (Elcusine indica (L. Gaertn., Capim-favorito (Rhynchelitrum roseum (Nees Stapf eet Hubb, e pelas dicotiledôneas beldroega (Portulaca oleracea L., picão-branco (Galinsoga parviflora Cav., caruru-de-mancha (Amarantus virides L., amendoim bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla L., picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., mentruz (Lepidium virginicum L., quebra-pedra (Phyllantus cordovadensis, Muell Arg. e falsa-serralha (Emilia sachifolia DC. Os resultados dos dois anos foram semelhantes para cada tratamento. Metribuzin a 0,28 kg/ha em mistura com napropamide a 4,00 kg/ha, apresentam períodos de ação maior, seguidos da mistura de metribuzin, naquela mesma dose, com oryzalin a 1,50 kg/ha. Não foi contatado a presença de qualquer sintoma de intoxicação nos cafeeiros, em todos os tratamentos, até a última observação, realizada 210 dias após a segunda aplicação dos herbicidas.This paper reports on two years field trials carried out in Araras, SP, Brazil, on coffee tress with twenty

  2. Effect of Calcium Chloride and Cooling on Post-Harvest Brussels Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Rincón Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the demand of crucifers has increased and particularly of Brussels sprouts (Brassica genus, species Brassica oleracea L.; mainly due to their functional properties; however, this vegetable is perishable and with inadequate techniques in postharvest handling, considerable losses are generated. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of calcium chloride and cooling on postharvest behavior of Brussels sprouts. A completely randomized design was performed, treatments corresponded to three storage temperatures (4°C, 8°C and temperature (18°C and three concentrations of calcium chloride (0%, 2% and 4% were used. Sprouts were harvested at commercial maturity on a farm irrigation district in Usochicamocha, Boyacá Department; of uniform size, excellent plant health and free from mechanical damage conditions. For 19 days of storage, weight loss, respiratory rate and total chlorophyll were measured. Sprouts stored at room temperature lasted 11days postharvest, while cooled lasted for 19 days. A significant effect in reducing weight loss between those sprouts which were stored at 4°C and 8°C and treated with calcium chloride solution at 4% was observed. For the respiratory rate was observed a significant reduction insprouts stored at 4°C. Therefore the most favorable temperature for the storage of Brussels sprouts is 4°C and calcium chloride solution 4%,useful information for producers and marketers.

  3. Development of O/W emulsions containing Euterpe oleracea extract and evaluation of photoprotective efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Cecilio Daher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Euterpe oleraceaMart. is a palm tree popularly known as açai, which is primarily found in northern Brazil. The açai's fruits contain anthocyanins, a class of polyphenols to which antioxidant properties have been attributed. The aim of this work was to develop O/W sunscreens emulsions containing açai glycolic extract (AGE and to evaluate both their physical stability and photoprotective efficacy. Emulsions containing AGE and sunscreens were formulated using different types and concentrations of polymeric surfactant (acrylates/C 10-30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer and sodium polyacrylate. The influence of two rheology modifiers (polyacrylamide (and C13-14/isoparaffin (and Laureth-7 and Carbomer on the stability was also investigated. Physical stability was evaluated by preliminary and accelerated studies. Emulsions with 1.0% sodium polyacrylate were stable and exhibited non-newtonian pseudoplastic behavior and thixotropy. Photoprotective efficacy was evaluated by in vivo Sun Protection Factor (SPF and determination of Protection Factor of UVA (PF-UVA. When AGE was added to the sunscreen emulsion, no significant increase in the in vivo SPF value was observed. The emulsion containing AGE showed PF-UVA = 14.97, 1.69 of the SPF/PF-UVA ratio and a critical wavelength value of 378 nm, and may therefore be considered a sunscreen with UVA and UVB protection.

  4. Identification and expression analysis of cold and freezing stress responsive genes of Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Cho, Yong-Gu; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-01-10

    Cold and freezing stress is a major environmental constraint to the production of Brassica crops. Enhancement of tolerance by exploiting cold and freezing tolerance related genes offers the most efficient approach to address this problem. Cold-induced transcriptional profiling is a promising approach to the identification of potential genes related to cold and freezing stress tolerance. In this study, 99 highly expressed genes were identified from a whole genome microarray dataset of Brassica rapa. Blast search analysis of the Brassica oleracea database revealed the corresponding homologous genes. To validate their expression, pre-selected cold tolerant and susceptible cabbage lines were analyzed. Out of 99 BoCRGs, 43 were differentially expressed in response to varying degrees of cold and freezing stress in the contrasting cabbage lines. Among the differentially expressed genes, 18 were highly up-regulated in the tolerant lines, which is consistent with their microarray expression. Additionally, 12 BoCRGs were expressed differentially after cold stress treatment in two contrasting cabbage lines, and BoCRG54, 56, 59, 62, 70, 72 and 99 were predicted to be involved in cold regulatory pathways. Taken together, the cold-responsive genes identified in this study provide additional direction for elucidating the regulatory network of low temperature stress tolerance and developing cold and freezing stress resistant Brassica crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tolerancia experimental de las especies vegetales Nicotiana glauca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Tecoma stans, Medicago sativa y Spinacea oleracea al boro, en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta L. de Viana

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La actividad de las industrias borateras constituye una fuente puntual y difusa de contaminación del aire, suelo y aguas superficiales y profundas. Por lo tanto, el estudio y experimentación acerca de las posibles formas de contrarrestar este impacto constituye una prioridad. Una técnica relativamente nueva para descontaminar suelos es la fitorremediación, que emplea plantas y microorganismos asociados. El primer paso es detectar las especies vegetales tolerantes, lo que constituye el objetivo de este trabajo. Se realizó un experimento en laboratorio para evaluar la germinación, la supervivencia y el crecimiento de distintas especies en diferentes concentraciones de boro. Al comienzo y al final del experimento se determinó la concentración de boro en el sustrato para cada tratamiento y para sustratos con y sin vegetación. Se encontraron diferencias significativas debidas al tratamiento, la especie y la interacción especie *tratamiento. M. sativa, N. glauca y J. mimosifolia fueron las especies de mayor tolerancia al boro. Las otras especies presentaron una disminución en todas las variables-respuesta en función de la concentración del contaminante. Todas presentaron una baja supervivencia en la máxima concentración. La disminución de boro fue máxima en el tratamiento de 30 ppm de boro con M. sativa y la menor se registró en los tratamiento de 20 ppm de boro con J. mimosifolia y de 30 ppm de boro con T. stans y S. oleraceae. Se concluye que N. glauca, M. sativa y J. mimosifolia podrían considerarse como prometedoras en remediación.Experimental tolerance to boron of the plant species Nicotiana glauca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Tecoma stans, Medicago sativa y Spinacea oleracea in Argentina. The activity of boron industries is a punctual and diffuse source of air, soil and water pollution. Therefore, it is a priority to study possible ways of reducing this impact. A relatively new technology for reducing soil pollution is

  6. Oviposition behavior and performance aspects of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catta-Preta Patrícia Diniz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Host part selection by ovipositing females of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala was determined in greenhouse and field. Performance of offspring (larval period, efficiency of food utilization, number of eggs/female and others was investigated under laboratory conditions. In the field, the number of A. monuste egg clutches on the apical and medium parts of kale leaves was greater than on the basal part. In greenhouse, A. monuste exhibited a strong preference for the apical part of kale leaves for ovipositing. The best results on food utilization indices, pupal mass and female wing size were obtained with the leaf apical part. This part of kale leaves exhibited the highest nitrogen and protein concentration and the smallest water content, when compared to the other leaf parts. However, the apical part of the leaves seems not to provide ovipositing females with enough protection against birds, making them easy preys in the field. We suggest that good relationship between oviposition preference and performance of offspring was hindered by predation in field conditions.

  7. Responses of growing Japanese quails that received selenium from selenium enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantiratikul, Anut; Chinrasri, Orawan; Pakmaruek, Pornpan; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Thosaikham, Withpol; Aengwanich, Worapol

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of selenium (Se) from Se-enriched kale sprout (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra L.) on the performance and Se concentrations in tissues of growing Japanese quails. Two hundred quails were divided into five treatments. Each treatment consisted of four replicates and each replicate contained ten quails in a completely randomize design. The experiment was conducted for 5 weeks. The treatments were T1, control diet; T2, control diet plus 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite; T3, T4, and T5, control diet plus 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg Se/kg from Se-enriched kale sprout. The results revealed that Se supplementation had no impact on feed intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of quails (p > 0.05). However, Se supplementation from both sodium selenite and Se-enriched kale sprout increased (p kale sprout. The results indicate that Se from Se-enriched kale sprout offers no advantage over Se from sodium selenite on tissue Se concentration.

  8. Quantitative trait loci mapping of heat tolerance in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using genotyping-by-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Sandra E; Stansell, Zachary J; Couillard, David M; Farnham, Mark W

    2017-03-01

    Five quantitative trait loci and one epistatic interaction were associated with heat tolerance in a doubled haploid population of broccoli evaluated in three summer field trials. Predicted rising global temperatures due to climate change have generated a demand for crops that are resistant to yield and quality losses from heat stress. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is a cool weather crop with high temperatures during production decreasing both head quality and yield. Breeding for heat tolerance in broccoli has potential to both expand viable production areas and extend the growing season but breeding efficiency is constrained by limited genetic information. A doubled haploid (DH) broccoli population segregating for heat tolerance was evaluated for head quality in three summer fields in Charleston, SC, USA. Multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of 1,423 single nucleotide polymorphisms developed through genotyping-by-sequencing identified five QTL and one positive epistatic interaction that explained 62.1% of variation in heat tolerance. The QTL identified here can be used to develop markers for marker-assisted selection and to increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying plant response to heat stress.

  9. Antioxidative and antitumor properties of in vitro-cultivated broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakar, Jasmina; Parić, Adisa; Maksimović, Milka; Bajrović, Kasim

    2012-02-01

    Broccoli [Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. (Brassicaceae)] contains substantial quantities of bioactive compounds, which are good free radical scavengers and thus might have strong antitumor properties. Enhancing production of plant secondary metabolites could be obtained with phytohormones that have significant effects on the metabolism of secondary metabolites. In that manner, in vitro culture presents good model for manipulation with plant tissues in order to affect secondary metabolite production and thus enhance bioactive properties of plants. Estimation of the antioxidative and antitumor properties of broccoli cultivated in different in vitro conditions. In vitro germinated and cultivated broccoli seedlings, as well as spontaneously developed calli, were subjected to Soxhlet extraction. Antioxidative activity of the herbal extracts was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical method. Antitumor properties of the extracts were determined using crown-gall tumor inhibition (potato disc) assay. Three, 10, 20, and 30 days old broccoli seedlings, cultivated in vitro on three different Murashige-Skoog media, two types of callus, and seedlings from sterile filter paper were used for extraction. In total, 15 aqueous extracts were tested for antioxidative and antitumor potential. Three day-old seedlings showed the highest antioxidative activity. Eleven out of 15 aqueous extracts demonstrated above 50% of crown-gall tumor inhibition in comparison with the control. Tumor inhibition was in association with types and concentrations of phytohormones presented in growing media. It is demonstrated that phytohormones in plant-growing media could affect the bioactive properties of broccoli either through increasing or decreasing their antioxidative and antitumor potential.

  10. Biotechnological advancement in genetic improvement of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    With the advent of molecular biotechnology, plant genetic engineering techniques have opened an avenue for the genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Vegetable crop productivity and quality are seriously affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses which destabilize rural economies in many countries. Moreover, absence of proper post-harvest storage and processing facilities leads to qualitative and quantitative losses. In the past four decades, conventional breeding has significantly contributed to the improvement of vegetable yields, quality, post-harvest life, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, there are many constraints in conventional breeding, which can only be overcome by advancements made in modern biology. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop, of the family Brassicaceae; however, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during the commercial cultivation of broccoli. Thus, genetic engineering can be used as a tool to add specific characteristics to existing cultivars. However, a pre-requisite for transferring genes into plants is the availability of efficient regeneration and transformation techniques. Recent advances in plant genetic engineering provide an opportunity to improve broccoli in many aspects. The goal of this review is to summarize genetic transformation studies on broccoli to draw the attention of researchers and scientists for its further genetic advancement.

