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Sample records for portland neighborhood environment

  1. The neighborhood energy balance equation: does neighborhood food retail environment + physical activity environment = obesity? The CARDIA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Boone-Heinonen

    Full Text Available Recent obesity prevention initiatives focus on healthy neighborhood design, but most research examines neighborhood food retail and physical activity (PA environments in isolation. We estimated joint, interactive, and cumulative impacts of neighborhood food retail and PA environment characteristics on body mass index (BMI throughout early adulthood.We used cohort data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA Study [n=4,092; Year 7 (24-42 years, 1992-1993 followed over 5 exams through Year 25 (2010-2011; 12,921 person-exam observations], with linked time-varying geographic information system-derived neighborhood environment measures. Using regression with fixed effects for individuals, we modeled time-lagged BMI as a function of food and PA resource density (counts per population and neighborhood development intensity (a composite density score. We controlled for neighborhood poverty, individual-level sociodemographics, and BMI in the prior exam; and included significant interactions between neighborhood measures and by sex. Using model coefficients, we simulated BMI reductions in response to single and combined neighborhood improvements. Simulated increase in supermarket density (from 25(th to 75(th percentile predicted inter-exam reduction in BMI of 0.09 kg/m(2 [estimate (95% CI: -0.09 (-0.16, -0.02]. Increasing commercial PA facility density predicted BMI reductions up to 0.22 kg/m(2 in men, with variation across other neighborhood features [estimate (95% CI range: -0.14 (-0.29, 0.01 to -0.22 (-0.37, -0.08]. Simultaneous increases in supermarket and commercial PA facility density predicted inter-exam BMI reductions up to 0.31 kg/m(2 in men [estimate (95% CI range: -0.23 (-0.39, -0.06 to -0.31 (-0.47, -0.15] but not women. Reduced fast food restaurant and convenience store density and increased public PA facility density and neighborhood development intensity did not predict reductions in BMI.Findings suggest that

  2. Neighborhood Disparities in the Restaurant Food Environment.

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    Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Espino, Jennifer Valdivia; Meinen, Amy; Escaron, Anne L; Roubal, Anne; Nieto, Javier; Malecki, Kristen

    2016-11-01

    Restaurant meals account for a significant portion of the American diet. Investigating disparities in the restaurant food environment can inform targeted interventions to increase opportunities for healthy eating among those who need them most. To examine neighborhood disparities in restaurant density and the nutrition environment within restaurants among a statewide sample of Wisconsin households. Households (N = 259) were selected from the 2009-2010 Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), a population-based survey of Wisconsin adults. Restaurants in the household neighborhood were enumerated and audited using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Restaurants (NEMS-R). Neighborhoods were defined as a 2- and 5-mile street-distance buffer around households in urban and non-urban areas, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models identified independent associations between sociodemographic household characteristics and neighborhood restaurant density and nutrition environment scores. On average, each neighborhood contained approximately 26 restaurants. On average, restaurants obtained 36.1% of the total nutrition environment points. After adjusting for household characteristics, higher restaurant density was associated with both younger and older household average age (P restaurant food environment in Wisconsin neighborhoods varies by age, race, and urbanicity, but offers ample room for improvement across socioeconomic groups and urbanicity levels. Future research must identify policy and environmental interventions to promote healthy eating in all restaurants, especially in young and/or rural neighborhoods in Wisconsin.

  3. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Influence of the Neighborhood Environment on Recreational Walking within the Neighborhood: Results from RESIDE.

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    Christian, Hayley; Knuiman, Matthew; Divitini, Mark; Foster, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Boruff, Bryan; Bull, Fiona; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2017-07-12

    There is limited longitudinal evidence confirming the role of neighborhood environment attributes in encouraging people to walk more or if active people simply choose to live in activity-friendly neighborhoods. Natural experiments of policy changes to create more walkable communities provide stronger evidence for a causal effect of neighborhood environments on residents' walking. We aimed to investigate longitudinal associations between objective and perceived neighborhood environment measures and neighborhood recreational walking. We analyzed longitudinal data collected over 8 yr (four surveys) from the RESIDential Environments (RESIDE) Study (Perth, Australia, 2003-2012). At each time point, participants reported the frequency and total minutes of recreational walking/week within their neighborhood and neighborhood environment perceptions. Objective measures of the neighborhood environment were generated using a Geographic Information System (GIS). Local recreational walking was influenced by objectively measured access to a medium-/large-size park, beach access, and higher street connectivity, which was reduced when adjusted for neighborhood perceptions. In adjusted models, positive perceptions of access to a park and beach, higher street connectivity, neighborhood esthetics, and safety from crime were independent determinants of increased neighborhood recreational walking. Local recreational walking increased by 9 min/wk (12% increase in frequency) for each additional perceived neighborhood attribute present. Our findings provide urban planners and policy makers with stronger causal evidence of the positive impact of well-connected neighborhoods and access to local parks of varying sizes on local residents' recreational walking and health. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP823.

  4. The neighborhood environment and obesity: Understanding variation by race/ethnicity.

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    Wong, Michelle S; Chan, Kitty S; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Thorpe, Roland J; Bleich, Sara N

    2018-06-01

    Neighborhood characteristics have been associated with obesity, but less is known whether relationships vary by race/ethnicity. This study examined the relationship between soda consumption - a behavior strongly associated with obesity - and weight status with neighborhood sociodemographic, social, and built environments by race/ethnicity. We merged data on adults from the 2011-2013 California Health Interview Survey, U.S. Census data, and InfoUSA (n=62,396). Dependent variables were soda consumption and weight status outcomes (body mass index and obesity status). Main independent variables were measures of three neighborhood environments: social (social cohesion and safety), sociodemographic (neighborhood socioeconomic status, educational attainment, percent Asian, percent Hispanic, and percent black), and built environments (number of grocery stores, convenience stores, fast food restaurants, and gyms in neighborhood). We fit multi-level linear and logistic regression models, stratified by individual race/ethnicity (NH (non-Hispanic) Whites, NH African Americans, Hispanics, and NH Asians) controlling for individual-level characteristics, to estimate neighborhood contextual effects on study outcomes. Lower neighborhood educational attainment was associated with higher odds of obesity and soda consumption in all racial/ethnic groups. We found fewer associations between study outcomes and the neighborhood, especially the built environment, among NH African Americans and NH Asians. While improvements to neighborhood environment may be promising to reduce obesity, null associations among minority subgroups suggest that changes, particularly to the built environment, may alone be insufficient to address obesity in these groups. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Neighborhood change and the role of environmental stewardship: a case study of green infrastructure for stormwater in the City of Portland, Oregon, USA

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    Vivek Shandas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history of cities, the ecological landscape has often been buried, removed, or taken for granted. A recent recognition that humans are part of the global ecosystem, and that human actions both cause and are affected by ecological change, brings with it an awareness of the value of nature in cities and of natural systems on which cities depend. The feedbacks between humans and their environment within an urban context can have profound implications for the growth of and change in cities, yet there is a limited understanding of the interactions between biophysical changes in cities and the implications of these changes on the quality of life for residents. The application of a coupled human and natural systems (CHANS framework provides a timely and fruitful opportunity to enrich the theory, methods, and understanding of these feedbacks and interconnections. Here, I integrated biophysical and social dimensions relevant to managing urban stormwater by examining a case study of Portland, Oregon, USA. I used empirical data from a pre-post survey (2-yr span of residents in eight urban neighborhoods to describe feedbacks and interactions between a localized biophysical change in the form of a large-scale decentralized stormwater program and the resulting changes in resident's perceptions in neighborhoods undergoing rapid change. My findings corroborate earlier findings suggesting that people with higher income and education levels are more likely to participate in stewardship actions. The results also suggest an overall and initial negative perception of neighborhoods facilities and services immediately following the construction of decentralized stormwater facilities, but conversely, high levels of anticipation for their construction. By describing these findings through a CHANS framework, I make explicit the importance of integrating scientific understanding, governance efforts, and human behaviors to address acute urban environmental

  6. Obesity and the built environment: does the density of neighborhood fast-food outlets matter?

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    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Cardinal, Bradley J; Bosworth, Mark; Johnson-Shelton, Deb

    2009-01-01

    Examine variation in obesity among older adults relative to the joint influences of density of neighborhood fast food outlets and residents' behavioral, psychosocial, and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional and multilevel design. Census block groups, used as a proxy for neighborhoods, within the metropolitan region's Urban Growth Boundary in Portland, Oregon. A total of 1221 residents (mean age, 65 years) recruited randomly from 120 neighborhoods (48% response rate). A geographic information system-based measure of fast food restaurant density across 120 neighborhoods was created. Residents within the sampled neighborhoods were assessed with respect to their body mass indices (BMI), frequency of visits to local fast food restaurants, fried food consumption, levels of physical activity, self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables, household income, and race/ethnicity. Multilevel logistic regression analyses. Significant associations were found between resident-level individual characteristics and the likelihood of being obese (BMI > or = 30) for neighborhoods with a high-density of fast food restaurants in comparison with those with a low density: odds ratios for obesity, 95% confidence intervals (CI), were 1.878 (CI, 1.006-3.496) for weekly visits to local fast food restaurants; 1.792 (CI, 1.006-3.190) for not meeting physical activity recommendations; 1.212 (CI, 1.057-1.391) for low confidence in eating healthy food; and 8.057 (CI, 1.705-38.086) for non-Hispanic black residents. Increased density of neighborhood fast food outlets was associated with unhealthy lifestyles, poorer psychosocial profiles, and increased risk of obesity among older adults.

  7. Neighborhood food environment role in modifying psychosocial stress-diet relationships.

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    Zenk, Shannon N; Schulz, Amy J; Izumi, Betty T; Mentz, Graciela; Israel, Barbara A; Lockett, Murlisa

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to highly palatable foods may increase eating in response to stress, but this behavioral response has not been examined in relation to the neighborhood food environment. This study examined whether the neighborhood food environment modified relationships between psychosocial stress and dietary behaviors. Probability-sample survey (n=460) and in-person food environment audit data were used. Dietary behaviors were measured using 17 snack food items and a single eating-out-of-home item. Chronic stress was derived from five subscales; major life events was a count of nine items. The neighborhood food environment was measured as availability of large grocery stores, small grocery stores, and convenience stores, as well as proportion of restaurants that were fast food. Two-level hierarchical regression models were estimated. Snack food intake was positively associated with convenience store availability and negatively associated with large grocery store availability. The measures of chronic stress and major life events were generally not associated with either dietary behavior overall, although Latinos were less likely to eat out at high levels of major life events than African Americans. Stress-neighborhood food environment interactions were not statistically significant. Important questions remain regarding the role of the neighborhood food environment in the stress-diet relationship that warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Influence of the Neighborhood Environment on Recreational Walking within the Neighborhood: Results from RESIDE

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    Christian, Hayley; Knuiman, Matthew; Divitini, Mark; Foster, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Boruff, Bryan; Bull, Fiona; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is limited longitudinal evidence confirming the role of neighborhood environment attributes in encouraging people to walk more or if active people simply choose to live in activity-friendly neighborhoods. Natural experiments of policy changes to create more walkable communities provide stronger evidence for a causal effect of neighborhood environments on residents’ walking. Objectives: We aimed to investigate longitudinal associations between objective and perceived neighbor...

  9. Neighborhood Environment and Internalizing Problems in African American Children

    OpenAIRE

    Milam, Adam J; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Whitaker, Damiya; Smart, Mieka; Leaf, Philip; Cooley-Strickland, Michele

    2011-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in the association between environment and internalizing problems in a sample of predominately African American schoolchildren. Internalizing problems was assessed using the Youth Self Report. Violence and alcohol and other drug (AOD) exposure subscales were created using observational assessments of neighborhood blocks. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between neighborhood environment and internalizing problems. For each A...

  10. Neighborhood Environment and Cognition in Older Adults: A Systematic Review.

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    Besser, Lilah M; McDonald, Noreen C; Song, Yan; Kukull, Walter A; Rodriguez, Daniel A

    2017-08-01

    Some evidence suggests that treating vascular risk factors and performing mentally stimulating activities may delay cognitive impairment onset in older adults. Exposure to a complex neighborhood environment may be one mechanism to help delay cognitive decline. PubMed, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertation and Theses Global database were systematically reviewed, identifying 25 studies published from February 1, 1989 to March 5, 2016 (data synthesized, May 3, 2015 to October 7, 2016). The review was restricted to quantitative studies focused on: (1) neighborhood social and built environment and cognition; and (2) community-dwelling adults aged ≥45 years. The majority of studies were cross-sectional, U.S.-based, and found at least one significant association. The diversity of measures and neighborhood definitions limited the synthesis of findings in many instances. Evidence was moderately strong for an association between neighborhood SES and cognition, and modest for associations between neighborhood demographics, design, and destination accessibility and cognition. Most studies examining effect modification found significant associations, with some evidence for effect modification of the neighborhood SES-cognition association by individual-level SES. No studies had low risk of bias and many tested multiple associations that increased the chance of a statistically significant finding. Considering the studies to date, the evidence for an association between neighborhood characteristics and cognition is modest. Future studies should include longitudinal measures of neighborhood characteristics and cognition; examine potential effect modifiers, such as sex and disability; and study mediators that may help elucidate the biological mechanisms linking neighborhood environment and cognition. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A photovoice documentation of the role of neighborhood physical and social environments in older adults' physical activity in two metropolitan areas in North America.

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    Mahmood, Atiya; Chaudhury, Habib; Michael, Yvonne L; Campo, Michael; Hay, Kara; Sarte, Ann

    2012-04-01

    A substantial body of evidence indicates that regular engagement in moderate-intensity physical activity on most days of the week is sufficient for older adults to achieve positive health outcomes. Although there is a growing body of literature that examines the affect of neighborhood environment on physical activity in older adults, the research tends to overlook social aspects that potentially shape the relationship between physical environment and physical activity. This article presents qualitative themes related to the role of the physical and social environments in influencing physical activity among older adults as identified through the photovoice method with sixty-six older adults in eight neighborhoods in metropolitan Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and Greater Portland, Oregon, USA. The photovoice data generated seven themes: being safe and feeling secure, getting there, comfort in movement, diversity of destinations, community-based programs, peer support and intergenerational/volunteer activities. Although the majority of these themes have explicit or implicit physical and social aspects, certain themes are primarily based on physical environmental aspects (e.g., safe and feeling secure, comfort in movement), while a few themes are more oriented to social context (e.g., peer support, intergenerational activity/volunteering). The themes are discussed with a focus on how the neighborhood physical and social environmental aspects interplay to foster or hinder older adults in staying active in both everyday activities and intentional physical activities. Policy implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Predicting the durability of Portland cement systems in aggressive environments--Laboratory validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltais, Y.; Samson, E.; Marchand, J.

    2004-01-01

    Portland cement systems are often exposed to severe environments, and their long-term performance is of concern. The main results of a comprehensive investigation of deterioration processes that may affect the behavior of Portland cement systems exposed to chemically aggressive environments is presented. As part of this investigation, well-cured cement paste discs were fully characterized and exposed to deionized water and sodium sulfate solutions. Degradation experiments were conducted under saturated and unsaturated conditions. At the end of the exposure period, microstructural alterations were investigated by microprobe analyses, scanning electron microscope observations and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses. Test results provide information on the basic aspects of various degradation phenomena, such as decalcification and external sulfate attack. Experimental results were also compared with results obtained by a numerical model. The analysis reveals that the intricate microstructural features of the degraded samples could be accurately reproduced by the model

  13. Safety in numbers: does perceived safety mediate associations between the neighborhood social environment and physical activity among women living in disadvantaged neighborhoods?

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    Timperio, Anna; Veitch, Jenny; Carver, Alison

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to examine associations between the neighborhood social environment and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA)(1) and walking among women, and whether these associations are mediated by perceived personal safety. Women (n = 3784) living in disadvantaged urban and rural neighborhoods within Victoria, Australia completed a self-administered survey on five social environment variables (neighborhood crime, neighborhood violence, seeing others walking and exercising in the neighborhood, social trust/cohesion), perceived personal safety, and their physical activity in 2007/8. Linear regression analyses examined associations between social environment variables and LTPA and walking. Potential mediating pathways were assessed using the product-of-coefficients test. Moderated mediation by urban/rural residence was examined. Each social environment variable was positively associated with engaging in at least 150 min/week of LTPA (OR = 1.16 to 1.56). Only two social environment variables, seeing others walking (OR = 1.45) and exercising (OR = 1.31), were associated with ≥ 150 min/week of walking. Perceived personal safety mediated all associations. Stronger mediation was found in urban areas for crime, violence and social trust/cohesion. The neighborhood social environment is an important influence on physical activity among women living in disadvantaged areas. Feelings of personal safety should not be included in composite or aggregate scores relating to the social environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adolescent Physical Activity: Moderation of Individual Factors by Neighborhood Environment.

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    D'Angelo, Heather; Fowler, Stephanie L; Nebeling, Linda C; Oh, April Y

    2017-06-01

    Less than a third of U.S. adolescents meet federal physical activity (PA) guidelines. Understanding correlates of PA at multiple levels of the Social Ecological Model could improve PA interventions among youth. This study examines (1) associations between factors across the Social Ecological Model including psychosocial factors, perceived neighborhood physical and social environment characteristics, and adolescent moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and (2) whether perceived neighborhood characteristics moderate associations between psychosocial factors and MVPA. A national sample of adolescents (aged 12-17 years) in the 2014 Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating Study was used to examine associations between psychosocial characteristics, perceived neighborhood social and physical characteristics, and self-reported weekly minutes of MVPA. Analyses were conducted in 2015. Interaction terms between psychosocial and neighborhood variables were added to multiple linear regression models to examine moderation hypotheses. Significant two-way interactions revealed that neighborhoods with features perceived as supportive of PA strengthened several psychosocial-MVPA associations. The positive associations between MVPA and friend norms, friend support, and attitudes were strengthened for adolescents living in neighborhoods with high versus low PA resource availability (all p<0.05). Furthermore, the association between controlled and autonomous motivation and MVPA was strengthened under conditions of shops/stores near (versus distant from) adolescents' homes (p<0.05). The association between some psychosocial factors and adolescent MVPA may be environment dependent. Neighborhood physical and social environments supportive of PA are important to consider when developing targeted PA interventions and may strengthen the association between psychosocial-level factors and adolescent MVPA. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Neighborhood Environment and Self-Rated Health Among Urban Older Adults

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    Arlesia Mathis PhD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH among urban older adults. Method: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a de-industrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and SRH was analyzed using regression models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism, and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH ( p = .01. Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities ( p = .005 and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism ( p < .001. Discussion: More than 80% of older adults live in urban areas. By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood that are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability.

  16. Comparing sugary drinks in the food retail environment in six NYC neighborhoods.

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    Adjoian, Tamar; Dannefer, Rachel; Sacks, Rachel; Van Wye, Gretchen

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a national public health concern linked to numerous chronic health conditions among Americans of all age groups. Evidence suggests that discretionary calories from sugary drink consumption have been a significant contributor to excess caloric intake among both children and adults. Research has established strong links between retail food environments and purchasing habits of consumers, but little information exists on the sugary drink retail environment in urban neighborhoods. The objective of this assessment was to compare various aspects of the sugary drink retail environment across New York City (NYC) neighborhoods with disparate self-reported sugary drink consumption patterns. In-store retail audits were conducted at 883 corner stores, chain pharmacies, and grocery stores in 12 zip codes throughout NYC. Results showed that among all beverage types assessed, sugary drinks had the most prominent presence in the retail environment overall, which was even more pronounced in higher-consumption neighborhoods. In higher- versus lower-consumption neighborhoods, the mean number of sugary drink varieties available at stores was higher (11.4 vs. 10.4 varieties), stores were more likely to feature sugary drink advertising (97 vs. 89 %) and advertising at multiple places throughout the store (78 vs. 57 %), and several sugary drinks, including 20-oz Coke® or Pepsi®, were less expensive ($1.38 vs. $1.60). These results, all statistically significant, indicate that neighborhoods characterized by higher levels of sugary drink consumption expose shoppers to sugary drinks to a greater extent than lower-consumption neighborhoods. This builds upon evidence documenting the association between the environment and individual behavior.

  17. Optimizing Scoring and Sampling Methods for Assessing Built Neighborhood Environment Quality in Residential Areas

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    Joel Adu-Brimpong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of existing measurement tools is necessary to explore links between aspects of the neighborhood built environment and health behaviors or outcomes. We evaluate a scoring method for virtual neighborhood audits utilizing the Active Neighborhood Checklist (the Checklist, a neighborhood audit measure, and assess street segment representativeness in low-income neighborhoods. Eighty-two home neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. Cardiovascular Health/Needs Assessment (NCT01927783 participants were audited using Google Street View imagery and the Checklist (five sections with 89 total questions. Twelve street segments per home address were assessed for (1 Land-Use Type; (2 Public Transportation Availability; (3 Street Characteristics; (4 Environment Quality and (5 Sidewalks/Walking/Biking features. Checklist items were scored 0–2 points/question. A combinations algorithm was developed to assess street segments’ representativeness. Spearman correlations were calculated between built environment quality scores and Walk Score®, a validated neighborhood walkability measure. Street segment quality scores ranged 10–47 (Mean = 29.4 ± 6.9 and overall neighborhood quality scores, 172–475 (Mean = 352.3 ± 63.6. Walk scores® ranged 0–91 (Mean = 46.7 ± 26.3. Street segment combinations’ correlation coefficients ranged 0.75–1.0. Significant positive correlations were found between overall neighborhood quality scores, four of the five Checklist subsection scores, and Walk Scores® (r = 0.62, p < 0.001. This scoring method adequately captures neighborhood features in low-income, residential areas and may aid in delineating impact of specific built environment features on health behaviors and outcomes.

  18. Neighborhood environment and walking for transport and recreation in Central European older adults

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    Jana Pelclová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neighborhood environment is an aspect that influences physical activity, mainly walking. Hence, built environment research may help to use environmental and policy strategies to increase physical activity. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between perceived neighborhood environment and meeting the recommendation of at least 30 minutes of walking 5 or more days a week within active transportation and leisure-time domains in Central European older adults. METHODS: Four hundred and fifty six healthy ambulatory older adults filled out the modified and culturally adapted version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (ANEWS for obtaining perceived environment information and the self-administrative long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ for assessing physical activity levels. RESULTS: Respondents living in high residential density neighborhoods (OR 1.87, living in flats (OR 2.09 and in location with ≤100,000 inhabitants (OR 1.63 were more likely to meet recommendation within walking for transportation. Owning a dog was associated with meeting recommendation within walking for leisure (OR 1.69. CONCLUSIONS: This study supported the specific impact of environment on meeting PA recommendations within transportation and leisure time walking in older adults. Out of all perceived neighborhood environmental attributes received from ANEWS questionnaire, only high residential density was positively associated with meeting recommendation within total walking and walking for transport.

  19. Exploring the Role of the Built and Social Neighborhood Environment in Moderating Stress and Health

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    Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Health researchers have explored how different aspects of neighborhood characteristics contribute to health and well-being, but current understanding of built environment factors is limited. Purpose This study explores whether the association between stress and health varies by residential neighborhood, and if yes, whether built and social neighborhood environment characteristics act as moderators. Methods This study uses multilevel modeling and variables derived from geospatial data to explore the role of neighborhood environment in moderating the association of stress with health. Individual-level data (N=4,093) were drawn from residents of 45 neighborhoods within Philadelphia County, PA, collected as part of the 2006 Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's Household Health Survey. Results We find that the negative influence of high stress varied by neighborhood, that residential stability and affluence (social characteristics) attenuated the association of high stress with health, and that the presence of hazardous waste facilities (built environment characteristics) moderated health by enhancing the association with stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that neighborhood environment has both direct and moderating associations with health, after adjusting for individual characteristics. The use of geospatial data could broaden the scope of stress–health research and advance knowledge by untangling the intertwined relationship between built and social environments, stress, and health. In particular, future studies should integrate built environment characteristics in health-related research; these characteristics are modifiable and can facilitate health promotion policies. PMID:20300905

  20. Optimizing Scoring and Sampling Methods for Assessing Built Neighborhood Environment Quality in Residential Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Brimpong, Joel; Coffey, Nathan; Ayers, Colby; Berrigan, David; Yingling, Leah R.; Thomas, Samantha; Mitchell, Valerie; Ahuja, Chaarushi; Rivers, Joshua; Hartz, Jacob; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.

    2017-01-01

    Optimization of existing measurement tools is necessary to explore links between aspects of the neighborhood built environment and health behaviors or outcomes. We evaluate a scoring method for virtual neighborhood audits utilizing the Active Neighborhood Checklist (the Checklist), a neighborhood audit measure, and assess street segment representativeness in low-income neighborhoods. Eighty-two home neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. Cardiovascular Health/Needs Assessment (NCT01927783) participants were audited using Google Street View imagery and the Checklist (five sections with 89 total questions). Twelve street segments per home address were assessed for (1) Land-Use Type; (2) Public Transportation Availability; (3) Street Characteristics; (4) Environment Quality and (5) Sidewalks/Walking/Biking features. Checklist items were scored 0–2 points/question. A combinations algorithm was developed to assess street segments’ representativeness. Spearman correlations were calculated between built environment quality scores and Walk Score®, a validated neighborhood walkability measure. Street segment quality scores ranged 10–47 (Mean = 29.4 ± 6.9) and overall neighborhood quality scores, 172–475 (Mean = 352.3 ± 63.6). Walk scores® ranged 0–91 (Mean = 46.7 ± 26.3). Street segment combinations’ correlation coefficients ranged 0.75–1.0. Significant positive correlations were found between overall neighborhood quality scores, four of the five Checklist subsection scores, and Walk Scores® (r = 0.62, p health behaviors and outcomes. PMID:28282878

  1. Relationships among neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and preterm birth in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang G; Dieber, William; Block, Richard

    2012-01-01

    To (a) examine the relationships among objective and perceived indicators of neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and gestational age at birth; (b) determine if neighborhood environment and racial discrimination predicted psychological distress; (c) determine if neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, and psychological distress predicted preterm birth; and (d) determine if psychological distress mediated the effects of neighborhood environment and racial discrimination on preterm birth. Descriptive correlational comparative. Postpartum unit of a medical center in Chicago. African American women (n(1)  = 33 with preterm birth; n(2)  = 39 with full-term birth). Women completed the instruments 24 to 72 hours after birth. Objective measures of the neighborhood were derived using geographic information systems (GIS). Women who reported higher levels of perceived social and physical disorder and perceived crime also reported higher levels of psychological distress. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also had higher levels of psychological distress. Objective social disorder and perceived crime predicted psychological distress. Objective physical disorder and psychological distress predicted preterm birth. Psychological distress mediated the effect of objective social disorder and perceived crime on preterm birth. Women's neighborhood environments and racial discrimination were related to psychological distress, and these factors may increase the risk for preterm birth. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  2. Neighborhood environment and physical activity among older adults: Do the relationships differ by driving status?

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F.; Norman, Gregory J.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Saelens, Brian; Kerr, Jaqueline; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Hovell, Melbourne Frank; Hofstetter, C. Richard; King, Abby C.

    2013-01-01

    Some attributes of neighborhood environments are associated with physical activity among older adults. This study examined whether the associations were moderated by driving status. Older adults from neighborhoods differing in walkability and income completed written surveys and wore accelerometers (N=880, mean age=75 years, 56% women). Neighborhood environments were measured by geographic information systems and validated questionnaires. Driving status was defined on the basis of a driver’s ...

  3. Beyond Neighborhood Food Environments: Distance Traveled to Food Establishments in 5 US Cities, 2009-2011.

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    Liu, Jodi L; Han, Bing; Cohen, Deborah A

    2015-08-06

    Accurate conceptualizations of neighborhood environments are important in the design of policies and programs aiming to improve access to healthy food. Neighborhood environments are often defined by administrative units or buffers around points of interest. An individual may eat and shop for food within or outside these areas, which may not reflect accessibility of food establishments. This article examines the relevance of different definitions of food environments. We collected data on trips to food establishments using a 1-week food and travel diary and global positioning system devices. Spatial-temporal clustering methods were applied to identify homes and food establishments visited by study participants. We identified 513 visits to food establishments (sit-down restaurants, fast-food/convenience stores, malls or stores, groceries/supermarkets) by 135 participants in 5 US cities. The average distance between the food establishments and homes was 2.6 miles (standard deviation, 3.7 miles). Only 34% of the visited food establishments were within participants' neighborhood census tract. Buffers of 1 or 2 miles around the home covered 55% to 65% of visited food establishments. There was a significant difference in the mean distances to food establishments types (P = .008). On average, participants traveled the longest distances to restaurants and the shortest distances to groceries/supermarkets. Many definitions of the neighborhood food environment are misaligned with individual travel patterns, which may help explain the mixed findings in studies of neighborhood food environments. Neighborhood environments defined by actual travel activity may provide more insight on how the food environment influences dietary and food shopping choices.

  4. Social neighborhood environment and sports participation among Dutch adults: does sports location matter?

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    Kramer, D; Stronks, K; Maas, J; Wingen, M; Kunst, A E

    2015-04-01

    Studies on the relation between the social neighborhood environment and sports participation have produced inconsistent results. Use of generic sports outcomes may have obscured associations only apparent for sports at certain locations. This study aims to assess the association between the social neighborhood environment and three location-specific sports outcomes. Repeated cross-sectional data on sports participation (any type of sports, sports at indoor sports clubs, sports at outdoor sports clubs, sports on streets) were obtained from 20 600 adults using the Dutch national health survey 2006-2009. Data on neighborhood social safety and social capital were obtained using the Dutch Housing Research 2006. Over 40% of Dutch adults participated in any type of sports. Indoor sports clubs were most popular. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that neighborhood social safety was positively associated with sports at indoor sports clubs [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.48), but not with the other sports outcomes. Contrary, neighborhood social capital was positively associated with sports on streets only (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.17-2.44). The results suggest that a positive social neighborhood environment enhances sports participation, but that this impact depends on the location of the sports activity. This study highlights the importance of using location-specific sports outcomes when assessing environmental determinants. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Neighborhood environment and physical activity among older adults: do the relationships differ by driving status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F; Norman, Gregory J; Frank, Lawrence D; Saelens, Brian E; Kerr, Jacqueline; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; King, Abby C

    2014-07-01

    Some attributes of neighborhood environments are associated with physical activity among older adults. This study examined whether the associations were moderated by driving status. Older adults from neighborhoods differing in walkability and income completed written surveys and wore accelerometers (N = 880, mean age = 75 years, 56% women). Neighborhood environments were measured by geographic information systems and validated questionnaires. Driving status was defined on the basis of a driver's license, car ownership, and feeling comfortable to drive. Outcome variables included accelerometer-based physical activity and self-reported transport and leisure walking. Multilevel generalized linear regression was used. There was no significant Neighborhood Attribute × Driving Status interaction with objective physical activity or reported transport walking. For leisure walking, almost all environmental attributes were positive and significant among driving older adults but not among nondriving older adults (five significant interactions at p driving status is likely to moderate the association between neighborhood environments and older adults' leisure walking.

  6. China’s Neighborhood Environment and Options for Neighborhood Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU FANGYIN

    2016-01-01

    Since the 18th CPC National Congress,especially since the Central Conference on Work Relating to Neighborhood Diplomacy held in October 2013,China’s neighborhood diplomacy has been energetic,proactive and promising,achieving important results in several aspects.At the same time,it is also in face of challenges

  7. A cross-sectional study of the influence of neighborhood environment on childhood overweight and obesity: Variation by age, gender, and environment characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Jiang, Yu; Xu, Yanqing; Mzayek, Fawaz; Levy, Marian

    2018-03-01

    To examine the influence of neighborhood environment on childhood overweight and obesity in Shelby County Schools, Tennessee, and whether and to what extent that influence varies by age, gender, and the specific environment characteristics. 41,283 students were surveyed covering both individual-level covariates and several objective measures of neighborhood environment. Multilevel logistic regressions were used to examine the influence of neighborhood-level variables on overweight+obesity and obesity with adjustment of individual-level covariates. Further, a stratified analysis for each of the six groups by school level and gender. For both overweight+obesity and obesity, younger children were less sensitive to neighborhood characteristics than older children, and boys are less sensitive than girls. For girls in middle and high schools, the risk of overweight+obesity and obesity were positively associated with population density, and negatively associated with percent of poverty and percent of unhealthy food. Boys' risk of overweight+obesity and obesity were positively associated with distance to park. Neighborhood environment plays an important role in childhood overweight and obesity, and the effects vary by age, gender, and the specific neighborhood characteristic. Intervention programs tailored to specific groups may be more effective than ones targeted to children as a whole. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical neighborhood and social environment, beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep quality among African Americans.

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    Nam, Soohyun; Whittemore, Robin; Jung, Sunyoung; Latkin, Carl; Kershaw, Trace; Redeker, Nancy S

    2018-06-01

    African Americans (AAs) have a higher prevalence of sleep disorders than other racial/ethnic groups. However, little is known about the relationships among individual and neighborhood factors related to sleep quality in AAs. The purposes of this study were to (1) describe beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep quality among AAs; and (2) examine the relationships among sociodemographic characteristics, neighborhood environment, beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep quality. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 252 AA men and women in the Greater New Haven, CT, USA community. We assessed their sociodemographic characteristics, neighborhood environment, beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene, and sleep quality with the following measures, respectively: the Neighborhood Environment Scale, the brief version of Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep, the Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. We performed descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple hierarchical regression. About 72% of the participants (mean age: 53.88 ± 14.17 years, 77.8% women) reported experiencing sleep disturbance. People with poor sleep quality were more likely to report poorer neighborhood social environment (social cohesion), poorer overall neighborhood environment, more dysfunctional beliefs toward sleep, and poorer sleep hygiene than those who had good sleep quality. In the final multivariate model that controlled for a number of chronic comorbid conditions, neighborhood environment, beliefs about sleep, and sleep hygiene behaviors were significantly associated with sleep quality. Future efforts are needed to improve sleep among AAs by considering both the individual's belief about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors and neighborhood factors. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Neighborhood Environments and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in 11 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L; Dyck, Delfien Van; Hinckson, Erica; Schipperijn, Jasper; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse De; Owen, Neville; Davey, Rachel C; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Mitáš, Josef; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L; Christiansen, Lars B; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Schofield, Grant; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Environmental changes are potentially effective population-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategies. However, robust multi-site evidence to guide international action for developing activity-supportive environments is lacking. We estimated pooled associations of perceived environmental attributes with objectively-measured PA outcomes; between-site differences in such associations; and, the extent to which perceived environmental attributes explain between-site differences in PA. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 16 cities located in Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, China, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, United Kingdom, and USA. Participants were 6,968 adults residing in administrative units stratified by socio-economic status and transport-related walkability. Predictors were 10 perceived neighborhood environmental attributes. Outcome measures were accelerometry-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and meeting the PA guidelines for cancer/weight gain prevention (420 min/week of MVPA). Results Most perceived neighborhood attributes were positively associated with the PA outcomes in the pooled, site-adjusted, single-predictor models. Associations were generalizable across geographical locations. Aesthetics and land use mix – access were significant predictors of both PA outcomes in the fully-adjusted models. Environmental attributes accounted for within-site variability in MVPA corresponding to a 3 min/d or 21 min/week standard deviation. Large between-site differences in PA outcomes were observed: 15.9% to 16.8% of these differences were explained by perceived environmental attributes. All neighborhood attributes were associated with between-site differences in the total effects of the perceived environment on PA outcomes. Conclusions Residents’ perceptions of neighborhood attributes that facilitate walking were positively associated with objectively-measured MVPA and meeting the guidelines

  10. Neighborhood environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior among Latino adults in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfee, Valerie J; Rosal, Milagros C; Sreedhara, Meera; Lora, Vilma; Lemon, Stephenie C

    2016-09-13

    U.S. Latinos experience high rates of cardio-metabolic diseases and have high rates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior. Understanding the environmental factors associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviors among Latinos could inform future interventions. The purpose of this study is to explore the neighborhood environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in a sample of U.S. Latino adults. Cross-sectional study of 602 Latino adults in Lawrence, MA. Survey assessments of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and neighborhood environment were verbally administered. The neighborhood environment scale assessed violence, safety, aesthetic quality, walkability, availability of healthy foods, social cohesion, and activities with neighbors. After controlling forage, gender, education, body mass index (BMI), and smoking status, two variables were associated with the outcomes of interest. Living in more walkable neighborhoods was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in adequate levels of physical activity (>150 min per week, as recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)) (OR = 1.403, p = .018); and greater frequency of activities with neighbors was associated with greater sedentary behavior (β = .072, p = .05). There were different neighborhood environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in this Latino community. Focusing on a greater understanding of the distinct social and physical environmental correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior may provide important insights for reducing CVD risk and health disparities among Latinos.

  11. Neighborhood environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior among Latino adults in Massachusetts

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    Valerie J. Silfee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background U.S. Latinos experience high rates of cardio-metabolic diseases and have high rates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior. Understanding the environmental factors associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviors among Latinos could inform future interventions. The purpose of this study is to explore the neighborhood environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in a sample of U.S. Latino adults. Methods Cross-sectional study of 602 Latino adults in Lawrence, MA. Survey assessments of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and neighborhood environment were verbally administered. The neighborhood environment scale assessed violence, safety, aesthetic quality, walkability, availability of healthy foods, social cohesion, and activities with neighbors. Results After controlling forage, gender, education, body mass index (BMI, and smoking status, two variables were associated with the outcomes of interest. Living in more walkable neighborhoods was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in adequate levels of physical activity (>150 min per week, as recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM (OR = 1.403, p = .018; and greater frequency of activities with neighbors was associated with greater sedentary behavior (β = .072, p = .05. Conclusions There were different neighborhood environment correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in this Latino community. Focusing on a greater understanding of the distinct social and physical environmental correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior may provide important insights for reducing CVD risk and health disparities among Latinos.

  12. Neighborhood and home food environment and children's diet and obesity: Evidence from military personnel's installation assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shier, Victoria; Nicosia, Nancy; Datar, Ashlesha

    2016-06-01

    Research and policy initiatives are increasingly focused on the role of neighborhood food environment in children's diet and obesity. However, existing evidence relies on observational data that is limited by neighborhood selection bias. The Military Teenagers' Environments, Exercise, and Nutrition Study (M-TEENS) leverages the quasi-random variation in neighborhood environment generated by military personnel's assignment to installations to examine whether neighborhood food environments are associated with children's dietary behaviors and BMI. Our results suggest that neither the actual nor the perceived availability of particular food outlets in the neighborhood is associated with children's diet or BMI. The availability of supermarkets and convenience stores in the neighborhood was not associated with where families shop for food or children's dietary behaviors. Further, the type of store that families shop at was not associated with the healthiness of food available at home. Similarly, availability of fast food and restaurants was unrelated to children's dietary behaviors or how often children eat fast food or restaurant meals. However, the healthiness of food available at home was associated with healthy dietary behaviors while eating at fast food outlets and restaurants were associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors in children. Further, parental supervision, including limits on snack foods and meals eaten as a family, was associated with dietary behaviors. These findings suggest that focusing only on the neighborhood food environment may ignore important factors that influence children's outcomes. Future research should also consider how families make decisions about what foods to purchase, where to shop for foods and eating out, how closely to monitor their children's food intake, and, ultimately how these decisions collectively impact children's outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Outdoor air pollution, family and neighborhood environment, and asthma in LA FANS children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Michelle; Qian, Lei; Ritz, Beate

    2009-03-01

    We examined associations between outdoor air pollution and childhood asthma, using measures of SES, neighborhood quality, and social support from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (LA FANS). We linked residential census tracts for 3114 children to government air monitoring stations and estimated average pollutant concentrations for the year before interview. CO and NO(2) levels increased and O(3) levels decreased as neighborhood quality decreased, yet correlations were low. Pollutant levels were not correlated with neighborhood support. Even after adjustment for social environment characteristics, LA FANS children living in high O(3), PM(10), and CO areas appeared to have worse asthma morbidity.

  14. Neighborhood Environments: Links to Health Behaviors and Obesity Status in Vulnerable Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jina; Kim, Hye-Jin; Park, Sooyeon

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to identify the actual and perceived features of neighborhood environments linked to health behaviors and obesity status in vulnerable children by using geographic information systems, walking surveys, and focus group interviews. The participants were 126 children registered at community child centers and 10 mothers of study participants. Increased availability of fast food outlets and convenience stores was significantly and positively associated with fast food and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and inversely with physical activity. Reduced availability of physical activity outlets was significantly and positively associated with sedentary behaviors. Mothers' perceptions of their neighborhoods fell into three content categories: (a) changed to be unfriendly for children, (b) adapted to fast food and convenience eating, and (c) confined to physically inactive living. Based on these findings, community-level environmental strategies for reducing unhealthy behaviors linked to neighborhood environments should be prioritized to prevent childhood obesity in vulnerable populations.

  15. [Neighborhood environment quality, individual-level social capital, and depressive symptoms among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    We aimed to develop measures to assess features of neighborhood quality and individual social capital, as well as their associations with depressive symptoms among early adolescents. To determine whether relations of depressive symptoms with neighborhood quality might be contingent upon the level of individual cognitive social capital, neighborhood-by-cognitive social capital interaction terms were examined. A qualitative study was conducted to elicit the perceptions of early adolescents about their neighborhood environment. Subsequently, we recruited 2,002 eighth graders and asked for responses to a self-administered questionnaire. The variables analyzed in this study were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (10 items), features of neighborhood quality, cognitive and structural individual social capital, and demographics. We adopted a generalized estimating equation regression model for the multivariate analysis. The analytic sample was 1,786 with no missing variable in the models. Seven subscales were devised to assess quality features of neighborhood environments with an examination of validity and reliability: "availability of services," "good neighborhood relations," "spaces for recreation," "insecurity and danger of accidents," "dirty-looking, squalid, unclean," "civic communities," and "aesthetic look." We also developed a scale of individual cognitive social capital, which consisted of three constructs: "social trust," "reciprocity," and "social norms." Additionally, the number of social activities in which subjects participated was counted as an indicator of the structural aspect of individual social capital. On examination with the generalized estimating equation regression model, "availability of services," "insecurity and danger of accidents," "dirty-looking, squalid, unclean," and cognitive social capital were significantly associated with the CES-D scores controlling for demographics. We also found a significant interplay between

  16. Health, Safety and Environment (HSE assessment of neighborhoods: A case study in Tehran Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmin Hassanzadeh- Rangi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is growing rapidly in recent centuries. This phenomenon can cause many changes in various aspects of human life including the economy, education and public health This study was conducted to assess the Health, Safety and Environment (HSE problems in Tehran neighborhoods. A new instrument was developed based on the results of a literature review and formulated during a pilot study. Through cluster sampling, 10 neighborhoods were selected based from 374 neighborhoods of Tehran. Six observers completed observational items during the field studies. Secondary data were used to obtain non-observation characteristics. Standard descriptive statistics were used to compare the HSE characteristics in sampled neighborhoods. Furthermore, control chart was used to as a decision rule to identify specific variation among sampled neighborhoods. Niavaran neighborhood had the best HSE status (52.80%±25.03 whereas Khak Sefid neighborhood had the worst one (20.09%±27.51. Standard deviations of HSE characteristics were high in different parts of a neighborhood. Statistical analysis indicated that significant differences in HSE characteristics exist among sampled neighborhoods. HSE status was in warning situation in both rich and poor neighborhoods. Community-based interventions were suggested as health promotion programs to involve and empower people in neighborhoods.

  17. Exploring associations between perceived home and work neighborhood environments, diet behaviors, and obesity: Results from a survey of employed adults in Missouri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Tabak, PhD, RD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary behaviors are associated with obesity, and may be influenced by the environment. The objective of the current work was to investigate whether perceptions of built environment factors related to eating in the residential neighborhood will have different, independent associations with BMI and dietary behaviors than perceived built environment factors in the worksite neighborhood. In 2012–2013, a cross-sectional telephone-survey of Missouri adults (n = 2015 assessed perceptions of home and workplace built environment factors related to eating, dietary behaviors, and height and weight. Logistic regression models explored associations between perceived neighborhood built environment variables, diet, and obesity. The only variable associated with any of the outcomes explored in the fully adjusted models was the home neighborhood composite scale. None of the work environment variables were significantly associated with any of the health/behavior outcomes after adjustment. Few associations were found after adjustment for personal and job-related characteristics, and none were identified with the workplace neighborhood environment. While few home environment associations were found after adjustment, and none were identified with the perceived workplace neighborhood environment, the current study adds to the limited literature looking at associations between the perceived neighborhood around the workplace neighborhood and the perceived neighborhood around the home and dietary behaviors and obesity in adults. Future studies are needed to determine whether relationships between these environments and behavior exist, and if so, if they are causal and warrant intervention attempts.

  18. Improving the Neighborhood Environment for Urban Older Adults: Social Context and Self-Rated Health.

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    Mathis, Arlesia; Rooks, Ronica; Kruger, Daniel

    2015-12-22

    By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01). Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005) and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability.

  19. Interactions between Neighborhood Social Environment and Walkability to Explain Belgian Older Adults’ Physical Activity and Sedentary Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle Van Holle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined associations between neighborhood social factors and physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior (SB in older adults. Furthermore, possible moderating effects of neighborhood walkability were explored. Data from 431 community-dwelling Belgian older adults (≥65 years were analyzed. Neighborhood social factors included measures of neighboring, social trust and cohesion and social diversity. Neighborhood walkability was measured objectively. Outcome measures were self-reported weekly minutes of domain-specific walking and TV viewing, and accelerometer-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and overall SB. A higher frequency of talking to neighbors was associated with higher levels of self-reported walking for transport and for recreation. Moderation analyses showed that only in highly-walkable neighborhoods, higher social diversity of the neighborhood environment was associated with more transport walking; and talking to neighbors and social interactions among neighbors were negatively associated with overall SB and television viewing, respectively. Findings suggest that a combination of a favorable neighborhood social and physical environment are important to promote older adults’ PA and limit SB.

  20. A qualitative examination of home and neighborhood environments for obesity prevention in rural adults

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    Ballard Denise

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The home and neighborhood environments may be important in obesity prevention by virtue of food availability, food preparation, cues and opportunities for physical activity, and family support. To date, little research has examined how home and neighborhood environments in rural communities may support or hinder healthy eating and physical activity. This paper reports characteristics of rural homes and neighborhoods related to physical activity environments, availability of healthy foods, and family support for physical activity and maintaining an ideal body weight. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 African American and White adults over 50 years of age in two rural counties in Southwest Georgia. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two members of the research team using standard methods of qualitative analysis. Themes were then identified and data matrices were used to identify patterns by gender or race. Results Neighborhood features that supported physical activity were plenty of land, minimal traffic and living in a safe and friendly neighborhood. The major barrier was lack of recreational facilities. The majority of participants were not physically active with their family members due to schedule conflicts and lack of time. Family member-initiated efforts to encourage physical activity met with mixed results, with refusals, procrastination, and increased activity all reported. Participants generally reported it was easy to get healthy foods, although cost barriers and the need to drive to a larger town for a supermarket with good variety were noted as obstacles. Family conversations about weight had occurred for about half of the participants, with reactions ranging from agreement about the need to lose weight to frustration. Conclusion This study suggests that successful environmental change strategies to promote physical activity and healthy eating in rural neighborhoods may

  1. The Neighborhood Environment: Perceived Fall Risk, Resources, and Strategies for Fall Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippendale, Tracy; Boltz, Marie

    2015-08-01

    To explore the experience of older adults in their neighborhood in relation to perceived fall risk, fear of falling (FOF), and resources/strategies for fall prevention. Fourteen older adults, 65 years of age and older from 3 urban senior centers, participated in this qualitative study. The semistructured interview guidelines and background questionnaire were developed by the researchers based on the literature and an existing measure of walkability. Both tools were refined based on pilot interviews with seniors. Collaizzi's phenomenological method was used for data analysis. Five themes emerged from the data: (a) The built environment contributes to perceived fall risk and FOF, (b) personal strategies used to adapt to perceived neighborhood fall risks-behavioral approaches, (c) resources for physical activity and safety, (d) barriers to physical activity and exercise, and (e) neighborhood features as a motivator. Urban-dwelling seniors perceive that neighborhood features contribute to or mitigate fall risk and FOF. Behavioral strategies are used by seniors to prevent outdoor falls. The findings can help clinicians develop targeted fall prevention interventions for well elders and help urban planners to design and retrofit urban environments to reduce fall risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Diving into the consumer nutrition environment: A Bayesian spatial factor analysis of neighborhood restaurant environment.

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    Luan, Hui; Law, Jane; Lysy, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Neighborhood restaurant environment (NRE) plays a vital role in shaping residents' eating behaviors. While NRE 'healthfulness' is a multi-facet concept, most studies evaluate it based only on restaurant type, thus largely ignoring variations of in-restaurant features. In the few studies that do account for such features, healthfulness scores are simply averaged over accessible restaurants, thereby concealing any uncertainty that attributed to neighborhoods' size or spatial correlation. To address these limitations, this paper presents a Bayesian Spatial Factor Analysis for assessing NRE healthfulness in the city of Kitchener, Canada. Several in-restaurant characteristics are included. By treating NRE healthfulness as a spatially correlated latent variable, the adopted modeling approach can: (i) identify specific indicators most relevant to NRE healthfulness, (ii) provide healthfulness estimates for neighborhoods without accessible restaurants, and (iii) readily quantify uncertainties in the healthfulness index. Implications of the analysis for intervention program development and community food planning are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Living environment matters: relationships between neighborhood characteristics and health of the residents in a Dutch municipality.

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    Putrik, Polina; de Vries, Nanne K; Mujakovic, Suhreta; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic; Kant, Ijmert; Kunst, Anton E; van Oers, Hans; Jansen, Maria

    2015-02-01

    Characteristics of an individual alone cannot exhaustively explain all the causes of poor health, and neighborhood of residence have been suggested to be one of the factors that contribute to health. However, knowledge about aspects of the neighborhood that are most important to health is limited. The main objective of this study was to explore associations between certain features of neighborhood environment and self-rated health and depressive symptoms in Maastricht (The Netherlands). A large amount of routinely collected neighborhood data were aggregated by means of factor analysis to 18 characteristics of neighborhood social and physical environment. Associations between these characteristics and self-rated health and presence of depressive symptoms were further explored in multilevel logistic regression models adjusted for individual demographic and socio-economic factors. The study sample consisted of 9,879 residents (mean age 55 years, 48 % male). Residents of unsafe communities were less likely to report good health (OR 0.88 95 % CI 0.80-0.97) and depressive symptoms (OR 0.81 95 % CI 0.69-0.97), and less cohesive environment was related to worse self-rated health (OR 0.81 95 % CI 0.72-0.92). Residents of neighborhoods with more car traffic nuisance and more disturbance from railway noise reported worse mental health (OR 0.79 95 % CI 0.68-0.92 and 0.85 95 % CI 0.73-0.99, respectively). We did not observe any association between health and quality of parking and shopping facilities, facilities for public or private transport, neighborhood aesthetics, green space, industrial nuisance, sewerage, neighbor nuisance or satisfaction with police performance. Our findings can be used to support development of integrated health policies targeting broader determinants of health. Improving safety, social cohesion and decreasing traffic nuisance in disadvantaged neighborhoods might be a promising way to improve the health of residents and reduce health inequalities.

  4. "Why Is This the Only Place in Portland I See Black People?": Teaching Young Children about Redlining

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    Johnson, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    As in many historically black neighborhoods in the United States, the gentrification of northeast Portland rests on an older history of economic injustice perpetrated by banks, realtors, governments, and white property owners. Redlining was one piece of an elaborate puzzle denying people of color access to housing and to wealth. The term refers to…

  5. Partnering with Youth to Map Their Neighborhood Environments: A Multi-Layered GIS Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topmiller, Michael; Jacquez, Farrah; Vissman, Aaron T.; Raleigh, Kevin; Miller-Francis, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    Mapping approaches offer great potential for community-based participatory researchers interested in displaying youth perceptions and advocating for change. We describe a multi-layered approach for gaining local knowledge of neighborhood environments that engages youth as co-researchers and active knowledge producers. By integrating geographic information systems (GIS) with environmental audits, an interactive focus group, and sketch mapping, the approach provides a place-based understanding of physical activity resources from the situated experience of youth. Youth report safety and a lack of recreational resources as inhibiting physical activity. Maps reflecting youth perceptions aid policy-makers in making place-based improvements for youth neighborhood environments. PMID:25423245

  6. Neighborhood Environment, Self-Efficacy, and Physical Activity in Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Yan, Alice F.; Clifton, Kelly J.; Wang, Min Qi

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To test the pathways between perceptions of built environment factors and physical activity in urban youth. Methods: Three hundred fifty high school students' perceptions of neighborhood, and barrier self efficacy were measured by a Web survey. Physical activities were assessed using a one-week diary and accelerometers. Results:…

  7. Residential Surrounding Greenness, Self-Rated Health and Interrelations with Aspects of Neighborhood Environment and Social Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Ester; Sutcliffe, Robynne; Dragano, Nico; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    Previous research suggests that green environments positively influence health. Several underlying mechanisms have been discussed; one of them is facilitation of social interaction. Further, greener neighborhoods may appear more aesthetic, contributing to satisfaction and well-being. Aim of this study was to analyze the association of residential surrounding greenness with self-rated health, using data from 4480 women and men aged 45-75 years that participated in the German population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. We further aimed to explore the relationships of greenness and self-rated health with the neighborhood environment and social relations. Surrounding greenness was measured using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within 100 m around participants' residence. As a result, we found that with higher greenness, poor self-rated health decreased (adjusted OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.98; per 0.1 increase in NDVI), while neighborhood satisfaction (1.41, 1.23-1.61) and neighborhood social capital (1.22, 1.12-1.32) increased. Further, we observed inverse associations of neighborhood satisfaction (0.70, 0.52-0.94), perceived safety (0.36, 0.22-0.60), social satisfaction (0.43, 0.31-0.58), and neighborhood social capital (0.53, 0.44-0.64) with poor self-rated health. These results underline the importance of incorporating green elements into neighborhoods for health-promoting urban development strategies.

  8. Work and Home Neighborhood Design and Physical Activity.

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    Carlson, Jordan A; Frank, Lawrence D; Ulmer, Jared; Conway, Terry L; Saelens, Brian E; Cain, Kelli L; Sallis, James F

    2018-01-01

    To investigate relations of perceived worksite neighborhood environments to total physical activity and active transportation, over and above home neighborhood built environments. Observational epidemiologic study. Baltimore, Maryland-Washington, DC, and Seattle-King County, Washington metropolitan areas. One thousand eighty-five adults (mean age = 45.0 [10.2]; 46% women) recruited from 32 neighborhoods stratified by high/low neighborhood income and walkability. The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Survey assessed perceptions of worksite and home neighborhood environments. Accelerometers assessed total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire assessed total active transportation and active transportation to and around work. Mixed-effects regression tested relations of home and worksite neighborhood environments to each physical activity outcome, adjusted for demographics. Home and worksite mixed land use and street connectivity had the most consistent positive associations with physical activity outcomes. Worksite traffic and pedestrian safety were also associated with multiple physical activity outcomes. The worksite neighborhood explained additional variance in physical activity outcomes than explained by the home neighborhood. Worksite and home neighborhood environments interacted in explaining active transportation to work, with the greatest impacts occurring when both neighborhoods were activity supportive. Both worksite and home neighborhood environments were independently related to total MVPA and active transportation. Community design policies should target improving the physical activity supportiveness of worksite neighborhood environments and integrating commercial and residential development.

  9. Measuring physical neighborhood quality related to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Kimberly A; Wells, Nancy M; Evans, Gary W

    2015-04-29

    Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work.

  10. The Effect of the Social and Physical Environment on Children's Independent Mobility to Neighborhood Destinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Hayley E; Klinker, Charlotte D; Villanueva, Karen; Knuiman, Matthew W; Foster, Sarah A; Zubrick, Stephan R; Divitini, Mark; Wood, Lisa; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-06-16

    Relationships between context-specific measures of the physical and social environment and children's independent mobility to neighborhood destination types were examined. Parents in RESIDE's fourth survey reported whether their child (8-15 years; n = 181) was allowed to travel without an adult to school, friend's house, park and local shop. Objective physical environment measures were matched to each of these destinations. Social environment measures included neighborhood perceptions and items specific to local independent mobility. Independent mobility to local destinations ranged from 30% to 48%. Independent mobility to a local park was less likely as the distance to the closest park (small and large size) increased and less likely with additional school grounds (P dependent upon the specific destination being visited and the impact of neighborhood features varies according to the destination examined. Findings highlight the importance of access to different types and sizes of urban green space for children's independent mobility to parks.

  11. How Does the Neighborhood "Come through the Door?" Concentrated Disadvantage, Residential Instability, and the Home Environment for Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Emily M.; Azar, Sandra T.; Matthews, Stephen A.

    2018-01-01

    Living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with heightened risk for poor school readiness and health outcomes in early childhood, and the home environment is thought to be a primary mechanism by which neighborhood context impacts preschoolers. This study examined the effects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and neighborhood…

  12. Complexity in built environment, health, and destination walking: a neighborhood-scale analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Cynthia; Aytur, Semra; Gardner, Kevin; Rogers, Shannon

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates the relationships between the built environment, the physical attributes of the neighborhood, and the residents' perceptions of those attributes. It focuses on destination walking and self-reported health, and does so at the neighborhood scale. The built environment, in particular sidewalks, road connectivity, and proximity of local destinations, correlates with destination walking, and similarly destination walking correlates with physical health. It was found, however, that the built environment and health metrics may not be simply, directly correlated but rather may be correlated through a series of feedback loops that may regulate risk in different ways in different contexts. In particular, evidence for a feedback loop between physical health and destination walking is observed, as well as separate feedback loops between destination walking and objective metrics of the built environment, and destination walking and perception of the built environment. These feedback loops affect the ability to observe how the built environment correlates with residents' physical health. Previous studies have investigated pieces of these associations, but are potentially missing the more complex relationships present. This study proposes a conceptual model describing complex feedback relationships between destination walking and public health, with the built environment expected to increase or decrease the strength of the feedback loop. Evidence supporting these feedback relationships is presented.

  13. Food Melt in Consumer Food Environments in Low-income Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapl, Erika S; Pike, Stephanie N; Borawski, Elaine; Flocke, Susan A; Freedman, Darcy A; Walsh, Colleen C; Schneider, Christine; Yoder, Laura

    2017-11-01

    We systematically evaluated changes in availability, price, and quality of perishable food items from the beginning to the end of the month in lowincome, urban neighborhoods. The sample included grocery stores or supermarkets in Cleveland, Ohio, within neighborhoods with >30% of population receiving food assistance. We collected data for 2 sequential months during the first and fourth weeks of each month. Two coders evaluated stores, collecting measures of availability, price, and quality for 50 items. We examined difference in number and proportion of items available at the beginning of the month (BOM) to items remaining available at the end of the month (EOM), as well as quality and price of those items. Across 48 stores, availability at EOM was lower than BOM; as store size increased, reduction in availability (ie, food melt) was significantly (p Food melt differentially affects individuals in neighborhoods without grocery stores. Findings reveal composition of food environments is dynamic rather than static, influencing food-purchasing choices among lowincome consumers.

  14. 40 CFR 81.78 - Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.78 Section 81.78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.78 Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maine) consists of the territorial area...

