WorldWideScience

Sample records for porcine pancreatic elastase

  1. Crystallization of porcine pancreatic elastase and a preliminary neutron diffraction experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Takayoshi [Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Tamada, Taro [Molecular Structural Biology Group, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Imai, Keisuke [Lead Discovery Research Laboratories, Astellas Pharma Inc., 21 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8585 (Japan); Kurihara, Kazuo; Ohhara, Takashi [Molecular Structural Biology Group, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Tada, Toshiji [Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kuroki, Ryota, E-mail: kuroki.ryota@jaea.go.jp [Molecular Structural Biology Group, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the structural characteristics of a covalent inhibitor bound to porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE), including H atoms and hydration by water, a crystal of porcine pancreatic elastase with its inhibitor was grown to a size of 1.6 mm{sup 3} for neutron diffraction study. The crystal diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution with sufficient quality for further structure determination owing to the similar atomic scattering properties of deuterium and carbon. Porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) resembles the attractive drug target leukocyte elastase, which has been implicated in a number of inflammatory disorders. In order to investigate the structural characteristics of a covalent inhibitor bound to PPE, including H atoms and the hydration by water, a single crystal of PPE for neutron diffraction study was grown in D{sub 2}O containing 0.2 M sodium sulfate (pD 5.0) using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal was grown to a size of 1.6 mm{sup 3} by repeated macroseeding. Neutron diffraction data were collected at room temperature using a BIX-3 diffractometer at the JRR-3 research reactor of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The data set was integrated and scaled to 2.3 Å resolution in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.2, b = 57.8, c = 75.6 Å.

  2. Pancreatic elastase in human serum. Determination by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geokas, M.C. (Univ. of California, Davis); Brodrick, J.W.; Johnson, J.H.; Largman, C.

    1977-01-10

    This study demonstrates that a serine endopeptidase of pancreatic origin (elastase 2) circulates in human blood. A specific and highly sensitive radioimmunoassay has been developed for pancreatic elastase 2 in human serum. The inactivation of elastase 2 employed as radioiodinated tracer with an active site-specific reagent (phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride) was necessary to prevent its binding by serum ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-macroglobulin while maintaining its immunoreactivity. The assay is based upon competition of standard human pancreatic elastase 2 with /sup 125/I-labeled phenylmethanesulfonyl elastase 2 for specific antibody binding sites, after which a second antibody precipitation step is used to separate bound from free /sup 125/I-labeled phenylmethanesulfonyl elastase 2. The minimum detectable concentration of elastase 2 was 0.9 ng/ml. The average normal fasting serum level determined was 71 ng/ml, approximately 80-fold greater than the minimum detectable amount.

  3. Primary structure of human pancreatic elastase 2 determined by sequence analysis of the cloned mRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, T.S.; Shen, W.F.; Largman, C.

    1987-01-01

    A cDNA encoding elastase 2 has been cloned from a human pancreatic cDNA library. The cDNA contains a translation initiation site and a poly(A) recognition site and encodes a protein of 269 amino acids, including a proposed 16-residue signal peptide. The amino acid sequence of the deduced mature protein contains a 12-residue activation peptide containing a cysteine at residue 1 similar to that of chymotryspin. The proposed active enzyme contains all of the characteristic active-site amino acids, including His-57, Asp-102, and Ser-195. The S1 binding pocket is bounded by Gly-216 and Ser-226, making this pocket intermediate in size between chymotrypsins and elastase 1 or protease E, consistent with the substrate specificity of elastase 2 for long-chain aliphatic or aromatic amino acids. Computer modeling studies using the amino acid sequence of elastase 2 superimposed on the X-ray structure of porcine elastase 1 suggest that a change of Gln-192 in elastase 1 to Asn-192 in elastase 2 may account for the lower catalytic efficiency of the latter enzyme. Several basic residues appear to be near the ends of the extended binding pocket of elastases which might serve to anchor the enzyme to the elastin substrate. These studies indicate that elastases 2 and elastase 1 both contain an Arg-65A as well as a basic dipeptide at 223/224 which is not present in chymotrypsins. In addition, Arg-217A is present in humaan elastase 2 but absent in rat pancreatic protein which has been proposed to be an elastase 2 on the basis of sequence homology, but which was not isolated during screening of rat pancreatic tissue extracts for elastolytic activity

  4. Human leukocyte and porcine pancreatic elastase: X-ray crystal structures, mechanism, substrate specificity, and mechanism-based inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, W.; Meyer, E. Jr.; Powers, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The serine protease family of enzymes is one of the most widely studied group of enzymes, as evidenced by the fact that more crystal structures are available for individuals of this superfamily than for any other homologous group of enzymes. These enzymes contain a conserved triad of catalytic residues including Ser-195, His-57, and Asp-102. The active-site serine is very nucleophilic, and serine proteases are inhibited by specific serine protease reagents such as diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP), phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride, and 3,4-dichloroisocoumarin. Elastases are a group of proteases that possess the ability to cleave the important connective tissue protein elastin. Elastin has the unique property of elastic recoil, is widely distributed in vertebrate tissue, and is particularly abundant in the lungs, arteries, skin, and ligaments. Human neutrophil elastase and pancreatic elastase are two major serine proteases that cleave elastin. Neutrophil elastase is found in the dense granules of polymorphonuclear leukycytes and is essential for phagocytosis and defense against infection by invading microorganisms. Pancreatic elastase is stored as an inactive zymogen in the pancreas and is secreted into the intestines where it becomes activated by trypsin and then participates in digestion. Both elastases cleave substrates at peptide bonds where the P 1 residue is an amino acid residue with a small alkyl side chain

  5. Elastase-induced emphysema in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loscutoff, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Pulmonary function changes measured in guinea pigs 4 to 5 wk following intratracheal instillation of crystalline porcine pancreatic elastase resembled comparable changes in humans with moderately severe pulmonary emphysema. Compared with saline-treated controls, elastase-treated animals had increased values for all divisions of lung volume, increased static compliance and prolonged time constants. Since humans with emphysema are especially sensitive to air pollutants, elastase-treated animals may be useful as sensitive animal models in inhalatio toxicology

  6. Elastase-induced emphysema: retention of instilled proteinase in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhaus, R.A.; Janoff, A.

    1982-01-01

    Airway instillation of proteinases with the ability to degrade elastin has been used to produce disease in the rat analogous to human pulmonary emphysema. This study examined the retention, localization, and fate of endotracheally instilled elastase using 125 I labeled enzyme and immunoperoxidase histochemistry. Porcine pancreatic elastase labeled with 125 I was detected in rat lungs through 96 h after instillation; over half of the label was still present after 7 h. Similar results were obtained when elastase was reacted with a specific, catalytic site inactivator prior to instillation. Trypsin and denatured elastase, however, were cleared much more rapidly from the lung (less than half of the label present after 30 min). When lungs were homogenized after instillation of active elastase, the soluble fraction contained elastase bound to rat alpha1-antitrypsin. In addition, a small amount of label (less than 10%) appeared bound to insoluble components for extended periods of time. Using immunoperoxidase histochemistry, it was found that exogenous elastase was rapidly contained with pulmonary alveolar macrophages, as well as associated with alveolar septums and other parenchymal structures. Similar results were obtained with elastase from both porcine pancreas and human neutrophils. These results suggest that exogenous elastase in the rat, and perhaps endogenous elastolytic enzymes in humans, may have several fates in the lungs: complex formation with endogenous inhibitors, containment within the macrophage, and/or association with connective tissue targets

  7. Activity of neutrophil elastase reflects the progression of acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novovic, Srdan; Andersen, Anders M; Nord, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Neutrophil elastase (NE) concentration is associated with progression of acute pancreatitis (AP), but measuring total NE concentration includes biologically inactive NE. This study aims to investigate the relationship between NE activity and the aetiology and severity of AP...... was associated with predicted severity of AP and AP-associated respiratory failure. Specific NE inhibitors may have therapeutic potential in acute pancreatitis....

  8. Comparison of fecal elastase-1 and pancreatic function testing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Prateek D; Loveridge-Lenza, Beth; He, Zhaoping; Horvath, Karoly

    2012-02-01

    The fecal pancreatic elastase-1 (FE-1) test is considered a simple, noninvasive, indirect measure of pancreatic function. We aimed to evaluate the performance of the FE-1 test compared with the direct pancreatic function test (PFT) with secretin stimulation in children. Data of 70 children (6 months-17 years of age) who had both FE-1 test and PFT were analyzed. The average FE-1 concentration was 403 ± 142 μg/g. Eleven children had concentrations below 200  μg/g, 23 between 201 to 500 μg/g, and 36 were above 500 μg/g. The average pancreatic elastase activity measured on direct stimulation was 49.1 ± 38.6  μmol · min (-1)· ml(-1) and 11 children had activity below the established cutoff (10.5 μmol · min(-1) · ml(-1)). Among the 11 children with pathologic PFT, 7 had normal FE-1, 4 were in the intermediate range (201-500 μg/g), and none were in the low range (g). Among the 59 children with normal direct PFT 11 (19%) had pathologic (g) and 19 (32%) had intermediate FE-1 tests. Twenty-nine children had both normal FE-1 concentration and normal PFT, giving a negative predictive value of 80%. The correlation between pancreatic elastase activity and FE-1 concentration was poor (r = 0.190). The sensitivity of the FE-1 test was found to be 41.7%, whereas the specificity was 49.2%. The positive predictive value of the FE-1 test was only 14%. The FE-1 test is a simple, noninvasive, indirect method; however, ordering physicians should be aware of its limitations. It can give false-positive results and has low sensitivity in children with mild pancreatic insufficiency without cystic fibrosis and in those with isolated pancreatic enzyme deficiencies.

  9. Fecal pancreatic elastase-1 levels in older individuals without known gastrointestinal diseases or diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idziak Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural changes occur in the pancreas as a part of the natural aging process. With aging, also the incidence of maldigestive symptoms and malnutrition increases, raising the possibility that these might be caused at least in part by inadequate pancreatic enzyme secretion due to degenerative processes and damage of the gland. Fecal elastase-1 is a good marker of pancreatic exocrine secretion. The aim of this study was to investigate the fecal elastase-1 levels among over 60 years old Finnish and Polish healthy individuals without any special diet, known gastrointestinal disease, surgery or diabetes mellitus. Methods A total of 159 patients participated in this cross-sectional study. 106 older individuals (aged 60-92 years were recruited from outpatient clinics and elderly homes. They were divided to three age groups: 60-69 years old (n = 31; 70-79 years old (n = 38 and over 80 years old (n = 37. 53 young subjects (20-28 years old were investigated as controls. Inclusion criteria were age over 60 years, normal status and competence. Exclusion criteria were any special diet, diabetes mellitus, any known gastrointestinal disease or prior gastrointestinal surgery. Fecal elastase-1 concentration was measured from stool samples with an ELISA that uses two monoclonal antibodies against different epitopes of human elastase-1. Results Fecal elastase-1 concentrations correlated negatively with age (Pearson r = -0,3531, P P Conclusion In our study one fifth of healthy older individuals without any gastrointestinal disorder, surgery or diabetes mellitus suffer from pancreatic exocrine insufficiency and might benefit from enzyme supplementation therapy.

  10. Elastase effect on the extracellular matrix of rat aortic smooth muscle cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kispert, J.; Mogayzel, P.J. Jr.; Pratt, C.A.; Toselli, P.; Wolfe, B.L.; Faris, B.; Franzblau, C.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of porcine pancreatic elastase on the extracellular matrix (ECM) of neonatal rat aortic smooth muscle cell cultures was monitored both chemically and ultrastructurally. Initially, the elastin appeared as non-coalesced material closely associated with filaments, presumably microfibrils. The insoluble elastin accumulated in the ECM of cells in culture for 6 weeks accounted for 40-45% of the total protein. After exposure to elastase for 30-60 minutes, the elastin content was reduced to 14-20%. The reduction in the total protein content of the cultures after elastase treatment was due primarily to the loss of elastin. Although the amino acid compositions of the elastin isolated from cultures both before and after elastase treatment were similar, there were striking ultrastructural differences in the amorphous elastin. The elastin assumed a mottled appearance after elastase exposure, similar to that seen in in vivo emphysema models. Pulse experiments with 3 H-valine demonstrated an increase in protein synthesis by the cells 20 hours after elastase exposure, suggesting the potential for elastin repair. The use of this culture system will aid in clarifying the role of elastolysis in pulmonary and vascular injuries

  11. Comparison of monoclonal and polyclonal ELISAs for fecal elastase in patients with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowitz, Drucy; Lin, Rong; Baker, Susan S

    2007-02-01

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodologies are used to detect pancreatic insufficiency: monoclonal and polyclonal. We sought to compare these assays in patients with cystic fibrosis and to correlate these with the coefficient of fat absorption (CFA). As part of a larger study, subjects had stool elastase measured by both methods while taking exogenous enzymes. Subjects subsequently stopped enzymes and had a fecal fat balance study performed; the CFA was then calculated. One hundred twenty-four subjects participated in this substudy. The median values for the monoclonal and polyclonal assays were 0.3 and 22.75 microg/g, respectively. The correlation coefficient between the 2 tests was 0.86 (P definition of pancreatic insufficiency was set at a CFA definition of pancreatic insufficiency was set at <100 microg/g, then the monoclonal and polyclonal assay positive predictive values were 97.6% (120 of 123) and 97.4% (111 of 114), respectively. The positive predictive value of both monoclonal and polyclonal fecal elastase in patients with cystic fibrosis is extremely good; however, correlation of either test with CFA was poor. The median value for the polyclonal elastase assay is higher than for the monoclonal assay, which could potentially lead to lower sensitivity of the polyclonal assay at lower cutpoints for the monoclonal assay is used.

  12. Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma and Pancreatic Tumor Cell Lines: The Role of Neutrophils and Neutrophil-Derived Elastase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Große-Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is frequently associated with fibrosis and a prominent inflammatory infiltrate in the desmoplastic stroma. Moreover, in PDAC, an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT is observed. To explore a possible connection between the infiltrating cells, particularly the polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN and the tumor cell transition, biopsies of patients with PDAC (n=115 were analysed with regard to PMN infiltration and nuclear expression of β-catenin and of ZEB1, well-established indicators of EMT. In biopsies with a dense PMN infiltrate, a nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and of ZEB1 was observed. To address the question whether PMN could induce EMT, they were isolated from healthy donors and were cocultivated with pancreatic tumor cells grown as monolayers. Rapid dyshesion of the tumor cells was seen, most likely due to an elastase-mediated degradation of E-cadherin. In parallel, the transcription factor TWIST was upregulated, β-catenin translocated into the nucleus, ZEB1 appeared in the nucleus, and keratins were downregulated. EMT was also induced when the tumor cells were grown under conditions preventing attachment to the culture plates. Here, also in the absence of elastase, E-cadherin was downmodulated. PMN as well as prevention of adhesion induced EMT also in liver cancer cell line. In conclusion, PMN via elastase induce EMT in vitro, most likely due to the loss of cell-to-cell contact. Because in pancreatic cancers the transition to a mesenchymal phenotype coincides with the PMN infiltrate, a contribution of the inflammatory response to the induction of EMT and—by implication—to tumor progression is possible.

  13. Identification and Characterization of Roseltide, a Knottin-type Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitor Derived from Hibiscus sabdariffa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Shining; Kam, Antony; Xiao, Tianshu; Nguyen, Giang K. T.; Liu, Chuan Fa; Tam, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant knottins are of therapeutic interest due to their high metabolic stability and inhibitory activity against proteinases involved in human diseases. The only knottin-type proteinase inhibitor against porcine pancreatic elastase was first identified from the squash family in 1989. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a knottin-type human neutrophil elastase inhibitor from Hibiscus sabdariffa of the Malvaceae family. Combining proteomic and transcriptomic methods, we identified a panel of novel cysteine-rich peptides, roseltides (rT1-rT8), which range from 27 to 39 residues with six conserved cysteine residues. The 27-residue roseltide rT1 contains a cysteine spacing and amino acid sequence that is different from the squash knottin-type elastase inhibitor. NMR analysis demonstrated that roseltide rT1 adopts a cystine-knot fold. Transcriptome analyses suggested that roseltides are bioprocessed by asparagine endopeptidases from a three-domain precursor. The cystine-knot structure of roseltide rT1 confers its high resistance against degradation by endopeptidases, 0.2 N HCl, and human serum. Roseltide rT1 was shown to inhibit human neutrophil elastase using enzymatic and pull-down assays. Additionally, roseltide rT1 ameliorates neutrophil elastase-stimulated cAMP accumulation in vitro. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that roseltide rT1 is a novel knottin-type neutrophil elastase inhibitor with therapeutic potential for neutrophil elastase associated diseases. PMID:27991569

  14. Immunohistochemical study of tumor markers (CEA, TPA, CA19-9, POA and Ferritin) and pancreatic exocrine enzymes(Amylase and Elastase 1) in pancreatic tumors

    OpenAIRE

    脇谷, 勇夫

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), pancreatic oncofetal antigen (POA), Ferritin, Amylase and Elastase 1 was studied immunohistochemically using an immunoperoxidase method in 26 conventional histopathologic sections of pancreatic tumor. CEA and CA19-9 were regarded as markers secreted into the glandular lumina from cancer cells, but TPA and POA were not. The expression of these markers was different from one...

  15. Repeated Gene Transfection Impairs the Engraftment of Transplanted Porcine Neonatal Pancreatic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Koo Seo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPreviously, we reported that neonatal porcine pancreatic cells transfected with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF gene in an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-based plasmid (pEBVHGF showed improved proliferation and differentiation compared to those of the control. In this study, we examined if pancreatic cells transfected repeatedly with pEBVHGF can be successfully grafted to control blood glucose in a diabetes mouse model.MethodsNeonatal porcine pancreatic cells were cultured as a monolayer and were transfected with pEBVHGF every other day for a total of three transfections. The transfected pancreatic cells were re-aggregated and transplanted into kidney capsules of diabetic nude mice or normal nude mice. Blood glucose level and body weight were measured every other day after transplantation. The engraftment of the transplanted cells and differentiation into beta cells were assessed using immunohistochemistry.ResultsRe-aggregation of the pancreatic cells before transplantation improved engraftment of the cells and facilitated neovascularization of the graft. Right before transplantation, pancreatic cells that were transfected with pEBVHGF and then re-aggregated showed ductal cell marker expression. However, ductal cells disappeared and the cells underwent fibrosis in a diabetes mouse model two to five weeks after transplantation; these mice also did not show controlled blood glucose levels. Furthermore, pancreatic cells transplanted into nude mice with normal blood glucose showed poor graft survival regardless of the type of transfected plasmid (pCEP4, pHGF, or pEBVHGF.ConclusionFor clinical application of transfected neonatal porcine pancreatic cells, further studies are required to develop methods of overcoming the damage for the cells caused by repeated transfection and to re-aggregate them into islet-like structures.

  16. Primary structure of human pancreatic protease E determined by sequence analysis of the cloned mRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, W.; Fletcher, T.S.; Largman, C.