  11. Extraction of functional ingredients from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) using liquid solvent and supercritical CO₂ extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Laura; Vázquez, Erika; Fornari, Tiziana; López-Hazas, María del Carmen; García-Risco, Mónica R; Santoyo, Susana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2015-03-15

    In this work three different techniques were applied to extract dry leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea): solid-liquid extraction (SLE), pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to investigate the influence of extraction solvent and technique on extracts composition and antioxidant activity. Moreover, the influence of carotenoids and phenolic compounds on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of spinach extracts was also studied. The higher concentrations of carotenoids and the lower content of phenolic compounds were observed in the supercritical CO₂ extracts; whereas water and/or ethanol PLE extracts presented low amounts of carotenoids and the higher concentrations of phenolic compounds. PLE extract with the highest content of phenolic compounds showed the highest antioxidant activity, although SFE carotenoid rich extract also showed a high antioxidant activity. Moreover, both extracts presented an important anti-inflammatory activity. PLE seems to be a good technique for the extraction of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds from spinach leaves. Moreover, spinach phenolic compounds and carotenoids present a high antioxidant activity, whereas spinach carotenoids seem to show a higher anti-inflammatory activity than phenolic compounds. It is worth noting that of our knowledge this is the first time the anti-inflammatory activity of lipophilic extracts from spinach leaves is reported. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Metabolic profiling and biological capacity of Pieris brassicae fed with kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Fernandes, Fátima; Oliveira, Jorge M A; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-06-01

    Phenolic and organic acid profiles of aqueous extracts from Pieris brassicae material and the host kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) leaves were determined by HPLC/UV-DAD/MS(n)-ESI and HPLC-UV, respectively. The identified phenolics included acylated and nonacylated flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acyl gentiobiosides, and sulphate phenolics. Kale exhibited the highest content (11g/kg lyophilized extract), while no phenolics were identified in the butterflies or exuviae. Nine different organic acids were characterized in the materials, with kale showing the highest amount (112g/kg lyophilized extract). With the exception of the exuviae extract, the rest were screened for bioactivity. Using spectrophotometric microassays, all exhibited antiradical capacity against DPPH and NO in a concentration-dependent way, whereas only kale and excrement extracts were active against superoxide. All displayed activity on intestinal smooth muscle, albeit with distinct relaxation-contraction profiles. Larvae and butterfly extracts were more efficacious for intestinal relaxation than was kale extract, whereas excrement extract evoked only contractions, thus evidencing their different compositions. Collectively, these results show that P. brassicae sequesters and metabolizes kale's phenolic compounds. Moreover, the extract's bioactivities suggest that they may constitute an interesting source of bioactive compounds whose complex chemical structures preclude either synthesis or isolation.

  13. Anthocyanins standards (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside isolation from freeze-dried açaí (Euterpe oleraceae Mart. by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Miranda Senna Gouvêa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Availability of analytical standards is a critical aspect in developing methods for quantitative analysis of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside were isolated from samples of freeze-dried açaí (Euterpe oleraceae Mart., which is a round and purple well-known palm fruit in Brazil, and then used as standards. The isolation of the anthocyanins was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, using an adapted six-channel selection valve. The identification of anthocyanin pigments in açaí was based on mass spectrometric data for molecular ions and MS-MS product ions and on previous published data. After the collection procedure, standards with a high purity grade were obtained and an external standard curve of each anthocyanin was plotted.

  14. Development of enhanced radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Lee, B. H.; Song, H. S.; Lee, C. J.; Chung, K. M.; Shin, H. S.; Park, T. W

    2000-04-01

    Biological model systems such as TSH mutations, animals and their reproductive organs, and cultured cell lines and human peripheral lymphocytes have been set up for screening radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities of natural products. About 100 natural plants were in vivo and in vitro tested. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, and portulaca oleracea showed 20 percent of radioprotective activities. On the other hand, Acanthopanax sessiliflous, Melia japonica, and Agastache rugosa revealed radiosensitizing activities. Experimental studies on the farnesyl transferase inhibitors showed the results that some of the inhibitors lead to higher levels of cell death after {gamma}-irradiation and increased radiosensitivity in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells and MCF-10A human tumor cells. Molecular biochemical studies on the mechanism of radioprotection was carried out using cultured cells. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation,decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. The result of mechanism studies will be applied to elucidate the radioprotection mechanism and to develop enhanced radioprotectors. Furthermore, our results indicate that use of antioxidants in combination can efficiently modulate the radiation-induced cell damage like apoptosis and can be applied to alleviate the cellular damage in tumor patients during radiotherapy. (author)

  15. Phytoremediation potential of some halophytic species for soil salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, S; Nandwal, A S; Angrish, R; Arya, S S; Kumar, N; Sharma, S K

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation potential of six halophytic species i.e. Suaeda nudiflora, Suaeda fruticosa, Portulaca oleracea, Atriplex lentiformis, Parkinsonia aculeata and Xanthium strumarium was assessed under screen house conditions. Plants were raised at 8.0, 12.0, 16.0, and 20.0 dSm(-1) of chloride-dominated salinity. The control plants were irrigated with canal water. Sampling was done at vegetative stage (60-75 DAS). About 95 percent seed germination occurred up to 12 dSm(-1) and thereafter declined slightly. Mean plant height and dry weight plant(-1) were significantly decreased from 48.71 to 32.44 cm and from 1.73 to 0.61g plant(-1) respectively upon salinization. Na(+)/K(+) ratio (0.87 to 2.72), Na(+)/ Ca(2+) + Mg(2+) (0.48 to 1.54) and Cl(-)/SO4(2-) (0.94 to 5.04) ratio showed increasing trend. Salinity susceptibility index was found minimum in Suaeda fruticosa (0.72) and maximum in Parkinsonia aculeata (1.17). Total ionic content also declined and magnitude of decline varied from 8.51 to 18.91% at 8 dSm(-1) and 1.85 to 7.12% at 20 dSm(-1) of salinity. On the basis of phytoremediation potential Suaeda fruticosa (1170.02 mg plant(-1)), Atriplex lentiformis (777.87 mg plant(-1)) were the best salt hyperaccumulator plants whereas Xanthium strumarium (349.61 mg plant(-1)) and Parkinsonia aculeata (310.59 mg plant(-1)) were the least hyperaccumulator plants.

  16. Genomic characterization of a new endophytic Streptomyces kebangsaanensis identifies biosynthetic pathway gene clusters for novel phenazine antibiotic production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwairiah Remali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Streptomyces are well known for their capability to produce many bioactive secondary metabolites with medical and industrial importance. Here we report a novel bioactive phenazine compound, 6-((2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenoxy carbonyl phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (HCPCA extracted from Streptomyces kebangsaanensis, an endophyte isolated from the ethnomedicinal Portulaca oleracea. Methods The HCPCA chemical structure was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We conducted whole genome sequencing for the identification of the gene cluster(s believed to be responsible for phenazine biosynthesis in order to map its corresponding pathway, in addition to bioinformatics analysis to assess the potential of S. kebangsaanensis in producing other useful secondary metabolites. Results The S. kebangsaanensis genome comprises an 8,328,719 bp linear chromosome with high GC content (71.35% consisting of 12 rRNA operons, 81 tRNA, and 7,558 protein coding genes. We identified 24 gene clusters involved in polyketide, nonribosomal peptide, terpene, bacteriocin, and siderophore biosynthesis, as well as a gene cluster predicted to be responsible for phenazine biosynthesis. Discussion The HCPCA phenazine structure was hypothesized to derive from the combination of two biosynthetic pathways, phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylic acid and 4-methoxybenzene-1,2-diol, originated from the shikimic acid pathway. The identification of a biosynthesis pathway gene cluster for phenazine antibiotics might facilitate future genetic engineering design of new synthetic phenazine antibiotics. Additionally, these findings confirm the potential of S. kebangsaanensis for producing various antibiotics and secondary metabolites.

  17. Efficacy of Maister OD (Foramsulfuron + Idosulfuron a New Herbicide in Controlling Weeds of Corn Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abdi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of a new herbicide Foramsulfuron +Idosulfuron (Maister OD against other herbicides in corn fields, this experiment was fulfielld in 2010 at Mahidasht, Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Kermanshah, Iran. It was concucted in randomized complete block design with four replications and 11 treatments. In this experiment, three doses of herbicides (38.75, 46.5 and 54.25 g/ha including foramsulfuron + idosulfuron along with Nicusulfuron, ForamSulfuron, Rimsulfuron, Foramsulfuron + Rimsulfuron , Bromicid + hand weeding narrow leaf weeds, Bromicid + Nicusulfuron and U46 + hand weeding of narrow leaf weeds and a complete weeding as the control treatments were investigated. Weeds present in the field were Xanthium stromarium,Chenopedium album, Portulaca oleracea, Sorgum halepense and Setaria virdis. The results of this study showed that doses 38.75 and 46.5 g/ha of herbicide foramsulfuron + idosulfuron after treatments of Bromicid + Nicusulfuron and, Bromicid + narrow leaf weed, hand weeding respectively could control 90 and 86 % of weeds in corn field and increase its yields significantly. Because there are presently few registered herbicide available in Iran, necessity of finding proper herbicides to control weeds in corn field and based on the results oblained from this experiment it seems using 46.5 and 38-75 grams per hectare respectively of foramsulfuron + idosulfuron could be a better option than other herbicides to control weeds in corn fields and increase its seed yield.

  18. Studies on the Effect of Type and Solarization Period on Germination Percentage of Four Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rostam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effects of soil solarization on weed control, an experiment with factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted in a fallow farm in Daregaz in 2008. Factors included solarization duration (0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks and soil moisture content (dry and moist. Soil seed bank was sampled (in two depth, 0-10 and 10-20 cm prior to the experiment and immediately after applying treatments, and germination percentage of weed species were determined. Results of this study showed that seed germination percentage in 10 cm soil depth was influenced by soil moisture and solarization and their interactions, while in 20 cm soil depth only solarization period affected the weed seed germination. Germination percentage in moist soil was less than that in dry soil. Seed germination percentage declined more by increasing solarization duration, so that the greatest decline was obtained after 6 weeks solarization. Solarization decreased germination percentage in moist soil more than that in dry soil. Overall, the results of this experiment indicated that solarization of moist soil for 6 weeks was the most effective treatment in controlling common lambsquatres (Chenopodium album, common purslane (Portulaca oleracea, redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus, and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis, while solarization of dry soil for 2 weeks was the least effective treatment for weed control. Keywords: Solarization, Soil moisture, Seed bank

  19. Development of enhanced radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, Y. K.; Lee, B. H.; Song, H. S.; Lee, C. J.; Chung, K. M.; Shin, H. S.; Park, T. W.

    2000-04-01

    Biological model systems such as TSH mutations, animals and their reproductive organs, and cultured cell lines and human peripheral lymphocytes have been set up for screening radioprotective or radiosensitizing activities of natural products. About 100 natural plants were in vivo and in vitro tested. Among them, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Areca catechu, Cornus officinalis, and portulaca oleracea showed 20 percent of radioprotective activities. On the other hand, Acanthopanax sessiliflous, Melia japonica, and Agastache rugosa revealed radiosensitizing activities. Experimental studies on the farnesyl transferase inhibitors showed the results that some of the inhibitors lead to higher levels of cell death after γ-irradiation and increased radiosensitivity in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells and MCF-10A human tumor cells. Molecular biochemical studies on the mechanism of radioprotection was carried out using cultured cells. The treatment of DTT increased cell survival after gamma-irradiation,decreased in the frequencies of micronucleus, and reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis after irradiation was revealed by the changes in the relative cell death, increase in the relative amount of apoptotic cells, and the induction of DNA fragmentation. The result of mechanism studies will be applied to elucidate the radioprotection mechanism and to develop enhanced radioprotectors. Furthermore, our results indicate that use of antioxidants in combination can efficiently modulate the radiation-induced cell damage like apoptosis and can be applied to alleviate the cellular damage in tumor patients during radiotherapy. (author)

  20. WEED INTERFERENCE IN EGGPLANT CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ JUNIOR PEREIRA MARQUES

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled weed growth interferes with the growth eggplants and crop yields. To control weeds, the main weed species must be identified in crop growing areas and during weed control periods, as weed species might vary in relation to management practices. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the main weed species and determine the periods of weed interference in the eggplant cultivar Nápoli when grown under certain cultural practices, including plant staking and sprout thinning. The experiment was carried out in 2014 using a randomized complete block design, with 3 replications. The treatments consisted of 11 periods of (1 increasing weed control and (2 increasing coexistence of eggplant with weeds from the first day of transplanting (0-14, 0-28, 0-42, 0-56, 0-70, 0-84, 0-98, 0-112, 0-126, 0-140, and up do day 154. Eggplant staking and sprout thinning were performed 42 days after transplanting (DAT. Weed identification and crop yield assessments were performed to determine the Period Before Interference (PBI, Total Period of Interference Prevention (TPIP, and the Critical Period of Interference Prevention (CPIP. The major weeds found in the eggplant cultivar Nápoli were Eleusine indica, Portulaca oleracea, and Cyperus rotundus. Coexistence between the weed community and the eggplant throughout the entire crop production cycle reduced eggplant fruit yield by 78%. The PBI was 29 DAT and the TPIP was 48 DAT, resulting in 19 days of CPIP.

  1. Isolation and characterization of deleterious Pseudomonas aeruginosa KC1 from rhizospheric soils and its interaction with weed seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Lakshmi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial isolate KC1 was screened from the rhizosphere of castor plants (Ricinus communis indigenous to agricultural fields of Bihar. The isolate was Gram negative, non-spore forming, and exhibited fluorescence under UV light. Its molecular characterization is based on the sequencing of 16S rDNA (1450 bp and alignment at GeneBank (NCBI, MaryLand. The strain has been validated as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (HM195190. The bacterium grew at 4–42 °C, with a temperature optima of 30 °C. The strain KC1 was found to produce cyanide (4.78 nmol l−1 over a period of 36 h. Data revealed enhanced cyanogenesis (6.98 nmol l−1, when glycine was provided in the King’s B medium. Seed bacterization exhibited reduction in root length, shoot length of weed seedlings (Amaranthus spinosus, Portulaca oleracea, which was significant (p < 0.05 in both laboratory and glasshouse experiments. Biomass was significantly reduced (p < 0.05 for the weed seedlings in glasshouse experiments. However, KC1 inoculated crop seedlings (Triticum aestivum were found to be less inhibitory as compared to weed seedlings. The observations are significant to establish, that the secondary metabolites producing KC1 rhizobacterium, P. aeruginosa KC1 could be exploited as a weed biocontrol agent. The innate potential of KC1 could be further formulated and utilized in field applications for agricultural sustainability.