  15. The observed and perceived neighborhood environment and physical activity among urban-dwelling adults: The moderating role of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orstad, Stephanie L; McDonough, Meghan H; Klenosky, David B; Mattson, Marifran; Troped, Philip J

    2017-10-01

    Physical environmental features of neighborhoods are associated with physical activity, but the influence of mental health factors, such as depression, on these associations is poorly understood. We examined whether the perceived neighborhood environment mediated associations between the observed neighborhood environment and physical activity, and whether these associations were moderated by depressive symptoms. Data consisted of systematic social observations of 343 neighborhoods and resident surveys. Participants' (N = 2969) mean age was 41.9 ± 16.2 years, 60.2% were female, and 67.9% were non-White. We conducted multiple linear regression and tests for mediation and moderated mediation. Observed recreation facilities, commercial destinations, physical disorder, and physical deterioration were indirectly associated with walking via perceived neighborhood environment variables. Observed recreation facilities was indirectly and positively associated with leisure-time physical activity via perceived park access, and indirectly and inversely associated with walking and leisure-time physical activity via perceived traffic danger, but only among participants with low depressive symptom scores. Observed recreation facilities was indirectly and inversely associated, and observed physical disorder and physical deterioration were indirectly and positively associated with walking via perceived disorder, but only among participants with high depressive symptom scores. Depressive symptoms affected the strength and direction of associations between the observed neighborhood environment and physical activity via residents' perceptions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Short- and Long-Term Impacts of Neighborhood Built Environment on Self-Rated Health of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Amy

    2018-01-18

    Proximity to health care, healthy foods, and recreation is linked to improved health in older adults while deterioration of the built environment is a risk factor for poor health. Yet, it remains unclear whether individuals prone to good health self-select into favorable built environments and how long-term exposure to deteriorated environments impacts health. This study uses a longitudinal framework to address these questions. The study analyzes 3,240 Americans aged 45 or older from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics with good self-reported health at baseline, and follows them from 1999 to 2013. At each biennial survey wave, individual data are combined with data on services in the neighborhood of residence (defined as the zip code) from the Economic Census. The analysis overcomes the problem of residential self-selection by employing marginal structural models and inverse probability of treatment weights. Logistic regression estimates indicate that long-term exposure to neighborhood built environments that lack health-supportive services (e.g., physicians, pharmacies, grocery stores, senior centers, and recreational facilities) and are commercially declined (i.e., have a high density of liquor stores, pawn shops, and fast food outlets) increases the risk of fair/poor self-rated health compared to more average neighborhoods. Short-term exposure to the same environments as compared to average neighborhoods has no bearing on self-rated health after adjusting for self-selection. Results highlight the importance of expanding individuals' access to health-supportive services prior to their reaching old age, and expanding access for people unlikely to attain residence in service-dense neighborhoods. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Validation of food store environment secondary data source and the role of neighborhood deprivation in Appalachia, Kentucky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafson Alison A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the need for better measurement of the retail food environment in rural settings and to examine how deprivation may be unique in rural settings, the aims of this study were: 1 to validate one commercially available data source with direct field observations of food retailers; and 2 to examine the association between modified neighborhood deprivation and the modified retail food environment score (mRFEI. Methods Secondary data were obtained from a commercial database, InfoUSA in 2011, on all retail food outlets for each census tract. In 2011, direct observation identifying all listed food retailers was conducted in 14 counties in Kentucky. Sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV were compared. Neighborhood deprivation index was derived from American Community Survey data. Multinomial regression was used to examine associations between neighborhood deprivation and the mRFEI score (indicator of retailers selling healthy foods such as low-fat foods and fruits and vegetables relative to retailers selling more energy dense foods. Results The sensitivity of the commercial database was high for traditional food retailers (grocery stores, supermarkets, convenience stores, with a range of 0.96-1.00, but lower for non-traditional food retailers; dollar stores (0.20 and Farmer’s Markets (0.50. For traditional food outlets, the PPV for smaller non-chain grocery stores was 38%, and large chain supermarkets was 87%. Compared to those with no stores in their neighborhoods, those with a supercenter [OR 0.50 (95% CI 0.27. 0.97] or convenience store [OR 0.67 (95% CI 0.51, 0.89] in their neighborhood have lower odds of living in a low deprivation neighborhood relative to a high deprivation neighborhood. Conclusion The secondary commercial database used in this study was insufficient to characterize the rural retail food environment. Our findings suggest that neighborhoods with high neighborhood deprivation are associated with

  18. 77 FR 15263 - Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival on Willamette River; Portland, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... Zone; Portland Rose Festival on Willamette River; Portland, OR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Portland Rose Festival... Willamette River during the Portland Rose festival. During the enforcement period, no person or vessel may...

  19. Associations of perceived neighborhood physical and social environments with physical activity and television viewing in African American men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Larkin L.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have assessed how attributes of neighborhood environments contribute to sedentary, in addition to active, behaviors. This study investigated associations of perceived social and physical aspects of neighborhood environments with television (TV) viewing and physical activity (PA) in African American adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of self-reported survey. Setting Large mega-church in Houston, TX. Subjects 1,374 African American men and women. Measures Outcomes included log-transformed daily TV viewing and participation in medium/high levels of PA, measured by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Neighborhood perceptions were assessed with the Social Cohesion and Trust and the Neighborhood Problems scales. Analysis Multivariable models that controlled for clustering within neighborhoods. Results Reporting more neighborhood problems was significantly associated with greater log-transformed TV viewing in women (β=0.017, SE=0.006, p=0.003), and social cohesion was positively associated with PA in women (OR=1.06, 95% CI=1.02, 1.11, p=0.006). Concerns about litter and walking after dark, and a lack of places to shop were associated with increased TV viewing among women, and concerns about traffic and walking after dark were associated with reduced PA among men. Conclusion Physical and social neighborhood conditions were associated with TV viewing and PA, particularly in women. Neighborhood-based strategies to reduce sedentary behaviors and enhance PA should include attention to social as well as physical aspects of neighborhood environments. PMID:23398134

  20. Associations of perceived neighborhood physical and social environments with physical activity and television viewing in African-American men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Larkin L; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Wetter, David W; McNeill, Lorna H

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have assessed how attributes of neighborhood environments contribute to sedentary, in addition to active, behaviors. This study investigated associations of perceived social and physical aspects of neighborhood environments with television (TV) viewing and physical activity (PA) in African-American adults. Cross-sectional analysis of self-reported survey. Large mega-church in Houston, Texas. A total of 1374 African-American men and women. Outcomes included log-transformed daily TV viewing and participation in medium/high levels of PA, measured by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Neighborhood perceptions were assessed with the Social Cohesion and Trust and the Neighborhood Problems scales. Multivariable models that controlled for clustering within neighborhoods. Reporting more neighborhood problems was significantly associated with greater log-transformed TV viewing in women (β = .017, SE = .006, p = .003), and social cohesion was positively associated with PA in women (odds ratio = 1.06, 95% confidence interval = 1.02, 1.11, p = .006). Concerns about litter and walking after dark and a lack of places to shop were associated with increased TV viewing among women, and concerns about traffic and walking after dark were associated with reduced PA among men. Physical and social neighborhood conditions were associated with TV viewing and PA, particularly in women. Neighborhood-based strategies to reduce sedentary behaviors and enhance PA should include attention to social as well as physical aspects of neighborhood environments.

  1. Measuring the neighborhood environment: associations with young girls' energy intake and expenditure in a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushi Lawrence H

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neighborhood environments affect children's health outcomes. Observational methods used to assess neighborhoods can be categorized as indirect, intermediate, or direct. Direct methods, involving in-person audits of the neighborhoods conducted by trained observers, are recognized as an accurate representation of current neighborhood conditions. The authors investigated the associations of various neighborhood characteristics with young girls' diet and physical activity. Methods This study is based on a subset of participants in the Cohort Study of Young Girls' Nutrition, Environment and Transitions (CYGNET. In-person street audits were conducted within 215 girls' residential neighborhoods using a modified St. Louis Audit Tool. From the street audit data, exploratory factor analysis revealed five neighborhood scales: "mixed residential and commercial," "food and retail," "recreation," "walkability," and "physical disorder." A Neighborhood Deprivation Index was also derived from census data. The authors investigated if the five neighborhood scales and the Neighborhood Deprivation Index were associated with quartiles of total energy intake and expenditure (metabolic equivalent (MET hours/week at baseline, and whether any of these associations were modified by race/ethnicity. Results After adjustment for demographic characteristics, there was an inverse association between prevalence of "food and retail" destinations and total energy intake (for a one quartile increase, OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.74, 0.96. Positive associations were also observed between the "recreation" and "walkability" scales with physical activity among Hispanic/Latina girls (for a one quartile increase in MET, OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.31, 2.88 for recreation; OR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.11, 2.63 for walkability. Among African-American girls, there was an inverse association between "physical disorder" and physical activity (OR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.12, 0.80. Conclusions These results

  2. An Australian Version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale: Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerin, Ester; Leslie, Eva; Owen, Neville; Bauman, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    This study examined validity evidence for the Australian version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS-AU). A stratified two-stage cluster sampling design was used to recruit 2,650 adults from Adelaide (Australia). The sample was drawn from residential addresses within eight high-walkable and eight low-walkable suburbs matched…

  3. Chicago Residents' Perceptions of Air Quality: Objective Pollution, the Built Environment, and Neighborhood Stigma Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Katherine E

    2015-09-01

    Substantial research documents higher pollution levels in minority neighborhoods, but little research evaluates how residents perceive their own communities' pollution risks. According to "Neighborhood stigma" theory, survey respondents share a cultural bias that minorities cause social dysfunction, leading to over-reports of dysfunction in minority communities. This study investigates perceptions of residential outdoor air quality by linking objective data on built and social environments with multiple measures of pollution and a representative survey of Chicago residents. Consistent with the scholarly narrative, results show air quality is rated worse where minorities and poverty are concentrated, even after extensive adjustment for objective pollution and built environment measures. Perceptions of air pollution may thus be driven by neighborhood socioeconomic position far more than by respondents' ability to perceive pollution. The finding that 63.5% of the sample reported excellent or good air quality helps to explain current challenging in promoting environmental action.

  4. Subjective neighborhood assessment and physical inactivity: An examination of neighborhood-level variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Buschmann, Robert N; Jupiter, Daniel; Mutambudzi, Miriam; Peek, M Kristen

    2018-06-01

    Research suggests a linkage between perceptions of neighborhood quality and the likelihood of engaging in leisure-time physical activity. Often in these studies, intra-neighborhood variance is viewed as something to be controlled for statistically. However, we hypothesized that intra-neighborhood variance in perceptions of neighborhood quality may be contextually relevant. We examined the relationship between intra-neighborhood variance of subjective neighborhood quality and neighborhood-level reported physical inactivity across 48 neighborhoods within a medium-sized city, Texas City, Texas using survey data from 2706 residents collected between 2004 and 2006. Neighborhoods where the aggregated perception of neighborhood quality was poor also had a larger proportion of residents reporting being physically inactive. However, higher degrees of disagreement among residents within neighborhoods about their neighborhood quality was significantly associated with a lower proportion of residents reporting being physically inactive (p=0.001). Our results suggest that intra-neighborhood variability may be contextually relevant in studies seeking to better understand the relationship between neighborhood quality and behaviors sensitive to neighborhood environments, like physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of the neighborhood physical environment on early child health and development: A review and call for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Hayley; Zubrick, Stephen R; Foster, Sarah; Giles-Corti, Billie; Bull, Fiona; Wood, Lisa; Knuiman, Matthew; Brinkman, Sally; Houghton, Stephen; Boruff, Bryan

    2015-05-01

    This review examines evidence of the association between the neighborhood built environment, green spaces and outdoor home area, and early (0-7 years) child health and development. There was evidence that the presence of child relevant neighborhood destinations and services were positively associated with early child development domains of physical health and wellbeing and social competence. Parents׳ perceptions of neighborhood safety were positively associated with children׳s social-emotional development and general health. Population representative studies using objective measures of the built environment and valid measures of early child development are warranted to understand the impact of the built environment on early child health and development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 75 FR 20778 - Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ...-AA87 Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR AGENCY: Coast... during the Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week from June 2, 2010, through June 7, 2010. The security zone... is a need to provide a security zone for the 2010 Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, and there is...

  7. Neighborhood built environment and cognition in non-demented older adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Lilah M; Rodriguez, Daniel A; McDonald, Noreen; Kukull, Walter A; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Rapp, Stephen R; Seeman, Teresa

    2018-03-01

    Preliminary studies suggest that neighborhood social and built environment (BE) characteristics may affect cognition in older adults. Older adults are particularly vulnerable to the neighborhood environment due to a decreasing range of routine travel with increasing age. We examined if multiple neighborhood BE characteristics are cross-sectionally associated with cognition in a diverse sample of older adults, and if the BE-cognition associations vary by individual-level demographics. The sample included 4539 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the associations between five BE measures and four cognitive measures, and effect modification by individual-level education and race/ethnicity. In the overall sample, increasing social destination density, walking destination density, and intersection density were associated with worse overall cognition, whereas increasing proportion of land dedicated to retail was associated with better processing speed. Effect modification results suggest that the association between urban density and worse cognition may be limited to or strongest in those of non-white race/ethnicity. Although an increase in neighborhood retail destinations was associated with better cognition in the overall sample, these results suggest that certain BE characteristics in dense urban environments may have a disproportionately negative association with cognition in vulnerable populations. However, our findings must be replicated in longitudinal studies and other regional samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Is a hilly neighborhood environment associated with diabetes mellitus among older people? Results from the JAGES 2010 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Takamoto, Iseki; Amemiya, Airi; Hanazato, Masamichi; Suzuki, Norimichi; Nagamine, Yuiko; Sasaki, Yuri; Tani, Yukako; Yazawa, Aki; Inoue, Yosuke; Shirai, Kokoro; Shobugawa, Yugo; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2017-06-01

    Although living in a hilly environment may promote muscular activity in the daily lives of residents, and such activity may prevent diabetes mellitus, few studies have focused on the impact of living in a hilly environment on diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a hilly neighborhood environment on DM in older people. We used data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study, a population-based, cross-sectional study of individuals aged 65 or older without long-term care needs in Japan, which was conducted in 2010. A total of 8904 participants in 46 neighborhoods had responded to the questionnaire and undergone a health check. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed as HbA 1c  ≥ 6.5% and those undergoing treatment for diabetes mellitus. Poorly controlled diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in those without other chronic diseases who had an HbA 1c > 7.5%, and in those with other chronic diseases if their HbA 1c was >8.0%. Neighborhood environment was evaluated based on the percentage of positive responses in the questionnaire and geographical information system data. A multilevel analysis was performed, adjusted for individual-level risk factors. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis was conducted for those who were undergoing treatment for diabetes mellitus (n = 1007). After adjustment for other physical environmental and individual covariates, a 1 interquartile range increase (1.48°) in slope in the neighborhood decreased the risk of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus by 18% (odds ratio [OR]: 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70-0.97). Sensitivity analysis confirmed that larger slopes in the neighborhood showed a significant protective effect against diabetes mellitus among those who were undergoing treatment for diabetes mellitus (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.59-0.90). A hilly neighborhood environment was not associated with diabetes mellitus, but was protective against poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  9. Association between the neighborhood obesogenic environment and colorectal cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canchola, Alison J; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Yang, Juan; Albright, Cheryl; Hertz, Andrew; Park, Song-Yi; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Monroe, Kristine R; Le Marchand, Loïc; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Wilkens, Lynne R; Cheng, Iona

    2017-10-01

    Information on the role of the neighborhood environment and colorectal cancer risk is limited. We investigated the association between a comprehensive suite of possible obesogenic neighborhood attributes (socioeconomic status, population density, restaurant and retail food environments, numbers of recreational facilities and businesses, commute patterns, traffic density, and street connectivity) and colorectal cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Among 81,197 eligible participants living in California (35,397 males and 45,800 females), 1973 incident cases (981 males and 992 females) of invasive colorectal cancer were identified between 1993 and 2010. Separately for males and females, multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for colorectal cancer risk overall and by racial/ethnic group (African American, Japanese American, Latino, white). In males, higher traffic density was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (HR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.03-1.61, p=0.03, for quintile 5 vs. quintile 1; p-trend=0.06). While this association may be due to chance, this pattern was seen (albeit non-statistically significant) in all racial/ethnic groups except whites. There were no other significant associations between other neighborhood obesogenic attributes and colorectal cancer risk. Findings from our large racial/ethnically diverse cohort suggest neighborhood obesogenic characteristics are not strongly associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Children's perceptions of their home and neighborhood environments, and their association with objectively measured physical activity: a qualitative and quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, C; Salmon, J; Ball, K

    2005-02-01

    Environmental factors may have an important influence on children's physical activity, yet children's perspectives of their home and neighborhood environments have not been widely assessed. The aim of this study was to investigate children's perceptions of their environments, and to examine associations between these perceptions and objectively measured physical activity. The sample consisted of 147, 10-year-old Australian children, who drew maps of their home and neighborhood environments. A subsample of children photographed places and things in these environments that were important to them. The maps were analyzed for themes, and for the frequency with which particular objects and locations appeared. Physical activity was objectively measured using accelerometers. Six themes emerged from the qualitative analysis of the maps and photographs: the family home; opportunities for physical activity and sedentary pursuits; food items and locations; green space and outside areas; the school and opportunities for social interaction. Of the 11 variables established from these themes, one home and two neighborhood factors were associated with children's physical activity. These findings contribute to a broader understanding of children's perceptions of their environment, and highlight the potential importance of the home and neighborhood environments for promoting physical activity behavior.

  11. The neighborhood social environment and body mass index among youth: a mediation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veitch Jenny

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine associations between aspects of the neighborhood social environment and body mass index (BMI in youth both cross-sectionally and prospectively; and whether this association was mediated by physical activity, screen-time and sedentary time. Methods Data were collected in 2004 and 2006 in high and low socio-economic areas of Melbourne, Australia. In 2004, 185 children aged 8-9 years (47% boys and 359 children aged 13-15 years (45% boys participated. Parents reported their perceptions of aspects of the social environment (i.e. social networks and social trust/cohesion, and physical activity (i.e. time spent outdoors by their children; and their younger children's walking and cycling trips and screen-time (i.e. TV viewing, computer use. The older children self-reported their walking and cycling trips and their screen-time. All children wore an accelerometer to objectively assess outside-school hours moderate- to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time. BMI was calculated from height and weight measured in 2004 and 2006. Multilevel linear regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between the social environment and BMI. Mediation analyses using the products of coefficient method were conducted to determine whether associations between the social environment and BMI were mediated by the time spent in a range of physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Results Cross-sectional and prospective regression analyses showed that a more positive social network and higher social trust/cohesion was related to lower BMI among children. There was no evidence that time spent in physical activity or sedentary behaviors mediated this relation, despite significant associations between social networks and screen-time and between screen-time and BMI. Conclusions The findings suggest that the neighborhood social environment may be important for preventing overweight and obesity in children. Further

  12. Social neighborhood environment and sports participation among Dutch adults: Does sports location matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, D.; Stronks, K.; Maas, J.; Wingen, M.; Kunst, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the relation between the social neighborhood environment and sports participation have produced inconsistent results. Use of generic sports outcomes may have obscured associations only apparent for sports at certain locations. This study aims to assess the association between the social

  13. Social neighborhood environment and sports participation among Dutch adults: does sports location matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, D.; Stronks, K.; Maas, J.; Wingen, M.; Kunst, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the relation between the social neighborhood environment and sports participation have produced inconsistent results. Use of generic sports outcomes may have obscured associations only apparent for sports at certain locations. This study aims to assess the association between the social

  14. Adults' Daily Walking for Travel and Leisure: Interaction Between Attitude Toward Walking and the Neighborhood Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Diez-Roux, Ana V

    2017-09-01

    Studies on how the interaction of psychological and environmental characteristics influences walking are limited, and the results are inconsistent. Our aim is to examine how the attitude toward walking and neighborhood environments interacts to influence walking. Cross-sectional phone and mail survey. Participants randomly sampled from 6 study sites including Los Angeles, Chicago, Baltimore, Minneapolis, Manhattan, and Bronx Counties in New York City, and Forsyth and Davidson Counties in North Carolina. The final sample consisted of 2621 persons from 2011 to 2012. Total minutes of walking for travel or leisure, attitude toward walking, and perceptions of the neighborhood environments were self-reported. Street Smart (SS) Walk Score (a measure of walkability derived from a variety of geographic data) was obtained for each residential location. Linear regression models adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, and income. Attitude toward walking was positively associated with walking for both purposes. Walking for travel was significantly associated with SS Walk Score, whereas walking for leisure was not. The SS Walk Score and selected perceived environment characteristics were associated with walking in people with a very positive attitude toward walking but were not associated with walking in people with a less positive attitude. Attitudes toward walking and neighborhood environments interact to affect walking behavior.

  15. Do Natural Experiments of Changes in Neighborhood Built Environment Impact Physical Activity and Diet? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Freya; George, Emma S; Feng, Xiaoqi; Merom, Dafna; Bennie, Andrew; Cook, Amelia; Sanders, Taren; Dwyer, Genevieve; Pang, Bonnie; Guagliano, Justin M; Kolt, Gregory S; Astell-Burt, Thomas

    2018-01-26

    Physical activity and diet are major modifiable risk factors for chronic disease and have been shown to be associated with neighborhood built environment. Systematic review evidence from longitudinal studies on the impact of changing the built environment on physical activity and diet is currently lacking. A systematic review of natural experiments of neighborhood built environment was conducted. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize study characteristics, study quality, and impact of changes in neighborhood built environment on physical activity and diet outcomes among residents. Natural experiments of neighborhood built environment change, exploring longitudinal impacts on physical activity and/or diet in residents, were included. From five electronic databases, 2084 references were identified. A narrative synthesis was conducted, considering results in relation to study quality. Nineteen papers, reporting on 15 different exposures met inclusion criteria. Four studies included a comparison group and 11 were pre-post/longitudinal studies without a comparison group. Studies reported on the impact of redeveloping or introducing cycle and/or walking trails ( n = 5), rail stops/lines ( n = 4), supermarkets and farmers' markets ( n = 4) and park and green space ( n = 2). Eight/15 studies reported at least one beneficial change in physical activity, diet or another associated health outcome. Due to limitations in study design and reporting, as well as the wide array of outcome measures reported, drawing conclusions to inform policy was challenging. Future research should consider a consistent approach to measure the same outcomes (e.g., using measurement methods that collect comparable physical activity and diet outcome data), to allow for pooled analyses. Additionally, including comparison groups wherever possible and ensuring high quality reporting is essential.

  16. Do Natural Experiments of Changes in Neighborhood Built Environment Impact Physical Activity and Diet? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya MacMillan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and diet are major modifiable risk factors for chronic disease and have been shown to be associated with neighborhood built environment. Systematic review evidence from longitudinal studies on the impact of changing the built environment on physical activity and diet is currently lacking. A systematic review of natural experiments of neighborhood built environment was conducted. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize study characteristics, study quality, and impact of changes in neighborhood built environment on physical activity and diet outcomes among residents. Natural experiments of neighborhood built environment change, exploring longitudinal impacts on physical activity and/or diet in residents, were included. From five electronic databases, 2084 references were identified. A narrative synthesis was conducted, considering results in relation to study quality. Nineteen papers, reporting on 15 different exposures met inclusion criteria. Four studies included a comparison group and 11 were pre-post/longitudinal studies without a comparison group. Studies reported on the impact of redeveloping or introducing cycle and/or walking trails (n = 5, rail stops/lines (n = 4, supermarkets and farmers’ markets (n = 4 and park and green space (n = 2. Eight/15 studies reported at least one beneficial change in physical activity, diet or another associated health outcome. Due to limitations in study design and reporting, as well as the wide array of outcome measures reported, drawing conclusions to inform policy was challenging. Future research should consider a consistent approach to measure the same outcomes (e.g., using measurement methods that collect comparable physical activity and diet outcome data, to allow for pooled analyses. Additionally, including comparison groups wherever possible and ensuring high quality reporting is essential.

  17. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and genetic influences on alcohol use: evidence for gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutske, Wendy S; Deutsch, Arielle R; Piasecki, Thomas M

    2018-05-07

    Genetic influences on alcohol involvement are likely to vary as a function of the 'alcohol environment,' given that exposure to alcohol is a necessary precondition for genetic risk to be expressed. However, few gene-environment interaction studies of alcohol involvement have focused on characteristics of the community-level alcohol environment. The goal of this study was to examine whether living in a community with more alcohol outlets would facilitate the expression of the genetic propensity to drink in a genetically-informed national survey of United States young adults. The participants were 2434 18-26-year-old twin, full-, and half-sibling pairs from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Participants completed in-home interviews in which alcohol use was assessed. Alcohol outlet densities were extracted from state-level liquor license databases aggregated at the census tract level to derive the density of outlets. There was evidence that the estimates of genetic and environmental influences on alcohol use varied as a function of the density of alcohol outlets in the community. For example, the heritability of the frequency of alcohol use for those residing in a neighborhood with ten or more outlets was 74% (95% confidence limits = 55-94%), compared with 16% (95% confidence limits = 0-34%) for those in a neighborhood with zero outlets. This moderating effect of alcohol outlet density was not explained by the state of residence, population density, or neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics. The results suggest that living in a neighborhood with many alcohol outlets may be especially high-risk for those individuals who are genetically predisposed to frequently drink.

  18. Adaptation, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale in Nigeria (PANES-N).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Sallis, James F; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y; Amin, Mariam M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2013-11-01

    This study adapted the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale (PANES) to the Nigerian context and assessed the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Nigerian version (PANESN). A multidisciplinary panel of experts adapted the original PANES to reflect the built and social environment of Nigeria. The adapted PANES was subjected to cognitive testing and test retest reliability in a diverse sample of Nigerian adults (N = 132) from different neighborhood types. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) was used to assess test-retest reliability, and construct validity was investigated with Analysis of Covariance for differences in environmental attributes between neighborhoods. Four of the 17 items on the original PANES were significantly modified, 3 were removed and 2 new items were incorporated into the final version of adapted PANES-N. Test-retest reliability was substantial to almost perfect (ICC = 0.62-1.00) for all items on the PANES-N, and residents of neighborhoods in the inner city reported higher residential density, land use mix and safety, but lower pedestrian facilities and aesthetics than did residents of government reserved area/new layout neighborhoods. The PANES-N appears promising for assessing environmental perceptions related to physical activity in Nigeria, but further testing is required to assess its applicability across Africa.

  19. Perception of neighborhood environment and health risk behaviors in Prague's teenagers: a pilot study in a post-communist city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilkova, Jana; Dzúrova, Dagmar; Pitonak, Michal

    2014-10-14

    A youths' neighborhood can play an important role in their physical, health, and emotional development. The prevalence of health risk behavior (HRB) in Czech youth such as smoking, drug and alcohol use is the highest in Europe. To analyze differences in HRB in youth residents within different types of Prague's neighborhoods in relation to the perception of the built environment, quality of their school and home environments. The data is based on the on-line survey among elementary school students aged between 14-15 years, which was administered in19 selected schools in Prague, during the months of October 2013 to March 2014. Respondents were asked their opinions on various issues related to their HRB, about their indoor and outdoor housing and school environments. The questionnaire was completed by 407 students. Factor analysis with a principal components extraction was applied to determine the underlying structure in the variables. A consequent field research was conducted to map the opportunity hot spots and critical places around the elementary schools. Binge drinking has been reported mainly by the students living in the housing estates with blocks of flats. The most frequent occurrence of daily smokers was found in the neighborhoods of old city apartment houses. High prevalence of risky marijuana use almost in all the surveyed types of neighborhoods. The respondents were more critical in their evaluation of school characteristics. The neighborhoods critically evaluated by the students as regards the school outdoor environments were the older apartment houses in the historical centre and inner city, the school indoor environment was worst assessed within the housing estate neighborhoods. Our results suggest that perceptions of problems in both residential and school environment are associated with HRB. This fact makes this issue of a serious importance also from the policy point of view. Mainly the school surroundings have to be better managed by the local

  20. The Difference-in-Difference Method: Assessing the Selection Bias in the Effects of Neighborhood Environment on Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafova, Irina; Freedman, Vicki; Lurie, Nicole; Kumar, Rizie; Rogowski, Jeannette

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the difference-in-difference estimation approach to explore the self-selection bias in estimating the effect of neighborhood economic environment on self-assessed health among older adults. The results indicate that there is evidence of downward bias in the conventional estimates of the effect of neighborhood economic disadvantage on self-reported health, representing a lower bound of the true effect. PMID:23623818

  1. Active living neighborhoods: is neighborhood walkability a key element for Belgian adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meester, Femke; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Sallis, James F; Cardon, Greet

    2012-01-04

    In adult research, neighborhood walkability has been acknowledged as an important construct among the built environmental correlates of physical activity. Research into this association has only recently been extended to adolescents and the current empirical evidence is not consistent. This study investigated whether neighborhood walkability and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with physical activity among Belgian adolescents and whether the association between neighborhood walkability and physical activity is moderated by neighborhood SES and gender. In Ghent (Belgium), 32 neighborhoods were selected based on GIS-based walkability and SES derived from census data. In total, 637 adolescents (aged 13-15 year, 49.6% male) participated in the study. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers and the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. To analyze the associations between neighborhood walkability, neighborhood SES and individual physical activity, multivariate multi-level regression analyses were conducted. Only in low-SES neighborhoods, neighborhood walkability was positively associated with accelerometer-based moderate to vigorous physical activity and the average activity level expressed in counts/minute. For active transport to and from school, cycling for transport during leisure time and sport during leisure time no association with neighborhood walkability nor, with neighborhood SES was found. For walking for transport during leisure time a negative association with neighborhood SES was found. Gender did not moderate the associations of neighborhood walkability and SES with adolescent physical activity. Neighborhood walkability was related to accelerometer-based physical activity only among adolescent boys and girls living in low-SES neighborhoods. The relation of built environment to adolescent physical activity may depend on the context.

  2. Neighborhood perceptions and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Deurzen, Ioana; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Christensen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    An influential argument explaining why living in certain neighborhoods can become harmful to one's health maintains that individuals can perceive certain characteristics of the neighborhood as threatening and the prolonged exposure to a threatening environment could induce chronic stress. Following...... this line of argumentation, in the present study we test whether subjective perceptions of neighborhood characteristics relate to an objective measure of stress-related physiological functioning, namely allostatic load (AL). We use a large dataset of 5280 respondents living in different regions of Denmark...... and we account for two alternative mechanisms, i.e., the objective characteristics of the living environment and the socio-economic status of individuals. Our results support the chronic stress mechanisms linking neighborhood quality to health. Heightened perceptions of disorder and pollution were found...

  3. Immediate and delayed solubility of mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Bodanezi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the solubility of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA and Portland cement since its mixture until 672 hours, by means of two complimentary methods. Metal ring molds filled with the cements were covered with distilled water and, at each experimental time (3, 24, 72, 168, 336 and 672 hours, were weighed as soon as the plates in which the samples have been placed. Empty rings served as the control group (n=8. Mean weight gain and loss was determined and analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test for all pairwise comparisons. Only Portland cement showed less than 3% weight loss through 24 hours. Detached MTA residues were heavier than those of Portland cement over the 3 to 168 hours. The weight of MTA rings increased more than that of Portland rings within 672 hours (p=0.05. The findings of the present study indicate that, in an aqueous environment MTA is more soluble than Portland cement and exceeds the maximum weight loss considered acceptable by ISO 6876 standard (2001.

  4. Immediate and delayed solubility of mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodanezi, Augusto; Carvalho, Nara; Silva, Daniela; Bernardineli, Norberti; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the solubility of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement since its mixture until 672 hours, by means of two complimentary methods. Metal ring molds filled with the cements were covered with distilled water and, at each experimental time (3, 24, 72, 168, 336 and 672 hours), were weighed as soon as the plates in which the samples have been placed. Empty rings served as the control group (n=8). Mean weight gain and loss was determined and analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test for all pairwise comparisons. Only Portland cement showed less than 3% weight loss through 24 hours. Detached MTA residues were heavier than those of Portland cement over the 3 to 168 hours. The weight of MTA rings increased more than that of Portland rings within 672 hours (p=0.05). The findings of the present study indicate that, in an aqueous environment MTA is more soluble than Portland cement and exceeds the maximum weight loss considered acceptable by ISO 6876 standard (2001).

  5. The association between neighborhood economic hardship, the retail food environment, fast food intake, and obesity: findings from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxy, Michael; Malecki, Kristen C; Givens, Marjory L; Walsh, Matthew C; Nieto, F Javier

    2015-03-13

    Neighborhood-level characteristics such as economic hardship and the retail food environment are assumed to be correlated and to influence consumers' dietary behavior and health status, but few studies have investigated these different relationships comprehensively in a single study. This work aims to investigate the association between neighborhood-level economic hardship, the retail food environment, fast food consumption, and obesity prevalence. Linking data from the population-based Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW, n = 1,570, 2008-10) and a commercially available business database, the Wisconsin Retail Food Environment Index (WRFEI) was defined as the mean distance from each participating household to the three closest supermarkets divided by the mean distance to the three closest convenience stores or fast food restaurants. Based on US census data, neighborhood-level economic hardship was defined by the Economic Hardship Index (EHI). Relationships were analyzed using multivariate linear and logistic regression models. SHOW residents living in neighborhoods with the highest economic hardship faced a less favorable retail food environment (WRFEI = 2.53) than residents from neighborhoods with the lowest economic hardship (WRFEI = 1.77; p-trend associations between the WRFEI and obesity and only a weak borderline-significant association between access to fast food restaurants and self-reported fast food consumption (≥ 2 times/week, OR = 0.59-0.62, p = 0.05-0.09) in urban residents. Participants reporting higher frequency of fast food consumption (≥ 2 times vs. obese (OR = 1.35, p = 0.06). This study indicates that neighborhood-level economic hardship is associated with an unfavorable retail food environment. However inconsistent or non-significant relationships between the retail food environment, fast food consumption, and obesity were observed. More research is needed to enhance methodological approaches to assess the retail food environment and

  6. Perbandingan Sifat Fisik Beton Yang Menggunakan Semen Portland Pozzolan Dan Semen Portland Tipe I

    OpenAIRE

    Yusnita, Heni

    2011-01-01

    The research about concrete by using the Portland pozzolan cement and Portland cement type I has been done with the variation of submersion time is 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The test is done for physics of the concrete. The sample is made from the ingredients 1 cement : 2 sand : 3 pebble. The result of the researching shows that the used of the Portland pozzolan cement can raise the impact of the concrete as much as 9,15% from concrete which uses the Portland cement type I. Orther side for the ...

  7. Active living neighborhoods: is neighborhood walkability a key element for Belgian adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Meester Femke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In adult research, neighborhood walkability has been acknowledged as an important construct among the built environmental correlates of physical activity. Research into this association has only recently been extended to adolescents and the current empirical evidence is not consistent. This study investigated whether neighborhood walkability and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES are associated with physical activity among Belgian adolescents and whether the association between neighborhood walkability and physical activity is moderated by neighborhood SES and gender. Methods In Ghent (Belgium, 32 neighborhoods were selected based on GIS-based walkability and SES derived from census data. In total, 637 adolescents (aged 13-15 year, 49.6% male participated in the study. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers and the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. To analyze the associations between neighborhood walkability, neighborhood SES and individual physical activity, multivariate multi-level regression analyses were conducted. Results Only in low-SES neighborhoods, neighborhood walkability was positively associated with accelerometer-based moderate to vigorous physical activity and the average activity level expressed in counts/minute. For active transport to and from school, cycling for transport during leisure time and sport during leisure time no association with neighborhood walkability nor, with neighborhood SES was found. For walking for transport during leisure time a negative association with neighborhood SES was found. Gender did not moderate the associations of neighborhood walkability and SES with adolescent physical activity. Conclusions Neighborhood walkability was related to accelerometer-based physical activity only among adolescent boys and girls living in low-SES neighborhoods. The relation of built environment to adolescent physical activity may depend on the context.

  8. Perception of neighborhood environment and health risk behaviors in Prague’s teenagers: a pilot study in a post-communist city

    OpenAIRE

    Spilkova, Jana; Dzúrova, Dagmar; Pitonak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Background A youths’ neighborhood can play an important role in their physical, health, and emotional development. The prevalence of health risk behavior (HRB) in Czech youth such as smoking, drug and alcohol use is the highest in Europe. Aim To analyze differences in HRB in youth residents within different types of Prague’s neighborhoods in relation to the perception of the built environment, quality of their school and home environments. Data and methods The data is based on the on-line sur...

  9. Effect of housing relocation and neighborhood environment on adolescent mental and behavioral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byck, Gayle R; Bolland, John; Dick, Danielle; Swann, Gregory; Henry, David; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether relocating from a high-poverty neighborhood to a lower poverty neighborhood as part of a federal housing relocation program (HOPE VI; Housing Opportunities for People Everywhere) had effects on adolescent mental and behavioral health compared to adolescents consistently living in lower poverty neighborhoods. Sociodemographic, risk behavior, and neighborhood data were collected from 592 low-income, primarily African-American adolescents and their primary caregivers. Structured psychiatric interviews were conducted with adolescents. Prerelocation neighborhood, demographic, and risk behavior data were also included. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to test associations between neighborhood variables and risk outcomes. HLM was used to test whether the effect of neighborhood relocation and neighborhood characteristics might explain differences in sexual risk taking, substance use, and mental health outcomes. Adolescents who relocated of HOPE VI neighborhoods (n = 158) fared worse than control group participants (n = 429) on most self-reported mental health outcomes. The addition of subjective neighborhood measures generally did not substantively change these results. Our findings suggest that moving from a high-poverty neighborhood to a somewhat lower poverty neighborhood is not associated with better mental health and risk behavior outcomes in adolescents. The continued effects of having grown up in a high-poverty neighborhood, the small improvements in their new neighborhoods, the comparatively short length of time they lived in their new neighborhood, and/or the stress of moving appears to worsen most of the mental health outcomes of HOPE VI compared to control group participants who consistently lived in the lower poverty neighborhoods. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  10. The neighborhood food environment: sources of historical data on retail food stores

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Alma A; Wang May C; Ritchie Lorrene D; Winkleby Marilyn A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract With the rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity in the United States, and the minimal success of education-based interventions, there is growing interest in understanding the role of the neighborhood food environment in determining dietary behavior. This study, as part of a larger study, identifies historical data on retail food stores, evaluates strengths and limitations of the data for research, and assesses the comparability of historical retail food store data from a government...

  11. Neighborhood environments and obesity among Afro-Caribbean, African American, and Non-Hispanic white adults in the United States: results from the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Samaah M; Brashear, Meghan M; Broyles, Stephanie T; Rung, Ariane L

    2014-04-01

    To examine possible associations between perceived neighborhood environments and obesity among a U.S. nationally representative sample of Afro-Caribbean, African American, and Non-Hispanic white adults. Data was used from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life (NSAL). All measures including neighborhood characteristics, height, and weight were self-reported. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) of obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) based on perceived neighborhood physical and social characteristics. The odds of obesity were significantly lower for adults who reported involvement in clubs, associations, or help groups (odds ratio (OR): 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44, 0.85) and perceived that they had a park, playground, or open space in their neighborhood (odds ratio (OR): 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47, 0.98). These associations remained significant after adjusting for leisure-time physical activity. Race/ethnicity appeared to modify the association between involvement in clubs, associations, or help groups and obesity. Providing parks, playgrounds, or open space or increasing the perception of those amenities may assist in the prevention of obesity, especially in ethnically diverse neighborhoods in the United States. More research is needed to investigate how perceptions of the neighborhood environment influence obesity and whether perceptions of the neighborhood environment differ between individuals within the same neighborhoods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neighborhood Influences on Perceived Social Support Among Parents: Findings from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendulkar, Shalini A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Dunn, Erin C.; Buka, Stephen; Subramanian, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Background Social support is frequently linked to positive parenting behavior. Similarly, studies increasingly show a link between neighborhood residential environment and positive parenting behavior. However, less is known about how the residential environment influences parental social support. To address this gap, we examine the relationship between neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and collective efficacy and the level and change in parental caregiver perceptions of non-familial social support. Methodology/Principal Findings The data for this study came from three data sources, the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) Study's Longitudinal Cohort Survey of caregivers and their offspring, a Community Survey of adult residents in these same neighborhoods and the 1990 Census. Social support is measured at Wave 1 and Wave 3 and neighborhood characteristics are measured at Wave 1. Multilevel linear regression models are fit. The results show that neighborhood collective efficacy is a significant (ß = .04; SE = .02; p = .03), predictor of the positive change in perceived social support over a 7 year period, however, not of the level of social support, adjusting for key compositional variables and neighborhood concentrated disadvantage. In contrast concentrated neighborhood disadvantage is not a significant predictor of either the level or change in social support. Conclusion Our finding suggests that neighborhood collective efficacy may be important for inducing the perception of support from friends in parental caregivers over time. PMID:22493683

  13. Neighborhood influences on perceived social support among parents: findings from the project on human development in Chicago neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendulkar, Shalini A; Koenen, Karestan C; Dunn, Erin C; Buka, Stephen; Subramanian, S V

    2012-01-01

    Social support is frequently linked to positive parenting behavior. Similarly, studies increasingly show a link between neighborhood residential environment and positive parenting behavior. However, less is known about how the residential environment influences parental social support. To address this gap, we examine the relationship between neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and collective efficacy and the level and change in parental caregiver perceptions of non-familial social support. The data for this study came from three data sources, the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) Study's Longitudinal Cohort Survey of caregivers and their offspring, a Community Survey of adult residents in these same neighborhoods and the 1990 Census. Social support is measured at Wave 1 and Wave 3 and neighborhood characteristics are measured at Wave 1. Multilevel linear regression models are fit. The results show that neighborhood collective efficacy is a significant (ß = .04; SE = .02; p = .03), predictor of the positive change in perceived social support over a 7 year period, however, not of the level of social support, adjusting for key compositional variables and neighborhood concentrated disadvantage. In contrast concentrated neighborhood disadvantage is not a significant predictor of either the level or change in social support. Our finding suggests that neighborhood collective efficacy may be important for inducing the perception of support from friends in parental caregivers over time.

  14. Neighborhood food environments and Body Mass Index: the importance of in-store contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Donald; Hutchinson, Paul L; Bodor, J Nicholas; Swalm, Chris M; Farley, Thomas A; Cohen, Deborah A; Rice, Janet C

    2009-09-01

    Most public health studies on the neighborhood food environment have focused on types of stores and their geographic placement, yet marketing research has long documented the influence of in-store shelf-space on consumer behavior. This paper combines these two strands of research to test whether the aggregate availability of specific foods in a neighborhood is associated with the BMIs of its residents. Fielded from October 2004 to August 2005, this study combines mapping of retail food outlets, in-store surveys, and telephone interviews of residents from 103 randomly sampled urban census tracts in southeastern Louisiana. Linear shelf-space of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense snack foods was measured in 307 food stores in the study tracts. Residential addresses, demographic information, and heights and weights were obtained from 1243 respondents through telephone interviews. Cumulative shelf-space of foods within defined distances of each respondent was calculated using observations from the in-store survey and probability-based assignments of shelf-space to all unobserved stores in the area. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, income, and car ownership, regression analysis, conducted in 2008, showed that cumulative shelf-space availability of energy-dense snack foods was positively, although modestly, associated with BMI. A 100-meter increase in shelf-space of these foods within 1 kilometer of a respondent's household was associated with an additional 0.1 BMI points. Fruit and vegetable shelf-space was not significantly related to BMI. Interventions that seek to improve the neighborhood food environment may need to focus on more than just increasing access to healthy foods, because the results suggest that the availability of energy-dense snack foods plays a role in weight status.

  15. Construct Validity of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Conway, Terry L; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Akinroye, Kingsley K; Aryeetey, Richmond; Assah, Felix; Cain, Kelli L; Gavand, Kavita A; Kasoma, Sandra S; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Lambert, Estelle V; Larouche, Richard; Moss, Sarah J; Ocansey, Reginald; Onywera, Vincent O; Prista, Antonio; Tremblay, Mark S; Sallis, James F

    2017-03-01

    The development of valid measures of built environments relevant for physical activity is an important step toward controlling the global epidemic of physical inactivity-related noncommunicable diseases and deaths. This study assessed the construct validity of a self-report neighborhood environment walkability scale adapted for Africa (NEWS-Africa), by examining relationships with self-reported walking for transportation and recreation using pooled data from six sub-Saharan African countries. NEWS was systematically adapted to assess urban, periurban, and rural environments in sub-Saharan Africa. Adults (n = 469, 18-85 yr, 49.7% women) from Cameroon, Ghana, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda were purposively recruited from neighborhoods varying in walkability and socioeconomic status, with some from villages. Participants completed the 76-item (13 subscales) NEWS-Africa by structured interview and reported weekly minutes of walking for transport and recreation using items from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The overall "walkability" index had a positive relationship with both walking for transportation (η = 0.020, P = 0.005) and recreation (η = 0.013, P = 0.028) in the pooled analyses. The mixed-use access and stranger danger scales were positively related with transport walking (η = 0.020, P = 0.006 and η = 0.021, P = 0.040, respectively). Proximity of recreational facilities (η = 0.016, P = 0.015), road/path connectivity (η = 0.025, P = 0.002), path infrastructure (η = 0.021, P = 0.005), and overall places for walking and cycling (η = 0.012, P = 0.029) scales were positively related to recreational walking. Country-specific results were mostly nonsignificant except for South Africa and Uganda. Of 14 NEWS-Africa scales, 7 were significantly related to walking behavior in pooled analyses, providing partial support for the construct validity of NEWS-Africa. However, effect sizes appeared to be lower than those from other

  16. Construct Validity of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L.; Conway, Terry L.; Adedoyin, Rufus A.; Akinroye, Kingsley K.; Aryeetey, Richmond; Assah, Felix; Cain, Kelli L.; Gavand, Kavita A.; Kasoma, Sandra S.; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L.; Lambert, Estelle V.; Larouche, Richard; Mos, Sarah J.; Ocansey, Reginald; Onywera, Vincent O.; Prista, Antonio; Tremblay, Mark S.; Sallis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Development of valid measures of built environments relevant for physical activity is an important step toward controlling the global epidemic of physical inactivity-related noncommunicable diseases and deaths. This study assessed the construct validity of a self-report neighborhood environment walkability scale adapted for Africa (NEWS-Africa), by examining relationships with self-reported walking for transportation and recreation using pooled data from six sub-Saharan African countries. Methods NEWS was systematically adapted to assess urban, peri-urban and rural environments in sub-Saharan Africa. Adults (n=469, 18-85 years, 49.7% women) from Cameroon, Ghana, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda were purposively recruited from neighborhoods varying in walkability and socioeconomic status, with some from villages. Participants completed the 76-item (13 subscales) NEWS-Africa by structured interview and reported weekly minutes of walking for transport and recreation using items from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results The overall ‘walkability’ index had a positive relationship with both walking for transportation (eta2=0.020, p=0.005) and recreation (eta2=0.013, p=0.028) in the pooled analyses. The mixed-use access and stranger-danger scales were positively related with transport walking (eta2=0.020, p=0.006 and eta2=0.021, p=0.040, respectively). Proximity of recreational facilities (eta2=0.016, p=0.015), road/path connectivity (eta2=0.025, p=0.002), path infrastructure (eta2=0.021, p=0.005), and overall places for walking and cycling (eta2=0.012, p=0.029) scales were positively related to recreational walking. Country-specific results were mostly non-significant except for South Africa and Uganda. Conclusions Seven of 14 NEWS-Africa scales were significantly related to walking behavior in pooled analyses, providing partial support for the construct validity of NEWS-Africa. However, effect sizes appeared to be lower than

  17. Neighborhood influences on perceived social support among parents: findings from the project on human development in Chicago neighborhoods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini A Tendulkar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social support is frequently linked to positive parenting behavior. Similarly, studies increasingly show a link between neighborhood residential environment and positive parenting behavior. However, less is known about how the residential environment influences parental social support. To address this gap, we examine the relationship between neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and collective efficacy and the level and change in parental caregiver perceptions of non-familial social support. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The data for this study came from three data sources, the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN Study's Longitudinal Cohort Survey of caregivers and their offspring, a Community Survey of adult residents in these same neighborhoods and the 1990 Census. Social support is measured at Wave 1 and Wave 3 and neighborhood characteristics are measured at Wave 1. Multilevel linear regression models are fit. The results show that neighborhood collective efficacy is a significant (ß = .04; SE = .02; p = .03, predictor of the positive change in perceived social support over a 7 year period, however, not of the level of social support, adjusting for key compositional variables and neighborhood concentrated disadvantage. In contrast concentrated neighborhood disadvantage is not a significant predictor of either the level or change in social support. CONCLUSION: Our finding suggests that neighborhood collective efficacy may be important for inducing the perception of support from friends in parental caregivers over time.

  18. Neighborhood Environment and Disparities in Health Care Access Among Urban Medicare Beneficiaries With Diabetes: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryvicker, Miriam; Sridharan, Sridevi

    2018-01-01

    Older adults' health is sensitive to variations in neighborhood environment, yet few studies have examined how neighborhood factors influence their health care access. This study examined whether neighborhood environmental factors help to explain racial and socioeconomic disparities in health care access and outcomes among urban older adults with diabetes. Data from 123 233 diabetic Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older in New York City were geocoded to measures of neighborhood walkability, public transit access, and primary care supply. In 2008, 6.4% had no office-based "evaluation and management" (E&M) visits. Multilevel logistic regression indicated that this group had greater odds of preventable hospitalization in 2009 (odds ratio = 1.31; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-1.40). Nonwhites and low-income individuals had greater odds of a lapse in E&M visits and of preventable hospitalization. Neighborhood factors did not help to explain these disparities. Further research is needed on the mechanisms underlying these disparities and older adults' ability to navigate health care. Even in an insured population living in a provider-dense city, targeted interventions may be needed to overcome barriers to chronic illness care for older adults in the community.

  19. Perceived Residential Environment Quality Indicators and neighborhood attachment: A confirmation study on a Chinese sample in Chongqing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yanhui; Fornara, Ferdinando; Manca, Sara; Bonnes, Mirilia; Bonaiuto, Marino

    2015-09-01

    This paper concerns people's assessment of their neighborhood of residence in a Chinese urban context. The aim of the study was to verify the factorial structure and the reliability of two instruments originally developed and validated in Italy (the full versions of the Perceived Residential Environment Quality Indicators [PREQIs] and of the Neighborhood Attachment Scale [NAS]) in a different cultural and linguistic context. The instruments consist of 11 scales measuring the PREQIs and one scale measuring neighborhood attachment (NA). The PREQIs scales include items covering four macroevaluative domains of residential environment quality: architectural and urban planning aspects (three scales: Architectural and Town-planning Space, Organization of Accessibility and Roads, Green Areas), sociorelational aspects (one scale: People and Social Relations), functional aspects (four scales: Welfare Services, Recreational Services, Commercial Services, and Transport Services), and contextual aspects (three scales: Pace of Life, Environmental Health, Upkeep and Care). The PREQIs and NAS were included in a self-report questionnaire, which had been translated and back-translated from English to Chinese, and was then administered to 340 residents in six districts (differing along various features) of a highly urbanized context in China, the city of Chongqing. Results confirmed the factorial structure of the scales and demonstrated good internal consistency of the indicators, thus reaffirming the results of previous studies carried out in Western urban contexts. The indicators tapping the neighborhood's contextual aspects (i.e., pace of life, environmental health, and upkeep) emerged as most correlated to NA. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Creating Nurturing Environments: A Science-Based Framework for Promoting Child Health and Development within High-Poverty Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A.; Flay, Brian R.; Biglan, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty and living in areas of concentrated poverty pose multiple risks for child development and for overall health and wellbeing. Poverty is a major risk factor for several mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, as well as for other developmental challenges and physical health problems. In this paper, the Promise Neighborhoods Research Consortium describes a science-based framework for the promotion of child health and development within distressed high-poverty neighborhoods. We lay out a model of child and adolescent developmental outcomes, and integrate knowledge of potent and malleable influences to define a comprehensive intervention framework to bring about a significant increase in the proportion of young people in high-poverty neighborhoods who will develop successfully. Based on a synthesis of research from diverse fields, we designed the Creating Nurturing Environments framework to guide community-wide efforts to improve child outcomes and reduce health and educational inequalities. PMID:21468644

  1. Living alone and depression: the modifying role of the perceived neighborhood environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Sarah T; Beach, Scott R; Musa, Donald; Schulz, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Older adults who live alone are more likely to report feelings of depression than those who live with a spouse or other family members. This study examines the effects of residential status and perceived neighborhood characteristics on depression in middle-aged and older adults. This study is based on a probability sample of 1049 adults aged 55-98 years (M = 69 years) residing in Allegheny County, Pittsburgh, PA, USA in 2014. Thirty percent of participants reported living alone. We tested a multivariate model using living alone (vs. living with a family member or others) and perceived neighborhood physical and social quality as predictors of depressive symptomatology while controlling for age, sex, race, education, and disability. Living alone (compared to living with a family member) was associated with elevated levels of depressive symptomatology. However, perceptions of neighborhood social quality moderated this association. Living alone was more highly associated with depression when the perceived social quality of the neighborhood was low. Neighborhood social quality was not associated with depression among older adults who lived with a family member. Perceptions of neighborhood physical quality were not significantly associated with depression. Perceptions of good neighborhood social quality is important for adults who live alone, in terms of fewer symptoms of depression.

  2. Walking and neighborhood environments for obese and overweight patients: perspectives from family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yan; Ory, Marcia G; Lee, Chanam; Wang, Suojin; Pulczinksi, Jairus; Forjuoh, Samuel N

    2012-05-01

    Primary care practitioners can play a significant role in helping patients adopt healthy behaviors such as physical activity (PA). The aim of this qualitative study was to assess family physicians' understanding and perception of the personal and environmental factors influencing PA, especially walking, and factors affecting their counseling of obese patients about environmental motivators and barriers to PA. We conducted five focus groups with 35 family physicians and 14 family medicine residents in four clinics and a residency program affiliated with CenTexNet, a primary care practice-based research network in central Texas. Data were transcribed and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Physicians were aware of the PA guidelines, but not many actually brought up PA during their counseling of patients. Physicians agreed that neighborhood environments are important for walking and reported that their patients often brought up environmental barriers. Physicians recommended walking as an ideal type of PA for obese patients and sidewalks, parks, and trails/tracks with smooth and soft surfaces as ideal places to engage in walking. However, they rarely talked about these factors with their patients due to a perceived ineffectiveness in counseling, an inability to address environmental factors, and time constraints in the medical encounter. While physicians believe neighborhood environments often present many barriers to PA, they still believe that environmental factors are secondary to personal motivation in promoting PA among obese patients. Physicians, if better informed of the growing evidence on the environment-PA links, may be able to facilitate patients' behavior change more effectively.

  3. Understanding neighborhood environment related to Hong Kong children's physical activity: a qualitative study using nominal group technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relationships between the neighborhood environment and children's physical activity have been well documented in Western countries but are less investigated in ultra-dense Asian cities. The aim of this study was to identify the environmental facilitators and barriers of physical activity behaviors among Hong Kong Chinese children using nominal group technique. METHODS: Five nominal groups were conducted among 34 children aged 10-11 years from four types of neighborhoods varying in socio-economic status and walkability in Hong Kong. Environmental factors were generated by children in response to the question "What neighborhood environments do you think would increase or decrease your willingness to do physical activity?" Factors were prioritized in order of their importance to children's physical activity. RESULTS: Sixteen unique environmental factors, which were perceived as the most important to children's physical activity, were identified. Factors perceived as physical activity-facilitators included "Sufficient lighting", "Bridge or tunnel", "Few cars on roads", "Convenient transportation", "Subway station", "Recreation grounds", "Shopping malls with air conditioning", "Fresh air", "Interesting animals", and "Perfume shop". Factors perceived as physical activity-barriers included "People who make me feel unsafe", "Crimes nearby", "Afraid of being taken or hurt at night", "Hard to find toilet in shopping mall", "Too much noise", and "Too many people in recreation grounds". CONCLUSIONS: Specific physical activity-related environmental facilitators and barriers, which are unique in an ultra-dense city, were identified by Hong Kong children. These initial findings can inform future examinations of the physical activity-environment relationship among children in Hong Kong and similar Asian cities.

  4. Understanding neighborhood environment related to Hong Kong children's physical activity: a qualitative study using nominal group technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gang; Cerin, Ester; Huang, Wendy Y; Wong, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between the neighborhood environment and children's physical activity have been well documented in Western countries but are less investigated in ultra-dense Asian cities. The aim of this study was to identify the environmental facilitators and barriers of physical activity behaviors among Hong Kong Chinese children using nominal group technique. Five nominal groups were conducted among 34 children aged 10-11 years from four types of neighborhoods varying in socio-economic status and walkability in Hong Kong. Environmental factors were generated by children in response to the question "What neighborhood environments do you think would increase or decrease your willingness to do physical activity?" Factors were prioritized in order of their importance to children's physical activity. Sixteen unique environmental factors, which were perceived as the most important to children's physical activity, were identified. Factors perceived as physical activity-facilitators included "Sufficient lighting", "Bridge or tunnel", "Few cars on roads", "Convenient transportation", "Subway station", "Recreation grounds", "Shopping malls with air conditioning", "Fresh air", "Interesting animals", and "Perfume shop". Factors perceived as physical activity-barriers included "People who make me feel unsafe", "Crimes nearby", "Afraid of being taken or hurt at night", "Hard to find toilet in shopping mall", "Too much noise", and "Too many people in recreation grounds". Specific physical activity-related environmental facilitators and barriers, which are unique in an ultra-dense city, were identified by Hong Kong children. These initial findings can inform future examinations of the physical activity-environment relationship among children in Hong Kong and similar Asian cities.

  5. Ultrafine portland cement performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Argiz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available By mixing several binder materials and additions with different degrees of fineness, the packing density of the final product may be improved. In this work, ultrafine cement and silica fume mixes were studied to optimize the properties of cement-based materials. This research was performed in mortars made of two types of cement (ultrafine Portland cement and common Portland cement and two types of silica fume with different particle-size distributions. Two Portland cement replacement ratios of 4% and 10% of silica fume were selected and added by means of a mechanical blending method. The results revealed that the effect of the finer silica fume mixed with the coarse cement enhances the mechanical properties and pore structure refinement at a later age. This improvement is somewhat lower in the case of ultrafine cement with silica fume.

  6. Support for physical activity policies and perceptions of work and neighborhood environments: variance by BMI and activity status at the county and individual levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustat, Jeanette; O'Malley, Keelia; Hu, Tian; Tabak, Rachel G; Goins, Karin Valentine; Valko, Cheryl; Litt, Jill; Eyler, Amy

    2014-01-01

    To examine support for local policies encouraging physical activity and perceived neighborhood environment characteristics by physical activity and weight status of respondents across U.S. counties. We used a random-digit-dial, computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) to conduct a cross-sectional telephone questionnaire in selected U.S. counties in 2011. Counties with high prevalences of obesity and sedentary behavior (HH; n = 884) and counties with low prevalences of obesity and sedentary behavior (LL; n = 171) were selected nationally. Adult respondents from HH (n = 642) and LL (n = 566) counties. Questions were asked of respondents, pertaining to support for physical activity policies in various settings, neighborhood features, time spent in physical activity and sedentary behaviors, self-reported weight and height, and personal demographic information. Means and frequencies were calculated; bivariable and multivariable linear and logistic regression models, developed. Models were adjusted for individual characteristics and county HH/LL status. Respondents in LL counties perceived their neighborhood and work environments to be more supportive of healthy behaviors and were more supportive of local physical activity policies than respondents in HH counties (p physical activity, and decreased sedentary behavior. Policy support and neighborhood environments are associated with behaviors. Results can inform targeting policy agendas to facilitate the improvement of environments (community, work, and school) to be more supportive of physical activity.