    1987-01-01

    Although protease E was isolated from human pancreas over 10 years ago, its amino acid sequence and relationship to the elastases have not been established. The authors report the isolation of a cDNA clone for human pancreatic protease E and determination of the nucleic acid sequence coding for the protein. The deduced amino acid sequence contains all of the features common to serine proteases. The substrate binding region is highly homologous to those of porcine and rat elastases 1, explaining the similar specificity for alanine reported for protease E and these elastases. However, the amino acid sequence outside the substrate binding region is less than 50% conserved, and there is a striking difference in the overall net charge for protease E (6-) and elastases 1 (8+). These findings confirm that protease E is a new member of the serine protease family. They have attempted to identify amino acid residues important for the interaction between elastases and elastin by examining the amino acid sequence differences between elastases and protease E. In addition to the large number of surface charge changes which are outside the substrate binding region, there are several changes which might be crucial for elastolysis: Leu-73/Arg-73; Arg-217A/Ala-217A; Arg-65A/Gln-65A; and the presence of two new cysteine residues (Cys-98 and Cys-99B) which computer modeling studies predict could form a new disulfide bond, not previously observed for serine proteases. They also present evidence which suggests that human pancreas does not synthesize a basic, alanine-specific elastase similar to porcine elastase 1

  17. Pancreatic fibrosis correlates with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after pancreatoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T C K; van 't Hof, G; Kazemier, G; Hop, W C; Pek, C; van Toorenenbergen, A W; van Dekken, H; van Eijck, C H J

    2008-01-01

    Obstruction of the pancreatic duct can lead to pancreatic fibrosis. We investigated the correlation between the extent of pancreatic fibrosis and the postoperative exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function. Fifty-five patients who were treated for pancreatic and periampullary carcinoma and 19 patients with chronic pancreatitis were evaluated. Exocrine pancreatic function was evaluated by fecal elastase-1 test, while endocrine pancreatic function was assessed by plasma glucose level. The extent of fibrosis, duct dilation and endocrine tissue loss was examined histopathologically. A strong correlation was found between pancreatic fibrosis and elastase-1 level less than 100 microg/g (p pancreatic insufficiency. A strong correlation was found between pancreatic fibrosis and endocrine tissue loss (p pancreatic fibrosis nor endocrine tissue loss were correlated with the development of postoperative diabetes mellitus. Duct dilation alone was neither correlated with exocrine nor with endocrine function loss. The majority of patients develop severe exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after pancreatoduodenectomy. The extent of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is strongly correlated with preoperative fibrosis. The loss of endocrine tissue does not correlate with postoperative diabetes mellitus. Preoperative dilation of the pancreatic duct per se does not predict exocrine or endocrine pancreatic insufficiency postoperatively. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Polar Desolvation and Position 226 of Pancreatic and Neutrophil Elastases Are Crucial to their Affinity for the Kunitz-Type Inhibitors ShPI-1 and ShPI-1/K13L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández González, Jorge Enrique; García-Fernández, Rossana; Valiente, Pedro Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The Kunitz-type protease inhibitor ShPI-1 inhibits human neutrophil elastase (HNE, Ki = 2.35·10-8 M) but does not interact with the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE); whereas its P1 site variant, ShPI-1/K13L, inhibits both HNE and PPE (Ki = 1.3·10-9 M, and Ki = 1.2·10-8 M, respectively). By employing a combination of molecular modeling tools, e.g., structural alignment, molecular dynamics simulations and Molecular Mechanics Generalized-Born/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area free energy calculations, we showed that D226 of HNE plays a critical role in the interaction of this enzyme with ShPI-1 through the formation of a strong salt bridge and hydrogen bonds with K13 at the inhibitor's P1 site, which compensate the unfavorable polar-desolvation penalty of the latter residue. Conversely, T226 of PPE is unable to establish strong interactions with K13, thereby precluding the insertion of K13 side-chain into the S1 subsite of this enzyme. An alternative conformation of K13 site-chain placed at the entrance of the S1 subsite of PPE, similar to that observed in the crystal structure of ShPI-1 in complex with chymotrypsin (PDB: 3T62), is also unfavorable due to the lack of stabilizing pair-wise interactions. In addition, our results suggest that the higher affinity of ShPI-1/K13L for both elastases mainly arises from the lower polar-desolvation penalty of L13 compared to that of K13, and not from stronger pair-wise interactions of the former residue with those of each enzyme. These results provide insights into the PPE and HNE inhibition and may contribute to the design of more potent and/or specific inhibitors toward one of these proteases.

  19. Effect of bacterial or porcine lipase with low- or high-fat diets on nutrient absorption in pancreatic-insufficient dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, A; Mizumoto, A; Rerknimitr, R; Sarr, M G; DiMango, E P

    1999-02-01

    Treatment of human exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is suboptimal. This study assessed the effects of bacterial lipase, porcine lipase, and diets on carbohydrate, fat, and protein absorption in pancreatic-insufficient dogs. Dogs were given bacterial or porcine lipase and 3 diets: a 48% carbohydrate, 27% fat, and 25% protein standard diet; a high-carbohydrate, low-fat, and low-protein diet; or a low-carbohydrate, high-fat, and high-protein diet (66%/18%/16% and 21%/43%/36% calories). With the standard diet, coefficient of fat absorption increased dose-dependently with both lipases (P vs. low-fat and -protein diet). There were no interactions among carbohydrate, fat, and protein absorption. Correcting steatorrhea requires 75 times more porcine than bacterial lipase (18 vs. 240 mg). High-fat and high-protein diets optimize fat absorption with both enzymes. High-fat diets with bacterial or porcine lipase should be evaluated in humans with pancreatic steatorrhea.

  20. Association of Low Fecal Elastase-1 and Non-Ulcer Dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tahtaci

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD is a term used to define a set of symptoms that are believed to originate from the gastroduodenal region, and no underlying organic, systemic, or metabolic reason can be found. The majority of patients suffer from chronic symptoms although half of the patients report improvement in symptoms with time. The potential role exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in NUD patients has not been clarified yet. We aimed to identify exocrine pancreas function with pancreatic fecal elastase-1 in patients diagnosed with non-ulcer dyspepsia and no typical exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI symptoms. Thirty-five patients referred to gastroenterology clinics with NUD and 35 people with no dyspeptic symptoms as a control group were included in this prospective study. Non-ulcer dyspepsia patients were classified as group 1 and control subjects classified as group 2. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopies were performed in both groups. Assessment of exocrine pancreatic function was performed by measuring fecal elastase-1 concentration with a commercial ELISA kit using polyclonal antibodies (BioServ Diagnostics in NUD patients compared to control subjects. Mean fecal elastase-1 levels were significantly lower in group 1 patients compared with group 2 (367.47 ± 43.27; 502.48 ± 50.94 respectively; p = 0.04. The percentage of the patients with EPI was significantly higher in group 1 (p = 0.02. Patients with NUD should be re-evaluated if they do not show satisfactory improvement with treatment. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency was significantly higher in patients with NUD in our study. Evaluation for the presence of EPI can be a cost effective approach in management of refractory patients during the process of ruling out organic reasons.

  1. Inhibition of elastase-pulmonary emphysema in dominant-negative MafB transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Yasuko; Shibata, Yoko; Abe, Shuichi; Inoue, Sumito; Kimura, Tomomi; Igarashi, Akira; Yamauchi, Keiko; Nunomiya, Keiko; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Takako; Sato, Masamichi; Sato-Nishiwaki, Michiko; Nakano, Hiroshi; Sato, Kento; Kubota, Isao

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We previously demonstrated upregulation of the transcription factor MafB in AMs of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. The aim of this study was to elucidate the roles of MafB in the development of pulmonary emphysema. Porcine pancreatic elastase was administered to wild-type (WT) and dominant-negative (DN)-MafB transgenic (Tg) mice in which MafB activity was suppressed only in macrophages. We measured the mean linear intercept and conducted cell differential analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells, surface marker analysis using flow cytometry, and immunohistochemical staining using antibodies to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-12. Airspace enlargement of the lungs was suppressed significantly in elastase-treated DN-MafB Tg mice compared with treated WT mice. AMs with projected pseudopods were decreased in DN-MafB Tg mice. The number of cells intermediately positive for F4/80 and weakly or intermediately positive for CD11b, which are considered cell subsets of matured AMs, decreased in the BAL of DN-MafB Tg mice. Furthermore, MMP-9 and -12 were significantly downregulated in BAL cells of DN-MafB Tg mice. Because MMPs exacerbate emphysema, MafB may be involved in pulmonary emphysema development through altered maturation of macrophages and MMP expression.

  2. Exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function in 21 patients suffering from autoimmune pancreatitis before and after steroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frulloni, Luca; Scattolini, Chiara; Katsotourchi, Anna Maria; Amodio, Antonio; Gabbrielli, Armando; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Benini, Luigi; Vantini, Italo

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) responds rapidly and dramatically to steroid therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate pancreatic exocrine and endocrine function in patients suffering from AIP both before and after steroid therapy. Fecal elastase 1 and diabetes were evaluated before steroid therapy and within 1 month of its suspension in 21 patients (13 males and 8 females, mean age 43 +/- 16.5 years) diagnosed as having AIP between 2006 and 2008. At clinical onset, fecal elastase 1 was 107 +/- 126 microg/g stool. Thirteen patients (62%) showed severe pancreatic insufficiency (insufficiency (100-200 microg/g stool), while 4 (19%) had normal pancreatic function (>200 microg/g stool). Before steroids, diabetes was diagnosed in 5 patients (24%), all of whom had very low levels of fecal elastase 1 (endocrine pancreatic insufficiency at clinical onset. These insufficiencies improve after steroid therapy. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Purification and characterization of elastase from the pyloric caeca of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassompierre, Marc; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch; Børresen, Torger

    1993-01-01

    1. An elastase-like enzyme was purified from the pyloric caeca of rainbow trout by hydrophobic interaction, cation exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. 2. The approximate molecular weight of the elastase was 27 kDa and the isoelectric point was remarkably basic. 3. The pH optimum of this e......1. An elastase-like enzyme was purified from the pyloric caeca of rainbow trout by hydrophobic interaction, cation exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. 2. The approximate molecular weight of the elastase was 27 kDa and the isoelectric point was remarkably basic. 3. The pH optimum...... of this enzyme was 8.0, when assayed with Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Ala-p-Nitroanilide. 4. When assayed with Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Ala-p-Nitroanilide, the enzyme activity had a temperature optimum of 45 degree C, and the enzyme was stable up to this temperature. 5. The trout elastase exhibited a higher specific activity than...... porcine elastase against Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Ala-p-Nitroanilide and elastin-orcein. 6. The trout elastase was inhibited by elastatinal, PMSF, TPCK, SBTI and Bowman-Birk inhibitor....

  4. IL-23 Is Essential for the Development of Elastase-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation and Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Utako; Miyahara, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Akihiko; Waseda, Koichi; Morichika, Daisuke; Kurimoto, Etsuko; Koga, Hikari; Kataoka, Mikio; Gelfand, Erwin W; Cua, Daniel J; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kanehiro, Arihiko

    2016-11-01

    We recently reported that IL-17A plays a critical role in the development of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced emphysema. The proliferation of T-helper type 17 (Th17) cells was induced by IL-23. To determine the contribution of IL-23 to the development of pulmonary emphysema, a mouse model of PPE-induced emphysema was used in which responses of IL-23p19-deficient (IL-23 -/- ) and wild-type (WT) mice were compared. Intratracheal instillation of PPE induced emphysematous changes in the lungs and was associated with increased levels of IL-23 in lung homogenates. Compared with WT mice, IL-23 -/- mice developed significantly lower static compliance values and markedly reduced emphysematous changes on histological analyses after PPE instillation. These changes were associated with lower levels of IL-17A and fewer Th17 cells in the lung. The neutrophilia seen in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of WT mice was attenuated in IL-23 -/- mice, and the reduction was associated with decreased levels of keratinocyte-derived cytokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment with anti-IL-23p40 monoclonal antibody significantly attenuated PPE-induced emphysematous changes in the lungs of WT mice. These data identify the important contributions of IL-23 to the development of elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation and emphysema, mediated through an IL-23/IL-17 pathway. Targeting IL-23 in emphysema is a potential therapeutic strategy for delaying disease progression.

  5. Alterations in pulmonary structure by elastase administration in a model of emphysema in mice is associated with functional disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vidal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Several experimental studies of pulmonary emphysema using animal models have been described in the literature. However, only a few of these studies have focused on the assessment of ergometric function as a non-invasive technique to validate the methodology used for induction of experimental emphysema. Additionally, functional assessments of emphysema are rarely correlated with morphological pulmonary abnormalities caused by induced emphysema. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of elastase administered by tracheal puncture on pulmonary parenchyma and their corresponding functional impairment. This was evaluated by measuring exercise capacity in C57Bl/6 mice in order to establish a reproducible and safe methodology of inducing experimental emphysema. Thirty six mice underwent ergometric tests before and 28 days after elastase administration. Pancreatic porcine elastase solution was administered by tracheal puncture, which resulted in a significantly decreased exercise capacity, shown by a shorter distance run (−30.5% and a lower mean velocity (−15%, as well as in failure to increase the elimination of carbon dioxide. The mean linear intercept increased significantly by 50% in tracheal elastase administration. In conclusion, application of elastase by tracheal function in C57Bl/6 induces emphysema, as validated by morphometric analyses, and resulted in a significantly lower exercise capacity, while resulting in a low mortality rate. Resumo: Vários estudos experimentais de enfisema pulmonar em modelos animais têm sido descritos na literatura científica. No entanto, apenas alguns destes estudos têm sido concentrados na avaliação da função ergométrica como técnica não-invasiva para validar a metodologia utilizada para a indução do enfisema experimental. Além disso, as avaliações funcionais de enfisema raramente se encontram correlacionadas com anomalias morfológicas pulmonares

  6. Influence of SPK with Enteric Drainage on the Pancreatic Exocrine Function in Diabetic Patients with Uremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Pei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to determine the use of fecal elastase in evaluating the effect of simultaneous pancreas–kidney transplantation with enteric drainage on the pancreatic exocrine function of diabetic patients with uremia. Methods. A total of 19 patients with simultaneous pancreas–kidney transplantation (SPK with enteric drainage, 31 diabetic patients with uremia (chronic renal failure (CRF, 22 diabetic patients with uremia who underwent renal transplantation (RT, and 20 normal individuals (CON were included in the study. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency was determined using fecal elastase. Results. The fecal pancreatic elastase level in SPK patients with enteric drainage was 479 μg/g, which was significantly higher than 229 μg/g in CRF patients and 197 μg/g in RT patients. Using 200 μg/g as the established threshold, a reduced fecal pancreatic elastase level was found in 14/31 of CRF patients, 12/22 of RT patients, 1/19 of SPK patients with enteric drainage, and 1/20 of CON patients. The correlation analysis revealed a significant association between fecal elastase and glycosylated hemoglobin. Conclusions. The present study indicated that SPK with enteric drainage improves pancreatic endocrine and exocrine functions. Fecal elastase may be a clinically relevant means to determine the therapeutic effects.

  7. Obstructed pancreaticojejunostomy partly explains exocrine insufficiency after pancreatic head resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordback, Isto; Parviainen, Mickael; Piironen, Anneli; Räty, Sari; Sand, Juhani

    2007-02-01

    The majority of patients with long-term survival after pancreatic head resection suffer from pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this is due to glandular malfunction or obstructed pancreaticojejunal anastomosis. Twenty-six patients (10 M, 16 F, mean age 61 years, range 34-81 years) were re-examined a median of 52 months (range 3-76 months) after pancreatic head resection and end-to-end invaginated pancreaticojejunostomy. Pancreatic exocrine function was measured by fecal elastase-1 assay. The size of the pancreatic remnant, glandular secretion and the flow through the anastomosis were analyzed with secretin-stimulated dynamic magnetic resonance pancreatography (D-MRP). All patients had pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, 24 (92%) of them having severe insufficiency. Eighteen patients (69%) reported moderate to severe diarrhea. Lowest fecal elastase-1 concentrations were associated with the initial diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis or ductal adenocarcinoma, suggesting preoperative primary or secondary chronic pancreatitis as important determinants. The size of the remnant gland did not correlate with the fecal elastase-1 concentrations. D-MRP failed in three patients. Severe glandular malfunctions were found in 7 (30%) of the 23 successful D-MRP examinations. The anastomosis was totally obstructed in 5 patients (22%) or partially obstructed in 6 (26%) but remained perfectly open in 5 patients (22%). The five patients with perfect anastomoses had the highest measured median fecal elastase-1 activity. Although late diarrhea and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency may be partly induced already by the disease treated with resection, at least half may be explained by obstructed anastomosis. To obtain better late functional results, improvements may be required in the surgical techniques.

  8. Structurally Related Monoterpenes p-Cymene, Carvacrol and Thymol Isolated from Essential Oil from Leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) Protect Mice against Elastase-Induced Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Games, Ellen; Guerreiro, Marina; Santana, Fernanda R; Pinheiro, Nathalia M; de Oliveira, Emerson A; Lopes, Fernanda D T Q S; Olivo, Clarice R; Tibério, Iolanda F L C; Martins, Mílton A; Lago, João Henrique G; Prado, Carla M

    2016-10-20

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction and inflammation. Natural products, such as monoterpenes, displayed anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities and can be used as a source of new compounds to COPD treatment. Our aim was to evaluate, in an elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice, the effects of and underlying mechanisms of three related natural monoterpenes ( p -cymene, carvacrol and thymol) isolated from essential oil from leaves Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae). Mices received porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and were treated with p -cymene, carvacrol, thymol or vehicle 30 min later and again on 7th, 14th and 28th days. Lung inflammatory profile and histological sections were evaluated. In the elastase-instilled animals, the tested monoterpenes reduced alveolar enlargement, macrophages and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and collagen fibers, MMP-9 and p-65-NF-κB-positive cells in lung parenchyma ( p < 0.05). All treatments attenuated levels of 8-iso-PGF2α but only thymol was able to reduced exhaled nitric oxide ( p < 0.05). Monoterpenes p -cymene, carvacrol and thymol reduced lung emphysema and inflammation in mice. No significant differences among the three monoterpenes treatments were found, suggesting that the presence of hydroxyl group in the molecular structure of thymol and carvacrol do not play a central role in the anti-inflammatory effects.

  9. Secretin-stimulated MRI characterization of pancreatic morphology and function in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzak, Adnan; Olesen, Søren Schou; Haldorsen, Ingfrid Salvesen; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is characterized by abnormal pancreatic morphology and impaired endocrine and exocrine function. However, little is known about the relationship between pancreatic morphology and function, and also the association with the etiology and clinical manifestations of CP. The aim was to explore pancreatic morphology and function with advanced MRI in patients with CP and healthy controls (HC) METHODS: Eighty-two patients with CP and 22 HC were enrolled in the study. Morphological imaging parameters included pancreatic main duct diameter, gland volume, fat signal fraction and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Functional secretin-stimulated MRI (s-MRI) parameters included pancreatic secretion (bowel fluid volume) and changes in pancreatic ADC value before and after secretin stimulation. Patients were classified according to the modified Cambridge and M-ANNHEIM classification system and fecal elastase was collected. All imaging parameters differentiated CP patients from HC; however, correlations between morphological and functional parameters in CP were weak. Patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic etiology had comparable s-MRI findings. Fecal elastase was positively correlated to pancreatic gland volume (r = 0.68, P = 0.0016) and negatively correlated to Cambridge classification (r = -0.35, P pancreatic gland volume was significantly decreased in the severe stages of CP (P = 0.001). S-MRI provides detailed information about pancreatic morphology and function and represents a promising non-invasive imaging method to characterize pancreatic pathophysiology and may enable monitoring of disease progression in patients with CP. Copyright © 2017 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Endocrine pancreatic function changes after acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Deqing; Xu, Yaping; Zeng, Yue; Wang, Xingpeng

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impairment of pancreatic endocrine function and the associated risk factors after acute pancreatitis (AP). Fifty-nine patients were subjected to tests of pancreatic function after an attack of pancreatitis. The mean time after the event was 3.5 years. Pancreatic endocrine function was evaluated by fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting blood insulin, and C-peptide. Homeostasis model assessment was used to evaluate insulin resistance and islet β-cell function. Pancreatic exocrine function was evaluated by fecal elastase 1. Factors that could influence endocrine function were also investigated. Nineteen patients (32%) were found to have elevated FBG, whereas 5 (8%) had abnormal glycosylated hemoglobin levels. The levels of FBG, fasting blood insulin, and C-peptide were higher in patients than in controls (P endocrine insufficiency. Pancreatic exocrine functional impairment was found at the same time. Endocrine functional impairment with insulin resistance was found in patients after AP. Obesity, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes-related symptoms increased the likelihood of developing functional impairment after AP.