  2. Impact of dehydration of purslane on retention of bioactive molecules and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Niharika; Debnath, Sukumar

    2015-10-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) has several health benefits, such as it reduces risk of CVD, obesity and diabetes. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of different drying on retention of bioactive molecules, such as omega-3 fatty acids, total phenolic content and antiradical activity of purslane. Five different dehydration methods including microwave (100 MW, 5 min), tray, vacuum, low temperature low humidity, infrared were used at 55-60 °C for 5-7 h for dehydration of purslane. Three solvents, viz. water, ethanol and methanol were used for extraction of bioactive molecules from purslane. Total polyphenol content, antiradical activity and rehydration ratio of the bioactive molecules were determined. Results revealed that total PUFA, α-linolenic acid (ALA), total polyphenol content and antiradical activity were found to retain in the dried purslane in the range of (47.9-59.9 %), (42.5-50 %), (188-408GAE/100 g) and (33.0-88.8 mg/100 g) respectively. The highest values of ALA, total polyphenol content and antiradical activity were found to obtain in the vacuum dried sample. Rehydration ratio was found in the range of 3.2-4.3 and vacuum dried purslane showed maximum rehydration. It could be concluded that vacuum dehydration of purslane is an effective method for retention of bioactive molecules and good rehydration behaviour of dried purslane.

  3. Allelopathic cover crop of rye for integrated weed control in sustainable agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Tabaglio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic potential of rye (Secale cereale L. is mainly due to phytotoxic benzoxazinones, compounds that are produced and accumulated in young tissues to different degrees depending on cultivar and environmental influences. Living rye plants exude low levels of benzoxazinones, while cover crop residues can release from 12 to 20 kg ha–1. This paper summarizes the results obtained from several experiments performed in both controlled and field environments, in which rye was used as a cover crop to control summer weeds in a following maize crop. Significant differences in benzoxazinoid content were detected between rye cultivars. In controlled environments, rye mulches significantly reduced germination of some broadleaf weeds. Germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus and Portulaca oleracea were particularly affected by the application of rye mulches, while Chenopodium album was hardly influenced and Abutilon theophrasti was advantaged by the presence of the mulch. With reference to the influence of agronomic factors on the production of benzoxazinoids, nitrogen fertilization increased the content of allelochemicals, although proportionally less than dry matter. The field trial established on no-till maize confirmed the significant weed suppressiveness of rye mulch, both for grass and broadleaf weeds. A significant positive interaction between nitrogen (N fertilization and notillage resulting in the suppression of broadleaf weeds was observed. The different behavior of the weeds in the presence of allelochemicals was explained in terms of differential uptake and translocation capabilities. The four summer weeds tested were able to grow in the presence of low amounts of benzoxazolin-2(3H-one (BOA, between 0.3 and 20 mmol g–1 fresh weight. Although there were considerable differences in their sensitivity to higher BOA concentrations, P. oleracea, A. retroflexus, and Ch. album represented a group of species with a consistent

  4. Classification of viable and non-viable spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) seeds by single seed near infrared spectroscopy and extended canonical variates analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Shetty, Nisha; Gislum, René

    2011-01-01

    ). Assigning the difference of scatter corrected absorbance spectra from aged and non-aged seeds also lead to CH2, CH3 and HC=CH structures, which are some of the functional groups in lipids. In the ECVA plot, there was a clear difference between seeds with and without a pericarp. Evaluating the spectra...... studies. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is the major crop in vegetable seed production in Denmark and two seed lots with viability percentages of 90% and 97% were chosen for examination by single seed NIR spectroscopy. Lipids play a major role in both ageing and germination. During accelerated ageing......, lipid peroxidation leads to deterioration of cell membranes and contributes in that way to reducing seed viability of the seed sample. These biochemical changes may be the reason for a clear grouping between aged and non-aged seeds when performing the extended canonical variates analysis (ECVA...

  5. Estudo comparativo das alterações de processamento no brócoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Itálica) submetido a diferentes processos de congelamento e períodos de estocagem

    OpenAIRE

    Damian, Andréa Clara Spoladore

    2000-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias. Amostras de brócoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Itálica) foram congeladas por 3 métodos diferentes e armazenadas com a finalidade de analisar a textura e a microestrutura (rompimento da parede celular) do brócoli. O brócoli foi selecionado e separado de acordo com o diâmetro de caule (@ 5 mm), branqueado e congelado em freezer a -18°C pelo método lento, a -50°C em congelador de placas pelo método r...

  6. Determination of mineral constituents, phytochemicals and antioxidant qualities of Cleome gynandra, compared to Brassica oleracea and Beta vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Mack; Amoo, Stephen O.; Aremu, Adeyemi O.; Gruz, Jiri; Šubrtová, Michaela; Jarošová, Monika; Tarkowski, Petr; Doležal, Karel

    2017-12-01

    The study compared mineral, chemical and antioxidant qualities of Cleome gynandra, a wild leafy vegetable, with two widely consumed commercial vegetables; Brassica oleracea and Beta vulgaris. Mineral nutrients were quantified with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), phenolic compounds using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS) and β-carotene and vitamin C using high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA). The antioxidant potential was evaluated using 2,2–diphenyl–1–picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Cleome gynandra had highest concentrations of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, zinc, ascorbic acid, total phenolics and flavonoids; whereas sodium, magnesium, manganese, copper and β-carotene were higher in Beta vulgaris. The significantly higher antioxidant activity (P ≤ 0.05) exhibited by Cleome gynandra in comparison to the two commercial vegetables may be due to its significantly high levels of vitamin C and phenolic acids. These findings on the mineral, chemical and antioxidant properties of Cleome gynandra provide compelling scientific evidence of its potential in adding diversity to our diet and contributing towards the daily nutritional requirements of millions of people for food and nutritional security.

  7. The effect of seedling chilling on glutathione content, catalase and peroxidase activity in Brassica oleracea L. var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wojciechowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to determine the possible relationship between Brassica oleracea var. italica seedlings stored at 2°C in the dark for seven and fourteen days, respectively, and the level of certain antioxidant parameters in particular organs. A parallel objective of the experiment was to determine if the reaction of seedlings to low temperature might be persistent in fully developed plants until harvest time. After 14 days of chilling a significant increase in the glutathione content was observed in the seedling leaves in comparison to the non-chilled plants. During vegetation in field conditions this effect was maintained in leaves up to the stage of formation of flower buds. At harvest the highest content of glutathione was demonstrated in broccoli heads, obtained from plants, which were previously chilled in the seedling phase for two weeks. Peroxidase activity in broccoli seedlings increased each year of the three-year study due to the duration of the cooling time, whereas in the case of catalase the changes were not so distinct. At harvest time the activity of both enzymes in the leaves and flower buds fluctuated according to the particular year of study.

  8. Limitações nutricionais para o cultivo de açaizeiro em latossolo amarelo textura média, Estado do Pará Nutritional limitations for Euterpe oleracea in yellow latosol of Para State - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael de Jesus Matos Viégas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A região amazônica apresenta condições edafoclimáticas favoráveis ao desenvolvimento de sistemas de cultivos utilizando fruteiras tropicais. O açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea, Mart. desponta como uma das espécies de grande importância econômica para a fruticultura regional. A produção de fruteiras ainda é limitada pela carência de conhecimentos sobre diversos segmentos dos sistemas de produção, especialmente com relação a estudos sobre nutrição mineral de plantas. Dessa forma, em amostras superficiais de até 30 cm de profundidade de Latossolo Amarelo textura média do Município de Belém, Estado do Pará, conduziu-se experimento, em casa de vegetação, com plantas de açaizeiro, com o objetivo de identificar os nutrientes limitantes ao seu desenvolvimento, mediante a técnica do elemento faltante. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições e 14 tratamentos: completo (calagem, macro e micronutrientes, NPK; omissão de N; de P; de K; de Ca; de Mg; de S; de B; de Cu; de Fe; de Mn; de Mo e de Zn. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho permitiram concluir que os macronutrientes mais limitantes para o crescimento de açaizeiros, em Latossolo Amarelo textura média, foram o fósforo, o nitrogênio, o potássio e o magnésio e entre os micronutrientes, o manganês.Aiming to study the nutritional limitation of macronutrients and micronutrients in açaizeiro plants (Euterpe oleracea Mart. in Yellow Latosol from the city of Belém, state of Pará - Brazil, this work was carried out under greenhouse conditions at Embrapa Amazonian Oriental. In this experiment it was used the missing element technique and the experimental design was a randomized block with four repetitions and fourteen treatments: Complete (liming, macro and micronutrients, NPK, omission of N; P; K; Ca; Mg; S; B; Cu; Fe; Mn; Mo and Zn. The results allowed to conclude that the macronutrients more limitant to growth of Euterpe oleracea, were

  9. Differential Responses of Two Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Italica Cultivars to Salinity and Nutritional Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokri Zaghdoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative responses of two broccoli cultivars (Brassica oleracea var. Italica, cv. Parthenon and cv. Naxos to a 15 d exposure to different NaCl levels were investigated. Salinity led to increased concentrations of Na+ and Cl− ions in both cultivars, a disruption of the endogenous minerals levels in the shoots and roots—that varied with the cultivar and salt concentration—and decreases in the osmotic potential (Ψπ, root hydraulic conductance (L0, and stomatal conductance (Gs. The reduced biomass of Naxos at moderate NaCl indicates greater sensitivity to salinity, compared with Parthenon. Parthenon accumulated more soluble sugars, for osmotic adjustment, whereas Naxos accumulated proline, which gave the two cultivars differing nutritional characteristics. The total glucosinolates (GSLs content was not affected by salinity in Parthenon while it decreased significantly in Naxos as a consequence of the decrease in the indole GSL. However, Naxos accumulated more aliphatic GSLs under salt stress than Parthenon, which confers on this cultivar a greater nutritional value when cultivated under salinity.These results suggest that, at distinct salinity levels, each broccoli cultivar adopts a specific strategy, indicating the crucial role of the genetic background on the organoleptic and nutritional properties that each cultivar acquires.

  10. Differential responses of two broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Italica) cultivars to salinity and nutritional quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoud, Chokri; Alcaraz-López, Carlos; Mota-Cadenas, César; Martínez-Ballesta, María del Carmen; Moreno, Diego A; Ferchichi, Ali; Carvajal, Micaela

    2012-01-01

    The comparative responses of two broccoli cultivars (Brassica oleracea var. Italica, cv. Parthenon and cv. Naxos) to a 15 d exposure to different NaCl levels were investigated. Salinity led to increased concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) ions in both cultivars, a disruption of the endogenous minerals levels in the shoots and roots-that varied with the cultivar and salt concentration-and decreases in the osmotic potential (Ψ(π)), root hydraulic conductance (L(0)), and stomatal conductance (G(s)). The reduced biomass of Naxos at moderate NaCl indicates greater sensitivity to salinity, compared with Parthenon. Parthenon accumulated more soluble sugars, for osmotic adjustment, whereas Naxos accumulated proline, which gave the two cultivars differing nutritional characteristics. The total glucosinolates (GSLs) content was not affected by salinity in Parthenon while it decreased significantly in Naxos as a consequence of the decrease in the indole GSL. However, Naxos accumulated more aliphatic GSLs under salt stress than Parthenon, which confers on this cultivar a greater nutritional value when cultivated under salinity.These results suggest that, at distinct salinity levels, each broccoli cultivar adopts a specific strategy, indicating the crucial role of the genetic background on the organoleptic and nutritional properties that each cultivar acquires.

  11. Antiamnesic Effect of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Leaves on Amyloid Beta (Aβ)1-42-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon Kyeong; Ha, Jeong Su; Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Jin Yong; Lee, Du Sang; Guo, Tian Jiao; Lee, Uk; Kim, Dae-Ok; Heo, Ho Jin

    2016-05-04

    To examine the antiamnesic effects of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) leaves, we performed in vitro and in vivo tests on amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity. The chloroform fraction from broccoli leaves (CBL) showed a remarkable neuronal cell-protective effect and an inhibition against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The ameliorating effect of CBL on Aβ1-42-induced learning and memory impairment was evaluated by Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests. The results indicated improving cognitive function in the CBL group. After the behavioral tests, antioxidant effects were detected by superoxide dismutase (SOD), oxidized glutathione (GSH)/total GSH, and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays, and inhibition against AChE was also presented in the brain. Finally, oxo-dihydroxy-octadecenoic acid (oxo-DHODE) and trihydroxy-octadecenoic acid (THODE) as main compounds were identified by quadrupole time-of-flight ultraperformance liquid chromatography (Q-TOF UPLC-MS) analysis. Therefore, our studies suggest that CBL could be used as a natural resource for ameliorating Aβ1-42-induced learning and memory impairment.

  12. Or mutation leads to photo-oxidative stress responses in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) seedlings during de-etiolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Xiao; Dong, Kang

    2013-11-01

    The Orange (Or) gene is a gene mutation that can increase carotenoid content in plant tissues normally devoid of pigments. It affects plastid division and is involved in the differentiation of proplastids or non-colored plastids into chromoplasts. In this study, the de-etiolation process of the wild type (WT) cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) and Or mutant seedlings was investigated. We analyzed pigment content, plastid development, transcript abundance and protein levels of genes involved in the de-etiolation process. The results showed that Or can increase the carotenoid content in green tissues, although not as effectively as in non-green tissues, and this effect might be caused by the changes in biosynthetic pathway genes at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. There was no significant difference in the plastid development process between the two lines. However, the increased content of antheraxanthin and anthocyanin, and higher expression levels of violaxanthin de-epoxidase gene (VDE) suggested a stress situation leading to photoinhibition and enhanced photoprotection in the Or mutant. The up-regulated expression levels of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced genes, ZAT10 for salt tolerance zinc finger protein and ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE2 (APX2), suggested the existence of photo-oxidative stress in the Or mutant. In summary, abovementioned findings provide additional insight into the functions of the Or gene in different tissues and at different developmental stages.