  7. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Moiduddin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.

  8. The Social Acceptance of Community Solar: A Portland Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Anne

    Community solar is a renewable energy practice that's been adopted by multiple U.S. states and is being considered by many more, including the state of Oregon. A recent senate bill in Oregon, called the "Clean Electricity and Coal Transition Plan", includes a provision that directs the Oregon Public Utility Commission to establish a community solar program for investor-owned utilities by late 2017. Thus, energy consumers in Portland will be offered participation in community solar projects in the near future. Community solar is a mechanism that allows ratepayers to experience both the costs and benefits of solar energy while also helping to offset the proportion of fossil-fuel generated electricity in utility grids, thus aiding climate change mitigation. For community solar to achieve market success in the residential sector of Portland, ratepayers of investor-owned utilities must socially accept this energy practice. The aim of this study was to forecast the potential social acceptance of community solar among Portland residents by measuring willingness to participate in these projects. Additionally, consumer characteristics, attitudes, awareness, and knowledge were captured to assess the influence of these factors on intent to enroll in community solar. The theory of planned behavior, as well as the social acceptance, diffusion of innovation, and dual-interest theories were frameworks used to inform the analysis of community solar adoption. These research objectives were addressed through a mixed-mode survey of Portland residents, using a stratified random sample of Portland neighborhoods to acquire a gradient of demographics. 330 questionnaires were completed, yielding a 34.2% response rate. Descriptive statistics, binomial logistic regression models, and mean willingness to pay were the analyses conducted to measure the influence of project factors and demographic characteristics on likelihood of community solar participation. Roughly 60% of respondents

  9. Children's GPS-determined versus self-reported transport in leisure time and associations with parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanwolleghem, Griet; Schipperijn, Jasper; Gheysen, Freja

    2016-01-01

    measured transport in leisure time and filled out a diary to assess self-reported transport in leisure time. Parents completed a questionnaire to assess parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment. Pearson correlations and t-tests were used to test for concurrent validity and differences between...... GPS-determined and self-reported transport in leisure time. Generalized linear models were used to determine the associations between the parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment and GPS-determined transport in leisure time. RESULTS: Overall, children under-reported their walking......BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine both GPS-determined and self-reported walking, cycling and passive transport in leisure time during week- and weekend-days among 10 to 12-year old children. Comparisons between GPS-determined and self-reported transport in leisure time were investigated...

  10. Independent Effects of Neighborhood Poverty and Psychosocial Stress on Obesity Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwarteng, Jamila L; Schulz, Amy J; Mentz, Graciela B; Israel, Barbara A; Perkins, Denise White

    2017-12-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the independent effects of neighborhood poverty and psychosocial stress on increases in central adiposity over time. Data are from a community sample of 157 Non-Hispanic Black, Non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic adults collected in 2002-2003 and 2007-2008, and from the 2000 Decennial Census. The dependent variable was waist circumference. Independent variables included neighborhood poverty, perceived neighborhood physical environment, family stress, safety stress, everyday unfair treatment, and a cumulative stress index. Weighted 3-level hierarchical linear regression models for a continuous outcome were used to assess the effects of neighborhood poverty and psychosocial stress on central adiposity over time. We also assessed whether psychosocial stress mediated the association between neighborhood poverty and central adiposity. Neighborhood poverty and everyday unfair treatment at baseline were independently associated with increases in central adiposity over time, accounting for the other indicators of stress. Perceptions of the neighborhood physical environment and cumulative stress mediated associations between neighborhood poverty and central adiposity. Results suggest that residing in neighborhoods with higher concentrations of poverty and exposure to everyday unfair treatment independently heighten risk of increased central adiposity over time. Associations between neighborhood poverty and central adiposity were mediated by perceptions of the neighborhood physical environment and by the cumulative stress index. Public health strategies to reduce obesity should consider neighborhood poverty and exposure to multiple sources of psychosocial stress, including everyday unfair treatment.

  11. Perceived School and Neighborhood Safety, Neighborhood Violence and Academic Achievement in Urban School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    AJ, Milam; CDM, Furr-Holden; PJ, Leaf

    2010-01-01

    Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population of 3rd-5th grade students in an urban public school system. Community and school safety were assessed using the School Climate Survey, an annual city-wide assessment of student’s perception of school and community safety. Community violence was measured using the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology, an objective observational assessment of neighborhood characteristics. Academic achievement was measured using the Maryland State Assessment (MSA), a standardized exam given to all Maryland 3rd-8th graders. School Climate Data and MSA data were aggregated by school and grade. Objective assessments of neighborhood environment and students’ self-reported school and neighborhood safety were both strongly associated with academic performance. Increasing neighborhood violence was associated with statistically significant decreases from 4.2%-8.7% in math and reading achievement; increasing perceived safety was associated with significant increases in achievement from 16%-22%. These preliminary findings highlight the adverse impact of perceived safety and community violence exposure on primary school children’s academic performance. PMID:21197388

  12. Neighborhood environment, physical activity, and quality of life in adults: Intermediary effects of personal and psychosocial factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Theodoropoulou

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that the most important mediators in the examined models were exercise self-efficacy and health. Further, findings demonstrated the role of neighborhood environment in enhancing PA and QoL. Future studies should be carried out applying longitudinal data for a better understanding of these associations over time.

  13. The Wisconsin Assessment of the Social and Built Environment (WASABE): a multi-dimensional objective audit instrument for examining neighborhood effects on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Kristen C; Engelman, Corinne D; Peppard, Paul E; Nieto, F Javier; Grabow, Maggie L; Bernardinello, Milena; Bailey, Erin; Bersch, Andrew J; Walsh, Matthew C; Lo, Justin Y; Martinez-Donate, Ana

    2014-11-13

    Growing evidence suggests that mixed methods approaches to measuring neighborhood effects on health are needed. The Wisconsin Assessment of the Social and Built Environment (WASABE) is an objective audit tool designed as an addition to a statewide household-based health examination survey, the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), to objectively measure participant's neighborhoods. This paper describes the development and implementation of the WASABE and examines the instrument's ability to capture a range of social and built environment features in urban and rural communities. A systematic literature review and formative research were used to create the tool. Inter-rater reliability parameters across items were calculated. Prevalence and density of features were estimated for strata formed according to several sociodemographic and urbanicity factors. The tool is highly reliable with over 81% of 115 derived items having percent agreement above 95%. It captured variance in neighborhood features in for a diverse sample of SHOW participants. Sidewalk density in neighborhoods surrounding households of participants living at less than 100% of the poverty level was 67% (95% confidence interval, 55-80%) compared to 34% (25-44%) for those living at greater than 400% of the poverty level. Walking and biking trails were present in 29% (19-39%) of participant buffer in urban areas compared to only 7% (2-12%) in rural communities. Significant environmental differences were also observed for white versus non-white, high versus low income, and college graduates versus individuals with lower level of education. The WASABE has strong inter-rater reliability and validity properties. It builds on previous work to provide a rigorous and standardized method for systematically gathering objective built and social environmental data in a number of geographic settings. Findings illustrate the complex milieu of built environment features found in participants neighborhoods and have

  14. Basalt waste added to Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Melanda Mendes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Portland cement is widely used as a building material and more than 4.3 billion tons were produced in 2014, with increasing environmental impacts by this industry, mainly through CO2 emissions and consumption of non-removable raw materials. Several by-products have been used as raw materials or fuels to reduce environmental impacts. Basaltic waste collected by filters was employed as a mineral mixture to Portland cement and two fractions were tested. The compression strength of mortars was measured after 7 days and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Electron Diffraction Scattering (EDS were carried out on Portland cement paste with the basaltic residue. Gains in compression strength were observed for mixtures containing 2.5 wt.% of basaltic residue. Hydration products observed on surface of basaltic particles show the nucleation effect of mineral mixtures. Clinker substitution by mineral mixtures reduces CO2 emission per ton of Portland cement.

  15. Neighborhood perceptions and allostatic load : Evidence from Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deurzen, I.A.; Hulvej Rod, Naja; Christensen, Ulla; Hansen, Åse Marie; Lund, Rikke; Dich, Nadya

    2016-01-01

    An influential argument explaining why living in certain neighborhoods can become harmful to one's health maintains that individuals can perceive certain characteristics of the neighborhood as threatening and the prolonged exposure to a threatening environment could induce chronic stress. Following

  16. Binding of chloride and alkalis in Portland cement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Erik P.; Herfort, Duncan; Geiker, Mette R.

    2005-01-01

    A thermodynamic model for describing the binding of chloride and alkalis in hydrated Portland cement pastes has been developed. The model is based on the phase rule, which for cement pastes in aggressive marine environment predicts multivariant conditions, even at constant temperature and pressure. The effect of the chloride and alkalis has been quantified by experiments on cement pastes prepared from white Portland cements containing 4% and 12% C 3 A, and a grey Portland cement containing 7% C 3 A. One weight percent calcite was added to all cements. The pastes prepared at w/s ratio of 0.70 were stored in solutions of different Cl (CaCl 2 ) and Na (NaOH) concentrations. When equilibrium was reached, the mineralogy of the pastes was investigated by EDS analysis on the SEM. A well-defined distribution of chloride was found between the pore solution, the C-S-H phase, and an AFm solid solution phase consisting of Friedel's salt and monocarbonate. Partition coefficients varied as a function of iron and alkali contents. The lower content of alkalis in WPC results in higher chloride contents in the C-S-H phase. High alkali contents result in higher chloride concentrations in the pore solution

  17. Chemical constitution, physical properties, and biocompatibility of experimentally manufactured Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yun-Chan; Kim, Do-Hee; Hwang, In-Nam; Song, Sun-Ju; Park, Yeong-Joon; Koh, Jeong-Tae; Son, Ho-Hyun; Oh, Won-Mann

    2011-01-01

    An experimental Portland cement was manufactured with pure raw materials under controlled laboratory conditions. The aim of this study was to compare the chemical constitution, physical properties, and biocompatibility of experimentally manufactured Portland cement with those of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement. The composition of the cements was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX). The setting time and compressive strength were tested. The biocompatibility was evaluated by using SEM and XTT assay. SEM and EDAX revealed the experimental Portland cement to have a similar composition to Portland cement. The setting time of the experimental Portland cement was significantly shorter than that of MTA and Portland cement. The compressive strength of the experimental Portland cement was lower than that of MTA and Portland cement. The experimental Portland cement showed a similar biocompatibility to MTA. The experimental Portland cement might be considered as a possible substitute for MTA in clinical usage after further testing. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neighborhood walkability and walking behavior: the moderating role of action orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederichs, Stijn A H; Kremers, Stef P J; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Nanne K

    2013-05-01

    In promoting physical activity, it is important to gain insight into environmental factors that facilitate or hinder physical activity and factors that may influence this environment-behavior relationship. As the personality factor of action orientation reflects an individual's capacity to regulate behavior it may act as a moderator in the environment-behavior relationship. The current study addressed the relationship between neighborhood walkability and walking behavior and the influence of action orientation on this relationship. Three hundred and forty-seven Dutch inhabitants [mean age 43.1 (SD 17.1)] completed a web based questionnaire assessing demographic variables, neighborhood walkability (Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale), variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior, action orientation, and walking behavior. The results show that high levels of neighborhood walkability are positively associated with walking behavior and that this influence is largely unmediated by cognitive processes. A positive influence of neighborhood walkability on walking behavior was identified in the action-oriented subpopulation, whereas in the state-oriented part of the population, this influence was absent. The findings suggest that the influence of neighborhood environment on walking behavior has a relatively large unconscious, automatic component. In addition, the results suggest that the walkability-walking relationship is moderated by action orientation.

  19. Lithofacies and petrophysical properties of Portland Base Bed and Portland Whit Bed limestone as related to durability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubelaar, C.W.; Engering, S.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Koch, R.; Lorenz, H.G.

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on the differences in lithofacies and petrophysical properties of Base Bed and Whit Bed Portland limestone and the presumed relationships between these characteristics and the durability of this building stone. As Portland limestone probably will be used as a stone for several

  20. Lithofacies and Petrophysical Properties of Portland Base Bed and Portland Whit Bed Limestone as Related to Durability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubelaar, C.W.; Engering, S.; Van Hees, R.P.J.; Koch, R.; Lorenz, H.G.

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on the differences in lithofacies and petrophysical properties of Base Bed and Whit Bed Portland limestone and the presumed relationships between these characteristics and the durability of this building stone. As Portland limestone probably will be used as a stone for several

  1. Ecological indices of manufacture of Portland cement clinker and production of the dolomite clinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinnichenko Varvara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the production of dolomite clinker in comparison with that of Portland cement is environmentally appropriate. When calcining dolomite for cementitious binder, the pollution of the atmosphere by carbon dioxide is reduced due to its isolation during decarbonization reactions of calcium carbonates. Reducing fuel consumption for clinker burning provides less carbon dioxide emissions from combustion products. Reducing the firing temperature creates obstacles to the formation of nitrogen oxides. The production of binders from dolomite in comparison with the production of Portland cement helps to protect the environment from contamination

  2. Neighborhood perceptions and allostatic load: Evidence from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deurzen, Ioana; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Christensen, Ulla; Hansen, Åse Marie; Lund, Rikke; Dich, Nadya

    2016-07-01

    An influential argument explaining why living in certain neighborhoods can become harmful to one's health maintains that individuals can perceive certain characteristics of the neighborhood as threatening and the prolonged exposure to a threatening environment could induce chronic stress. Following this line of argumentation, in the present study we test whether subjective perceptions of neighborhood characteristics relate to an objective measure of stress-related physiological functioning, namely allostatic load (AL). We use a large dataset of 5280 respondents living in different regions of Denmark and we account for two alternative mechanisms, i.e., the objective characteristics of the living environment and the socio-economic status of individuals. Our results support the chronic stress mechanisms linking neighborhood quality to health. Heightened perceptions of disorder and pollution were found related to AL and this relationship was particularly robust for women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cross-validation of the factorial structure of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A) assess perceived environmental attributes believed to influence physical activity. A multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) conducted on a sample from Seattle, WA, showed that, at the respondent level, th...

  4. Perceived and objective neighborhood support for outside of school physical activity in South African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Uys

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neighborhood environment has the potential to influence children’s participation in physical activity. However, children’s outdoor play is controlled by parents to a great extent. This study aimed to investigate whether parents' perceptions of the neighborhood environment and the objectively measured neighborhood environment were associated with children's moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA outside of school hours; and to determine if these perceptions and objective measures of the neighborhood environment differ between high and low socio-economic status (SES groups. Methods In total, 258 parents of 9–11 year-old children, recruited from the South African sample of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE, completed a questionnaire concerning the family and neighborhood environment. Objective measures of the environment were also obtained using Geographic Information Systems (GIS. Children wore an Actigraph (GT3X+ accelerometer for 7 days to measure levels of MVPA. Multilevel regression models were used to determine the association between the neighborhood environment and MVPA out of school hours. Results Parents’ perceptions of the neighborhood physical activity facilities were positively associated with children’s MVPA before school (β = 1.50 ± 0.51, p = 0.003. Objective measures of neighborhood safety and traffic risk were associated with children’s after-school MVPA (β = −2.72 ± 1.35, p = 0.044 and β = −2.63 ± 1.26, p = 0.038, respectively. These associations were significant in the low SES group (β = −3.38 ± 1.65, p = 0.040 and β = −3.76 ± 1.61, p = 0.020, respectively, but unrelated to MVPA in the high SES group. Conclusions This study found that several of the objective measures of the neighborhood environment were significantly associated with children

  5. The moderating role of food cue sensitivity in the behavioral response of children to their neighborhood food environment: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Paquet, Catherine; de Montigny, Luc; Labban, Alice; Buckeridge, David; Ma, Yu; Arora, Narendra; Dub?, Laurette

    2017-01-01

    Background Neighborhood food cues have been inconsistently related to residents? health, possibly due to variations in residents? sensitivity to such cues. This study sought to investigate the degree to which children?s predisposition to eat upon exposure to food environment and food cues (external eating), could explain differences in strength of associations between their food consumption and the type of food outlets and marketing strategies present in their neighborhood. Methods Data were ...

  6. Energy costs and Portland water supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, W.M.; Hawley, R.P.

    1981-10-01

    The changing role of electrical energy on the Portland, Oregon, municipal-water-supply system is presented. Portland's actions in energy conservation include improved operating procedures, pump modifications, and modifications to the water system to eliminate pumping. Portland is implementing a small hydroelectric project at existing water-supply dams to produce an additional source of power for the area. Special precautions in construction and operation are necessary to protect the high quality of the water supply. 2 references, 7 figures.

  7. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Physical Function: The Contributions of Neighborhood-Level Perceptions of Safety From Crime and Walking for Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Venurs H Y; Rachele, Jerome N; Brown, Wendy J; Ghani, Fatima; Turrell, Gavin

    2018-04-20

    Residents of more socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to report poorer physical function, although the reasons for this remain unknown. It is possible that neighborhood-level perceptions of safety from crime contribute to this relationship through its association with walking for recreation. Data were obtained from the fourth wave (collected in 2013) of the HABITAT (How Areas in Brisbane Influence HealTh and AcTivity) multilevel longitudinal study of middle- to older-aged adults (46-74 y) residing in 200 neighborhoods in Brisbane, Australia. The data were analyzed separately for men (n = 2190) and women (n = 2977) using multilevel models. Residents of the most disadvantaged neighborhoods had poorer physical function, perceived their neighborhoods to be less safe from crime, and do less walking for recreation. These factors accounted for differences in physical function between disadvantaged and advantaged neighborhoods (24% for men and 25% for women). This study highlights the importance of contextual characteristics, through their associations with behaviors, that can have in explaining the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and physical function. Interventions aimed at improving neighborhood safety integrated with supportive environments for physical activity may have positive impact on physical function among all socioeconomic groups.

  8. Associations of Older Taiwanese Adults' Personal Attributes and Perceptions of the Neighborhood Environment Concerning Walking for Recreation and Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yung; Huang, Pin-Hsuan; Hsiang, Chih-Yu; Huang, Jing-Huei; Hsueh, Ming-Chun; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2017-12-18

    This study examines the cross-sectional associations between personal and perceived neighborhood environment attributes regarding walking for recreation and transportation among older Taiwanese adults. Data related to personal factors, perceived environmental factors, and time spent engaging in transportation-related and recreational walking were obtained from 1032 older adults aged 65 years and above. The data were analyzed by carrying out an adjusted binary logistic regression. After adjusting for potential confounders, two commonly perceived environmental factors, the presence of sidewalks (PS) and the presence of a destination (PD), were positively associated with 150 min of walking for recreation. Different personal and perceived environmental factors were associated with walking for recreation and transportation. These findings suggest that policy-makers and physical activity intervention designers should develop both common and individual environmental strategies in order to improve and increase awareness of the neighborhood environment to promote recreational and transportation walking behaviors among older adults.

  9. Nuevos conglomerantes complementarios del cemento portland

    OpenAIRE

    Argiz, Cristina; Menéndez, Esperanza; Moragues, Amparo; Sanjuan-Barbudo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    El desarrollo de nuevos conglomerantes complementarios al cemento portland se presenta como una alternativa que permitirá reciclar residuos, entre otros posibles beneficios. Estos nuevos materiales difícilmente podrán competir con el cemento portland ya que sus aplicaciones son limitadas y su coste, en general, más elevado.

  10. Resurgent Ethnicity among Asian Americans: Ethnic Neighborhood Context and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Emily

    2012-01-01

    In this study I investigate the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic and social environments with the health of Asian Americans living in both Asian ethnic neighborhoods and non-Asian neighborhoods. I use a sample of 1962 Asian Americans from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS, 2003-04). Three key findings emerge. First,…

  11. Do Inequalities in Neighborhood Walkability Drive Disparities in Older Adults’ Outdoor Walking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Zandieh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Older residents of high-deprivation areas walk less than those of low-deprivation areas. Previous research has shown that neighborhood built environment may support and encourage outdoor walking. The extent to which the built environment supports and encourages walking is called “walkability”. This study examines inequalities in neighborhood walkability in high- versus low-deprivation areas and their possible influences on disparities in older adults’ outdoor walking levels. For this purpose, it focuses on specific neighborhood built environment attributes (residential density, land-use mix and intensity, street connectivity, and retail density relevant to neighborhood walkability. It applied a mixed-method approach, included 173 participants (≥65 years, and used a Geographic Information System (GIS and walking interviews (with a sub-sample to objectively and subjectively measure neighborhood built environment attributes. Outdoor walking levels were measured by using the Geographic Positioning System (GPS technology. Data on personal characteristics was collected by completing a questionnaire. The results show that inequalities in certain land-use intensity (i.e., green spaces, recreation centers, schools and industries in high- versus low-deprivation areas may influence disparities in older adults’ outdoor walking levels. Modifying neighborhood land use intensity may help to encourage outdoor walking in high-deprivation areas.

  12. Do Inequalities in Neighborhood Walkability Drive Disparities in Older Adults' Outdoor Walking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandieh, Razieh; Flacke, Johannes; Martinez, Javier; Jones, Phil; van Maarseveen, Martin

    2017-07-07

    Older residents of high-deprivation areas walk less than those of low-deprivation areas. Previous research has shown that neighborhood built environment may support and encourage outdoor walking. The extent to which the built environment supports and encourages walking is called "walkability". This study examines inequalities in neighborhood walkability in high- versus low-deprivation areas and their possible influences on disparities in older adults' outdoor walking levels. For this purpose, it focuses on specific neighborhood built environment attributes (residential density, land-use mix and intensity, street connectivity, and retail density) relevant to neighborhood walkability. It applied a mixed-method approach, included 173 participants (≥65 years), and used a Geographic Information System (GIS) and walking interviews (with a sub-sample) to objectively and subjectively measure neighborhood built environment attributes. Outdoor walking levels were measured by using the Geographic Positioning System (GPS) technology. Data on personal characteristics was collected by completing a questionnaire. The results show that inequalities in certain land-use intensity (i.e., green spaces, recreation centers, schools and industries) in high- versus low-deprivation areas may influence disparities in older adults' outdoor walking levels. Modifying neighborhood land use intensity may help to encourage outdoor walking in high-deprivation areas.

  13. Neighborhood socio-environmental vulnerability and infant mortality in Hermosillo, Sonora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Valencia, Francisco; Álvarez-Hernández, Gerardo; Harlow, Siobán D; Denman, Catalina; García-Pérez, Hilda

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of contextual variables at the neighborhood level on a health marker in the city of Hermosillo, Mexico and discusses the importance of collaboration between planners and health professional to minimize the negative effect of contextual factors on urban health. Few studies in Mexico have assessed health outcomes at the intra-urban scale and their interaction with neighborhood-level contextual variables. Using spatial analysis and geographical information systems, the paper explores the association between infant mortality and an index of socio-environmental vulnerability used to measure urban contextual factors. Two high infant mortality clusters were detected within neighborhoods characterized by relatively good environmental conditions and one in a neighborhood with a poor environment. Our results show the clustering of high infant mortality areas and some association with built environment factors in Hermosillo. The results support the need to reconnect public health and urban planning as a way to create healthier environments in Mexican cities.

  14. Neighborhood food retail environment and health outcomes among urban Ghanaian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taflin, Helena Janet

    Over the past several decades there has been a global dietary shift, occurring at different rates across time and space. These changes are reflective of the nutrition transition--a series of potentially adverse changes in diet, health and physical activity. These dietary shifts have been associated with significant health consequences, as seen by the global rise in nutrition-related non-communicable diseases (NR-NCDs) such as diabetes, hypertension, cancer, coronary heart disease as well as obesity. Clinical studies have confirmed that overweight and obese individuals are at increased risk for diabetes and hypertension, among other cardiovascular diseases. However, these linkages between the nutrition transition and health are not spatially random. They vary according to personal characteristics ("who you are") and the neighborhood environment in which you live ("where you are"). Leveraging existing demographic and health resources, in this project I aim to investigate the relationship between the food retail environment and health outcomes among a representative sample of urban Ghanaian women ages 18 and older, normally resident in the Accra Metropolitan Area (AMA), using a mixed methods spatial approach. Data for this study are drawn primarily from the 2008-09 Women's Health Study of Accra (WHSA II) which was funded by the U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) (John R. Weeks, Project Director/Principal Investigator). It was conducted as a joint collaboration between the Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER) at the University of Ghana, the Harvard School of Public Health and San Diego State University. Results from this study highlights the importance of addressing the high prevalence of hypertension among adult women in Accra and should be of concern to both stakeholders and the public. Older populations, overweight and obese individuals, those with partners living at home, limited number of food retailers

  15. NEIGHBORHOOD CHOICE AND NEIGHBORHOOD CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Bruch, Elizabeth; Mare, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between the residential choices of individuals and aggregate patterns of neighborhood change. We investigate the conditions under which individuals’ preferences for the race-ethnic composition of their neighborhoods produce high levels of segregation. Using computational models, we find that high levels of segregation occur only when individuals’ preferences follow a threshold function. If individuals make finer-grained distinctions among neighborhoods th...

  16. Association between Neighborhood Walkability, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body-Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Handy, Susan L.; Yan, Yan; Blair, teven N.; Berrigan, David

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found cross-sectional associations between characteristics of the neighborhood built environment and physical activity (PA) behavior. However, most are based on self-reported PA, which is known to result in overestimation of PA and differential misclassification by demographic and biological characteristics. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an objective marker of PA because it is primarily determined by PA. Furthermore, it is causally related to long-term health outcomes. Therefore, analyses of the association between CRF and built environment could strengthen arguments for the importance of built environment influences on health. We examined the association between neighborhood walkability and CRF and body-mass index (BMI). This cross-sectional analysis included 16,543 adults (5,017 women, 11,526 men) aged 18–90 years with home addresses in Texas who had a comprehensive clinical examination between 1987 and 2005. Outcomes included CRF from total duration on a maximal exercise treadmill test and measured BMI. Three neighborhood walkability factors emerged from principal components analyses of block-group measures derived from the U.S. Census. In multilevel adjusted analyses, the neighborhood walkability factors were significantly associated with CRF and BMI among men and women in the expected direction. An interaction between one of the neighborhood factors and age was also observed. The interaction suggested that living in neighborhoods with older homes and with residents traveling shorter distances to work was more strongly positively associated with CRF among younger adults and more strongly negatively associated with BMI among older adults. In conclusion, neighborhood characteristics hypothesized to support more PA and less driving were associated with higher levels of CRF and lower BMI. Demonstration of an association between built environment characteristics and CRF is a significant advance over past studies based on self-reported PA

  17. Associations of Older Taiwanese Adults’ Personal Attributes and Perceptions of the Neighborhood Environment Concerning Walking for Recreation and Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Liao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the cross-sectional associations between personal and perceived neighborhood environment attributes regarding walking for recreation and transportation among older Taiwanese adults. Data related to personal factors, perceived environmental factors, and time spent engaging in transportation-related and recreational walking were obtained from 1032 older adults aged 65 years and above. The data were analyzed by carrying out an adjusted binary logistic regression. After adjusting for potential confounders, two commonly perceived environmental factors, the presence of sidewalks (PS and the presence of a destination (PD, were positively associated with 150 min of walking for recreation. Different personal and perceived environmental factors were associated with walking for recreation and transportation. These findings suggest that policy-makers and physical activity intervention designers should develop both common and individual environmental strategies in order to improve and increase awareness of the neighborhood environment to promote recreational and transportation walking behaviors among older adults.

  18. Associations of Older Taiwanese Adults’ Personal Attributes and Perceptions of the Neighborhood Environment Concerning Walking for Recreation and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pin-Hsuan; Hsiang, Chih-Yu; Huang, Jing-Huei; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the cross-sectional associations between personal and perceived neighborhood environment attributes regarding walking for recreation and transportation among older Taiwanese adults. Data related to personal factors, perceived environmental factors, and time spent engaging in transportation-related and recreational walking were obtained from 1032 older adults aged 65 years and above. The data were analyzed by carrying out an adjusted binary logistic regression. After adjusting for potential confounders, two commonly perceived environmental factors, the presence of sidewalks (PS) and the presence of a destination (PD), were positively associated with 150 min of walking for recreation. Different personal and perceived environmental factors were associated with walking for recreation and transportation. These findings suggest that policy-makers and physical activity intervention designers should develop both common and individual environmental strategies in order to improve and increase awareness of the neighborhood environment to promote recreational and transportation walking behaviors among older adults. PMID:29258241

  19. Food Shopping Venues, Neighborhood Food Environment, and Body Mass Index Among Guyanese, Black, and White Adults in an Urban Community in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosler, Akiko S; Michaels, Isaac H; Buckenmeyer, Erin M

    2016-06-01

    To investigate relationships among food shopping venues, food environment, and body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional survey data and directly assessed food environment data were linked at the neighborhood level. Schenectady, NY. A sample of Guyanese, black, and white adults (n = 226, 485, and 908, respectively). BMI. Linear regression models were constructed with 10 food shopping venues and neighborhood food environment as explanatory variables, controlling for sociodemographics, dietary behavior, physical activity, and perception of healthy food access. On average, respondents used 3.5 different food shopping venues. Supermarkets and ethnic markets were associated with a lower BMI in Guyanese adults. Among black adults, farmers' markets were associated with a lower BMI, whereas supermarkets, wholesale clubs, and food pantries were associated with a higher BMI. Among white adults, food coops and supermarkets were associated with a lower BMI and wholesale clubs were associated with a higher BMI. Neighborhoods with less a favorable food environment (longer travel distance to a supermarket) were associated with a lower BMI in Guyanese adults. Both primary (ie, supermarkets) and secondary food shopping venues could be independent determinants of BMI. The observed variations by race and ethnicity provided insights into a culturally tailored approach to address obesity. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding Neighborhood Environment Related to Hong Kong Children’s Physical Activity: A Qualitative Study Using Nominal Group Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gang; Cerin, Ester; Huang, Wendy Y.; Wong, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Relationships between the neighborhood environment and children’s physical activity have been well documented in Western countries but are less investigated in ultra-dense Asian cities. The aim of this study was to identify the environmental facilitators and barriers of physical activity behaviors among Hong Kong Chinese children using nominal group technique. Methods Five nominal groups were conducted among 34 children aged 10–11 years from four types of neighborhoods varying in socio-economic status and walkability in Hong Kong. Environmental factors were generated by children in response to the question “What neighborhood environments do you think would increase or decrease your willingness to do physical activity?” Factors were prioritized in order of their importance to children’s physical activity. Results Sixteen unique environmental factors, which were perceived as the most important to children’s physical activity, were identified. Factors perceived as physical activity-facilitators included “Sufficient lighting”, “Bridge or tunnel”, “Few cars on roads”, “Convenient transportation”, “Subway station”, “Recreation grounds”, “Shopping malls with air conditioning”, “Fresh air”, “Interesting animals”, and “Perfume shop”. Factors perceived as physical activity-barriers included “People who make me feel unsafe”, “Crimes nearby”, “Afraid of being taken or hurt at night”, “Hard to find toilet in shopping mall”, “Too much noise”, and “Too many people in recreation grounds”. Conclusions Specific physical activity-related environmental facilitators and barriers, which are unique in an ultra-dense city, were identified by Hong Kong children. These initial findings can inform future examinations of the physical activity-environment relationship among children in Hong Kong and similar Asian cities. PMID:25187960

  1. Do neighborhood economic characteristics, racial composition, and residential stability predict perceptions of stress associated with the physical and social environment? Findings from a multilevel analysis in Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Amy J; Zenk, Shannon N; Israel, Barbara A; Mentz, Graciela; Stokes, Carmen; Galea, Sandro

    2008-09-01

    As the body of evidence linking disparities in the health of urban residents to disparate social, economic and environmental contexts grows, efforts to delineate the pathways through which broader social and economic inequalities influence health have burgeoned. One hypothesized pathway connects economic and racial and ethnic inequalities to differentials in stress associated with social and physical environments, with subsequent implications for health. Drawing on data from Detroit, Michigan, we examined contributions of neighborhood-level characteristics (e.g., poverty rate, racial and ethnic composition, residential stability) and individual-level characteristics (e.g., age, gender) to perceived social and physical environmental stress. We found that neighborhood percent African American was positively associated with perceptions of both social and physical environmental stress; neighborhood percent poverty and percent Latino were positively associated with perceived physical environmental stress; and neighborhood residential stability was negatively associated with perceived social environmental stress. At the individual level, whites perceived higher levels of both social and physical environmental stress compared to African American residents of the same block groups, after accounting for other variables included in the models. Our findings suggest the importance of understanding and addressing contributions of neighborhood structural characteristics to perceptions of neighborhood stress. The consistency of the finding that neighborhood racial composition and individual-level race influence perceptions of both social and physical environments suggests the continuing importance of understanding the role played by structural conditions and by personal and collective histories that vary systematically by race and ethnicity within the United States.

  2. Poet Portland Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This update August 9, 2016 letter from EPA approves the petition, with modifications, from Poet Biorefining-Portland, LLC, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel

  3. Strategies of Building a Stronger Sense of Community for Sustainable Neighborhoods: Comparing Neighborhood Accessibility with Community Empowerment Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-I Albert Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available New Urbanist development in the U.S. aims at enhancing a sense of community and seeks to return to the design of early transitional neighborhoods which have pedestrian-oriented environments with retail shops and services within walking distances of housing. Meanwhile, 6000 of Taiwan’s community associations have been running community empowerment programs supported by the Council for Cultural Affairs that have helped many neighborhoods to rebuild so-called community cohesion. This research attempts to evaluate whether neighborhoods with facilities near housing and shorter travel distances within a neighborhood would promote stronger social interactions and form a better community attachment than neighborhoods that have various opportunities for residents to participate in either formal or informal social gatherings. After interviewing and surveying residents from 19 neighborhoods in Taipei’s Beitou District, and correlating the psychological sense of community with inner neighborhood’s daily travel distances and numbers of participatory activities held by community organizations under empowerment programs together with frequencies of regular individual visits and casual meetings, statistical evidence yielded that placing public facilities near residential locations is more effective than providing various programs for elevating a sense of community.

  4. The effect of neighborhood context on children's academic achievement in China: Exploring mediating mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lei

    2018-05-01

    Along with the economic reforms, rapid urbanization, and the growth of a free land market, Chinese cities witness new forms of neighborhood poverty and increasing residential segregation by social class, migration status, and housing tenure. But little is known about the consequences of the growing social-spatial differentiation for children's educational achievement in China. Using national-scale survey data from the China Family Panel Studies in 2010, this study examines the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and children's test scores in urban China, and explores the mechanisms through which neighborhood environment is associated with children's academic achievement. The results show that neighborhood SES is positively associated with children's verbal and math test scores after accounting for myriad individual and family characteristics. The relationship between neighborhood SES and test scores is partially explained by neighborhood educational institutions and collective socialization. Peer contagion, neighborhood social organization, or neighborhood physical environment do not explain this relationship. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. INFLUENCE OF SUBSTITUTION OF ORDINARY PORTLAND CEMENT BY SILICA FUME ON THE HYDRATION OF SLAG-PORTLAND CEMENT PASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. El-Alfi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of gradual substitution of ordinary Portland cement by a few percent of silica fume (0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt.% on the hydration properties of slag-Portland cement pastes up to 12 months was investigated. The results show that the composite cement pastes containing silica fume give the higher physico-mechanical properties than that of the slag-Portland cement. Also, the XRD results reveal that the peak of Ca(OH2 shows higher intensity in the sample without silica fume and completely disappears in the sample containing 7.5 wt.% silica fume content. Also, the intensity peaks of C4AH13 sharply increase with silica fume content.

  6. Neighborhood built environment and physical activity of Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirai Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many studies have reported the association between neighborhood built environment (BE and physical activity (PA, less is known about the associations for older populations or in countries besides the US and Australia. The aim of this paper is to examine the associations for older adult populations in Japan. Methods Our analyses were based on cross-sectional data from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES, conducted in 2003. The respondents were older adults, aged 65 years or over (n = 9,414, from 8 municipalities across urban, suburban, and rural areas. The frequency of leisure time sports activity and total walking time were used as the outcome variables. Using geographic information systems (GIS, we measured residential density, street connectivity, number of local destinations, access to recreational spaces, and land slope of the respondents' neighborhoods, based on network distances with multiple radii (250 m, 500 m, 1,000 m. An ordinal logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between PA and BE measures. Results Population density and presence of parks or green spaces had positive associations with the frequency of sports activity, regardless of the selected buffer zone. The analysis of total walking time, however, showed only a few associations. Conclusions Our findings provide mixed support for the association between PA and the characteristics of BE measures, previously used in Western settings. Some characteristics of the neighborhood built environment may facilitate leisure time sports activity, but not increase the total walking time for Japanese older adults.

  7. 40 CFR 81.51 - Portland Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.51 Portland Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Portland Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Oregon-Washington) has been revised to consist of the territorial area... Portland Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Oregon-Washington) will be referred to by Washington...

  8. Satisfaction with the neighborhood environment and health in older elderly: cross-sectional evidence from the Bambuí cohort study of aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Chama Borges Luz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the association between satisfaction with the neighborhood environment and self-rated health among older elderly, data from 814 participants of the eleventh wave of the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging were analyzed using robust Poisson regression analyses. Those elderly with higher satisfaction with their neighborhoods (PR = 0.75; 95%CI: 0.63-0.87 were less likely to report worse self-rated health. The number of chronic diseases (two, PR = 1.69; 95%CI: 1.05-2.70, three or more, PR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.27-3.13, difficulty in performing daily activities (PR = 1.51; 95%CI: 1.28-1.78, presence of depressive symptoms (PR = 1.68; 95%CI: 1.44-1.95 and frequency of leisure-time exercise in previous 90 days (less than once a week, PR =1.24; 95%CI: 1.03-1.50 were all positively and significantly associated with poor self-rated health. This study provided empirical evidence that satisfaction with the neighborhood environment was associated with the health of the older elderly. The findings further suggest the potential importance of including this indicator in analyses of place and health among the elderly.

  9. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of Colonias

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott; Han, Daikwon; Huber, John C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability) are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1) distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2) coverage (number) of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. Methods Data included locational points for 315 food stores and 204 fast food rest...

  10. Comparison of the physical and mechanical properties of MTA and portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Intekhab; Chng, Hui Kheng; Yap, Adrian U Jin

    2006-03-01

    This study evaluated and compared the pH, radiopacity, setting time, solubility, dimensional change, and compressive strength of ProRoot MTA (PMTA), ProRoot MTA (tooth colored formula) (WMTA), white Portland cement (WP), and ordinary Portland cement (OP). The results showed that PMTA and Portland cement have very similar physical properties. However, the radiopacity of Portland cement is much lower than that of PMTA. The compressive strength of PMTA was greater than Portland cement at 28 days. The major constituent of PMTA is Portland cement. Given the low cost of Portland cement and similar properties when compared to PMTA, it is reasonable to consider Portland cement as a possible substitute for PMTA in endodontic applications. However, industrially manufactured Portland cement is not approved currently for use in the United States and therefore no clinical recommendation can be made for its use in the human body. Further in vitro and in vivo tests, especially with regards its biocompatibility, should be conducted to ascertain if it meets the FDA requirements for use as a medical device.

  11. Radiopacity of portland cement associated with different radiopacifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Húngaro Duarte, Marco Antonio; de Oliveira El Kadre, Guâniara D'arc; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci; Guerreiro Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Tanomaru Filho, Mário; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes

    2009-05-01

    This study evaluated the radiopacity of Portland cement associated with the following radiopacifying agents: bismuth oxide, zinc oxide, lead oxide, bismuth subnitrate, bismuth carbonate, barium sulfate, iodoform, calcium tungstate, and zirconium oxide. A ratio of 20% radiopacifier and 80% white Portland cement by weight was used for analysis. Pure Portland cement and dentin served as controls. Cement/radiopacifier and dentin disc-shaped specimens were fabricated, and radiopacity testing was performed according to the ISO 6876/2001 standard for dental root sealing materials. Using Insight occlusal films, the specimens were radiographed near to a graduated aluminum stepwedge varying from 2 to 16 mm in thickness. The radiographs were digitized and radiopacity compared with the aluminum stepwedge using Digora software (Orion Corporation Soredex, Helsinki, Finland). The radiographic density data were converted into mmAl and analyzed statistically by analysis of variance and Tukey-Kramer test (alpha = 0.05). The radiopacity of pure Portland cement was significantly lower (p cement/radiopacifier mixtures were significantly more radiopaque than dentin and Portland cement alone (p cement/bismuth oxide and Portland cement/lead oxide presented the highest radiopacity values and differed significantly from the other materials (p cement/zinc oxide presented the lowest radiopacity values of all mixtures (p cement as radiopacifying agents. However, the possible interference of the radiopacifiers with the setting chemistry, biocompatibility, and physical properties of the Portland cement should be further investigated before any clinical recommendation can be done.

  12. Neighborhood Characteristics and Disability in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, Shannon; Cerda, Magda; Frye, Victoria; Lovasi, Gina S.; Ompad, Danielle; Rundle, Andrew; Vlahov, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective To characterize the influence of the residential neighborhood of older adults on the prevalence of disability. Methods We combined Census data on disability in older adults living in New York City with environmental information from a comprehensive geospatial database. We used factor analysis to derive dimensions of compositional and physical neighborhood characteristics and linear regression to model their association with levels of disability. Measures of neighborhood collective efficacy were added to these models to explore the impact of the social environment. Results Low neighborhood socioeconomic status, residential instability, living in areas with low proportions of foreign born and high proportions of Black residents, and negative street characteristics were associated with higher prevalence of both “physical” disability and “going outside the home” disability. High crime levels were additionally associated with physical disability, although this relationship disappeared when misdemeanor arrests were removed from the crime variable. Low levels of collective efficacy were associated with more going-outside-the-home disability, with racial/ethnic composition dropping out of this model to be replaced by an interaction term. Conclusion The urban environment may have a substantial impact on whether an older adult with a given level of functional impairment is able to age actively and remain independent. PMID:19181694

  13. Using Moss to Detect Fine-Scaled Deposition of Heavy Metals in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovan, S.; Donovan, G.; Demetrios, G.; Monleon, V. J.; Amacher, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Mosses are commonly used as bio-indicators of heavy metal deposition to forests. Their application in urban airsheds is relatively rare. Our objective was to develop fine-scaled, city-wide maps for heavy metals in Portland, Oregon, to identify pollution "hotspots" and serve as a screening tool for more effective placement of air quality monitoring instruments. In 2013 we measured twenty-two elements in epiphytic moss sampled on a 1km x1km sampling grid (n = 346). We detected large hotspots of cadmium and arsenic in two neighborhoods associated with stained glass manufacturers. Air instruments deployed by local regulators measured cadmium concentrations 49 times and arsenic levels 155 times the state health benchmarks. Moss maps also detected a large nickel hotspot in a neighborhood near a forge where air instruments later measured concentrations 4 times the health benchmark. In response, the facilities implemented new pollution controls, air quality improved in all three affected neighborhoods, revision of regulations for stained glass furnace emissions are underway, and Oregon's governor launched an initiative to develop health-based (vs technology-based) regulations for air toxics in the state. The moss maps also indicated a couple dozen smaller hotspots of heavy metals, including lead, chromium, and cobalt, in Portland neighborhoods. Ongoing follow-up work includes: 1) use of moss sampling by local regulators to investigate source and extent of the smaller hotspots, 2) use of lead isotopes to determine origins of higher lead levels observed in moss collected from the inner city, and 3) co-location of air instruments and moss sampling to determine accuracy, timeframe represented, and seasonality of heavy metals in moss.

  14. Microstructure and durability of Portland cement-carbon nanotube composites

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Alastair James Neil

    2017-01-01

    The incorporation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), fibres with diameters less than 100 nanometres that exhibit a tensile strength in excess of ten times greater than steel, into Portland cement (OPC) is a relatively novel, yet promising, development for next-generation construction materials exhibiting enhanced strength and ductility, even multifunctionality. When added to Portland cement, creating a Portland cement-CNT nanocomposite material (OPC-CNT), CNTs promote the nucleation of the princi...

  15. The associations between objectively-determined and self-reported urban form characteristics and neighborhood-based walking in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Elizabeth; McCormack, Gavin R

    2014-06-04

    Self-reported and objectively-determined neighborhood built characteristics are associated with physical activity, yet little is known about their combined influence on walking. This study: 1) compared self-reported measures of the neighborhood built environment between objectively-determined low, medium, and high walkable neighborhoods; 2) estimated the relative associations between self-reported and objectively-determined neighborhood characteristics and walking and; 3) examined the extent to which the objectively-determined built environment moderates the association between self-reported measures of the neighborhood built environment and walking. A random cross-section of 1875 Canadian adults completed a telephone-interview and postal questionnaire capturing neighborhood walkability, neighborhood-based walking, socio-demographic characteristics, walking attitudes, and residential self-selection. Walkability of each respondent's neighborhood was objectively-determined (low [LW], medium [MW], and high walkable [HW]). Covariate-adjusted regression models estimated the associations between weekly participation and duration in transportation and recreational walking and self-reported and objectively-determined walkability. Compared with objectively-determined LW neighborhoods, respondents in HW neighborhoods positively perceived access to services, street connectivity, pedestrian infrastructure, and utilitarian and recreation destination mix, but negatively perceived motor vehicle traffic and crime related safety. Compared with residents of objectively-determined LW neighborhoods, residents of HW neighborhoods were more likely (p spend more time, per week (193 min/wk) transportation walking. Perceived access to services, street connectivity, motor vehicle safety, and mix of recreational destinations were also significantly associated with transportation walking. With regard to interactions, HW x utilitarian destination mix was positively associated with

  16. Promoting Active Urban Aging: A Measurement Approach to Neighborhood Walkability for Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael L. Weiss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of the built environment on physical activity behavior among older adults is an important public health goal, but evaluating these relationships remains complicated due to the difficulty of measuring specific attributes of the environment. As a result, there is conflicting evidence regarding the association between perceived and objectively measured walkability and physical activity among urban-dwelling older adults. This suggests that both actual environmental features and perceptions of these attributes influence walking behavior. The purpose of this pilot project is to create an Objective Walkability Index (OWI by census block using a Geographic Information System (GIS and supplement the results with resident perceptions thus more accurately characterizing the context of walkability. Computerized Neighborhood Environment Tracking (ComNET was used to systematically assess environmental risks impacting activity patterns of older adults in two New York City neighborhoods. In addition, the Senior Center Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment (SCENE survey was administered to older adults attending two senior centers located within the target neighborhoods. The results indicate that there is substantial variation in OWI score both between and within the neighborhoods suggesting that residence in some communities may increase the risk of inactivity among older adults. Also, low walkability census blocks were clustered within each neighborhood providing an opportunity for targeted investigation into localized threats to walkability. A lack of consensus regarding the association between the built environment and physical activity among older adults is a consequence of the problems inherent in measuring these determinants. Further empirical evidence evaluating the complex relationships between the built environment and physical activity is an essential step towards creating active communities.

  17. Promoting Active Urban Aging: A Measurement Approach to Neighborhood Walkability for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Rachael L; Maantay, Juliana A; Fahs, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the role of the built environment on physical activity behavior among older adults is an important public health goal, but evaluating these relationships remains complicated due to the difficulty of measuring specific attributes of the environment. As a result, there is conflicting evidence regarding the association between perceived and objectively measured walkability and physical activity among urban-dwelling older adults. This suggests that both actual environmental features and perceptions of these attributes influence walking behavior. The purpose of this pilot project is to create an Objective Walkability Index (OWI) by census block using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and supplement the results with resident perceptions thus more accurately characterizing the context of walkability. Computerized Neighborhood Environment Tracking (ComNET) was used to systematically assess environmental risks impacting activity patterns of older adults in two New York City neighborhoods. In addition, the Senior Center Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment (SCENE) survey was administered to older adults attending two senior centers located within the target neighborhoods. The results indicate that there is substantial variation in OWI score both between and within the neighborhoods suggesting that residence in some communities may increase the risk of inactivity among older adults. Also, low walkability census blocks were clustered within each neighborhood providing an opportunity for targeted investigation into localized threats to walkability. A lack of consensus regarding the association between the built environment and physical activity among older adults is a consequence of the problems inherent in measuring these determinants. Further empirical evidence evaluating the complex relationships between the built environment and physical activity is an essential step towards creating active communities.

  18. Examining public open spaces by neighborhood-level walkability and deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah M; Keam, Rosanna; Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin

    2010-11-01

    Public open spaces (POS) are recognized as important to promote physical activity engagement. However, it is unclear how POS attributes, such as activities available, environmental quality, amenities present, and safety, are associated with neighborhood-level walkability and deprivation. Twelve neighborhoods were selected within 1 constituent city of Auckland, New Zealand based on higher (n = 6) or lower (n = 6) walkability characteristics. Neighborhoods were dichotomized as more (n = 7) or less (n = 5) socioeconomically deprived. POS (n = 69) were identified within these neighborhoods and audited using the New Zealand-Public Open Space Tool. Unpaired 1-way analysis of variance tests were applied to compare differences in attributes and overall score of POS by neighborhood walkability and deprivation. POS located in more walkable neighborhoods have significantly higher overall scores when compared with less walkable neighborhoods. Deprivation comparisons identified POS located in less deprived communities have better quality environments, but fewer activities and safety features present when compared with more deprived neighborhoods. A positive relationship existed between presence of POS attributes and neighborhood walkability, but the relationship between POS and neighborhood-level deprivation was less clear. Variation in neighborhood POS quality alone is unlikely to explain poorer health outcomes for residents in more deprived areas.

  19. Counseling in the Gentrified Neighborhood: What School Counselors Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lauren E.; Van Velsor, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Gentrification occurs when the prevailing demographic and economic environment of an urban neighborhood changes in ways related to social class and physical renewal. Gentrification effects are both positive and negative; however, low-income residents may be disproportionately negatively affected. As neighborhoods transform, schools also change.…

  20. Large Neighborhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, David; Røpke, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Heuristics based on large neighborhood search have recently shown outstanding results in solving various transportation and scheduling problems. Large neighborhood search methods explore a complex neighborhood by use of heuristics. Using large neighborhoods makes it possible to find better...... candidate solutions in each iteration and hence traverse a more promising search path. Starting from the large neighborhood search method,we give an overview of very large scale neighborhood search methods and discuss recent variants and extensions like variable depth search and adaptive large neighborhood...

  1. Workplace Neighborhoods, Walking, Physical Activity, Weight Status, and Perceived Health

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Ann; Oakes, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent interest has focused on how the built environment in residential neighborhoods affects walking and other physical activity. The neighborhood around the workplace has been examined far less. This study explored the neighborhood around the workplace and its correlation with the amount of walking, level of physical activity, body mass index, and perceived health of those who (a) worked away from home (N = 446) and (b) were retired or unemployed (N = 207). Study participants were recruited...

  2. Neighborhood crime and access to health-enabling resources in Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L. Tung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhood crime may be an important social determinant of health in many high-poverty, urban communities, yet little is known about its relationship with access to health-enabling resources. We recruited an address-based probability sample of 267 participants (ages ≥35 years on Chicago's South Side between 2012 and 2013. Participants were queried about their perceptions of neighborhood safety and prior experiences of neighborhood crime. Survey data were paired to a comprehensive, directly-observed census of the built environment on the South Side of Chicago. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine access to health-enabling resources (potential and realized access as a function of neighborhood crime (self-reported neighborhood safety and prior experience of theft or property crime, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported health status. Low potential access was defined as a resident having nearest resources >1 mile from home; poor realized access was defined as bypassing nearby potential resources to use resources >1 mile from home. Poor neighborhood safety was associated with low potential access to large grocery stores (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.04, 2.87, pharmacies (AOR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.33, 3.77, and fitness resources (AOR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.15, 3.24, but not small grocery stores. Any prior experience of neighborhood crime was associated with higher adjusted odds of bypassing nearby pharmacies (AOR = 3.78, 95% CI = 1.11, 12.87. Neighborhood crime may be associated with important barriers to accessing health-enabling resources in urban communities with high rates of crime. Keywords: Built environment, Neighborhood crime, Access to resources, Social determinants of health, Obesity, Hypertension

  3. Incorporating Neighborhood Choice in a Model of Neighborhood Effects on Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Boschman, Sanne; Vogel, Matt

    2018-05-09

    Studies of neighborhood effects often attempt to identify causal effects of neighborhood characteristics on individual outcomes, such as income, education, employment, and health. However, selection looms large in this line of research, and it has been argued that estimates of neighborhood effects are biased because people nonrandomly select into neighborhoods based on their preferences, income, and the availability of alternative housing. We propose a two-step framework to disentangle selection processes in the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and earnings. We model neighborhood selection using a conditional logit model, from which we derive correction terms. Driven by the recognition that most households prefer certain types of neighborhoods rather than specific areas, we employ a principle components analysis to reduce these terms into eight correction components. We use these to adjust parameter estimates from a model of subsequent neighborhood effects on individual income for the unequal probability that a household chooses to live in a particular type of neighborhood. We apply this technique to administrative data from the Netherlands. After we adjust for the differential sorting of households into certain types of neighborhoods, the effect of neighborhood income on individual income diminishes but remains significant. These results further emphasize that researchers need to be attuned to the role of selection bias when assessing the role of neighborhood effects on individual outcomes. Perhaps more importantly, the persistent effect of neighborhood deprivation on subsequent earnings suggests that neighborhood effects reflect more than the shared characteristics of neighborhood residents: place of residence partially determines economic well-being.

  4. Neighborhood-health links: Differences between rural-to-urban migrants and natives in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Gu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is well known that migrant workers tend to have different perceptions of neighborhood environments than urban natives. However, less is known about how these differences in perception may be linked to the health of members of these two groups. Objective: We investigated differences in links between perceived neighborhood social and physical environments and three health outcomes, self-rated health, social stress, and chronic conditions, between rural-to-urban migrants (migrant workers and Shanghai-born native urban residents in China. Methods: Data used in this study were based on a survey of 477 rural-to-urban migrants and 546 native urban residents aged 18-64, conducted in Shanghai in 2008. Logistic regression analyses were performed to model relationships for migrant workers and native residents. Results: We found that among migrant workers, more positive perceptions of neighborhood social environments (social cohesion and safety were linked to better self-rated health and lower levels of perceived stress but were not linked to chronic disease conditions; there were also no links between perceptions of physical environments and any of the three health outcomes of this study among migrant workers. By contrast, among urban natives, more positive perceptions of neighborhood social environments were linked to lower odds of chronic disease conditions but were not linked to self-rated health and perceived stress; more positive perceptions of physical environments (amenities and air quality were linked with lower odds of social stress and of chronic disease conditions. Conclusions: Neighborhood social and physical environments affected the health of migrant workers and urban natives differently.

  5. 76 FR 28315 - Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival on Willamette River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Zone; Portland Rose Festival on Willamette River AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Portland Rose Festival Security Zone in... River during the Portland Rose festival. During the enforcement period, no person or vessel may enter or...

  6. Parental Perceptions of Neighborhood Effects in Latino Comunas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Pilar; Sanchez, Ninive; Castillo, Marcela; Delva, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To obtain rich information about how adult Latinos living in high-poverty/high-drug use neighborhoods perceive and negotiate their environment. Methods In 2008, thirteen adult caregivers in Santiago, Chile were interviewed with open-ended questions to ascertain beliefs about neighborhood effects and drug use. Analysis Inductive analysis was used to develop the codebook/identify trends. Discussion Residents externalized their understanding of drug use and misuse by invoking the concept of delinquent youth. A typology of their perceptions is offered. Learning more about residents’ circumstances may help focus on needs-based interventions. More research with Latino neighborhoods is needed for culturally-competent models of interventions. PMID:22497879

  7. The Relationship of Social Support and Neighborhood Perceptions among Individuals with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Enbal; López, Julia D; Önen, Nur F; Overton, Edgar T

    Social support has been noted to improve health outcomes for individuals with HIV. Understanding how neighborhoods contribute to feelings of social support is beneficial to create environments where populations with HIV can be supported. This study assessed the relationship between neighborhood perceptions and social support with HIV management. A total of 201 individuals were recruited; individuals with HIV, 18 years or older, who were eligible to participate in the 2-hour interview. Psychiatric diagnostic interviews were conducted alongside assessments of social support and neighborhood perceptions; biomedical markers were abstracted from medical records. Correlations and linear regression analyses were performed to assess relationships between social support and neighborhood perceptions with HIV management biomarkers. The majority of the sample was male (68.8%) and African American (72.3%), with a mean age of 43.1 years. Overall, 78% were receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) prescriptions, with 69% being virally suppressed. Fear of neighborhood activities was independently associated with receiving current cART. Reports of social support and neighborhood perceptions were highly correlated. Findings suggest that supportive home environments likely would improve perceptions of social support.

  8. Preterm delivery among people living around Portland cement plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Tsai, S.-S.; Huang, H.-Y.; Ho, C.-K.; Wu, T.-N.; Sung, F.-C.

    2003-01-01

    The Portland cement industry is the main source of particulate air pollution in Kaohsiung city. Data in this study concern outdoor air pollution and the health of individuals living in communities in close proximity to Portland cement plants. The prevalence of delivery of preterm birth infants as significantly higher in mothers living within 0-2 km of a Portland cement plant than in mothers living within 2-4 km. After controlling for several possible confounders (including maternal age, season, marital status, maternal education, and infant sex), the adjusted odds ratio was 1.30 (95% I=1.09-1.54) for the delivery of preterm infants for mothers living close to he Portland cement plants, chosen at the start to be from 0 to 2 km. These data provide further support for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect he outcome of pregnancy

  9. Synthesis of pure Portland cement phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesselsky, Andreas; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2009-01-01

    Pure phases commonly found in Portland cement clinkers are often used to test cement hydration behaviour in simplified experimental conditions. The synthesis of these phases is covered in this paper, starting with a description of phase relations and possible polymorphs of the four main phases...... in Portland cement, i.e. tricalcium silicate, dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate and tetracalcium alumino ferrite. Details of the The process of solid state synthesis are is described in general including practical advice on equipment and techniques. Finally In addition, some exemplary mix compositions...

  10. The temporal stability of children's neighborhood experiences: A follow-up from birth to age 15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kleinepier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite increasing attention being paid to the temporal dynamics of childhood disadvantage, children's neighborhood characteristics are still frequently measured at a single point in time. Whether such cross-sectional measures serve as reliable proxies for children's long-run neighborhood conditions depends on the stability in children's neighborhood experiences over time. Objective: We investigate stability in children's neighborhood environment over time, focusing on two of the most commonly studied neighborhood socioeconomic conditions: The ethnic composition and mean income of the neighborhood. Methods: Drawing on data from the Dutch population registers, an entire cohort of children born in the Netherlands in 1999 (n=179,166 is followed from birth up until age 15. We use year-to-year correlations in the percentage of non-Western ethnic minorities and the mean logged income in the neighborhood to evaluate the temporal stability of children's neighborhood experiences. Results: Results indicate that children's neighborhood characteristics are more stable over time with regard to ethnic composition than with regard to the mean income. Children who had moved at least once had less stability in neighborhood characteristics than children who never moved. Finally, neighborhood experiences were found to be more stable over time for ethnic minority children, although differences were small with regard to mean income in the neighborhood. Conclusions: We conclude that single point-in-time measurements of neighborhood characteristics are reasonable proxies for the long-run ethnic composition of children's neighborhood environment, but rather noisy proxies for the long-run income status of their neighborhood, particularly for those who moved. Contribution: We examine the temporal stability of children's neighborhood experiences over almost the entire childhood life course in the European context.