  11. Undiagnosed pancreatic exocrine insufficiency and chronic pancreatitis in functional GI disorder patients with diarrhea or abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Nicholas J; Holtmann, Gerald; Nguyen, Quoc Nam; Gibson, Peter; Bampton, Peter; Veysey, Martin; Wong, James; Philcox, Stephen; Koloski, Natasha; Bunby, Lisa; Jones, Michael

    2017-11-01

    A previous UK study showed that 6.1% of patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) had evidence of severe pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), but these findings need replication. We aimed to identify the prevalence of PEI based on fecal elastase stool testing in consecutive outpatients presenting with chronic unexplained abdominal pain and/or diarrhea and/or IBS-D. Patients aged over 40 years presenting to hospital outpatient clinics from six sites within Australia with unexplained abdominal pain and/or diarrhea for at least 3 months and/or IBS-D were studied. Patients completed validated questionnaires and donated a stool sample in which elastase concentration was measured by ELISA. A concentration of abdominal CT. Two hundred eighteen patients (mean age of 60 years, 29.4% male) were studied. PEI was found in 4.6% (95% CI 2.2-8.3%) (n = 10), with five patients (2.3% (95% CI 0.8-5.3%) having severe PEI. Only male sex and heavy alcohol use were significantly associated with abnormal versus normal pancreatic functioning. Of seven patients who underwent endoscopic ultrasound or CT, two had features indicative of chronic pancreatitis. One in 50 patients with IBS-D or otherwise unexplained abdominal pain or diarrhea have an abnormal fecal elastase, but unexpected pancreatic insufficiency was detected in only a minority of these. This study failed to confirm the high prevalence of PEI among patients with unexplained GI symptoms previously reported. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. The Use of Bovine Pericardial Buttress on Linear Stapler Fails to Reduce Pancreatic Fistula Incidence in a Porcine Pancreatic Transection Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Maciver

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effectiveness of buttressing the surgical stapler to reduce postoperative pancreatic fistulae in a porcine model. As a pilot study, pigs (n=6 underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy using a standard stapler. Daily drain output and lipase were measured postoperative day 5 and 14. In a second study, pancreatic transection was performed to occlude the proximal and distal duct at the pancreatic neck using a standard stapler (n=6, or stapler with bovine pericardial strip buttress (n=6. Results. In pilot study, 3/6 animals had drain lipase greater than 3x serum on day 14. In the second series, drain volumes were not significantly different between buttressed and control groups on day 5 (55.3 ± 31.6 and 29.3 ± 14.2 cc, resp., nor on day 14 (9.5 ± 4.2 cc and 2.5 ± 0.8 cc, resp., P=0.13. Drain lipase was not statistically significant on day 5 (3,166 ± 1,433 and 6,063 ± 1,872 U/L, resp., P=0.25 or day 14 (924 ± 541 and 360 ± 250 U/L. By definition, 3/6 developed pancreatic fistula; only one (control demonstrating a contained collection arising from the staple line. Conclusion. Buttressed stapler failed to protect against pancreatic fistula in this rigorous surgical model.

  13. Zinc status in chronic pancreatitis and its relationship with exocrine and endocrine insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, Banavara Narasimhamurthy; Rajesh, Gopalakrishna; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Balakrishnan, Vallath

    2009-11-05

    A major role of the pancreas in zinc homeostasis has been suggested. To assess erythrocyte zinc status in chronic pancreatitis and to correlate it with pancreatic exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. One hundred and one patients with chronic pancreatitis (34 alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, 67 tropical chronic pancreatitis) were prospectively studied. Disease characteristics and imaging features were recorded. Erythrocyte zinc was estimated by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Exocrine insufficiency was assessed using polyclonal antibody ELISA for pancreatic stool elastase1. Endocrine insufficiency was assessed by serum glucose levels and insulin requirement. Erythrocyte zinc was significantly lower in chronic pancreatitis patients than in the controls (26.5+/-9.5 microg/g Hb vs. 38.0+/-6.6 microg/g Hb; Ppancreatitis than in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (25.0+/-10.4 microg/g Hb vs. 29.6+/-6.5 microg/g Hb, P=0.001). In chronic pancreatitis patients who had exocrine insufficiency, erythrocyte zinc positively correlated with stool elastase1 (r=0.587, Ppancreatitis patients, and that zinc deficiency correlates with exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Further studies may clarify the possible benefits of zinc supplementation in chronic pancreatitis.

  14. Adaptive changes of pancreatic protease secretion to a short-term vegan diet: influence of reduced intake and modification of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Mądry, Edyta; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Szaflarska-Popławska, Anna; Grzymisławski, Marian; Stankowiak-Kulpa, Hanna; Przysławski, Juliusz

    2012-01-01

    In our previous study, we demonstrated that abstaining from meat, for 1 month, by healthy omnivores (lacto-ovovegetarian model) resulted in a statistical decrease in pancreatic secretion as measured by faecal elastase-1 output. However, no correlation between relative and non-relative changes of energy and nutrient consumption and pancreatic secretion was documented. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to assess the changes of exocrine pancreatic secretion with a more restrictive dietetic modification, by applying a vegan diet. A total of twenty-one healthy omnivores (sixteen females and five males) participated in the prospective study lasting for 6 weeks. The nutrient intake and faecal output of pancreatic enzymes (elastase-1, chymotrypsin and lipase) were assessed twice during the study. Each assessment period lasted for 7 d: the first before the transition to the vegan diet (omnivore diet) and the second during the last week of the study (vegan diet). The dietary modification resulted in a significant decrease in faecal elastase-1 (P vegan diet resulted in an adaptation of pancreatic protease secretion in healthy volunteers.

  15. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency following acute pancreatitis: Systematic review and study level meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollemans, Robbert A; Hallensleben, Nora D L; Mager, David J; Kelder, Johannes C; Besselink, Marc G; Bruno, Marco J; Verdonk, Robert C; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C

    2018-04-01

    This study systematically explores the prevalence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) after acute pancreatitis in different subgroups of etiology (biliary/alcoholic/other), disease severity and follow-up time ( 36 months after index admission). PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched, 32 studies were included in this study level meta-analysis. In a total of 1495 patients with acute pancreatitis, tested at a mean of 36 months after index admission, the pooled prevalence of PEI was 27.1% (95%-confidence interval [CI]: 20.3%-35.1%). Patients from seven studies (n = 194) underwent direct tests with pooled prevalence of 41.7% [18.5%-69.2%]. Patients from 26 studies (n = 1305) underwent indirect tests with pooled prevalence of 24.4% [18.3%-31.8%]. In subgroup analyses on patients that underwent fecal elastase-1 tests, PEI occurred more often in alcoholic pancreatitis (22.7% [16.6%-30.1%]) than in biliary pancreatitis (10.2% [6.2%-16.4%]) or other etiology (13.4% [7.7%-22.4%]; P = 0.02). Pooled prevalence of PEI after mild and severe pancreatitis was 19.4% [8.6%-38.2%] and 33.4% [22.6%-46.3%] respectively in studies using fecal elaste-1 tests (P = 0.049). Similar results were seen in patients without (18.9% [9.3%-34.6%]) and with necrotizing pancreatitis (32.0% [18.2%-49.8%]; P = 0.053). Over time, the prevalence of PEI decreased in patients who underwent the fecal elastase-1 test and increased in patients who underwent the fecal fat analysis. After acute pancreatitis, a quarter of all patients develop PEI during follow-up. Alcoholic etiology and severe and necrotizing pancreatitis are associated with higher risk of PEI. The prevalence of PEI may change as time of follow-up increases. Copyright © 2018 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute effects of whole body gamma irradiation on exocrine pancreatic secretion in the pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, P.; Scanff, P.; Joubert, C.; Vergnet, M.; Grison, S.; Griffiths, N.

    2004-01-01

    Reports on radiation damage to the pancreas deal essentially with long-term morphological changes with few data on pancreatic exocrine function. The aim of this work was to study the acute effects of whole body irradiation on volume and enzyme activities in the pancreatic juice. A whole body gamma irradiation (6 Gy) was investigated in pigs with continuous sampling of pancreatic juice before and after exposure via an indwelling catheter in the pancreatic duct. For each sample collected, total protein concentration and enzyme activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, lipase and amylase were determined. Pancreatic juice volume was monitored during all periods of collection. The volume of pancreatic juice secreted daily decreased one day after irradiation and remained lower than the control values over the experimental period. Total proteins secreted in the pancreatic juice and total activities of pancreatic enzymes were reduced similarly. On the other hand, only specific activities of elastase and lipase were affected by irradiation. Whole body gamma irradiation resulted in a rapid and marked decrease of exocrine pancreatic secretion, in terms of volume as well as secreted enzymes. This may contribute in part to the intestinal manifestations of the acute and/or late radiation syndrome. (author)

  17. Inhibitory effects of rosmarinic acid extracts on porcine pancreatic amylase in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Patrick P; Shetty, Kalidas

    2004-01-01

    Porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA) was allowed to react with herbal extracts containing rosmarinic acid (RA) and purified RA. The derivatized enzyme-phytochemical mixtures obtained were characterized for residual amylase activity. These in vitro experiments showed that the amylase activity was inhibited in the presence of these phytochemicals. The extent of amylase inhibition correlated with increased concentration of RA. RA-containing oregano extracts yielded higher than expected amylase inhibition than similar amount of purified RA, suggesting that other phenolic compounds or phenolic synergies may contribute to additional amylase inhibitory activity. The significance of food-grade, plant-based amylase inhibitors for modulation of diabetes mellitus and other oxidation-linked diseases is hypothesized and discussed.

  18. Covalent immobilization of porcine pancreatic lipase on carboxyl-activated magnetic nanoparticles: Characterization and application for enzymatic inhibition assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yuan-Ting; Ren, Xiao-Yun; Liu, Yi-Ming; Wei, Ying; Qing, Lin-Sen; Liao, Xun

    2014-01-01

    Using carboxyl functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as carrier, a novel immobilized porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) was prepared through the 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) coupling reaction. Transmission electron microscopic images showed that the synthesized nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 –SiO 2 ) possessed three dimensional core–shell structures with an average diameter of ∼ 20 nm. The effective enzyme immobilization onto the nanocomposite was confirmed by atomic force microscopic (AFM) analysis. Results from Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Bradford protein assay, and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that PPL was covalently attached to the surface of magnetic nanoparticles with a PPL immobilization yield of 50 mg enzyme/g MNPs. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis revealed that the MNPs-PPL nanocomposite had a high saturation magnetization of 42.25 emu·g −1 . The properties of the immobilized PPL were investigated in comparison with the free enzyme counterpart. Enzymatic activity, reusability, thermo-stability, and storage stability of the immobilized PPL were found significantly superior to those of the free one. The K m and the V max values (0.02 mM, 6.40 U·mg −1 enzyme) indicated the enhanced activity of the immobilized PPL compared to those of the free enzyme (0.29 mM, 3.16 U·mg −1 enzyme). Furthermore, at an elevated temperature of 70 °C, immobilized PPL retained 60% of its initial activity. The PPL-MNPs nanocomposite was applied in the enzyme inhibition assays using orlistat, and two natural products isolated from oolong tea (i.e., EGCG and EGC) as the test compounds. - Highlights: • Porcine pancreatic lipase was firstly covalently immobilized onto carboxylated MNPs. • Immobilized porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) was characterized by various techniques. • MNPs-PPL showed higher activity, reusability, and thermo-stability than

  19. Covalent immobilization of porcine pancreatic lipase on carboxyl-activated magnetic nanoparticles: Characterization and application for enzymatic inhibition assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yuan-Ting [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ren, Xiao-Yun [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Yi-Ming [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Jackson State University, 1400 Lynch St., Jackson, MS 39217 (United States); Wei, Ying [Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi 046000 (China); Qing, Lin-Sen [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liao, Xun, E-mail: liaoxun@cib.ac.cn [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Using carboxyl functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as carrier, a novel immobilized porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) was prepared through the 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) coupling reaction. Transmission electron microscopic images showed that the synthesized nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–SiO{sub 2}) possessed three dimensional core–shell structures with an average diameter of ∼ 20 nm. The effective enzyme immobilization onto the nanocomposite was confirmed by atomic force microscopic (AFM) analysis. Results from Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Bradford protein assay, and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that PPL was covalently attached to the surface of magnetic nanoparticles with a PPL immobilization yield of 50 mg enzyme/g MNPs. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis revealed that the MNPs-PPL nanocomposite had a high saturation magnetization of 42.25 emu·g{sup −1}. The properties of the immobilized PPL were investigated in comparison with the free enzyme counterpart. Enzymatic activity, reusability, thermo-stability, and storage stability of the immobilized PPL were found significantly superior to those of the free one. The K{sub m} and the V{sub max} values (0.02 mM, 6.40 U·mg{sup −1} enzyme) indicated the enhanced activity of the immobilized PPL compared to those of the free enzyme (0.29 mM, 3.16 U·mg{sup −1} enzyme). Furthermore, at an elevated temperature of 70 °C, immobilized PPL retained 60% of its initial activity. The PPL-MNPs nanocomposite was applied in the enzyme inhibition assays using orlistat, and two natural products isolated from oolong tea (i.e., EGCG and EGC) as the test compounds. - Highlights: • Porcine pancreatic lipase was firstly covalently immobilized onto carboxylated MNPs. • Immobilized porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) was characterized by various techniques. • MNPs-PPL showed higher activity

  20. Optimization of Microbial Elastase Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd EI-Aziz, A.B.; Hassan, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The extra cellular proteases (caseinase, gelatinase and elastase) and hemolytic activities of the tested microorganisms on agar plates were detected, using different substrates (gelatin, casein, hemoglobin and elastin).The proteolytic activities were detected only from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Prevotella bivius, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. The production of elastase by Bacillus subtilis (has low hemolysins activity) at various temperatures (30 degree C - 37 degree C) and at exposure to different doses of gamma irradiation (0.25-1.0 kGy) was investigated in shake flask. The results indicated that the incubation temperature 37 degree C was the optimum for cell growth at earlier stage; while maximum elastase activity was obtained when the cells were cultivated at 30 degree C and irradiation dose level of 0.75 kGy. The effects of temperature, substrate content, elastase concentration, ph and different metals ions on elastolysis were investigated as well the elastase amino acids composition was detected by using amino acids analyzer

  1. Screening of supports for immobilization of commercial porcine pancreatic lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robison Scherer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to report the performance of different supports for the immobilization of commercial porcine pancreatic lipase. The immobilization tests were carried out in several types of Accurel, activated alumina, kaolin, montmorillonite, ion exchange resins and zeolites. The characterization of the supports showed differences in terms of specific area and morphology. The characteristics of the supports influenced the amount of enzyme adsorbed, yield of immobilization and esterification activity of the resulting immobilized catalyst. The clays KSF and natural and pillared montmorillonites presented potential for use as support for lipase immobilization in terms of yield and esterification activity. Yields of immobilization of 76.32 and 52.01% were achieved for clays KSF and natural montmorillonite, respectively. Esterification activities of 754.03, 595.51, 591.88 and 515.71 U.g-1 were obtained for lipases immobilized in Accurel MP-100, Amberlite XAD-2, mordenite and pillared montmorillonite, respectively.

  2. Characterization of a Mouse Model of Emphysema Induced by Multiple Instillations of Low-Dose Elastase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena V. Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many experimental models have been proposed to study the pathophysiological features of emphysema, as well as to search for new therapeutic approaches for acute or chronically injured lung parenchyma. We aimed to characterize an emphysema model induced by multiple instillations of elastase by tracking the changes in inflammation, remodeling, and cardiac function after each instillation. Forty-eight C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned across 2 groups. Emphysema (ELA animals received 1, 2, 3, or 4 intratracheal instillations of pancreatic porcine elastase (PPE, 0.2 IU with a 1-week interval between them. Controls (C received saline following the same protocol. Before and after implementation of the protocol, animals underwent echocardiographic analysis. After the first instillation of PPE, the percentage of mononuclear cells in the lung parenchyma was increased compared to C (p = 0.0001. The second instillation resulted in hyperinflated alveoli, increased mean linear intercept, and reduced elastic fiber content in lung parenchyma compared to C (p=0.0197. Following the third instillation, neutrophils and collagen fiber content in alveolar septa and airways were increased, whereas static lung elastance was reduced compared to C (p=0.0094. After the fourth instillation, the percentage of M1 macrophages in lungs; levels of interleukin-1beta, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, hepatocyte growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor; and collagen fiber content in the pulmonary vessel wall were increased compared to C (p=0.0096. At this time point, pulmonary arterial hypertension was apparent, with increased diastolic right ventricular wall thickness. In conclusion, the initial phase of emphysema was characterized by lung inflammation with predominance of mononuclear cells, whereas at the late stage, impairment of pulmonary and cardiovascular functions was observed. This model enables analysis of therapies at different time points during controlled

  3. Evaluation of Porcine Pancreatic Islets Transplanted in the Kidney Capsules of Diabetic Mice Using a Clinically Approved Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (SPIO) and a 1.5T MR Scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hoe Suk; Kim, Hyoung Su; Park, Kyong Soo; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate transplanted porcine pancreatic islets in the kidney capsules of diabetic mice using a clinically approved superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) and a 1.5T MR scanner. Various numbers of porcine pancreatic islets labeled with Resovist, a carboxydextran-coated SPIO, were transplanted into the kidney capsules of normal mice and imaged with a 3D FIESTA sequence using a 1.5T clinical MR scanner. Labeled (n = 3) and unlabeled (n = 2) islets were transplanted into the kidney capsules of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Blood glucose levels and MR signal intensities were monitored for 30 days post-transplantation. There were no significant differences in viability or insulin secretion between labeled and unlabeled islets. A strong correlation (γ 2 > 0.94) was evident between the number of transplanted islets and T 2 relaxation times quantified by MRI. Transplantation with labeled or unlabeled islets helped restore normal sustained glucose levels in diabetic mice, and nephrectomies induced the recurrence of diabetes. The MR signal intensity of labeled pancreatic islets decreased by 80% over 30 days. The transplantation of SPIO-labeled porcine islets into the kidney capsule of diabetic mice allows to restore normal glucose levels, and these islets can be visualized and quantified using a 1.5T clinical MR scanner

  4. Should we Investigate Gastroenterology Patients for Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency? A Dual Centre UK Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jennifer A; Sanders, David S; Francis, Katherine A; Kurien, Matthew; Lee, Sai; Taha, Hatim; Ramadas, Arvind; Joy, Diamond; Hopper, Andrew D

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency may be under recognised in gastroenterological practice. We aimed to identify the prevalence of pancreatic insufficiency in secondary care gastroenterology clinics and determine if co-morbidity or presenting symptoms could predict diagnosis. A secondary aim was to assess response to treatment. A dual centre retrospective analysis was conducted in secondary care gastroenterology clinics. Patients tested for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency with faecal elastase-1 (FEL-1) between 2009 and 2013 were identified in two centres. Demographics, indication and co-morbidities were recorded in addition to dose and response to pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. Binary logistic regression was used to assess if symptoms or co-morbidities could predict pancreatic insufficiency. 1821 patients were tested, 13.1% had low FEL-1 (<200µg/g). This prevalence was sub-analysed with 5.4% having FEL-1 100-200µg/g (mild insufficiency) and 7.6% having faecal elastase readings <100µg/g. Low FEL-1 was most significantly associated with weight loss or steatorrhoea. Co-morbidity analysis showed that low levels were significantly associated with excess alcohol intake, diabetes mellitus or human immunodeficiency virus; 80.0% treated with enzyme supplements reported symptomatic benefit with no difference in response between high and low dose supplementation (p=0.761). Targeting the use of FEL-1 in individuals with specific symptoms and associated conditions can lead to improved recognition of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in a significant proportion of secondary care patients. Intervening with lifestyle advice such as smoking cessation and minimising alcohol intake could improve outcomes. In addition, up to 80% of patients with low faecal elastase respond to supplementation.

  5. Overhauser-enhanced MRI of elastase activity from in vitro human neutrophil degranulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Parzy

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging can reveal exquisite anatomical details. However several diseases would benefit from an imaging technique able to specifically detect biochemical alterations. In this context protease activity imaging is one of the most promising areas of research.We designed an elastase substrate by grafting stable nitroxide free radicals on soluble elastin. This substrate generates a high Overhauser magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI contrast upon digestion by the target proteases through the modulation of its rotational correlation time. The sensitivity is sufficient to generate contrasted images of the degranulation of neutrophils induced by a calcium ionophore from 2×10(4 cells per milliliter, well under the physiological neutrophils concentrations.These ex-vivo experiments give evidence that OMRI is suitable for imaging elastase activity from neutrophil degranulation. Provided that a fast protease-substrate is used these results open the door to better diagnoses of a number of important pathologies (cystic fibrosis, inflammation, pancreatitis by OMRI or Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging in vivo. It also provides a long-expected method to monitor anti-protease treatments efficiency and help pharmaceutical research.