  13. Uso do novo sistema Clearfield® na cultura do girassol para o controle de plantas daninhas dicotiledóneas Use of the new Clearfield® system in sunflower culture to control dicotyledonous weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de plantas daninhas dicotiledóneas tem limitado o aumento da área de cultivo de girassol no Brasil, devido ao seu impacto sobre a produtividade. Isso se deve à escassez de produtos registrados para a cultura com amplo espectro de ação. Em razão disso, desenvolveram-se dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia e seletividade de herbicidas do grupo das imidazolinonas aplicados em pós-emergência de plantas daninhas dicotiledôneas na cultura do girassol Clearfield®. Os experimentos foram instalados no campo, em Iguatemi, distrito de Maringá-PR. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de duas testemunhas sem aplicação de herbicida, sendo uma sem capina e outra capinada, sulfentrazone (200,00 g ha-1 aplicado em pré-emergência e imazapic+imazapyr aplicados em pós-emergência nas doses de [36,75+12,25], [52,5+17,5], [12,25+36,75] e [17,5+52,5] g ha-1. Foram feitas avaliações de controle para Euphorbia heterophylla, Conyza bonariensis, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa, Ipomoea grandifolia e Portulaca oleracea. Também foram realizadas avaliações de intoxicação do girassol Clearfield®, estande e produtividade em kg ha-1. De acordo com os resultados, verificou-se que o uso do sistema Clearfield® mostrou-se uma ótima opção para áreas com infestação de plantas daninhas dicotiledôneas, pois possibilita a aplicação de herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase (ALS; os controles obtidos variaram de medianos a excelentes, além de ele não provocar injúrias à cultura e manter o estande inicial e a produtividade.The occurrence of dicotyledonous weeds has limited the increase of the area of sunflower cultivation in Brazil, due to their impact on crop yield. This is a result of a shortage of products registered for the crop with broad-spectrum control. Thus, two experiments were installed to evaluate the efficacy and selectivity of the imidazolinone herbicides applied on post

  14. Efeitos dos períodos de competição do mato na cultura do amendoim: II. Safra das águas Effects of weed competition periods on peanut: II. Wet season crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDISON MARTINS PAULO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado na safra das águas de 1989, no Núcleo de Agronomia da Alta Paulista, em Adamantina (SP para estudar o efeito de diferentes períodos de competição do mato no amendoim. Adotou-se o delineamento estatístico de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e 22 tratamentos. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação da presença e da ausência do mato a partir do início da cultura, com as seguintes épocas de remoção da flora infestante: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 e 100 dias após a semeadura. As parcelas foram constituídas por quatro linhas de amendoim, perfazendo 6 m² de área útil. As principais plantas daninhas encontradas na área experimental foram: Cyperus lanceolatus Poir, Commelina benghalensis L., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Amaranthus viridis L., Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn., Portulaca oleracea L., Digitaria horizontalis Willd. e Solanum americanum Mill. A convivência do mato diminuiu a produção de vagens, de grãos e a população do amendoim na colheita. Não se observou efeito do mato sobre o rendimento de grãos e sobre a matéria seca acumulada pela parte aérea do amendoim. Capinas aplicadas aos 13 e 67 dias após a semeadura, respectivamente para os sistemas sem e com mato a partir da semeadura, foram suficientes para a obtenção de produção de vagens de amendoim estatisticamente igual à obtida pela cultura mantida sem competição, durante todo o ciclo. Os componentes da produção do amendoim foram favorecidos com a aplicação do sistema sem mato, a partir do início da cultura.The present research was carried out at the Núcleo de Agronomia da Alta Paulista, in Adamantina, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, to study the effects of different periods of weed competition with peanut.The treatments were all possible combinations among the presence/absence of weeds (at the sowing time and the following periods of weed removal: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 days

  15. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Öztekin, Aykut, E-mail: aoztekin@agri.edu.tr [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey); Agri Ibrahim Cecen University Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 04100-Agri (Turkey); Almaz, Züleyha, E-mail: zturkoglu-2344@hotmail.com [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey); Mus Alparslan University Faculty of Sciences, Department of Moleculer Biology, 49250-Mus (Turkey); Özdemir, Hasan, E-mail: hozdemir@atauni.edu.tr [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC{sub 50} values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  16. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztekin, Aykut; Almaz, Züleyha; Özdemir, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC50 values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  17. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öztekin, Aykut; Almaz, Züleyha; Özdemir, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC_5_0 values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  18. Biotechnological applications in in vitro plant regeneration studies of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Biotechnology holds promise for genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop of the family Brassicaceae. However, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during commercial cultivation of broccoli. Establishment of a reliable, reproducible and efficient in vitro plant regeneration system with cell and tissue culture is a vital prerequisite for biotechnological application of crop improvement programme. An in vitro plant regeneration technique refers to culturing, cell division, cell multiplication, de-differentiation and differentiation of cells, protoplasts, tissues and organs on defined liquid/solid medium under aseptic and controlled environment. Recent progress in the field of plant tissue culture has made this area one of the most dynamic and promising in experimental biology. There are many published reports on in vitro plant regeneration studies in broccoli including direct organogenesis, indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. This review summarizes those plant regeneration studies in broccoli that could be helpful in drawing the attention of the researchers and scientists to work on it to produce healthy, biotic and abiotic stress resistant plant material and to carry out genetic transformation studies for the production of transgenic plants.

  19. Influência de genótipos de couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. na biologia de Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae Influence of cabbage genotypes (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. on the biology of Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Leal Boiça Junior

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a influência de alguns genótipos de couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. no desenvolvimento de Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Os genótipos avaliados foram: Manteiga de Ribeirão Pires I-2620, Roxa I-919, Manteiga de São José, Manteiga de Monte Alegre, Pires 2 de Campinas, Couve Comum, Couve de Arthur Nogueira 2, Couve de Arthur Nogueira 1. Lagartas recém-eclodidas foram mantida em discos foliares de 8 cm de diâmetro para cada genótipo. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, longevidade e fecundidade de adultos, utilizando análises paramétricas e de agrupamentos para interpretação dos dados. Observou-se um prolongamento em dias no ciclo de P. xylostella, aumento no peso de pupa e maiores valores de viabilidade e fecundidade, durante a segunda geração. O genótipo Couve de Arthur Nogueira 2 foi menos favorável ao desenvolvimento de P. xylostella nas duas gerações, e Couve Comum demonstrou maior influência negativa ao inseto na segunda geração. Manteiga de Ribeirão Pires I-2620 foi o mais suscetível nas duas gerações, agrupando com este na segunda geração Pires 2 de Campinas e Manteiga de São José.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cabbage genotypes (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. on growth of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. The genotypes evaluated were: Manteiga of Ribeirão Pires I-2620, Roxa I919, Manteiga of São José, Manteiga of Monte Alegre, Pires 2 of Campinas, Couve Comum, Couve of Arthur Nogueira 2, Couve of Arthur Nogueira 1. Neonate larvae were reared in 8 cm leaf discs of each genotype. The parameters evaluated were: period and viability of the larval and pupal stages, sex ratio, longevity and fecundity of adults. Parametric and Cluster analyses were used for data analysis. Overall, it was observed a developmental delay in the P

  20. Experimental tolerance to boron of the plant species Nicotiana glauca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Tecoma stans, Medicago sativa y Spinacea oleracea in Argentina; Tolerancia experimental de las especies vegetales Nicotiana glauca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Tecoma stans, Medicago sativa y Spinacea oleracea al boro, en Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Marta L. de; Albarracin Franco, Silvia [Univ. Nacional de Salta, Inst. de Ecologia y Ambiente Humano, CIUNSa, Buenos Aires No. 177, 4400, Salta (Argentina)], E-mail: mldeviana@arnet.com.ar

    2008-09-15

    The activity of the borate deposits industries constitutes a point source and diffuse pollution of air, soil and water. Therefore, the study and experimentation on possible ways to offset this impact is a priority. A relatively new technique to decontaminate soils is phytoremediation, which uses plants and associated microorganisms. The first step is to identify tolerant plant species, which is the focus of this work. An experiment was conducted in the laboratory to evaluate the germination, survival and growth of different species in different concentrations of boron. At the beginning and end of the experiment was determined concentration of boron in the substrate for each treatment and for substrates with and without vegetation. Significant differences due to treatment, the species and species-treatment interaction. M. sativa, N. glauca and J. mimosifolia were the species most tolerant to boron. The other species showed a decrease in all variables-response function of the concentration of the contaminant. All had low survival in the highest concentration. The decrease of boron was highest in the treatment of 30 ppm of boron with M. sativa and the lowest was recorded in the treatment of 20 ppm of boron with J. mimosifolia and 30 ppm of boron with T. stans and S. oleracea. It is concluded that N. glauca, M. sativa and J. mimosifolia could be considered as promising remediation. (author) [Spanish] La actividad de las industrias borateras constituye una fuente puntual y difusa de contaminacion del aire, suelo y aguas superficiales y profundas. Por lo tanto, el estudio y experimentacion acerca de las posibles formas de contrarrestar este impacto constituye una prioridad. Una tecnica relativamente nueva para descontaminar suelos es la fitorremediacion, que emplea plantas y microorganismos asociados. El primer paso es detectar las especies vegetales tolerantes, lo que constituye el objetivo de este trabajo. Se realizo un experimento en laboratorio para evaluar la

  1. Assessment of the anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates in Se-biofortified broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) sprouts and florets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Fabricio William; Faquin, Valdemar; Yang, Yong; Ramos, Silvio Junio; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto G; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Li, Li

    2013-07-03

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a rich source of chemopreventive compounds. Here, we evaluated and compared the effect of selenium (Se) treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compounds Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts and florets. Total Se and SeMSCys content in sprouts increased concomitantly with increasing Se doses. Selenate was superior to selenite in inducing total Se accumulation, but selenite is equally effective as selenate in promoting SeMSCys synthesis in sprouts. Increasing sulfur doses reduced total Se and SeMSCys content in sprouts treated with selenate, but not in those with selenite. Examination of five broccoli cultivars reveals that sprouts generally have better fractional ability than florets to convert inorganic Se into SeMSCys. Distinctive glucosinolate profiles between sprouts and florets were observed, and sprouts contained approximately 6-fold more glucoraphanin than florets. In contrast to florets, glucosinolate content was not affected by Se treatment in sprouts. Thus, Se-enriched broccoli sprouts are excellent for simultaneous accumulation of chemopreventive compounds SeMSCys and glucoraphanin.

  2. Characterization of industrial broccoli discards (Brassica oleracea var. italica) for their glucosinolate, polyphenol and flavonoid contents using UPLC MS/MS and spectrophotometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Minty; Badr, Ashraf; Desjardins, Yves; Gosselin, Andre; Angers, Paul

    2018-04-15

    The agrifood industry produces tons of waste and substandard products that are discarded at great expense. Valorization of industrial residues curbs issues related to food security and environmental problems. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is associated with varied beneficial health effects, but its production yields greater than 25% rejects. We aimed to characterize and quantify industrial broccoli by-products for their glucosinolate and polyphenol contents as a first step towards industrial bio-refining. Broccoli segments and rejected lots of 10 seed cultivars were analyzed using UPLC MS/MS. Variability in the contents of bioactive molecules was observed within and between the cultivars. Broccoli by-products were rich in glucosinolates (0.2-2% dry weight sample), predominantly glucoraphanin (32-64% of the total glucosinolates), whereas the polyphenolic content was less than 0.02% dry weight sample. Valorization of industrial residues facilitates the production of high value functional food ingredients along with socio-economic sustainability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clarified Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Juice as an Anticonvulsant Agent: In Vitro Mechanistic Study of GABAergic Targets

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    Gabriela P. F. Arrifano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seizures affect about 50 million people around the world. Approximately 30% of seizures are refractory to the current pharmacological arsenal, so, the pursuit of new therapeutic alternatives is essential. Clarified Euterpe oleracea (EO juice showed anticonvulsant properties similar to diazepam in an in vivo model with pentylenetetrazol, a GABAA receptor blocker. This study investigated the effects of EO on the main GABAergic targets for anticonvulsant drugs, analyzing the effect on the GABA receptor’s benzodiazepine and picrotoxinin binding sites and the GABA uptake. Primary cultures of cortical neurons and astrocytes were treated with EO (0–25% for up to 90 min. [3H]Flunitrazepam and [3H]TBOB binding, [3H]GABA uptake, cell viability, and morphology were assayed. Nonlethal concentrations of EO increased agonist binding and decreased antagonist binding in cortical neurons. Low concentrations significantly inhibited GABA uptake, especially in astrocytes, suggesting an accumulation of endogenous GABA in the synaptic cleft. The results demonstrate, for the first time, that EO can improve GABAergic neurotransmission via interactions with GABAA receptor and modulation of GABA uptake. Understanding these molecular mechanisms will help in the treatment of seizures and epilepsy, especially in developing countries where geographic isolation and low purchasing power are the main barriers to access to adequate treatment.