  11. Gene-by-social-environment interaction (GxSE) between ADCYAP1R1 genotype and neighborhood crime predicts major depression symptoms in trauma-exposed women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Pothen, John; Quinn, James W; Rundle, Andrew; Bradley, Bekh; Galea, Sandro; Ressler, Kerry J; Koenen, Karestan C

    2015-11-15

    Few studies have explored interactions between genes and social environmental exposures (GxSEs) for trauma-related psychopathology, including symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and major depression (MD). The extant literature suggests the possibility of a GxSE between the rs2267735 variant of the ADCYAP1R1 gene and neighborhood crime. The current study aimed to explore this possibility among a predominantly African American sample of trauma-exposed women. Female participants (N=1361) were recruited from a public hospital, and completed measures of PTS and MD symptoms and provided DNA samples. Participants' home addresses were mapped onto 300 neighborhoods (2010 census tracts), and data on crime within neighborhoods was collected. Multilevel models detected a significant GxSE between rs2267735 and neighborhood crime for MD symptoms (p=.01). Having two copies of the risk (C) allele was associated with higher MD symptoms for participants living in high-crime neighborhoods. At least six limitations are noteworthy: (1) low statistical power; (2) use of self-report symptom inventories; (3) lack of information on symptom onset; (4) homogeneous sample from a single metropolitan area; (5) non-specific index of crime; and (6) use of census tracts to define neighborhoods. The results provide further evidence of GxSEs for psychiatric outcomes among trauma-exposed populations. Further investigations of genetic factors for trauma-related psychopathology should include careful assessments of the social environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Neighborhood choices, neighborhood effects and housing vouchers

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Morris A.; Gregory, Jesse; Hartley, Daniel A.; Tan, Kegon T. K.

    2017-01-01

    We study how households choose neighborhoods, how neighborhoods affect child ability, and how housing vouchers influence neighborhood choices and child outcomes. We use two new panel data sets with tract-level detail for Los Angeles county to estimate a dynamic model of optimal tract-level location choice for renting households and, separately, the impact of living in a given tract on child test scores (which we call "child ability" throughout). We simulate optimal location choices and change...

  13. Evaluation of physico-chemical properties of Portland cements and MTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Gonçalves

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydrogenionic potential and electrical conductivity of Portland cements and MTA, as well as the amount of arsenic and calcium released from these materials. In Teflon molds, samples of each material were agitated and added to plastic flasks containing distilled water for 3, 24, 72 and 168 h. The results were analyzed with a Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test for global comparisons and a Dunn-Tukey test for pairwise comparisons. The results revealed no significant differences in the pH of the materials (p > 0.05. The electrical conductivity of the cements were not statistically different (p > 0.05. White non-structural cement and MTA BIO released the largest amount of calcium ions into solution (p 0.05. The results indicated that the physico-chemical properties of Portland cements and MTA were similar. Furthermore, all materials produced an alkaline environment and can be considered safe for clinical use because arsenic was not released. The electrical conductivity and the amount of calcium ions released into solution increased over time.

  14. Evaluation of physico-chemical properties of Portland cements and MTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Jorge Luis; Viapiana, Raqueli; Miranda, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Cruz Filho, Antônio Miranda da

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydrogenionic potential and electrical conductivity of Portland cements and MTA, as well as the amount of arsenic and calcium released from these materials. In Teflon molds, samples of each material were agitated and added to plastic flasks containing distilled water for 3, 24, 72 and 168 h. The results were analyzed with a Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test for global comparisons and a Dunn-Tukey test for pairwise comparisons. The results revealed no significant differences in the pH of the materials (p > 0.05). The electrical conductivity of the cements were not statistically different (p > 0.05). White non-structural cement and MTA BIO released the largest amount of calcium ions into solution (p 0.05). The results indicated that the physico-chemical properties of Portland cements and MTA were similar. Furthermore, all materials produced an alkaline environment and can be considered safe for clinical use because arsenic was not released. The electrical conductivity and the amount of calcium ions released into solution increased over time.

  15. Neighborhood deprivation and access to fast-food retailing: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Jamie; Blakely, Tony; Witten, Karen; Bartie, Phil

    2007-05-01

    Obesogenic environments may be an important contextual explanation for the growing obesity epidemic, including its unequal social distribution. The objective of this study was to determine whether geographic access to fast-food outlets varied by neighborhood deprivation and school socioeconomic ranking, and whether any such associations differed to those for access to healthier food outlets. Data were collected on the location of fast-food outlets, supermarkets, and convenience stores across New Zealand. The data were geocoded and geographic information systems used to calculate travel distances from each census meshblock (i.e., neighborhood), and each school, to the closest fast-food outlet. Median travel distances are reported by a census-based index of socioeconomic deprivation for each neighborhood, and by a Ministry of Education measure of socioeconomic circumstances for each school. Analyses were repeated for outlets selling healthy food to allow comparisons. At the national level, statistically significant negative associations were found between neighborhood access to the nearest fast-food outlet and neighborhood deprivation (p<0.001) for both multinational fast-food outlets and locally operated outlets. The travel distances to both types of fast food outlet were at least twice as far in the least socially deprived neighborhoods compared to the most deprived neighborhoods. A similar pattern was found for outlets selling healthy food such as supermarkets and smaller food outlets (p<0.001). These relationships were broadly linear with travel distances tending to be shorter in more-deprived neighborhoods. There is a strong association between neighborhood deprivation and geographic access to fast food outlets in New Zealand, which may contribute to the understanding of environmental causes of obesity. However, outlets potentially selling healthy food (e.g., supermarkets) are patterned by deprivation in a similar way. These findings highlight the importance of

  16. Positive Neighborhood Norms Buffer Ethnic Diversity Effects on Neighborhood Dissatisfaction, Perceived Neighborhood Disadvantage, and Moving Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, Jasper; Asbrock, Frank; Roets, Arne; Kauff, Mathias

    2018-05-01

    Positive neighborhood norms, such as strong local networks, are critical to people's satisfaction with, perceived disadvantage of, and intentions to stay in their neighborhood. At the same time, local ethnic diversity is said to be detrimental for these community outcomes. Integrating both frameworks, we tested whether the negative consequences of diversity occur even when perceived social norms are positive. Study 1 ( N = 1,760 German adults) showed that perceptions of positive neighborhood norms buffered against the effects of perceived diversity on moving intentions via neighborhood satisfaction and perceived neighborhood disadvantage. Study 2 ( N = 993 Dutch adults) replicated and extended this moderated mediation model using other characteristics of diversity (i.e., objective and estimated minority proportions). Multilevel analyses again revealed consistent buffering effects of positive neighborhood norms. Our findings are discussed in light of the ongoing public and political debate concerning diversity and social and communal life.

  17. Neighborhood Food Environment, Diet, and Obesity Among Los Angeles County Adults, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Nelly; Lightstone, Amy S; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Morales, Douglas M; Sturm, Roland

    2015-09-03

    The objective of this study was to examine whether an association exists between the number and type of food outlets in a neighborhood and dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) among adults in Los Angeles County. We also assessed whether this association depends on the geographic size of the food environment. We analyzed data from the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. We created buffers (from 0.25 to 3.0 miles in radius) centered in respondents' residential addresses and counted the number of food outlets by type in each buffer. Dependent variables were weekly intake of fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fast food; BMI; and being overweight (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m(2)) or obese (BMI ≥30.0 kg/m(2)). Explanatory variables were the number of outlets classified as fast-food outlets, convenience stores, small food stores, grocery stores, and supermarkets. Regressions were estimated for all sets of explanatory variables and buffer size combinations (150 total effects). Only 2 of 150 effects were significant after being adjusted for multiple comparisons. The number of fast-food restaurants in nonwalkable areas (in a 3.0-mile radius) was positively associated with fast-food consumption, and the number of convenience stores in a walkable distance (in a 0.25-mile radius) was negatively associated with obesity. Little evidence was found for associations between proximity of respondents' homes to food outlets and dietary intake or BMI among adults in Los Angeles County. A possible explanation for the null finding is that shopping patterns are weakly related to neighborhoods in Los Angeles County because of motorized transportation.

  18. Population density, distance to public transportation, and health of women in low-income neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGuzman, Pamela B; Merwin, Elizabeth I; Bourguignon, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the impact of two neighborhood walkability (the extent to which the built environment is pedestrian friendly) metrics on health outcomes of women living in low-income urban neighborhoods, both before and after accounting for individual and neighborhood factors. A cross-sectional, retrospective design was used. The sample of 1800 low-income women was drawn from Welfare, Children and Families: A Three-City Study (a study of low-income women from three U.S. cities). Using multilevel modeling and geographic information systems, the study sought to determine the effect of distance to public transportation and residential density on health status, mental health symptoms, and health-related limitations. No significant relationship was found between the two walkability metrics and health outcomes. Instead, neighborhood problems that affect crime and safety impacted health status and mental health symptoms. As cities make changes to the built environment with the hope of affecting residents' health outcomes, public health nurses need to be aware that changing walkability characteristics in a neighborhood may not affect the health of residents of high crime, low-income neighborhoods. Without first addressing neighborhood crime, efforts to improve walkability in low-income neighborhoods may fail. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Understanding mineral trioxide aggregate/Portland-cement: a review of literature and background factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, R; van Waes, H

    2009-06-01

    This was to carry out a review of the literature concerning mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement with regards to clinical, biological and mechanical findings and a possible substitution of MTA through Portland cement for endodontic use. Electronic literature search of scientific papers from January 1993 to January 2009 was carried out on the MEDLINE and Scopus databases using specific key words. In total, 57 papers were identified that dealt with MTA and Portland cement in a relevant way. The review of 50 papers conforming to the applied criteria showed that MTA and Portland cements have the same clinical, biological and mechanical properties. In animal experiments and technical characterisations both materials seemed to have very similar properties. The only difference is bismuth oxide in MTA added for better radio opacity. It seems likely that MTA materials are based on industrial Portland cements mixed with bismuth oxide. More studies, especially some long-term studies comparing MTA and Portland cement, are necessary. The existing literature gives a solid base for clinical studies with Portland cement in order to replace MTA as an endodontic material. Portland cement could be a substitute for most endodontic materials used in primary teeth.

  20. The moderating role of food cue sensitivity in the behavioral response of children to their neighborhood food environment: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Catherine; de Montigny, Luc; Labban, Alice; Buckeridge, David; Ma, Yu; Arora, Narendra; Dubé, Laurette

    2017-07-05

    Neighborhood food cues have been inconsistently related to residents' health, possibly due to variations in residents' sensitivity to such cues. This study sought to investigate the degree to which children's predisposition to eat upon exposure to food environment and food cues (external eating), could explain differences in strength of associations between their food consumption and the type of food outlets and marketing strategies present in their neighborhood. Data were obtained from 616 6-12 y.o. children recruited into a population-based cross-sectional study in which food consumption was measured through a 24-h food recall and responsiveness to food cues measured using the external eating scale. The proportion of food retailers within 3 km of residence considered as "healthful" was calculated using a Geographical Information System. Neighborhood exposure to food marketing strategies (displays, discount frequency, variety, and price) for vegetables and soft drinks were derived from a geocoded digital marketing database. Adjusted mixed models with spatial covariance tested interaction effects of food environment indicators and external eating on food consumption. In children with higher external eating scores, healthful food consumption was more positively related to vegetable displays, and more negatively to the display and variety of soft drinks. No interactions were observed for unhealthful food consumption and no main effects of food environment indicators were found on food consumption. Children differ in their responsiveness to marketing-related visual food cues on the basis of their external eating phenotype. Strategies aiming to increase the promotion of healthful relative to unhealthful food products in stores may be particularly beneficial for children identified as being more responsive to food cues.

  1. Analyses of heavy metals in mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, Matthew; Peplow, George; Camilleri, Josette

    2010-07-01

    Portland cement is used in the construction industry as a binder in concrete. It is manufactured from chalk, limestone, and clay, which are clinkered at very high temperatures and ground with gypsum to form Portland cement. The raw materials and the manufacturing process can result in the inclusion of heavy metals in Portland cement. Portland cement with a four to one addition of bismuth oxide is marketed as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), which is used mainly as a dental material. Heavy metal inclusion can be of concern because MTA is in contact with hard and soft tissues. Measurements of arsenic, lead, and chromium in hydrated gray and white Portland cement, ProRoot MTA, and MTA Angelus were conducted with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry after acid digestion on the hydrated material. The leaching of the metal ions from the solid material in water and simulated body fluid (SBF) was also determined. All cement types showed high relative values of leached chromium compared with arsenic and lead in both the total metal content and leached species. The gray Portland cement showed the highest total amount of metal. The white Portland and both MTAs had lower values for all the leached metal ions. Both MTAs released more arsenic than the amount specified in ISO 9917-1 (2007). Portland cements and MTAs showed evidence of heavy metals in the acid-soluble form as well as leaching in deionized water and SBF. MTA contained levels of arsenic higher than the safe limit specified by the ISO 9917-1 (2007). Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neighborhood Stress and Autonomic Nervous System Activity during Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellman, Thomas Alan; Bell, Kimberly Ann; Abu-Bader, Soleman Hassan; Kobayashi, Ihori

    2018-04-04

    Stressful neighborhood environments are known to adversely impact health and contribute to health disparities but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Healthy sleep can provide a respite from sustained sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Our objective was to evaluate relationships between neighborhood stress and nocturnal and daytime SNS and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity. Eighty five urban-residing African Americans (56.5% female; mean age of 23.0) participated. Evaluation included surveys of neighborhood stress and sleep-related vigilance; and continuous ECG and actigraphic recording in participants' homes from which heart rate variability (HRV) analysis for low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio and normalized high frequency (nHF), as indicators of SNS and PNS activity, respectively, and total sleep time (TST), and wake after sleep onset were derived. All significant relationships with HRV measures were from the sleep period. Neighborhood disorder correlated negatively with nHF (r = -.24, p = .035). There were also significant correlations of HRV indices with sleep duration and sleep fears. Among females, LF/HF correlated with exposure to violence, r = .39, p = .008 and nHF with census tract rates for violent crime (r = -.35, p = .035). In a stepwise regression, TST accounted for the variance contributed by violent crime to nHF in the female participants. Further investigation of relationships between neighborhood environments and SNS/PNS balance during sleep and their consequences, and strategies for mitigating such effects would have implications for health disparities.

  3. Choice Neighborhood Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Choice Neighborhoods grants transform distressed neighborhoods, public and assisted projects into viable and sustainable mixed-income neighborhoods by linking...

  4. Neighborhood influences on girls' obesity risk across the transition to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Lindsay T; Kushi, Lawrence H; Leung, Cindy W; Nickleach, Dana C; Adler, Nancy; Laraia, Barbara A; Hiatt, Robert A; Yen, Irene H

    2014-11-01

    The neighborhoods in which children live, play, and eat provide an environmental context that may influence obesity risk and ameliorate or exacerbate health disparities. The current study examines whether neighborhood characteristics predict obesity in a prospective cohort of girls. Participants were 174 girls (aged 8-10 years at baseline), a subset from the Cohort Study of Young Girls' Nutrition, Environment, and Transitions. Trained observers completed street audits within a 0.25-mile radius around each girl's residence. Four scales (food and service retail, recreation, walkability, and physical disorder) were created from 40 observed neighborhood features. BMI was calculated from clinically measured height and weight. Obesity was defined as BMI-for-age ≥ 95%. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to examine neighborhood influences on obesity risk over 4 years of follow-up, controlling for race/ethnicity, pubertal status, and baseline BMI. Fully adjusted models also controlled for household income, parent education, and a census tract measure of neighborhood socioeconomic status. A 1-SD increase on the food and service retail scale was associated with a 2.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.42 to 3.61; P obese. A 1-SD increase in physical disorder was associated with a 2.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 4.44; P = .005) increased odds of being obese. Other neighborhood scales were not associated with risk for obesity. Neighborhood food and retail environment and physical disorder around a girl's home predict risk for obesity across the transition from late childhood to adolescence. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott; Han, Daikwon; Huber, John C

    2009-02-16

    To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability) are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1) distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2) coverage (number) of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. Data included locational points for 315 food stores and 204 fast food restaurants, and neighborhood characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census for the 197 census block group (CBG) study area. Neighborhood deprivation and vehicle availability were calculated for each CBG. Minimum distance was determined by calculating network distance from the population-weighted center of each CBG to the nearest supercenter, supermarket, grocery, convenience store, dollar store, mass merchandiser, and fast food restaurant. Coverage was determined by calculating the number of each type of food store and fast food restaurant within a network distance of 1, 3, and 5 miles of each population-weighted CBG center. Neighborhood need and access were examined using Spearman ranked correlations, spatial autocorrelation, and multivariate regression models that adjusted for population density. Overall, neighborhoods had best access to convenience stores, fast food restaurants, and dollar stores. After adjusting for population density, residents in neighborhoods with increased deprivation had to travel a significantly greater distance to the nearest supercenter or supermarket, grocery store, mass merchandiser, dollar store, and pharmacy for food items. The results were quite different for association of need with the number of stores within 1 mile. Deprivation was only associated with fast food restaurants; greater deprivation was associated with fewer fast food restaurants within 1 mile. CBG with greater lack of vehicle availability had slightly better access to more supercenters or supermarkets, grocery

  6. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of Colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Daikwon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1 distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2 coverage (number of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. Methods Data included locational points for 315 food stores and 204 fast food restaurants, and neighborhood characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census for the 197 census block group (CBG study area. Neighborhood deprivation and vehicle availability were calculated for each CBG. Minimum distance was determined by calculating network distance from the population-weighted center of each CBG to the nearest supercenter, supermarket, grocery, convenience store, dollar store, mass merchandiser, and fast food restaurant. Coverage was determined by calculating the number of each type of food store and fast food restaurant within a network distance of 1, 3, and 5 miles of each population-weighted CBG center. Neighborhood need and access were examined using Spearman ranked correlations, spatial autocorrelation, and multivariate regression models that adjusted for population density. Results Overall, neighborhoods had best access to convenience stores, fast food restaurants, and dollar stores. After adjusting for population density, residents in neighborhoods with increased deprivation had to travel a significantly greater distance to the nearest supercenter or supermarket, grocery store, mass merchandiser, dollar store, and pharmacy for food items. The results were quite different for association of need with the number of stores within 1 mile. Deprivation was only associated with fast food restaurants; greater deprivation was associated with fewer fast food restaurants within 1 mile. CBG with greater lack of vehicle availability had slightly better

  7. Effect of blended materials on U(VI) retention characteristics for portland cement solidification product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Hongbin; Ma Xiaoling; Li Yuxiang

    2006-01-01

    Using the simulated groundwater as leaching liquid, the retention capability of U(VI) in solidification products with Portland cement, the Portland cement containing silica fume, the Portland cement containing metakaolin and the Portland cement containing fly ash was researched by leaching experiments at 25 degree C for 42 d. The results indicate silica fume and metakaolin as blended materials can improve the U(VI) retention capability of Portland cement solidification product, but fly ash can not. (authors)

  8. Planning According to New Urbanism: the Ostadsara Neighborhood Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Zali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern urbanism activities have led to rupture of previous spatial structure of neighborhoods and destruction of their identity. The New Urbanism Movement, as one of the successful models in urbanization field attempts to revive this lost national-social identity through the project of returning to traditional structure of neighborhoods by applying modern urbanization models and methods. The current paper aims at evaluation and analysis of “the Ostadsara neighborhood's organization based on new urbanism principles” and representation of solutions for planning a successful neighborhood center considering these principles. In this regard, various methods including library method, observation, photography, questionnaire and interview with users of the environment were utilized. The results from identification and assessment of weaknesses and strengths and specification and analysis of potential threats and opportunities shows the possibility of applying walkability, connectivity and integration, improvement of public transportation, improvement of architecture quality and urban design, maintenance and improvement of public and green open spaces, maintenance and strengthening the structure of traditional neighborhood units and using cooperation of Ostadsara neighborhood's inhabitants. Finally, the current study will represent appropriate strategies for changing the mentioned neighborhood into a desirable and prosperous one.

  9. Perceptions as the crucial link? The mediating role of neighborhood perceptions in the relationship between the neighborhood context and neighborhood cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laméris, Joran; Hipp, John R; Tolsma, Jochem

    2018-05-01

    This study examines the effects of neighborhood racial in-group size, economic deprivation and the prevalence of crime on neighborhood cohesion among U.S. whites. We explore to what extent residents' perceptions of their neighborhood mediate these macro-micro relationships. We use a recent individual-level data set, the American Social Fabric Study (2012/2013), enriched with contextual-level data from the U.S. Census Bureau (2010) and employ multi-level structural equation models. We show that the racial in-group size is positively related to neighborhood cohesion and that neighborhood cohesion is lower in communities with a high crime rate. Individuals' perceptions of the racial in-group size partly mediate the relationship between the objective racial in-group size and neighborhood cohesion. Residents' perceptions of unsafety from crime also appear to be a mediating factor, not only for the objective crime rate but also for the objective racial in-group size. This is in line with our idea that racial stereotypes link racial minorities to crime whereby neighborhoods with a large non-white population are perceived to be more unsafe. Residents of the same neighborhood differ in how they perceive the degree of economic decay of the neighborhood and this causes them to evaluate neighborhood cohesion differently, however perceptions of neighborhood economic decay do not explain the link between the objective neighborhood context and neighborhood cohesion. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Healthy neighborhoods: walkability and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julian D; Brauer, Michael; Frank, Lawrence D

    2009-11-01

    The built environment may influence health in part through the promotion of physical activity and exposure to pollution. To date, no studies have explored interactions between neighborhood walkability and air pollution exposure. We estimated concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), a marker for direct vehicle emissions), and ozone (O(3)) and a neighborhood walkability score, for 49,702 (89% of total) postal codes in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. NO concentrations were estimated from a land-use regression model, O(3) was estimated from ambient monitoring data; walkability was calculated based on geographic attributes such as land-use mix, street connectivity, and residential density. All three attributes exhibit an urban-rural gradient, with high walkability and NO concentrations, and low O(3) concentrations, near the city center. Lower-income areas tend to have higher NO concentrations and walkability and lower O(3) concentrations. Higher-income areas tend to have lower pollution (NO and O(3)). "Sweet-spot" neighborhoods (low pollution, high walkability) are generally located near but not at the city center and are almost exclusively higher income. Increased concentration of activities in urban settings yields both health costs and benefits. Our research identifies neighborhoods that do especially well (and especially poorly) for walkability and air pollution exposure. Work is needed to ensure that the poor do not bear an undue burden of urban air pollution and that neighborhoods designed for walking, bicycling, or mass transit do not adversely affect resident's exposure to air pollution. Analyses presented here could be replicated in other cities and tracked over time to better understand interactions among neighborhood walkability, air pollution exposure, and income level.

  11. Neighborhood solutions for neighborhood problems: an empirically based violence prevention collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, J; Swenson, C C; Henggeler, S W

    1999-12-01

    Youth antisocial behavior is influenced, in part, by neighborhood context. Yet, rather than attempting to ameliorate factors contributing to youth antisocial behavior, service dollars are primarily devoted to expensive and often ineffective out-of-home placements. This article describes the development and implementation of a collaborative partnership designed to empower an economically disadvantaged neighborhood to address violent criminal behavior, substance abuse, and other serious antisocial problems of its youth while maintaining youth in the neighborhood. Through a collaboration between a university research center and neighborhood stakeholders, services are being provided to address the key priorities identified by neighborhood residents, and extensive efforts are being made to develop family and neighborhood contexts that are conducive to prosocial youth behavior.

  12. Development of a pedestrian audit tool to assess rural neighborhood walkability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlin, Kathleen; Haardoerfer, Regine; Kegler, Michelle C; Glanz, Karen

    2014-08-01

    Recently, investigators have begun to refine audit instruments for use in rural areas. However, no studies have developed a walkability summary score or have correlated built environment characteristics with physical activity behavior. The Rural Pedestrian Environmental Audit Instrument was developed specifically for use in rural areas. Segments surrounding participant's homes were selected to represent neighborhood streets (N = 116). Interrater reliability was conducted on a subset of streets (N = 42). Rural-specific domain and walkability scores were developed and correlated with individual-level data on perceptions of the neighborhood and self-reported physical activity behavior. Interrater reliability for the instrument was substantial and all domains had high agreement. Walkability in the audited area was low with even the best segments demonstrating only moderate support for walking. There were no significant correlations between the neighborhood walkability score and self-reported neighborhood walkability, time spent walking, sedentary behavior, or BMI; however, a few correlations within the social/dynamic domain were significant. This study expands recent research refining audit instruments for rural areas. Findings suggest the usefulness of summarizing environmental data at the domain level and linking it to physical activity behavior to identify aspects of the neighborhood environment that are most strongly correlated with actual behavior.

  13. Regional economic impact assessment: Evaluating remedial alternatives for the Portland Harbor Superfund Site, Portland, Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David; Coughlin, Conor; Hogan, Dylan; Edwards, Deborah A; Smith, Benjamin C

    2018-01-01

    The present paper describes a methodology for evaluating impacts of Superfund remedial alternatives on the regional economy in the context of a broader sustainability evaluation. Although economic impact methodology is well established, some applications to Superfund remedial evaluation have created confusion because of seemingly contradictory results. This confusion arises from failure to be explicit about 2 opposing impacts of remediation expenditures: 1) positive regional impacts of spending additional money in the region and 2) negative regional impacts of the need to pay for the expenditures (and thus forgo other expenditures in the region). The present paper provides a template for economic impact assessment that takes both positive and negative impacts into account, thus providing comprehensive estimates of net impacts. The paper also provides a strategy for identifying and estimating major uncertainties in the net impacts. The recommended methodology was applied at the Portland Harbor Superfund Site, located along the Lower Willamette River in Portland, Oregon, USA. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) developed remedial alternatives that it estimated would cost up to several billion dollars, with construction durations possibly lasting decades. The economic study estimated regional economic impacts-measured in terms of gross regional product (GRP), personal income, population, and employment-for 5 of the USEPA alternatives relative to the "no further action" alternative. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:32-42. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  14. 76 FR 28318 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants AGENCY... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Response to... by the Portland Cement Industry and the New Source Performance Standards for Portland Cement Plants...

  15. 76 FR 2832 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants AGENCY...) from the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance (NSPS) for Portland Cement... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Docket, Docket ID No...

  16. 77 FR 46371 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ...-AQ93 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing... Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants,'' which was... Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants'' under Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR...

  17. NEIGHBORHOOD TEST DESIGN BASED ON HISTORIC PRECEDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besim S. Hakim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been various attempts to emulate traditional architecture and to experiment with the form and aesthetics of building design. However, learning from precedents of urban morphology is rare. This design study is a test at the neighborhood level using the pattern of traditional courtyard housing that is prevalent in the majority of historic towns and cities of North Africa and the Middle East. The study is undertaken at five levels of design enquiry: dwelling types, dwelling groups, neighborhood segment and community center. All of which are synthesized into a full prototype neighborhood comprising of 428 dwelling units covering an area that includes circulation and the community center, of 17.6 hectares. The test demonstrates that the traditional pattern of neighborhoods that are based on the typology of the courtyard dwelling as the initial generator of urban form may be used to develop a contemporary settlement pattern that is compatible with current necessities of lifestyle, vehicular circulation,  including parking and infrastructure achieving an attractive livable environment with an overall gross density, that includes a community center, of about 24 dwelling units per hectare.

  18. Perceived Neighborhood Environmental Attributes Associated with Walking and Cycling for Transport among Adult Residents of 17 Cities in 12 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Emond, Jennifer A; Badland, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    interventions. The aim of this study was to examine the strength and shape of the relationship between adults' neighborhood perceptions and walking and cycling for transport across diverse environments. METHODS: As part of the International Physical activity and Environment Network (IPEN) adult project, self......-report data were taken from 13,745 adults (18 - 65 years) living in physically and socially diverse neighborhoods in 17 cities across 12 countries. Neighborhood perceptions were measured using the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale, and walking and cycling for transport were measured using...... the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Long Form. Generalized additive mixed models were used to model walking or cycling for transport during the last seven days with neighborhood perceptions. Interactions by city were explored. RESULTS: Walking for transport outcomes were significantly associated...

  19. Neighborhood-based PA and its environmental correlates : A GIS- and GPS based cross-sectional study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Marijke; Kamphuis, Carlijn B.M.; Pierik, Frank H.; Ettema, Dick F.; Dijst, Martin J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: To improve our understanding of the neighborhood environment - physical activity (PA) relationship, it is of importance to assess associations between neighborhood environmental characteristics and neighborhood-based PA. Methods: Participants' (N = 308; 45-65 years) light PA (LPA) and

  20. An Alternative to Residential Neighborhoods: An Exploratory Study of How Activity Spaces and Perception of Neighborhood Social Processes Relate to Maladaptive Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Thomas, Crystal A.; Curry, Susanna R.; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2016-01-01

    Background: The environments where parents spend time, such as at work, at their child's school, or with friends and family, may exert a greater influence on their parenting behaviors than the residential neighborhoods where they live. These environments, termed activity spaces, provide individualized information about the where parents go,…

  1. Family Socioeconomic Status, Cortisol, and Physical Health in Early Childhood: The Role of Advantageous Neighborhood Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubinov, Danielle S; Hagan, Melissa J; Boyce, W Thomas; Adler, Nancy E; Bush, Nicole R

    2018-06-01

    Children from families with lower socioeconomic status (SES) evidence greater physiological dysregulation and poorer health. Despite recognition of environmental contributors, little is known about the influence of neighborhood characteristics. The present study examined the moderating role of community-level risks and resources on the relation of family SES to children's daily cortisol output and physical health during the kindergarten year. In fall and spring of kindergarten, children's (N = 338) daily total cortisol was measured and parents and teachers rated children's global physical health. Parents reported family SES. Neighborhood characteristics were assessed using the Child Opportunity Index, a population-level tool that evaluates the quality of multiple domains of neighborhood attributes. In fall, children reared in lower SES family environments had higher cortisol when residing in lower quality (lower opportunity) neighborhoods (b = -.097, p family SES and children's cortisol in more advantaged (higher opportunity) neighborhoods (b = -.023, p = .36). Lower family SES was prospectively associated with poorer physical health in spring (controlling for fall health) only among children living in lower opportunity neighborhoods (b = -.250, p = .018) and was unrelated to physical health among children residing in higher opportunity neighborhoods (b = .042, p = .70). Higher opportunity neighborhoods may protect against the negative consequences of low family SES on children's stress physiology and physical health. Public health interventions that bolster neighborhood opportunities may benefit young children reared in socioeconomically disadvantaged family environments.

  2. Cross-validation of the factorial structure of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerin Ester

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A assess perceived environmental attributes believed to influence physical activity. A multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA conducted on a sample from Seattle, WA showed that, at the respondent level, the factor-analyzable items of the NEWS and NEWS-A measured 11 and 10 constructs of perceived neighborhood environment, respectively. At the census blockgroup (used by the US Census Bureau as a subunit of census tracts level, the MCFA yielded five factors for both NEWS and NEWS-A. The aim of this study was to cross-validate the individual- and blockgroup-level measurement models of the NEWS and NEWS-A in a geographical location and population different from those used in the original validation study. Methods A sample of 912 adults was recruited from 16 selected neighborhoods (116 census blockgroups in the Baltimore, MD region. Neighborhoods were stratified according to their socio-economic status and transport-related walkability level measured using Geographic Information Systems. Participants self-completed the NEWS. MCFA was used to cross-validate the individual- and blockgroup-level measurement models of the NEWS and NEWS-A. Results The data provided sufficient support for the factorial validity of the original individual-level measurement models, which consisted of 11 (NEWS and 10 (NEWS-A correlated factors. The original blockgroup-level measurement model of the NEWS and NEWS-A showed poor fit to the data and required substantial modifications. These included the combining of aspects of building aesthetics with safety from crime into one factor; the separation of natural aesthetics and building aesthetics into two factors; and for the NEWS-A, the separation of presence of sidewalks/walking routes from other infrastructure for walking. Conclusion This study provided support for the generalizability of the individual

  3. Electrically conductive Portland cement concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    There is a need for an effective, simple-to-install secondary anode system for use in the cathodic protection of reinforced concrete bridge decks. In pursuit of such a system, carbon fibers and carbon black were incorporated in portland cement concre...

  4. Neighborhood archetypes for population health research: is there no place like home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weden, Margaret M; Bird, Chloe E; Escarce, José J; Lurie, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a new, latent archetype approach for studying place in population health. Latent class analysis is used to show how the number, defining attributes, and change/stability of neighborhood archetypes can be characterized and tested for statistical significance. The approach is demonstrated using data on contextual determinants of health for US neighborhoods defined by census tracts in 1990 and 2000. Six archetypes (prevalence 13-20%) characterize the statistically significant combinations of contextual determinants of health from the social environment, built environment, commuting and migration patterns, and demographics and household composition of US neighborhoods. Longitudinal analyses based on the findings demonstrate notable stability (76.4% of neighborhoods categorized as the same archetype ten years later), with exceptions reflecting trends in (ex)urbanization, gentrification/downgrading, and racial/ethnic reconfiguration. The findings and approach is applicable to both research and practice (e.g. surveillance) and can be scaled up or down to study health and place in other geographical contexts or historical periods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Variations in active transport behavior among different neighborhoods and across adult life stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars Breum; Madsen, Thomas; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Built environment characteristics are closely related to transport behavior, but observed variations could be due to residents own choice of neighborhood called residential self-selection. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in neighborhood walkability and residential...... self-selection across life stages in relation to active transport behavior. METHODS: The IPEN walkability index, which consists of four built environment characteristics, was used to define 16 high and low walkable neighborhoods in Aarhus, Denmark (250.000 inhabitants). Transport behavior was assessed...... using the IPAQ questionnaire. Life stages were categorized in three groups according to age and parental status. A factor analysis was conducted to investigate patterns of self-selection. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between walkability...

  6. Thermophysical properties of blends from Portland and sulfoaluminate-belite cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojumdar, S.C.; Janotka, I.

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of mortars with blends consisting of sulfoaluminate-belite cements and ordinary Portland cement made with cement to sand ratio of 1:3 by weight and w/c = 0.5 maintained for 90 days at 20 0 C either at 60% relative humidity - dry air or 100% relative humidity - wet air. The results show insufficient character of hydraulic activity of sulfoaluminate-belite cements. Their quality has been improved. The replacement of 15 wt % of sulfoaluminate-belite cement by ordinary Portland cement influences strength positively and elasticity modulus values as well as hydrated phases and pore structure development of sulfoaluminate-belite/ordinary Portland cement blends relative to pure sulfoaluminate-belite cement systems. The above statements confirm the possible making technologies, when improvements in sulfoaluminate-belite cements quality will be achieved. One would then anticipate the competition in usages between sulfoaluminate-belite/ordinary Portland cement and blast furnace-slag Portland cement systems in the practice. It is important to consider because sulfoaluminate-belite cements are of great advantage from the viewpoint of energy savings and quantity of CO 2 released during their production. Thermal characteristics of the samples were studied by thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis from room temperature to 1000 0 C in air atmosphere. Generally, four significant temperature regions on thermogravimetry curves with the respective differential thermal analysis peak temperature for all types of samples are observed (Authors)

  7. Neighborhood Environments and Physical Activity: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescents in a Natural Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Nancy; Datar, Ashlesha

    2018-05-01

    Experimental and quasi-experimental evidence on the relationship between adolescents' physical activity and their physical activity environments is scarce. This study provides natural experimental evidence using within-person longitudinal variation in physical activity environments resulting from the compulsory re-assignment of military families to new installations, termed permanent changes of station. Adolescents in Army families (N=749) reported usual weekly minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity in 2013-2015. Objective measures of the physical activity environment, including the number of fitness and recreation facilities within 2 miles, were constructed for adolescents' neighborhoods using GIS methods. In 2017, individual-level fixed-effects models with and without a comparison group estimated the relationship between usual weekly minutes of physical activity and physical activity environments among permanent changes of station movers using within-person variation. Increases in opportunities for physical activity were significantly and positively associated with increases in total (p<0.05) and vigorous physical activity (p<0.05) among adolescents who experienced permanent changes of station moves. The relationships were statistically significant for permanent changes of station movers living off-installation (p<0.05) and hence subject to greater variation in physical activity environments and those with more time to adjust to their new environments (p<0.05). Significant findings persisted when broader measures of physical activity environments were utilized. The decline in physical activity and alarming obesity levels during adolescence suggest that this age may represent an important opportunity to address the obesity epidemic. This study provides evidence that increasing opportunities for physical activity may be an important pathway to improving their levels of physical activity and, consequently, obesity. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of

  8. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Adlakha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2% from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2% with a gap of 2–3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48–0.99. The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India.

  9. Neighborhood context and health: How neighborhood social capital affects individual health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohnen, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Does it matter for my health in which neighborhood I live? The fact is, health is determined not only by individual characteristics but also by the neighborhood in which someone lives. This thesis shows that health clusters in Dutch neighborhoods and that this is not only a composition effect (that

  10. Living environment matters: relationships between neighborhood characteristics and health of the residents in a Dutch municipality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putrik, Polina; de Vries, Nanne K.; Mujakovic, Suhreta; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic; Kant, Ijmert; Kunst, Anton E.; van Oers, Hans; Jansen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics of an individual alone cannot exhaustively explain all the causes of poor health, and neighborhood of residence have been suggested to be one of the factors that contribute to health. However, knowledge about aspects of the neighborhood that are most important to health is limited.

  11. Living environment matters : Relationships between neighborhood characteristics and health of the residents in a Dutch municipality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putrik, P.; de Vries, N.K.; Mujakovic, S.; van Amelsvoort, L.; Kant, IJ.; Kunst, A.E.; van Oers, J.A.M.; Jansen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics of an individual alone cannot exhaustively explain all the causes of poor health, and neighborhood of residence have been suggested to be one of the factors that contribute to health. However, knowledge about aspects of the neighborhood that are most important to health is limited.

  12. Portland cement versus MTA as a root-end filling material. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Sérgio Ribeiro; da Silva Neto, José Dias; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Schnaider, Taylor Brandão; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-02-01

    To assess periradicular lesions clinically and by computed tomography (CT) after endodontic surgery using either Portland cement or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as a root-end filling material. Three patients diagnosed with periradicular lesions by cone-beam CT underwent endodontic surgery with root-end filling. Patient A was treated with MTA as the root-end filling material, patient B was treated with Portland cement and patient C had two teeth treated, one with MTA and the other with Portland cement. Six months after surgery, the patients were assessed clinically and by CT scan and the obtained results were compared. Periradicular tissue regeneration was observed in all cases, with no significant differences in bone formation when comparing the use of MTA and Portland cement as root-end filling materials. Both mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement were successful in the treatment of periradicular lesions.

  13. Differences by Sexual Orientation in Perceptions of Neighborhood Cohesion: Implications for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning-Smith, Carrie; Gonzales, Gilbert

    2018-06-01

    A large body of research documents the relationship between health and place, including the positive association between neighborhood cohesion and health. However, very little research has examined neighborhood cohesion by sexual orientation. This paper addresses that gap by examining differences in perceived neighborhood cohesion by sexual orientation. We use data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey (n = 28,164 respondents aged 18 years and older) to examine bivariate differences by sexual orientation in four measures of neighborhood cohesion. We then use ordered logistic regression models to assess the relationship between sexual orientation and a scaled measure of neighborhood cohesion, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, living arrangements, health status, region, and neighborhood tenure. We find that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults are less likely to say that they live in a close-knit neighborhood (54.6 vs. 65.6%, p < 0.001), they can count on their neighbors (74.7 vs. 83.1%, p < 0.001), they trust their neighbors (75.5 vs. 83.7%, p < 0.001), or people in their neighborhood help each other out (72.9 vs. 83.1%, p < 0.001), compared to heterosexual adults. Even after controlling for socio-demographic factors, neighborhood cohesion scores are lower for LGB adults compared to heterosexual adults (odds ratio of better perceived neighborhood cohesion for sexual minorities: 0.70, p < 0.001). Overall, LGB adults report worse neighborhood cohesion across multiple measures, even after adjusting for individual characteristics and neighborhood tenure. Because living in a cohesive neighborhood is associated with better health outcomes, future research, community-level initiatives, and public policy efforts should focus on creating welcoming neighborhood environments for sexual minorities.

  14. Effects of a Green Space Layout on the Outdoor Thermal Environment at the Neighborhood Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ming Lai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to address the existing urban design needs and computer-aided thermal engineering and explore the optimal green space layout to obtain an acceptable thermal environment at the neighborhood scale through a series of building energy and computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The building-energy analysis software eQUEST and weather database TMY2 were adopted to analyze the electric energy consumed by air conditioners and the analysis results were incorporated to derive the heat dissipated from air conditioners. Then, the PHOENICS CFD software was used to analyze how the green space layout influences outdoor thermal environment based on the heat dissipated from air conditioners and the solar heat reemitted from the built surfaces. The results show that a green space located in the center of this investigated area and at the far side of the downstream of a summer monsoon is the recommended layout. The layouts, with green space in the center, can decrease the highest temperature by 0.36 °C.

  15. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data (2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Portland, OR Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) dataset includes data for the Portland metropolitan area plus the city of Vancouver, Washington and...

  16. Biocompatibility of Portland cement combined with different radiopacifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço Neto, Natalino; Marques, Nádia C T; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Rodini, Camila O; Duarte, Marco A H; Lima, Marta C; Machado, Maria A A M; Abdo, Ruy C C; Oliveira, Thais M

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of rat subcutaneous tissue to Portland cement combined with two different radiopacifying agents, iodoform (CHI3) and zirconium oxide (ZrO2). These materials were placed in polyethylene tubes and implanted into the dorsal connective tissue of Wistar rats for 7 and 15 days. The specimens were then stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and inflammatory reaction parameters were evaluated by light microscopy. The intensity of the inflammatory response to the sealants was analyzed by two blind calibrated observers throughout the experimental period. Histological analysis showed that all the materials caused a moderated inflammatory reaction at 7 days, which then diminished with time. At 15 days, the inflammatory reaction was almost absent, and fibroblasts and collagen fibers were observed indicating normal tissue healing. The degrees of the inflammatory reaction on different days throughout the experimental period were compared using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistical analysis demonstrated no significant differences amongst the groups, and Portland cement associated with radiopacifying agents gave satisfactory results. Therefore, Portland cement used in combination with radiopacifying agents can be considered a biocompatible material. Although our results are very encouraging, further studies are needed in order to establish safe clinical indications for Portland cement combined with radiopacifying agents.

  17. Influence of ultrasonic radiation on the amorphous zeolite - Portland cement system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakevicius, L.; Vaiciukyniene, D.; Demcenko, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the investigation of influence of an amorphous synthetic zeolite with inserted $Ca^{2+}$ ions additive (ASZ) on the hydration temperature of Portland cement paste. In this investigation the sonicated Portland cement paste is compared to the non-sonicated paste; and then the

  18. Portland-pfa cement: a comparison between intergrinding and blending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monk, M

    1983-09-01

    Portland-pfa cements containing 20-40% (by weight) pfa have been prepared in the laboratory both by intergrinding the ashes with clinker and by blending with cement. Cement properties have been assessed according to BS 4550 and scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the effects of grinding upon the pfa particles. The work has shown that intergrinding leads to an improvement in the water-reducing properties of coarse pfas and also in their pozzolanic activity as indicated by compressive strength development at later ages. Setting times have been found to be essentially the same for blended and interground cements, both being considerably longer than for typical ordinary Portland cements. Thus the results of this investigation indicate that, provided pfa's are chemically acceptable, they can be used for Portland-pfa cement manufacture by intergrinding irrespective of their coarseness.

  19. Sports participation, perceived neighborhood safety, and individual cognitions: how do they interact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenbach Johan P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the interaction between individual and environmental determinants of physical activity, although this may be important information for the development of effective interventions. The goal of this paper is to investigate whether perceived neighborhood safety modifies associations between individual cognitions and sports participation. Methods Cross-sectional data were obtained from residents (age 25-75 of 87 neighborhoods in the city of Eindhoven, who participated in the Dutch GLOBE study in 2004 (N = 2474. We used multilevel logistic regression to analyze the interactions between perceived neighborhood safety and individual cognitions (attitude, self-efficacy, social influence, and intention on sports participation (yes/no. Results In its association with sports participation, perceived neighborhood safety interacted significantly with self-efficacy and attitude (p Conclusions Associations between individual cognitions and sports participation depend on neighborhood circumstances, such as perceived neighborhood safety. Interventions to promote sports participation in adults should take the interaction between environmental and individual characteristics into account. More research is needed to find out the causal pathways in individual-environment interactions.

  20. Neighborhood deprivation and smoking and quit behavior among smokers in Mexico: Findings from the ITC Mexico Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L.; Thrasher, James F.; de Miera Juárez, Belén Sáenz; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Osman, Amira; Siahpush, Mohammad; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Background In high-income countries (HICs), higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated with higher levels of smoking. Few studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have investigated the role of the neighborhood environment on smoking behavior. Objective To determine whether neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is related to smoking intensity, quit attempts, quit success, and smoking relapse among a cohort of smokers in Mexico from 2010–2012. Methods Data were analyzed from adult smokers and recent ex-smokers who participated in Waves 4–6 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Mexico Survey. Data were linked to the Mexican government’s composite index of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, which is based on 2010 Mexican Census data. We used generalized estimating equations to determine associations between neighborhood deprivation and individual smoking behaviors. Findings Contrary to past findings in HICs, higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower smoking intensity. Quit attempts showed a U-shaped pattern whereby smokers living in high/very high deprivation neighborhoods and smokers living in very low deprivation neighborhoods were more likely to make a quit attempt than smokers living in other neighborhoods. We did not find significant differences in neighborhood deprivation on relapse or successful quitting, with the possible exception of people living in medium-deprivation neighborhoods having a higher likelihood of successful quitting than people living in very low deprivation neighborhoods (p=0.06). Conclusions Neighborhood socioeconomic environments in Mexico appear to operate in an opposing manner to those in HICs. Further research should investigate whether rapid implementation of strong tobacco control policies in LMICs, as occurred in Mexico during the follow-up period, avoids the concentration of tobacco-related disparities among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. PMID:25170022

  1. Self-reported physical activity in perceived neighborhood in Czech adults – national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Mitáš

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: International studies associate physical activity (PA to other factors such as the environment, culture, and policy. External influences on lifestyle and PA, such as the effect of the physical and built environment, are discussed. Neighborhood environments seem to be one of the important aspects in prevention of unhealthy lifestyle and physical inactivity research. OBJECTIVE: The main objective is to analyze the relationship between PA and neighborhood environment of the adult population of the Czech Republic. The study tries to define the basic correlates of PA in relation to environmental and other socio-demographic factors. METHODS: Nationwide data collection of adult PA was done regionally in the Czech Republic between the years 2005–2009 using the IPAQ (long and ANEWS questionnaires. RESULTS: The results show that males realize significantly more vigorous PA than females while females realize more moderate PA and walking than males. PA of residents of smaller communities is higher than those living in large cities. The level of weekly PA does not significantly affect the neighborhood walkability [H(3, 8708 = 19.60; p CONCLUSIONS: The results clearly indicate the need to connect multiple sectors that affect the lifestyle of the general population. Possible solution is an interdisciplinary approach to the evaluation of the fundamental environmental factors influencing the level of PA (walkability; SES; participation in organized and voluntary PA; neighborhood safety; type of transportation; size of the community.

  2. McDonald's restaurants and neighborhood deprivation in Scotland and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Steven C J; McKay, Laura; MacIntyre, Sally

    2005-11-01

    Features of the local fast food environment have been hypothesized to contribute to the greater prevalence of obesity in deprived neighborhoods. However, few studies have investigated whether fast food outlets are more likely to be found in poorer areas, and those that have are local case studies. In this paper, using national-level data, we examine the association between neighborhood deprivation and the density of McDonald's restaurants in small census areas (neighborhoods) in Scotland and England. Data on population, deprivation, and the location of McDonald's Restaurants were obtained for 38,987 small areas in Scotland and England (6505 "data zones" in Scotland, and 32,482 "super output areas" in England) in January 2005. Measures of McDonald's restaurants per 1000 people for each area were calculated, and areas were divided into quintiles of deprivation. Associations between neighborhood deprivation and outlet density were examined during February 2005, using one-way analysis of variance in Scotland, England, and both countries combined. Statistically significant positive associations were found between neighborhood deprivation and the mean number of McDonald's outlets per 1000 people for Scotland (p<0.001), England (p<0.001), and both countries combined (p<0.001). These associations were broadly linear with greater mean numbers of outlets per 1000 people occurring as deprivation levels increased. Observed associations between presence or absence of fast food outlets and neighborhood deprivation may provide support for environmental explanations for the higher prevalence of obesity in poor neighborhoods.

  3. 77 FR 42367 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... and 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of... manufacturing plants. Federal government Not affected. State/local/tribal government.... Portland cement...

  4. Neighborhood Factors and Fall-Related Injuries among Older Adults Seen by Emergency Medical Service Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungmin Lee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Falls are serious health problems among older adults, and are the leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries treated by emergency medical services (EMS. Although considerable research has examined the risk factors of falls at the individual level, relatively few studies have addressed the risk factors at the neighborhood level. This study examines the characteristics of neighborhood environments associated with fall injuries reported to EMS providers. A total of 13,163 EMS records from 2011 to 2014 involving adults aged 65 and older in the city of San Antonio (TX, USA were analyzed at the census tract level (n = 264. Negative binomial regression was used to identify significant census tract-based neighborhood environmental variables associated with the count of fall injuries in each census tract. Adjusting for exposure variable and the size of the census tract, neighborhoods with higher residential stability, captured as the percent of those who lived in the same house as the previous year were associated with decreased count of fall injuries. Neighborhoods with higher residential density and having a higher vacancy rate were associated with increased count of fall injuries. The study highlights the importance of stable and safe neighborhoods in reducing fall risks among older adults, which should be considered a prerequisite for promoting age-friendly environments.

  5. Neighborhood Factors and Fall-Related Injuries among Older Adults Seen by Emergency Medical Service Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungmin; Lee, Chanam; Rodiek, Susan

    2017-02-08

    Falls are serious health problems among older adults, and are the leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries treated by emergency medical services (EMS). Although considerable research has examined the risk factors of falls at the individual level, relatively few studies have addressed the risk factors at the neighborhood level. This study examines the characteristics of neighborhood environments associated with fall injuries reported to EMS providers. A total of 13,163 EMS records from 2011 to 2014 involving adults aged 65 and older in the city of San Antonio (TX, USA) were analyzed at the census tract level (n = 264). Negative binomial regression was used to identify significant census tract-based neighborhood environmental variables associated with the count of fall injuries in each census tract. Adjusting for exposure variable and the size of the census tract, neighborhoods with higher residential stability, captured as the percent of those who lived in the same house as the previous year were associated with decreased count of fall injuries. Neighborhoods with higher residential density and having a higher vacancy rate were associated with increased count of fall injuries. The study highlights the importance of stable and safe neighborhoods in reducing fall risks among older adults, which should be considered a prerequisite for promoting age-friendly environments.

  6. Recycled materials in Portland cement concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This report pertains to a comprehensive study involving the use of recycled materials in Portland cement concrete. Three different materials were studied including crushed glass (CG), street sweepings (SS), and recycled concrete (RC). Blast furnace s...

  7. 2015 City of Portland, Maine, Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 2015 City of Portland Maine Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Woolpert Order No. 75564 Contractor: Woolpert, Inc. This task is for a high resolution data set of...

  8. Durham Neighborhood Compass Neighborhoods

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Durham Neighborhood Compass is a quantitative indicators project with qualitative values, integrating data from local government, the Census Bureau and other...

  9. Analysis of Chemical Composition of Portland Cement in Ghana: A Key to Understand the Behavior of Cement

    OpenAIRE

    Bediako, Mark; Amankwah, Eric Opoku

    2015-01-01

    The performance of Portland cement in concrete or mortar formation is very well influenced by chemical compositions among other factors. Many engineers usually have little information on the chemical compositions of cement in making decisions for the choice of commercially available Portland cement in Ghana. This work analyzed five different brands of Portland cement in Ghana, namely, Ghacem ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and Portland limestone cement (PLC), CSIR-BRRI Pozzomix, Dangote OPC, a...

  10. 75 FR 54969 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of... (NESHAP) from the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and to the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS...

  11. 76 FR 2860 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants AGENCY... Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Docket, Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0051, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave... Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Docket, EPA West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave., NW., Washington...

  12. Perceptions as the crucial link? The mediating role of neighborhood perceptions in the relationship between the neighborhood context and neighborhood cohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamé ris, J.G.; Hipp, J.R.; Tolsma, J.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effects of neighborhood racial in-group size, economic deprivation and the prevalence of crime on neighborhood cohesion among U.S. whites. We explore to what extent residents' perceptions of their neighborhood mediate these macro-micro relationships. We use a recent

  13. The Relationship Between Neighborhood Quality and Obesity among Children. NBER Working Paper No. 14985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Bisakha; Mennemeyer, Stephen; Gary, Lisa C.

    2009-01-01

    It has long been posited by scientists that we need to have a better understanding in the role that larger contextual factors -- like neighborhood quality and the built environment -- may have on the nation's obesity crisis. This paper explores whether maternal perceptions of neighborhood quality affect children's bodyweight outcomes, and whether…

  14. Do psychosocial factors moderate the association between neighborhood walkability and adolescents' physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meester, Femke; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Cardon, Greet

    2013-03-01

    Ecological models emphasize the interaction between individuals and their environment. Furthermore, they posit that environmental variables influence physical activity (PA) not only directly but also indirectly through their interaction with other factors. This study explored if the association between neighborhood walkability and adolescents' PA is moderated by psychosocial factors using data from the Belgian Environmental PA Study in Youth (BEPAS-Y). BEPAS-Y recruited adolescents from 32 neighborhoods differing in objectively determined neighborhood walkability and income. Between 2008 and 2009, 637 adolescents (13-15 years; 49.4% boys) completed a survey measuring socio-demographic and psychosocial factors and wore an accelerometer for seven days. Multilevel-regression analyses revealed that for adolescents living in low-income neighborhoods, the association between neighborhood walkability and PA is moderated by perceived barriers and perceived benefits toward PA. Neighborhood walkability was positively associated with PA among adolescents, living in low-income neighborhoods, who perceived many barriers and few benefits, while for adolescents who perceived few barriers and many benefits, the PA level was high, irrespective of neighborhood walkability. For adolescents, living in high-income neighborhoods, none of the psychosocial attributes moderated the association between neighborhood walkability and PA. These findings provide some support for the predicted interactions posited by ecological models. Improving neighborhood walkability might increase PA-levels of adolescents living in low-income neighborhoods, with less positive psychosocial profiles, or in other words; those who are most difficult to reach through PA interventions. However, in order to increase PA in large populations, interventions focusing solely on improving neighborhood walkability may not have the desired effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stabilization of marly soils with portland cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, Maksim; Karzin, Evgeny; Lukina, Valentina; Lukinov, Vitaly; Kholkin, Anatolii

    2017-10-01

    Stabilization of marlous soils with Portland cement will increase the service life of motor roads in areas where marl is used as a local road construction material. The result of the conducted research is the conclusion about the principal possibility of stabilization of marlous soils with Portland cement, and about the optimal percentage of the mineral part and the binding agent. When planning the experiment, a simplex-lattice plan was implemented, which makes it possible to obtain a mathematical model for changing the properties of a material in the form of polynomials of incomplete third order. Brands were determined for compressive strength according to GOST 23558-94 and variants of stabilized soils were proposed for road construction.

  16. Immobilization of citric acid solutions in portland cement; Imobilizacao de solucoes de acido citrico em cimento Portland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Valdir M.; Rzyski, Barbara M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    Decontamination processes by using citric acid on certain items used in the nuclear area, can result in large volumes of liquid wastes with low activity or effluents, contaminated with uranium and some elements dangerous to the environment. A great number of installations that have decontamination processes adopt the zero discharge philosophy. So, one of the forms to isolate the solutions is by reducing its volume through the evaporation process. The generated must can be neutralized and encapsulated or immobilized in Portland cement. This work propose a chemical technique to destroy the citric acid in the decontamination solutions instead of neutralization and, depending on the installation convenience, a direct cement immobilization of these solutions or of the evaporation mud. The results obtained in this work involve data about the workability, setting time and mechanical resistance, after 28 days of sealed cure, for samples with water-cement ratios of 4, 0.5 and 0.6, by weight. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Multilevel Associations of Neighborhood Poverty, Crime, and Satisfaction With Blood Pressure in African-American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K; Alia, Kassandra A; Van Horn, M Lee

    2016-01-01

    African-American adults experience the highest rates of elevated blood pressure (BP), and this disparity may be linked to socioeconomic and neighborhood-related disadvantage. Based on a bioecological stress-buffering framework, relations of poverty and neighborhood environmental perceptions with BP were assessed using multilevel regression in at-risk African-American adults. This cross-sectional study used baseline data that were collected in 2008 as part of the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial (N = 409), a community-based intervention to increase walking in low-income, high-crime neighborhoods. BP and perceived neighborhood crime and satisfaction were investigated as individual-level indicators of health and neighborhood environment. Census block groups (N = 22) served as geographic proxies for neighborhoods, and poverty was obtained using 2010 U.S. Census data, to characterize the neighborhood-level socioeconomic environment. There were no individual-level direct associations. Significant cross-product interactions demonstrated that with higher perceived crime, high satisfaction was associated with lower systolic (γ = 3.34) and diastolic (γ = -1.37) BP, but low satisfaction was associated with higher systolic (γ = 15.12) and diastolic (γ = 7.57) BP. Neighborhood-level poverty was associated with diastolic (γ = 11.48, SE = 4.08, P = 0.008) and systolic BP (γ = 12.79, SE = 6.33, P = 0.052). Variance in BP across block groups was low (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.002-0.014) and there were no significant random effects. Results supported hypotheses, with greater neighborhood satisfaction linked to lower systolic and diastolic BP when perceived crime was high. Neighborhood poverty was also linked to higher systolic and diastolic BP. Prevention efforts should further investigate whether attending to issues of poverty and related neighborhood perceptions reduces high BP in at-risk African-American communities. © Published by Oxford

  18. Relationships between neighborhood attributes and subjective well-being among the Chinese elderly: Data from Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Weaver, Scott R; Fu, Hua; Jia, Yingnan; Li, Jiang

    2017-11-20

    It has been hypothesized that subjective well-being (SWB) is determined by a combination of individual characteristics, social environment, and physical environment. However, few studies have simultaneously examined the relationships of the social and physical attributes of a neighborhood with SWB. Accordingly, the present study aimed to examine these relationships among Chinese elders. A total of 2,719 elders aged 60 years or older were recruited from 47 neighborhoods in the Xinhua subdistrict of Shanghai by two-stage stratified random sampling and interviewed between July and September 2014. The social and physical attributes of each neighborhood were assessed using validated and psychometrically tested measures. The Chinese version of the international Personal Wellbeing Index was used to assess SWB. Control variables included sex, age, marital status, education level, years living in the neighborhood, self-rated health, chronic conditions, and leisure-time physical activity. Multilevel linear regression analysis was conducted to explore whether social and physical attributes were associated with SWB. The average level of SWB was 74.2 ± 15.7% of the scale maximum. After controlling for individual covariates, individual-level social cohesion and social interaction were positively correlated with SWB, and both individual-level and neighborhood-level aesthetic quality was positively correlated with SWB. In conclusion, both social and physical attributes of neighborhoods were associated with SWB among Chinese elderly. These findings suggest that creating aesthetic and cohesive neighborhoods may encourage Chinese elders to participate in social activities and promote their SWB.