  6. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, diabetes mellitus and serum nutritional markers after acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujasinovic, Miroslav; Tepes, Bojan; Makuc, Jana; Rudolf, Sasa; Zaletel, Jelka; Vidmar, Tjasa; Seruga, Maja; Birsa, Bostjan

    2014-12-28

    To investigate impairment and clinical significance of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function in patients after acute pancreatitis (AP). Patients with AP were invited to participate in the study. Severity of AP was determined by the Atlanta classification and definitions revised in 2012. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) was diagnosed by the concentration of fecal elastase-1. An additional work-up, including laboratory testing of serum nutritional markers for determination of malnutrition, was offered to all patients with low levels of fecal elastase-1 FE. Hemoglobin A1c or oral glucose tolerance tests were also performed in patients without prior diabetes mellitus, and type 3c diabetes mellitus (T3cDM) was diagnosed according to American Diabetes Association criteria. One hundred patients were included in the study: 75% (75/100) of patients had one attack of AP and 25% (25/100) had two or more attacks. The most common etiology was alcohol. Mild, moderately severe and severe AP were present in 67, 15 and 18% of patients, respectively. The mean time from attack of AP to inclusion in the study was 2.7 years. PEI was diagnosed in 21% (21/100) of patients and T3cDM in 14% (14/100) of patients. In all patients with PEI, at least one serologic nutritional marker was below the lower limit of normal. T3cDM was more frequently present in patients with severe AP (P = 0.031), but was also present in some patients with mild and moderately severe AP. PEI was present in all degrees of severity of AP. There were no statistically significantly differences according to gender, etiology and number of AP attacks. As exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency can develop after AP, routine follow-up of patients is necessary, for which serum nutritional panel measurements can be useful.

  7. A murine model of elastase- and cigarette smoke-induced emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubia Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To describe a murine model of emphysema induced by a combination of exposure to cigarette smoke (CS and instillation of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE. Methods: A total of 38 C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: control (one intranasal instillation of 0.9% saline solution; PPE (two intranasal instillations of PPE; CS (CS exposure for 60 days; and CS + PPE (two intranasal instillations of PPE + CS exposure for 60 days. At the end of the experimental protocol, all animals were anesthetized and tracheostomized for calculation of respiratory mechanics parameters. Subsequently, all animals were euthanized and their lungs were removed for measurement of the mean linear intercept (Lm and determination of the numbers of cells that were immunoreactive to macrophage (MAC-2 antigen, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-12, and glycosylated 91-kDa glycoprotein (gp91phox in the distal lung parenchyma and peribronchial region. Results: Although there were no differences among the four groups regarding the respiratory mechanics parameters assessed, there was an increase in the Lm in the CS + PPE group. The numbers of MAC-2-positive cells in the peribronchial region and distal lung parenchyma were higher in the CS + PPE group than in the other groups, as were the numbers of cells that were positive for MMP-12 and gp91phox, although only in the distal lung parenchyma. Conclusions: Our model of emphysema induced by a combination of PPE instillation and CS exposure results in a significant degree of parenchymal destruction in a shorter time frame than that employed in other models of CS-induced emphysema, reinforcing the importance of protease-antiprotease imbalance and oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in the pathogenesis of emphysema.

  8. A prospective evaluation of pancreatic exocrine function in patients with acute pancreatitis: correlation with extent of necrosis and pancreatic endocrine insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreham, B; Ammori, B J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess pancreatic exocrine function in patients recovering from a first attack of acute pancreatitis, and to evaluate its relationship to severity of attack, extent of pancreatic necrosis and severity of pancreatic endocrine insufficiency. Between December 2000 and November 2001, 23 patients were prospectively evaluated. Pancreatic exocrine function was measured by the faecal elastase-1 test and insufficiency was classified as moderately impaired or severely impaired. Pancreatic necrosis was determined by contrast-enhanced CT scan, and its extent was categorised according to Balthazar's classification. The severity of pancreatic endocrine insufficiency was categorised according to insulin dependence. Attacks were classified as mild (n = 16) or severe (n = 7) according to the Atlanta criteria. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency was significantly more frequent in patients recovering from severe attacks than mild (n = 6, 86% vs. n = 2, 13%; p = 0.002), and in those who developed pancreatic necrosis or pseudocyst than those who did not (6 of 7 patients vs. 2 of 16 patients, and 5 of 5 patients vs. 3 of 18 patients respectively; p = 0.002). The development of exocrine insufficiency correlated strongly with the extent of pancreatic necrosis (r = -0.754, p pancreatic endocrine insufficiency (n = 4, r = -0.453, p = 0.03). Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is a common occurrence in patients recovering from severe acute pancreatitis, and its severity correlates with the extent of pancreatic necrosis and the severity of concomitant pancreatic endocrine insufficiency. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel and IAP

  9. Characterization of an amidated form of pancreatic polypeptide from the daddy sculpin (Cottus scorpius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J M; Schmidt, W E; Gallwitz, B; Falkmer, S; Thim, L

    1986-12-30

    The primary structure of pancreatic polypeptide from the teleostean fish, Cottus scorpius (daddy sculpin) was established as: YPPQPESPGGNASPEDWAKYHAAVRHYVNLITRQRYNH2 The presence of a COOH-terminally alpha-amidated amino acid was established using an HPLC method of general applicability. Although the peptide shows strong homology towards anglerfish pancreatic polypeptide (86%), homology towards porcine peptide YY (PYY) (61%) and porcine neuropeptide Y (NPY) (61%) was greater than towards porcine pancreatic polypeptide (PP) (47%). This result supports suggestions that the gene duplication events which led to PP, NPY and PYY formation took place after the time of divergence of fish and mammals.

  10. Accelerated radiochemotherapy in pancreatic cancer is not necessarily related to a pathologic pancreatic function decline in the early period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, Eckehard; Seidel, Matthias; Micke, Oliver; Ruebe, Christian; Glashoerster, Marco; Schaefer, Ulrich; Willich, Normann A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the functional effects of ionizing radiation in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer in the early period after accelerated radiochemotherapy (ART). Methods and Materials: To analyze the exocrine component, the amino acid consumption test and fecal elastase 1 were performed in 13 patients immediately before and 4-8 weeks after ART. Pancreatic duct morphology was evaluated before therapy. Weight loss and clinical steatorrhea were recorded. Endocrine parameters were examined according to standardized criteria. Results: The relative change of the amino acid consumption test results and the median elastase concentration was 41.2% and 56.4%, respectively. Five patients still had normal test results after ART and 5 patients developed pathologic values. The median relative weight loss of the total body weight was 7.7% ± 4.5%. No steatorrhea occurred. Of the 5 patients with normal values, 3 had a mean organ dose of 41 Gy. The endocrine function measurements remained unchanged. Conclusion: Although a nominal reduction of exocrine function parameters occurred in most patients, ART was not necessarily related to a pathologic level in the early period. Diabetes was not established. The functional impairment that was existent in the patient population presumably contributed to the weight loss. Pancreatic enzyme preparations may also play a role in maintaining an anabolic state during and after radiochemotherapy

  11. Serum elastase activity, serum elastase inhibitors, and occurrence of carotid atherosclerotic plaques: the Etude sur le Vieillissement Artériel (EVA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zureik, Mahmoud; Robert, Ladislas; Courbon, Dominique; Touboul, Pierre-Jean; Bizbiz, Latifa; Ducimetière, Pierre

    2002-06-04

    In the last decades, interest has increased in the potential deleterious atherogenic effects of some cellular elastase activities. The results of experimental and clinical investigations were inconsistent. In this report, we assessed the associations of serum elastase activity and serum elastase inhibitors with carotid plaque occurrence during the 4-year follow-up in a population of 859 subjects free of coronary heart disease and stroke (age, 59 to 71 years). Serum elastase activity and serum elastase inhibitors were measured at baseline examination. Carotid B-mode ultrasound examination was performed at baseline and 2 years and 4 years later. The occurrence of carotid plaques in subjects with the lowest serum elastase activity values (quartile 1), in those with the intermediate values (quartiles 2 to 3), and in those with the highest values (quartile 4) was, respectively, 24.6%, 18.9%, and 12.2% (P<0.001 for trend). The multivariate odds ratios of carotid plaque occurrence associated with the three groups (adjusted for major known cardiovascular risk factors) were, respectively, 1.00, 0.67 (CI, 0.44 to 1.02; P<0.06), and 0.40 (CI, 0.23 to 0.70, P<0.001). For serum elastase inhibitors, the occurrence of carotid plaques in quartile 1 (lowest values), quartiles 2 to 3, and quartile 4 (highest values) was, respectively, 11.7%, 18.8%, and 25.2% (P for trend<0.001). The corresponding multivariate adjusted odds ratios were 1.00, 1.98 (CI, 1.19 to 3.31, P<0.01), and 3.18 (CI, 1.80 to 5.60, P<0.001). Low values of serum elastase activity and high values of serum elastase inhibitors were strongly and independently associated with increased 4-year carotid plaque occurrence. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the nature of the associations between elastase parameters and atherosclerosis.

  12. Pancreatic Endocrine and Exocrine Function in Children following Near-Total Pancreatectomy for Diffuse Congenital Hyperinsulinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Ved Bhushan; Senniappan, Senthil; Demirbilek, Huseyin; Alam, Syeda; Flanagan, Sarah E.; Ellard, Sian; Hussain, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Context Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), the commonest cause of persistent hypoglycaemia, has two main histological subtypes: diffuse and focal. Diffuse CHI, if medically unresponsive, is managed with near-total pancreatectomy. Post-pancreatectomy, in addition to persistent hypoglycaemia, there is a very high risk of diabetes mellitus and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. Setting International referral centre for the management of CHI. Patients Medically unresponsive diffuse CHI patients managed with near-total pancreatectomy between 1994 and 2012. Intervention Near-total pancreatectomy. Main Outcome Measures Persistent hypoglycaemia post near-total pancreatectomy, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, clinical and biochemical (faecal elastase 1) pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. Results Of more than 300 patients with CHI managed during this time period, 45 children had medically unresponsive diffuse disease and were managed with near-total pancreatectomy. After near-total pancreatectomy, 60% of children had persistent hypoglycaemia requiring medical interventions. The incidence of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus was 96% at 11 years after surgery. Thirty-two patients (72%) had biochemical evidence of severe pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (Faecal elastase 1pancreatectomy is very unsatisfactory. The incidence of persistent hypoglycaemia and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is very high. The presence of clinical rather than biochemical pancreatic exocrine insufficiency should inform decisions about pancreatic enzyme supplementation. PMID:24840042

  13. Pancreatic endocrine and exocrine function in children following near-total pancreatectomy for diffuse congenital hyperinsulinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Ved Bhushan; Senniappan, Senthil; Demirbilek, Huseyin; Alam, Syeda; Flanagan, Sarah E; Ellard, Sian; Hussain, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), the commonest cause of persistent hypoglycaemia, has two main histological subtypes: diffuse and focal. Diffuse CHI, if medically unresponsive, is managed with near-total pancreatectomy. Post-pancreatectomy, in addition to persistent hypoglycaemia, there is a very high risk of diabetes mellitus and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. International referral centre for the management of CHI. Medically unresponsive diffuse CHI patients managed with near-total pancreatectomy between 1994 and 2012. Near-total pancreatectomy. Persistent hypoglycaemia post near-total pancreatectomy, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, clinical and biochemical (faecal elastase 1) pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. Of more than 300 patients with CHI managed during this time period, 45 children had medically unresponsive diffuse disease and were managed with near-total pancreatectomy. After near-total pancreatectomy, 60% of children had persistent hypoglycaemia requiring medical interventions. The incidence of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus was 96% at 11 years after surgery. Thirty-two patients (72%) had biochemical evidence of severe pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (Faecal elastase 1insufficiency was observed in 22 (49%) patients. No statistically significant difference in weight and height standard deviation score (SDS) was found between untreated subclinical pancreatic exocrine insufficiency patients and treated clinical pancreatic exocrine insufficiency patients. The outcome of diffuse CHI patients after near-total pancreatectomy is very unsatisfactory. The incidence of persistent hypoglycaemia and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is very high. The presence of clinical rather than biochemical pancreatic exocrine insufficiency should inform decisions about pancreatic enzyme supplementation.

  14. Pancreatic endocrine and exocrine function in children following near-total pancreatectomy for diffuse congenital hyperinsulinism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ved Bhushan Arya

    Full Text Available Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI, the commonest cause of persistent hypoglycaemia, has two main histological subtypes: diffuse and focal. Diffuse CHI, if medically unresponsive, is managed with near-total pancreatectomy. Post-pancreatectomy, in addition to persistent hypoglycaemia, there is a very high risk of diabetes mellitus and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency.International referral centre for the management of CHI.Medically unresponsive diffuse CHI patients managed with near-total pancreatectomy between 1994 and 2012.Near-total pancreatectomy.Persistent hypoglycaemia post near-total pancreatectomy, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, clinical and biochemical (faecal elastase 1 pancreatic exocrine insufficiency.Of more than 300 patients with CHI managed during this time period, 45 children had medically unresponsive diffuse disease and were managed with near-total pancreatectomy. After near-total pancreatectomy, 60% of children had persistent hypoglycaemia requiring medical interventions. The incidence of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus was 96% at 11 years after surgery. Thirty-two patients (72% had biochemical evidence of severe pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (Faecal elastase 1<100 µg/g. Clinical exocrine insufficiency was observed in 22 (49% patients. No statistically significant difference in weight and height standard deviation score (SDS was found between untreated subclinical pancreatic exocrine insufficiency patients and treated clinical pancreatic exocrine insufficiency patients.The outcome of diffuse CHI patients after near-total pancreatectomy is very unsatisfactory. The incidence of persistent hypoglycaemia and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is very high. The presence of clinical rather than biochemical pancreatic exocrine insufficiency should inform decisions about pancreatic enzyme supplementation.

  15. Elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema: insights from experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Antunes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Several distinct stimuli can be used to reproduce histological and functional features of human emphysema, a leading cause of disability and death. Since cigarette smoke is the main cause of emphysema in humans, experimental researches have attempted to reproduce this situation. However, this is an expensive and cumbersome method of emphysema induction, and simpler, more efficacious alternatives have been sought. Among these approaches, elastolytic enzymes have been widely used to reproduce some characteristics of human cigarette smoke-induced disease, such as: augmentation of airspaces, inflammatory cell influx into the lungs, and systemic inflammation. Nevertheless, the use of elastase-induced emphysema models is still controversial, since the disease pathways involved in elastase induction may differ from those occurring in smoke-induced emphysema. This indicates that the choice of an emphysema model may impact the results of new therapies or drugs being tested. The aim of this review is to compare the mechanisms of disease induction in smoke and elastase emphysema models, to describe the differences among various elastase models, and to establish the advantages and disadvantages of elastase-induced emphysema models. More studies are required to shed light on the mechanisms of elastase-induced emphysema.Diversos estímulos podem ser utilizados para reproduzir características histológicas e funcionais do enfisema humano, uma das principais causas de incapacidade e morte. Uma vez que a fumaça de cigarro é a principal causa de enfisema em humanos, estudos experimentais têm tentado reproduzir esta situação. No entanto, esse é um método dispendioso e complicado para a indução do enfisema e, alternativas mais simples e eficazes, têm sido pesquisadas. Entre essas abordagens, enzimas elastolíticas vêm sendo amplamente utilizadas para reproduzir algumas das características do enfisema humano, tais como: aumento dos espaços a

  16. Effects of elastase on fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Kazuo; Shimizu, Yoshikazu; Hihara, Masafumi; Ando, Hideki; Nishiyama, Masateru; Tano, Hironobu

    1984-01-01

    Elastase (Elaszym 6T) was administered, in addition to the dietary instruction, to three patients with fatty liver. CT scanning revealed marked improvement in fatty liver. Transaminase levels returned to normal, total cholesterol levels tended to decrease, and HDL-cholesterol levels tended to increase. These results suggest that elastase is effective in the treatment of fatty liver. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Keratinocyte Growth Factor Gene Electroporation into Skeletal Muscle as a Novel Gene Therapeutic Approach for Elastase-Induced Pulmonary Emphysema in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobinaga, Shuichi; Matsumoto, Keitaro; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Furukawa, Katsuro; Abo, Takafumi; Yamasaki, Naoya; Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Miyazaki, Takuro; Koji, Takehiko

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is a progressive disease with airspace destruction and an effective therapy is needed. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) promotes pulmonary epithelial proliferation and has the potential to induce lung regeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of using KGF gene therapy for treatment of a mouse emphysema model induced by porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). Eight-week-old BALB/c male mice treated with intra-tracheal PPE administration were transfected with 80 μg of a recombinant human KGF (rhKGF)-expressing FLAG-CMV14 plasmid (pKGF-FLAG gene), or with the pFLAG gene expressing plasmid as a control, into the quadriceps muscle by electroporation. In the lung, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was augmented, and surfactant protein A (SP-A) and KGF receptor (KGFR) were co-expressed in PCNA-positive cells. Moreover, endogenous KGF and KGFR gene expression increased significantly by pKGF-FLAG gene transfection. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed that the PaO 2 level was not significantly reduced on day 14 after PPE instillation with pKGF-FLAG gene transfection compared to that of normal mice. These results indicated that KGF gene therapy with electroporation stimulated lung epithelial proliferation and protected depression of pulmonary function in a mouse emphysema model, suggesting a possible method of treating pulmonary emphysema

  18. Management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency: Australasian Pancreatic Club recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toouli, James; Biankin, Andrew V; Oliver, Mark R; Pearce, Callum B; Wilson, Jeremy S; Wray, Nicholas H

    2010-10-18

    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) occurs when the amounts of enzymes secreted into the duodenum in response to a meal are insufficient to maintain normal digestive processes. The main clinical consequence of PEI is fat maldigestion and malabsorption, resulting in steatorrhoea. Pancreatic exocrine function is commonly assessed by conducting a 3-day faecal fat test and by measuring levels of faecal elastase-1 and serum trypsinogen. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is the mainstay of treatment for PEI. In adults, the initial recommended dose of pancreatic enzymes is 25,000 units of lipase per meal, titrating up to a maximum of 80,000 units of lipase per meal. In infants and children, the initial recommended dose of pancreatic enzymes is 500 units of lipase per gram of dietary fat; the maximum daily dose should not exceed 10,000 units of lipase per kilogram of bodyweight. Oral pancreatic enzymes should be taken with meals to ensure adequate mixing with the chyme. Adjunct therapy with acid-suppressing agents may be useful in patients who continue to experience symptoms of PEI despite high-dose enzyme therapy. A dietitian experienced in treating PEI should be involved in patient management. Dietary fat restriction is not recommended for patients with PEI. Patients with PEI should be encouraged to consume small, frequent meals and to abstain from alcohol. Medium-chain triglycerides do not provide any clear nutritional advantage over long-chain triglycerides, but can be trialled in patients who fail to gain or to maintain adequate bodyweight in order to increase energy intake.