  4. Selenium treatment differentially affects sulfur metabolism in high and low glucosinolate producing cultivars of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Marian J; Chen, Ronan K Y; Leung, Susanna; Joshi, Srishti; Rippon, Paula E; Joyce, Nigel I; McManus, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    The effect of selenium (Se) application on the sulfur (S)-rich glucosinolate (GSL)-containing plant, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) was examined with a view to producing germplasm with increased Se and GSL content for human health, and to understanding the influence of Se on the regulation of GSL production. Two cultivars differing in GSL content were compared. Increased Se application resulted in an increase in Se uptake in planta, but no significant change in total S or total GSL content in either cultivar. Also no significant change was observed in the activity of ATP sulfurylase (ATPS, EC 2.7.7.4) or O-acetylserine(thiol) lyase (OASTL, EC 2.5.1.47) with increased Se application. However, in the first investigation of APS kinase (APSK, EC 2.7.1.25) expression in response to Se fertilisation, an increase in transcript abundance of one variant of APS kinase 1 (BoAPSK1A) was observed in both cultivars, and an increase in BoAPSK2 transcript abundance was observed in the low GSL producing cultivar. A mechanism by which increased APSK transcription may provide a means of controlling the content of S-containing compounds, including GSLs, following Se uptake is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Temperature and light conditions at different latitudes affect sensory quality of broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Tor J; Mølmann, Jørgen Ab; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Schreiner, Monica; Velasco, Pablo; Hykkerud, Anne L; Cartea, Elena; Lea, Per; Skaret, Josefine; Seljåsen, Randi

    2017-08-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a popular vegetable grown at a wide range of latitudes. Plants were grown in 2009-2011 in pots with standardized soil, irrigation and nutrient supply under natural temperature and light conditions at four locations (42-70° N). A descriptive sensory analysis of broccoli florets was performed by a trained panel to examine any differences along the latitudinal gradient for 30 attributes within appearance, odour, taste/flavour and texture. Average results over three summer seasons in Germany, southern Norway and northern Norway showed that the northernmost location with low temperatures and long days had highest scores for bud coarseness and uniform colour, while broccoli from the German location, with high temperatures and shorter days, had highest intensity of colour hue, whiteness, bitter taste, cabbage flavour, stale flavour and watery flavour. Results from two autumn seasons at the fourth location (42° N, Spain), with low temperatures and short days, tended toward results from the two northernmost locations, with an exception for most texture attributes. Results clearly demonstrate that temperature and light conditions related to latitude and season affect the sensory quality of broccoli florets. Results may be used in marketing special quality regional or seasonal products. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Determination of Mineral Constituents, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Qualities of Cleome gynandra, Compared to Brassica oleracea and Beta vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mack Moyo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study compared mineral, chemical and antioxidant qualities of Cleome gynandra, a wild leafy vegetable, with two widely consumed commercial vegetables, Brassica oleracea and Beta vulgaris. Mineral nutrients were quantified with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, phenolic compounds using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS and β-carotene and vitamin C using high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using 2,2–diphenyl−1–picryl hydrazyl (DPPH and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays. Cleome gynandra had highest concentrations of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, zinc, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and flavonoids; whereas sodium, magnesium, manganese, copper and β-carotene were higher for B. vulgaris. The significantly higher antioxidant activity (P ≤ 0.05 exhibited by C. gynandra in comparison to the two commercial vegetables may be due to its significantly high levels of vitamin C and phenolic acids. These findings on the mineral, chemical and antioxidant properties of C. gynandra provide compelling scientific evidence of its potential in adding diversity to the diet and contributing toward the daily nutritional requirements of millions of people for food and nutritional security.

  7. Selenium-Induced Toxicity Is Counteracted by Sulfur in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ming; Hui, Maixia; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Pan, Siyi; Li, Li

    2017-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for humans. Increasing Se content in food crops offers an effective approach to enhance the consumption of Se in human diets. A thoroughly understanding of the effects of Se on plant growth is important for Se biofortification in food crops. Given that Se is an analog of sulfur (S) and can be toxic to plants, its effect on plant growth is expected to be greatly affected by S nutrition. However, this remains to be further understood. Here, we evaluated the influence of Se treatments on broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. var. italica ) growth when S was withheld from the growth nutrient solution. We found that Se was highly toxic to plants when S nutrition was poor. In contrast to Se treatments with adequate S nutrition that slightly reduced broccoli growth, the same concentration of Se treatments without S supplementation dramatically reduced plant sizes. Higher Se toxicity was observed with selenate than selenite under low S nutrition. We examined the bases underlying the toxicity. We discovered that the high Se toxicity in low S nutrition was specifically associated with an increased ratio of Se in proteins verse total Se level, enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species, elevated lipid peroxidation causing increased cell membrane damage, and reduced antioxidant enzyme activities. Se toxicity could be counteracted with increased supplementation of S, which is likely through decreasing non-specific integration of Se into proteins and altering the redox system. The present study provides information for better understanding of Se toxicity and shows that adequate S nutrition is important to prevent Se toxicity during biofortification of crops by Se fertilization.

  8. Selenium-Induced Toxicity Is Counteracted by Sulfur in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica

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    Ming Tian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient for humans. Increasing Se content in food crops offers an effective approach to enhance the consumption of Se in human diets. A thoroughly understanding of the effects of Se on plant growth is important for Se biofortification in food crops. Given that Se is an analog of sulfur (S and can be toxic to plants, its effect on plant growth is expected to be greatly affected by S nutrition. However, this remains to be further understood. Here, we evaluated the influence of Se treatments on broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica growth when S was withheld from the growth nutrient solution. We found that Se was highly toxic to plants when S nutrition was poor. In contrast to Se treatments with adequate S nutrition that slightly reduced broccoli growth, the same concentration of Se treatments without S supplementation dramatically reduced plant sizes. Higher Se toxicity was observed with selenate than selenite under low S nutrition. We examined the bases underlying the toxicity. We discovered that the high Se toxicity in low S nutrition was specifically associated with an increased ratio of Se in proteins verse total Se level, enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species, elevated lipid peroxidation causing increased cell membrane damage, and reduced antioxidant enzyme activities. Se toxicity could be counteracted with increased supplementation of S, which is likely through decreasing non-specific integration of Se into proteins and altering the redox system. The present study provides information for better understanding of Se toxicity and shows that adequate S nutrition is important to prevent Se toxicity during biofortification of crops by Se fertilization.

  9. Growth and Tissue Elemental Composition Response of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea to Hydroponic and Aquaponic Water Quality Conditions

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    Daniel A. Vandam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinach (Spinacia oleracea cv. Carmel was grown in a conventional glass greenhouse under three different nutrient solution treatments. Lighting and temperature conditions were identical. Six growing systems were used to provide a duplicate trough system for each of these three treatments. Six trials were harvested from each system over a two month time period. Two treatments received hydroponic nutrient inputs, with one treatment at pH 7.0 (referred to as H7 and the other at pH 5.8 (H5, and the third treatment was aquaponic (A7, receiving all of its nutrients from a single fish tank with koi (Cyprinus carpio except for chelated iron. System pH was regulated by adding K2CO3 to aquaponic systems and KOH to hydroponic systems. Comparisons made between treatments were total yield, leaf surface area, tissue elemental content, and dry weight to fresh weight ratio. Dry weight biomass yield values were not different in pairwise comparisons between treatments (A7 vs. H5: p = 0.59 fresh weight, p = 0.42 dry weight. Similarly, surface area results were not different between treatments. The important comparison was that A7 achieved the same growth as H5, the conventional pH with a complete inorganic nutrient solution, despite unbalanced and less than “ideal” nutrient concentrations in the A7 condition.

  10. Gold nanoparticles synthesized by Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) acting as antimicrobial agents against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piruthiviraj, Prakash; Margret, Anita; Krishnamurthy, Poornima Priyadharsani

    2016-04-01

    Production of antimicrobial agents through the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using green technology has been extensively made consistent by various researchers; yet, this study uses the flower bud's aqueous extracts of Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) as a reducing agent for chloroauric acid (1 mM). After 30 min of incubation, synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) was observed by a change in extract color from pale yellow to purple color. Synthesis of AuNps was confirmed in UV-visible spectroscopy at the range of approximately 560 nm. The SEM analysis showed the average nanoparticles size of 12-22 nm. The antimicrobial activity of AuNps was analyzed by subjecting it to human pathogenic bacteria (Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumonia) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) using disc diffusion method. The broccoli-synthesized AuNps showed the efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of above-mentioned microbes. It was confirmed that AuNps have the best antimicrobial agent compared to the standard antibiotics (Gentamicin and Fluconazole). When the concentrations of AuNps were increased (10, 25, and 50 µg/ml), the sensitivity zone also increased for all the tested microbes. The synthesized AuNps are capable of rendering high antimicrobial efficacy and, hence, have a great potential in the preparation of drugs used against major bacterial and fungal diseases in humans.

  11. ANÁLISE ESTRUTURAL DE AÇAIZAIS NATIVOS (Euterpe oleracea Mart. EM FLORESTA DE VÁRZEA, AMAPÁ, BRASIL

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    Marcelo de Jesus Veiga Carim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho analisar a estrutura das populações de açaizais da várzea estuarina do município de Mazagão-AP. Utilizou-se cinco parcelas amostrais de 1ha, subdivididas em 50 subparcelas de 200m2. Todos os indivíduos com CAP 10cm, a partir de 3 metros de altura foram mensurados e estratificados em classes de tamanho. Os dados foram digitalizados no software Excel. Foi analisado as medidas de tendência central e de dispersão por meio do programa BIOSTAT. Registrou-se 545 touceiras de açaizeiros (Euterpe oleracea Mart. com 1.934 plantas e 3.474 perfilhos. Os valores de circunferência apresentaram maior número de indivíduos entre 15,1cm a 30cm, assumindo aproximadamente 58% do total amostrado. Observou-se que, entre 10m e 25m de altura concentraram-se o maior número de indivíduos. A média de touceiras foi de 109 com 386,8 plantas e 694,8 perfilhos para as cinco áreas trabalhadas. Palavras-chave: estuário amazônico, ribeirinhos, açaí. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n4p45-51

  12. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) Reduces Oxidative Damage to Pancreatic Tissue and Combats Hyperglycaemia in Diabetic Rats.

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    Suresh, Sithara; Waly, Mostafa Ibrahim; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur; Guizani, Nejib; Al-Kindi, Mohamed Abdullah Badar; Al-Issaei, Halima Khalfan Ahmed; Al-Maskari, Sultan Nasser Mohd; Al-Ruqaishi, Bader Rashid Said; Al-Salami, Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of diabetes and hyperglycaemia. The protective effects of natural extracts against diabetes are mainly dependent on their antioxidant and hypoglycaemic properties. Broccoli ( Brassica oleracea ) exerts beneficial health effects in several diseases including diabetes; however, the mechanism has not been elucidated yet. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential hypoglycaemic and antioxidant properties of aqueous broccoli extracts (BEs) in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (STZ) drug was used as a diabetogenic agent in a single intraperitoneal injection dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. The blood glucose level for each rat was measured twice a week. After 8 weeks, all animals were fasted overnight and sacrificed; pancreatic tissues were homogenized and used for measuring oxidative DNA damage, biochemical assessment of glutathione (GSH), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as well as histopathological examination for pancreatic tissues was examined. Diabetic rats showed significantly higher levels of DNA damage, GSH depletion, and impaired TAC levels in comparison to non-diabetics ( P <0.05). The treatment of diabetic rats with BE significantly reduced DNA damage and conserved GSH and TAC values ( P <0.01). BE attenuated pancreatic histopathological changes in diabetic rats. The results of this study indicated that BE reduced the STZ mediated hyperglycaemia and the STZ-induced oxidative injury to pancreas tissue. The used in vivo model confirmed the efficacy of BE as an anti-diabetic herbal medicine and provided insights into the capacity of BE to be used for phytoremediation purposes for human type 2 diabetes.

  13. Apoptotic role of natural isothiocyanate from broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica) in experimental chemical lung carcinogenesis.

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    Kalpana Deepa Priya, D; Gayathri, R; Gunassekaran, G R; Murugan, S; Sakthisekaran, D

    2013-05-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane] is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli [Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck. (Brassicaceae)]. Since it is among the most potent bioactive components with antioxidant and antitumor properties, it has received intense attention in the recent years for its chemopreventive properties. The present work determined the rehabilitating role in alleviating the oxidative damage caused by benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] to biomolecules and the apoptotic cascade mediated by orally administered isothiocyanate-SFN (9 µmol/mouse/day) against B(a)P (100 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) induced pulmonary carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Oxidative damage was assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, glycoprotein components, protein carbonyl levels and DNA-protein crosslinks. DNA fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis and caspase-3 activity by ELISA proved apoptotic induction by SFN along with the protein expression of Bcl-2, Bax and Cyt c. SFN treatment was found to decrease the H2O2 production (p < 0.001) in cancer induced animals, proving its antioxidant potential. Apoptosis was induced by increasing the release of Cyt c (p < 0.001) from mitochondria, decreasing and increasing the expression of Bcl-2 (p < 0.01) and Bax (p < 0.001), respectively. Caspase-3 activity was also enhanced (p < 0.001) which leads to DNA fragmentation in SFN treated groups. Our results reflect the rehabilitating role of SFN in B(a)P induced lung carcinogenesis.