  19. 76 FR 78240 - Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-815] Gray Portland Cement and... Department) initiated the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and... of the antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and clinker from Japan would likely lead to...

  20. Neighborhood Quality and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Quasi-Random Neighborhood Assignment of Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    2012-01-01

    of men living in the neighborhood, but positively affected by the employment rate of non-Western immigrant men and co-national men living in the neighborhood. This is strong evidence that immigrants find jobs in part through their employed immigrant and co-ethnic contacts in the neighborhood of residence...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...

  1. Congruence of Home, Social and Sex Neighborhoods among Men Who Have Sex with Men, NYCM2M Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblin, Beryl A; Egan, James E; Nandi, Vijay; Sang, Jordan M; Cerdá, Magdalena; Tieu, Hong-Van; Ompad, Danielle C; Hoover, Donald R; Frye, Victoria

    2017-06-01

    Substantial literature demonstrates the influence of the neighborhood environment on health behaviors and outcomes. But limited research examines on how gay and bisexual men experience and exist in various geographic and virtual spaces and how this relates to their sexual behavior. New York City Men 2 Men (NYCM2M) was a cross-sectional study designed to identify neighborhood-level characteristics within the urban environment that influence sexual risk behaviors, substance use, and depression among men who have sex with men (MSM) living in NYC. The sample was recruited using a modified venue-based time-space sampling methodology and through select websites and mobile applications. Whether key neighborhoods of human activity, where a participant resided (termed home), socialized (termed social), or had sex most often (termed sex), were the same or different was evaluated. "Congruence" (or the sameness) of home, social, and most often sex neighborhood was reported by 17 % of men, while 30 % reported that none of their neighborhoods were the same. The largest group of men (39 %) reported that their home and sex neighborhoods were the same but their social neighborhood was different while 10 % reported that their home neighborhood was different than their social and sex neighborhood; 5 % men reported same home and social neighborhoods with a different sex neighborhood. Complete neighborhood incongruence was highest among men who were Black and/or Latino, had lower education and personal income levels, and had greater financial insecurity. In adjusted analysis, serodiscordant condomless anal intercourse and condomless anal intercourse with partners from the Internet or mobile applications were significantly associated with having the same social and sex (but not home) neighborhoods. Understanding the complexity of how different spaces and places relate to the health and sexual behavior of MSM is essential for focusing interventions to best reach various populations

  2. Evaluating Neighborhoods Livability in Nigeria: A Structural Equation Modelling (SEM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Abass Iyanda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about city livability around the world and of particular concern is the aspects of the person-environment relationship which encompasses many characteristics suffice to make a place livable. Extant literature provides livability dimensions such as housing unit characteristics, neighborhood facilities, economic vitality and safety environment. These livability dimensions as well as their attributes found in the extant literature have been reported to have high reliability measurement level. Although, various methods have been applied to examine relationships among the variables however structural equation modeling (SEM has been found more holistic as a modeling technique to understand and explain the relationships that may exist among variable measurements. Structural equation modeling simultaneously performs multivariate analysis including multiple regression, path and factor analysis in the cause-effect relationships between latent constructs. Therefore, this study investigates the key factors of livability of planned residential neighborhoods in Minna, Nigeria with the research objectives of – (a to study the livability level of the selected residential neighborhoods, (b to determine the dimensions and indicators which most influence the level of livability in the selected residential neighborhoods, and (c to reliably test the efficacy of structural equation modeling (SEM in the assessment of livability. The methodology adopted in this study includes- Data collection with the aid of structured questionnaire survey administered to the residents of the study area based on stratified random sampling. The data collected was analyzed with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 22.0 software for structural equation modeling (a second-order factor. The study revealed that livability as a second-order factor is indicated by economic vitality, safety environment, neighborhood facilities

  3. Gender differences in the effects of urban neighborhood on depressive symptoms in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullings, Jasneth Asher; McCaw-Binns, Affette Michelle; Archer, Carol; Wilks, Rainford

    2013-12-01

    To explore the mental health effects of the urban neighborhood on men and women in Jamaica and the implications for urban planning and social development. A cross-sectional household sample of 2 848 individuals 15-74 years of age obtained from the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007-2008 was analyzed. Secondary analysis was undertaken by developing composite scores to describe observer recorded neighborhood features, including infrastructure, amenities/services, physical conditions, community socioeconomic status, and green spaces around the home. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to explore the associations among gender, neighborhood factors, and risk of depressive symptoms. While no associations were found among rural residents, urban neighborhoods were associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms. Among males, residing in a neighborhood with poor infrastructure increased risk; among females, residing in an informal community/unplanned neighborhood increased risk. The urban neighborhood contributes to the risk of depression symptomatology in Jamaica, with different environmental stressors affecting men and women. Urban and social planners need to consider the physical environment when developing health interventions in urban settings, particularly in marginalized communities.

  4. Cohesive Neighborhoods Where Social Expectations Are Shared May Have Positive Impact On Adolescent Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Louis; McLanahan, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Garfinkel, Irwin; Wagner, Brandon G; Jacobsen, Wade C; Gold, Sarah; Gaydosh, Lauren

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent mental health problems are associated with poor health and well-being in adulthood. We used data from a cohort of 2,264 children born in large US cities in 1998-2000 to examine whether neighborhood collective efficacy (a combination of social cohesion and control) is associated with improvements in adolescent mental health. We found that children who grew up in neighborhoods with high collective efficacy experienced fewer depressive and anxiety symptoms during adolescence than similar children from neighborhoods with low collective efficacy. The magnitude of this neighborhood effect is comparable to the protective effects of depression prevention programs aimed at general or at-risk adolescent populations. Our findings did not vary by family or neighborhood income, which indicates that neighborhood collective efficacy supports adolescent mental health across diverse populations and urban settings. We recommend a greater emphasis on neighborhood environments in individual mental health risk assessments and greater investment in community-based initiatives that strengthen neighborhood social cohesion and control. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Portland cement concrete air content study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-20

    This study took the analysis of Portland cement concrete air content. Based on the information gathered, this study hold the results were : 1) air-entrained concrete was more durable than non-air entrained concrete all other factors being equal; 2) A...

  6. Moderating effects of age, gender and education on the associations of perceived neighborhood environment attributes with accelerometer-based physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    , and curvilinearly in women. Perceived crime safety was related to MVPA only in women. No moderating relationships were found for education. Overall the associations of adults' perceptions of environmental attributes with MVPA were largely independent of the socio-demographic factors examined. These findings......The study's purpose was to examine age, gender, and education as potential moderators of the associations of perceived neighborhood environment variables with accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Data were from 7273 adults from 16 sites (11 countries) that were part...

  7. Associations between socioeconomic status and allostatic load: effects of neighborhood poverty and tests of mediating pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Amy J; Mentz, Graciela; Lachance, Laurie; Johnson, Jonetta; Gaines, Causandra; Israel, Barbara A

    2012-09-01

    We examined relationships between neighborhood poverty and allostatic load in a low- to moderate-income multiracial urban community. We tested the hypothesis that neighborhood poverty is associated with allostatic load, controlling for household poverty. We also examined the hypotheses that this association was mediated by psychosocial stress and health-related behaviors. We conducted multilevel analyses using cross-sectional data from a probability sample survey in Detroit, Michigan (n = 919) and the 2000 US Census. The outcome measure was allostatic load. Independent variables included neighborhood and household poverty, psychosocial stress, and health-related behaviors. Covariates included neighborhood and individual demographic characteristics. Neighborhood poverty was positively associated with allostatic load (P poverty and controlling for potential confounders. Relationships between neighborhood poverty were mediated by self-reported neighborhood environment stress but not by health-related behaviors. Neighborhood poverty is associated with wear and tear on physiological systems, and this relationship is mediated through psychosocial stress. These relationships are evident after accounting for household poverty levels. Efforts to promote health equity should focus on neighborhood poverty, associated stressful environmental conditions, and household poverty.

  8. The intersection of urban planning, art, and public health: the Sunnyside Piazza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Jan C

    2003-09-01

    Deteriorating physical features of urban environments can negatively influence public health. Dilapidated environments and urban blight tend to promote alienation and can be associated with social disorder, vandalism, crime, drug abuse, traffic violations, and littering, which in turn affects health and well-being. In the late 1990s, the Sunnyside neighborhood in Portland, Ore, was plagued by many of these problems. In an attempt to invigorate neighborhood stewardship, the community organized and created a public gathering place; together, they painted a gigantic sunflower in the middle of an intersection and installed several interactive art features. As a result of these collective actions of "place-making," social capital has increased, thus revitalizing the community, and expanded social networks among residents have stimulated a sense of well-being.

  9. Neighborhood-based PA and its environmental correlates: a GIS- and GPS based cross-sectional study in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Marijke; Kamphuis, Carlijn B. M.; Pierik, Frank H.; Ettema, Dick F.; Dijst, Martin J.

    2018-01-01

    Background To improve our understanding of the neighborhood environment – physical activity (PA) relationship, it is of importance to assess associations between neighborhood environmental characteristics and neighborhood-based PA. Methods Participants’ (N = 308; 45–65 years) light PA (LPA) and moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) within a 400, 800, and 1600 m buffer around adults’ homes was measured using accelerometers and GPS-devices. Land use data in ArcGIS provided neighborhood characteristics fo...

  10. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, perceived neighborhood factors, and cortisol responses to induced stress among healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Wendy E; Stafford, Mai; Hamer, Mark; Beresford, Shirley A A; Koepsell, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Associations between measures of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and health have been identified, yet work is needed to uncover explanatory mechanisms. One hypothesized pathway is through stress, yet the few studies that have evaluated associations between characteristics of deprived neighborhoods and biomarkers of stress are mixed. This study evaluated whether objectively measured neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual perceived neighborhood characteristics (i.e. social control and fear of crime) impacted cortisol responses to an induced stressor among older healthy adults. Data from Heart Scan, a sub-study of the Whitehall II cohort, were used to generate multilevel piecewise growth-curve models of cortisol trajectories after a laboratory stressor accounting for neighborhood and demographic characteristics. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was significantly associated with individual perceptions of social control and fear of crime in the neighborhood while an association with blunted cortisol reactivity was only evidence among women. Social control was significantly associated with greater cortisol reactivity and mediation between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and cortisol reactivity was suggested among women. These findings support a gender-dependent role of neighborhood in stress process models of health. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Examining the social porosity of environmental features on neighborhood sociability and attachment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Hipp

    Full Text Available The local neighborhood forms an integral part of our lives. It provides the context through which social networks are nurtured and the foundation from which a sense of attachment and cohesion with fellow residents can be established. Whereas much of the previous research has examined the role of social and demographic characteristic in relation to the level of neighboring and cohesion, this paper explores whether particular environmental features in the neighborhood affect social porosity. We define social porosity as the degree to which social ties flow over the surface of a neighborhood. The focus of our paper is to examine the extent to which a neighborhood's environmental features impede the level of social porosity present among residents. To do this, we integrate data from the census, topographic databases and a 2010 survey of 4,351 residents from 146 neighborhoods in Australia. The study introduces the concepts of wedges and social holes. The presence of two sources of wedges is measured: rivers and highways. The presence of two sources of social holes is measured: parks and industrial areas. Borrowing from the geography literature, several measures are constructed to capture how these features collectively carve up the physical environment of neighborhoods. We then consider how this influences residents' neighboring behavior, their level of attachment to the neighborhood and their sense of neighborhood cohesion. We find that the distance of a neighborhood to one form of social hole-industrial areas-has a particularly strong negative effect on all three dependent variables. The presence of the other form of social hole-parks-has a weaker negative effect. Neighborhood wedges also impact social interaction. Both the length of a river and the number of highway fragments in a neighborhood has a consistent negative effect on neighboring, attachment and cohesion.

  12. Increasing overweight and obesity erodes engagement in one's neighborhood by women, but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Roseanne C; Han, Seung Yong; Brewis, Alexandra A; Wutich, Amber

    2018-06-01

    Obesity is socially stigmatized in the U.S., especially for women. Significant research has focused on the role that the social and built environments of neighborhoods play in shaping obesity. However, the role of obesity in shaping neighborhood social structure has been largely overlooked. We test the hypothesis that large body size inhibits an individual's engagement in his or her neighborhood. Our study objectives are to assess if (1) body size (body mass index) interacts with gender to predict engagement in one's neighborhood (neighborhood engagement) and (2) if bonding social capital interacts with gender to predict neighborhood engagement independent of body size. We used data collected from the cross-sectional 2011 Phoenix Area Social Survey (PASS), which systematically sampled residents across four neighborhood types (core urban, urban fringe, suburban, retirement) across the Phoenix Metopolitian Area. Survey data was analyzed using logistic regression for 804 participants, including 35% for whom missing data was computed using multiple imputation. We found that as body size increases, women-but not men-have reduced engagement in their neighborhood, independent of bonding social capital and other key covariates (objective 1). We did not observe the interaction between gender and bonding social capital associated with neighborhood engagement (objective 2). Prior scholarship suggests obesity clusters in neighborhoods due to processes of social, economic, and environmental disadvantage. This finding suggests bi-directionality: obesity could, in turn, undermine neighborhood engagement through the mechanism of weight stigma and discrimination.

  13. Assessing the Play Provisions for Children in Urban Neighborhoods of India: Case Study Nagpur, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti D. Bhonsle

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The creation of satisfying urban environments calls for the planners, designers and policy makers to understand the structures that cause residents to feel satisfied with their environments. The paper focuses on qualitative aspects of the childrens play spaces in the urban neighborhoods of Nagpur which were analysed with the background of their daily activity schedule survey, their assement of the existing play provisions and their aspirations from their neighborhood environment quality. Apart from these studies, the childrens and their parents perceptions of the quality of urban residential environments was also studied. The literature review gave an extract of relevant attributes of environmental quality (EQ which became the theoritical basis for the work. The research generates an approach to assessing the child friendliness of our urban neighborhoods, which in certain ways is not even catering to the most fundamental right of the child to play; it also generates a matrix of children’s needs and parameters relevant to Indian context. A theoretical model of the residents satisfaction is also generated which forms the base for the qualitative questionnaire analysis in SPSS 20 with a set of dependent and independent variables which shows the correlation of the resident’s satisfaction with child friendliness of neighborhoods in the Indian context. The regression model and mathematical equation as an outcome of the qualitative analysis was also validated upon two other urban neighborhoods of the city of Nagpur. The research with all its tools used and the approach adopted can help in undertaking such child-centered researches in other cities of India which have their own unique issues and characteristics of urban growth.

  14. Relations among Neighborhood Social Networks, Home Literacy Environments, and Children's Expressive Vocabulary in Suburban At-Risk Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Powell, Douglas R.; Diamond, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    In response to increasing research and policy interest in the neighborhood context of early school success, this study examined relations among neighborhood social networks, home literacy practices/resources, and children's expressive vocabulary in a suburban at-risk sample in the USA at the beginning of the school year. In a Structural Equation…

  15. Effect of mineral trioxide aggregates and Portland cements on inflammatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Shahriar; Rahimi, Saeed; Yavari, Hamid Reza; Mokhtari, Hadi; Roshangar, Leila; Abasi, Mehran Mesgary; Sattari, Sahar; Abdolrahimi, Majid

    2010-05-01

    Recently, some studies have compared mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) with Portland cements, concluding that the principal ingredients of Portland cements are similar to those of MTA. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of gray MTA, white MTA, and gray and white Portland cements on inflammatory cells in rats. Fresh mixtures mixed with distilled water were placed in polyethylene tubes, which were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous connective tissue of 60 Sprague-Dawley rats along with empty tubes as controls. Tissue specimens were collected after the rats were sacrificed after 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days. The specimens were fixed, stained, processed, and histologically evaluated under a light microscope. Inflammatory reactions were classified as grade 0: without inflammatory cells, grade I: sporadic infiltration of inflammatory cells, grade II: moderate infiltration (125 cells). Data were analyzed with the nonparametric (two factor) analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis H-test. All the groups showed grade III inflammation after 7 and 15 days; there was a decrease in the inflammatory process after 30, 60, and 90 days. After 90 days, gray MTA, white MTA, and control groups had grade 0 inflammatory process, but gray Portland cement and white Portland cement groups showed grade 0 to grade I inflammatory processes. MTAs were more biocompatible; however, more studies are required. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Do Inequalities in Neighborhood Walkability Drive Disparities in Older Adults’ Outdoor Walking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandieh, Razieh; Flacke, J.; Martínez-Martín, J.A.; Jones, Phil; Van Maarseveen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Older residents of high-deprivation areas walk less than those of low-deprivation areas. Previous research has shown that neighborhood built environment may support and encourage outdoor walking. The extent to which the built environment supports and encourages walking is called "walkability". This

  17. Synthesis of Portland cement and calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement for sustainable development and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Irvin Allen

    Portland cement concrete, the most widely used manufactured material in the world, is made primarily from water, mineral aggregates, and portland cement. The production of portland cement is energy intensive, accounting for 2% of primary energy consumption and 5% of industrial energy consumption globally. Moreover, portland cement manufacturing contributes significantly to greenhouse gases and accounts for 5% of the global CO2 emissions resulting from human activity. The primary objective of this research was to explore methods of reducing the environmental impact of cement production while maintaining or improving current performance standards. Two approaches were taken, (1) incorporation of waste materials in portland cement synthesis, and (2) optimization of an alternative environmental friendly binder, calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement. These approaches can lead to less energy consumption, less emission of CO2, and more reuse of industrial waste materials for cement manufacturing. In the portland cement part of the research, portland cement clinkers conforming to the compositional specifications in ASTM C 150 for Type I cement were successfully synthesized from reagent-grade chemicals with 0% to 40% fly ash and 0% to 60% slag incorporation (with 10% intervals), 72.5% limestone with 27.5% fly ash, and 65% limestone with 35% slag. The synthesized portland cements had similar early-age hydration behavior to commercial portland cement. However, waste materials significantly affected cement phase formation. The C3S--C2S ratio decreased with increasing amounts of waste materials incorporated. These differences could have implications on proportioning of raw materials for cement production when using waste materials. In the calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement part of the research, three calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement clinkers with a range of phase compositions were successfully synthesized from reagent-grade chemicals. The synthesized calcium sulfoaluminate

  18. Physical Impairment Is Associated With Nursing Home Admission for Older Adults in Disadvantaged But Not Other Neighborhoods: Results From the UAB Study of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Aging adults face an increased risk of adverse health events as well as risk for a decrease in personal competencies across multiple domains. These factors may inhibit the ability of an older adult to age in place and may result in a nursing home admission (NHA). This study combines insights from Lawton’s environmental press theory with the neighborhood disadvantage (ND) literature to examine the interaction of the neighborhood environment and individual characteristics on NHA. Methods: Characteristics associated with the likelihood of NHA for community-dwelling older adults were examined using data collected for 8.5 years from the UAB Study of Aging. Logistic regression models were used to test direct effects of ND on NHA for all participants. The sample was then stratified into 3 tiers of ND to examine differences in individual-level factors by level of ND. Results: There was no direct link between living in a disadvantaged neighborhood environment and likelihood of NHA, but physical impairment was associated with NHA for older adults living highly disadvantaged neighborhood environments in contrast to older adults living in less disadvantaged neighborhood environments, where no association was observed. Discussion: These outcomes highlight (a) the usefulness of linking Lawton’s theories of the environment with the ND literature to assess health-related outcomes and (b) the importance of neighborhood environment for older adults’ ability to age in place. PMID:23034471

  19. Connecting Schools to Neighborhood Revitalization: The Case of the Maple Heights Neighborhood Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Lawrence P.

    2014-01-01

    This case study focuses on the way a neighborhood association connects schools to broad change in an urban neighborhood of a large Midwestern city. The first section provides a review of the literature on community involvement in school and neighborhood reform. It reviews the historical origins of the current school-community relationship, the…

  20. Identifying risk profiles for childhood obesity using recursive partitioning based on individual, familial, and neighborhood environment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulst, Andraea; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Gauvin, Lise; Kestens, Yan; Henderson, Mélanie; Barnett, Tracie A

    2015-02-15

    Few studies consider how risk factors within multiple levels of influence operate synergistically to determine childhood obesity. We used recursive partitioning analysis to identify unique combinations of individual, familial, and neighborhood factors that best predict obesity in children, and tested whether these predict 2-year changes in body mass index (BMI). Data were collected in 2005-2008 and in 2008-2011 for 512 Quebec youth (8-10 years at baseline) with a history of parental obesity (QUALITY study). CDC age- and sex-specific BMI percentiles were computed and children were considered obese if their BMI was ≥95th percentile. Individual (physical activity and sugar-sweetened beverage intake), familial (household socioeconomic status and measures of parental obesity including both BMI and waist circumference), and neighborhood (disadvantage, prestige, and presence of parks, convenience stores, and fast food restaurants) factors were examined. Recursive partitioning, a method that generates a classification tree predicting obesity based on combined exposure to a series of variables, was used. Associations between resulting varying risk group membership and BMI percentile at baseline and 2-year follow up were examined using linear regression. Recursive partitioning yielded 7 subgroups with a prevalence of obesity equal to 8%, 11%, 26%, 28%, 41%, 60%, and 63%, respectively. The 2 highest risk subgroups comprised i) children not meeting physical activity guidelines, with at least one BMI-defined obese parent and 2 abdominally obese parents, living in disadvantaged neighborhoods without parks and, ii) children with these characteristics, except with access to ≥1 park and with access to ≥1 convenience store. Group membership was strongly associated with BMI at baseline, but did not systematically predict change in BMI. Findings support the notion that obesity is predicted by multiple factors in different settings and provide some indications of potentially

  1. 33 CFR 165.1312 - Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival on Willamette River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival on Willamette River. 165.1312 Section 165.1312 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.1312 Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival on Willamette River. (a) Location. The following area...

  2. 78 FR 4331 - Safety Zone; Sellwood Bridge Move; Willamette River, Portland, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Sellwood Bridge as it is being moved. This safety zone will also allow full maneuverability for... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sellwood Bridge Move; Willamette River, Portland, OR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Sellwood Bridge, located on the Willamette River in Portland, Oregon, while it is being relocated...

  3. Gender differences in the effects of urban neighborhood on depressive symptoms in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasneth Asher Mullings

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the mental health effects of the urban neighborhood on men and women in Jamaica and the implications for urban planning and social development. METHODS: A cross-sectional household sample of 2 848 individuals 15-74 years of age obtained from the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007-2008 was analyzed. Secondary analysis was undertaken by developing composite scores to describe observer recorded neighborhood features, including infrastructure, amenities/services, physical conditions, community socioeconomic status, and green spaces around the home. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to explore the associations among gender, neighborhood factors, and risk of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: While no associations were found among rural residents, urban neighborhoods were associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms. Among males, residing in a neighborhood with poor infrastructure increased risk; among females, residing in an informal community/unplanned neighborhood increased risk. CONCLUSIONS: The urban neighborhood contributes to the risk of depression symptomatology in Jamaica, with different environmental stressors affecting men and women. Urban and social planners need to consider the physical environment when developing health interventions in urban settings, particularly in marginalized communities.

  4. The existence state of uranium(VI) in portland cement matrix material immobilization body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Hongbin; Li Yuxiang

    2005-01-01

    The basis of Portland cement material reaction with uranium, the corrosion of uranium minerals in nature and the state of study on immobilization of uranium by Portland cement matrix material are introduced, and some considerations are presented. (authors)

  5. The Influence of Neighborhood Aesthetics, Safety, and Social Cohesion on Perceived Stress in Disadvantaged Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Heather; Child, Stephanie; Moore, Spencer; Moore, Justin B; Kaczynski, Andrew T

    2016-09-01

    Limited research has explored how specific elements of physical and social environments influence mental health indicators such as perceived stress, or whether such associations are moderated by gender. This study examined the relationship between selected neighborhood characteristics and perceived stress levels within a primarily low-income, older, African-American population in a mid-sized city in the Southeastern U.S. Residents (n = 394; mean age=55.3 years, 70.9% female, 89.3% African American) from eight historically disadvantaged neighborhoods completed surveys measuring perceptions of neighborhood safety, social cohesion, aesthetics, and stress. Multivariate linear regression models examined the association between each of the three neighborhood characteristics and perceived stress. Greater perceived safety, improved neighborhood aesthetics, and social cohesion were significantly associated with lower perceived stress. These associations were not moderated by gender. These findings suggest that improving social attributes of neighborhoods may have positive impacts on stress and related benefits for population health. Future research should examine how neighborhood characteristics influence stress over time. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  6. Gravity Data for the Greater Portland Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (1,522 records) were compiled by the Portland State University. This data base was received in August 1990. Principal gravity parameters...

  7. Agency, access, and Anopheles: neighborhood health perceptions and the implications for community health interventions in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta M. Jankowska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social and environmental factors are increasingly recognized for their ability to influence health outcomes at both individual and neighborhood scales in the developing urban world. Yet issues of spatial heterogeneity in these complex environments may obscure unique elements of neighborhood life that may be protective or harmful to human health. Resident perceptions of neighborhood effects on health may help to fill gaps in our interpretation of household survey results and better inform how to plan and execute neighborhood-level health interventions. Objective: We evaluate differences in housing and socioeconomic indicators and health, environment, and neighborhood perceptions derived from the analysis of a household survey and a series of focus groups in Accra, Ghana. We then explore how neighborhood perceptions can inform survey results and ultimately neighborhood-level health interventions. Design: Eleven focus groups were conducted across a socioeconomically stratified sample of neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana. General inductive themes from the focus groups were analyzed in tandem with data collected in a 2009 household survey of 2,814 women. In-depth vignettes expand upon the three most salient emergent themes. Results: Household and socioeconomic characteristics derived from the focus groups corroborated findings from the survey data. Focus group and survey results diverged for three complex health issues: malaria, health-care access, and sense of personal agency in promoting good health. Conclusion: Three vignettes reflecting community views about malaria, health-care access, and sense of personal agency in promoting good health highlight the challenges facing community health interventions in Accra and exemplify how qualitatively derived neighborhood-level health effects can help shape health interventions.

  8. What’s the Score? Walkable Environments and Subsidized Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jae Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhood walkability can influence individual health, social interactions, and environmental quality, but the relationships between subsidized households and their walkable environment have not been sufficiently examined in previous empirical studies. Focusing on two types of subsidized housing developments (Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC and Public Housing (PH in Austin, Texas, this study evaluates the neighborhood walkability of place-based subsidized households, utilizing objectively measured Walk Score and walking-related built environment data. We also used U.S. Census block group data to account for the socio-demographic covariates. Based on various data, we employed bivariate and multivariate analyses to specify the relationships between subsidized households and their neighborhood walkable environment. The results of our bivariate analyses show that LIHTC households tend to be located in car-dependent neighborhoods and have more undesirable walking-related built environment conditions compared with non-LIHTC neighborhoods. Our regression results also represent that LIHTC households are more likely to be exposed to neighborhoods with low Walk Score, less sidewalk coverage, and more highways and major roads, while there are no significant associations for PH households. These findings imply that more attention and effort toward reducing the inequitable distributions of walkable neighborhood features supporting rather than hindering healthy lifestyles must be provided to subsidized households.

  9. Neighborhood walkability and hospital treatment costs: A first assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Davey, Rachel; Cochrane, Tom; Learnihan, Vincent; Hanigan, Ivan C; Bagheri, Nasser

    2017-06-01

    Health system expenditure is a global concern, with hospital cost a major component. Built environment has been found to affect physical activity and health outcomes. The purpose of the study was a first assessment of the relationship between neighborhood walkability and hospital treatment costs. For 88 neighborhoods in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), 2011-2013, a total of 30,690 public hospital admissions for the treatment of four diagnostic groups (cancers, endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, circulatory diseases and respiratory diseases) were extracted from the ACT admitted patient care database and analyzed in relation to the Walk Score® index as a measure of walkability. Hospital cost was calculated according to the cost weight of the diagnosis related group assigned to each admission. Linear regressions were used to analyze the associations of walkability with hospital cost per person, admissions per person and cost per admission at the neighborhood level. An inverse association with neighborhood walkability was found for cost per person and admissions per person, but not cost per admission. After adjusting for age, sex and socioeconomic status, a 20-unit increase in walkability was associated with 12.1% (95% CI: 7.1-17.0%) lower cost and 12.5% (8.1-17.0%) fewer admissions. These associations did not vary by neighborhood socioeconomic status. This exploratory analysis suggests the potential for improved population health and reduced hospital cost with greater neighborhood walkability. Further research should replicate the analysis with data from other urban settings, and focus on the behavioral mechanisms underlying the inverse walkability-hospital cost association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors associated with low neighborhood cohesion among women living with HIV impacted by social-structural inequities in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Kalysha; Palmer, Alexis K; Collins, Alexandra B; Salters, Kate; Zhang, Wendy; Montaner, Julio S G; Hogg, Robert S; Parashar, Surita

    2018-03-01

    Built and social environments, including one's perception of their environment, are important determinants of health. The intersection of gender and HIV status may complicate the role of neighborhood cohesion in safety, personal well-being, and health outcomes for populations impacted by social and structural inequities. Among women in particular, social cohesion within the neighborhood they reside in may have a greater influence on health outcomes compared to their male counterparts. We sought to examine perception of neighborhood cohesion (validated scale with a range 0-100, with higher scores indicating higher perceived neighborhood cohesion) among women living with HIV, impacted by social-structural inequities, receiving combination antiretroviral therapy, and enrolled in the Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive Ancillary health services (LISA) study in British Columbia, Canada. Cross-sectional data on neighborhood cohesion and socio-demographic data were collected in an interviewer-administered survey. Of the 1,000 LISA participants interviewed, 908 (including 249 women and 659 men) had complete data for the variables of interest. At the bivariate level, women had worse perceived neighborhood cohesion scores compared to men (median: 56 [95% CI: 44-66] vs. 60 [95% CI: 47-71]). Multivariable model results indicated that for women living with HIV in our sample, greater neighborhood cohesion scores were positively associated with stable housing (β coefficient = 7.85; 95% CI: 3.61, 12.10, p perceptions of neighborhood cohesion.

  11. A prospective investigation of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and physical activity and sedentary behavior in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qian; Keadle, Sarah K; Berrigan, David; Matthews, Charles E

    2018-06-01

    Neighborhood conditions may have an important impact on physical activity and sedentary behaviors in the older population. Most previous studies in this area are cross-sectional and report mixed findings regarding the effects of neighborhood environment on different types of physical activity. Moreover, little is known about the prospective relationship between neighborhood environment and sedentary behaviors. Our analysis included 136,526 participants from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (age 51-70). Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was measured with an index based on census variables and developed using principal component analysis. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured both at baseline (1995-1996) and follow-up (2004-2006). Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the prospective relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exercise, non-exercise physical activity, and sedentary behaviors, adjusting for baseline physical activity and sedentary behaviors as well as potential confounders. We found that more severe neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was prospectively associated with reduced time for exercise (β Q5 vs Q1 (95% confidence interval), hour, -0.85 (-0.95, -0.75)) but increased time spent in non-exercise physical activities (1.16 (0.97, 1.34)), such as household activities, outdoor chores, and walking for transportation. Moreover, people from more deprived neighborhoods were also more likely to engage in prolonged (≥5 h/day) TV viewing (Odds ratio Q5 vs Q1 (95% confidence interval), 1.21 (1.15, 1.27)). In conclusion, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated with physical activity and sedentary behavior in the older population. These associations may differ for different types of physical activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neighborhood spaces

    OpenAIRE

    D. C. Kent; Won Keun Min

    2002-01-01

    Neighborhood spaces, pretopological spaces, and closure spaces are topological space generalizations which can be characterized by means of their associated interior (or closure) operators. The category NBD of neighborhood spaces and continuous maps contains PRTOP as a bicoreflective subcategory and CLS as a bireflective subcategory, whereas TOP is bireflectively embedded in PRTOP and bicoreflectively embedded in CLS. Initial and final structures are described in these categories, and it is s...

  13. Food mirages: geographic and economic barriers to healthful food access in Portland, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Betsy; Voss-Andreae, Adriana

    2013-11-01

    This paper investigated the role of grocery store prices in structuring food access for low-income households in Portland, Oregon. We conducted a detailed healthful foods market basket survey and developed an index of store cost based on the USDA Thrifty Food Plan. Using this index, we estimated the difference in street-network distance between the nearest low-cost grocery store and the nearest grocery store irrespective of cost. Spatial regression of this metric in relation to income, poverty, and gentrification at the census tract scale lead to a new theory regarding food access in the urban landscape. Food deserts are sparse in Portland, but food mirages are abundant, particularly in gentrifying areas where poverty remains high. In a food mirage, grocery stores are plentiful but prices are beyond the means of low-income households, making them functionally equivalent to food deserts in that a long journey to obtain affordable, nutritious food is required in either case. Results suggested that evaluation of food environments should, at a minimum, consider both proximity and price in assessing healthy food access for low-income households. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. School food environments associated with adiposity in Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C; Datta, G D; Henderson, M; Gray-Donald, K; Kestens, Y; Barnett, T A

    2017-07-01

    Targeting obesogenic features of children's environment that are amenable to change represents a promising strategy for health promotion. The school food environment, defined as the services and policies regarding nutrition and the availability of food in the school and surrounding neighborhood, is particularly important given that students travel through the school neighborhood almost daily and that they consume a substantial proportion of their calories at school. As part of the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort study, we assessed features of school indoor dietary environment and the surrounding school neighborhoods, when children were aged 8-10 years (2005-2008). School principals reported on food practices and policies within the schools. The density of convenience stores and fast-food outlets surrounding the school was computed using a Geographical Information System. Indicators of school neighborhood deprivation were derived from census data. Adiposity outcomes were measured in a clinical setting 2 years later, when participants were aged 10-12 years (2008-2011). We conducted cluster analyses to identify school food environment types. Associations between school types and adiposity were estimated in linear regression models. Cluster analysis identified three school types with distinct food environments. Schools were characterized as: overall healthful (45%); a healthful food environment in the surrounding neighborhood, but an unhealthful indoor food environment (22%); or overall unhealthful (33%). Less healthful schools were located in more deprived neighborhoods and were associated with greater child adiposity. Despite regulatory efforts to improve school food environments, there is substantial inequity in dietary environments across schools. Ensuring healthful indoor and outdoor food environments across schools should be included in comprehensive efforts to reduce obesity-related health disparities.

  15. Formula of Moulding Sand, Bentonite and Portland Cement toImprove The Quality of Al-Si Cast Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Andoko Andoko; Poppy Puspitasari; Avita Ayu Permanasari; Didin Zakaria Lubis

    2017-01-01

    A binder is any material used to strengthen the bonding of moulding sand grains. The primary function of the binder is to hold the moulding sand and other materialstogether to produce high-quality casts. In this study, there were four binder compositions being tested, i.e. 5% bentonite + 5% Portland cement, 4% bentonite + 6% Portland cement, 6% bentonite + 4% Portland cement, and 7% bentonite + 3% Portland cement. Each specimen was measured for its compressive strength, shear strength, tensil...

  16. The neighborhood food environment: sources of historical data on retail food stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Alma A

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity in the United States, and the minimal success of education-based interventions, there is growing interest in understanding the role of the neighborhood food environment in determining dietary behavior. This study, as part of a larger study, identifies historical data on retail food stores, evaluates strengths and limitations of the data for research, and assesses the comparability of historical retail food store data from a government and a commercial source. Five government and commercial listings of retail food stores were identified. The California State Board of Equalization (SBOE database was selected and then compared to telephone business directory listings. The Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to assess the congruency of food store counts per census tract between the SBOE and telephone business directory databases. The setting was four cities in Northern California, 1979–1990. The SBOE and telephone business directory databases listed 127 and 351 retail food stores, respectively. The SBOE listed 36 stores not listed by the telephone business directories, while the telephone business directories listed 260 stores not listed by the SBOE. Spearman's correlation coefficients between estimates of stores per census tract made from the SBOE listings and those made from the telephone business directory listings were approximately 0.5 (p

  17. Lift : Special Needs Transportation in Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The report covers Portland, Oregon's Special Needs Transportation (SNT) project - the Lift - during its first year of operation. The purposes of this UMTA Service and Methods Demonstration (SMD) is to: (1) test a transit operator's ability to provide...

  18. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Deprivation and Allostatic Load: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Ribeiro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Residing in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods may pose substantial physiological stress, which can then lead to higher allostatic load (AL, a marker of biological wear and tear that precedes disease. The aim of the present study was to map the current evidence about the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and AL. A scoping review approach was chosen to provide an overview of the type, quantity, and extent of research available. The review was conducted using three bibliographic databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science and a standardized protocol. Fourteen studies were identified. Studies were predominantly from the USA, cross-sectional, focused on adults, and involved different races and ethnic groups. A wide range of measures of AL were identified: the mode of the number of biomarkers per study was eight but with large variability (range: 6–24. Most studies (n = 12 reported a significant association between neighborhood deprivation and AL. Behaviors and environmental stressors seem to mediate this relationship and associations appear more pronounced among Blacks, men, and individuals with poor social support. Such conclusions have important public health implications as they enforce the idea that neighborhood environment should be improved to prevent physiological dysregulation and consequent chronic diseases.

  19. Utilization of Iron Ore Tailings as Raw Material for Portland Cement Clinker Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry has for some time been seeking alternative raw material for the Portland cement clinker production. The aim of this research was to investigate the possibility of utilizing iron ore tailings (IOT to replace clay as alumina-silicate raw material for the production of Portland cement clinker. For this purpose, two kinds of clinkers were prepared: one was prepared by IOT; the other was prepared by clay as a reference. The reactivity and burnability of raw meal, mineralogical composition and physical properties of clinker, and hydration characteristic of cement were studied by burnability analysis, differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and hydration analysis. The results showed that the raw meal containing IOT had higher reactivity and burnability than the raw meal containing clay, and the use of IOT did not affect the formation of characteristic mineralogical phases of Portland cement clinker. Furthermore, the physical and mechanical performance of two cement clinkers were similar. In addition, the use of IOT was found to improve the grindability of clinker and lower the hydration heat of Portland cement. These findings suggest that IOT can replace the clay as alumina-silicate raw material for the preparation of Portland cement clinker.

  20. Modelling porewater chemistry in hydrated Portland cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, U.R.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive employment of concrete is foreseen in radioactive waste repositories. A prerequisite for modelling the interactions between concrete and formation waters is characterization of the concrete system. Available experimental data from high pressure squeezing of cement pore-water indicate that, besides the high pH due to alkali hydroxide dissolution, cement composition itself influences the solubility determining solid phases. A model which simulates the hydration of Portland cement assuming complete hydration of the main clinker minerals is presented. The model also includes parameters describing the reactions between the cement and blending agents. Comparison with measured pore-water data generally gives a consistent picture and, as expected, the model gives correct predictions for pure Portland cements. For blended cements, the required additional parameters can, to some extent, be derived from pore-water analysis. 14 references, 1 figure, 4 tables

  1. The Effects of Social Environments on Time Spent Gaming: Focusing on the Effects of Communities and Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Tee Teng; Jung, Sun Young; Kim, Eunyi

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the impact of community and neighborhood on time spent computer gaming. Computer gaming for over 20 hours a week was set as the cutoff line for "engaged use" of computer games. For the analysis, this study analyzed data for about 1,800 subjects who participated in the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey. The main findings are as follows: first, structural community characteristics and neighborhood social capital affected the engaged use of computer games. Second, adolescents who reside in regions with a higher divorce rate or higher residential mobility were likely to exhibit engaged use of computer games. Third, adolescents who highly perceive neighborhood social capital exhibited lower possibility of engaged use of computer games. Based on these findings, practical implications and directions for further study are suggested.

  2. Community, Democracy, and Neighborhood News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Elizabeth Blanks

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on democracy, community, and journalism by examining the interplay between communication, democracy, and community at an inner-city neighborhood newspaper. Concludes that, through its focus on neighborhood culture, acknowledgment of conflict, and attempts to provide a forum for the neighborhood's self-definition, the…

  3. Portland's experience with land use tools to promote green roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the City of Portland, Oregon faced environmental challenges that prompted the City to mandate environmentally sensitive development. Several programs were developed in response to these challenges, some of which resulted in the creation of land use policies and incentives that promote green roofs. Zoning code provisions were adopted in 2001 to promote eco-roofs in an effort to reduce stormwater runoff, mitigate urban heat island effects, provide habitat for birds, and improve air quality and energy efficiency. The Central City Fundamental Design Guidelines were also revised to encourage eco-roof development. In 2002, the South Waterfront Plan was created to integrate ecological design into an urban environment through sustainability principles and practices. Land use tools were developed to introduce developers to an approach that reduced energy costs and stormwater costs, while also contributing to a project's marketability. These tools were created with the support of programs and policies such as the CSO (Combined Sewer Overflow) Program; eco-roof research which began in 1995 to determine the stormwater management potential of eco-Green roofs; technical assistance to encourage and highlight sustainable development practices; the Stormwater Management Manual that set standards for the amount and quality of stormwater runoff leaving development sites; the G/Rated Program that offers resources for green building practices; the Green Investment Fund that supports the G/Rated Program; and, the Portland Development Commission Green Building Policy financing tool for earth-friendly designs and materials. 34 refs., 2 figs

  4. Sedentary behaviors of adults in relation to neighborhood walkability and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozo, Justine; Sallis, James F; Conway, Terry L; Kerr, Jacqueline; Cain, Kelli; Saelens, Brian E; Frank, Lawrence D; Owen, Neville

    2012-11-01

    Sedentary (sitting) time is a newly identified risk factor for obesity and chronic diseases, which is behaviorally and physiologically distinct from lack of physical activity. To inform public health approaches to influencing sedentary behaviors, an understanding of correlates is required. Participants were 2,199 adults aged 20-66 years living in King County/Seattle, WA, and Baltimore, MD, regions, recruited from neighborhoods high or low on a "walkability index" (derived from objective built environment indicators) and having high or low median incomes. Cross-sectional associations of walkability and income with total sedentary time (measured by accelerometers and by self-report) and with self-reported time in seven specific sitting-related behaviors were examined. Neighborhood walkability and income were unrelated to measures of total sitting time. Lower neighborhood walkability was significantly associated with more driving time (difference of 18.2 min/day, p walkability was not related to total sedentary time but was related to two specific sedentary behaviors associated with risk for obesity-driving time and TV viewing time. Future research could examine how these prevalent and often prolonged sedentary behaviors mediate relationships between neighborhood walkability and overweight/obesity. Initiatives to reduce chronic disease risk among residents of both higher-and lower-income low-walkable neighborhoods should include a focus on reducing TV viewing time and other sedentary behaviors and enacting policies that can lead to the development or redevelopment of more-walkable neighborhoods. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. 33 CFR 100.1302 - Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. 100.1302 Section 100.1302 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... § 100.1302 Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. (a) Regulated area. All...

  6. Neighborhood street scale elements, sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in inactive ethnic minority women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E Lee

    Full Text Available Cardiometabolic risk factors such as obesity, excess percent body fat, high blood pressure, elevated resting heart rate and sedentary behavior have increased in recent decades due to changes in the environment and lifestyle. Neighborhood micro-environmental, street scale elements may contribute to health above and beyond individual characteristics of residents.To investigate the relationship between neighborhood street scale elements and cardiometabolic risk factors among inactive ethnic minority women.Women (N = 410 completed measures of BMI, percent body fat, blood pressure, resting heart rate, sedentary behavior and demographics. Trained field assessors completed the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan in participants' neighborhoods. Data were collected from 2006-2008. Multiple regression models were conducted in 2011 to estimate the effect of environmental factors on cardiometabolic risk factors.Adjusted regression models found an inverse association between sidewalk buffers and blood pressure, between traffic control devices and resting heart rate, and a positive association between presence of pedestrian crossing aids and BMI (ps<.05. Neighborhood attractiveness and safety for walking and cycling were related to more time spent in a motor vehicle (ps<.05.Findings suggest complex relationships among micro-environmental, street scale elements that may confer important cardiometabolic benefits and risks for residents. Living in the most attractive and safe neighborhoods for physical activity may be associated with longer times spent sitting in the car.

  7. Influence of Portland Cement Class on the Corrosion Rate of Steel Reinforcement in Cement Mortar Caused by Penetrating Chloride and Sulfate from the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikić, F.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of portland cement class on the corrosion rate of steel reinforcement in cement mortar caused by penetrating chloride or sulfate from the environment in already hardened cement mortar is investigated in this paper. Three classes of portland cement have been used for the tests, PC 35, PC 45 and PC 55. Cylindrical samples of cement mortar with steel reinfor- cement in the middle were treated 6 months at room temperature in the following solutions: w(SO42- = 2.1 % and w(Cl- = 5 %. Two techniques have been used for testing corrosion rate of steel reinforcement in cement mortar: Tafel extrapolation technique and potentiodynamic polarization technique. Investigations were conducted by potentiostat/galvanostat Princeton Applied Research 263A-2 with the software PowerCORR®. The results of both techniques indi-cate the most active corrosion of steel reinforcement in the samples prepared from cement PC 35 in both treated solutions, while the lowest corrosion of the steel reinforcement was observed in cement samples prepared from cement PC 55. This conclusion was drawn by analyzing the results shown in Figs. 1–4. Comparing corrosion current density of samples, working electrodes, Figs. 1 and 2, Table 2, the results show the most stable corrosion of steel reinforcement in samples prepared from cement PC 55, and the most active corrosion in samples prepared from ce- ment PC 35. The most active corrosion in samples prepared from cement PC 35 is evident from the positions of the open circuit potentials whose values are less for samples prepared from cement PC 35 in both the treated solution, Figs. 1 and 2, Table 2. Comparison of the anodic polarization curves of the working electrodes in both the treated solutions, Figs. 3 and 4, also shows that the intensity of corrosion is the largest for the working electrodes prepared from cement PC 35 and the smallest for the working electrodes prepared from cement PC 55. Investigation results should be

  8. Neighborhood effects on birthweight: an exploration of psychosocial and behavioral pathways in Baltimore, 1995--1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schempf, Ashley; Strobino, Donna; O'Campo, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics have been proposed to influence birth outcomes through psychosocial and behavioral pathways, yet empirical evidence is lacking. Using data from an urban, low-income sample, this study examined the impact of the neighborhood environment on birthweight and evaluated mediation by psychosocial and behavioral factors. The sample included 726 women who delivered a live birth at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, USA between 1995 and 1996. Census-tract data were used to create a principal component index of neighborhood risk based on racial and economic stratification (% Black, % poverty), social disorder (violent crime rate), and physical deterioration (% boarded-up housing) (alpha=0.82). Information on sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors was gathered from a postpartum interview and medical records. Random intercept multilevel models were used to estimate neighborhood effects and assess potential mediation. Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, a standard deviation increase in neighborhood risk conferred a 76g birthweight decrement. This represents an approximate 300g difference between the best and worst neighborhoods. Although stress (daily hassles), perceived locus-of-control, and social support were related to birthweight, their adjustment reduced the neighborhood coefficient by only 12%. In contrast, the neighborhood effect was reduced by an additional 30% and was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for the behavioral factors of smoking, drug use, and delayed prenatal care. These findings suggest that neighborhood factors may influence birthweight by shaping maternal behavioral risks. Thus, neighborhood level interventions should be considered to address multiple maternal and infant health risks. Future studies should examine more direct measures of neighborhood stress, such as perceived neighborhood disorder, and evaluate alternative mechanisms by which neighborhood factors

  9. Rising Prevalence and Neighborhood, Social, and Behavioral Determinants of Sleep Problems in US Children and Adolescents, 2003–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined trends and neighborhood and sociobehavioral determinants of sleep problems in US children aged 6–17 between 2003 and 2012. The 2003, 2007, and 2011-2012 rounds of the National Survey of Children’s Health were used to estimate trends and differentials in sleep problems using logistic regression. Prevalence of sleep problems increased significantly over time. The proportion of children with <7 days/week of adequate sleep increased from 31.2% in 2003 to 41.9% in 2011-2012, whereas the prevalence of adequate sleep <5 days/week rose from 12.6% in 2003 to 13.6% in 2011-2012. Prevalence of sleep problems varied in relation to neighborhood socioeconomic and built-environmental characteristics (e.g., safety concerns, poor housing, garbage/litter, vandalism, sidewalks, and parks/playgrounds. Approximately 10% of children in neighborhoods with the most-favorable social environment had serious sleep problems, compared with 16.2% of children in neighborhoods with the least-favorable social environment. Children in neighborhoods with the fewest health-promoting amenities or the greatest social disadvantage had 37%–43% higher adjusted odds of serious sleep problems than children in the most-favorable neighborhoods. Higher levels of screen time, physical inactivity, and secondhand smoke exposure were associated with 20%–47% higher adjusted odds of sleep problems. Neighborhood conditions and behavioral factors are important determinants of sleep problems in children.

  10. Neighborhood Quality and Labor Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    of men living in the neighborhood, but positively affected by the employment rate of non-Western immigrant men and co-national men living in the neighborhood. This is strong evidence that immigrants find jobs in part through their employed immigrant and co-ethnic contacts in the neighborhood of residence...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...

  11. Neighborhood cohesion, neighborhood disorder, and cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Jennifer W; Charles, Susan T; Gruenewald, Tara L

    2018-02-01

    Perceptions of neighborhood disorder (trash, vandalism) and cohesion (neighbors trust one another) are related to residents' health. Affective and behavioral factors have been identified, but often in studies using geographically select samples. We use a nationally representative sample (n = 9032) of United States older adults from the Health and Retirement Study to examine cardiometabolic risk in relation to perceptions of neighborhood cohesion and disorder. Lower cohesion is significantly related to greater cardiometabolic risk in 2006/2008 and predicts greater risk four years later (2010/2012). The longitudinal relation is partially accounted for by anxiety and physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hospital waste ashes in Portland cement mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genazzini, C.; Zerbino, R.; Ronco, A.; Batic, O.; Giaccio, G.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays, most concretes incorporate mineral additions such as pozzolans, fly ash, silica fume, blast furnace slag, and calcareous filler among others. Although the technological and economical benefits were the main reasons for the use of mineral additions, the prevention of environmental contamination by means of proper waste disposal becomes a priority. The chance of incorporating hospital waste ashes in Portland cement-based materials is presented here. Ash characterization was performed by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, radioactive material detection, and fineness and density tests. Conduction calorimetry and setting time tests were developed on pastes including ash contents from 0% to 100%. Mortars were prepared including ash contents up to 50% of cement. The results of setting time, temperature development, flexural and compressive strengths, water absorption, density, and leachability are analyzed. Results indicate that Portland cement systems could become an alternative for the disposal of this type of ashes

  13. Who Gentrifies Low-Income Neighborhoods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnish, Terra; Walsh, Randall; White, T Kirk

    2010-03-01

    This paper uses confidential Census data, specifically the 1990 and 2000 Census Long Form data, to study demographic processes in neighborhoods that gentrified during the 1990's. In contrast to previous studies, the analysis is conducted at the more refined census-tract level, with a narrower definition of gentrification and more closely matched comparison neighborhoods. Furthermore, our access to individual-level data with census tract identifiers allows us to separately identify recent in-migrants and long-term residents. Our results indicate that, on average, the demographic flows associated with the gentrification of urban neighborhoods during the 1990's are not consistent with displacement and harm to minority households. In fact, taken as a whole, our results suggest that gentrification of predominantly black neighborhoods creates neighborhoods that are attractive to middle-class black households.

  14. Neighborhood-Specific and General Social Support: Which Buffers the Effect of Neighborhood Disorder on Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joongbaeck; Ross, Catherine E.

    2009-01-01

    Is neighborhood-specific social support the most effective type of social support for buffering the effect of neighborhood disorder on depression? Matching theory suggests that it is. The authors extend the research on neighborhood disorder and adult depression by showing that individuals who have higher levels of both general and…

  15. Neighborhood Built and Social Environments and Change in Weight Status over the Summer in Low-Income Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Rebecca; Wang, Yuxia; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett

    2018-05-31

    Neighborhoods can provide opportunities for children to maintain a healthy weight or encourage unhealthy weight gain. Which neighborhood characteristics matter most remains poorly understood. We investigated links between neighborhood characteristics and weight change over the summer in children from 12 elementary schools with a high proportion of children from low-income families, in a mid-sized city in the US South. Mixed models and objective measures of height and weight were used. Study participants were 2770 children (average age 8.3, range 5.6⁻12.6 years). Older and female children and those who were already overweight were more likely to gain weight over the summer compared to younger, male, and normal weight children. Overweight children who lived near 2 or more small grocery stores gained less weight than overweight children who lived near 0 (weight change, p = 0.0468; body mass index (BMI) change, p = 0.0209) or 1 store (weight change, p = 0.0136; BMI change, p = 0.0033). Normal weight children living in neighborhoods with more large multifamily buildings gained more weight over the summer, although this association only approached significance. Additional efforts to understand which neighborhood factors have greater significance for overweight compared to normal weight children are warranted.

  16. Radiopacity evaluation of Portland and MTA-based cements by digital radiographic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Pedro, Fabio Luiz Miranda; Semanoff-Segundo, Alex; Miranda, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Cruz Filho, Antônio Miranda

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radiopacity of Portland and MTA-based cements using the Digora TM digital radiographic system. The performed tests followed specification number 57 from the American National Standard Institute/American Dental Association (2000) for endodontic sealing materials. The materials were placed in 5 acrylic plates, especially designed for this experiment, along with a graduated aluminum stepwedge varying from 1 to 10 mm in thickness. The set was radiographed at a 30 cm focus-object distance and with 0.2 s exposure time. After the radiographs were taken, the optical laser readings of radiographs were performed by Digora TM system. Five radiographic density readings were performed for each studied material and for each step of the aluminum scale. White ProRoot MTA (155.99±8.04), gray ProRoot MTA (155.96±16.30) and MTA BIO (143.13±16.94) presented higher radiopacity values (pPortland (119.76±22.34), gray Portland (109.71±4.90) and white structural Portland (99.59±12.88) presented lower radiopacity values (pcements were the only materials presenting radiopacity within the ANSI/ADA specifications.

  17. Partial replacement of Portland cement by red ceramic waste in mortars: study of pozzolanic activity; Substituicao parcial do cimento Portland por residuo de ceramica vermelha em argamassas: estudo da atividade pozolonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.R. da; Cabral, K.C.; Pinto, E.N. de M.G.l., E-mail: kleber.cabral@ufersa.edu.br [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (UFERSA), Mossoro, RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the pozzolanic activity of red ceramic residue on the partial replacement of Portland cement in mortars. The mortars were prepared by substituting 25% of the Portland cement for ground of ceramic residue with water cement’s factor of 0.48. The concrete used to construct the reference mortars and those with addiction was CPII-Z-32 (compound of Portland pozzolana cement). The chemical analysis and physical ceramic waste showed that this meets the requirements of NBR12653 (2014) for use as pozzolanic material. The pozzolanic activity index (IAP) obtained for the ceramic waste to twenty-eight days cure rate was 80.28%. (author)

  18. Urbanism, Neighborhood Context, and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Erin York; Behler, Rachel L

    2015-09-01

    Theories of urbanism suggest that the urban context erodes individuals' strong social ties with friends and family. Recent research has narrowed focus to the neighborhood context, emphasizing how localized structural disadvantage affects community-level cohesion and social capital. In this paper, we argue that neighborhood context also shapes social ties with friends and family- particularly for community-dwelling seniors. We hypothesize that neighborhood disadvantage, residential instability, and disorder restrict residents' abilities to cultivate close relationships with neighbors and non-neighbor friends and family. Using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), we find that older adults who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods have smaller social networks. Neighborhood disadvantage is also associated with less close network ties and less frequent interaction - but only among men. Furthermore, residents of disordered neighborhoods have smaller networks and weaker ties. We urge scholars to pay greater attention to how neighborhood context contributes to disparities in network-based access to resources.

  19. A systematic review of relations between neighborhoods and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Khoa D; Ma, Sai

    2006-09-01

    The relationship between neighborhood characteristics and resident mental health has been widely investigated in individual studies in recent years, but this literature is not adequately reviewed. To systematically review relevant individual research of the relation between neighborhoods and adult mental health by identifying and synthesizing all relevant studies in this literature. We conducted an electronic search with PubMed and PsycINFO, and manual reference-checking, resulting in 8,562 screened studies of which 29 were selected. Studies were included in the main synthesis if they (i) were published in English in peer reviewed journals; (ii) had relevant definitions and measures of neighborhood characteristics; (iii) utilized standardized measures of adult mental health; (iv) controlled for individual characteristics; (v) reported quantitative results; and, (vi) studied a population in a developed country. We focused on two key areas within this literature: the methodologies utilized to study neighborhood effects and quantitative results. With regard to the former, we examined five major issues: (i) definitions and measures of neighborhoods; (ii) definitions and measures of mental health; (iii) controls for individual level characteristics; (iv) conceptual models; and (v) analytical models. As for quantitative results, the relation was reviewed by types of neighborhood characteristics. We summarized general quantitative findings and drew common conclusions across groups of studies. 27/29 studies found statistically significant association between mental health and at least one measure of neighborhood characteristics, after adjusting for individual factors. This association was evident for all types of neighborhood features, varying from sociodemographic characteristics to physical environment, and from objective to subjective measures. Neighborhood effects were weakened when adding individual-level characteristics into the regression models, and were generally

  20. Longitudinal association of neighborhood variables with body mass index in dutch school-age children: The KOALA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, S.C.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Vries, S.I. de; Gubbels, J.; Thijs, C.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the neighborhood environment may explain part of the rapid increase in childhood overweight and obesity during the last decades. To date few theory-driven rather than data-driven studies have explored longitudinal associations between multiple neighborhood characteristics and child body

  1. A comparative evaluation of compressive strength of Portland cement with zinc oxide eugenol and Polymer-reinforced cement: an in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakasam, S; Bharadwaj, Prakasam; Loganathan, S C; Prasanth, B Krishna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ultimate compressive strength of 50% and 25% Portland cement mixed with Polymer-reinforced zinc oxide eugenol and zinc oxide eugenol cement after 1 hour, 24 hours, and 7 days. One hundred and eighty samples were selected. The samples were made cylindrical of size 6 × 8 mm and were divided into six groups as follows with each group consisting of 10 samples. Group 1: Polymer-reinforced zinc oxide eugenol with 50% Portland cement (PMZNPC 50%) Group 2: Polymer-reinforced zinc oxide eugenol with 25% Portland cement (PMZNPC 25%) Group 3: Polymer-reinforced zinc oxide eugenol with 0% Portland cement (PMZNPC 0%) Group 4: Zinc oxide eugenol with 50% Portland cement (ZNPC 50%) Group 5: Zinc oxide eugenol with 25% Portland cement (ZNPC 25%) Group 6: Zinc oxide eugenol with 0% Portland cement (ZNPC 0%) These samples were further subdivided based on time interval and were tested at 1 hour, 24 hours and at 7 th day. After each period of time all the specimens were tested by vertical CVR loaded frame with capacity of 5 tones/0473-10kan National Physical laboratory, New Delhi and the results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Scheffe test. Polymer-reinforced cement with 50% Portland cement, Zinc oxide with 50% Portland cement, Polymer-reinforced cement with 25% Portland cement and Zinc oxide with 25% Portland cement exhibited higher compressive strength when compared to Zinc oxide with 0% Portland cement and Polymer-reinforced cement with 0% Portland cement, at different periods of time. The difference between these two groups were statistically significant (P Portland cement in Zinc oxide eugenol and Polymer-modified zinc oxide cement can be used as core build up material and permanent filling material. It is concluded that 50% and 25% Portland cement in zinc oxide eugenol and polymer-modified zinc oxide eugenol results in higher compressive strength and hence can be used as permanent filling material and core built

  2. The Relationship Between Neighborhood Socioeconomic Characteristics and Physical Inactivity Among Adolescents Living in Boston, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Beth E.; Cradock, Angie; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether the socioeconomic environment was associated with no participation in physical activity among adolescents in Boston, Massachusetts. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from 1878 urban adolescents living in 38 neighborhoods who participated in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey, a biennial survey of high school students (aged 14–19 years). We used multilevel multiple regression models to determine the association between neighborhood-level exposures of economic deprivation, social fragmentation, social cohesion, danger and disorder, and students’ reports of no participation in physical activity in the previous week. Results. High social fragmentation within the residential neighborhood was associated with an increased likelihood of being inactive (odds ratio = 1.53; 95% confidence interval = 1.14, 2.05). No other neighborhood exposures were associated with physical inactivity. Conclusions. Social fragmentation might be an important correlate of physical inactivity among youths living in urban settings. Interventions might be needed to assist youths living in unstable neighborhoods to be physically active. PMID:25211727

  3. The neighborhoods they live in: the effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, T; Brooks-Gunn, J

    2000-03-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of research on the effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent well-being. The first section reviews key methodological issues. The following section considers links between neighborhood characteristics and child outcomes and suggests the importance of high socioeconomic status (SES) for achievement and low SES and residential instability for behavioral/emotional outcomes. The third section identifies 3 pathways (institutional resources, relationships, and norms/collective efficacy) through which neighborhoods might influence development, and which represent an extension of models identified by C. Jencks and S. Mayer (1990) and R. J. Sampson (1992). The models provide a theoretical base for studying neighborhood mechanisms and specify different levels (individual, family, school, peer, community) at which processes may operate. Implications for an emerging developmental framework for research on neighborhoods are discussed.