  19. Detection of extracellular neutrophil elastase in hamster lungs after intratracheal instillation of E. coli lipopolysaccharide using a fluorogenic, elastase-specific, synthetic substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolphus, A.; Stolk, J.; van Twisk, C.; van Noorden, C. J.; Dijkman, J. H.; Kramps, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Repeated intratracheal instillations of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in hamster lungs cause an influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into the alveolar walls, with concomitant development of severe emphysema. It has been suggested that elastase, released by these PMNs, is involved in the development of emphysema. This study demonstrates the release of elastase from recruited PMNs in cryostat sections of hamster lungs, after being treated once, twice, or thrice with LPS, intratracheally. Elastase activity was visualized using two elastase-specific synthetic substrates, to which a methoxynaphthylamine (MNA) group had been bound covalently. Liberated MNA, when made insoluble by coupling with 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde, fluoresces strongly. The authors observed that the interval between start of incubation and appearance of fluorescence and the intensity of fluorescence correlated with the number of LPS administrations. Fluorescence was observed to be located in or in close vicinity to alveolar walls. No fluorescence was observed in sections of untreated hamsters. Liberation of MNA from synthetic substrates was delayed strongly by the addition of a recombinant secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor or a substituted cephalosporin neutrophil elastase inhibitor. The authors conclude that LPS-mediated PMN influx into the lung is accompanied by release of elastase from these cells and speculate that this PMN-elastase is involved in the development of LPS-mediated emphysema. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1632460

  20. Prospective assessment of the influence of pancreatic cancer resection on exocrine pancreatic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkens, E C M; Cahen, D L; de Wit, J; Looman, C W N; van Eijck, C; Bruno, M J

    2014-01-01

    Exocrine insufficiency frequently develops in patients with pancreatic cancer owing to tumour ingrowth and pancreatic duct obstruction. Surgery might restore this function by removing the primary disease and restoring duct patency, but it may also have the opposite effect, as a result of resection of functional parenchyma and anatomical changes. This study evaluated the course of pancreatic function, before and after pancreatic resection. This prospective cohort study included patients with tumours in the pancreatic region requiring pancreatic resection in a tertiary referral centre between March 2010 and August 2012. Starting before surgery, exocrine function was determined monthly by measuring faecal elastase 1 levels (normal value over 0.200 µg per g faeces). Endocrine function, steatorrhoea-related symptoms and bodyweight were also evaluated before and after surgery. Subjects were followed from diagnosis until 6 months after surgery, or until death. Twenty-nine patients were included, 12 with pancreatic cancer, 14 with ampullary carcinoma and three with bile duct carcinoma (median tumour size 2.6 cm). Twenty-six patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and three distal pancreatectomy. Thirteen patients had exocrine insufficiency at preoperative diagnosis. After a median follow-up of 6 months, this had increased to 24 patients. Diabetes was present in seven patients at diagnosis, and developed in one additional patient within 1 month after surgery. Most patients with tumours in the pancreatic region requiring pancreatic resection either had exocrine insufficiency at diagnosis or became exocrine-insufficient soon after surgical resection. © 2013 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Multimodal imaging in the elastase-induced aneurysm model in rabbits: a comparative study using serial DSA, MRA and CTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerfler, A.; Becker, W.; Wanke, I.; Goericke, S.; Oezkan, N.; Forsting, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The elastase-induced aneurysm model in rabbits has proved to be suitable for testing new endovascular occlusion devices. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different imaging modalities for the depiction of anatomy and size of elastase-induced aneurysms and for serial follow-up imaging. Materials and Methods: Elastase-induced aneurysms were created in eight Chinchilla bastard rabbits by endoluminal incubation of porcine elastase. Serial imaging was performed using intravenous DSA (IVDSA), contrast-enhanced MRA (CEMRA), and time-of-flight MRA (TOF) 14 days, 4 weeks and 3 months after aneurysm creation. Intraarterial DSA (IADSA) and CT angiography (CTA) were performed after 3 months. Aneurysm size and geometry (height H, width W, neck width N) were compared. Results: On IVDSA after two weeks mean aneurysm height was 6.2 mm (range 2.8-11.0 mm), mean aneurysm neck width was 2.7 mm (range 2.0-4.2 mm) and mean aneurysm neck width was 2.7 mm (range 2.0-4.2 mm). We did not observed any statistically significant change in aneurysm dimensions during follow-up at 4 weeks (CEMRA: H: 5.4, W: 2.4, N: 2.4; TOF: H: 5.7, W: 2.4, N: 2.7) and 3 months (CEMRA: H: 5.8, W: 2.6, N: 2.6; TOF: H: 6.9, W: 2.8, N: 3.0). Aneurysm dimensions could be best seen on IADSA (H: 6.2, W: 3.0, N: 2.7) with good correlation to CTA (r=0.94; H: 6.1, W: 2.8, N: 2.6), CE-MRA (r=0.92), and TOF (r=0.97). TOF was superior to CEMRA in delineating the aneurysm wall. Conclusions: Serial imaging using MRA, CTA or intravenous and intraarterial angiography is feasible in the elastase-induced aneurysm model. Contrast-enhanced MRA, TOF-MRA and CTA showed good correlation to IADSA and are all suitable for non-invasive pretherapeutic measurement of aneurysm size. (orig.) [de

  2. Effect of Elastin Digestion on the Quasi-static Tensile Response of Medial Collateral Ligament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Heath B.; Underwood, Clayton J.; Romney, Steven J.; Davis, Grant L.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Elastin is a structural protein that provides resilience to biological tissues. We examined the contributions of elastin to the quasi-static tensile response of porcine medial collateral ligament through targeted disruption of the elastin network with pancreatic elastase. Elastase concentration and treatment time were varied to determine a dose response. Whereas elastin content decreased with increasing elastase concentration and treatment time, the change in peak stress after cyclic loading reached a plateau above 1 U/ml elastase and 6 hr treatment. For specimens treated with 2 U/ml elastase for 6 hr, elastin content decreased approximately 35%. Mean peak tissue strain after cyclic loading (4.8%, p≥0.300), modulus (275 MPa, p≥0.114) and hysteresis (20%, p≥0.553) were unaffected by elastase digestion, but stress decreased significantly after treatment (up to 2 MPa, p≤0.049). Elastin degradation had no effect on failure properties, but tissue lengthened under the same pre-stress. Stiffness in the linear region was unaffected by elastase digestion, suggesting that enzyme treatment did not disrupt collagen. These results demonstrate that elastin primarily functions in the toe region of the stress-strain curve, yet contributes load support in the linear region. The increase in length after elastase digestion suggests that elastin may pre-stress and stabilize collagen crimp in ligaments. PMID:23553827

  3. Gastrin is not a physiological regulator of pancreatic exocrine secretion in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, E.; Beglinger, C.; Eysselein, V.; Groetzinger, U.; Gyr, K.

    1987-01-01

    The role of gastrin as a regulator of exocrine pancreatic secretion has not been proven adequately. In the present study the authors therefore compared the relative molar potencies of sulfated and unsulfated gastrin 17 with structurally related CCK peptides (synthetic CCK-8 and natural porcine CCK-33) in stimulating exocrine pancreatic secretion in conscious dogs. Dose response curves were constructed for pancreatic and gastric acid secretion. Plasma gastrin levels after exogenous gastrin 17-I and -II were compared with postprandial gastrin concentrations. The molar potency estimates calculated with synthetic CCK8 as standard for pancreatic protein secretion were natural porcine 50% pure CCK-33 1.60, gastrin 17-I 0.12, and gastrin 17-II 0.16. All four peptides induced a dose-dependent increase in pancreatic bicarbonate output. However, the blood concentrations needed to stimulate pancreatic secretion were above the postprandial gastrin levels. The data indicate that both gastrin 17 peptides are not physiological regulators of pancreatic enzyme secretion in dogs

  4. Gastrin-releasing peptide in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1987-01-01

    to consist of one main form, namely the 27-amino acid peptide originally extracted from porcine stomach, and small amounts of a C-terminal fragment identical with the C-terminal 10-amino acid peptide. Gastrin-releasing peptide-like immunoreactivity released from the isolated perfused porcine pancreas during...... electrical vagal stimulation was shown by gel filtration to consist of the same two forms. By use of immunocytochemical techniques employing an antiserum directed against its N terminus, GRP was localized to varicose nerve fibers in close association with the exocrine tissue of the porcine pancreas...... in particular. Some fibers were found penetrating into pancreatic islets also. Immunoreactive nerve cell bodies as well as fibers were found within intrapancreatic ganglia. The potency of GRP in stimulating exocrine as well as endocrine secretion from the porcine pancreas, its presence in close contact...

  5. Autoimmune Pancreatitis Can Transform Into Chronic Features Similar to Advanced Chronic Pancreatitis With Functional Insufficiency Following Severe Calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Keita; Maruyama, Masahiro; Kameko, Fumiko; Kawasaki, Kenji; Asano, Junpei; Oguchi, Takaya; Watanabe, Takayuki; Ito, Tetsuya; Muraki, Takashi; Hamano, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Arakura, Norikazu; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2016-09-01

    Because several studies for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) have revealed pancreatic calcification resembling that in chronic pancreatitis (CP), we sought to clarify whether AIP could transform into chronic features similar to advanced CP with severe pancreatic dysfunction. Pancreatic functions of 92 AIP patients, 47 definite CP patients, and 30 healthy controls were assessed by fecal elastase-1 concentration (FEC), fasting immunoreactive insulin (IRI), and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-R. The 92 AIP patients included 17 (18%) with severe calcification (SC) and 75 without. The FEC levels in AIP and CP patients were significantly lower than that in controls. Exocrine insufficiency defined as FEC less than 200 μg/g was 39% in AIP without SC, 56% in AIP with SC, and 74% in CP. Fasting IRI and C-peptide reactivity values in CP were significantly lower than those in AIP, with no significant differences between AIP subgroups. The prevalence of endocrine insufficiency according to fasting IRI less than 5.0 μU/mL was 26% in AIP without SC, 31% in AIP with SC, and 59% in CP, respectively. HOMA-R values were significantly higher in all AIP groups than in CP. Autoimmune pancreatitis can transform into a state of pancreatic insufficiency after calcification that is less severe than that in definite CP.

  6. Effects of brachytherapy on gene expressions of elastin and elastase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junming; Zhou Jingqun; Hu Bin; Li Shuguo

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of brachytherapy on the gene expressions of elastin and elastase in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Methods: Rat VSMCs cultured in DMEM containing 10% FBS were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays at 0, 7, 14, 28 Gy respectively. Then mRNA levels of elastin and elastase were determined by reverse transcription competitive PCR(RT-PCR). Results: Brachytherapy inhibited the expressions of elastase. Elastase mRNA decreased 25.3% and 50.1% in VSMC irradiated with 14, 28 Gy, respectively (P<0.05). The elastin mRNA level increased 80.7% and 102.3% in VSMC irradiated with 14, 25 Gy, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: Brachytherapy inhabits the expressions of elastase and increased elastin in VSMC cells

  7. CA19-9: A promising tumor marker for pancreatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakahara, H.; Endo, K.; Nakajima, K.; Hidaka, A.; Nakashima, T.; Ohta, H.; Torizuka, K.; Naito, A.; Suzuki, T.

    1984-01-01

    In order to evaluate CA19-9 as a tumor marker for pancreatic carcinoma (PC), serum levels of CA19-9 were compared with those of CEA and elastase-1 in 56 patients, consisted of 43 cases with histologically proven adenocarcinomas and 13 cases with chronic pancreatitis. Serum levels were determined by using RIA kit obtained from CIS, France (CA19-9 and CEA) and Abbot (elastase-1). CA19-9 gave the highest accuracy among tumor markers the authors have studied and serum levels were markedly elevated over 100U/ml in 30 (70%) cases with PC, whereas none in chronic pancreatitis. CA19-9 values were closely related to the tumor size and the presence or absence of metastsis on CT findings. Small tumors of less than 3cm in diameter, although the site of tumor was limited to the head of the pancreas, showed positive results in 2 out of 5 cases. Furthermore, CA19-9 was at a level of less than 22U/ml in 98 normal controls and was found to be elevated in only 4 (3%) out of 124 patients with benign diseases, including liver diseases, gastric ulcer, cholelithiasis, and so on. These results indicate that CA19-9 is much better in diagnosis and management of PC than is CEA

  8. Structure basis 1/2SLPI and porcine pancreas trypsin interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, Kei; Kamimura, Takashi; Takimoto-Kamimura, Midori, E-mail: m.kamimura@teijin.co.jp [Teijin Institute for Bio-Medical Research, 4-3-2 Asahigaoka, Hino-shi, Tokyo 191-8512 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    1/2SLPI is a C-terminal domain of SLPI (secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor) which inhibits various serine proteases broadly. The present study is the first X-ray structural report on how 1/2SLPI with P1 Leu strongly inhibits trypsin and how it can inhibit multiple serine proteases. SLPI (secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor) is a 107-residue protease inhibitor which inhibits various serine proteases, including elastase, cathepsin G, chymotrypsin and trypsin. SLPI is obtained as a multiple inhibitor in lung defense and in chronic airway infection. X-ray crystal structures have so far reported that they are full-length SLPIs with bovine α-chymotrypsin and 1/2SLPI (recombinant C-terminal domain of SLPI; Arg58–Ala107) with HNE (human neutrophil elastase). To understand the role of this multiple inhibitory mechanism, the crystal structure of 1/2SLPI with porcine pancreas trypsin was solved and the binding modes of two other complexes compared. The Leu residue surprisingly interacts with the S1 site of trypsin, as with chymotrypsin and elastase. The inhibitory mechanism of 1/2SLPI using the wide primary binding site contacts (from P2′ to P5) with various serine proteases is discussed. These inhibitory mechanisms have been acquired in the evolution of the protection system for acute inflammatory diseases.

  9. Irreversible electroporation of the pancreas is feasible and safe in a porcine survival model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Stefan; Sommer, Christof M; Vollherbst, Dominik; Wachter, Miguel F; Longerich, Thomas; Sachsenmeier, Milena; Knapp, Jürgen; Radeleff, Boris A; Werner, Jens

    2015-07-01

    Use of thermal tumor ablation in the pancreatic parenchyma is limited because of the risk of pancreatitis, pancreatic fistula, or hemorrhage. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of irreversible electroporation (IRE) in a porcine model. Ten pigs were divided into 2 study groups. In the first group, animals received IRE of the pancreatic tail and were killed after 60 minutes. In the second group, animals received IRE at the head of the pancreas and were followed up for 7 days. Clinical parameters, computed tomography imaging, laboratory results, and histology were obtained. All animals survived IRE ablation, and no cardiac adverse effects were noted. Sixty minutes after IRE, a hypodense lesion on computed tomography imaging indicated the ablation zone. None of the animals developed clinical signs of acute pancreatitis. Only small amounts of ascites fluid, with a transient increase in amylase and lipase levels, were observed, indicating that no pancreatic fistula occurred. This porcine model shows that IRE is feasible and safe in the pancreatic parenchyma. Computed tomography imaging reveals significant changes at 60 minutes after IRE and therefore might serve as an early indicator of therapeutic success. Clinical studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of IRE in pancreatic cancer.

  10. Combined effects of sivelestat and resveratrol on severe acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Houhong; Wang, Shuai; Tang, Amao; Gong, Huihui; Ma, Panpan; Chen, Li

    2014-08-01

    Despite extensive research and clinical efforts made in the management of acute pancre-atitis during the past few decades, to date no effective cure is available and the mortality from severe acute pancre-atitis remains high. Given that lung is the primary cause of early death in acute pancreatitis patients, novel therapeutic approaches aiming to prevent lung injury have become a subject of intensive investigation. In a previous study, we demonstrated that sivelestat, a specific inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, is effective in protecting against lung failure in rats with taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis. As part of the analyses extended from that study, the present study aimed to evaluate the role of sivelestat and/or resveratrol in the protection against acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury. The extended analyses demonstrated the following: (1) sodium taurocholate induced apparent lung injury and dysfunction manifested by histological anomalies, including vacuolization and apoptosis of the cells in the lung, as well as biochemical aberrations in the blood (an increase in amylase concentration and a decrease in partial arterial oxygen pressure) and increases in activities of reactive oxygen species, interleukin 6, myeloperoxidase, neutrophil elastase, lung edema, bronchotracho alveolar lavage protein concentration, and bronchotracho alveolar lavage cell infiltration in the lung; and (2) in lung tissues, either sivelestat or resveratrol treatment effectively attenuated the taurocholate-induced abnormalities in all parameters analyzed except for serum amylase concentration. In addition, combined treatment with both sivelestat and resveratrol demonstrated additive protective effects on pancreatitis-associated lung injury compared with single treatment.

  11. [Xenogeneic cell therapeutics: Treatment of type 1 diabetes using porcine pancreatic islets and islet cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godehardt, Antonia W; Schilling-Leiß, Dagmar; Sanzenbacher, Ralf; Tönjes, Ralf R

    2015-11-01

    In view of the existing shortage of human donor organs and tissues, xenogeneic cell therapeutics (xCT) offer an alternative for adequate treatment. In particular, porcine pancreatic islets and islet cells have already entered the field of experimental therapy for type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. Thereby, xCT depict challenging products with a glance on medical, ethical, and regulatory questions. With cross-species transplantation (xenotransplantation), the risk of immunological graft rejection as well as the risk of infectious transmission of microbial and viral pathogens must be considered. This includes the bidirectional transmission of microorganisms from graft to host as well as from host to graft. Crossing the border of species requires a critical risk-benefit evaluation as well as a thorough longtime surveillance of transplant recipients after treatment. The international legal and regulatory requirements for xCT are inter alia based on the World Health Organization criteria summarized in the Changsha Communiqué (2008). In the European Union, they were reflected by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Guideline on Xenogeneic Cell-based Medicinal Products following the implementation of the Regulation on Advanced Therapies (ATMP). On the basis of this regulation, the first non-clinical and clinical experiences were obtained for porcine islets. The results suggest that supportive treatment of T1DM risk patients with xCT may be an alternative to established allogeneic organ transplantation in the future.

  12. MRI assessed pancreatic morphology and exocrine function are associated with disease burden in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzak, Adnan; Olesen, Søren Schou; Lykke Poulsen, Jakob; Bolvig Mark, Esben; Mohr Drewes, Asbjørn; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between morphological and functional secretin-stimulated MRI parameters with hospitalization, quality of life (QOL), and pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP). This prospective cohort study included 82 patients with CP. Data were obtained from clinical information, QOL, and pain as assessed by questionnaires (The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire and modified Brief Pain Inventory short form). Secretin-stimulated MRI morphological parameters included pancreatic gland volume, main pancreatic duct diameter, the modified Cambridge Classification of Duct Abnormality, apparent diffusion coefficient, fat signal fraction, and the pancreatic secretion volume as a functional parameter. The primary outcomes were time to first hospitalization related to the CP, as well as annual hospitalization frequency and duration. The secondary outcomes were pain severity, QOL, and pain interference scores. A main pancreatic duct diameter below 5 mm was associated with reduced time to first hospitalization (hazard ratio=2.06; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-4.17; P=0.043). Pancreatic secretion volume was correlated with QOL (r=0.31; P=0.0072) and pain interference score (r=-0.27; P=0.032), and fecal elastase was also correlated with QOL (r=0.28; P=0.017). However, functional and morphological findings were not related to pain intensity. Advanced pancreatic imaging techniques may be a highly sensitive tool for prognostication and monitoring of disease activity and its consequences.