  14. Preliminary Study of the Characteristics of Several Glossy Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. Mutants

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    Tang Jun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine the characteristics and potential practical applications of glossy cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. mutants, five different glossy mutants were studied. The amount of epicuticular wax covering the mutant leaves was only approximately 30% that of the wild-type (WT leaves. The wax crystals of WT plants were columnar and linear, while they were granular and rod-shaped in the mutants. Additionally, in WT cabbage, the primary wax components were alkanes, alcohols, fatty acids, ketones, and aldehydes. There was a significant decrease in the abundance of alkanes and ketones in the wax of the mutants. The glossy-green trait of the mutants may be the result of an inhibited alkane-forming pathway. Higher rates of chlorophyll leaching and water loss demonstrate that the mutant leaves were more permeable and sensitive to drought stress than the WT leaves. Growth curve results indicated that the growth rate of mutant-1 and mutant-3 was slower than that of the corresponding WT cabbage, resulting in shorter plants. However, the growth rate of mutant-2 was not influenced by the lack of coating wax. An investigation of the agronomic traits and heterosis of the glossy cabbage mutants indicated that all five mutants had glossy-green leaves, which was a favorable characteristic. The F1 plants derived from crosses involving mutant-2 exhibited obvious heterosis, suggesting the observed glossy-green trait is controlled by a dominant gene. Therefore, mutant-2 may be useful as a source of genetic material for future cabbage breeding experiments.

  15. Fine Mapping and Transcriptome Analysis Reveal Candidate Genes Associated with Hybrid Lethality in Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea).

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    Xiao, Zhiliang; Hu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xue, Yuqian; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Liu, Xing; Liu, Zezhou; Lv, Honghao; Zhuang, Mu

    2017-06-05

    Hybrid lethality is a deleterious phenotype that is vital to species evolution. We previously reported hybrid lethality in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ) and performed preliminary mapping of related genes. In the present study, the fine mapping of hybrid lethal genes revealed that BoHL1 was located on chromosome C1 between BoHLTO124 and BoHLTO130, with an interval of 101 kb. BoHL2 was confirmed to be between insertion-deletion (InDels) markers HL234 and HL235 on C4, with a marker interval of 70 kb. Twenty-eight and nine annotated genes were found within the two intervals of BoHL1 and BoHL2 , respectively. We also applied RNA-Seq to analyze hybrid lethality in cabbage. In the region of BoHL1 , seven differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and five resistance (R)-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo1g153320 and Bo1g153380 ) were found, whereas in the region of BoHL2 , two DEGs and four R-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo4g173780 and Bo4g173810 ) were found. Along with studies in which R genes were frequently involved in hybrid lethality in other plants, these interesting R-DEGs may be good candidates associated with hybrid lethality. We also used SNP/InDel analyses and quantitative real-time PCR to confirm the results. This work provides new insight into the mechanisms of hybrid lethality in cabbage.

  16. SPECIFICITY OF ACCUMULATION OF VARIOUS RADIONUCLIDES (137Cs и 90Sr IN SPINACH (Spinacia oleracea L.

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    A. V. Soldatenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the specificity of accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr by plants and limits of accumulation by plant fruits plays a key role at breeding of vegetable crops, which make demand for ecological safety of the product. The article is concerned with the study of varietal sources of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. aimed at development of ecological safety product on the territory polluted by radionuclides.The specificity of accumulation of radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr was studied in 54 varieties of spinach at industrial contaminated and polluted lands. Experimental tests were conducted in the Moscow and Bryansk regions in 2012 and 2014. The absolute value of radionuclide 90Sr was higher than absolute value of radionuclide 137Cs in all studied zones. It was found that the hazard rate of 90Sr is higher because the level of pollution of product reaches up to 76% from maximum permissible concentration (MPC, while the level of product pollution by 137Cs is 26,4% from MPC. The spinach genotype differentiation for 90Sr in the most environments is lower than differentiation for 137Cs. The histograms of distribution 90Sr and 137Cs showed that samples amount in the groups of accumulation for both radionuclides are equal. Statistically significant data for radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in spinach were not obtained. The evaluation of spinach for low content of radionuclides should be conducted separately for each radionuclide on various backgrounds.

  17. Compositional and proteomic analyses of genetically modified broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) harboring an agrobacterial gene.

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    Liu, Mao-Sen; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Li, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Shwu-Jene; Lai, Ying-Mi; Chang, You-Ming; Wu, Min-Tze; Chen, Long-Fang O

    2014-08-28

    Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also preliminarily assessed safety in mice. Most aspects were comparable between ipt-transgenic broccoli and controls, except for a significant increase in carbohydrate level and a decrease in magnesium content in ipt-transgenic lines 101, 102 and 103, as compared with non-transgenic controls. In addition, the anti-nutrient glucosinolate content was increased and crude fat content decreased in inbred control 104 and transgenic lines as compared with the parental control, "Green King". Gel-based proteomics detected more than 50 protein spots specifically found in ipt-transgenic broccoli at harvest and after cooking; one-third of these proteins showed homology to potential allergens that also play an important role in plant defense against stresses and senescence. Mice fed levels of ipt-transgenic broccoli mimicking the 120 g/day of broccoli eaten by a 60-kg human adult showed normal growth and immune function. In conclusion, the compositional and proteomic changes attributed to the transgenic ipt gene did not affect the growth and immune response of mice under the feeding regimes examined.

  18. RESIDU PESTISIDA PADA SAYURAN KUBIS (Brassica oleracea L. DAN KACANG PANJANG ( Vigna sinensis L. YANG DIPASARKAN DI PASAR BADUNG DENPASAR

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    K Agung Sudewa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides residue of organophosphate and carbamate i.e. diazinon, chlorpyriphos, fentoate, carbaril and BPMC were tested on cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. and long bean (Vigna sinensis L.. The purpose of this study was to know the level of pesticides residue remaining on cabbage and long bean marketed in Badung Market, Denpasar.The samples were determined proportionally based on purposive sampling method. The proportion of sample was 10% of the total cabbage and snake bean sold in Badung market.Result of present study showed that residue of insecticides such as diazinon, chlorpyriphos, fentoate, carbaril, and BPMC remaining on the head of cabbage and snake bean marketed in Badung market was affected by the frequencies of their use in the field, in which chlorpyriphos was used by 60-65% of the farmers and carbaril by 40% of the farmers. Their residues on cabbage anf snake bean were 0.525 ppm and 1.296 ppm for chlorpyriphos (organophosphate; 0.303 ppm and 0.471 ppm for carbaril (carbamate. These result suggested that residue of chlorpyriphos on cabbage and snake bean were higher than MRL (Maximum Residue Limit for vegetable crops, i.e. 0.5 ppm.

  19. Improved glycemic control, pancreas protective and hepatoprotective effect by traditional poly-herbal formulation “Qurs Tabasheer” in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and hepatoprotective effect of a traditional unani formulation “Qurs Tabasheer” in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic wistar rats. Up till now no study was undertaken to appraise the efficacy of “Qurs Tabasheer” in the diabetic rats. Qurs Tabasheer is a unani formulation restraining preparations from five various herbs namely Tukhme Khurfa (Portulaca oleracea seed), Gule Surkh (Rosa damascena flower), Gulnar (Punica granatum flower), Tabasheer (Bambusa arundinasia dried exudate on node), Tukhme Kahu (Lactuca sativa Linn seed). Methods Effect of Qurs Tabasheer was assessed in STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p single shot) induced diabetic wistar rats. STZ produced a marked increase in the serum glucose, Total Cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL Cholesterol, Triglycerides and trim down the HDL level. We have weighed up the effect of Qurs Tabasheer on hepatic activity through estimating levels of various liver enzymes viz. Hexokinase, Glucose-6-Phosphatase and Fructose-1-6-biphosphatase in STZ diabetic wistar rats. Results In STZ-induced diabetic wistar rats level of Hexokinase, and Glucose-6-Phosphatase was decreased to a significant level while the level of fructose-1-6-biphophatase was augmented. Therapy with Qurs Tabasheer for 28 days to STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly reduces the level of serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1-6-biphosphatase, while magnitude of HDL cholesterol and hexokinase was amplified. Conclusion Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic activity of Qurs Tabasheer extract in STZ- induced wistar rats was found to be more effective than standard oral hypoglycemic drug Glimepiride. PMID:23305114

  20. Carcass and cut yields of broiler chickens fed diet containing purslane meal rich in omega-3 fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, LR; Hertanto, B. S.; Nuhriawangsa, A. MP

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of diets containing Portulaca oleraceae (purslane) as a source of omega-3 fats on carcass and cut yields of broiler chickens. One-day old unsexed Lohmann broiler chickens (n = 180) were used and randomly allocated into 30 pens (each pen contained 6 birds). The pens were randomly assigned to five experimental diets with 6 replicates (36 birds per treatment). The diets were formulated by supplementing a basal diet with purslane meal at a level of 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0%. For a period of 42 days, water and diets were provided ad libitum. Feed intake and body weight gain were collected weekly to determine feed conversion ratio. The collected data were analysed using analysis of variance. If there were significant differences between treatment means, the analysis was continued by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Findings showed that diets enriched with omega-3 fats, alpha-linolenic acid did not change body weight and carcass percentage of broilers. In terms of cuts yield, there was no significant different on the percentage of breast, back and wings by feeding diets supplemented with purslane meal. However, the inclusion levels of dietary purslane meal significantly affected the percentage of thighs (P<0.05) with the highest weight achieved for diets supplemented with 3% purslane meal. Drumsticks tended to increase (P = 0.056) by feeding the experimental diets. It was concluded that the inclusion level of 6% purslane meal didn’t have negative effect on carcass and cut yields of broiler chickens.

  1. Biomolecular Characterization of Putative Antidiabetic Herbal Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Verena; Haselgrübler, Renate; Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Plochberger, Birgit; Borgmann, Daniela; Jacak, Jaroslaw; Winkler, Stephan M.; Schröder, Klaus; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Induction of GLUT4 translocation in the absence of insulin is considered a key concept to decrease elevated blood glucose levels in diabetics. Due to the lack of pharmaceuticals that specifically increase the uptake of glucose from the blood circuit, application of natural compounds might be an alternative strategy. However, the effects and mechanisms of action remain unknown for many of those substances. For this study we investigated extracts prepared from seven different plants, which have been reported to exhibit anti-diabetic effects, for their GLUT4 translocation inducing properties. Quantitation of GLUT4 translocation was determined by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy in insulin sensitive CHO-K1 cells and adipocytes. Two extracts prepared from purslane (Portulaca oleracea) and tindora (Coccinia grandis) were found to induce GLUT4 translocation, accompanied by an increase of intracellular glucose concentrations. Our results indicate that the PI3K pathway is mainly responsible for the respective translocation process. Atomic force microscopy was used to prove complete plasma membrane insertion. Furthermore, this approach suggested a compound mediated distribution of GLUT4 molecules in the plasma membrane similar to insulin stimulated conditions. Utilizing a fluorescent actin marker, TIRF measurements indicated an impact of purslane and tindora on actin remodeling as observed in insulin treated cells. Finally, in-ovo experiments suggested a significant reduction of blood glucose levels under tindora and purslane treated conditions in a living organism. In conclusion, this study confirms the anti-diabetic properties of tindora and purslane, which stimulate GLUT4 translocation in an insulin-like manner. PMID:26820984

  2. Effect of the foliar enrichment and herbicides on maize and associated weeds irrigated with drainage water

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    Roshdy M.H. Tagour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-year field experiment was conducted during summer seasons of 2013 and 2014, which were irrigated by drainage water which belong to salinity class (C3S1 to C4S2, to study the effect of the foliar enrichment namely (Anti-stress and weed management treatments (some pre and post-emergence herbicides and two-hand hoeing on maize growth, yield, yield components and chemical composition of maize grains and associated weeds (Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus retroflexus and Echinochloa colonum. The results illustrated that application of the foliar enrichment enhanced the dry weight of weeds and increased maize growth characters, yield and yield components and total crude protein and total oil percentage of grain maize, as compared with untreated treatment. All weed management treatments caused a significant reduction in total dry weight of weeds at 60 and 80 days after sowing in both seasons. Two-hand hoeing treatment exerted the highest decrease in total dry weight of weeds followed by metribuzin, oxadiagyl, fluroxypyr and bentazon, respectively at 60 and 80 days after sowing compared with other weed management treatments. While, the highest values of maize growth, yield, yield components and maize grains' content of protein and oil was obtained with two-hand hoeing followed by metribuzin, oxadiagyl, fluroxypyr and bentazon, respectively. While, two hands hoeing produced the maximum values of leaf area, ear length, the weight of kernels plant−1, but applying of metribuzin treatment gave the highest values of total oil percentage of grain maize when the foliar enrichment was used.

  3. Determination of Tropical Forage Preferences Using Two Offering Methods in Rabbits

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    A. M. Safwat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two methods of feed preference trials were compared to evaluate the acceptability of 5 fresh foliages: Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Portulaca oleracea, Guazuma ulmifolia, and Brosimum alicastrum that was included as control. The evaluation included chemical analyses and forage intake by rabbits. The first method was a cafeteria trial; 12 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated in individual cages, were offered the five forage plants at the same time inside the cage, while in the second trial 60 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated individually, were randomly distributed into 5 experimental groups (n = 12/group; for each group just one forage species was offered at a time. The testing period for each method lasted for 7 d, preceded by one week of adaptation. The results showed that B. alicastrum and L. lecocephala were the most preferred forages while on the contrary G. ulmifolia was the least preferred one by rabbits. The results also revealed that the CV% value for the 2nd method (16.32%, which the tested forages were presented separately to rabbits, was lower and methodologically more acceptable than such value for the 1st method (34.28%, which all forages were presented together at the same time. It can be concluded that a range of tropical forages were consumed in acceptable quantities by rabbits, suggesting that diets based on such forages with a concentrate supplement could be used successfully for rabbit production. However, growth performance studies are still needed before recommendations could be made on appropriate ration formulations for commercial use.