  4. The associations of perceived neighborhood disorder and physical activity with obesity among African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Kaur Thind, Herpreet; Affuso, Olivia; Baskin, Monica L

    2013-05-04

    According to recent research studies, the built and socioeconomic contexts of neighborhoods are associated with African American adolescents' participation in physical activity and obesity status. However, few research efforts have been devoted to understand how African American adolescents' perceptions of their neighborhood environments may affect physical activity behaviors and obesity status. The objective of the current study was to use a perceived neighborhood disorder conceptual framework to examine whether physical activity mediated the relationship between perceived neighborhood disorder and obesity status among African American adolescents. The data were obtained from a cross-sectional study that examined social and cultural barriers and facilitators of physical activity among African American adolescents. The study included a sample of 101 African American adolescents age 12 to 16 years and their parents who were recruited from the Birmingham, Alabama metropolitan area. The primary outcome measure was obesity status which was classified using the International Obesity Task Force cut off points. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was assessed via accelerometry. Perceived neighborhood disorder was assessed using the Perceived Neighborhood Disorder Scale. Mediation models were used to examine whether the relationship between neighborhood disorder and obesity status was mediated by physical activity. Perceived neighborhood disorder was significantly and positively related to obesity status and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with obesity status. However, there was no evidence to support a significant mediating effect of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on the relationship between neighborhood disorder and obesity status. Future studies should longitudinally assess perceived neighborhood disorder characteristics and childhood adiposity to examine the timing, extent, and the mechanisms by which perceived neighborhood

  5. Who Gentrifies Low-Income Neighborhoods?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnish, Terra; Walsh, Randall; White, T. Kirk

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses confidential Census data, specifically the 1990 and 2000 Census Long Form data, to study demographic processes in neighborhoods that gentrified during the 1990’s. In contrast to previous studies, the analysis is conducted at the more refined census-tract level, with a narrower definition of gentrification and more closely matched comparison neighborhoods. Furthermore, our access to individual-level data with census tract identifiers allows us to separately identify recent in-migrants and long-term residents. Our results indicate that, on average, the demographic flows associated with the gentrification of urban neighborhoods during the 1990’s are not consistent with displacement and harm to minority households. In fact, taken as a whole, our results suggest that gentrification of predominantly black neighborhoods creates neighborhoods that are attractive to middle-class black households. PMID:20161532

  6. Longitudinal Associations between Observed and Perceived Neighborhood Food Availability and Body Mass Index in a Multiethnic Urban Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Mentz, Graciela; Schulz, Amy J.; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Gaines, Causandra R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Blacks, Hispanics, and women of lower socioeconomic status tend to have a higher risk of obesity. Numerous studies over the past decade examined the role of the neighborhood food environment in body weight. However, few were longitudinal. Purpose: This longitudinal study examined whether multiple measures of neighborhood food…

  7. Interfacial morphology and domain configurations in 0-3 PZT-Portland cement composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaitanong, N.; Zeng, H.R.; Li, G.R.; Yin, Q.R.; Vittayakorn, W.C.; Yimnirun, R.; Chaipanich, A.

    2010-01-01

    Cement-based piezoelectric composites have attracted great attention recently due to their promising applications as sensors in smart structures. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and Portland cement (PC) composite were fabricated using 60% of PZT by volume. Scanning Electron Microscope and piezoresponse force microscope were used to investigate the morphology and domain configurations at the interfacial zone of PZT-Portland cement composites. Angular PZT ceramic grains were found to bind well with the cement matrix. The submicro-scale domains were clearly observed by piezoresponse force microscope at the interfacial regions between the piezoelectric PZT phase and Portland cement phase, and are clearer than the images obtained for pure PZT. This is thought to be due to the applied internal stress of cement to the PZT ceramic particle which resulted to clearer images.

  8. Assessment of spatial and physical neighborhood characteristics that influence sound quality and herewith well-being and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Devilee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental noise and health studies seldom address the positive effect of environments with high acoustic quality. Sound quality, in turn, is influenced by a large number of factors, including the spatial–physical characteristics of a neighborhood. In general, these characteristics cannot be retrieved from existing databases. In this article, we describe the design of an audit instrument and demonstrate its value for gathering information about these characteristics of neighborhoods. The audit instrument used was derived from research in other fields than environmental health. The instrument was tested in 33 neighborhoods in the Dutch cities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and Arnhem. In these neighborhoods, more or less homogeneous subareas were identified that were subject of the audit. The results show that the audit approach is suitable to gather neighborhood data that are relevant for the sound quality of neighborhoods. Together with survey data, they provide information that could further the field of soundscape and health. Several suggestions for improvement of the audit instrument were made.

  9. Neighborhood influences on recreational physical activity and survival after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Theresa H M; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Sangaramoorthy, Meera; Koo, Jocelyn; Hertz, Andrew; Schupp, Clayton W; Yang, Juan; John, Esther M; Gomez, Scarlett L

    2014-10-01

    Higher levels of physical activity have been associated with improved survival after breast cancer diagnosis. However, no previous studies have considered the influence of the social and built environment on physical activity and survival among breast cancer patients. Our study included 4,345 women diagnosed with breast cancer (1995-2008) from two population-based studies conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area. We examined questionnaire-based moderate/strenuous recreational physical activity during the 3 years before diagnosis. Neighborhood characteristics were based on data from the 2000 US Census, business listings, parks, farmers' markets, and Department of Transportation. Survival was evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, with follow-up through 2009. Women residing in neighborhoods with no fast-food restaurants (vs. fewer fast-food restaurants) to other restaurants, high traffic density, and a high percentage of foreign-born residents were less likely to meet physical activity recommendations set by the American Cancer Society. Women who were not recreationally physically active had a 22% higher risk of death from any cause than women that were the most active. Poorer overall survival was associated with lower neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) (p(trend) = 0.02), whereas better breast cancer-specific survival was associated with a lack of parks, especially among women in high-SES neighborhoods. Certain aspects of the neighborhood have independent associations with recreational physical activity among breast cancer patients and their survival. Considering neighborhood factors may aide in the design of more effective, tailored physical activity programs for breast cancer survivors.

  10. Neighborhood walkability and particulate air pollution in a nationwide cohort of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter; Hart, Jaime E; Laden, Francine

    2015-10-01

    Features of neighborhoods associated with walkability (i.e., connectivity, accessibility, and density) may also be correlated with levels of ambient air pollution, which would attenuate the health benefits of walkability. We examined the relationship between neighborhood walkability and ambient air pollution in a cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study spanning the entire United States using residence-level exposure assessment for ambient air pollution and the built environment. Using data from the Nurses' Health Study, we used linear regression to estimate the association between a neighborhood walkability index, combining neighborhood intersection count, business count, and population density (defined from Census data, infoUSA business data, and StreetMap USA data), and air pollution, defined from a GIS-based spatiotemporal PM2.5 model. After adjustment for Census tract median income, median home value, and percent with no high school education, the highest tertile of walkability index, intersection count, business count, and population density was associated with a with 1.58 (95% CI 1.54, 1.62), 1.20 (95% CI 1.16, 1.24), 1.31 (95% CI 1.27, 1.35), and 1.84 (95% CI 1.80, 1.88) µg/m(3) higher level of PM2.5 respectively, compared to the lowest tertile. Results varied somewhat by neighborhood socioeconomic status and greatly by region. This nationwide analysis showed a positive relationship between neighborhood walkability and modeled air pollution levels, which were consistent after adjustment for neighborhood-level socioeconomic status. Regional differences in the air pollution-walkability relationship demonstrate that there are factors that vary from region to region that allow for walkable neighborhoods with low levels of air pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Independent and Interactive Effects of Neighborhood Disadvantage and Social Network Characteristics on Problem Drinking after Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mericle, Amy A; Kaskutas, Lee A; Polcin, Doug L; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J

    2018-01-01

    Socioecological approaches to public health problems like addiction emphasize the importance of person-environment interactions. Neighborhood and social network characteristics may influence the likelihood of relapse among individuals in recovery, but these factors have been understudied, particularly with respect to conceptualizing social network characteristics as moderators of neighborhood disadvantage. Drawing from a larger prospective study of individuals recruited from outpatient treatment (N=451) and interviewed 1, 3, 5, and 7 years later, the aim of this study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of neighborhood and social network characteristics on continued problem drinking after treatment. Models using generalized estimating equations controlling for demographic and other risk factors found the number of heavy drinkers in one's network increases risk of relapse, with the effects being significantly stronger among those living in disadvantaged neighborhoods than among those in non-disadvantaged neighborhoods. No independent effects were found for neighborhood disadvantage or for the number of network members supporting reduced drinking. Future research is needed to examine potential protective factors in neighborhoods which may offset socioeconomic disadvantage as well as to investigate the functions that network members serve in helping to improve long-term treatment outcomes.

  12. 78 FR 4381 - Foreign-Trade Zone 45-Portland, Oregon; Application for Reorganization and Expansion Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... following sites: Site 1 (1,830 acres)--Rivergate Industrial Park, Port Terminal Nos. 5 and 6, and the... Way and NE Alderwood Road, Portland; Site 3 (254 acres)--Portland Ship Repair Yard, 5555 N. Channel...

  13. The influence of local food environments on adolescents' food purchasing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Tucker, Patricia; Gilliland, Jason; Irwin, Jennifer D; Larsen, Kristian; Hess, Paul

    2012-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810) at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess students' home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students' food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students' food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km) to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05). In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth's home and school.

  14. Marketing little cigars and cigarillos: advertising, price, and associations with neighborhood demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Jennifer; Kreslake, Jennifer M; Ganz, Ollie; Pearson, Jennifer L; Vallone, Donna; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Xiao, Haijun; Kirchner, Thomas R

    2013-10-01

    We have documented little cigar and cigarillo (LCC) availability, advertising, and price in the point-of-sale environment and examined associations with neighborhood demographics. We used a multimodal real-time surveillance system to survey LCCs in 750 licensed tobacco retail outlets that sold tobacco products in Washington, DC. Using multivariate models, we examined the odds of LCC availability, the number of storefront exterior advertisements, and the price per cigarillo for Black & Mild packs in relation to neighborhood demographics. The odds of LCC availability and price per cigarillo decreased significantly in nearly a dose-response manner with each quartile increase in proportion of African Americans. Prices were also lower in some young adult neighborhoods. Having a higher proportion of African American and young adult residents was associated with more exterior LCC advertising. Higher availability of LCCs in African American communities and lower prices and greater outdoor advertising in minority and young adult neighborhoods may establish environmental triggers to smoke among groups susceptible to initiation, addiction, and long-term negative health consequences.

  15. Rural Neighborhood Walkability: Implications for Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Michelle C; Alcantara, Iris; Haardörfer, Regine; Gemma, Alexandra; Ballard, Denise; Gazmararian, Julie

    2015-06-16

    Physical activity levels, including walking, are lower in the southern U.S., particularly in rural areas. This study investigated the concept of rural neighborhood walkability to aid in developing tools for assessing walkability and to identify intervention targets in rural communities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with physically active adults (n = 29) in rural Georgia. Mean age of participants was 55.9 years; 66% were male, 76% were white, and 24% were African American. Participants drew maps of their neighborhoods and discussed the relevance of typical domains of walkability to their decisions to exercise. Comparative analyses were conducted to identify major themes. The majority felt the concept of neighborhood was applicable and viewed their neighborhood as small geographically (less than 0.5 square miles). Sidewalks were not viewed as essential for neighborhood-based physical activity and typical destinations for walking were largely absent. Destinations within walking distance included neighbors' homes and bodies of water. Views were mixed on whether shade, safety, dogs, and aesthetics affected decisions to exercise in their neighborhoods. Measures of neighborhood walkability in rural areas should acknowledge the small size of self-defined neighborhoods, that walking in rural areas is likely for leisure time exercise, and that some domains may not be relevant.

  16. Nearest neighbors by neighborhood counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui

    2006-06-01

    Finding nearest neighbors is a general idea that underlies many artificial intelligence tasks, including machine learning, data mining, natural language understanding, and information retrieval. This idea is explicitly used in the k-nearest neighbors algorithm (kNN), a popular classification method. In this paper, this idea is adopted in the development of a general methodology, neighborhood counting, for devising similarity functions. We turn our focus from neighbors to neighborhoods, a region in the data space covering the data point in question. To measure the similarity between two data points, we consider all neighborhoods that cover both data points. We propose to use the number of such neighborhoods as a measure of similarity. Neighborhood can be defined for different types of data in different ways. Here, we consider one definition of neighborhood for multivariate data and derive a formula for such similarity, called neighborhood counting measure or NCM. NCM was tested experimentally in the framework of kNN. Experiments show that NCM is generally comparable to VDM and its variants, the state-of-the-art distance functions for multivariate data, and, at the same time, is consistently better for relatively large k values. Additionally, NCM consistently outperforms HEOM (a mixture of Euclidean and Hamming distances), the "standard" and most widely used distance function for multivariate data. NCM has a computational complexity in the same order as the standard Euclidean distance function and NCM is task independent and works for numerical and categorical data in a conceptually uniform way. The neighborhood counting methodology is proven sound for multivariate data experimentally. We hope it will work for other types of data.

  17. Neighborhood Moderation of Sensation Seeking Effects on Adolescent Substance Use Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Michaeline; Chassin, Laurie; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2017-09-01

    Adolescent substance use carries a considerable public health burden, and early initiation into use is especially problematic. Research has shown that trait sensation seeking increases risk for substance use initiation, but less is known about contextual factors that can potentially unmask this risk. This study utilized a diverse longitudinal subsample of youth (N = 454) from a larger study of familial alcoholism (53.1% female, 61% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 27.8% Hispanic, 11.2% other ethnicity). Study questions examined sensation seeking in early adolescence (mean age = 12.16) and its relations with later substance use initiation (mean age = 15.69), and tested whether neighborhood disadvantage moderated sensation seeking's effects on initiation of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use. Neighborhood disadvantage significantly moderated the relation between sensation seeking and all three forms of substance use. For the most part, sensation seeking effects were weakened as neighborhood disadvantage increased, with the most advantaged neighborhoods exhibiting the strongest link between sensation seeking and substance use initiation. These results highlight the importance of focusing on relatively advantaged areas as potentially risky environments for the sensation seeking pathway to substance use.

  18. Neighborhood Context and Immigrant Young Children's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Tama; Shuey, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood social processes and resources, relevant to immigrant families and immigrant neighborhoods, contribute to young children's behavioral functioning and achievement across diverse racial/ethnic groups. Data were drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, a neighborhood-based,…

  19. 76 FR 54206 - Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Final Results of the Expedited Third Sunset Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-815] Gray Portland Cement and... portland cement and clinker from Japan. As a result of this third sunset review, the Department finds that... initiation of the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and clinker from...

  20. Chemical composition, radiopacity, and biocompatibility of Portland cement with bismuth oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yun-Chan; Lee, Song-Hee; Hwang, In-Nam; Kang, In-Chol; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Sun-Hun; Son, Ho-Hyun; Oh, Won-Mann

    2009-03-01

    This study compared the chemical constitution, radiopacity, and biocompatibility of Portland cement containing bismuth oxide (experimental cement) with those of Portland cement and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). The chemical constitution of materials was determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The radiopacity of the materials was determined using the ISO/6876 method. The biocompatibility of the materials was tested by MTT assay and tissue reaction. The constitution of all materials was similar. However, the Portland cement and experimental cement were more irregular and had a larger particle size than MTA. The radiopacity of the experimental cement was similar to MTA. The MTT assay revealed MTA to have slightly higher cell viability than the other materials. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the materials, with the exception of MTA at 24 h. There was no significant difference in the tissue reaction between the experimental groups. These results suggest that the experimental cement may be used as a substitute for MTA.

  1. NeighborHood

    OpenAIRE

    Corominola Ocaña, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    NeighborHood és una aplicació basada en el núvol, adaptable a qualsevol dispositiu (mòbil, tablet, desktop). L'objectiu d'aquesta aplicació és poder permetre als usuaris introduir a les persones del seu entorn més immediat i que aquestes persones siguin visibles per a la resta d'usuaris. NeighborHood es una aplicación basada en la nube, adaptable a cualquier dispositivo (móvil, tablet, desktop). El objetivo de esta aplicación es poder permitir a los usuarios introducir a las personas de su...

  2. Potencialidades da metacaolinita e do tijolo queimado moído como substitutos parciais do cimento Portland Potentialities of metakaolin and crushed waste calcined clay brick as partial replacement of Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João de Farias Filho

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Avalia-se, neste trabalho, a potencialidade do uso da metacaolinita e dos resíduos de produção de tijolos cerâmicos queimados finamente moídos, como substitutos parciais do cimento Portland. Os materiais foram caracterizados física, química e mineralogicamente, além de determinado o índice de atividade pozolânica com cimento Portland. A evolução da resistência a compressão e a flexão das argamassas foi avaliada até as idades de, respectivamente, 365 e 208 dias. As porcentagens de substituição do cimento Portland, em peso, pelos materiais pozolânicos, variaram de 20 a 50%, enquanto o fator água/cimento variou de 0,37 a 0,45. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a metacaolinita e o tijolo moído queimado possuem elevada atividade pozolânica e que a resistência a compressão, aos 28 dias, das argamassas mistas, foi superior à das argamassas de cimento Portland para os níveis de substituição e fatores água/cimento estudados. Um modelo matemático para predição da resistência à compressão das argamassas mistas é proposto com base em um desenho fatorial de experimentos.This paper evaluates the potentiality of metakaolin and crushed waste fired clay brick as cement replacement materials. They were characterised physically, chemically and mineralogically and their activity with Portland cement determined. The influence of the partial replacement of Portland cement on the development of compressive and flexural strength was evaluated until the age of, respectively, 365 and 208 days. The percentage of cement replacement, in weight, ranged from 20 to 50%, whereas the water/cement ratio ranged from 0.37 to 0.45. The results obtained show that the metakaolin and crushed calcined clay brick presented a good pozolanic activity and that the compressive strength of the blended mortars after 28 days of cure was higher than that observed for the reference Portland cement for all levels of cement replacement and water/cement ratio. A

  3. Optimization of calcium chloride content on bioactivity and mechanical properties of white Portland cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torkittikul, Pincha; Chaipanich, Arnon

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the optimization of calcium chloride content on the bioactivity and mechanical properties of white Portland cement. Calcium chloride was used as an addition of White Portland cement at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10% by weight. Calcium chloride was dissolved in sterile distilled water and blended with White Portland cement using a water to cement ratio of 0.5. Analysis of the bioactivity and pH of white Portland cement pastes with calcium chloride added at various amounts was carried out in simulated body fluid. Setting time, density, compressive strength and volume of permeable voids were also investigated. The characteristics of cement pastes were examined by X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope linked to an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer. The result indicated that the addition of calcium chloride could accelerate the hydration of white Portland cement, resulting in a decrease in setting time and an increase in early strength of the pastes. The compressive strength of all cement pastes with added calcium chloride was higher than that of the pure cement paste, and the addition of calcium chloride at 8 wt.% led to achieving the highest strength. Furthermore, white Portland cement pastes both with and without calcium chloride showed well-established bioactivity with respect to the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the material within 7 days following immersion in simulated body fluid; white Portland cement paste with added 3%CaCl 2 exhibited the best bioactivity. - Highlights: ► Optimization CaCl 2 content on the bioactivity and mechanical properties. ► CaCl 2 was used as an addition at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10% by weight. ► CaCl 2 resulted in a decrease in setting time and an increase in early strength. ► Addition of 3%CaCl 2 exhibited the optimum formation of hydroxyapatite.

  4. The Influence of Local Food Environments on Adolescents’ Food Purchasing Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Irwin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810 at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS was used to assess students’ home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students’ food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students’ food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p < 0.05. High fast-food outlet density in both home and school neighborhoods was associated with increased fast-food purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05. In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth’s home and school.

  5. Immobilization of citric acid solutions in portland cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Valdir M.; Rzyski, Barbara M.

    1997-01-01

    Decontamination processes by using citric acid on certain items used in the nuclear area, can result in large volumes of liquid wastes with low activity or effluents, contaminated with uranium and some elements dangerous to the environment. A great number of installations that have decontamination processes adopt the zero discharge philosophy. So, one of the forms to isolate the solutions is by reducing its volume through the evaporation process. The generated must can be neutralized and encapsulated or immobilized in Portland cement. This work propose a chemical technique to destroy the citric acid in the decontamination solutions instead of neutralization and, depending on the installation convenience, a direct cement immobilization of these solutions or of the evaporation mud. The results obtained in this work involve data about the workability, setting time and mechanical resistance, after 28 days of sealed cure, for samples with water-cement ratios of 4, 0.5 and 0.6, by weight. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Contribución al estudio de los reacciones de hidratación del cemento portland por espectroscopia infrarroja II. Estudio de clínkeres y de cementos portland anhidros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez-Moreno, Tomás

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Not availableEn un artículo anterior (1 se dio cuenta de los trabajos realizados sobre la aplicación de la espectroscopia IR al estudio de las principales fases sintetizadas del clínker de cemento portland como fase previa al estudio de diversos clínkeres, obtenidos por nosotros en el laboratorio a partir de crudos industriales, y de distintos cementos portland comerciales anhidros.

  7. Resistance to acid attack of portland cement mortars produced with red mud as a pozzolanic additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbino, Thiago Gabriel Ferreira; Fortes, Gustavo Mattos; Lourenco, Rafaela Roberta; Rodrigues, Jose de Anchieta

    2011-01-01

    Portland cement structures are usually exposed to aggressive environments, which requires the knowledge of the performance of these materials under deleterious conditions. In this study, it was evaluated the resistance to acid attack of mortars that contain ordinary (CPI) and compost (CPII-Z) Portland cements, adding to the first red mud (RB) as a pozzolanic additive in different conditions: without calcination, calcined at 400 ° C and at 600 ° C. The specimens were subjected to HCl and H 2 SO 4 solutions, both with concentration of 1.0 Mol L -1 for 28 days, monitoring the weight loss and leached material nature by atomic emission inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The hydration products were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the hydrated cement pastes. It was observed a reduction of portlandite amount in the RB containing cement pastes, indicating a possible pozzolanic activity of the red mud. The mortars prepared with RB were more resistant to HCl, while that ones with calcined RB present a better performance in H 2 SO 4 attack. (author)

  8. Stabilization of chromium salt in ordinary portland cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) samples containing the chromium salt have been investigated using differential microcalorimetry, conductometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis. The effect of chromium on OPC hydration was evaluated by continuous observing of early hydration.

  9. Neighborhood characteristics and TV viewing in youth: nothing to do but watch TV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timperio, Anna; Salmon, Jo; Ball, Kylie; te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes; Crawford, David

    2012-03-01

    Neighborhoods that discourage physical activity may encourage indoor activities such as television viewing; however few studies have examined associations between neighborhood characteristics and sedentary activities. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between perceived and objective measures of the physical and social neighborhood environment and TV viewing among children and adolescents. Cross-sectional and longitudinal. Parents of 190 children and 169 adolescents completed questionnaire items regarding facilities for physical activity, neighborhood safety (general and traffic), social trust/cohesion, social networks and their child's TV viewing in 2006. Adolescents self-reported their TV viewing. Objective measures of reported crime and neighborhood destinations, road connectivity and traffic exposure were also collected. Questions about TV viewing were repeated in 2008 (longitudinal sample: 157 children; 105 adolescents). In children, cul-de-sac density and reported crime were positively and parental agreement that their neighborhood has good sporting facilities was negatively associated with TV viewing in cross-sectional analyses. There were no longitudinal associations among children. In adolescents, number of sports options and parental agreement that there is so much traffic that it is difficult/unpleasant for their child to walk were negatively associated with TV viewing 2 years later. Crime and a lack of quality sporting facilities or options may contribute to greater TV viewing among youth. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Temperature Characteristics of Porous Portland Cement Concrete during the Hot Summer Session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pavement heats the near-surface air and affects the thermal comfort of the human body in hot summer. Because of a large amount of connected porosity of porous Portland cement concrete (PPCC, the thermal parameters of PPCC are much different from those of traditional Portland cement concrete (PCC. The temperature change characteristics of PPCC and the effects on surrounding environment are also different. A continuous 48-hour log of temperature of a PCC and five kinds of PPCC with different porosity were recorded in the open air in the hot summer. The air temperatures at different heights above concrete specimens were tested using self-made enclosed boxes to analyze the characteristics of near-surface air temperature. The output heat flux of different concrete specimens was calculated. The results show that the PPCC has higher temperature in the daytime and lower temperature in the nighttime and larger temperature gradient than the PCC. The air temperature above PPCC is lower than that of PCC after solar radiation going to zero at night. The total output heat flux of PPCC is slightly smaller in the daytime and significantly smaller at night than that of PCC. The results of tests and calculations indicate that PPCC contributes to the mitigation of heating effect of pavement on the near-surface air.

  11. Evaluation of the strength and radiopacity of Portland cement with varying additions of bismuth oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, E; Abbassi-Ghadi, S; Vowles, R; Camilleri, J; Hooper, S; Camilleri, J

    2009-04-01

    To study the effect of addition of various proportions of bismuth oxide on compressive strength and radiopacity of Portland cement. The compressive strength of white Portland cement and cement replaced with 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% bismuth oxide was evaluated by testing cylinders 6 mm in diameter and 12 mm high. Twelve cylinders were tested for each material under study. The radiopacity of the cements tested was evaluated using an aluminium step-wedge and densitometer. The optical density was compared with the relevant thickness of aluminium (Al). Statistical analysis was performed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with P = 0.05 and Tukey test to perform multiple comparison tests. Various additions of bismuth oxide had no significant effect on the strength of the material when compared with the unmodified Portland cement (P > 0.05). The radiopacity of the cements tested ranged from 2.02 mm Al for Portland cement to 9.79 mm Al for the highest bismuth replacement. Addition of bismuth oxide did not affect the compressive strength of Portland cement. All the bismuth oxide cement mixtures had radio-opacities higher than 3 mm thickness of aluminium.

  12. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - Ecosystem Services by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset presents environmental benefits of the urban forest in 146 block groups in Portland, Maine. Carbon attributes, temperature reduction,...

  13. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Ecosystem Services by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset presents environmental benefits of the urban forest in 1176 block groups in Portland, Oregon. Carbon attributes, temperature reduction,...

  14. Neighborhood Perceptions and Cumulative Impacts of Low Level Chronic Exposure to Fine Particular Matter (PM2.5 on Cardiopulmonary Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. C. Malecki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse perceptions of neighborhood safety, aesthetics and quality including access to resources can induce stress and may make individuals more sensitive to cardiopulmonary effects of air pollution exposure. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions as important and modifiable non-chemical stressors of the built environment that may exacerbate effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary health outcomes, particularly among general population based cohorts. This study examined associations between low-level chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and cardiopulmonary health, and the potential mediating or modifying effects of adverse neighborhood perceptions. Using data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW, 2230 non-asthmatic adults age 21–74 were included in the analyses. The overall goals of this study were to assess if individuals who experience stress from neighborhood environments in which they live were more sensitive to low levels of fine particular matter (PM2.5 μg/m3. Demographic predictors of air pollution exposure included younger age, non-White race, lower education and middle class income. After adjustments, objective lung function measures (FEV1 and FEV1 to FVC ratio were the only cardiopulmonary health indicators significantly associated with chronic three-year annual averages of PM2.5. Among all non-asthmatics, a ten unit increase in estimated three year annual average PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with lower forced expiratory volume (L in one second FEV1 (β = −0.40 μg/L; 95% CI −0.45, −0.06. Among all individuals, adverse perceptions of the neighborhood built environment did not appear to statistically moderate or mediate associations. However, stratified analysis did reveal significant associations between PM2.5 and lung function (FEV1 only among individuals with negative perceptions and increased reports of neighborhood stressors. These findings included individuals who

  15. Neighborhood Perceptions and Cumulative Impacts of Low Level Chronic Exposure to Fine Particular Matter (PM2.5) on Cardiopulmonary Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Kristen M C; Schultz, Amy A; Bergmans, Rachel S

    2018-01-06

    Adverse perceptions of neighborhood safety, aesthetics and quality including access to resources can induce stress and may make individuals more sensitive to cardiopulmonary effects of air pollution exposure. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions as important and modifiable non-chemical stressors of the built environment that may exacerbate effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary health outcomes, particularly among general population based cohorts. This study examined associations between low-level chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and cardiopulmonary health, and the potential mediating or modifying effects of adverse neighborhood perceptions. Using data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), 2230 non-asthmatic adults age 21-74 were included in the analyses. The overall goals of this study were to assess if individuals who experience stress from neighborhood environments in which they live were more sensitive to low levels of fine particular matter (PM 2.5 μg/m³). Demographic predictors of air pollution exposure included younger age, non-White race, lower education and middle class income. After adjustments, objective lung function measures (FEV1 and FEV1 to FVC ratio) were the only cardiopulmonary health indicators significantly associated with chronic three-year annual averages of PM 2.5 . Among all non-asthmatics, a ten unit increase in estimated three year annual average PM 2.5 exposure was significantly associated with lower forced expiratory volume (L) in one second FEV1 (β = -0.40 μg/L; 95% CI -0.45, -0.06). Among all individuals, adverse perceptions of the neighborhood built environment did not appear to statistically moderate or mediate associations. However, stratified analysis did reveal significant associations between PM 2.5 and lung function (FEV1) only among individuals with negative perceptions and increased reports of neighborhood stressors. These findings included individuals who felt their

  16. Neighborhood Concentrated Disadvantage and Dating Violence among Urban Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Neighborhood Social Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Rachel C; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Gregory, Joshua; E Schoeny, Michael

    2018-03-14

    The link between relationship violence and aspects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage (e.g., percent of unemployed adults, percent of families below poverty level), has been established. However, the literature examining neighborhood social processes, including informal social control and social cohesion, in relation to adolescent dating violence has shown mixed results with a limited theoretical foundation and methodology. Using a social disorganization theoretical framework, this study examined the mediating role of these neighborhood social processes in the relation between concentrated disadvantage and adolescent dating violence within an urban context. Participants included 605 adult residents in 30 census tracts and 203 adolescents from neighborhoods on the West and South sides of Chicago. Neighborhood-level concentrated disadvantage was measured via Census data, adult residents reported on neighborhood social processes, and youth reported on dating violence. Informal social control was negatively associated with dating violence, and social cohesion was positively associated with dating violence. A multilevel mediation model showed that concentrated disadvantage was related to higher levels of dating violence via lower levels of informal social control. These results extend social disorganization theory to dating violence within an urban context, while also highlighting the important role of neighborhood processes on relationship violence. Implications for research and intervention programming are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  17. Silica fume effect on retention characteristics of portland cement for uranium (VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Hongbin; Ma Xiaoling; Li Yuxiang

    2005-01-01

    With simulated groundwater as leachant, the retention capabilities of the portland cement, which contains different amount of silica fume, are investigated under 25 degree C and 42 days. The results indicate that silica fume can improve the retention capabilities of portland cement for uranium. When the cement contains 15% silica fume, the diffusion coefficient is 7 x 10 -3 cm 3 · -1 . It is only 5.5% of the cement without containing fume. (authors)

  18. Neighborhood street scale elements, sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in inactive ethnic minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; Mama, Scherezade K; Adamus-Leach, Heather J

    2012-01-01

    Cardiometabolic risk factors such as obesity, excess percent body fat, high blood pressure, elevated resting heart rate and sedentary behavior have increased in recent decades due to changes in the environment and lifestyle. Neighborhood micro-environmental, street scale elements may contribute to health above and beyond individual characteristics of residents. To investigate the relationship between neighborhood street scale elements and cardiometabolic risk factors among inactive ethnic minority women. Women (N = 410) completed measures of BMI, percent body fat, blood pressure, resting heart rate, sedentary behavior and demographics. Trained field assessors completed the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan in participants' neighborhoods. Data were collected from 2006-2008. Multiple regression models were conducted in 2011 to estimate the effect of environmental factors on cardiometabolic risk factors. Adjusted regression models found an inverse association between sidewalk buffers and blood pressure, between traffic control devices and resting heart rate, and a positive association between presence of pedestrian crossing aids and BMI (psattractiveness and safety for walking and cycling were related to more time spent in a motor vehicle (psrelationships among micro-environmental, street scale elements that may confer important cardiometabolic benefits and risks for residents. Living in the most attractive and safe neighborhoods for physical activity may be associated with longer times spent sitting in the car.

  19. Neighborhood built environment and socioeconomic status in relation to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and weight status of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallis, James F; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli L; Carlson, Jordan A; Frank, Lawrence D; Kerr, Jacqueline; Glanz, Karen; Chapman, James E; Saelens, Brian E

    2018-05-01

    The study examined the association of neighborhood walkability to multiple activity-related outcomes and BMI among adolescents and evaluated socioeconomic status as an effect modifier. Cross-sectional study, with adolescents recruited from neighborhoods that met criteria for a 2 × 2 matrix defined by high/low GIS-defined walkability and high/low median income. Adolescents aged 12-16 years (n = 928) were recruited from selected neighborhoods in Maryland and King County, Washington regions in 2009-2011. There were 50.4% girls, and 66.3% were non-Hispanic white, with no medical restrictions on physical activity (PA) or diets. Total PA and sedentary time was assessed by 7 days of accelerometer monitoring. Adolescents self-reported active transport, time spent on 6 sedentary behaviors, and height and weight, used to compute BMI percentiles. Mixed model linear and logistic regressions examined outcomes for association with walkability and income, adjusting for demographic covariates and clustering within block groups. Walkability was positively and significantly related to objectively-measured PA (p < .001) and more frequent walking for transportation (p < .001). Total self-reported sedentary time (p = .048) and TV time (p < .007) were negatively related to walkability. Time in vehicles was negatively related to walkability only among higher-income adolescents. Neighborhood walkability was strongly and consistently associated with adolescents' objectively-assessed total physical activity and reported active transportation. A novel finding was that adolescents living in walkable neighborhoods reported less television time and less time in vehicles. Most results were similar across income categories. Results strengthen the rationale for recommendations to improve walkability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comprehensive Neighborhood Portraits and Child Asthma Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjac, Ashley W; Kimbro, Rachel T; Denney, Justin T; Osiecki, Kristin M; Moffett, Brady S; Lopez, Keila N

    2017-07-01

    Objectives Previous research has established links between child, family, and neighborhood disadvantages and child asthma. We add to this literature by first characterizing neighborhoods in Houston, TX by demographic, economic, and air quality characteristics to establish differences in pediatric asthma diagnoses across neighborhoods. Second, we identify the relative risk of social, economic, and environmental risk factors for child asthma diagnoses. Methods We geocoded and linked electronic pediatric medical records to neighborhood-level social and economic indicators. Using latent profile modeling techniques, we identified Advantaged, Middle-class, and Disadvantaged neighborhoods. We then used a modified version of the Blinder-Oaxaca regression decomposition method to examine differences in asthma diagnoses across children in these different neighborhoods. Results Both compositional (the characteristics of the children and the ambient air quality in the neighborhood) and associational (the relationship between child and air quality characteristics and asthma) differences within the distinctive neighborhood contexts influence asthma outcomes. For example, unequal exposure to PM 2.5 and O 3 among children in Disadvantaged and Middle-class neighborhoods contribute to asthma diagnosis disparities within these contexts. For children in Disadvantaged and Advantaged neighborhoods, associational differences between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and asthma diagnoses explain a significant proportion of the gap. Conclusions for Practice Our results provide evidence that differential exposure to pollution and protective factors associated with non-Hispanic White children and children from affluent families contribute to asthma disparities between neighborhoods. Future researchers should consider social and racial inequalities as more proximate drivers, not merely as associated, with asthma disparities in children.

  1. Combining Ordinary Kriging with wind directions to identify sources of industrial odors in Portland, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, Ted C; Wright, Samantha G; Simpson, Logan K; Walker, Joe L; Kolmes, Steven A; Houck, James E; Velasquez, Sandra C

    2018-01-01

    This study combines Ordinary Kriging, odor monitoring, and wind direction data to demonstrate how these elements can be applied to identify the source of an industrial odor. The specific case study used as an example of how to address this issue was the University Park neighborhood of Portland, Oregon (USA) where residents frequently complain about industrial odors, and suspect the main source to be a nearby Daimler Trucks North America LLC manufacturing plant. We collected 19,665 odor observations plus 105,120 wind measurements, using an automated weather station to measure winds in the area at five-minute intervals, logging continuously from December 2014 through November 2015, while we also measured odors at 19 locations, three times per day, using methods from the American Society of the International Association for Testing and Materials. Our results quantify how winds vary with season and time of day when industrial odors were observed versus when they were not observed, while also mapping spatiotemporal patterns in these odors using Ordinary Kriging. Our analyses show that industrial odors were detected most frequently to the northwest of the Daimler plant, mostly when winds blew from the southeast, suggesting Daimler's facility is a likely source for much of this odor.

  2. Schools, Neighborhood Risk Factors, and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Dale; Broidy, Lisa; Denman, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has identified a link between schools (particularly high schools) and neighborhood crime rates. However, it remains unclear whether the relationship between schools and crime is a reflection of other criminogenic dynamics at the neighborhood level or whether schools influence neighborhood crime patterns independently of other…

  3. Sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement for furcal perforation repair: a protein leakage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Shahriar; Rahimi, Saeed; Hasan, Maryam; Shiezadeh, Vahab; Abdolrahimi, Majid

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of gray mineral trioxide aggregate (GMTA), white MTA (WMTA), and both white and gray Portland cement as furcation perforation repair materials. A total of 120 human mandibular first molars were used. After root canal obturation and preparation of furcal perforations the specimens were randomly divided into four groups of 25 teeth each. In groups A, B, C, and D furcation perforations were filled with WMTA, GMTA, white Portland cement, and type II Portland cement, respectively. Ten teeth were used as positive controls with no filling materials in the perforations and 10 teeth with complete coverage with two layers of nail varnish were used as negative controls. A protein leakage model utilizing 22% bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used for evaluation. Leakage was noted when color conversion of the protein reagent was observed. The controls behaved as expected. Leakage was found in the samples from group A (WMTA), group B (GMTA), and in the two other groups (white and gray Portland cement). There were no statistically significant differences between GMTA and WMTA or white and gray Portland cement, but significant differences were observed between the MTA groups and the Portland cement groups. It was concluded that Portland cements have better sealing ability than MTA, and can be recommended for repair of furcation perforation if the present results are supported by other in vivo and in vitro studies.

  4. Mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement promote biomineralization in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Luonothar Antunes Schmitt; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu; Reyes-Carmona, Jessie Fabiola; Felippe, Gabriela Santos; Bortoluzzi, Eduardo Antunes; Felippe, Mara Cristina Santos

    2012-03-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement have been shown to be bioactive because of their ability to produce biologically compatible carbonated apatite. This study analyzed the interaction of MTA and white Portland cement with dentin in vivo. Seventy-two human dentin tubes were filled with MTA Branco, MTA BIO, and white Portland cement + 20% bismuth oxide (PC1) or PC1 + 10% of calcium chloride (PC2) and implanted subcutaneously in 18 rats at 4 sites from the dorsal area. Empty dentin tubes, implanted in rats of a pilot study, were used as control. After 30, 60, and 90 days, the animals were killed, and the dentin tubes were retrieved for scanning electron microscope analysis. In the periods of 30 and 60 days, the mineral deposition in the material-dentin interface (interfacial layer) and in the interior of dentinal tubules was detected in more tubes filled with MTA Branco and MTA BIO than in tubes filled with PC1 and PC2. After 90 days, the interfacial layer and intratubular mineralization were detected in all tubes except for 3 and 1 of the tubes filled with PC2, respectively. It was concluded that all the cements tested were bioactive. The cements released some of their components in the tissue capable of stimulating mineral deposition in the cement-dentin interface and in the interior of the dentinal tubules. MTA BIO and MTA Branco were more effective in promoting the biomineralization process than Portland cements, mainly after 30 and 60 days. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neighborhood Factors and Fall-Related Injuries among Older Adults Seen by Emergency Medical Service Providers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sungmin; Lee, Chanam; Rodiek, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Falls are serious health problems among older adults, and are the leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries treated by emergency medical services (EMS). Although considerable research has examined the risk factors of falls at the individual level, relatively few studies have addressed the risk factors at the neighborhood level. This study examines the characteristics of neighborhood environments associated with fall injuries reported to EMS providers. A total of 13,163 EMS records from 201...

  6. The Influence of Local Food Environments on Adolescents’ Food Purchasing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Tucker, Patricia; Gilliland, Jason; Irwin, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Kristian; Hess, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810) at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess students’ home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students’ food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students’ food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km) to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05). In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth’s home and school. PMID:22690205

  7. Internet Bad Neighborhoods Aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, Giovane; Sadre, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko; Paschoal Gaspary, L.; De Turk, Filip

    Internet Bad Neighborhoods have proven to be an innovative approach for fighting spam. They have also helped to understand how spammers are distributed on the Internet. In our previous works, the size of each bad neighborhood was fixed to a /24 subnetwork. In this paper, however, we investigate if

  8. Negative life events vary by neighborhood and mediate the relation between neighborhood context and psychological well-being.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine King

    Full Text Available Researchers have speculated that negative life events are more common in troubled neighborhoods, amplifying adverse effects on health. Using a clustered representative sample of Chicago residents (2001-03; n = 3,105 from the Chicago Community Adult Health Survey, we provide the first documentation that negative life events are highly geographically clustered compared to health outcomes. Associations between neighborhood context and negative life events were also found to vary by event type. We then demonstrate the power of a contextualized approach by testing path models in which life events mediate the relation between neighborhood characteristics and health outcomes, including self-rated health, anxiety, and depression. The indirect paths between neighborhood conditions and health through negative life event exposure are highly significant and large compared to the direct paths from neighborhood conditions to health. Our results indicate that neighborhood conditions can have acute as well as chronic effects on health, and that negative life events are a powerful mechanism by which context may influence health.

  9. Negative life events vary by neighborhood and mediate the relation between neighborhood context and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Katherine; Ogle, Christin

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have speculated that negative life events are more common in troubled neighborhoods, amplifying adverse effects on health. Using a clustered representative sample of Chicago residents (2001-03; n = 3,105) from the Chicago Community Adult Health Survey, we provide the first documentation that negative life events are highly geographically clustered compared to health outcomes. Associations between neighborhood context and negative life events were also found to vary by event type. We then demonstrate the power of a contextualized approach by testing path models in which life events mediate the relation between neighborhood characteristics and health outcomes, including self-rated health, anxiety, and depression. The indirect paths between neighborhood conditions and health through negative life event exposure are highly significant and large compared to the direct paths from neighborhood conditions to health. Our results indicate that neighborhood conditions can have acute as well as chronic effects on health, and that negative life events are a powerful mechanism by which context may influence health.

  10. Alkali binding in hydrated Portland cement paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wei; Brouwers, Jos

    2010-01-01

    The alkali-binding capacity of C–S–H in hydrated Portland cement pastes is addressed in this study. The amount of bound alkalis in C–S–H is computed based on the alkali partition theories firstly proposed by Taylor (1987) and later further developed by Brouwers and Van Eijk (2003). Experimental data

  11. Hydration of Blended Portland Cements Containing Calcium-Aluminosilicate Glass Powder and Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, M; Poulsen, Søren Lundsted; Herfort, D

    2012-01-01

    M. MOESGAARD, S.L. POULSEN, D. HERFORT, M. STEENBERG, L.F. KIRKEGAARD, J. SKIBSTED, Y. YUE, Hydration of Blended Portland Cements Containing Calcium-Aluminosilicate Glass Powder and Limestone, Journal of the American Ceramic Society 95, 403 – 409 (2012).......M. MOESGAARD, S.L. POULSEN, D. HERFORT, M. STEENBERG, L.F. KIRKEGAARD, J. SKIBSTED, Y. YUE, Hydration of Blended Portland Cements Containing Calcium-Aluminosilicate Glass Powder and Limestone, Journal of the American Ceramic Society 95, 403 – 409 (2012)....

  12. Sulfatos en el cemento portland y su incidencia sobre el falso fraguado: Estado actual del conocimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Cruz, Ignacio

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available A bibliographical study is carried out of the sulphates which may be present in the clinker and Portland cement, as likewise the effects of the aeration and temperature on the setting. This work is a prior phase of a wide experimental investigation carried out in the IETCC, on anomalies or setting and phenomena of "lumping" in Portland cement.

    Se realiza un estudio bibliográfico de los sulfatos que pueden estar presentes en el clínker y cemento portland, así como de los efectos de la aireación y temperatura sobre el fraguado. Este trabajo es la fase previa de una amplia investigación experimental realizada en el IETCC, sobre anomalías de fraguado y fenómenos de "aterronamiento" en el cemento portland.

  13. Impact of individual and neighborhood factors on disparities in prostate cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, Mindy C; Schupp, Clayton W; Koo, Jocelyn; Yang, Juan; Hertz, Andrew; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Cockburn, Myles; Nelson, David O; Ingles, Sue A; John, Esther M; Gomez, Scarlett L

    2018-04-01

    We addressed the hypothesis that individual-level factors act jointly with social and built environment factors to influence overall survival for men with prostate cancer and contribute to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic (SES) survival disparities. We analyzed multi-level data, combining (1) individual-level data from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study, a population-based study of non-Hispanic White (NHW), Hispanic, and African American prostate cancer cases (N = 1800) diagnosed from 1997 to 2003, with (2) data on neighborhood SES (nSES) and social and built environment factors from the California Neighborhoods Data System, and (3) data on tumor characteristics, treatment and follow-up through 2009 from the California Cancer Registry. Multivariable, stage-stratified Cox proportional hazards regression models with cluster adjustments were used to assess education and nSES main and joint effects on overall survival, before and after adjustment for social and built environment factors. African American men had worse survival than NHW men, which was attenuated by nSES. Increased risk of death was associated with residence in lower SES neighborhoods (quintile 1 (lowest nSES) vs. 5: HR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.11-2.19) and lower education (environment characteristics only slightly attenuated these associations between SES and survival. Both individual- and contextual-level SES influence overall survival of men with prostate cancer. Additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms underlying these robust associations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Physicochemical Properties of MTA and Portland Cement after Addition of Aloe Vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique Borges, Alvaro; Aguirre Guedes, Orlando; Evaristo Ricci Volpato, Luiz; Siebert Filho, Gilberto; Meireles Borba, Alexandre; Zina, Omar; Piva, Evandro; Estrela, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the liquid-powder ratio, setting time, solubility, dimensional change, pH, and radiopacity of white structural and non-structural Portland cement, ProRoot MTA and MTA Bio, associated with a 2% glycolic solution containing Aloe Vera, as vehicle. Five samples of each material were used for each test, according to the American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA) specification No. 57. Statistical analyses were performed using ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance. When sample distribution was not normal, non-parametric analysis of variance and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used ( α =0.05). No statistical differences were found in liquid-powder ratios among the tested materials. ProRoot MTA showed the longest setting time. Dimensional change values were acceptable in all groups. Also, no significant differences were found in pH values and pH was alkaline in all samples throughout the experiment. Mean radiopacity results obtained for white Portland cements did not meet ANSI/ADA requirements, and were significantly lower than those obtained for MTA-based cements. Finally, Portland cements showed significantly higher mean solubility values compared to the other samples. The physicochemical properties of the tested materials in association with Aloe Vera were compatible with ANSI/ADA requirements, except for the white Portland cements, which failed to meet the radiopacity specification.

  15. Neighborhoods, US, 2017, Zillow, SEGS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service depicts nearly 17,000 neighborhood boundaries in over 650 U.S. cities. Zillow created the neighborhood boundaries and is sharing them with the...

  16. Perceived Neighborhood Environmental Attributes Associated with Walking and Cycling for Transport among Adult Residents of 17 Cities in 12 Countries: The IPEN Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Emond, Jennifer A.; Badland, Hannah; Reis, Rodrigo; Sarmiento, Olga; Carlson, Jordan; Sallis, James F.; Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli; Conway, Terry; Schofield, Grant; Macfarlane, Duncan J.; Christiansen, Lars B.; Van Dyck, Delfien; Davey, Rachel; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines; Salvo, Deborah; Sugiyama, Takemi; Owen, Neville; Mitáš, Josef; Natarajan, Loki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prevalence of walking and cycling for transport is low and varies greatly across countries. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions related to walking and cycling for transport in different countries. Therefore, it is challenging to prioritize appropriate built-environment interventions. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the strength and shape of the relationship between adults’ neighborhood perceptions and walking and cycling for transport across diverse environments. Methods As part of the International Physical activity and Environment Network (IPEN) adult project, self-reported data were taken from 13,745 adults (18–65 years) living in physically and socially diverse neighborhoods in 17 cities across 12 countries. Neighborhood perceptions were measured using the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale, and walking and cycling for transport were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Long Form. Generalized additive mixed models were used to model walking or cycling for transport during the last seven days with neighborhood perceptions. Interactions by city were explored. Results Walking-for-transport outcomes were significantly associated with perceived residential density, land use mix–access, street connectivity, aesthetics, and safety. Any cycling for transport was significantly related to perceived land use mix–access, street connectivity, infrastructure, aesthetics, safety, and perceived distance to destinations. Between-city differences existed for some attributes in relation to walking or cycling for transport. Conclusions Many perceived environmental attributes supported both cycling and walking; however, highly walkable environments may not support cycling for transport. People appear to walk for transport despite safety concerns. These findings can guide the implementation of global health strategies. Citation Kerr J, Emond JA, Badland H, Reis R, Sarmiento O, Carlson J, Sallis

  17. Redefining neighborhoods using common destinations: social characteristics of activity spaces and home census tracts compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Malia; Pebley, Anne R

    2014-06-01

    Research on neighborhood effects has focused largely on residential neighborhoods, but people are exposed to many other places in the course of their daily lives-at school, at work, when shopping, and so on. Thus, studies of residential neighborhoods consider only a subset of the social-spatial environment affecting individuals. In this article, we examine the characteristics of adults' "activity spaces"-spaces defined by locations that individuals visit regularly-in Los Angeles County, California. Using geographic information system (GIS) methods, we define activity spaces in two ways and estimate their socioeconomic characteristics. Our research has two goals. First, we determine whether residential neighborhoods represent the social conditions to which adults are exposed in the course of their regular activities. Second, we evaluate whether particular groups are exposed to a broader or narrower range of social contexts in the course of their daily activities. We find that activity spaces are substantially more heterogeneous in terms of key social characteristics, compared to residential neighborhoods. However, the characteristics of both home neighborhoods and activity spaces are closely associated with individual characteristics. Our results suggest that most people experience substantial segregation across the range of spaces in their daily lives, not just at home.

  18. Hydration characteristics of zirconium oxide replaced Portland cement for use as a root-end filling material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, J; Cutajar, A; Mallia, B

    2011-08-01

    Zirconium oxide can be added to dental materials rendering them sufficiently radiopaque. It can thus be used to replace the bismuth oxide in mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Replacement of Portland cement with 30% zirconium oxide mixed at a water/cement ratio of 0.3 resulted in a material with adequate physical properties. This study aimed at investigating the microstructure, pH and leaching in physiological solution of Portland cement replaced zirconium oxide at either water-powder or water-cement ratios of 0.3 for use as a root-end filling material. The hydration characteristics of the materials which exhibited optimal behavior were evaluated. Portland cement replaced by zirconium oxide in varying amounts ranging from 0 to 50% in increments of 10 was prepared and divided into two sets. One set was prepared at a constant water/cement ratio while the other set at a constant water/powder ratio of 0.3. Portland cement and MTA were used as controls. The materials were analyzed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the hydration products were determined. X-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDX) was used to analyze the elemental composition of the hydration products. The pH and the amount of leachate in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) were evaluated. A material that had optimal properties that satisfied set criteria and could replace MTA was selected. The microstructure of the prototype material and Portland cement used as a control was assessed after 30 days using SEM and atomic ratio diagrams of Al/Ca versus Si/Ca and S/Ca versus Al/Ca were plotted. The hydration products of Portland cement replaced with 30% zirconium oxide mixed at water/cement ratio of 0.3 were calcium silicate hydrate, calcium hydroxide and minimal amounts of ettringite and monosulphate. The calcium hydroxide leached in HBSS solution resulted in an increase in the pH value. The zirconium oxide acted as inert filler and exhibited no reaction with the hydration by-products of Portland

  19. Measuring walking within and outside the neighborhood in Chinese elders: reliability and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerin Ester

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking is a preferred, prevalent and recommended activity for aging populations and is influenced by the neighborhood built environment. To study this influence it is necessary to differentiate whether walking occurs within or outside of the neighborhood. The Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ collects information on setting-specific physical activity, including walking, inside and outside one's neighborhood. While the NPAQ has shown to be a reliable measure in adults, its reliability in older adults is unknown. Additionally its validity and the influence of type of neighborhood on reliability and validity have yet to be explored. Methods The NPAQ walking component was adapted for Chinese speaking elders (NWQ-CS. Ninety-six Chinese elders, stratified by social economic status and neighborhood walkability, wore an accelerometer and completed a log of walks for 7 days. Following the collection of valid data the NWQ-CS was interviewer-administered. Fourteen to 20 days (average of 17 days later the NWQ-CS was re-administered. Test-retest reliability and validity of the NWQ-CS were assessed. Results Reliability and validity estimates did not differ with type of neighborhood. NWQ-CS measures of walking showed moderate to excellent reliability. Reliability was generally higher for estimates of weekly frequency than minutes of walking. Total weekly minutes of walking were moderately related to all accelerometry measures. Moderate-to-strong associations were found between the NWQ-CS and log-of-walks variables. The NWQ-CS yielded statistically significantly lower mean values of total walking, weekly minutes of walking for transportation and weekly frequency of walking for transportation outside the neighborhood than the log-of-walks. Conclusions The NWQ-CS showed measurement invariance across types of neighborhoods. It is a valid measure of walking for recreation and frequency of walking for transport. However, it may

  20. Using Social Media to Identify Sources of Healthy Food in Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lopez, Iris N; Clarke, Philippa; Hill, Alex B; Romero, Daniel M; Goodspeed, Robert; Berrocal, Veronica J; Vinod Vydiswaran, V G; Veinot, Tiffany C

    2017-06-01

    An established body of research has used secondary data sources (such as proprietary business databases) to demonstrate the importance of the neighborhood food environment for multiple health outcomes. However, documenting food availability using secondary sources in low-income urban neighborhoods can be particularly challenging since small businesses play a crucial role in food availability. These small businesses are typically underrepresented in national databases, which rely on secondary sources to develop data for marketing purposes. Using social media and other crowdsourced data to account for these smaller businesses holds promise, but the quality of these data remains unknown. This paper compares the quality of full-line grocery store information from Yelp, a crowdsourced content service, to a "ground truth" data set (Detroit Food Map) and a commercially-available dataset (Reference USA) for the greater Detroit area. Results suggest that Yelp is more accurate than Reference USA in identifying healthy food stores in urban areas. Researchers investigating the relationship between the nutrition environment and health may consider Yelp as a reliable and valid source for identifying sources of healthy food in urban environments.

  1. Stress experiences in neighborhood and social environments (SENSE): a pilot study to integrate the quantified self with citizen science to improve the built environment and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisinger, Benjamin W; King, Abby C

    2018-06-05

    models. Interactive data maps allowed participants to (1) reflect on data collected during the neighborhood walk, (2) see how EDA levels changed over the course of the walk in relation to objective neighborhood features (using basemap and DT app photos), and (3) compare their data to other participants along the same route. Participants identified a variety of social and environmental features that contributed to or detracted from their well-being. This initial investigation sets the stage for further research combining qualitative and quantitative data capture and interpretation to identify objective and perceived elements of the built environment influence our embodied experience in different settings. It provides a systematic process for simultaneously collecting multiple kinds of data, and lays a foundation for future statistical and spatial analyses in addition to more in-depth interpretation of how these responses vary within and between individuals.

  2. Presence of arsenic in different types of MTA and white and gray Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro Bramante, Clóvis; Demarchi, Ana Claudia Cardoso Oliveira; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Bernadineli, Norberti; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Spångberg, Lars S W; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2008-12-01

    The presence of arsenic in various types of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cements were evaluated to verify if they comply with the ISO-recommended limit for water-based cements of 2 mg arsenic/kg material. An amount of 5 mL of hydrochloric acid was added to 2 g each of MTA and Portland cement to be analyzed. After 15 minutes, the material was filtered and the volume of supernatant was diluted with reagent-grade water up to 40 mL. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry readings were performed in triplicate. The following mean values were obtained: CPM (Egeo, Buenos Aires, Argentina) 11.06 mg/kg; CPM sealer (Egeo) 10.30 mg/kg; MTA-Obtura (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil) 0.39 mg/kg; Experimental MTA: 10.30 mg/kg; White MTA-Angelus (Angelus) 1.03 mg/kg; Gray MTA-Angelus (Angelus) 5.91 mg/kg; ProRoot-MTA (Dentsply/Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) 5.25 mg/kg; Gray Portland cement (Votorantim Cimentos, Cubatão, SP, Brazil): 34.27 mg/kg; and White Portland cement (Cimento Rio Branco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil) 0.52 mg/kg. All tested materials presented arsenic in their composition. The form of arsenic was not analyzed nor the toxicity of the arsenic found. Only MTA-Obtura, White MTA-Angelus, and White Portland cement presented arsenic levels below the limit set in the ISO 9917-1 standard.