  13. Endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after acute pancreatitis: long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Jingzhu; Ke, Lu; Yang, Yue; Yang, Qi; Lu, Guotao; Li, Baiqiang; Tong, Zhihui; Li, Weiqin; Li, Jieshou

    2017-10-27

    Patients could develop endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after acute pancreatitis (AP), but the morbidity, risk factors and outcome remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after AP and the risk factors of endocrine pancreatic insufficiency through a long-term follow-up investigation. Follow-up assessment of the endocrine and exocrine function was conducted for the discharged patients with AP episodes. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and faecal elastase-1(FE-1) test were used as primary parameters. Fasting blood-glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), glycosylated hemoglobin HBA1c, 2-h postprandial blood glucose (2hPG), Homa beta cell function index (HOMA-β), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and FE-1 were collected. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) was performed to investigate the pancreatic morphology and the other related data during hospitalization was also collected. One hundred thirteen patients were included in this study and 34 of whom (30.1%) developed diabetes mellitus (DM), 33 (29.2%) suffered impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Moreover, 33 patients (29.2%) developed mild to moderate exocrine pancreatic insufficiency with 100μg/gpancreatic insufficiency with FE-1pancreatic necrosis was significant higher than that in the non-pancreatic necrosis group (X 2  = 13.442,P = 0.001). The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that extent of pancreatic necrosisendocrine pancreatic insufficiency. HOMA-IR (P = 0.002, OR = 6.626), Wall-off necrosis (WON) (P = 0.013, OR = 184.772) were the risk factors. The integrated morbidity of DM and IGT after AP was 59.25%, which was higher than exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. 6.2% and 29.2% of patients developed severe and mild to moderate exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, respectively. The extent of pancreatic necrosis>50%, WON and insulin resistance were

  14. Immunosuppression, macroencapsulation and ultraviolet-B irradiation as immunoprotection in porcine pancreatic islet xenotransplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, J.O.; Olsson, N.; Hellerstroem, C.; Andersson, A. [Uppsala Univerity, Dept. of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala (Sweden); Johnson, R.C. [Baxter Healthcar Corporation, Gene Therapy Unit, Illinois (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Membrane encapsulation or ultraviolet-B irradiation, with or without mild immunosuppressive treatment, was applied in order to prolong the survival of xenogeneic porcine foetal pancreatic grafts. Non-diabetic C57BL/6 mice were transplanted with porcine islet-like cell clusters, either membrane-encapsulated in the epididymal fat pad, or non-encapsulated under the kidney capsule. The animals were treated with daily subcutaneous injections of either cyclosporin A (12.5 mg/kg b.wt.), 15-deoxyspergualin (5.0 mg/kg b.wt.), ethyl (E)-6-(1,3-dihydro-4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-methyl-3-oxo-6-isobenzofurany l-4-methyl-4-hexenoate). (RS-61443) (70 mg/kg b.wt.) or with cyclophosphamide (70 mg/kg b.wt.) every second day. A fulminant mononuclear cell infiltration was observed 14 days after transplantation both around the subcapsular graft and outside the membranes in the saline treated control group. The membrane had pores of 0.45 {mu}m and was designed to allow macromolecule transport but prevents cells from crossing. Therefore, xenoantigens can escape from the membrane implants and cause an immune reaction. A significantly weaker mononuclear cell infiltration was, however, seen when the membrane barrier was combined with 15-deoxyspergualin, cyclophosphamide or RS-61443 treatment but the morphology of the encapsulated ICC was not improved. The best subcapsular, non-encapsulated graft survival was obtained in animals treated with 15-deoxyspergualin or cyclophosphamide and the graft insulin content measurements confirmed the morphological data. There was no prolongation of islet-like cell cluster graft survival under the kidney capsule after ultraviolet-B irradiation alone (650 J/m{sup 2} for 90 sec.), and no synergistic effect was observed. It is concluded that neither membrane encapsulation with membrane that allow xenoantigen escape from the implants nor ultraviolet-B irradiation are able to prolong discordant xenograft survival in mice. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. Risk factors of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency after pancreatic resection: A multi-center prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maignan, A; Ouaïssi, M; Turrini, O; Regenet, N; Loundou, A; Louis, G; Moutardier, V; Dahan, L; Pirrò, N; Sastre, B; Delpero, J-R; Sielezneff, I

    2018-01-26

    Management of functional consequences after pancreatic resection has become a new therapeutic challenge. The goal of our study is to evaluate the risk factors for exocrine (ExoPI) and endocrine (EndoPI) pancreatic insufficiency after pancreatic surgery and to establish a predictive model for their onset. Between January 1, 2014 and June 19, 2015, 91 consecutive patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) or left pancreatectomy (LP) (72% and 28%, respectively) were followed prospectively. ExoPI was defined as fecal elastase content126mg/dL or aggravation of preexisting diabetes. The volume of residual pancreas was measured according to the same principles as liver volumetry. The ExoPI and EndoPI rates at 6 months were 75.9% and 30.8%, respectively. The rate of ExoPI after PD was statistically significantly higher than after LP (98% vs. 21%; Ppancreatic volume less than 39.5% was predictive of ExoPI. ExoPI occurs quasi-systematically after PD irrespective of the reconstruction scheme. The rate of EndoPI did not differ between PD and LP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Role of LTB4 in the pathogenesis of elastase-induced murine pulmonary emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Mikell; Hanna, Halim; Kim, Su H.; Burdick, Marie D.; Strieter, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Exaggerated levels of the leukotriene B4 (LTB4) frequently coexist at sites of inflammation and tissue remodeling. Therefore, we hypothesize that the LTB4 pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neutrophilic inflammation that contributes to pulmonary emphysema. In this study, significant levels of LTB4 were detected in human lung tissues with emphysema compared with lungs without emphysema (9,497 ± 2,839 vs. 4,142 ± 1,173 pg/ml, n = 9 vs. 10, P = 0.04). To further determine the biological role of LTB4 in the pathogenesis of emphysema, we compared the lungs of wild-type (WT) and LTA4 hydrolase−/− mice (LTB4 deficient, LTA4H−/−) exposed to intranasal elastase or vehicle control. We found that intranasal elastase induced accumulation of LTB4 in the lungs and caused progressively worsening emphysema between 14 and 28 days after elastase exposure in WT mice but not in LTA4H−/− mice. Premortem physiology documented increased lung compliance in elastase-exposed WT mice compared with elastase-exposed LTA4H−/− mice as measured by Flexivent (0.058 ± 0.005 vs. 0.041 ± 0.002 ml/cmH2O pressure). Postmortem morphometry documented increased total lung volume and alveolar sizes in elastase-exposed WT mice compared with elastase-exposed LTA4H−/− mice as measured by volume displacement and alveolar chord length assessment. Furthermore, elastase-exposed LTA4H−/− mice were found to have significantly delayed influx of the CD45highCD11bhighLy6Ghigh leukocytes compatible with neutrophils compared with elastase-exposed WT mice. Mechanistic insights to these phenotypes were provided by demonstrating protection from elastase-induced murine emphysema with neutrophil depletion in the elastase-exposed WT mice and by demonstrating time-dependent modulation of cysteinyl leukotriene biosynthesis in the elastase-exposed LTA4H−/− mice compared with elastase-exposed WT mice. Together, these findings demonstrated that LTB4 played an important role in

  17. Three-dimensional structure of porcine pancreatic carboxypeptidase B with an acetate ion and two zinc atoms in the active site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akparov, V. Kh., E-mail: valery@akparov.ru [State Research Institute for Genetics and Selection of Industrial Microorganisms (Russian Federation); Timofeev, V. I., E-mail: tostars@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography of Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation); Maghsoudi, N. N., E-mail: maghsudi@yahoo.com [Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Neuroscience Research Center (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kuranova, I. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography of Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Crystals of porcine pancreatic carboxypeptidase B (CPB) were grown by the capillary counter-diffusion method in the presence of polyethylene glycol and zinc acetate. The three-dimensional structure of CPB was determined at 1.40 Å resolution using the X-ray diffraction data set collected from the crystals of the enzyme at the SPring 8 synchrotron facility and was refined to R{sub fact} = 17.19%, R{sub free} = 19.78%. The structure contains five zinc atoms, two of which are present in the active site of the enzyme, and an acetate ion. The arrangement of an additional zinc atom in the active site and the acetate ion is different from that reported by Yoshimoto et al.

  18. Pancreas specific expression of oncogenes in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Martin Fogtmann; Callesen, Morten Møbjerg; Østergaard, Tanja Stenshøj

    2017-01-01

    crucial for successful treatment. However, pancreatic cancer is difficult to detect in its earliest stages and once symptoms appear, the cancer has often progressed beyond possibility for curing. Research into the disease has been hampered by the lack of good models. We have generated a porcine m...

  19. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ELASTASES WITH INSECTICIDE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Matseliukh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was a screening of proteases with elastase activity among Bacillus thuringiensis strains, their isolation, partially purification, study of physicochemical properties and insecticide activity in relation to the larvae of the Colorado beetle. The objects of the investigation were 18 strains of B. thuringiensis, isolated from different sources: sea water, dry biological product "Bitoksibatsillin" and also from natural populations of Colorado beetles of the Crimea, Kherson, Odesa, Mykolaiv and Zaporizhiia regions of Ukraine. Purification of enzymes with elastase activity isolated from above mentioned strains was performed by gel-chromatography and insecticide activity was studied on the 3–4 larvae instar of Colorado beetle. The ability of a number of B. thuringiensis strains to synthesize the proteases with elastase activity has been established. The most active were enzymes obtained from strains IMV B-7465, IMV B-7324 isolated from sea water, and strains 9, 902, Bt-H and 0-239 isolated from Colorado beetles. The study of the physicochemical properties of the partially purified proteases of these strains showed that they belonged to enzymes of the serine type. Peptidases of a number of B. thuringiensis strains (IMV B-7324, IMV B-7465, 902, 0-239, 9 are metal-dependent enzymes. Optimal conditions of action of all tested enzymes are the neutral and alkaline рН values and the temperatures of 30–40 °С. The studies of influence of the complex enzyme preparations and partially purified ones of B. thuringiensis strains on the larvae instar of Colorado beetles indicated that enzymes with elastase activity could be responsible for insecticide action of the tested strains.

  20. Inhibition of early AAA formation by aortic intraluminal pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) infusion in a novel porcine AAA model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloster, Brian O; Lund, Lars; Lindholt, Jes S

    2016-01-01

    to prevent or delay their expansion. In this study, we investigated whether intraluminal delivered pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) can impair the early AAA development in a porcine model. METHODS: The infrarenal aorta was exposed in thirty pigs. Twenty underwent an elastase based AAA inducing procedure and ten...... of these received an additional intraluminal PGG infusion. The final 10 were sham operated and served as controls. RESULTS: All pigs who only had an elastase infusion developed macroscopically expanding AAAs. In pigs treated with an additional PGG infusion the growth rate of the AP-diameter rapidly returned...... and histology. CONCLUSION: In our model, intraluminal delivered PGG is able to penetrate the aortic wall from the inside and impair the early AAA development by stabilizing the elastic lamellae and preserving their integrity. The principle holds a high clinical potential if it can be translated to human...

  1. Effect of Elastase-induced Emphysema on the Force-generating Ability of the Diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supinski, Gerald S.; Kelsen, Steven G.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of emphysema on the ability of the diaphragm to generate force was examined in costal diaphragm muscle strips from 10 Golden hamsters killed 18 mo after intratracheal injection of pancreatic elastase in a dose producing hyperinflation (mean total lung capacity [TLC] = 163% of control) and generalized panacinar emphysema. 13 saline-injected normal animals served as controls. The time course of isometric tension and the effect of alterations in muscle fiber and sarcomere length on the isometric tension (T) generated in response to tetanizing electrical stimuli (length-tension [L-T] relationship) were examined. Elastase administration caused an increase in diaphragm muscle thickness and reduction in the length of costal diaphragm muscle fibers measured in situ. Emphysema significantly increased the maximum tetanic tension as a result of hypertrophy. Maximal tension corrected for increases in muscle cross-sectional area (T/cm2), however, was the same in emphysematous (E) and control (C) animals. Emphysema also shifted the muscle fiber L-T curve of the diaphragm but not of a control muscle, the soleus, toward shorter lengths. In contrast to the effects of E on the diaphragm muscle fiber L-T curve, the sarcomere L-T curve was the same in E and C. Since the length at which tension was maximal correlated closely with sarcomere number (r = 0.94; P < 0.001) reduction in the number of sarcomeres in series in muscles from emphysematous animals appeared to explain the shift in the muscle fiber L-T curve. We conclude that in elastase-induced emphysema adaptive changes both in diaphragm cross-sectional area and sarcomere number augment the force-generating ability of the diaphragm. We speculate that changes in sarcomere number compensate for alterations in muscle fiber length resulting from chronic hyperinflation of the thorax, while diaphragmatic muscle hypertrophy represents a response to changes in respiratory load and/or diaphragm configuration (La

  2. Physicochemical properties of elastase isolated from clinical Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbazza, Z.E.; Moroz, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    Purified elastase was obtained from clinical Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (P.A.-283). The enzyme showed not only elasto lytic activity, but also a broad proteolytic activity against various proteins. The activity of the enzyme on collagen and gelatin was also observed. The optimum pH for elastase was 7.8 to 8.0 for both the proteolytic and elasto lytic activities. The elastase was stable in a pH range from 6.6 to 9.0. Optimum temperature for proteolytic and elasto lytic activities was 40 and inhibition of elastase occurs at 80 . The D 1 0 value of the P.A-283 was found to be 0.11 kGy. Increasing the dose level value of gamma-irradiation decrease the proteolytic activity in the culture filtrate reaching only 16% at the dose level 0.5 kGy. Chelating agents and some metal ions inhibited both proteolytic and elasto lytic activities. Selective inhibition of elasto lytic activity was observed in high concentrations of sodium and ammonium salts without concurrent decrease in the proteolytic activity of the enzyme.4 fig., 3 tab

  3. Immunosuppression, macroencapsulation and ultraviolet-B irradiation as immunoprotection in porcine pancreatic islet xenotransplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, J.O.; Olsson, N.; Hellerstroem, C.; Andersson, A.; Johnson, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Membrane encapsulation or ultraviolet-B irradiation, with or without mild immunosuppressive treatment, was applied in order to prolong the survival of xenogeneic porcine foetal pancreatic grafts. Non-diabetic C57BL/6 mice were transplanted with porcine islet-like cell clusters, either membrane-encapsulated in the epididymal fat pad, or non-encapsulated under the kidney capsule. The animals were treated with daily subcutaneous injections of either cyclosporin A (12.5 mg/kg b.wt.), 15-deoxyspergualin (5.0 mg/kg b.wt.), ethyl (E)-6-(1,3-dihydro-4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-methyl-3-oxo-6-isobenzofurany l-4-methyl-4-hexenoate. (RS-61443) (70 mg/kg b.wt.) or with cyclophosphamide (70 mg/kg b.wt.) every second day. A fulminant mononuclear cell infiltration was observed 14 days after transplantation both around the subcapsular graft and outside the membranes in the saline treated control group. The membrane had pores of 0.45 μm and was designed to allow macromolecule transport but prevents cells from crossing. Therefore, xenoantigens can escape from the membrane implants and cause an immune reaction. A significantly weaker mononuclear cell infiltration was, however, seen when the membrane barrier was combined with 15-deoxyspergualin, cyclophosphamide or RS-61443 treatment but the morphology of the encapsulated ICC was not improved. The best subcapsular, non-encapsulated graft survival was obtained in animals treated with 15-deoxyspergualin or cyclophosphamide and the graft insulin content measurements confirmed the morphological data. There was no prolongation of islet-like cell cluster graft survival under the kidney capsule after ultraviolet-B irradiation alone (650 J/m 2 for 90 sec.), and no synergistic effect was observed when ultraviolet-B irradiation was combined with 15-deoxyspergualin therapy (2.0 mg/kg b.wt.). It is concluded that neither membrane encapsulation with membrane that allow xenoantigen escape from the implants nor ultraviolet-B irradiation are able to

  4. Enteric hyperoxaluria in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, Nathalie; Issa, Zaina; Crott, Ralph; Morelle, Johann; Danse, Etienne; Wallemacq, Pierre; Jadoul, Michel; Deprez, Pierre H

    2017-05-01

    Chronic pancreatitis may lead to steatorrhea, enteric hyperoxaluria, and kidney damage. However, the prevalence and determinants of hyperoxaluria in chronic pancreatitis patients as well as its association with renal function decline have not been investigated.We performed an observational study. Urine oxalate to creatinine ratio was assessed on 2 independent random urine samples in consecutive adult patients with chronic pancreatitis followed at the outpatient clinic from March 1 to October 31, 2012. Baseline characteristics and annual estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) change during follow-up were compared between patients with hyper- and normo-oxaluria.A total of 48 patients with chronic pancreatitis were included. The etiology of the disease was toxic (52%), idiopathic (27%), obstructive (11%), autoimmune (6%), or genetic (4%). Hyperoxaluria (defined as urine oxalate to creatinine ratio >32 mg/g) was found in 23% of patients. Multivariate regression analysis identified clinical steatorrhea, high fecal acid steatocrit, and pancreatic atrophy as independent predictors of hyperoxaluria. Taken together, a combination of clinical steatorrhea, steatocrit level >31%, and pancreatic atrophy was associated with a positive predictive value of 100% for hyperoxaluria. On the contrary, none of the patients with a fecal elastase-1 level >100 μg/g had hyperoxaluria. Longitudinal evolution of eGFR was available in 71% of the patients, with a mean follow-up of 904 days. After adjustment for established determinants of renal function decline (gender, diabetes, bicarbonate level, baseline eGFR, and proteinuria), a urine oxalate to creatinine ratio >32 mg/g was associated with a higher risk of eGFR decline.Hyperoxaluria is highly prevalent in patients with chronic pancreatitis and associated with faster decline in renal function. A high urine oxalate to creatinine ratio in patients with chronic pancreatitis is best predicted by clinical steatorrhea, a high acid

  5. Staging chronic pancreatitis with exocrine function tests: Are we better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperti, Cosimo; Moletta, Lucia

    2017-10-14

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas evolving in progressive fibrotic disruption of the gland with exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Although imaging features of CP are well known, their correlation with exocrine pancreatic function tests are not obvious, particularly in the early stage of the disease. There are many clinical classification of CP, all suggested for better distinguish and manage different forms based on etiological and clinical factors, and severity of the disease. Recently, a new classification of CP has been suggested: the M-ANNHEIM multiple risk factor classification that includes etiology, stage classification and degree of clinical severity. However, more accurate determination of clinical severity of CP requires a correct determination of exocrine function of the pancreas and fecal fat excretion. Recently, Kamath et al demonstrated that the evaluation of exocrine pancreatic function by acid steatocrit and fecal elastase-1 (EF-1) was helpful, but EF-1 was able to detect exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in more patients, upgrading some patients in higher stage of disease according to M-ANNHEIM classification. So, EF-1 is a more accurate test to determine exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and to stage chronic pancreatitis in the M-ANNHEIM classification. On the contrary, EF-1 determination shows low sensitivity in detecting exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in early stage of the disease.

  6. Association of faecal elastase 1 with non-fasting triglycerides in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmann, Wolfgang; Haastert, Burkhard; Oscarsson, Jan; Berglind, Niklas; Lindkvist, Björn; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of esterified fatty acids depends on exocrine pancreatic function and influences plasma triglycerides levels. The aim was to investigate the association of reduced exocrine pancreatic function (low fecal elastase-1; FE1) with plasma triglycerides in type 2 diabetes and controls without diabetes. FE1 (μg/g stool) and non-fasting plasma triglyceride measurements were undertaken in 544 type 2 diabetes patients (age: 63 ± 8 years) randomly selected from diabetes registers in Cambridgeshire (UK), and 544 matched controls (age, sex, practice) without diabetes. Linear regression models were fitted using FE1 as dependent and log-triglycerides as independent variable adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, serum lipase, HbA1c, and smoking. FE1 concentrations were lower (mean ± SD: 337 ± 204 vs. 437 ± 216 μg/g, p triglycerides were higher (geometric mean */: standard deviation factor: 2.2*/:1.9 vs. 1.6*/:1.8 mmol/l, p triglycerides was associated with 4.5 μg/g higher FE1 concentrations (p triglycerides (significant only in controls). Non-fasting triglycerides were positively related to FE1 in both type 2 diabetes and controls suggesting that impairment of exocrine pancreas function is influencing plasma triglycerides. Marked loss of exocrine pancreatic function had the opposite effect, resulting in higher levels of plasma triglycerides. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Targeted Inhibition of Pancreatic Acinar Cell Calcineurin Is a Novel Strategy to Prevent Post-ERCP PancreatitisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahim I. Orabi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: There is a pressing need to develop effective preventative therapies for post–endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP. We showed that early PEP events are induced through the calcium-activated phosphatase calcineurin and that global calcineurin deletion abolishes PEP in mice. A crucial question is whether acinar cell calcineurin controls the initiation of PEP in vivo. Methods: We used a mouse model of PEP and examined the effects of in vivo acinar cell-specific calcineurin deletion by either generating a conditional knockout line or infusing a novel adeno-associated virus–pancreatic elastase improved Cre (I–iCre into the pancreatic duct of a calcineurin floxed line. Results: We found that PEP is dependent on acinar cell calcineurin in vivo, and this led us to determine that calcineurin inhibitors, infused within the radiocontrast, largely can prevent PEP. Conclusions: These results provide the impetus for launching clinical trials to test the efficacy of intraductal calcineurin inhibitors to prevent PEP. Keywords: Adeno-Associated Virus, Calcineurin B1, FK506, Cyclosporine A, Intraductal Delivery

  8. Neutrophil elastase processing of Gelatinase A is mediated by extracellular matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, A.; Banda, M.J. [Univ. of California, San Franciso, CA (United States)

    1995-07-18

    Gelatinase A (72-kDa type IV collagenase) is a metalloproteinase that is expressed by many cells in culture and is overexpressed by some tumor cells. It has been suggested that the serine proteinase neutrophil elastase might play a role iii the posttranslational processing of gelatinase A and that noncatalytic interactions between gelatinase A and components of the extracellular matrix might alter potential processing pathways. These questions were addressed with the use of gelatin substrate zymography, gelatinolytic activity assays, and amino acid sequence analysis. We found that neutrophil elastase does proteolytically modify gelatinase A by cleaving at a number of sites within gelatinase A. Sequential treatment of gelatinase A with 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate (APMA) and neutrophil elastase yielded an active gelatinase with a 4-fold increase in gelatinolytic activity. The increased gelatinolytic activity correlated with that of a 40-kDa fragment of gelatinase A. Matrix components altered the proteolytic modifications in gelatinase A that were mediated by neutrophil elastase. In the absence of gelatin, neutrophil elastase destructively degraded gelatinase A by hydrolyzing at least two bonds within the fibronectin-like gelatin-binding domain of gelatinase A. In the presence of gelatin, these two inactivating cleavage sites were protected, and cleavage at a site within the hemopexin-like carboxyl-terminal domain resulted in a truncated yet active gelatinase. The results suggest a regulatory role for extracellular matrix molecules in stabilizing gelatinase A fragments and in altering the availability of sites susceptible to destructive proteolysis by neutrophil elastase. 32 refs., 10 figs.