  4. Estimation of base temperatures for nine weed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmaus, S J; Prather, T S; Holt, J S

    2000-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to test several methods for estimating low temperature thresholds for seed germination. Temperature responses of nine weeds common in annual agroecosystems were assessed in temperature gradient experiments. Species included summer annuals (Amaranthus albus, A. palmeri, Digitaria sanguinalis, Echinochloa crus-galli, Portulaca oleracea, and Setaria glauca), winter annuals (Hirschfeldia incana and Sonchus oleraceus), and Conyza canadensis, which is classified as a summer or winter annual. The temperature below which development ceases (Tbase) was estimated as the x-intercept of four conventional germination rate indices regressed on temperature, by repeated probit analysis, and by a mathematical approach. An overall Tbase estimate for each species was the average across indices weighted by the reciprocal of the variance associated with the estimate. Germination rates increased linearly with temperature between 15 degrees C and 30 degrees C for all species. Consistent estimates of Tbase were obtained for most species using several indices. The most statistically robust and biologically relevant method was the reciprocal time to median germination, which can also be used to estimate other biologically meaningful parameters. The mean Tbase for summer annuals (13.8 degrees C) was higher than that for winter annuals (8.3 degrees C). The two germination response characteristics, Tbase and slope (rate), influence a species' germination behaviour in the field since the germination inhibiting effects of a high Tbase may be offset by the germination promoting effects of a rapid germination response to temperature. Estimates of Tbase may be incorporated into predictive thermal time models to assist weed control practitioners in making management decisions.

  5. Chemical Control of Curled Dock (Rumex crispus L. and Other Weeds in Noncropped Areas

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    Tsvetanka Dimitrova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumex crispus L. is an invasive species widespread in our country and in particular in the region of North Bulgaria. It is characterized by high biological and ecological plasticity. Owing to its great reproductive potential, the weed has been assigned to the list of economically most important weeds in the country. With the purpose of studying the possibility of chemical weed control in noncropped areas with heavy natural background infestation with R. crispus L. and other dicotyledonous weeds, two field trials were carried out. A ready-to-use herbicide mixture 2,4-D 140.2 g/l-1 + Triclopyr 144 g/l-1, trade product Genoxon 3X (X0050, was tested at two doses of active ingredient, 3552 and 2842 ml/ha-1. It was found that: (1 population density of Rumex crispus L. can be successfully reduced by treatment at the stage of early stem formation; herbicideefficacy with 3552 and 2882 ml/ha-1 doses on the 21st day after treatment was 100% and 90.5%, respectively, at the end of vegetation 94.4 and 85.7%, respectively; (2 herbicidal efficacy was lower when R. crispus L. was treated at the 5 - 6 leaf stage, being 100 – 94.1%and 80 – 76.5% respectively for the indicated doses and time of recording; (3 at the studied doses the herbicide controlled both annual dicotyledonous weeds (Amaranthus spp., Chenopodium album L., Portulaca oleracea L. and perennial dicotyledonous ones (Cirsiumarvense L., Sonchus arvensis L., Convolvulus arvensis L., Carduus acanthoides L., but it was not toxic to monocotyledonous weeds.

  6. Effect of biologically synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles on metabolism and antioxidant activity to the crop plants Solanum lycopersicum and Brassica oleracea var. botrytis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajey; Singh, N B; Hussain, Imtiyaz; Singh, Himani

    2017-11-20

    Study on the ecological effect of metal oxide nanomaterials (NMs) has quickly amplified over the precedent years because it is assumed that these NMs will sooner or later be released into the environment. The present study deals with biologically oriented process for the green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) by using Morus alba leaf extract as reducing agent. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis revealed the monoclinic phase and 20-40nm size respectively. The presence of reducing and capping agents revealed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and Solanum lycopersicum were exposed to 10, 50, 100, and 500mgL -1 concentrations of CuO NPs in the sand medium. Bioaccumulation of Cu was also investigated by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Plant exposure to 100 and 500mgL -1 of CuO NPs has resulted in significant reduction of total chlorophyll and sugar content in the two test plants while 10mgL -1 of NPs slightly increased the pigment and sugar content in tomato plants only. Augmentation of lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, and antioxidant enzyme activity was observed in a dose dependent manner upon plants exposure to CuO NPs. Deposition of lignin in roots of both plants treated with the highest concentration of CuO NPs was observed. Histochemical analysis of leaves of treated plant with nitroblue tetrazolium and 3 ' 3 ' diaminobenzidine showed a concentration dependent increase in superoxide and hydrogen peroxide formation in leaves. The green synthesis of CuO NPs was carried out by using Morus alba leaf extract. Accumulation of NPs more actively by tomato plants as compared to cauliflower was possibly due to the difference in root morphology. The histochemical visualization highlights the spatial organization of oxidant biochemistry occurring in response to metal stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antimycobacterial and Photosynthetic Electron Transport Inhibiting Activity of Ring-Substituted 4-Arylamino-7-Chloroquinolinium Chlorides

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    Alois Cizek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a series of twenty-five ring-substituted 4-arylamino-7-chloroquinolinium chlorides were prepared and characterized. The compounds were tested for their activity related to inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts and also primary in vitro screening of the synthesized compounds was performed against mycobacterial species. 4-[(2-Bromophenylamino]-7-chloroquinolinium chloride showed high biological activity against M. marinum, M. kansasii, M. smegmatis and 7-chloro-4-[(2-methylphenylamino]quinolinium chloride demonstrated noteworthy biological activity against M. smegmatis and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The most effective compounds demonstrated quite low toxicity (LD50 > 20 μmol/L against the human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line within preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity screening. The tested compounds were found to inhibit PET in photosystem II. The PET-inhibiting activity expressed by IC50 value of the most active compound 7-chloro-4-[(3-trifluoromethylphenylamino]quinolinium chloride was 27 μmol/L and PET-inhibiting activity of ortho-substituted compounds was significantly lower than this of meta- and para-substituted ones. The structure-activity relationships are discussed for all compounds.

  8. The Use of Some Morphological Traits for the Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Spinach (Spinacia Oleracea L. Landraces

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    Ebadi-Segheloo Asghar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of native accessions of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. would be aid in the development of new genetically improved varieties, so in this research 121 spinach landraces, collected from the various spinach growing areas of Iran, were evaluated to determine their diversity using several agro-morphological traits. High coefficients of variation (CV were recorded in fresh yield, leaf area and dry yield. Using principal component (PC analysis, the first three PCs with eigenvalues more than 0.9 contributed 80.56% of the variability among accessions. The first PC was related to leaf yield performance (fresh and dry yields, leaf numbers at flowering and lateral branches while the PC2 was related to leaf characteristic (leaf width, petiole length, petiole diameter and leaf area. The third PC was related to seed characteristic (seed yield and 1000-seed weight and was named as seed property component. The 121 spinach landraces were grouped into six clusters using cluster analysis. Each cluster had some specific characteristics of its own and the clusters I and II were clearly separated from clusters III and V and also from clusters IV and VI. The studied accessions are an important resource for the generation of a core collection of spinach in the world. The results of present research will support tasks of conservation and utilization of landraces in spinach breeding programs.

  9. Amelioration of Abnormalities Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome by Spinacia oleracea (Spinach) Consumption and Aerobic Exercise in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Vandana; Mistry, Kinjal; Sudhamani, S; Nandave, Mukesh; Ojha, Shreesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluates the protective effects of an antioxidant-rich extract of Spinacea oleracea (NAOE) in abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in rats. HPTLC of NAOE revealed the presence of 13 total antioxidants, 14 flavonoids, and 10 phenolic acids. Rats administered with fructose (20%  w / v ) in drinking water for 45 days to induce abnormalities of MetS received NAOE (200 and 400 mg/kg, po), the standard drug gemfibrozil (60 mg/kg, po), aerobic exercise (AE), and a combination of NAOE 400 mg/kg and AE (NAOEAE) daily for 45 days. All treatments significantly altered the lipid profile and attenuated the fructose-elevated levels of uric acid, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and marker enzymes (AST, LDH, and CK-MB) in serum and malondialdehyde in the heart and restored the fructose-depleted levels of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). A significant decrease in blood glucose and insulin levels decreased insulin resistance, and improved glucose tolerance was observed in the treatment animals when compared with the fructose-fed animals. The best mitigation of MetS was shown by the NAOEAE treatment indicating that regular exercise along with adequate consumption of antioxidant-rich foods such as spinach in diet can help control MetS.

  10. Amelioration of Abnormalities Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome by Spinacia oleracea (Spinach Consumption and Aerobic Exercise in Rats

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    Vandana Panda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the protective effects of an antioxidant-rich extract of Spinacea oleracea (NAOE in abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS in rats. HPTLC of NAOE revealed the presence of 13 total antioxidants, 14 flavonoids, and 10 phenolic acids. Rats administered with fructose (20% w/v in drinking water for 45 days to induce abnormalities of MetS received NAOE (200 and 400 mg/kg, po, the standard drug gemfibrozil (60 mg/kg, po, aerobic exercise (AE, and a combination of NAOE 400 mg/kg and AE (NAOEAE daily for 45 days. All treatments significantly altered the lipid profile and attenuated the fructose-elevated levels of uric acid, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and marker enzymes (AST, LDH, and CK-MB in serum and malondialdehyde in the heart and restored the fructose-depleted levels of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. A significant decrease in blood glucose and insulin levels decreased insulin resistance, and improved glucose tolerance was observed in the treatment animals when compared with the fructose-fed animals. The best mitigation of MetS was shown by the NAOEAE treatment indicating that regular exercise along with adequate consumption of antioxidant-rich foods such as spinach in diet can help control MetS.

  11. Spent Mushroom Waste as a Media Replacement for Peat Moss in Kai-Lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra Production

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    H. Sendi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peat moss (PM is the most widely used growing substrate for the pot culture. Due to diminishing availability and increasing price of PM, researchers are looking for viable alternatives for peat as a growth media component for potted plants. A pot study was conducted with a view to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom waste (SMW for Kai-lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra production replacing peat moss (PM in growth media. The treatments evaluated were 100% PM (control, 100% SMW, and mixtures of SMW and PM in different ratios like 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 (v/v with/without NPK amendment. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications per treatment. Chemical properties like pH and salinity level (EC of SMW were within the acceptable range of crop production but, nutrient content, especially nitrogen content was not enough to provide sufficient nutrition to plant for normal growth. Only PM (100% and SMW and PM mixture in 1 : 1 ratio with NPK amendment performed equally in terms of Kai-lan growth. This study confirms the feasibility of replacing PM by SMW up to a maximum of 50% in the growth media and suggests that NPK supplementation from inorganic sources is to ensure a higher productivity of Kai-lan.

  12. Impact of Selenium Supplementation on Growth and Selenium Accumulation on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Plants

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    Azadeh SAFFARYAZDI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se has been proved to be an essential element for humans and animals. However, less is known about its effects on plants. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of selenium on growth, selenium accumulation and some physiological characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Missouri plants. Plants were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution amended with sodium selenite at 0 (control, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 10 mg.L-1 for 28 days. Growth parameters like shoot and root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight, total dry weight, shoot and root length increased by 17, 15, 38, 19, 18 and 34 percent in response to the lowest concentration of Se (1 mg L-1, respectively over control. However, application of higher Se concentrations reduced these parameters as compared to control. Selenium up to 1 mg L-1 enhanced the levels of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b by 87 and 165 percent, respectively, while higher levels of Se exert toxic effects. Total phenolic compounds in leaves increased directly by increasing the level of Se and plants treated with 10 mg. L-1 Se had the highest values. Selenium, sodium and calcium content increased, while potassium content decreased, by increasing selenium treatments. The highest amounts of Se in shoots (3.89 mg g-1 DW and roots (4.27 mg g-1 DW were obtained for the highest concentration of Se (10 mg L-1. The present results suggested the beneficial effects of Se on spinach growth and also its contribute ion to improving the nutritional value of spinach for livestock and human nutrition.

  13. Impact of Selenium Supplementation on Growth and Selenium Accumulation on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh SAFFARYAZDI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se has been proved to be an essential element for humans and animals. However, less is known about its effects on plants. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of selenium on growth, selenium accumulation and some physiological characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. �Missouri� plants. Plants were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution amended with sodium selenite at 0 (control, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 10 mg.L-1 for 28 days. Growth parameters like shoot and root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight, total dry weight, shoot and root length increased by 17, 15, 38, 19, 18 and 34 percent in response to the lowest concentration of Se (1 mg L-1, respectively over control. However, application of higher Se concentrations reduced these parameters as compared to control. Selenium up to 1 mg L-1 enhanced the levels of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b by 87 and 165 percent, respectively, while higher levels of Se exert toxic effects. Total phenolic compounds in leaves increased directly by increasing the level of Se and plants treated with 10 mg. L-1 Se had the highest values. Selenium, sodium and calcium content increased, while potassium content decreased, by increasing selenium treatments. The highest amounts of Se in shoots (3.89 mg g-1 DW and roots (4.27 mg g-1 DW were obtained for the highest concentration of Se (10 mg L-1. The present results suggested the beneficial effects of Se on spinach growth and also its contribute ion to improving the nutritional value of spinach for livestock and human nutrition.