  3. Conduct Disorder and Neighborhood Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G; Perez, Nicholas M; Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M

    2018-05-07

    There has been a considerable amount of scholarly attention to the relationship between neighborhood effects and conduct disorder, particularly in recent years. Having said this, it has been nearly two decades since a comprehensive synthesis of this literature has been conducted. Relying on a detailed and comprehensive search strategy and inclusion criteria, this article offers a systematic and interdisciplinary review of 47 empirical studies that have examined neighborhood effects and conduct disorder. Described results suggest that there are generally robust linkages between adverse neighborhood factors and conduct disorder and externalizing behavior problems, as 67 of the 93 (72.04%) effect sizes derived from these studies yielded statistically significant neighborhood effects. The review also identifies salient mediating and moderating influences. It discusses study limitations and directions for future research as well.

  4. Effect of three natural pozzolans in portland cement hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahhal, V.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural pozzolans have been used since ancient times and continues to be used today. The chemistry and morphological composition of natural pozzolans and their particle size distribution allows classifying them as more or less reactive pozzolan. In this research several techniques have been used to study the influence of pozzolan on portland cement hydration as much as to evaluate the mechanical and durable properties of concretes, mortars and pastes containing pozzolans. This paper describes the effect of incorporating three natural pozzolans to two cements with very different mineralogical composition. The techniques used were: conduction calorimetry and Fratini test. Results proved that pozzolanic activity and the acceleration and retardation of hydration reaction depend on the mineralogical composition of the portland cernent used. Effects of dilution, stimulation, acceleration or retardation reactions, behavior into areas of heat dissipation and pozzolanic activity depend on the percentage of pozzolan used and the age in which it has been analyzed.

    El uso de las puzolanas naturales se remonta a la antigüedad, no obstante, actualmente continúa su utilización. La composición química y morfológica de las puzolanas naturales, sumado al tamaño de sus partículas, las califican como más o menos reactivas. En el estudio de las mismas, se han aplicado variadas técnicas para el análisis de sus interferencias en las reacciones de hidratación de los cementos portland; así como para la evaluación de las propiedades resistentes y duraderas que pueden conferirle a los hormigones, morteros o pastas de los que formen parte. Este trabajo versará sobre los efectos que produce la incorporación de tres puzolanas naturales a dos cementos portland de muy diferente composición mineralógica. Las técnicas aplicadas para su estudio han sido: la calorimetría de conducción y el ensayo de Fratini. Los resultados obtenidos permiten determinar

  5. Research on the nanolevel influence of surfactants on structure formation of the hydrated Portland cement compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guryanov Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research of the structure formation process on a nanolevel of the samples of hydrated Portland cement compositions containing the modifying additives has been conducted with the help of small angle neutron scattering method. Carbonate and aluminum alkaline slimes as well as the complex additives containing surfactants were used as additives. The influence of slimes and surfactants on structural parameters change of Portland cement compositions of the average size of the disseminating objects, fractal dimension samples is considered. These Portland cement compositions are shown to be fractal clusters.

  6. Determinants of activity-friendly neighborhoods for children: Results from the SPACE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, S.I. de; Bakker, I.; Mechelen, W. van; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the association between children's physical activity and factors of the built environment. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Ten neighborhoods in six cities in the Netherlands. Subjects. Four hundred twenty-two children (age range, 6-11 years; 49% male). Measures. Physical

  7. Neighborhood Ethnic Density as an Explanation for the Academic Achievement of Ethnic Minority Youth Placed in Neighborhood Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madyun, Na'im; Lee, Moosung

    2010-01-01

    The underachievement of ethnic minority youth from disadvantaged neighborhoods is a pervasive educational issue this nation is facing. Based on an ecological perspective, we examined the contextual effects of neighborhood ethnic density and neighborhood disadvantage on the academic achievement of Hmong immigrant youths. Utilizing hierarchical…

  8. Geometrical tile design for complex neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeizler, Eugen; Kari, Lila

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has showed that tile systems are one of the most suitable theoretical frameworks for the spatial study and modeling of self-assembly processes, such as the formation of DNA and protein oligomeric structures. A Wang tile is a unit square, with glues on its edges, attaching to other tiles and forming larger and larger structures. Although quite intuitive, the idea of glues placed on the edges of a tile is not always natural for simulating the interactions occurring in some real systems. For example, when considering protein self-assembly, the shape of a protein is the main determinant of its functions and its interactions with other proteins. Our goal is to use geometric tiles, i.e., square tiles with geometrical protrusions on their edges, for simulating tiled paths (zippers) with complex neighborhoods, by ribbons of geometric tiles with simple, local neighborhoods. This paper is a step toward solving the general case of an arbitrary neighborhood, by proposing geometric tile designs that solve the case of a "tall" von Neumann neighborhood, the case of the f-shaped neighborhood, and the case of a 3 x 5 "filled" rectangular neighborhood. The techniques can be combined and generalized to solve the problem in the case of any neighborhood, centered at the tile of reference, and included in a 3 x (2k + 1) rectangle.

  9. Sense of community and its relationship with walking and neighborhood design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa; Frank, Lawrence D; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the association between sense of community, walking, and neighborhood design characteristics. The current study is based on a sub-sample of participants (n=609) from the US Atlanta SMARTRAQ study who completed a telephone survey capturing physical activity patterns, neighborhood perceptions, and social interactions. Objective measures of neighborhood form were also computed. Univariate and multivariate models (General Linear Models (GLM)) were used to examine the association between sense of community (SofC) and aspects of the built environment, physical activity, and neighborhood perceptions. In multivariate models the impact on SofC was examined with progressive adjustment for demographics characteristics followed by walking behavior, neighborhood design features, neighborhood perceptions and time spent traveling in a car. After adjustment, SofC was positively associated with leisurely walking (days/week), home ownership, seeing neighbors when walking and the presence of interesting sites. SofC was also associated with higher commercial floor space to land area ratios (FAR) - a proxy for walkable site design that captures the degree to which retail destinations are set back from the street, the amount of surface parking, and urban design of an area. Conversely the presence of more mixed use and perceptions of steep hills were inversely associated with SofC. SofC is enhanced by living in areas that encourage leisurely walking, hence it is associated with living in neighbourhoods with lower levels of land use mix, but higher levels of commercial FAR. Our results suggest that in terms of SofC, the presence of commercial destinations may inhibit social interaction among local residents unless urban design is used to create convivial pedestrian-friendly commercial areas, e.g., providing street frontage, rather than flat surface parking. This finding has policy implications and warrants further investigation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier

  10. Pulp tissue response to Portland cement associated with different radio pacifying agents on pulpotomy of human primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, N; Lourenço Neto, N; Fernandes, A P; Rodini, C; Hungaro Duarte, M; Rios, D; Machado, M A; Oliveira, T

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the response of Portland cement associated with different radio pacifying agents on pulp treatment of human primary teeth by clinical and radiographic exams and microscopic analysis. Thirty mandibular primary molars were randomly divided into the following groups: Group I - Portland cement; Group II - Portland cement with iodoform (Portland cement + CHI3 ); Group III - Portland cement with zirconium oxide (Portland cement + ZrO2 ); and treated by pulpotomy technique (removal of a portion of the pulp aiming to maintain the vitally of the remaining radicular pulp tissue using a therapeutic dressing). Clinical and radiographic evaluations were recorded at 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. The teeth at the regular exfoliation period were extracted and processed for histological analysis. Data were tested using statistical analysis with a significance level of 5%. The microscopic findings were descriptively analysed. All treated teeth were clinically and radiographically successful at follow-up appointments. The microscopic analysis revealed positive response to pulp repair with hard tissue barrier formation and pulp calcification in the remaining roots of all available teeth. The findings of this study suggest that primary teeth pulp tissue exhibited satisfactory biological response to Portland cement associated with radio pacifying agents. However, further studies with long-term follow-up are needed to determine the safe clinical indication of this alternative material for pulp therapy of primary teeth. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  11. Partial replacement of Portland cement by red ceramic waste in mortars: study of pozzolanic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.R. da; Cabral, K.C.; Pinto, E.N. de M.G.l.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the pozzolanic activity of red ceramic residue on the partial replacement of Portland cement in mortars. The mortars were prepared by substituting 25% of the Portland cement for ground of ceramic residue with water cement’s factor of 0.48. The concrete used to construct the reference mortars and those with addiction was CPII-Z-32 (compound of Portland pozzolana cement). The chemical analysis and physical ceramic waste showed that this meets the requirements of NBR12653 (2014) for use as pozzolanic material. The pozzolanic activity index (IAP) obtained for the ceramic waste to twenty-eight days cure rate was 80.28%. (author)

  12. Neighborhood and Network Disadvantage among Urban Renters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Desmond

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on novel survey data, this study maps the distribution of neighborhood and network disadvantage in a population of Milwaukee renters and evaluates the relationship between each disadvantage and multiple social and health outcomes. We find that many families live in neighborhoods with above average disadvantage but are embedded in networks with below average disadvantage, and vice versa. Neighborhood (but not network disadvantage is associated with lower levels of neighborly trust but also with higher levels of community support (e.g., providing neighbors with food. Network (but not neighborhood disadvantage is associated with lower levels of civic engagement. Asthma and diabetes are associated exclusively with neighborhood disadvantage, but depression is associated exclusively with network disadvantage. These findings imply that some social problems may be better addressed by neighborhood interventions and others by network interventions.

  13. Functional Interpretation of Neighborhood Public Spaces in Terms of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Majedi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to evaluate the effect of neighborhood public space transformation due to rapid urbanization in Tehran since 1960s, on the formation of neighborhood identity. In order to find the role of public spaces in enhancing neighborhood identities, two middle class neighborhoods with different spatial organizations are compared with each other: Nazi Abad a planned neighborhood and Mehran a typical unplanned neighborhood which developed through rapid urbanization.   Next, the effect of neighborhood public spaces on neighborhood inhabitants is evaluated from two perspectives: Perceptual dimension and social dimension. The findings indicate that planned spatial organization and various neighborhood public spaces result in stronger neighborhood identity. It enhances both perceptual dimension of neighborhood identity(place attachment and its social dimension (sense of community. In contrast unplanned spatial organization which is the typical feature of Tehran neighborhoods leads to weak neighborhood identity.

  14. Neighborhood Effects on Birthweight: An Exploration of Psychosocial and Behavioral Pathways in Baltimore, 1995–1996

    OpenAIRE

    Schempf, Ashley; Strobino, Donna; O’Campo, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics have been proposed to influence birth outcomes through psychosocial and behavioral pathways, yet empirical evidence is lacking. Using data from an urban, low-income sample, this study examined the impact of the neighborhood environment on birthweight and evaluated mediation by psychosocial and behavioral factors. The sample included 726 women who delivered a live birth at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland USA between 1995 and 1996. Census tract data we...

  15. Availability of commonly consumed and culturally specific fruits and vegetables in African-American and Latino neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Ruggiero, Laurie; Moise, Imelda

    2010-01-01

    Although the importance of culture in shaping individual dietary behaviors is well documented, cultural food preferences have received limited attention in research on the neighborhood food environment. The purpose of this study was to assess the availability of commonly consumed and culturally specific fruits and vegetables in retail food stores located in majority African-American and Latino neighborhoods in southwest Chicago. A cross-sectional survey of 115 stores (15% grocery stores, 85% ...

  16. The impact of neighborhood walkability on walking: does it differ across adult life stage and does neighborhood buffer size matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Karen; Knuiman, Matthew; Nathan, Andrea; Giles-Corti, Billie; Christian, Hayley; Foster, Sarah; Bull, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    We explored the impact of neighborhood walkability on young adults, early-middle adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults' walking across different neighborhood buffers. Participants completed the Western Australian Health and Wellbeing Surveillance System Survey (2003-2009) and were allocated a neighborhood walkability score at 200m, 400m, 800m, and 1600m around their home. We found little difference in strength of associations across neighborhood size buffers for all life stages. We conclude that neighborhood walkability supports more walking regardless of adult life stage and is relevant for small (e.g., 200m) and larger (e.g., 1600m) neighborhood buffers. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  17. Root perforations treatment using mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Neto, José Dias da; Brito, Rafael Horácio de; Schnaider, Taylor Brandão; Gragnani, Alfredo; Engelman, Mírian; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2010-12-01

    Clinical, radiological and histological evaluation of root perforations treated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or Portland cements, and calcium sulfate barrier. One molar and 11 premolar teeth of a male mongrel dog received endodontic treatment and furcations were perforated with a high-speed round bur and treated with a calcium sulfate barrier. MTA, Portland cement type II (PCII) and type V (PCV), and white Portland cement (WPC) were used as obturation materials. The teeth were restored with composite resin and periapical radiographs were taken. The animal was euthanized 120 days post-surgery for treatment evaluation. Right lower first premolar (MTA), right lower third premolar (PCV), left lower second premolar (MTA), and right lower second premolar (WPC): clinically normal, slightly radio-transparent area on the furcation, little inflammatory infiltrate, and new-bone formation. Left lower third premolar (PCII), right upper first premolar (WPC), right upper third premolar (PCII), and left upper first molar (PCV): clinically normal, radiopaque area on the furcation, and new-bone formation. Right upper second premolar (MTA), left upper second premolar (WPC), left upper third premolar (PCII): presence of furcation lesion, large radiolucent area, and intense inflammatory infiltrate. All obturation materials used in this study induced new-bone formation.

  18. Development and evaluation of a food environment survey in three urban environments of Kunming, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the rapid pace of urbanization and Westernization and the increasing prevalence of obesity, there is a need for research to better understand the influence of the built environment on overweight and obesity in world’s developing regions. Culturally-specific food environment survey instruments are important tools for studying changing food availability and pricing. Here, we present findings from an effort to develop and evaluate food environment survey instruments for use in a rapidly developing city in southwest China. Methods We developed two survey instruments (for stores and restaurants), each designed to be completed within 10 minutes. Two pairs of researchers surveyed a pre-selected 1-km stretch of street in each of three socio-demographically different neighborhoods to assess inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was assessed by comparing the food environments of the neighborhoods to cross-sectional height and weight data obtained on 575 adolescents in the corresponding regions of the city. Results 273 food establishments (163 restaurants and 110 stores) were surveyed. Sit-down, take-out, and fast food restaurants accounted for 40%, 21% and 19% of all restaurants surveyed. Tobacco and alcohol shops, convenience stores and supermarkets accounted for 25%, 12% and 11%, respectively, of all stores surveyed. We found a high percentage of agreement between teams (>75%) for all categorical variables with moderate kappa scores (0.4-0.6), and no statistically significant differences between teams for any of the continuous variables. More developed inner city neighborhoods had a higher number of fast food restaurants and convenience stores than surrounding neighborhoods. Adolescents who lived in the more developed inner neighborhoods also had a higher percentage of overweight, indicating well-founded construct validity. Depending on the cutoff used, 19% to 36% of male and 10% to 22% of female 16-year old adolescents were found to be overweight

  19. Development and evaluation of a food environment survey in three urban environments of Kunming, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Li, Yan; Wang, May C

    2014-03-06

    Given the rapid pace of urbanization and Westernization and the increasing prevalence of obesity, there is a need for research to better understand the influence of the built environment on overweight and obesity in world's developing regions. Culturally-specific food environment survey instruments are important tools for studying changing food availability and pricing. Here, we present findings from an effort to develop and evaluate food environment survey instruments for use in a rapidly developing city in southwest China. We developed two survey instruments (for stores and restaurants), each designed to be completed within 10 minutes. Two pairs of researchers surveyed a pre-selected 1-km stretch of street in each of three socio-demographically different neighborhoods to assess inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was assessed by comparing the food environments of the neighborhoods to cross-sectional height and weight data obtained on 575 adolescents in the corresponding regions of the city. 273 food establishments (163 restaurants and 110 stores) were surveyed. Sit-down, take-out, and fast food restaurants accounted for 40%, 21% and 19% of all restaurants surveyed. Tobacco and alcohol shops, convenience stores and supermarkets accounted for 25%, 12% and 11%, respectively, of all stores surveyed. We found a high percentage of agreement between teams (>75%) for all categorical variables with moderate kappa scores (0.4-0.6), and no statistically significant differences between teams for any of the continuous variables. More developed inner city neighborhoods had a higher number of fast food restaurants and convenience stores than surrounding neighborhoods. Adolescents who lived in the more developed inner neighborhoods also had a higher percentage of overweight, indicating well-founded construct validity. Depending on the cutoff used, 19% to 36% of male and 10% to 22% of female 16-year old adolescents were found to be overweight. The prevalence of

  20. Emerging technologies to measure neighborhood conditions in public health: implications for interventions and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, M; Nelson, E J; Werner, K; Shacham, E; Elliott, M; Ratnapradipa, K; Lian, M; McVay, A

    2016-06-23

    Adverse neighborhood conditions play an important role beyond individual characteristics. There is increasing interest in identifying specific characteristics of the social and built environments adversely affecting health outcomes. Most research has assessed aspects of such exposures via self-reported instruments or census data. Potential threats in the local environment may be subject to short-term changes that can only be measured with more nimble technology. The advent of new technologies may offer new opportunities to obtain geospatial data about neighborhoods that may circumvent the limitations of traditional data sources. This overview describes the utility, validity and reliability of selected emerging technologies to measure neighborhood conditions for public health applications. It also describes next steps for future research and opportunities for interventions. The paper presents an overview of the literature on measurement of the built and social environment in public health (Google Street View, webcams, crowdsourcing, remote sensing, social media, unmanned aerial vehicles, and lifespace) and location-based interventions. Emerging technologies such as Google Street View, social media, drones, webcams, and crowdsourcing may serve as effective and inexpensive tools to measure the ever-changing environment. Georeferenced social media responses may help identify where to target intervention activities, but also to passively evaluate their effectiveness. Future studies should measure exposure across key time points during the life-course as part of the exposome paradigm and integrate various types of data sources to measure environmental contexts. By harnessing these technologies, public health research can not only monitor populations and the environment, but intervene using novel strategies to improve the public health.

  1. Alternatieven voor Portland Cement in ontwikkelingslanden onderzocht : continue-kalkoven maakt toepassing van kalk pozzolaan cement mogelijk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond - de Wilde De Ligny, van E.L.C.; Jongsma, Ivo

    1995-01-01

    In de discussie over bouwmaterialen in ontwikkelingslanden wordt vaak gepleit voor alternatieven voor Portland Cement. De productie van Portland Cement is kapitaal- en energie-intensief en draagt weinig bij aan de ontwikkeling van deze landen. De klein schaliger productie van alternatieven voor

  2. Characteristics of prepared food sources in low-income neighborhoods of Baltimore City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hee; Rowan, Megan T; Powell, Lisa M; Newman, Sara; Klassen, Ann Carroll; Frick, Kevin D; Anderson, Jennifer; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The food environment is associated with obesity risk and diet-related chronic diseases. Despite extensive research conducted on retail food stores, little is known about prepared food sources(PFSs). We conducted an observational assessment of all PFSs(N = 92) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore. The most common PFSs were carry-outs, which had the lowest availability of healthy food choices. Only a small proportion of these carry-outs offered healthy sides, whole wheat bread, or entrée salads (21.4%, 7.1%, and 33.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that carry-out-specific interventions are necessary to increase healthy food availability in low-income urban neighborhoods.

  3. The Association Between Neighborhood Environment and Mortality: Results from a National Study of Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karin; Schwartz, Greg; Hernandez, Susan; Simonetti, Joseph; Curtis, Idamay; Fihn, Stephan D

    2017-04-01

    As the largest integrated US health system, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) provides unique national data to expand knowledge about the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) and health. Although living in areas of lower NSES has been associated with higher mortality, previous studies have been limited to higher-income, less diverse populations than those who receive VHA care. To describe the association between NSES and all-cause mortality in a national sample of veterans enrolled in VHA primary care. One-year observational cohort of veterans who were alive on December 31, 2011. Data on individual veterans (vital status, and clinical and demographic characteristics) were abstracted from the VHA Corporate Data Warehouse. Census tract information was obtained from the US Census Bureau American Community Survey. Logistic regression was used to model the association between NSES deciles and all-cause mortality during 2012, adjusting for individual-level income and demographics, and accounting for spatial autocorrelation. Veterans who had vital status, demographic, and NSES data, and who were both assigned a primary care physician and alive on December 31, 2011 (n = 4,814,631). Census tracts were used as proxies for neighborhoods. A summary score based on census tract data characterized NSES. Veteran addresses were geocoded and linked to census tract NSES scores. Census tracts were divided into NSES deciles. In adjusted analysis, veterans living in the lowest-decile NSES tract were 10 % (OR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.07, 1.14) more likely to die than those living in the highest-decile NSES tract. Lower neighborhood SES is associated with all-cause mortality among veterans after adjusting for individual-level socioeconomic characteristics. NSES should be considered in risk adjustment models for veteran mortality, and may need to be incorporated into strategies aimed at improving veteran health.

  4. Exploratory characterization of volcanic ash sourced from Uganda as a pozzolanic material in portland cement concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buregyeya, A.; Quercia Bianchi, G.; Spiesz, P.R.; Florea, M.V.A.; Nassingwa, R.; Uzoegbo, H.C.; Schmidt, W.

    2013-01-01

    The need for alternative cementing materials to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) has promoted characterization research on pozzolana as an important ingredient in cement production. In Uganda, natural pozzolana application in cement production is done by only two producers of Portland cement and at a

  5. Drinking and Driving among Recent Latino Immigrants: The Impact of Neighborhoods and Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Sanchez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Latinos are disproportionately impacted by drinking and driving arrests and alcohol-related fatal crashes. Why, and how, these disparities occur remains unclear. The neighborhood environments that recent Latino immigrants encounter in their host communities can potentially influence health behaviors over time, including the propensity to engage in drinking and driving. This cross-sectional study utilizes a sample of 467 documented and undocumented adult recent Latino immigrants in the United States to answer the following research questions: (a How do neighborhood-level factors, combined with social support, impact drinking and driving risk behaviors?; and (b Does acculturative stress moderate the effects of those associations? Results indicate neighborhood-level factors (informal social control and social capital have protective effects against drinking and driving risk behaviors via the mediating mechanism of social support. Acculturative stress moderated associations between neighborhood informal social control and social support, whereby the protective effects of informal social control on social support were not present for those immigrants with higher levels of acculturative stress. Our findings contribute to the limited knowledge of drinking and driving among Latino immigrants early in the immigration process and suggest that, in the process of developing prevention programs tailored to Latino immigrants, greater attention must be paid to neighborhood-level factors.

  6. Drinking and Driving among Recent Latino Immigrants: The Impact of Neighborhoods and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Mariana; Romano, Eduardo; Dawson, Christyl; Huang, Hui; Sneij, Alicia; Cyrus, Elena; Rojas, Patria; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Brook, Judith; De La Rosa, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Latinos are disproportionately impacted by drinking and driving arrests and alcohol-related fatal crashes. Why, and how, these disparities occur remains unclear. The neighborhood environments that recent Latino immigrants encounter in their host communities can potentially influence health behaviors over time, including the propensity to engage in drinking and driving. This cross-sectional study utilizes a sample of 467 documented and undocumented adult recent Latino immigrants in the United States to answer the following research questions: (a) How do neighborhood-level factors, combined with social support, impact drinking and driving risk behaviors?; and (b) Does acculturative stress moderate the effects of those associations? Results indicate neighborhood-level factors (informal social control and social capital) have protective effects against drinking and driving risk behaviors via the mediating mechanism of social support. Acculturative stress moderated associations between neighborhood informal social control and social support, whereby the protective effects of informal social control on social support were not present for those immigrants with higher levels of acculturative stress. Our findings contribute to the limited knowledge of drinking and driving among Latino immigrants early in the immigration process and suggest that, in the process of developing prevention programs tailored to Latino immigrants, greater attention must be paid to neighborhood-level factors. PMID:27801856

  7. Association between neighborhood walkability and GPS-measured walking, bicycling and vehicle time in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jordan A; Saelens, Brian E; Kerr, Jacqueline; Schipperijn, Jasper; Conway, Terry L; Frank, Lawrence D; Chapman, Jim E; Glanz, Karen; Cain, Kelli L; Sallis, James F

    2015-03-01

    To investigate relations of walking, bicycling and vehicle time to neighborhood walkability and total physical activity in youth. Participants (N=690) were from 380 census block groups of high/low walkability and income in two US regions. Home neighborhood residential density, intersection density, retail density, entertainment density and walkability were derived using GIS. Minutes/day of walking, bicycling and vehicle time were derived from processing algorithms applied to GPS. Accelerometers estimated total daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Models were adjusted for nesting of days (N=2987) within participants within block groups. Walking occurred on 33%, active travel on 43%, and vehicle time on 91% of the days observed. Intersection density and neighborhood walkability were positively related to walking and bicycling and negatively related to vehicle time. Residential density was positively related to walking. Increasing walking in youth could be effective in increasing total physical activity. Built environment findings suggest potential for increasing walking in youth through improving neighborhood walkability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Neighborhood Safety and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in African Americans: Biosocial Associations in the Jackson Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cheryl R.; Ommerborn, Mark J.; Hickson, DeMarc A.; Grooms, Kya N.; Sims, Mario; Taylor, Herman A.; Albert, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined associations between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, perceived neighborhood safety and cardiometabolic risk factors, adjusting for health behaviors and socioeconomic status (SES) among African Americans. Methods Study participants were non-diabetic African Americans (n = 3,909) in the baseline examination (2000–2004) of the Jackson Heart Study. We measured eight risk factors: the metabolic syndrome, its five components, insulin resistance and cardiovascular inflammation. We assessed neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage with US Census 2000 data. We assessed perceived neighborhood safety, health behaviors and SES via survey. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate associations with a random intercept model for neighborhood effects. Results After adjustment for health behaviors and SES, neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with the metabolic syndrome in women (PR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01, 1.27). Lack of perceived safety was associated with elevated glucose (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03, 1.80) and waist circumference (PR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02, 1.11) among women, and with elevated glucose (PR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02, 1.66) and insulin resistance (PR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08, 1.46) among men. Conclusions Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived safety should be considered as targets for intervention to reduce cardiometabolic risks among African Americans. PMID:23691005

  9. Physical and Thermodynamical Properties of Water Phases in Hardening Portland Cement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T. Bæk

    The present study is devoted to the description of water phases in hardening portland cement paste systems containing a significant amount of micro-filler and having a low to moderate water/powder ratio. Emphasis has been placed on the early stages of the hardening process.......The present study is devoted to the description of water phases in hardening portland cement paste systems containing a significant amount of micro-filler and having a low to moderate water/powder ratio. Emphasis has been placed on the early stages of the hardening process....

  10. City of Portland: Businesses for an environmentally sustainable tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The sustainable business development program in Portland (OR) is known as BEST. BEST stands for Businesses for an Environmentally Sustainable Tomorrow. The Portland Energy Office operates BEST as a {open_quotes}one-stop service center{close_quotes} for business owners and managers. BEST provides information and assistance on resource efficient buildings and business practices. The results of BEST`s two years of operation have been generally impressive. Nearly 150 new or expanding businesses have been connected with utility design assistance programs. Businesses have also received assistance with water conservation, telecommuting, construction debris recycling, and alternative fuel vehicles. BEST has received local and national publicity and BEST services have been the topic at more than a dozen conferences, meetings, or other speaking engagements. A guidebook for communities wishing to start a similar program will be available in early 1996.

  11. Where we used to live: validating retrospective measures of childhood neighborhood context for life course epidemiologic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa L Osypuk

    Full Text Available Early life exposures influence numerous social determinants of health, as distal causes or confounders of later health outcomes. Although a growing literature is documenting how early life socioeconomic position affects later life health, few epidemiologic studies have tested measures for operationalizing early life neighborhood context, or examined their effects on later life health. In the Life-course Influences on Fetal Environments (LIFE Study, a retrospective cohort study among Black women in Southfield, Michigan (71% response rate, we tested the validity and reliability of retrospectively-reported survey-based subjective measures of early life neighborhood context(N=693. We compared 3 subjective childhood neighborhood measures (disorder, informal social control, victimization, with 3 objective childhood neighborhood measures derived from 4 decades of historical census tract data 1970-2000, linked through geocoded residential histories (tract % poverty, tract % black, tract deprivation score derived from principal components analysis, as well as with 2 subjective neighborhood measures in adulthood. Our results documented that internal consistency reliability was high for the subjective childhood neighborhood scales (Cronbach's α =0.89, 0.93. Comparison of subjective with objective childhood neighborhood measures found moderate associations in hypothesized directions. Associations with objective variables were strongest for neighborhood disorder (rhos=.40, as opposed to with social control or victimization. Associations between subjective neighborhood context in childhood versus adulthood were moderate and stronger for residentially-stable populations. We lastly formally tested for, but found little evidence of, recall bias of the retrospective subjective reports of childhood context. These results provide evidence that retrospective reports of subjective neighborhood context may be a cost-effective, valid, and reliable method to

  12. Where we used to live: validating retrospective measures of childhood neighborhood context for life course epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osypuk, Theresa L; Kehm, Rebecca; Misra, Dawn P

    2015-01-01

    Early life exposures influence numerous social determinants of health, as distal causes or confounders of later health outcomes. Although a growing literature is documenting how early life socioeconomic position affects later life health, few epidemiologic studies have tested measures for operationalizing early life neighborhood context, or examined their effects on later life health. In the Life-course Influences on Fetal Environments (LIFE) Study, a retrospective cohort study among Black women in Southfield, Michigan (71% response rate), we tested the validity and reliability of retrospectively-reported survey-based subjective measures of early life neighborhood context(N=693). We compared 3 subjective childhood neighborhood measures (disorder, informal social control, victimization), with 3 objective childhood neighborhood measures derived from 4 decades of historical census tract data 1970-2000, linked through geocoded residential histories (tract % poverty, tract % black, tract deprivation score derived from principal components analysis), as well as with 2 subjective neighborhood measures in adulthood. Our results documented that internal consistency reliability was high for the subjective childhood neighborhood scales (Cronbach's α =0.89, 0.93). Comparison of subjective with objective childhood neighborhood measures found moderate associations in hypothesized directions. Associations with objective variables were strongest for neighborhood disorder (rhos=.40), as opposed to with social control or victimization. Associations between subjective neighborhood context in childhood versus adulthood were moderate and stronger for residentially-stable populations. We lastly formally tested for, but found little evidence of, recall bias of the retrospective subjective reports of childhood context. These results provide evidence that retrospective reports of subjective neighborhood context may be a cost-effective, valid, and reliable method to operationalize early

  13. Ecocity mapping using GIS: introducing a planning method for assessing and improving neighborhood vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard; Miller, Kirstin

    2013-01-01

    Assessing neighborhood vitality is important to understanding how to improve quality of life and health outcomes. The ecocity model recognizes that cities are part of natural systems and favors walkable neighborhoods. This article introduces ecocity mapping, an innovative planning method, to the public health literature on community engagement by describing a pilot project with a new affordable housing development in Oakland, California between 2007 and 2009. Although ecocity mapping began as a paper technology, advances in geographic information systems (GIS) moved it forward. This article describes how Ecocity Builders used GIS to conduct ecocity mapping to (1) assess vitality of neighborhoods and urban centers to prioritize community health intervention pilot sites and (2) create scenario maps for use in community health planning. From fall 2007 to summer 2008, Ecocity Builders assessed neighborhood vitality using walking distance from parks, schools, rapid transit stops, grocery stores, and retail outlets. In 2008, ecocity maps were shared with residents to create a neighborhood health and sustainability plan. In 2009, Ecocity Builders developed scenario maps to show how changes to the built environment would improve air quality by reducing greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles, while increasing access to basic services and natural amenities. Community organizing with GIS was more useful than GIS alone for final site selection. GIS was useful in mapping scenarios after residents shared local neighborhood knowledge and ideas for change. Residents were interested in long-term environmental planning, provided they could meet immediate needs.

  14. Neighborhoods on the move: a community-based participatory research approach to promoting physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminski, Richard R; Petosa, Rick L; Jones, Larry; Hall, Lisa; Poston, Carlos W

    2009-01-01

    There is a scientific and practical need for high-quality effectiveness studies of physical activity interventions in "real-world" settings. To use a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to develop, implement, operate, and evaluate an intervention for promoting physical activity called Neighborhoods on the Move. Two communities with similar physical and social characteristics participated in this study. One community was involved in Neighborhoods on the Move; the other (comparison community) participated only in the assessments. Academic personnel and residents/organizations in the Neighborhoods on the Move community worked together to create a community environment that was more conducive for physical activity. Pre- and posttest data on new initiatives promoting physical activity, existing physical activity initiatives, and business policies supporting physical activity were collected simultaneously in both communities. The success of the CBPR approach was evidenced by several developments, including substantial resident involvement and the formation of a leadership committee, marketing campaign, and numerous community partnerships. The number of businesses with policies promoting physical activity and breadth of existing physical activity initiatives (participants, activities, hours) increased substantially more in the Neighborhoods on the Move community than in the comparison community. A total of sixty new initiatives promoting physical activity were implemented in the Neighborhoods on the Move community during the intervention. The CBPR approach is an effective strategy for inducing environmental changes that promote physical activity. Additional research is needed to assess the portability and sustainability of Neighborhoods on the Move.

  15. Preserve America Communities and Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemont Lockport Moline Oak Park Palestine Plainfield Rock Island Riverside Will County Woodstock Indiana Lewiston Portland Rockland Saco Sanford Skowhegan Maryland Annapolis Baltimore Calvert County Charles Excelsior Springs Florissant Fredericktown Independence Jefferson City Liberty Rocheport Saint Charles

  16. Structure investigations on Portland cement paste by small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragolici, C.A.; Lin, A.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrated Portland cement is a very complex material. Cement paste consists of many crystalline and non-crystalline phases in various ranges of sizes (μm and nm scale). The crystalline phases are embedded in amorphous phases of hydration products. We investigated the structural changes of hydrating phases in a time interval up to 18 days, at Budapest Neutron Center's SANS spectrometer. The small angle neutron scattering of Portland cements prepared with a various water-to-cement ratios, gave us information about the microstructure changes in the material. Fractals were a suitable way for structure modelling. Some comments regarding the opportunity of using the most common models are pointed out. (authors)

  17. Reaction of rat subcutaneous tissue to mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement: a secondary level biocompatibility test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, P; Manjunath, M K; Kuriakose, E S

    2013-01-01

    This secondary-level animal study was conducted to assess and compare the subcutaneous tissue reaction to implantation of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and white Portland cement. Polyethylene tubes filled with either freshly mixed white MTA (Group I) or white Portland cement (Group II) were implanted subcutaneously into 12 Wistar Albino rats. Each animal also received an empty polyethylene tube as the control (Group III). After 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, the implants, together with surrounding tissues were excised. Two pathologists blinded to the experimental procedure, evaluated sections taken from the biopsy specimens for the severity of the inflammatory response, calcification and the presence and thickness of fibrous capsule surrounding the implant. Statistical analysis was performed using the Cross-tabs procedure, Univariate analysis of the variance two-way and the Pearson product moment correlation to assess inter-rater variability between the two evaluators. At 7 days, there was no significant difference in the severity of inflammation between the control group, white MTA, and white Portland cement groups. In the 14 day, 21 day and 30 day test periods, control group had significantly less inflammation than white MTA and white Portland cement. There was no significant difference in the grading of inflammation between white MTA and white Portland cement. All materials exhibited thick capsule at 7 days and thin capsule by 30 days. Both white MTA and white Portland cement were not completely non-irritating at the end of 30 days as evidenced by the presence of mild inflammation. However, the presence of a thin capsule around the materials, similar to the control group, indicates good tissue tolerance. White MTA and white Portland cement seem to be materials of comparable biocompatibility.

  18. Perceptions of neighborhood safety and asthma among children and adolescents in Los Angeles: a multilevel analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Camacho-Rivera

    Full Text Available Research examining the impact of neighborhoods on asthma has shown an increased interest in the role of the psychosocial environment. We examined the associations between various measures of neighborhood safety, individual and family characteristics, and asthma outcomes among children in Los Angeles.Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze data on 3,114 children across 65 neighborhoods from Wave 1 of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (2000 to 2002. Primary caregivers reported asthma outcome and all individual covariates; home environmental characteristics were observed by the interviewer.In fully adjusted models, parents who reported their neighborhood fairly safe or somewhat dangerous had lower odds of reported lifetime asthma compared to those who reported their neighborhood completely safe (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.52-0.96 and OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.42-0.88 respectively. Conversely, parents who reported they could not trust their neighbors to keep their children safe had a nearly 40% increase in lifetime asthma compared to those who reported they could trust their neighbors to keep their children safe (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.07-1.81.The study demonstrates a complex pattern between various measures of neighborhood safety and asthma and suggests that these relationships may operate differently in Los Angeles. As an increasing proportion of children are growing up in newer Western and Southwestern cities, which have different physical layouts and residential segregation patterns compared to Northeast and Midwestern cities, future studies should continue to examine neighborhood psychosocial stressors and asthma in diverse contexts.

  19. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - BenMAP Results by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset demonstrates the effect of changes in pollution concentration on local populations in 146 block groups in Portland, Maine. The US EPA's...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - BenMAP Results by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset demonstrates the effect of changes in pollution concentration on local populations in 1176 block groups in Portland, Oregon. The US EPA's...

  1. Disparities in pedestrian streetscape environments by income and race/ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Thornton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that microscale pedestrian environment features, such as sidewalk quality, crosswalks, and neighborhood esthetics, may affect residents’ physical activity. This study examined whether disparities in microscale pedestrian features existed between neighborhoods of differing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic composition. Using the validated Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS, pedestrian environment features were assessed by trained observers along 1/4-mile routes (N=2117 in neighborhoods in three US metropolitan regions (San Diego, Seattle, and Baltimore during 2009–2010. Neighborhoods, defined as Census block groups, were selected to maximize variability in median income and macroscale walkability factors (e.g., density. Mixed-model linear regression analyses explored main and interaction effects of income and race/ethnicity separately by region. Across all three regions, low-income neighborhoods and neighborhoods with a high proportion of racial/ethnic minorities had poorer esthetics and social elements (e.g., graffiti, broken windows, litter than neighborhoods with higher median income or fewer racial/ethnic minorities (p<.05. However, there were also instances where neighborhoods with higher incomes and fewer racial/ethnic minorities had worse or absent pedestrian amenities such as sidewalks, crosswalks, and intersections (p<.05. Overall, disparities in microscale pedestrian features occurred more frequently in residential as compared to mixed-use routes with one or more commercial destination. However, considerable variation existed between regions as to which microscale pedestrian features were unfavorable and whether the unfavorable features were associated with neighborhood income or racial/ethnic composition. The variation in pedestrian streetscapes across cities suggests that findings from single-city studies are not generalizable. Local streetscape audits are recommended to identify disparities

  2. Assessment of Pollution Potentialities of some Portland Cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical analysis of some Portland cement commonly used in Nigeria was carried out. All the cement studies were found to be good for concrete work especially where no special property is required. The concentration levels of heavy metals in all the cement samples were above the tolerance limit and therefore need to ...

  3. Neighborhood characteristics influence DNA methylation of genes involved in stress response and inflammation: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer A; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Xu; Ratliff, Scott M; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Kardia, Sharon L R; Liu, Yongmei; Roux, Ava V Diez; Needham, Belinda L

    2017-08-01

    Living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with poor health outcomes even after accounting for individual-level socioeconomic factors. The chronic stress of unfavorable neighborhood conditions may lead to dysregulation of the stress reactivity and inflammatory pathways, potentially mediated through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. We used multi-level models to examine the relationship between 2 neighborhood conditions and methylation levels of 18 genes related to stress reactivity and inflammation in purified monocytes from 1,226 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a population-based sample of US adults. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, a summary of 16 census-based metrics, was associated with DNA methylation [False discovery rate (FDR) q-value ≤ 0.1] in 2 out of 7 stress-related genes evaluated (CRF, SLC6A4) and 2 out of 11 inflammation-related genes (F8, TLR1). Neighborhood social environment, a summary measure of aesthetic quality, safety, and social cohesion, was associated with methylation in 4 of the 7 stress-related genes (AVP, BDNF, FKBP5, SLC6A4) and 7 of the 11 inflammation-related genes (CCL1, CD1D, F8, KLRG1, NLRP12, SLAMF7, TLR1). High socioeconomic disadvantage and worse social environment were primarily associated with increased methylation. In 5 genes with significant associations between neighborhood and methylation (FKBP5, CD1D, F8, KLRG1, NLRP12), methylation was associated with gene expression of at least one transcript. These results demonstrate that multiple dimensions of neighborhood context may influence methylation levels and subsequent gene expression of stress- and inflammation-related genes, even after accounting for individual socioeconomic factors. Further elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these relationships will be important for understanding the etiology of health disparities.

  4. The environmental correlates of overall and neighborhood based recreational walking (a cross-sectional analysis of the RECORD Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, Basile; Simon, Chantal; Charreire, Hélène; Thomas, Frédérique; Kestens, Yan; Karusisi, Noëlla; Vallée, Julie; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Weber, Christiane; Pannier, Bruno

    2014-02-21

    Preliminary evidence suggests that recreational walking has different environmental determinants than utilitarian walking. However, previous studies are limited in their assessment of environmental exposures and recreational walking and in the applied modeling strategies. Accounting for individual sociodemographic profiles and weather over the walking assessment period, the study examined whether numerous street network-based neighborhood characteristics related to the sociodemographic, physical, service, social-interactional, and symbolic environments were associated with overall recreational walking and recreational walking in one's residential neighborhood and could explain their spatial distribution. Based on the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris region, France, n=7105, 2007-2008 data), multilevel-spatial regression analyses were conducted to investigate environmental factors associated with recreational walking (evaluated by questionnaire at baseline). A risk score approach was applied to quantify the overall disparities in recreational walking that were predicted by the environmental determinants. Sixty-nine percent of the participants reported recreational walking over the past 7 days. Their mean reported recreational walking time was 3h 31mn. After individual-level adjustment, a higher neighborhood education, a higher density of destinations, green and open spaces of quality, and the absence of exposure to air traffic were associated with higher odds of recreational walking and/or a higher recreational walking time in one's residential neighborhood. As the overall disparities that were predicted by these environmental factors, the odds of reporting recreational walking and the odds of a higher recreational walking time in one's neighborhood were, respectively, 1.59 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56, 1.62] times and 1.81 (95% CI: 1.73, 1.87) times higher in the most vs. the least supportive environments (based on the quartiles). Providing green/open spaces of

  5. Neighborhood Poverty and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride Murry, Velma; Berkel, Cady; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Nation, Maury

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of studies conducted over the past decade on the effects of neighborhood and poverty on adolescent normative and nonnormative development. Our review includes a summary of studies examining the associations between neighborhood poverty and adolescent identity development followed by a review of studies…

  6. Studying neighborhood crime across different macro spatial scales: The case of robbery in 4 cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, John R; Wo, James C; Kim, Young-An

    2017-11-01

    Whereas there is a burgeoning literature focusing on the spatial distribution of crime events across neighborhoods or micro-geographic units in a specific city, the present study expands this line of research by selecting four cities that vary across two macro-spatial dimensions: population in the micro-environment, and population in the broader macro-environment. We assess the relationship between measures constructed at different spatial scales and robbery rates in blocks in four cities: 1) San Francisco (high in micro- and macro-environment population); 2) Honolulu (high in micro- but low in macro-environment population); 3) Los Angeles (low in micro- but high in macro-environment population); 4) Sacramento (low in micro- and macro-environment population). Whereas the socio-demographic characteristics of residents further than ½ mile away do not impact robbery rates, the number of people up to 2.5 miles away are related to robbery rates, especially in the two cities with smaller micro-environment population, implying a larger spatial scale than is often considered. The results show that coefficient estimates differ somewhat more between cities differing in micro-environment population compared to those differing based on macro-environment population. It is therefore necessary to consider the broader macro-environment even when focusing on the level of crime across neighborhoods or micro-geographic units within an area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 76 FR 12370 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Portland Cement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... Production Act of 1993--Portland Cement Association Notice is hereby given that, on February 02, 2011... seq. (``the Act''), Portland Cement Association (``PCA'') has filed written notifications..., Praxair, Danbury, CT; Metso Minerals, York, PA; Lehigh Cement Company LLC, Allentown, PA; Lehigh Northwest...

  8. 76 FR 34252 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Portland Cement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... Production Act of 1993; Portland Cement Association Notice is hereby given that, on May 12, 2011, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), Portland Cement Association (``PCA'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with... plaintiffs to actual damages under specified circumstances. Specifically, Drake Cement, LLC, Scottsdale, AZ...

  9. Moderating effects of age, gender and education on the associations of perceived neighborhood environment attributes with accelerometer-based physical activity: the IPEN Adult study Moderating effects of age, gender and education on the associations of perceived neighborhood environment attributes with accelerometer-based physical activity: the IPEN Adult study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Salvo, Deborah; Christiansen, Lars B; Macfarlane, Duncan; Owen, Neville; Mitas, Josef; Troelsen, Jens; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines; Davey, Rachel; Reis, Rodrigo; Sarmiento, Olga L; Schofield, Grant; Conway, Terry L; Sallis, James F

    2015-01-01

    The study's purpose was to examine age, gender, and education as potential moderators of the associations of perceived neighborhood environment variables with accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Data were from 7273 adults from 16 sites (11 countries) that were part of a coordinated multi-country cross-sectional study. Age moderated the associations of perceived crime safety, and perceiving no major physical barriers to walking, with MVPA: positive associations were only found in older adults. Perceived land use mix-access was linearly (positive) associated with MVPA in men, and curvilinearly in women. Perceived crime safety was related to MVPA only in women. No moderating relationships were found for education. Overall the associations of adults’ perceptions of environmental attributes with MVPA were largely independent of the socio-demographic factors examined. These findings are encouraging, suggesting that efforts to optimize the perceived built and social environment may act in a socially-equitable manner to facilitate MVPA. PMID:26454247

  10. What constitutes a health-enabling neighborhood? A grounded theory situational analysis addressing the significance of social capital and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Malin; Emmelin, Maria

    2013-11-01

    Variations in health between neighborhoods are well known and the conceptualization of social capital has contributed to an understanding of how contextual factors influence these differences. Studies show positive health-effects from living in high social capital areas, at least for some population sub-groups. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand what constitutes a 'health-enabling' neighborhood. It follows up results from a social capital survey in northern Sweden indicating that the health effects of living in a high social capital neighborhood is gendered in favor of women. A grounded theory situational analysis of eight focus group discussions--four with men and four with women--illustrated similar and different positions on how neighborhood characteristics influence health. A neighborhood, where people say hi to each other ("hi-factor") and where support between neighbors exist, were factors perceived as positive for health by all, as was a good location, neighborhood greenness and proximity to essential arenas. Women perceived freedom from demands, feeling safe and city life as additional health enabling factors. For men freedom to do what you want, a sense of belonging, and countryside life were important. To have burdensome neighbors, physical disturbances and a densely living environment were perceived as negative for health in both groups while demands for a well styled home and feeling unsafe were perceived as negative for health among women. Neighborhood social capital, together with other elements in the living environment, has fundamental influence on people's perceived health. Our findings do not confirm that social capital is more important for women than for men but that distinctive form of social capital differ in impact. Investing in physical interventions, such as planning for meeting places, constructing attractive green areas, and making neighborhoods walking-friendly, may increase human interactions that is instrumental for

  11. Neighborhood crime and transit station access mode choice - phase III of neighborhood crime and travel behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report provides the findings from the third phase of a three-part study about the influences of neighborhood crimes on travel : mode choice. While previous phases found evidence that high levels of neighborhood crime discourage people from choos...

  12. Built Environment, Selected Risk Factors and Major Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasmore Malambo

    Full Text Available Built environment attributes have been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Therefore, identifying built environment attributes that are associated with CVD risk is relevant for facilitating effective public health interventions.To conduct a systematic review of literature to examine the influence of built environmental attributes on CVD risks.Multiple database searches including Science direct, CINAHL, Masterfile Premier, EBSCO and manual scan of reference lists were conducted.Studies published in English between 2005 and April 2015 were included if they assessed one or more of the neighborhood environmental attributes in relation with any major CVD outcomes and selected risk factors among adults.Author(s, country/city, sex, age, sample size, study design, tool used to measure neighborhood environment, exposure and outcome assessments and associations were extracted from eligible studies.Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies used both cross-sectional design and Geographic Information System (GIS to assess the neighborhood environmental attributes. Neighborhood environmental attributes were significantly associated with CVD risk and CVD outcomes in the expected direction. Residential density, safety from traffic, recreation facilities, street connectivity and high walkable environment were associated with physical activity. High walkable environment, fast food restaurants, supermarket/grocery stores were associated with blood pressure, body mass index, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. High density traffic, road proximity and fast food restaurants were associated with CVDs outcomes.This study confirms the relationship between neighborhood environment attributes and CVDs and risk factors. Prevention programs should account for neighborhood environmental attributes in the communities where people live.

  13. Structure investigations on Portland cement paste by small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragolici, C. A.; Len, A.

    2003-01-01

    Portland cement pastes consist of many crystalline and non-crystalline phases in various ranges of sizes (nm and mm scale). The crystalline phases are embedded in amorphous phases of the hydration products. We investigated the structural changes of hydrating phases in the time interval of 1-30 days at Budapest Neutron Center's SANS diffractometer. The small angle neutron scattering of Portland cements prepared with a water-to-cement ratio from 0,3 to 0,8 gave us information about the microstructure changes in the material. Fractals were a suitable way for structure modelling. The variation of fractals size depending on the preparation-to-measurement time interval and water-to-cement ratio could be observed. (authors)

  14. Test-retest reliability of Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale among urban men and women in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L; Wang, Z; Qin, Z; Leslie, E; He, J; Xiong, Y; Xu, F

    2018-03-01

    The identification of physical-activity-friendly built environment (BE) constructs is highly useful for physical activity promotion and maintenance. The Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale (PANES) was developed for assessing BE correlates. However, PANES reliability has not been investigated among adults in China. A cross-sectional study. With multistage sampling approaches, 1568 urban adults (aged 35-74 years) were recruited for the initial survey on all 17 items of PANES Chinese version (PANES-CHN), with the survey repeated 7 days later for each participant. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the test-retest reliability of PANES-CHN for each item. Totally, 1551 participants completed both surveys (follow-up rate = 98.9%). Among participants (mean age: 54.7 ± 11.1 years), 47.8% were men, 22.1% were elders, and 22.7% had ≥13 years of education. Overall, the PANES-CHN demonstrated at least substantial reliability with ICCs ranging from 0.66 to 0.95 (core items), from 0.75 to 0.95 (recommended items), and from 0.78 to 0.87 (optional items). Similar outcomes were observed when data were analyzed by gender or age groups. The PANES-CHN has excellent test-retest reliability and thus has valuable utility for assessing urban BE attributes among Chinese adults. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 75 FR 4423 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Portland Cement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... Production Act of 1993--Portland Cement Association Notice is hereby given that, on December 14, 2009... seq. (``the Act''), Portland Cement Association (``PCA'') has filed written notifications... Cement, Hannibal, MO has been added as a party to this venture. Also, the following parties have...

  16. Nanotechnology-Based Performance Improvements For Portland Cement Concrete - Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    A fundamental understanding of the nano-structure of Portland cement concrete (PCC) is the key to realizing significant breakthroughs regarding high performance and susta : (MBTC 2095/3004) using molecular dynamics (MD) provided new understanding of ...

  17. Study of the bismuth oxide concentration required to provide Portland cement with adequate radiopacity for endodontic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Zeferino, Eduardo Gregatto; Manhães, Luiz Roberto Coutinho; Rocha, Daniel Guimarães Pedro; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; De Martin, Alexandre Sigrist

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ideal concentration of bismuth oxide in white Portland cement to provide it with sufficient radiopacity for use as an endodontic material (ADA specification #57). 2-mm thick standardized test specimens of white MTA and of white Portland cement, as controls, and of white Portland cement with the experimental addition of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% or 30% of bismuth oxide were radiographed and compared with various thicknesses of pure aluminum, using optic density to determine the observed grayscale levels of radiopacity in a scale ranging from 0 to 255. The data was submitted to ANOVA (pcement with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% of bismuth oxide presented mean readings of 63.3, 95.7, 110.7, 142.7, 151.3, 161.0 and 180.0 respectively. MTA presented a mean reading of 157.3. The readings of MTA and white Portland cement with 15% bismuth oxide did not differ significantly from the reading observed for a thickness of 4 mm of aluminum (145.3), which is considered ideal for a test specimen by ADA specification #57 (2 mm above the thickness of the test specimen). White MTA and white Portland cement with 15% bismuth oxide presented the radiopacity required for an endodontic cement.

  18. Does substance use moderate the association of neighborhood disadvantage with perceived stress and safety in the activity spaces of urban youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennis, Jeremy; Mason, Michael; Light, John; Rusby, Julie; Westling, Erika; Way, Thomas; Zahakaris, Nikola; Flay, Brian

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the association of activity space-based exposure to neighborhood disadvantage with momentary perceived stress and safety, and the moderation of substance use on those associations, among a sample of 139 urban, primarily African American, adolescents. Geospatial technologies are integrated with Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to capture exposure to neighborhood disadvantage and perceived stress and safety in the activity space. A relative neighborhood disadvantage measure for each subject is calculated by conditioning the neighborhood disadvantage observed at the EMA location on that of the home neighborhood. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) are used to model the effect of relative neighborhood disadvantage on momentary perceived stress and safety, and the extent to which substance use moderates those associations. Relative neighborhood disadvantage is significantly associated with higher perceived stress, lower perceived safety, and greater substance use involvement. The association of relative neighborhood disadvantage with stress is significantly stronger among those with greater substance use involvement. This research highlights the value of integrating geospatial technologies with EMA and developing personalized measures of environmental exposure for investigating neighborhood effects on substance use, and suggests substance use intervention strategies aimed at neighborhood conditions. Future research should seek to disentangle the causal pathways of influence and selection that relate neighborhood environment, stress, and substance use, while also accounting for the role of gender and family and peer social contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Defensible Spaces in Philadelphia: Exploring Neighborhood Boundaries Through Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Kramer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Few spatial scales are as important to individual outcomes as the neighborhood. However, it is nearly impossible to define neighborhoods in a generalizable way. This article proposes that by shifting the focus to measuring neighborhood boundaries rather than neighborhoods, scholars can avoid the problem of the indefinable neighborhood and better approach questions of what predicts racial segregation across areas. By quantifying an externality space theory of neighborhood boundaries, this article introduces a novel form of spatial analysis to test where potential physical markers of neighborhood boundaries (major roads, rivers, railroads, and the like are associated with persistent racial boundaries between 1990 and 2010. Using Philadelphia as a case study, the paper identifies neighborhoods with persistent racial boundaries. It theorizes that local histories of white reactions to black in-migration explain which boundaries persistently resisted racial turnover, unlike the majority of Philadelphia’s neighborhoods, and that those racial boundaries shape the location, progress, and reaction to new residential development in those neighborhoods.

  20. Availability of commonly consumed and culturally specific fruits and vegetables in African-american and Latino neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Zenk, Shannon N; Odoms-Young, Angela; Ruggiero, Laurie; Moise, Imelda

    2010-05-01

    Although the importance of culture in shaping individual dietary behaviors is well-documented, cultural food preferences have received limited attention in research on the neighborhood food environment. The purpose of this study was to assess the availability of commonly consumed and culturally specific fruits and vegetables in retail food stores located in majority African-American and Latino neighborhoods in southwest Chicago, IL. A cross-sectional survey of 115 stores (15% grocery stores, 85% convenience/corner stores) in African-American neighborhoods and 110 stores (45% grocery stores, 55% convenience/corner stores) in Latino neighborhoods was conducted between May and August of 2006. chi(2) tests were used to assess differences in the availability (presence/absence) of commonly consumed (n=25) and culturally specific fruits and vegetables for African Americans (n=16 varieties) and Latinos (n=18 varieties). Stores located in neighborhoods in which the majority of residents were African American or Latino were more likely to carry fresh fruits and vegetables that were culturally relevant to the dominant group. For example, grocery stores located in Latino neighborhoods were more likely to carry chayote (82.0% vs 17.6%, P<0.05), whereas grocery stores located in African-American neighborhoods were more likely to carry black-eyed peas (52.9% vs 20%, P<0.05). Most stores, however, carried fewer than 50% of commonly consumed or culturally specific fruits and vegetables. Findings from this study highlight that limited availability of culturally specific as well as commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in the neighborhood may be a barrier to fruit and vegetable consumption among African Americans and Latinos. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Built Environment and Active Travel: Evidence from Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianxi

    2016-03-08

    An established relationship exists between the built environment and active travel. Nevertheless, the literature examining the impacts of different components of the built environment is limited. In addition, most existing studies are based on data from cities in the U.S. and Western Europe. The situation in Chinese cities remains largely unknown. Based on data from Nanjing, China, this study explicitly examines the influences of two components of the built environment--the neighborhood form and street form--on residents' active travel. Binary logistic regression analyses examined the effects of the neighborhood form and street form on subsistence, maintenance and discretionary travel, respectively. For each travel purpose, three models are explored: a model with only socio-demographics, a model with variables of the neighborhood form and a complete model with all variables. The model fit indicator, Nagelkerke's ρ², increased by 0.024 when neighborhood form variables are included and increased by 0.070 when street form variables are taken into account. A similar situation can be found in the models of maintenance activities and discretionary activities. Regarding specific variables, very limited significant impacts of the neighborhood form variables are observed, while almost all of the characteristics of the street form show significant influences on active transport. In Nanjing, street form factors have a more profound influence on active travel than neighborhood form factors. The focal point of the land use regulations and policy of local governments should shift from the neighborhood form to the street form to maximize the effects of policy interventions.

  2. Neighborhood Economic Enterprises: An Analysis, Survey, and Guide to Resources in Starting Up Neighborhood Enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Neil G.

    This pamphlet provides information on the history of and current trends toward neighborhood economic enterprises and provides guidance for setting up such enterprises. A bibliography of books, articles, and newsletters that have information on how to start and sustain neighborhood businesses and cooperatives is provided. Also included is a list of…

  3. Green-Roof Effects on Neighborhood Microclimate and Human Thermal Sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Y. Jim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs have been recognized as an effective sustainable design tool to mitigate urban heat island (UHI effects. Previous studies have identified green-roof benefits in cooling and energy-conservation at the building scale, with limited exploration of the wider influence on neighborhood microclimate and human thermal comfort (HTC. This paper investigated the impacts of community-scale green-roof installation on air temperature and HTC in five typical residential neighborhoods of subtropical Hong Kong. The microclimate models ENVI-met and RayMan permitted studies of two main green-roof scenarios, namely extensive (EGR and intensive (IGR. Microclimatic monitoring data from a local experimental green-roof site validated the modeling methods. The results verified that green-roof cooling effects were not restricted to rooftops, but extended to the ground to improve neighborhood microclimate. EGR reduced pedestrian-level air temperature by 0.4–0.7 °C, and IGR by 0.5–1.7 °C, with maximum effect in open-set low rise sites. Coverage by building footprints and building height dampened lateral and vertical advection of cool air generated by green roofs. Roof greening also improved notably the rooftop-podium level HTC. Diurnal duration of high heat stress was reduced by 6–9 h for EGR scenarios, and 9–11 h for IGR. The findings indicated that large-scale green-roof installation could bring neighborhood-wide cooling, mitigate urban heat island effect, and furnish more comfortable thermal environment for urban residents.