  9. The effect of intra-abdominal hypertension incorporating severe acute pancreatitis in a porcine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ke

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS and intra abdominal hypertension(IAH are common clinical findings in patients with severe acute pancreatitis(SAP. It is thought that an increased intra abdominal pressure(IAP is associated with poor prognosis in SAP patients. But the detailed effect of IAH/ACS on different organ system is not clear. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of SAP combined with IAH on hemodynamics, systemic oxygenation, and organ damage in a 12 h lasting porcine model. MEASUREMENTS AND METHODS: Following baseline registrations, a total of 30 animals were divided into 5 groups (6 animals in each group: SAP+IAP30 group, SAP+IAP20 group, SAP group, IAP30 group(sham-operated but without SAP and sham-operated group. We used a N(2 pneumoperitoneum to induce different levels of IAH and retrograde intra-ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate to induce SAP. The investigation period was 12 h. Hemodynamic parameters (CO, HR, MAP, CVP, urine output, oxygenation parameters(e.g., S(vO(2, PO(2, PaCO(2, peak inspiratory pressure, as well as serum parameters (e.g., ALT, amylase, lactate, creatinine were recorded. Histological examination of liver, intestine, pancreas, and lung was performed. MAIN RESULTS: Cardiac output significantly decreased in the SAP+IAH animals compared with other groups. Furthermore, AST, creatinine, SUN and lactate showed similar increasing tendency paralleled with profoundly decrease in S(vO(2. The histopathological analyses also revealed higher grade injury of liver, intestine, pancreas and lung in the SAP+IAH groups. However, few differences were found between the two SAP+IAH groups with different levels of IAP. CONCLUSIONS: Our newly developed porcine SAP+IAH model demonstrated that there were remarkable effects on global hemodynamics, oxygenation and organ function in response to sustained IAH of 12 h combined with SAP. Moreover, our model should be helpful to study the mechanisms of IAH

  10. Absence of diabetes and pancreatic exocrine dysfunction in a transgenic model of carboxyl-ester lipase-MODY (maturity-onset diabetes of the young.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Ræder

    Full Text Available CEL-MODY is a monogenic form of diabetes with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency caused by mutations in CARBOXYL-ESTER LIPASE (CEL. The pathogenic processes underlying CEL-MODY are poorly understood, and the global knockout mouse model of the CEL gene (CELKO did not recapitulate the disease. We therefore aimed to create and phenotype a mouse model specifically over-expressing mutated CEL in the pancreas.We established a monotransgenic floxed (flanking LOX sequences mouse line carrying the human CEL mutation c.1686delT and crossed it with an elastase-Cre mouse to derive a bitransgenic mouse line with pancreas-specific over-expression of CEL carrying this disease-associated mutation (TgCEL. Following confirmation of murine pancreatic expression of the human transgene by real-time quantitative PCR, we phenotyped the mouse model fed a normal chow and compared it with mice fed a 60% high fat diet (HFD as well as the effects of short-term and long-term cerulein exposure.Pancreatic exocrine function was normal in TgCEL mice on normal chow as assessed by serum lipid and lipid-soluble vitamin levels, fecal elastase and fecal fat absorption, and the normoglycemic mice exhibited normal pancreatic morphology. On 60% HFD, the mice gained weight to the same extent as controls, had normal pancreatic exocrine function and comparable glucose tolerance even after resuming normal diet and follow up up to 22 months of age. The cerulein-exposed TgCEL mice gained weight and remained glucose tolerant, and there were no detectable mutation-specific differences in serum amylase, islet hormones or the extent of pancreatic tissue inflammation.In this murine model of human CEL-MODY diabetes, we did not detect mutation-specific endocrine or exocrine pancreatic phenotypes, in response to altered diets or exposure to cerulein.

  11. Absence of diabetes and pancreatic exocrine dysfunction in a transgenic model of carboxyl-ester lipase-MODY (maturity-onset diabetes of the young).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ræder, Helge; Vesterhus, Mette; El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Paulo, Joao A; McAllister, Fiona E; Liew, Chong Wee; Hu, Jiang; Kawamori, Dan; Molven, Anders; Gygi, Steven P; Njølstad, Pål R; Kahn, C Ronald; Kulkarni, Rohit N

    2013-01-01

    CEL-MODY is a monogenic form of diabetes with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency caused by mutations in CARBOXYL-ESTER LIPASE (CEL). The pathogenic processes underlying CEL-MODY are poorly understood, and the global knockout mouse model of the CEL gene (CELKO) did not recapitulate the disease. We therefore aimed to create and phenotype a mouse model specifically over-expressing mutated CEL in the pancreas. We established a monotransgenic floxed (flanking LOX sequences) mouse line carrying the human CEL mutation c.1686delT and crossed it with an elastase-Cre mouse to derive a bitransgenic mouse line with pancreas-specific over-expression of CEL carrying this disease-associated mutation (TgCEL). Following confirmation of murine pancreatic expression of the human transgene by real-time quantitative PCR, we phenotyped the mouse model fed a normal chow and compared it with mice fed a 60% high fat diet (HFD) as well as the effects of short-term and long-term cerulein exposure. Pancreatic exocrine function was normal in TgCEL mice on normal chow as assessed by serum lipid and lipid-soluble vitamin levels, fecal elastase and fecal fat absorption, and the normoglycemic mice exhibited normal pancreatic morphology. On 60% HFD, the mice gained weight to the same extent as controls, had normal pancreatic exocrine function and comparable glucose tolerance even after resuming normal diet and follow up up to 22 months of age. The cerulein-exposed TgCEL mice gained weight and remained glucose tolerant, and there were no detectable mutation-specific differences in serum amylase, islet hormones or the extent of pancreatic tissue inflammation. In this murine model of human CEL-MODY diabetes, we did not detect mutation-specific endocrine or exocrine pancreatic phenotypes, in response to altered diets or exposure to cerulein.

  12. Endoluminal ultrasound applicators for MR-guided thermal ablation of pancreatic tumors: Preliminary design and evaluation in a porcine pancreas model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Matthew S.; Diederich, Chris J.; Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Jones, Peter D.; Plata-Camargo, Juan; Sommer, Graham; Pauly, Kim Butts; Pascal-Tenorio, Aurea; Bouley, Donna M.; Chen, Hsin-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Endoluminal ultrasound may serve as a minimally invasive option for delivering thermal ablation to pancreatic tumors adjacent to the stomach or duodenum. The objective of this study was to explore the basic feasibility of this treatment strategy through the design, characterization, and evaluation of proof-of-concept endoluminal ultrasound applicators capable of placement in the gastrointestinal (GI) lumen for volumetric pancreas ablation under MR guidance. Methods: Two variants of the endoluminal applicator, each containing a distinct array of two independently powered transducers (10 × 10 mm 3.2 MHz planar; or 8 × 10 × 20 mm radius of curvature 3.3 MHz curvilinear geometries) at the distal end of a meter long flexible catheter assembly, were designed and fabricated. Transducers and circulatory water flow for acoustic coupling and luminal cooling were contained by a low-profile polyester balloon covering the transducer assembly fixture. Each applicator incorporated miniature spiral MR coils and mechanical features (guiding tips and hinges) to facilitate tracking and insertion through the GI tract under MRI guidance. Acoustic characterization of each device was performed using radiation force balance and hydrophone measurements. Device delivery into the upper GI tract, adjacent to the pancreas, and heating characteristics for treatment of pancreatic tissue were evaluated in MR-guided ex vivo and in vivo porcine experiments. MR guidance was utilized for anatomical target identification, tracking/positioning of the applicator, and MR temperature imaging (MRTI) for PRF-based multislice thermometry, implemented in the real-time RTHawk software environment. Results: Force balance and hydrophone measurements indicated efficiencies of 48.8% and 47.8% and −3 dB intensity beam-widths of 3.2 and 1.2 mm for the planar and curvilinear transducers, respectively. Ex vivo studies on whole-porcine carcasses revealed capabilities of producing ablative temperature rise

  13. Endoluminal ultrasound applicators for MR-guided thermal ablation of pancreatic tumors: Preliminary design and evaluation in a porcine pancreas model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Matthew S., E-mail: matt.adams@ucsf.edu; Diederich, Chris J. [Thermal Therapy Research Group, University of California, San Francisco, 2340 Sutter Street, S341, San Francisco, California 94115 and The UC Berkeley - UCSF Graduate Program in Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, and University of California, San Francisco, California 94115 (United States); Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Jones, Peter D. [Thermal Therapy Research Group, University of California, San Francisco, 2340 Sutter Street, S341, San Francisco, California 94115 (United States); Plata-Camargo, Juan; Sommer, Graham; Pauly, Kim Butts [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Pascal-Tenorio, Aurea; Bouley, Donna M. [Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Chen, Hsin-Yu [The UC Berkeley - UCSF Graduate Program in Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, and University of California, San Francisco, California 94115 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: Endoluminal ultrasound may serve as a minimally invasive option for delivering thermal ablation to pancreatic tumors adjacent to the stomach or duodenum. The objective of this study was to explore the basic feasibility of this treatment strategy through the design, characterization, and evaluation of proof-of-concept endoluminal ultrasound applicators capable of placement in the gastrointestinal (GI) lumen for volumetric pancreas ablation under MR guidance. Methods: Two variants of the endoluminal applicator, each containing a distinct array of two independently powered transducers (10 × 10 mm 3.2 MHz planar; or 8 × 10 × 20 mm radius of curvature 3.3 MHz curvilinear geometries) at the distal end of a meter long flexible catheter assembly, were designed and fabricated. Transducers and circulatory water flow for acoustic coupling and luminal cooling were contained by a low-profile polyester balloon covering the transducer assembly fixture. Each applicator incorporated miniature spiral MR coils and mechanical features (guiding tips and hinges) to facilitate tracking and insertion through the GI tract under MRI guidance. Acoustic characterization of each device was performed using radiation force balance and hydrophone measurements. Device delivery into the upper GI tract, adjacent to the pancreas, and heating characteristics for treatment of pancreatic tissue were evaluated in MR-guided ex vivo and in vivo porcine experiments. MR guidance was utilized for anatomical target identification, tracking/positioning of the applicator, and MR temperature imaging (MRTI) for PRF-based multislice thermometry, implemented in the real-time RTHawk software environment. Results: Force balance and hydrophone measurements indicated efficiencies of 48.8% and 47.8% and −3 dB intensity beam-widths of 3.2 and 1.2 mm for the planar and curvilinear transducers, respectively. Ex vivo studies on whole-porcine carcasses revealed capabilities of producing ablative temperature rise

  14. Secretin-stimulated ultrasound estimation of pancreatic secretion in cystic fibrosis validated by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engjom, Trond; Dimcevski, Georg; Tjora, Erling; Wathle, Gaute; Erchinger, Friedemann; Laerum, Birger N.; Gilja, Odd H.; Haldorsen, Ingfrid Salvesen

    2018-01-01

    Secretin-stimulated magnetic resonance imaging (s-MRI) is the best validated radiological modality assessing pancreatic secretion. The purpose of this study was to compare volume output measures from secretin-stimulated transabdominal ultrasonography (s-US) to s-MRI for the diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic failure in cystic fibrosis (CF). We performed transabdominal ultrasonography and MRI before and at timed intervals during 15 minutes after secretin stimulation in 21 CF patients and 13 healthy controls. To clearly identify the subjects with reduced exocrine pancreatic function, we classified CF patients as pancreas-sufficient or -insufficient by secretin-stimulated endoscopic short test and faecal elastase. Pancreas-insufficient CF patients had reduced pancreatic secretions compared to pancreas-sufficient subjects based on both imaging modalities (p < 0.001). Volume output estimates assessed by s-US correlated to that of s-MRI (r = 0.56-0.62; p < 0.001). Both s-US (AUC: 0.88) and s-MRI (AUC: 0.99) demonstrated good diagnostic accuracy for exocrine pancreatic failure. Pancreatic volume-output estimated by s-US corresponds well to exocrine pancreatic function in CF patients and yields comparable results to that of s-MRI. s-US provides a simple and feasible tool in the assessment of pancreatic secretion. (orig.)

  15. Clinical and pathological outcomes after irreversible electroporation of the pancreas using two parallel plate electrodes: a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, Steffi J E; van Dijck, Willemijn P M; Nijkamp, Maarten W; Derksen, Tyche C; Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Hoogwater, Frederik J H; van Leeuwen, Maarten S; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Wittkampf, Fred H; Molenaar, Izaak Q

    2017-12-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) by inserting needles around the tumor as treatment for locally advanced pancreatic cancer entails several disadvantages, such as incomplete ablation due to field inhomogeneity, technical difficulties in needle placement and a risk of pancreatic fistula development. This experimental study evaluates outcomes of IRE using paddles in a porcine model. Six healthy pigs underwent laparotomy and were treated with 2 separate ablations (in head and tail of the pancreas). Follow-up consisted of clinical and laboratory parameters and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (ceCT) imaging. After 2 weeks, pancreatoduodenectomy was performed for histology and the pigs were terminated. All animals survived 14 days. None of the animals developed signs of infection or significant abdominal distention. Serum amylase and lipase peaked at day 1 postoperatively in all pigs, but normalized without signs of pancreatitis. On ceCT-imaging the ablation zone was visible as an ill-defined, hypodense lesion. No abscesses, cysts or ascites were seen. Histology showed a homogenous fibrotic lesion in all pigs. IRE ablation of healthy porcine pancreatic tissue using two plate electrodes is feasible and safe and creates a homogeneous fibrotic lesion. IRE-paddles should be tested on pancreatic adenocarcinoma to determine the effect in cancer tissue. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Protective effects of an aptamer inhibitor of neutrophil elastase in lung inflammatory injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bless, N M; Smith, D; Charlton, J

    1997-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important part in the development of acute inflammatory injury. Human neutrophils contain high levels of the serine protease elastase, which is stored in azurophilic granules and is secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli. Elastase is capable of degrading many components...... of extracellular matrix [1-4] and has cytotoxic effects on endothelial cells [5-7] and airway epithelial cells. Three types of endogenous protease inhibitors control the activity of neutrophil elastase, including alpha-1 protease inhibitor (alpha-1PI), alpha-2 macroglobulin and secreted leukoproteinase inhibitor...... (SLPI) [8-10]. A disturbed balance between neutrophil elastase and these inhibitors has been found in various acute clinical conditions (such as adult respiratory syndrome and ischemia-reperfusion injury) and in chronic diseases. We investigated the effect of NX21909, a selected oligonucleotide (aptamer...

  17. Establishment of a new murine elastase-induced aneurysm model combined with transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Rowinska

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to develop a reproducible murine model of elastase-induced aneurysm formation combined with aortic transplantation.Adult male mice (n = 6-9 per group underwent infrarenal, orthotopic transplantation of the aorta treated with elastase or left untreated. Subsequently, both groups of mice were monitored by ultrasound until 7 weeks after grafting.Mice receiving an elastase-pretreated aorta developed aneurysms and exhibited a significantly increased diastolic vessel diameter compared to control grafted mice at 7 week after surgery (1.11 ± 0.10 mm vs. 0.75 ± 0.03 mm; p ≤ 0,001. Histopathological examination revealed disruption of medial elastin, an increase in collagen content and smooth muscle cells, and neointima formation in aneurysm grafts.We developed a reproducible murine model of elastase-induced aneurysm combined with aortic transplantation. This model may be suitable to investigate aneurysm-specific inflammatory processes and for use in gene-targeted animals.

  18. Delayed release pancrelipase for treatment of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency associated with chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Mukkai Krishnamurty

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Devi Mukkai Krishnamurty,1 Atoosa Rabiee,2 Sanjay B Jagannath,1 Dana K Andersen2Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; 1Department of Medicine; 2Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Pancreatic enzyme supplements (PES are used in chronic pancreatitis (CP for correction of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI as well as pain and malnutrition. The use of porcine pancreatic enzymes for the correction of exocrine insufficiency is governed by the pathophysiology of the disease as well as pharmacologic properties of PES. Variability in bioequivalence of PES has been noted on in vitro and in vivo testing and has been attributed to the differences in enteric coating and the degree of micro-encapsulation. As a step towards standardizing pancreatic enzyme preparations, the Food and Drug Administration now requires the manufacturers of PES to obtain approval of marketed formulations by April 2010. In patients with treatment failure, apart from evaluating drug and dietary interactions and compliance, physicians should keep in mind that patients may benefit from switching to a different formulation. The choice of PES (enteric coated versus non-enteric coated and the need for acid suppression should be individualized. There is no current standard test for evaluating adequacy of therapy in CP patients and studies have shown that optimization of therapy based on symptoms may be inadequate. Goals of therapy based on overall patient presentation and specific laboratory tests rather than mere correction of steatorrhea are needed.Keywords: pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic enzyme supplement

  19. Neutrophil elastase and elastin-derived peptides in BAL fluid and emphysematous changes on CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Nishimura, Masaharu; Yoshioka, Aya; Takeyabu, Kimihiro; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kawakami, Yoshikazu

    1996-01-01

    We examined the relationship between neutrophil elastase, elastin-derived peptides in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and the development of pulmonary emphysema. The level of neutrophil elastase was higher in asymptomatic current smokers with emphysematous changes on computed tomographic scans than in current smokers without emphysematous changes, and was found to be correlated with the level of elastin-derived peptides in BAL fluid. Subjects with high levels of neutrophil elastase in BAL fluid had faster annual declines in FEV 1 . We conclude that the level of neutrophil elastase in BAL fluid can be used to differentiate asymptomatic cigarette smokers who are at risk for pulmonary emphysema from those who are not. (author)

  20. Secoiridoids from the stem barks of Fraxinus rhynchophylla with pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jong Hoon; Shin, Eunjin; Liu, Qing; Kim, Seon Beom; Choi, Kyeong-Mi; Yoo, Hwan-Soo; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic lipase digests dietary fats by hydrolysis, which is a key enzyme for lipid absorption. Therefore, reduction of fat absorption by the inhibition of pancreatic lipase is suggested to be a therapeutic strategy for obesity. From the EtOAc-soluble fraction of the stem barks of Fraxinus rhynchophylla (Oleaceae), four secoiridoids such as ligstroside (1), oleuropein (2), 2"-hydroxyoleuropein (3) and hydroxyframoside B (4) were isolated. The inhibitory activity of these compounds on pancreatic lipase was assessed using porcine pancreatic lipase as an in vitro assay system. Compound 4 showed the strongest inhibition on pancreatic lipase, which followed by compounds 1-3. In addition, compound 4 exerted inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase in a mixed mechanism of competitive and noncompetitive manner. Taken together, F. rhynchophylla and its constituents might be beneficial to obesity.