  14. Plants know where it hurts: root and shoot jasmonic acid induction elicit differential responses in Brassica oleracea.

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    Tom O G Tytgat

    Full Text Available Plants respond to herbivore attack by rapidly inducing defenses that are mainly regulated by jasmonic acid (JA. Due to the systemic nature of induced defenses, attack by root herbivores can also result in a shoot response and vice versa, causing interactions between above- and belowground herbivores. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions. We investigated whether plants respond differently when roots or shoots are induced. We mimicked herbivore attack by applying JA to the roots or shoots of Brassica oleracea and analyzed molecular and chemical responses in both organs. In shoots, an immediate and massive change in primary and secondary metabolism was observed. In roots, the JA-induced response was less extensive and qualitatively different from that in the shoots. Strikingly, in both roots and shoots we also observed differential responses in primary metabolism, development as well as defense specific traits depending on whether the JA induction had been below- or aboveground. We conclude that the JA response is not only tissue-specific but also dependent on the organ that was induced. Already very early in the JA signaling pathway the differential response was observed. This indicates that both organs have a different JA signaling cascade, and that the signal eliciting systemic responses contains information about the site of induction, thus providing plants with a mechanism to tailor their responses specifically to the organ that is damaged.

  15. Comparison of nitrate accumulation, nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency among different spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. genotypes

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    Zhou Jianjian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A hydroponic experiment was conducted to study the difference of nitrate accumulation,nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency between four spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. genotypes (So10,So13,So18 and So57. Results showed that So13 had the highest nitrate contents under two nitrate (NO3--N level (0.5 mmol·L-1,15 mmol·L-1 conditions,whereas So10 had the lowest nitrate contents. So18 had the similar nitrate contents with So13 under low NO3- level,while it showed no significant difference of nitrate contents with So57 under high NO3- treatment. The 15NO3--N uptake rates of So13 were the highest one among four genotypes,while the N utilization efficiency (NutE and N utilization ratio (NUR of So13 were significantly lower than those of So18 and So57. The shoot dry mass,nitrate reductase activity,NutE,NUR of So18 and So57 were higher than those of So13 and So10,while their 15NO3--N uptake rates were lower than those of So13. The shoot dry mass,nitrate reductase activity,NutE,N utilization ratio of So10 were significantly lower than those of So18 and So57,and its 15NO3--N uptake rate was significantly lower than those of So13. Among the four spinach genotypes,the So57 can be selected as elite germplasm using for spinach production for its relatively lower nitrate content and higher N efficiency.

  16. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea.

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    Jonathan P Green

    Full Text Available Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour.

  17. Nondestructive Optical Sensing of Flavonols and Chlorophyll in White Head Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba) Grown under Different Nitrogen Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agati, Giovanni; Tuccio, Lorenza; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Chmiel, Tomasz; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Kowalski, Artur; Grzegorzewska, Maria; Kosson, Ryszard; Kaniszewski, Stanislaw

    2016-01-13

    A multiparametric optical sensor was used to nondestructively estimate phytochemical compounds in white cabbage leaves directly in the field. An experimental site of 1980 white cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), under different nitrogen (N) treatments, was mapped by measuring leaf transmittance and chlorophyll fluorescence screening in one leaf/cabbage head. The provided indices of flavonols (FLAV) and chlorophyll (CHL) displayed the opposite response to applied N rates, decreasing and increasing, respectively. The combined nitrogen balance index (NBI = CHL/FLAV) calculated was able to discriminate all of the plots under four N regimens (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg/ha) and was correlated with the leaf N content determined destructively. CHL and FLAV were properly calibrated against chlorophyll (R(2) = 0.945) and flavonol (R(2) = 0.932) leaf contents, respectively, by using a homographic fit function. The proposed optical sensing of cabbage crops can be used to estimate the N status of plants and perform precision fertilization to maintain acceptable crop yield levels and, additionally, to rapidly detect health-promoting flavonol antioxidants in Brassica plants.

  18. Improvement of some ornamental plants by induced somatic mutations at National Botanical Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.N.

    1980-01-01

    Research work on improvement of some ornamental plants by induced somatic mutations has been in progress at the National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, since 1964. The methods of treatments with gamma rays, detection, isolation and multiplication of induced somatic mutations have been given for Bougainvillea, Chrysanthemum, perennial Portulaca, rose and tuberose. During the last 15 years, a total of 38 new cultivars of different ornamentals evolved by gamna induced somatic mutations have been released. They include Bougainvillea 1; Chrysanthemum 28; perennial portulaca 6; rose 1 and tuberose 2. Descriptions of the original cultivars and their gamma induced mutants are given along with other pertinent details. (author)

  19. Plant uptake of MBOCA (4,4'-methylene-bis (2-chloroaniline)). [Brassica oleracea L. ; Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Sorghum vulgare Pers. ; Dactylis glomerata L. ; Daucus carrota L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorman, R; Penner, D

    1986-09-01

    (/sup 14/C)-MBOCA was absorbed by cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves, but did not move beyond the absorption point. Radio autographs of bean, sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and carrot (Daucus carrota L.) plants exposed to (/sup 14/C)-MBOCA via hydroponic culture showed considerable radioactivity associated with the roots with only limited translocation of (/sup 14/C) into upper plant parts. Bean and cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) plants grown in (/sup 14/C)-MBOCA amended soil translocated virtually no (/sup 14/C) into aerial parts, but again considerable radioactivity was found on roots. Radioactivity could not be rinsed off roots with water or acetone, and a small amount of radioactivity was observed in the xylem-phloem layer of the carrot root.

  20. Molecular Cloning, Expression Pattern and Genotypic Effects on Glucoraphanin Biosynthetic Related Genes in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ling; Chen, Changming; Chen, Guoju; Cao, Bihao; Lei, Jianjun

    2015-11-11

    Glucoraphanin is a plant secondary metabolite that is involved in plant defense and imparts health-promoting properties to cruciferous vegetables. In this study, three genes involved in glucoraphanin metabolism, branched-chain aminotransferase 4 (BCAT4), methylthioalkylmalate synthase 1 (MAM1) and dihomomethionine N-hydroxylase (CYP79F1), were cloned from Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey). Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis identified these genes and confirmed the evolutionary status of Chinese kale. The transcript levels of BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 were higher in cotyledon, leaf and stem compared with flower and silique. BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 were expressed throughout leaf development with lower transcript levels during the younger stages. Glucoraphanin content varied extensively among different varieties, which ranged from 0.25 to 2.73 µmol·g(-1) DW (dry weight). Expression levels of BCAT4 and MAM1 were high at vegetative-reproductive transition phase, while CYP79F1 was expressed high at reproductive phase. BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 were expressed significantly high in genotypes with high glucoraphanin content. All the results provided a better understanding of the roles of BCAT4, MAM1 and CYP79F1 in the glucoraphanin biosynthesis of Chinese kale.

  1. Influence of Dye Adsorbtion Time on TiO2 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell with Krokot Extract (Portulaca Oleracea. L as A Natural Sensitizer

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    Didik Krisdiyanto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC photoelectrodes were fabricated using titanium oxide (TiO2 and sensitized with the krokot extract dye. This study investigated the effect of dye adsorption time to an efficiency of the solar cells. The fabrication cells immersed with krokot extract dye for 1, 8 and 26 hours. The photochemical performance of the DSSC showed that the open circuit voltage (Voc were 0.33, 0.036 and 0.27 V with short photocurrent density (Isc 8.00 x 10-5, 6.80 x 10-7 and 3.10 x 10-4. The photo-to-electric conversion efficiency of the DSSC reached 4.63 x 10-3 % for 26 hours adsorption time.

  2. 2-D zymographic analysis of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) florets proteases: follow up of cysteine protease isotypes in the course of post-harvest senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Riccio, Paolo

    2011-09-01

    Zymographic analysis of Broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) revealed the presence of acidic metallo-proteases, serine proteases and cysteine proteases. Under conditions which were denaturing for the other proteases, the study was restricted to cysteine proteases. 2-D zymography, a technique that combines IEF and zymography was used to show the presence of 11 different cysteine protease spots with molecular mass of 44 and 47-48kDa and pIs ranging between 4.1 and 4.7. pI differences could be ascribed to different degrees of phosphorylation that partly disappeared in the presence of alkaline phosphatase. Post-harvest senescence of Broccoli florets was characterized by decrease in protein and chlorophyll contents and increase of protease activity. In particular, as determined by 2-D zymography, the presence of cysteine protease clearly increased during senescence, a finding that may represent a useful tool for the control of the aging process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in SeMSC, glucosinolates and sulforaphane levels, and in proteome profile in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica) fertilized with sodium selenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Ignacio; Barrientos, Herna; Mahn, Andrea; Moenne, Alejandra

    2013-05-07

    The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of sodium selenate fortification on the content of selenomethyl selenocysteine (SeMSC), total glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as the changes in protein profile of the inflorescences of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica). Two experimental groups were considered: plants treated with 100 μmol/L sodium selenate (final concentration in the pot) and control plants treated with water. Fortification began 2 weeks after transplantation and was repeated once a week during 10 weeks. Broccoli florets were harvested when they reached appropriate size. SeMSC content in broccoli florets increased significantly with sodium selenate fortification; but total glucosinolates and sulforaphane content as well as myrosinase activity were not affected. The protein profile of broccoli florets changed due to fortification with sodium selenate. Some proteins involved in general stress-responses were up-regulated, whereas down-regulated proteins were identified as proteins involved in protection against pathogens. This is the first attempt to evaluate the physiological effect of fortification with sodium selenate on broccoli at protein level. The results of this work will contribute to better understanding the metabolic processes related with selenium uptake and accumulation in broccoli.

  4. Reproductive fitness of outcrossed hybrids between transgenic broccoli (brassica oleracea) carrying the ipt transgene and conventional varieties of kale, broccoli and cauliflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, P.; Tu, Y.; Lin, C.; Chang, H.; Chen, L.; Litfu, A

    2014-01-01

    Pollens are potential carriers for genetically modified crops to transfer genetic materials horizontally to other plants. For phanerogams, pollen viability and cross-compatibility are critical factors for successful outcross hybridization. To evaluate this possibility, this project investigated pollen viability and pod setting rate by comparing broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Planck) and broccoli transformed with the isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene. Both served as pollen donors and four other varieties as pollen receptors to determine outcross rates. For pollen viability, F1 progeny was higher (p?0.05) for the cross of transgenic ipt broccoli with Li Syue significantly by FDA (fluorescein diacetate) assay. Higher successful hybrids were observed for transgenic ipt broccoli with Fu Yue, Li Syue and Green King. As pollen properties, number and grain diameter were significantly larger (p?0.05) in hybrid combinations of transgenic ipt broccoli with Li Syue and Green King significantly (p?0.05). The pod setting rates were higher while transgenic ipt broccoli served as donor plant. These results analyzing pollen properties between transgenic crops with possible outcross candidates would serve as one of those critical strategies for evaluating environmental biosafety issues for transgenic crops. (author)

  5. Changes in SeMSC, Glucosinolates and Sulforaphane Levels, and in Proteome Profile in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica Fertilized with Sodium Selenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Moenne

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of sodium selenate fortification on the content of selenomethyl selenocysteine (SeMSC, total glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as the changes in protein profile of the inflorescences of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica. Two experimental groups were considered: plants treated with 100 mmol/L sodium selenate (final concentration in the pot and control plants treated with water. Fortification began 2 weeks after transplantation and was repeated once a week during 10 weeks. Broccoli florets were harvested when they reached appropriate size. SeMSC content in broccoli florets increased significantly with sodium selenate fortification; but total glucosinolates and sulforaphane content as well as myrosinase activity were not affected. The protein profile of broccoli florets changed due to fortification with sodium selenate. Some proteins involved in general stress-responses were up-regulated, whereas down-regulated proteins were identified as proteins involved in protection against pathogens. This is the first attempt to evaluate the physiological effect of fortification with sodium selenate on broccoli at protein level. The results of this work will contribute to better understanding the metabolic processes related with selenium uptake and accumulation in broccoli.

  6. Phenotypic plasticity of Myzus persicae (Hemíptera: Aphididae raised on Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale and Raphanus sativus L. (radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peppe Fernanda Borja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of variability generated by phenotypic plasticity is crucial for predicting evolutionary patterns in insect-plant systems. Given sufficient variation for plasticity, host race formation can be favored and maintained, even simpatrically. The plasticity of size and performance (assessed by the lifetime fitness index r m of six clones of Myzus persicae was tested, with replicates allowed to develop on two hosts, kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala and radish (Raphanus sativus. The clones showed significant variability in their plasticity. Reaction norms varied through generations and negative genetic correlation, although not significant, tend to increase with the duration of host use. The lack of plasticity in lifetime fitness among generalist clones occurred as an after-effect of the highly plastic determinants. Significant morphological plasticity in host used was observed, but no variation in the plastic responses (GxE interaction was detected. Strong selection for a larger size occurred among individuals reared on radish, the most unfavorable host. Morphological plasticity in general body size (in a multivariate sense was not linear related to fitness plasticity. These observations suggest that a high potential for the evolution of host divergence favors host race formation.

  7. Batrachedra nuciferae, an inflorescence-feeding moth associated with coconut, Cocos nucifera, and palmiste, Roystonea oleracea, in Trinidad, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, Matthew J W