  4. 77 FR 5573 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Portland Cement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Production Act of 1993--Portland Cement Association Notice is hereby given that, on January 6, 2012, pursuant... seq. (``the Act''), Portland Cement Association (``PCA'') has filed written notifications..., Newark, DE, has been added as a party to this venture. Also, Texas-Lehigh Cement Company, Buda, TX...

  5. Space, race, and poverty: Spatial inequalities in walkable neighborhood amenities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Whalen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Multiple and varied benefits have been suggested for increased neighborhood walkability. However, spatial inequalities in neighborhood walkability likely exist and may be attributable, in part, to residential segregation. OBJECTIVE Utilizing a spatial demographic perspective, we evaluated potential spatial inequalities in walkable neighborhood amenities across census tracts in Boston, MA (US. METHODS The independent variables included minority racial/ethnic population percentages and percent of families in poverty. Walkable neighborhood amenities were assessed with a composite measure. Spatial autocorrelation in key study variables were first calculated with the Global Moran's I statistic. Then, Spearman correlations between neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics and walkable neighborhood amenities were calculated as well as Spearman correlations accounting for spatial autocorrelation. We fit ordinary least squares (OLS regression and spatial autoregressive models when appropriate as a final step. RESULTS Significant positive spatial autocorrelation was found in neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics (e.g. census tract percent Black, but not walkable neighborhood amenities or in the OLS regression residuals. Spearman correlations between neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics and walkable neighborhood amenities were not statistically significant, nor were neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics significantly associated with walkable neighborhood amenities in OLS regression models. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that there is residential segregation in Boston and that spatial inequalities do not necessarily show up using a composite measure. COMMENTS Future research in other geographic areas (including international contexts and using different definitions of neighborhoods (including small-area definitions should evaluate if spatial inequalities are found using composite measures, but also should

  6. Real-Time Tracking of Neighborhood Surroundings and Mood in Urban Drug Misusers: Application of a New Method to Study Behavior in Its Geographical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, David H.; Tyburski, Matthew; Craig, Ian M.; Phillips, Karran A.; Jobes, Michelle L.; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Mezghanni, Mustapha; Lin, Jia-Ling; Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Maladaptive behaviors may be more fully understood and efficiently prevented by ambulatory tools that assess people’s ongoing experience in the context of their environment. Methods To demonstrate new field-deployable methods for assessing mood and behavior as a function of neighborhood surroundings (Geographical Momentary Assessment; GMA), we collected time-stamped GPS data and Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) ratings of mood, stress, and drug craving over 16 weeks at randomly prompted times during the waking hours of opioid-dependent polydrug users receiving methadone maintenance. Locations of EMA entries and participants’ travel tracks were calculated for the 12 hours before each EMA entry were mapped. Associations between subjective ratings and objective environmental ratings were evaluated at the whole neighborhood and 12-hour track levels. Results Participants (N=27) were compliant with GMA data collection; 3,711 randomly prompted EMA entries were matched to specific locations. At the neighborhood level, physical disorder was negatively correlated with negative mood, stress, and heroin and cocaine craving (ps <.0001 to .0335); drug activity was negatively correlated with stress, heroin and cocaine craving (ps .0009 to .0134). Similar relationships were found for the environments around respondents’ tracks in the 12 hours preceding EMA entries. Conclusions The results support the feasibility of GMA. The relationships between neighborhood characteristics and participants’ reports were counterintuitive and counter-hypothesized, and challenge some assumptions about how ostensibly stressful environments are associated with lived experience and how such environments ultimately impair health. GMA methodology may have applications for development of individual- or neighborhood-level interventions. PMID:24332365

  7. Toxicity and Histopathological Effects of Portland Cement Powder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatic lesions in the liver tissues of fish exposed to Portland cement powder in solution were characterized by degeneration of hepatocyte, vascuolization of cell cytoplasm, fatty degeneration and hypertrophy of hepatocytes. Histological comparison of tissues indicated that most damage occurred in the gill rather than in ...

  8. A review of neighborhood effects and early child development: How, where, and for whom, do neighborhoods matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Anita; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Janus, Magdalena; Brownell, Marni; Guhn, Martin

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes a scoping review of 42 studies of neighborhood effects on developmental health for children ages 0-6, published between 2009 and 2014. It focuses on three themes: (1) theoretical mechanisms that drive early childhood development, i.e. how neighborhoods matter for early childhood development; (2) dependence of such mechanisms on place-based characteristics i.e. where neighborhood effects occur; (3) dependence of such mechanisms on child characteristics, i.e. for whom is development most affected. Given that ecological systems theories postulate diverse mechanisms via which neighborhood characteristics affect early child development, we specifically examine evidence on mediation and/or moderation effects. We conclude by discussing future challenges, and proposing recommendations for analyses that utilize ecological longitudinal population-based databases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Neighborhood walkability, deprivation and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a population-based study on 512,061 Swedish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, Kristina; Eriksson, Ulf; Mezuk, Briana; Ohlsson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhood walkability has been associated with increased physical activity, but only a few studies have explored the association between walkability and health outcomes related to physical activity, such as type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between objectively assessed neighborhood walkability and the 4-year incidence of type 2 diabetes in a sample of 512,061 Swedish adults aged 18 years and older. Neighborhoods were defined by 408 administratively defined geographical areas in the city of Stockholm. We found a negative association between walkability and type 2 diabetes (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.13-1.55) that remained significant after adjusting for neighborhood deprivation. This association, however, no longer remained statistically significant after adjusting for individual socio-demographic factors. These results were also confirmed using a co-sibling design. Future studies are encouraged to further explore the potential effect of a broader array of the neighborhood built environment on health outcomes related to physical activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Utilization of steel slag for Portland cement clinker production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiridis, P E; Papadimitriou, G D; Tsivilis, S; Koroneos, C

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the present research work is to investigate the possibility of adding steel slag, a by-product of the conversion of iron to steel process, in the raw meal for the production of Portland cement clinker. Two samples of raw meals were prepared, one with ordinary raw materials, as a reference sample ((PC)(Ref)), and another with 10.5% steel slag ((PC)(S/S)). Both raw meals were sintered at 1450 degrees C. The results of chemical and mineralogical analyses as well as the microscopic examination showed that the use of the steel slag did not affect the mineralogical characteristics of the so produced Portland cement clinker. Furthermore, both clinkers were tested by determining the grindability, setting times, compressive strengths and soundness. The hydration products were examined by XRD analysis at 2, 7, 28 and 90 days. The results of the physico-mechanical tests showed that the addition of the steel slag did not negatively affect the quality of the produced cement.

  11. Ethnicity at the individual and neighborhood level as an explanation for moving out of the neighborhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaake, K.; Burgers, J.; Mulder, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    We address the influence of both the ethnic composition of the neighborhood and the ethnicity of individual residents on moving out of neighborhoods in the Netherlands. Using the Housing Research Netherlands survey and multinomial logistic regression analyses of moving out versus not moving or

  12. Rapid Development, Build-Out Ratio and Subsequent Neighborhood Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George O. Rogers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhood development is primarily comprised of structural elements that include design elements, nearby amenities and ecological attributes. This paper assumes that the process of development itself also influences the character of the neighborhood—specifically, that the rate of development and build-out ratio influences neighborhood turnover. While the structural components clearly set a framework for development, the process of development expresses the character of the neighborhood in subtle messages conveyed through the market. Neighborhoods in the rapidly growing university town of College Station, Texas are analyzed in terms of neighborhood design, nearby amenities and landscape ecology components. Residential property records are used to characterize each neighborhood in terms of the rate of development and current build-out ratio. The multivariate analysis indicates that the development rate increases subsequent neighborhood turnover rates while the build-out ratio decreases it.

  13. Network Level Carbon Dioxide Emissions From On-road Sources in the Portland OR, (USA) Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Rice, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    To mitigate climate change, governments at multiple levels are developing policies to decrease anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The City of Portland (Oregon) and Multnomah County have adopted a Climate Action Plan with a stated goal of reducing emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. The transportation sector alone accounts for about 40% of total emissions in the Portland metropolitan area. Here we show a new street-level model of on-road mobile CO2 emissions for the Portland, OR metropolitan region. The model uses hourly traffic counter recordings made by the Portland Bureau of Transportation at 9,352 sites over 21 years (1986-2006), augmented with freeway loop detector data from the Portland Regional Transportation Archive Listing (PORTAL) transportation data archive. We constructed a land use regression model to fill in traffic network gaps with traffic counts as the dependent variable using GIS data such as road class (32 categories) and population density. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model was used to estimate transportation CO2 emissions. The street-level emissions can be aggregated and gridded and used as input to atmospheric transport models for comparison with atmospheric measurements. This model also provides an independent assessment of top-down inventories that determine emissions from fuel sales, while being an important component of our ongoing effort to assess the effectiveness of emission mitigation strategies at the urban scale.

  14. Neighborhood food environment and body mass index among Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirai Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of studies of the local food environment in relation to obesity risk have been conducted in the US, UK, and Australia. The evidence remains limited to western societies. The aim of this paper is to examine the association of local food environment to body mass index (BMI in a study of older Japanese individuals. Methods The analysis was based on 12,595 respondents from cross-sectional data of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES, conducted in 2006 and 2007. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS, we mapped respondents' access to supermarkets, convenience stores, and fast food outlets, based on a street network (both the distance to the nearest stores and the number of stores within 500 m of the respondents' home. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between food environment and BMI. Results In contrast to previous reports, we found that better access to supermarkets was related to higher BMI. Better access to fast food outlets or convenience stores was also associated with higher BMI, but only among those living alone. The logistic regression analysis, using categorized BMI, showed that the access to supermarkets was only related to being overweight or obese, but not related to being underweight. Conclusions Our findings provide mixed support for the types of food environment measures previously used in western settings. Importantly, our results suggest the need to develop culture-specific approaches to characterizing neighborhood contexts when hypotheses are extrapolated across national borders.

  15. Neighborhood decline and the economic crisis : an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kempen, Ronald; Bolt, Gideon; van Ham, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Urban neighborhoods are still important in the lives of its residents. Therefore, it is important to find out how the recent global financial and economic crisis affects these neighborhoods. Which types of neighborhoods and which residents suffer more than others? This introduction provides an

  16. Neighborhood environments, mobility, and health: towards a new generation of studies in environmental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, B; Méline, J; Duncan, S; Jardinier, L; Perchoux, C; Vallée, J; Merrien, C; Karusisi, N; Lewin, A; Brondeel, R; Kestens, Y

    2013-08-01

    While public policies seek to promote active transportation, there is a lack of information on the social and environmental factors associated with the adoption of active transportation modes. Moreover, despite the consensus on the importance of identifying obesogenic environmental factors, most published studies only take into account residential neighborhoods in the definition of exposures. There are at least three major reasons for incorporating daily mobility in public health research: (i) to identify specific population groups, including socially disadvantaged populations, who experience mobility or spatial accessibility deficits; (ii) to study the environmental determinants of transportation habits and investigate the complex relationships between transportation (as a source of physical activity, pollutants, and accidents) and physical activity and health; and (iii) to improve the assessment of spatial accessibility to resources and exposure to environmental hazards by accounting for daily trajectories for a better understanding of their health effects. There is urgent need to develop novel methods to better assess daily mobility. The RECORD Study relies on (i) an electronic survey of regular mobility to assess the chronic exposure to environmental conditions over a relatively long period, and (ii) Global Positioning System tracking to evaluate precisely acute environmental exposures over a much shorter period. The present article argues that future research should combine these two approaches. Gathering scientific evidence on the relationships between the environments, mobility/transportation, and health should allow public health and urban planning decision makers to better take into account the individual and environmental barriers to the adoption of active transportation and to define innovative intervention strategies addressing obesogenic environments to reduce disparities in excess weight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    Energy costs impact low income communities more than anyone else. Low income residents pay a larger percentage of their incomes for energy costs. In addition, they generally have far less discretionary energy use to eliminate in response to increasing energy prices. Furthermore, with less discretionary income, home energy efficiency improvements are often too expensive. Small neighborhood businesses are in the same situation. Improved efficiency in the use of energy can improve this situation by reducing energy costs for residents and local businesses. More importantly, energy management programs can increase the demand for local goods and services and lead to the creation of new job training and employment opportunities. In this way, neighborhood based energy efficiency programs can support community economic development. The present project, undertaken with the support of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, was intended to serve as a demonstration of energy/economic programming at the neighborhood level. The San Francisco Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development (NEED) project was designed to be a visible demonstration of bringing the economic development benefits of energy management home to low-income community members who need it most. To begin, a Community Advisory Committee was established to guide the design of the programs to best meet needs of the community. Subsequently three neighborhood energy/economic development programs were developed: The small business energy assistance program; The youth training and weatherization program; and, The energy review of proposed housing development projects.

  18. Radiopacity and histological assessment of Portland cement plus bismuth oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho-Filho, Tauby; De-Deus, Gustavo; Klein, Leila; Manera, Gisele; Peixoto, Carla; Gurgel-Filho, Eduardo Diogo

    2008-12-01

    The present study evaluated the subcutaneous connective tissue reactions and the radiopacity of MTA, Portland cement (PC), and Portland cement plus bismuth oxide (BO). Forty rats were divided into 5 groups (n = 8 per group): A1: Control (empty capsule); A2: Pro-Root MTA; A3: PC; A4: PC + BO 1:1; and A5: PC + BO 2:1. Polyethylene tubes were filled with the test materials and standardized radiographic images were taken. Histological evaluation was done after 7 and 60 days. Student t test and Fisher's test were used in the statistical analysis (P A4 > A5 > A3. No differences were found for the tissue response in the 2 experimental periods. A positive correlation between BO concentration and radiopacity of PC was determined. The histological evaluation suggests that all studied materials were biocompatible at 7 and 60 days.

  19. Comparative study of the properties of ordinary portland cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored metakaolin as alternative material to cement. It compares the properties of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete and binary concrete containing metakaolin as partial replacement of OPC. Two set of concrete samples; one with 10% Metakaolin (MK) replacing OPC by weight, and the other without ...

  20. Neighborhood Effects on Health: Concentrated Advantage and Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Brian K.; Do, D. Phuong; Heron, Melonie; Bird, Chloe; Seeman, Teresa; Lurie, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    We investigate an alternative conceptualization of neighborhood context and its association with health. Using an index that measures a continuum of concentrated advantage and disadvantage, we examine whether the relationship between neighborhood conditions and health varies by socio-economic status. Using NHANES III data geo-coded to census tracts, we find that while largely uneducated neighborhoods are universally deleterious, individuals with more education benefit from living in highly educated neighborhoods to a greater degree than individuals with lower levels of education. PMID:20627796

  1. Multiple pathways from the neighborhood food environment to increased body mass index through dietary behaviors: A structural equation-based analysis in the CARDIA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrea S.; Meyer, Katie A.; Howard, Annie Green; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Shikany, James M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine longitudinal pathways from multiple types of neighborhood restaurants and food stores to BMI, through dietary behaviors. Methods We used data from participants (n=5114) in the United States-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study and a structural equation model to estimate longitudinal (1985–86 to 2005–06) pathways simultaneously from neighborhood fast food restaurants, sit-down restaurants, supermarkets, and convenience stores to BMI through dietary behaviors, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES) and physical activity. Results Higher numbers of neighborhood fast food restaurants and lower numbers of sit-down restaurants were associated with higher consumption of an obesogenic fast food-type diet. The pathways from food stores to BMI through diet were inconsistent in magnitude and statistical significance. Conclusions Efforts to decrease the numbers of neighborhood fast food restaurants and to increase the numbers of sit-down restaurant options could influence diet behaviors. Availability of neighborhood fast food and sit-down restaurants may play comparatively stronger roles than food stores in shaping dietary behaviors and BMI. PMID:26454248

  2. Neighborhood Integration and Connectivity Predict Cognitive Performance and Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Watts PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neighborhood characteristics may be important for promoting walking, but little research has focused on older adults, especially those with cognitive impairment. We evaluated the role of neighborhood characteristics on cognitive function and decline over a 2-year period adjusting for measures of walking. Method: In a study of 64 older adults with and without mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD, we evaluated neighborhood integration and connectivity using geographical information systems data and space syntax analysis. In multiple regression analyses, we used these characteristics to predict 2-year declines in factor analytically derived cognitive scores (attention, verbal memory, mental status adjusting for age, sex, education, and self-reported walking. Results : Neighborhood integration and connectivity predicted cognitive performance at baseline, and changes in cognitive performance over 2 years. The relationships between neighborhood characteristics and cognitive performance were not fully explained by self-reported walking. Discussion : Clearer definitions of specific neighborhood characteristics associated with walkability are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which neighborhoods may impact cognitive outcomes. These results have implications for measuring neighborhood characteristics, design and maintenance of living spaces, and interventions to increase walking among older adults. We offer suggestions for future research measuring neighborhood characteristics and cognitive function.

  3. Girls' self-efficacy in the context of neighborhood gender stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Brian; Jackson, Aubrey L

    2018-05-01

    Scholars have linked neighborhood characteristics to self-efficacy, but few have considered how gender factors into this association. We integrate literature on neighborhoods, gender stratification, and self-efficacy to examine the association between women's relative resources among neighborhood residents and adolescents' self-efficacy. We hypothesize that girls report more self-efficacy when they reside in neighborhoods where women have more socioeconomic resources relative to men. We test this hypothesis using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods and the 1990 Census. Results from multilevel regression models with gender-interacted effects indicate the neighborhood level of women's relative resources was not associated with boys' self-efficacy. However, girls reported higher self-efficacy when women's relative resources in their neighborhoods were greater. This association persisted after including potential individual- and neighborhood-level confounding variables. Our study underscores the importance of attending to gendered processes when understanding how neighborhoods impact youth. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Neighborhood & Family Effects on Learning Motivation among Urban African American Middle School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Damiya; Graham, Camelia; Severtson, Stevan Geoffrey; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Latimer, William

    2012-01-01

    Motivational theorists in psychology have moved away from individual-based approaches to socio-cognitive and socio-ecological models to explain student engagement and motivation for learning. Such approaches consider, for example, the influence of family and neighborhood environments as important constructs in youth behavior. In this study, links…

  5. 76 FR 50252 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-461 (Third Review)] Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan AGENCY: United States International...

  6. Neighborhood properties are important determinants of temperature sensitive mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Lockwood

    Full Text Available Temperature-sensitive (TS mutants are powerful tools to study gene function in vivo. These mutants exhibit wild-type activity at permissive temperatures and reduced activity at restrictive temperatures. Although random mutagenesis can be used to generate TS mutants, the procedure is laborious and unfeasible in multicellular organisms. Further, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the TS phenotype are poorly understood. To elucidate TS mechanisms, we used a machine learning method-logistic regression-to investigate a large number of sequence and structure features. We developed and tested 133 features, describing properties of either the mutation site or the mutation site neighborhood. We defined three types of neighborhood using sequence distance, Euclidean distance, and topological distance. We discovered that neighborhood features outperformed mutation site features in predicting TS mutations. The most predictive features suggest that TS mutations tend to occur at buried and rigid residues, and are located at conserved protein domains. The environment of a buried residue often determines the overall structural stability of a protein, thus may lead to reversible activity change upon temperature switch. We developed TS prediction models based on logistic regression and the Lasso regularized procedure. Through a ten-fold cross-validation, we obtained the area under the curve of 0.91 for the model using both sequence and structure features. Testing on independent datasets suggested that the model predicted TS mutations with a 50% precision. In summary, our study elucidated the molecular basis of TS mutants and suggested the importance of neighborhood properties in determining TS mutations. We further developed models to predict TS mutations derived from single amino acid substitutions. In this way, TS mutants can be efficiently obtained through experimentally introducing the predicted mutations.

  7. Effect of the use nickeliferous laterite and pumice as additives in the performance and durability of the Portland cement

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda-Gualdrón, María Carolina; Vega-Nuñez, Karen Milena; Ríos-Reyes, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluated the pozzolanic behavior of the niqueliferous laterite of Cerromatoso (Córdoba) and the pumice of Cemex (Boyacá), based on the NTC standards for fine aggregates. The mortars were prepared with additions of 2.5%, 5% and 10% as substitutes of type I Portland cement, which tested to extreme environments (high temperatures and chemical attacks with H2SO4 y MgSO4). Results demonstrates how these alternative materials increase or decrease their puzolanic degree, as well as the ef...

  8. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Progress Stories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-04-19

    n neighborhoods across the country, stories are emerging constantly of individuals, businesses, and organizations that are benefiting from energy efficiency. Included are the stories of real people making their homes, businesses, and communities better with the help of the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.

  9. Neighborhood social capital and individual health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohnen, S.M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Völker, B.; Flap, H.

    2011-01-01

    Neighborhood social capital is increasingly considered to be an important determinant of an individual's health. Using data from the Netherlands we investigate the influence of neighborhood social capital on an individual's self-reported health, while accounting for other conditions of health on

  10. Ettringite and C-S-H Portland cement phases for waste ion immobilization: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gougar, M.L.D.; Scheetz, B.E.; Roy, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The formation, structure and chemistry of the ettringite and C-S-H phases of Portland cement have been reviewed as they relate to waste ion immobilization. The purpose of this review was to investigate the use of Portland cement as a host for priority metallic pollutants as identified by the Environmental Protection Agency and as a host for radioactive waste ions as identified in 40 CFR 191. Ettringite acts as host to a number of these ions in both the columnar and channel sections of the crystal structure. Substitutions have been made at the calcium, aluminum, hydroxide and sulfate sites. C-S-H also hosts a number of the waste species in both ionic and salt form. Immobilization mechanisms for C-S-H include sorption, phase mixing and substitution. The following ions have not apparently been reported as specifically immobilized by one of these phases: Ag, Am, Np, Pu, Ra, Tc, Th and Sn; however, some of these ions are immobilized by Portland cement

  11. Obesogenic and youth oriented restaurant marketing in public housing neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; Heinrich, Katie M; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Regan, Gail R; Adamus-Leach, Heather J

    2014-03-01

    To compare restaurant marketing by restaurant and neighborhood type. All restaurants (61=fast food, FF; 72=table service, TS) within an 800-meter radius of 13 public housing developments (HD) and 4 comparison neighborhoods were audited using the Restaurant Assessment Tool©2010. HD neighborhoods were lower income and higher minority than comparison neighborhoods with similar density and street connectivity. Restaurants in HD neighborhoods had fewer healthy entrées than comparison neighborhoods. FF restaurants had cheaper beverages and more children's meals, supersize drinks, free prize with purchase, super-size items, special characters, and more items geared to driving than TS restaurants. Residents of lower socioeconomic neighborhoods may be differentially exposed to unhealthy food options.

  12. Formative research for a healthy diet intervention among inner-city adolescents: the importance of family, school and neighborhood environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Jennifer L; Hsiao, Ya-Chun; Kasat-Shors, Madhuri; Murray, Laura; Nguyen, Nga Kim; Richards, Adam K; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2009-01-01

    To understand influences on diet among low-income African-American adolescents in East Baltimore. Formative research was conducted for a food store-centered healthy diet intervention targeted to inner-city youth. Family, school and neighborhood influences on eating habits and health concepts were explored. Family structure, economic resources and past experiences influence what food means to adolescents. Healthy food in school and local stores is limited. Terminology to categorize foods was identified, including the term "home foods". Suggested adolescent nutritional interventions include promotion of home-based eating, improving availability of healthy foods in school and neighborhood stores, and targeted educational materials.

  13. Effects of semantic neighborhood density in abstract and concrete words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Megan; Desai, Rutvik H

    2017-12-01

    Concrete and abstract words are thought to differ along several psycholinguistic variables, such as frequency and emotional content. Here, we consider another variable, semantic neighborhood density, which has received much less attention, likely because semantic neighborhoods of abstract words are difficult to measure. Using a corpus-based method that creates representations of words that emphasize featural information, the current investigation explores the relationship between neighborhood density and concreteness in a large set of English nouns. Two important observations emerge. First, semantic neighborhood density is higher for concrete than for abstract words, even when other variables are accounted for, especially for smaller neighborhood sizes. Second, the effects of semantic neighborhood density on behavior are different for concrete and abstract words. Lexical decision reaction times are fastest for words with sparse neighborhoods; however, this effect is stronger for concrete words than for abstract words. These results suggest that semantic neighborhood density plays a role in the cognitive and psycholinguistic differences between concrete and abstract words, and should be taken into account in studies involving lexical semantics. Furthermore, the pattern of results with the current feature-based neighborhood measure is very different from that with associatively defined neighborhoods, suggesting that these two methods should be treated as separate measures rather than two interchangeable measures of semantic neighborhoods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Neighborhood social capital and individual health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohnen, S.M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Völker, B.G.M.; Flap, H.D.

    2010-01-01

    Neighborhood social capital is increasingly considered to be an important determinant of an individual’s health. Using data from the Netherlands we investigate the influence of neighborhood social capital on an individual’s self-reported health, while accounting for other conditions of health on

  15. Una nota sobre los Hormigones de Cemento Portland (HCP y Hormigones de Cemento Portland con Adiciones (HCPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talero Morales, Rafael

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available El hombre contemporáneo ha dividido el proceso evolutivo de la humanidad en macroperíodos de tiempo relacionados con avances significativos obtenidos en el campo de los materiales. Así se define la edad de piedra, bronce, hierro, cobre, etc. Y siguiendo esta tendencia, probablemente las generaciones futuras podrán hablar de esta época como la "edad del hormigón" y mostrar los monumentales vestigios que, en su mayor parte, se han construido con hormigón de cemento portland.

  16. Portland cement hydration in the presence of admixtures: black gram pulse and superplasticizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveka Nand Dwivedi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of admixtures such as black gram pulse (BGP and sulfonated naphthalene based superplasticizer (SP on the hydration of Portland cement has been studied. The hydration characteristics of OPC in the presence of BGP and SP were studied with the help of non evaporable water content determinations, calorimetric method, Mössbauer spectroscopic and atomic force microscopic techniques. Results have shown that both BGP and SP get adsorbed at the surface of cement and its hydration products. The hydration of Portland cement is retarded in the presence of both the admixtures and nanosize hydration products are formed.

  17. Network neighborhood analysis with the multi-node topological overlap measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai; Horvath, Steve

    2007-01-15

    The goal of neighborhood analysis is to find a set of genes (the neighborhood) that is similar to an initial 'seed' set of genes. Neighborhood analysis methods for network data are important in systems biology. If individual network connections are susceptible to noise, it can be advantageous to define neighborhoods on the basis of a robust interconnectedness measure, e.g. the topological overlap measure. Since the use of multiple nodes in the seed set may lead to more informative neighborhoods, it can be advantageous to define multi-node similarity measures. The pairwise topological overlap measure is generalized to multiple network nodes and subsequently used in a recursive neighborhood construction method. A local permutation scheme is used to determine the neighborhood size. Using four network applications and a simulated example, we provide empirical evidence that the resulting neighborhoods are biologically meaningful, e.g. we use neighborhood analysis to identify brain cancer related genes. An executable Windows program and tutorial for multi-node topological overlap measure (MTOM) based analysis can be downloaded from the webpage (http://www.genetics.ucla.edu/labs/horvath/MTOM/).

  18. Properties of Portland-Composite Cements with metakaolin: Commercial and manufactured by Thermal Activation of Serbian Kaolin Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrovic A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Portland-composite cements (CEM II were prepared with addition of 5 to 35% of metakaolin (MK, manufactured by thermal activation/calcination of Serbian kaolin clay, and commercial matakaolin (CMK. Performance of the composite cements was evaluated, through the setting time (initial and final, compressive strengths (for ages 2, 7, 28, 90 and 180 days and soundness, and compared with control cement (Portland cement – CEM I. Setting time (initial and final is accelerated in Portlandcomposite cements, for both metakaolins used. The acceleration is higher in cement with addition of commercial metakaolin. Lower compressive strength is obtained after 2 days of curing for all Portland-composite cements in comparison with control cement, since pozzolanic reaction still did not show its effect. After 7 days, pozzolanic reaction show its effect, manifested as compressive strength increase of Portland-composite cements with addition of up to 35% of CMK, and 25% in the case of cements with MK. After 28 days compressive strength was higher than that for control cement for cements prepared with addition of CMK, and with addition of up to 25% MK. After 90 days increased compressive strength was noticed with addition of 10 - 20% of CMK, and with 10 and 15% of MK, while after 180 days addition of both metakaolins influences compressive strength decrease. The results of the soundness, 0.5 mm for CEM I, and 1.0 mm in most Portland-composite cements indicate soundness increase with addition of metakaolins. Generally, better performance of Portland-composite cements was obtained with addition of commercial metakaolin, which may be attributed to the differences in the pozzolanic activity of the applied metakaolins, 20.5 MPa and 14.9 MPa for CMK and MK, respectively. By our previous findings pozzolanic activity of the thermally activated clay may be increased by subsequent milling of the metakaolin manufactured by thermal activation process.

  19. Experimental and modeling study of Portland cement paste degradation in boric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benakli, A.; Chomat, L.; Le Bescop, P.; Wall, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of Spent Fuel Pools (SFP) lifetime studies, an investigation of the Portland cement degradation in boric acid has been requested by the Electric Power Research Institute. The main goal of this study is to identify the physico-chemical degradation mechanisms involved in boric acid media. Both experimental and modeling approaches are considered. Concerning degradation experiments, sample of cement paste are immersed during three and nine months in a boric acid solution at 2400 ppm that is periodically renewed. Boric acid concentration has been chosen to be representative of SFP solution. Results will be confronted with reactive transport numerical calculations performed by the reactive transport code HYTEC associated with a dedicated extended database called Thermoddem. The analysis of degradation solution revealed a main ions release mechanism driven by diffusion especially for calcium, nitrate, sodium and sulfate. Leaching behavior of magnesium seems to be more complex. Decalcification is the major degradation process involved, even if a non-negligible contribution of further cations (Mg 2+ , Na + ) and anions (SO 4 2- ) has been noticed. Analysis of degradation soution also revealed that kinetic of Portland cement paste degradation in boric acid is higher than in pure water, regarding the degraded depths measured and calcium leaching rate. This observation has been confirmed by solid characterization. Microstructure analysis of degraded Portland cement paste showed a global porosity increase in the degraded zone that might be mainly attributed to Portlandite dissolution. An Ettringite reprecipitation in the degraded zone has been suspected but could also be Ettringite-like phases containing boron. The analysis techniques used did not allow us to differentiate it, and no others specific mineral phases containing boron has been identified. Profile pattern by XRD analysis allowed us to identify four zones composing the degraded Portland cement paste

  20. Using GPS Data to Study Neighborhood Walkability and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, Andrew G; Sheehan, Daniel M; Quinn, James W; Bartley, Katherine; Eisenhower, Donna; Bader, Michael M D; Lovasi, Gina S; Neckerman, Kathryn M

    2016-03-01

    Urban form characteristics intended to support pedestrian activity, collectively referred to as neighborhood walkability, are thought to increase total physical activity. However, little is known about how neighborhood walkability influences utilization of neighborhood space by residents and their overall physical activity. Sociodemographic information and data on mobility and physical activity over 1-week periods measured by GPS loggers and accelerometers were collected from 803 residents of New York City between November 2010 and November 2011. Potentially accessible neighborhood areas were defined as land area within a 1-kilometer distance of the subject's home (radial buffer) and within a 1-kilometer journey on the street network from the home (network buffer). To define actual areas utilized by subjects, a minimum convex polygon was plotted around GPS waypoints falling within 1 kilometer of the home. A neighborhood walkability scale was calculated for each neighborhood area. Data were analyzed in 2014. Total residential neighborhood space utilized by subjects was significantly associated with street intersection density and was significantly negatively associated with residential density and subway stop density within 1 kilometer of the home. Walkability scale scores were significantly higher within utilized as compared with non-utilized neighborhood areas. Neighborhood walkability in the utilized neighborhood area was positively associated with total weekly physical activity (32% [95% CI=17%, 49%] more minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity across the interquartile range of walkability). Neighborhood walkability is associated with neighborhood spaces utilized by residents and total weekly physical activity. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Local norms of cheating and the cultural evolution of crime and punishment: a study of two urban neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Kari Britt; Pepper, Gillian V; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of antisocial behavior varies across time and place. The likelihood of committing such behavior is affected by, and also affects, the local social environment. To further our understanding of this dynamic process, we conducted two studies of antisocial behavior, punishment, and social norms. These studies took place in two neighborhoods in Newcastle Upon Tyne, England. According to a previous study, Neighborhood A enjoys relatively low frequencies of antisocial behavior and crime and high levels of social capital. In contrast, Neighborhood B is characterized by relatively high frequencies of antisocial behavior and crime and low levels of social capital. In Study 1, we used an economic game to assess neighborhood differences in theft, third-party punishment (3PP) of theft, and expectation of 3PP. Participants also reported their perceived neighborhood frequency of cooperative norm violation ("cheating"). Participants in Neighborhood B thought that their neighbors commonly cheat but did not condone cheating. They stole more money from their neighbors in the game, and were less punitive of those who did, than the residents of Neighborhood A. Perceived cheating was positively associated with theft, negatively associated with the expectation of 3PP, and central to the neighborhood difference. Lower trust in one's neighbors and a greater subjective value of the monetary cost of punishment contributed to the reduced punishment observed in Neighborhood B. In Study 2, we examined the causality of cooperative norm violation on expectation of 3PP with a norms manipulation. Residents in Neighborhood B who were informed that cheating is locally uncommon were more expectant of 3PP. In sum, our results provide support for three potentially simultaneous positive feedback mechanisms by which the perception that others are behaving antisocially can lead to further antisocial behavior: (1) motivation to avoid being suckered, (2) decreased punishment of antisocial

  2. Local norms of cheating and the cultural evolution of crime and punishment: a study of two urban neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Gillian V.; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of antisocial behavior varies across time and place. The likelihood of committing such behavior is affected by, and also affects, the local social environment. To further our understanding of this dynamic process, we conducted two studies of antisocial behavior, punishment, and social norms. These studies took place in two neighborhoods in Newcastle Upon Tyne, England. According to a previous study, Neighborhood A enjoys relatively low frequencies of antisocial behavior and crime and high levels of social capital. In contrast, Neighborhood B is characterized by relatively high frequencies of antisocial behavior and crime and low levels of social capital. In Study 1, we used an economic game to assess neighborhood differences in theft, third-party punishment (3PP) of theft, and expectation of 3PP. Participants also reported their perceived neighborhood frequency of cooperative norm violation (“cheating”). Participants in Neighborhood B thought that their neighbors commonly cheat but did not condone cheating. They stole more money from their neighbors in the game, and were less punitive of those who did, than the residents of Neighborhood A. Perceived cheating was positively associated with theft, negatively associated with the expectation of 3PP, and central to the neighborhood difference. Lower trust in one’s neighbors and a greater subjective value of the monetary cost of punishment contributed to the reduced punishment observed in Neighborhood B. In Study 2, we examined the causality of cooperative norm violation on expectation of 3PP with a norms manipulation. Residents in Neighborhood B who were informed that cheating is locally uncommon were more expectant of 3PP. In sum, our results provide support for three potentially simultaneous positive feedback mechanisms by which the perception that others are behaving antisocially can lead to further antisocial behavior: (1) motivation to avoid being suckered, (2) decreased punishment of

  3. Local norms of cheating and the cultural evolution of crime and punishment: a study of two urban neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Britt Schroeder

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of antisocial behavior varies across time and place. The likelihood of committing such behavior is affected by, and also affects, the local social environment. To further our understanding of this dynamic process, we conducted two studies of antisocial behavior, punishment, and social norms. These studies took place in two neighborhoods in Newcastle Upon Tyne, England. According to a previous study, Neighborhood A enjoys relatively low frequencies of antisocial behavior and crime and high levels of social capital. In contrast, Neighborhood B is characterized by relatively high frequencies of antisocial behavior and crime and low levels of social capital. In Study 1, we used an economic game to assess neighborhood differences in theft, third-party punishment (3PP of theft, and expectation of 3PP. Participants also reported their perceived neighborhood frequency of cooperative norm violation (“cheating”. Participants in Neighborhood B thought that their neighbors commonly cheat but did not condone cheating. They stole more money from their neighbors in the game, and were less punitive of those who did, than the residents of Neighborhood A. Perceived cheating was positively associated with theft, negatively associated with the expectation of 3PP, and central to the neighborhood difference. Lower trust in one’s neighbors and a greater subjective value of the monetary cost of punishment contributed to the reduced punishment observed in Neighborhood B. In Study 2, we examined the causality of cooperative norm violation on expectation of 3PP with a norms manipulation. Residents in Neighborhood B who were informed that cheating is locally uncommon were more expectant of 3PP. In sum, our results provide support for three potentially simultaneous positive feedback mechanisms by which the perception that others are behaving antisocially can lead to further antisocial behavior: (1 motivation to avoid being suckered, (2 decreased

  4. Assessing opportunities for physical activity in the built environment of children: interrelation between kernel density and neighborhood scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Christoph; Kneib, Thomas; Tkaczick, Tobias; Konstabel, Kenn; Pigeot, Iris

    2015-12-22

    Built environment studies provide broad evidence that urban characteristics influence physical activity (PA). However, findings are still difficult to compare, due to inconsistent measures assessing urban point characteristics and varying definitions of spatial scale. Both were found to influence the strength of the association between the built environment and PA. We simultaneously evaluated the effect of kernel approaches and network-distances to investigate the association between urban characteristics and physical activity depending on spatial scale and intensity measure. We assessed urban measures of point characteristics such as intersections, public transit stations, and public open spaces in ego-centered network-dependent neighborhoods based on geographical data of one German study region of the IDEFICS study. We calculated point intensities using the simple intensity and kernel approaches based on fixed bandwidths, cross-validated bandwidths including isotropic and anisotropic kernel functions and considering adaptive bandwidths that adjust for residential density. We distinguished six network-distances from 500 m up to 2 km to calculate each intensity measure. A log-gamma regression model was used to investigate the effect of each urban measure on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of 400 2- to 9.9-year old children who participated in the IDEFICS study. Models were stratified by sex and age groups, i.e. pre-school children (2 to kernel approaches. Smallest variation in effect estimates over network-distances was found for kernel intensity measures based on isotropic and anisotropic cross-validated bandwidth selection. We found a strong variation in the association between the built environment and PA of children based on the choice of intensity measure and network-distance. Kernel intensity measures provided stable results over various scales and improved the assessment compared to the simple intensity measure. Considering different spatial

  5. Neighborhood quality and labor market outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    2014-01-01

    of refugee men. Their labor market outcomes are also not affected by the overall employment rate and the overall average skill level in the neighborhood. However, an increase in the average skill level of non-Western immigrant men living in the neighborhood raises their employment probability, while...

  6. Use of red mud as addition for portland cement mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, D.V.; Morelli, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present research work was to investigate the possibility of adding red mud, an alkaline leaching waste that is obtained from bauxite during the Bayer process for alumina production, in the raw meal of Portland cement mortars. The red mud is classified as dangerous, according to NBR 10004/2004, and world while generation reached over 117 million tons/year. This huge production requires high consuming products to be used as incorporation matrix and we studied the influence of red mud addition on the characteristics of cement mortars and concrete. In this paper the properties of Portland cement mortars incorporating high amounts of red mud was evaluated: pH variation, fresh (setting time, workability or normal consistency and water retention), and hardened state (mechanical strength, capillary water absorption, density and apparent porosity). Results seem promising for red mud additions up to 20 wt%. (author)

  7. Study of irradiation damage by fast neutrons in samples of Portland cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucki, G.; Rosa Junior, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of neutron irradiation in samples of Portland cement was evaluated, using the resonance frequency method and pulse velocity of ultra-sound techniques. The samples were divided in three groups: 1) monitoring samples; 2) samples submitted to gamma heating; 3) Irradiated samples. In the sample preparation, it was used the Portland Santa Rita CP 320 cement, and water-cement rate of 0.40 l/Kg. The irradiation was done in the research reactor IEA-R1, at IPEN - CNEN/SP, with an integrated flux of 7.2 x 10 18 n/cm 2 (E approx. 1 MeV). Some damage were detected, due to the neutron flux, and by the thermal effect of gamma heating. (E.G.) [pt

  8. Neighborhood disadvantage and preterm delivery in Urban African Americans: The moderating role of religious coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawnita Sealy-Jefferson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that neighborhood disadvantage predicts preterm delivery (PTD. However, the design of most existing studies precludes within-group analyses, which would allow the identification segments of the population at highest risk, as well as preventive factors. African Americans (AA are disproportionately affected by PTD, are disproportionately concentrated in disadvantaged neighborhoods, and frequently use religious coping in response to chronic stressors. Our objective was to examine the association between neighborhood disadvantage and PTD, and whether religious coping moderated the associations, among postpartum AA women. Addresses from participants of the Life Influences on Fetal Environments Study (n=1387 were geocoded and linked to data from the American Community Survey. An index of neighborhood disadvantage was derived from a principal components analysis of the following variables: % below poverty, % unemployed, % receiving public assistance income, % college educated, % AA, % female-headed households, % owner occupied homes, median income, and median home value. Three domains of religious coping were assessed: organizational (church attendance, non-organizational (praying for self and asking others for prayer, and personal or subjective (experiences, perceptions, and sentiments about religion, and all were dichotomized as frequent/infrequent or satisfied/not satisfied. Preterm delivery was defined as birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated with log binomial regression models. Neighborhood disadvantage did not predict PTD rates in the overall sample. However, there was evidence of moderation by asking others for prayer (P for asking for prayer X disadvantage index interaction term: 0.01. Among women who infrequently asked others for prayer, neighborhood disadvantage was positively associated with PTD rates (adjusted Prevalence ratio: 1.28, 95% Confidence

  9. Socioeconomic inequalities in children's diet: the role of the home food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Nalini; Wilkinson, Anna V; Lytle, Leslie M; Evans, Alexandra E; Saxton, Debra; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2015-07-27

    It is well documented in the literature that low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with lower consumption of healthy foods and that these differences in consumption patterns are influenced by neighborhood food environments. Less understood is the role that SES differences in physical and social aspects of the home food environment play in consumption patterns. Using data on 4th grade children from the 2009-2011 Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) study, we used mixed-effects regression models to test the magnitude of differences in the SPAN Health Eating Index (SHEI) by parental education as an indicator of SES, and the extent to which adjusting for measures of the home food environment, and measures of the neighborhood environment accounted for these SES differences. Small but significant differences in children’s SHEI by SES strata exist (-1.33 between highest and lowest SES categories, penvironment and neighborhood environment measures in this model eliminates these differences (-0.7, p=0.145). Home food environment explains a greater portion of the difference. Both social (mealtime structure) and physical aspects (food availability) of the home food environment are strongly associated with consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. Our findings suggest that modifiable parent behaviors at home can improve children’s eating habits and that the neighborhood may impact diet in ways other than through access to healthy food.

  10. NEIGHBORHOOD NORMS AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG TEENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, Kelly; Seltzer, Judith A.; Schwartz, Christine R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses new data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) to examine how neighborhood norms shape teenagers’ substance use. Specifically, it takes advantage of clustered data at the neighborhood level to relate adult neighbors’ attitudes and behavior with respect to smoking, drinking, and drugs, which we treat as norms, to teenagers’ own smoking, drinking, and drug use. We use hierarchical linear models to account for parents’ attitudes and behavior and other characteristics of individuals and families. We also investigate how the association between neighborhood norms and teen behavior depends on: (1) the strength of norms, as measured by consensus in neighbors’ attitudes and conformity in their behavior; (2) the willingness and ability of neighbors to enforce norms, for instance, by monitoring teens’ activities; and (3) the degree to which teens are exposed to their neighbors. We find little association between neighborhood norms and teen substance use, regardless of how we condition the relationship. We discuss possible theoretical and methodological explanations for this finding. PMID:18496598

  11. Neighborhood walkability and cardiometabolic risk factors in Australian adults: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Pereira, Gavin; Villanueva, Karen; Christian, Hayley; Knuiman, Matthew; Giles-Corti, Billie; Bull, Fiona C

    2013-08-15

    Studies repeatedly highlight associations between the built environment and physical activity, particularly walking. Fewer studies have examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors, with associations with obesity inconsistent and scarce evidence examining associations with other cardiometabolic risk factors. We aim to investigate the association between neighborhood walkability and the prevalence of obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and type-2 diabetes mellitus. Cross-sectional study of 5,970 adults in Western Australia. Walkability was measured objectively for a 1,600 m and 800 m neighborhood buffer. Logistic regression was used to assess associations overall and by sex, adjusting for socio-demographic factors. Mediation by physical activity and sedentary behavior was investigated. Individuals living in high compared with less walkable areas were less likely to be obese (1,600 m OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.7 to 1; 800 m OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.9) and had lower odds of type-2 diabetes mellitus at the 800 m buffer (800 m OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.93). There was little evidence for an association between walkability and hypertension or hypercholesterolaemia. The only significant evidence of any difference in the associations in men and women was a stronger association with type-2 diabetes mellitus at the 800 m buffer in men. Associations with obesity and diabetes attenuated when additionally adjusting for physical activity and sedentary behavior but the overall association with obesity remained significant at the 800 m buffer (800 m OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.96). A protective association between neighborhood walkability and obesity was observed. Neighborhood walkability may also be protective of type-2 diabetes mellitus, particularly in men. No association with hypertension or hypercholesterolaemia was found. This warrants further investigation. Findings contribute towards the accumulating evidence that city planning and policy related

  12. Hydration kinetics modeling of Portland cement considering the effects of curing temperature and applied pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Feng; Meyer, Christian

    2009-01-01

    A hydration kinetics model for Portland cement is formulated based on thermodynamics of multiphase porous media. The mechanism of cement hydration is discussed based on literature review. The model is then developed considering the effects of chemical composition and fineness of cement, water-cement ratio, curing temperature and applied pressure. The ultimate degree of hydration of Portland cement is also analyzed and a corresponding formula is established. The model is calibrated against the experimental data for eight different Portland cements. Simple relations between the model parameters and cement composition are obtained and used to predict hydration kinetics. The model is used to reproduce experimental results on hydration kinetics, adiabatic temperature rise, and chemical shrinkage of different cement pastes. The comparisons between the model reproductions and the different experimental results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model, especially for cement hydration at elevated temperature and high pressure.

  13. Exploration of the Link between Tobacco Retailers in School Neighborhoods and Student Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Monica L.; Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven; Hunt, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Background: School smoking bans give officials the authority to provide a smoke-free environment, but enacting policies within the school walls is just one step in comprehensive tobacco prevention among students. It is necessary to investigate factors beyond the school campus and into the neighborhoods that surround schools. The purpose of this…

  14. Neighborhood differences in social capital in Ghent (Belgium): a multilevel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutens, Tijs; Vyncke, Veerle; De Winter, Dieter; Willems, Sara

    2013-11-13

    Little research has focused on the spatial distribution of social capital, despite social capital's rising popularity in health research and policy. This study examines the neighborhood differences in social capital and the determinants that explain these differences. Five components of neighborhood social capital are identified by means of factor and reliability analyses using data collected in the cross-sectional SWING study from 762 inhabitants in 42 neighbourhoods in the city of Ghent (Belgium). Neighborhood differences in social capital are explored using hierarchical linear models with cross-level interactions. Significant neighborhood differences are found for social cohesion, informal social control and social support, but not for social leverage and generalized trust. Our findings suggest that neighborhood social capital depends on both characteristics of individuals living in the neighborhood (attachment to neighborhood) and characteristics of the neighborhood itself (deprivation and residential turnover). Our analysis further shows that neighborhood deprivation reinforces the negative effect of declining neighborhood attachment on social cohesion and informal social control. This study foregrounds the importance of contextual effects in encouraging neighborhood social capital. Given the importance of neighborhood-level characteristics, it can be anticipated social capital promoting initiatives are likely to be more effective when tailored to specific areas. Second, our analyses show that not all forms of social capital are influenced by contextual factors to the same extent, implying that changes in neighborhood characteristics are conducive to, say, trust while leaving social support unaffected. Finally, our analysis has demonstrated that complex interrelationships between individual- and neighborhood-level variables exist, which are often overlooked in current work.

  15. Cultural mechanisms and the persistence of neighborhood violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, David S; Papachristos, Andrew V

    2011-01-01

    Sociologists have given considerable attention to identifying the neighborhood-level social-interactional mechanisms that influence outcomes such as crime, educational attainment, and health. Yet, cultural mechanisms are often overlooked in quantitative studies of neighborhood effects. This paper adds a cultural dimension to neighborhood effects research by exploring the consequences of legal cynicism. Legal cynicism refers to a cultural frame in which people perceive the law as illegitimate, unresponsive, and ill equipped to ensure public safety. The authors find that legal cynicism explains why homicide persisted in certain Chicago neighborhoods during the 1990s despite declines in poverty and declines in violence city-wide.

  16. Portland Public Schools Project Chrysalis: Year 2 Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Gabriel, Roy M.; Hahn, Karen J.; Laws, Katherine E.

    In 1994, the Chrysalis Project in Portland Public Schools received funding to prevent or delay the onset of substance abuse among a special target population: high-risk, female adolescents with a history of childhood abuse. Findings from the evaluation of the project's second year of providing assistance to these students are reported here. During…

  17. Exposure to Neighborhood Green Space and Mental Health: Evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. M. Beyer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Green space is now widely viewed as a health-promoting characteristic of residential environments, and has been linked to mental health benefits such as recovery from mental fatigue and reduced stress, particularly through experimental work in environmental psychology. Few population level studies have examined the relationships between green space and mental health. Further, few studies have considered the role of green space in non-urban settings. This study contributes a population-level perspective from the United States to examine the relationship between environmental green space and mental health outcomes in a study area that includes a spectrum of urban to rural environments. Multivariate survey regression analyses examine the association between green space and mental health using the unique, population-based Survey of the Health of Wisconsin database. Analyses were adjusted for length of residence in the neighborhood to reduce the impact of neighborhood selection bias. Higher levels of neighborhood green space were associated with significantly lower levels of symptomology for depression, anxiety and stress, after controlling for a wide range of confounding factors. Results suggest that “greening” could be a potential population mental health improvement strategy in the United States.

  18. Modelling of Pb release during Portland cement alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benard, A. [INERIS Mediterrannee, F-13545 Aix En Provence 04 (France); Rose, J.; Borschneck, D.; Bottero, J.Y. [Univ Paul Cezanne, CNRS, UMR 6635, CEREGE, IFR PMSE 112, F-13545 Aix En Provence, (France); Hazemann, J.L. [CNRS, Cristallog Lab, F-38042 Grenoble 09 (France); Proux, O. [Univ Grenoble 1, CNRS, UMR, LGIT, F-38400 St Martin Dheres (France); Trotignon, L. [CEA Cadarache, DTN, SMTM, Lab Modelisat Transferts Environm, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Nonat, A. [Univ Bourgogne, CNRS, UMR 5613, Fac Sci Mirande, Lab Rech Reactivite Solides, F-21078 Dijon (France); Chateau, L. [ADEME, F-49004 Angers (France)

    2009-07-01

    Complex cementitious matrices undergo weathering with environmental exchange and can release metallic pollutants during alteration. The molecular mechanisms responsible for metal release are difficult to identify, though this is necessary if such processes are to be controlled. The present study determines and models the molecular mechanisms of Pb release during Portland cement leaching. As Pb release is strongly related to its speciation (i.e. atomic environment and the nature of bearing phases), the first objective of the present study was to investigate the evolution of Pb retention sites together with the evolution of the cement mineralogy during leaching. Complementary and efficient investigation tools were used, namely X-ray diffraction, micro-X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption fine structures. The second objective was to reproduce our results with a reactive transport code (CHESS/HYTEC) in order to test the proposed speciation model of Pb. Combined results indicate that in both the unaltered core and the altered layer of the leached cement, Pb(II) would be retained through C-S-H 'nano-structure', probably linked to a Q(1) or Q(2P) silicate tetrahedra. Moreover in the altered layer, the presence of Fe atoms in the atomic environment of Pb is highly probable. Unfortunately little is known about Fe phases in cement, which makes the interpretation difficult. Can Fe-substituted hydrogranet (C(3)AH(6)) be responsible for Pb retention? Modelling results were consistent with Pb retention through C-S-H in layers and also in an additional, possibly Fe-containing, Pb-retention phase in the altered layer. (authors)

  19. Self-Reported Physical Activity within and outside the Neighborhood: Criterion-Related Validity of the Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire in German Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bödeker, Malte; Bucksch, Jens; Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    The Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire allows to assess physical activity within and outside the neighborhood. Study objectives were to examine the criterion-related validity and health/functioning associations of Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire-derived physical activity in German older adults. A total of 107 adults aged…

  20. A Picture of the Healthful Food Environment in Two Diverse Urban Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Lee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Local food environments influence fresh produce purchase and consumption, and previous research has found disparities in local food environments by income and ethnicity. Other existing studies have begun to quantify the distribution of food sources, but there has been limited attention to important features or types of healthful food that are available or their quality or cost. Two studies assessed the type, quantity, quality and cost of healthful food from two diverse urban cities, Kansas City, Kansas and Missouri and Honolulu, Hawaii, and evaluated differences by neighborhood income and ethnic composition. Method: A total of 343 food stores in urban neighborhoods were assessed using the one-page Understanding Neighborhood Determinants of Obesity (UNDO Food Stores Assessment (FSA measuring healthful foods. US Census data were used to define median household income and ethnic minority concentration. Results: In Study 1, most low socioeconomic status (SES, high ethnic minority neighborhoods had primarily convenience, liquor or small grocery stores. Quality of produce was typically lower, and prices of some foods were more than in comparison neighborhoods. In Study 2, low SES neighborhoods had more convenience and grocery stores. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets had the best produce availability and quality, and farmers’ markets and pharmacies had the lowest prices. Conclusions: Messages emphasizing eating more fruits and vegetables are not realistic in urban, low SES, high ethnic concentration neighborhoods. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets provided the best opportunities for fresh produce. Increasing access to farmers’ markets and supermarkets or reducing prices could improve the local food environment.

  1. A Picture of the Healthful Food Environment in Two Diverse Urban Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Local food environments influence fresh produce purchase and consumption, and previous research has found disparities in local food environments by income and ethnicity. Other existing studies have begun to quantify the distribution of food sources, but there has been limited attention to important features or types of healthful food that are available or their quality or cost. Two studies assessed the type, quantity, quality and cost of healthful food from two diverse urban cities, Kansas City, Kansas and Missouri and Honolulu, Hawaii, and evaluated differences by neighborhood income and ethnic composition. Method A total of 343 food stores in urban neighborhoods were assessed using the one-page Understanding Neighborhood Determinants of Obesity (UNDO Food Stores Assessment (FSA measuring healthful foods. US Census data were used to define median household income and ethnic minority concentration. Results In Study 1, most low socioeconomic status (SES, high ethnic minority neighborhoods had primarily convenience, liquor or small grocery stores. Quality of produce was typically lower, and prices of some foods were more than in comparison neighborhoods. In Study 2, low SES neighborhoods had more convenience and grocery stores. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets had the best produce availability and quality, and farmers’ markets and pharmacies had the lowest prices. Conclusions Messages emphasizing eating more fruits and vegetables are not realistic in urban, low SES, high ethnic concentration neighborhoods. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets provided the best opportunities for fresh produce. Increasing access to farmers’ markets and supermarkets or reducing prices could improve the local food environment.

  2. Neighborhood-based PA and its environmental correlates: a GIS- and GPS based cross-sectional study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Marijke; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; Pierik, Frank H; Ettema, Dick F; Dijst, Martin J

    2018-02-09

    To improve our understanding of the neighborhood environment - physical activity (PA) relationship, it is of importance to assess associations between neighborhood environmental characteristics and neighborhood-based PA. Participants' (N = 308; 45-65 years) light PA (LPA) and moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) within a 400, 800, and 1600 m buffer around adults' homes was measured using accelerometers and GPS-devices. Land use data in ArcGIS provided neighborhood characteristics for the same buffers. Multilevel linear regression models, adjusted for socio-demographic variables and attitude towards PA, were used to assess associations of objective neighborhood characteristics with neighborhood-based LPA and MVPA. LPA was positively associated with the proportions of roads (within a 400 m buffer), and negatively associated with the proportions of recreational areas (within an 800 m buffer), and the proportion of green space (within the 800 m and 1600 m buffers). Multiple characteristics of 400 m buffers were positively associated with MVPA, i.e. proportions of green space, blue space, residences, shops and foodservice industry, sports terrain, and public social-cultural facilities. Also, characteristics of larger buffers were positively associated with MVPA, i.e. the proportions of shops and foodservice industry, sports terrain, and blue space (within an 800 m buffer), and the proportion of public social-cultural facilities (within the 800 m and 1600 m buffers). Objective neighborhood characteristics of smaller as well as larger sized buffers were associated with neighborhood-based LPA and MVPA. Green and blue spaces seem to be of particular importance for PA in the smallest buffer, i.e. in the direct surrounding of adults' homes.

  3. Moessbauer and calorimetric studies of portland cement hydration in the presence of black gram pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Sarita; Kurian, Sajith; Dwivedi, V. N.; Das, S. S.; Singh, N. B.; Gajbhiye, N. S.

    2009-01-01

    Effect of different concentrations of naturally occurring admixture in the form of fine powder of black gram pulse (BGP) on the hydration of Portland cement was studied by isothermal calorimetry and 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The spectra were recorded for anhydrous cement and the hydration products at room temperature and 77 K. In the presence of BGP, the spectra showed superparamagnetic doublets at room temperature and the sextet at 77 K, due to the presence of fine particles of iron containing component. Moessbauer studies of hydration products confirmed the formation of nanosize hydration products containing Fe 3+ . The isomer shift (δ) and the quadrupole splitting (ΔE Q ) values of C 4 AF in the cement confirmed iron in an octahedral and tetrahedral environment with +3 oxidation state. The high value of quadrupole splitting showed the high asymmetry of the electron environment around the iron atom. The overall mechanism of the hydration of cement in presence of BGP is discussed.

  4. Influencia del yeso sobre la velocidad de hidratación del cemento portland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi, G.

    1961-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availablePara esclarecer la Influencia del yeso sobre el fraguado y endurecimiento del cemento, los autores estudiaron el grado de hidratación de los cuatro principales minerales del clínker de cemento Portland y el efecto del yeso sobre ellas. Haciendo uso del análisis cuantitativo de rayos X, se determinó la porción no hidratada. Simultáneamente, se determinaron los tiempos de fraguado y las resistencias. Los ensayos se llevaron a cabo sobre tres clínkeres sintéticos de diferentes composiciones y sobre dos clínkeres de cemento Portland comerciales.

  5. The effects of social capital and neighborhood characteristics on intimate partner violence: a consideration of social resources and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Maritt; Lazgare, Luis Palma; Zhang, Yu Janice; O'Campo, Patricia

    2015-06-01