  1. Cotton Study: Albumin Binding and its Effect on Elastase Activity in the Chronic Non-Healing Wound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, N.; Goheen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cotton, as it is used in wound dressings is composed of nearly pure cellulose. During the wound-healing process, cotton is exposed to various blood components including water, salts, cells, and blood proteins. Albumin is the most prominent protein in blood. Elastase is an enzyme secreted by white blood cells and takes an active role in tissue reconstruction. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase is often over-expressed such that this enzyme digests tissue and growth factors, and interferes with the normal healing process. Our goal is to design a cotton wound dressing that will sequester elastase or assist in reducing elastase activity in the presence of other blood proteins such as albumin. The ability of cotton and various cotton derivatives to sequester elastase and albumin has been studied by examining the adsorption of these two proteins separately. We undertook the present work to confirm the binding of albumin to cotton and to quantify the activity of elastase in the presence of various derivatives of cotton. We previously observed a slight increase in elastase activity when exposed to cotton. We also observed a continuous accumulation of albumin on cotton using high-performance liquid chromatography methods. In the present study, we used an open-column-absorption technique coupled with a colorimetric protein assay to confirm losses of albumin to cotton. We have also confirmed increased elastase activity after exposure to cotton. The results are discussed in relation to the porosity of cotton and the use of cotton for treating chronic non-healing wounds.

  2. Construction of EMSC-islet co-localizing composites for xenogeneic porcine islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Sik; Chung, Hyunwoo; Byun, Nari; Kang, Seong-Jun; Lee, Sunho; Shin, Jun-Seop; Park, Chung-Gyu

    2018-03-04

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is an ultimate solution for treating patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The pig is an ideal donor of islets for replacing scarce human islets. Besides immunological hurdles, non-immunological hurdles including fragmentation and delayed engraftment of porcine islets need solutions to succeed in porcine islet xenotransplantation. In this study, we suggest a simple but effective modality, a cell/islet co-localizing composite, to overcome these challenges. Endothelial-like mesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), differentiated from bone-marrow derived mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and MSCs evenly coated the surface of porcine islets (>85%) through optimized culture conditions. Both MSCs and EMSCs significantly reduced the fragmentation of porcine islets and increased the islet masses, designated as islet equivalents (IEQs). In fibrin in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis analysis, constructed EMSC-islet composites showed higher angiogenic potentials than naked islets, MSC-islet composites, or human endothelial cell-islet composites. This novel delivery method of porcine islets may have beneficial effects on the engraftment of transplanted islets by prevention of fragmentation and enhancement of revascularization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Targeting an Oncolytic Influenza A Virus to Tumor Tissue by Elastase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kuznetsova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses are currently established as a novel type of immunotherapy. The challenge is to safely target oncolytic viruses to tumors. Previously, we have generated influenza A viruses (IAVs containing deletions in the viral interferon antagonist. Those deletions have attenuated the virus in normal tissue but allowed replication in tumor cells. IAV entry is mediated by hemagglutinin (HA, which needs to be activated by a serine protease, for example, through trypsin. To further target the IAV to tumors, we have changed the trypsin cleavage site to an elastase cleavage site. We chose this cleavage site because elastase is expressed in the tumor microenvironment. Moreover, the exchange of the cleavage site previously has been shown to attenuate viral growth in lungs. Newly generated elastase-activated influenza viruses (AE viruses grew to similar titers in tumor cells as the trypsin-activated counterparts (AT viruses. Intratumoral injection of AE viruses into syngeneic B16f1 melanoma-derived tumors in mice reduced tumor growth similar to AT viruses and had a better therapeutic effect in heterologous human PANC-1-derived tumors. Therefore, the introduction of the attenuation marker “elastase cleavage site” in viral HA allows for safe, effective oncolytic virus therapy.

  4. Elastase-coupled beads as a tool for characterizing localized alveolar tissue destruction associated with the onset of emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J. M.; Scott, A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Intratracheal elastase challenge of laboratory animals has long been established as a model for observing the physiological and morphological changes that result from alveolar destruction, the hallmark of emphysema. However, instillation of elastase suspended in buffer results in widespread inflammation and variable emphysematous lesions, which has made the identification of specific cellular and molecular events associated with the onset of emphysema difficult to define. Here we establish a bead-based elastase delivery system that induces localized tissue destruction, a key event in the initiation of emphysema. Elastase was coupled to bisacrylamide beads, which were shown to retain enzymatic activity prior to intratracheal administration in mice. C57BL/6 mice were given a single dose of 40,000 beads, which became distributed throughout the small airways and parenchyma of the lung. Elastase-coupled beads resulted in a quantifiable loss of alveolar tissue immediately surrounding the beads, an effect that was not observed with beads that lacked protein altogether or with beads containing elastase inactivated by an irreversible inhibitor. Furthermore, beads bound with active elastase elicited local recruitment of mononuclear cells, including macrophages, and polymorphonuclear neutrophils to the site of bead deposition, a feature consistent with the cellular infiltration observed following conventional solubilized elastase challenges. This work identifies a novel bead-based enzyme delivery system that also extends the elastase model of emphysema to permit the characterization of mechanisms that drive alveolar surface area loss following elastin degradation in focal emphysematous lesions. PMID:23558388

  5. Inhibition of early AAA formation by aortic intraluminal pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) infusion in a novel porcine AAA model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloster, Brian O; Lund, Lars; Lindholt, Jes S

    2016-05-01

    The vast majority of abdominal aortic aneurysms found in screening programs are small, and as no effective treatment exits, many will expand until surgery is indicated. Therefore, it remains intriguing to develop a safe and low cost treatment of these small aneurysms, that is able to prevent or delay their expansion. In this study, we investigated whether intraluminal delivered pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) can impair the early AAA development in a porcine model. The infrarenal aorta was exposed in thirty pigs. Twenty underwent an elastase based AAA inducing procedure and ten of these received an additional intraluminal PGG infusion. The final 10 were sham operated and served as controls. All pigs who only had an elastase infusion developed macroscopically expanding AAAs. In pigs treated with an additional PGG infusion the growth rate of the AP-diameter rapidly returned to physiological values as seen in the control group. In the elastase group, histology revealed more or less complete resolution of the elastic lamellae in the media while they were more abundant, coherent and structurally organized in the PGG group. The control group displayed normal physiological growth and histology. In our model, intraluminal delivered PGG is able to penetrate the aortic wall from the inside and impair the early AAA development by stabilizing the elastic lamellae and preserving their integrity. The principle holds a high clinical potential if it can be translated to human conditions, since it, if so, potentially could represent a new drug for stabilizing small abdominal aneurysms.

  6. Porcine Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Agent Isolated from Medicinal Herb and Inhibition Kinetics of Extracts from Eleusine indica (L. Gaertner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ling Ong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleusine indica (Linnaeus Gaertner is a traditional herb known to be depurative, febrifuge, and diuretic and has been reported with the highest inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL among thirty two plants screened in an earlier study. This study aims to isolate and identify the active components that may possess high potential as an antiobesity agent. Of the screened solvent fractions of E. indica, hexane fraction showed the highest inhibitory activity of 27.01±5.68% at 100 μg/mL. Bioactivity-guided isolation afforded three compounds from the hexane fraction of E. indica, namely, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and lutein. The structures of these compounds were elucidated using spectral techniques. Lutein showed an outstanding inhibitory activity against PPL (55.98±1.04%, with activity 60% higher than that of the reference drug Orlistat. The other compounds isolated and identified were β-sitosterol (2.99±0.80% and stigmasterol (2.68±0.38%. The enzyme kinetics of E. indica crude methanolic extract on PPL showed mixed inhibition mechanism.

  7. Porcine Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Agent Isolated from Medicinal Herb and Inhibition Kinetics of Extracts from Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Siew Ling; Mah, Siau Hui; Lai, How Yee

    2016-01-01

    Eleusine indica (Linnaeus) Gaertner is a traditional herb known to be depurative, febrifuge, and diuretic and has been reported with the highest inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) among thirty two plants screened in an earlier study. This study aims to isolate and identify the active components that may possess high potential as an antiobesity agent. Of the screened solvent fractions of E. indica , hexane fraction showed the highest inhibitory activity of 27.01 ± 5.68% at 100  μ g/mL. Bioactivity-guided isolation afforded three compounds from the hexane fraction of E. indica , namely,  β -sitosterol, stigmasterol, and lutein. The structures of these compounds were elucidated using spectral techniques. Lutein showed an outstanding inhibitory activity against PPL (55.98 ± 1.04%), with activity 60% higher than that of the reference drug Orlistat. The other compounds isolated and identified were  β -sitosterol (2.99 ± 0.80%) and stigmasterol (2.68 ± 0.38%). The enzyme kinetics of E. indica crude methanolic extract on PPL showed mixed inhibition mechanism.

  8. Non-surgical periodontal therapy decreases serum elastase levels in aggressive but not in chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickholz, Peter; Siegelin, Yasemin; Scharf, Susanne; Schacher, Beate; Oremek, Gerhard M; Sauer-Eppel, Hildegund; Schubert, Ralf; Wohlfeil, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Assessment of the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy (SRP) on serum inflammatory parameters in patients with untreated aggressive (AgP) and chronic (ChP) periodontitis. Overall, 31 ChP and 29 AgP were examined clinically prior to and 12 weeks after SRP (subgingival scaling of all pockets within 2 days) with systemic antibiotics for patients positive for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (14 AgP, 9 ChP). Blood was sampled prior to, one day, 6, and 12 weeks after the first SRP visit. Serum elastase, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), interleukin (IL) 6, 8, and leukocyte counts were assessed. At baseline, serum elastase, CRP, and LBP were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in AgP than ChP. Serum elastase, CRP, LBP, and IL-6 were significantly (p < 0.001) elevated one day after scaling in both groups. Both groups showed significant clinical improvement (p < 0.001). A significant difference was observed regarding change of serum elastase 12 weeks after SRP between AgP and ChP (p = 0.015). Multiple regression analysis revealed AgP, African origin, and bleeding on probing to be associated with more pronounced elastase reduction. CRP reduction was associated with African origin, systemic antibiotics, and baseline probing pocket depth. SRP results in serum elastase reduction in AgP but not in ChP. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Thrombin Production and Human Neutrophil Elastase Sequestration by Modified Cellulosic Dressings and Their Electrokinetic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolette Prevost

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a complex series of biochemical and cellular events. Optimally, functional material design addresses the overlapping acute and inflammatory stages of wound healing based on molecular, cellular, and bio-compatibility issues. In this paper the issues addressed are uncontrolled hemostasis and inflammation which can interfere with the orderly flow of wound healing. In this regard, we review the serine proteases thrombin and elastase relative to dressing functionality that improves wound healing and examine the effects of charge in cotton/cellulosic dressing design on thrombin production and elastase sequestration (uptake by the wound dressing. Thrombin is central to the initiation and propagation of coagulation, and elastase is released from neutrophils that can function detrimentally in a stalled inflammatory phase characteristic of chronic wounds. Electrokinetic fiber surface properties of the biomaterials of this study were determined to correlate material charge and polarity with function relative to thrombin production and elastase sequestration. Human neutrophil elastase sequestration was assessed with an assay representative of chronic wound concentration with cotton gauze cross-linked with three types of polycarboxylic acids and one phosphorylation finish; thrombin production, which was assessed in a plasma-based assay via a fluorogenic peptide substrate, was determined for cotton, cotton-grafted chitosan, chitosan, rayon/polyester, and two kaolin-treated materials including a commercial hemorrhage control dressing (QuickClot Combat Gauze. A correlation in thrombin production to zeta potential was found. Two polycarboxylic acid cross linked and a phosphorylated cotton dressing gave high elastase sequestration.

  10. A prospective assessment of the natural course of the exocrine pancreatic function in patients with a pancreatic head tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkens, Edmée C M; Cahen, Djuna L; de Wit, Jill; Looman, Caspar W N; van Eijck, Casper; Bruno, Marco J

    2014-01-01

    In cancer of the pancreatic head region, exocrine insufficiency is a well-known complication, leading to steatorrhea, weight loss, and malnutrition. Its presence is frequently overlooked, however, because the primary attention is focused on cancer treatment. To date, the risk of developing exocrine insufficiency is unspecified. Therefore, we assessed this function in patients with tumors of the pancreatic head, distal common bile duct, or ampulla of Vater. Between March 2010 and August 2012, we prospectively included patients diagnosed with cancer of the pancreatic head region at our tertiary center. To preclude the effect of a resection, we excluded operated patients. Each month, the exocrine function was determined with a fecal elastase test. Furthermore, endocrine function, steatorrhea-related symptoms, and body weight were evaluated. Patients were followed for 6 months, or until death. Thirty-two patients were included. The tumor was located in the pancreas in 75%, in the bile duct in 16%, and in the ampullary region in 9%, with a median size of 2.5 cm. At diagnosis, the prevalence of exocrine insufficiency was 66%, which increased to 92% after a median follow-up of 2 months (interquartile range, 1 to 4 mo). Most patients with cancer of the pancreatic head region were already exocrine insufficient at diagnosis, and within several months, this function was impaired in almost all cases. Given this high prevalence, physicians should be focused on diagnosing and treating exocrine insufficiency, to optimize the nutritional status and physical condition, especially for those patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

  11. Interactions between polyphenols in thinned young apples and porcine pancreatic α-amylase: Inhibition, detailed kinetics and fluorescence quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Chen, Weiqi; Meng, Yonghong; Yang, Xingbin; Yuan, Li; Guo, Yurong; Warren, Frederick J; Gidley, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Young apple polyphenols (YAP) and nine types of phenolic compounds were investigated regarding the inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) in vitro. Tannic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in YAP showed relatively high inhibition with the IC50 values of 0.30, 1.96 and 3.69mg/mL, respectively. A detailed kinetics of inhibition study revealed that YAP and tannic acid were competitive inhibitors of PPA, whereas chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were mixed inhibitors, exhibiting both competitive and uncompetitive characteristics. The fluorescence of PPA could be significantly quenched by YAP and the three polyphenols, and their quenching constants were determined. The results showed that for the polyphenols investigated, the order of the apparent static quenching constants (KFQ) was in agreement with that of the reciprocal competitive inhibition constants (1/Kic) (tannic acid>chlorogenic acid>caffeic acid>epicatechin); both of the parameters were contrary to the order of the IC50 values. Thus, combining detailed kinetics and fluorescence quenching studies can be applied to characterise the interactions between polyphenols in young apples and α-amylase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A murine model of elastase- and cigarette smoke-induced emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rubia; Olivo, Clarice Rosa; Lourenço, Juliana Dias; Riane, Alyne; Cervilha, Daniela Aparecida de Brito; Ito, Juliana Tiyaki; Martins, Milton de Arruda; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenório Quirino Dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    To describe a murine model of emphysema induced by a combination of exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) and instillation of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). A total of 38 C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: control (one intranasal instillation of 0.9% saline solution); PPE (two intranasal instillations of PPE); CS (CS exposure for 60 days); and CS + PPE (two intranasal instillations of PPE + CS exposure for 60 days). At the end of the experimental protocol, all animals were anesthetized and tracheostomized for calculation of respiratory mechanics parameters. Subsequently, all animals were euthanized and their lungs were removed for measurement of the mean linear intercept (Lm) and determination of the numbers of cells that were immunoreactive to macrophage (MAC)-2 antigen, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12, and glycosylated 91-kDa glycoprotein (gp91phox) in the distal lung parenchyma and peribronchial region. Although there were no differences among the four groups regarding the respiratory mechanics parameters assessed, there was an increase in the Lm in the CS + PPE group. The numbers of MAC-2-positive cells in the peribronchial region and distal lung parenchyma were higher in the CS + PPE group than in the other groups, as were the numbers of cells that were positive for MMP-12 and gp91phox, although only in the distal lung parenchyma. Our model of emphysema induced by a combination of PPE instillation and CS exposure results in a significant degree of parenchymal destruction in a shorter time frame than that employed in other models of CS-induced emphysema, reinforcing the importance of protease-antiprotease imbalance and oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in the pathogenesis of emphysema. Descrever um modelo murino de enfisema induzido por exposição a fumaça de cigarro (FC) e instilação de elastase pancreática porcina (EPP). Trinta e oito camundongos C57BL/6 foram aleatoriamente divididos em quatro grupos: controle (uma instilação intranasal

  13. Solar ultraviolet irradiation induces decorin degradation in human skin likely via neutrophil elastase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Xia, Wei; Liu, Ying; Remmer, Henriette A; Voorhees, John; Fisher, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity, which degrades type I collagen fibrils. Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in skin and constitutes the majority of skin connective tissue (dermis). Degradation of collagen fibrils impairs the structure and function of skin that characterize skin aging. Decorin is the predominant proteoglycan in human dermis. In model systems, decorin binds to and protects type I collagen fibrils from proteolytic degradation by enzymes such as MMP-1. Little is known regarding alterations of decorin in response to UV irradiation. We found that solar-simulated UV irradiation of human skin in vivo stimulated substantial decorin degradation, with kinetics similar to infiltration of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells. Proteases that were released from isolated PMN cells degraded decorin in vitro. A highly selective inhibitor of neutrophil elastase blocked decorin breakdown by proteases released from PMN cells. Furthermore, purified neutrophil elastase cleaved decorin in vitro and generated fragments with similar molecular weights as those resulting from protease activity released from PMN cells, and as observed in UV-irradiated human skin. Cleavage of decorin by neutrophil elastase significantly augmented fragmentation of type I collagen fibrils by MMP-1. Taken together, these data indicate that PMN cell proteases, especially neutrophil elastase, degrade decorin, and this degradation renders collagen fibrils more susceptible to MMP-1 cleavage. These data identify decorin degradation and neutrophil elastase as potential therapeutic targets for mitigating sun exposure-induced collagen fibril degradation in human skin.

  14. Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase and Pseudomonas keratitis using a thiol-based peptide.

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, F R; Paterson, C A; Gray, R D; Wells, J T

    1990-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase is a zinc metalloproteinase which is released during P. aeruginosa infections. Pseudomonas keratitis, which occurs following contact lens-induced corneal trauma, can lead to rapid, liquefactive necrosis of the cornea. This destruction has been attributed to the release of both host-derived enzymes and the bacterial products P. aeruginosa elastase, alkaline protease, exotoxin A, and lipopolysaccharide endotoxin. A synthetic metalloproteinase inhibitor, HSCH2 (DL...

  15. [Pancreatic infringement exocrine and endocrine in cystic fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, L; Abély, M

    2016-12-01

    The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency affects more than 80% of cystic fibrosis (CF) infants. Pancreatic insufficiency is diagnosed by low levels of fecal elastase. An optimal caloric intake, a pancreatic enzyme treatment are the keys to maintain a good nutritional status. The fat soluble vitamins supplementation will be associated with pancreatic enzymes treatment and will be adapted to plasma levels. Iron and oligo-element deficiency such as zinc is common. The pancreatic enzymes function is not optimal in the proximal bowel: the intraluminal intestinal pH is low because of the absence of bicarbonate release by the pancreas. The use of proton pump inhibitors may improve the functionality of pancreatic enzymes treatment. New therapies such as ivacaftor in patients with a G551D mutation allows a weight gain in particular by restoring intestinal pH similar to controls. Lengthening of the life expectancy of patients with CF is accompanied by the emergence new aspects of the disease, especially diabetes, favored by pancreatic cystic fibrosis resulting in an anatomical destruction of pancreatic islets. Currently, diabetes affects a third of the patients after 20 years, and half after 30 years. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is a major factor of morbidity-mortality in all stages of the disease and is characterized by a preclinical phase of glucose intolerance particularly long reaching up to 10 years. Its pathophysiology combines a lack of insulin secretion, an insulin resistance secondary to chronic infection, and a decrease in the production of the GIP and GLP-1. The insulin secretion depending on the channel chlorine (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator [CFTR]) activity at the membrane surface of insulin cell is reduced prior to the occurrence of pancreatic histological lesions. At the stage of diabetes, obtaining a normoglycemia by insulin treatment began very early allows to slow the decline of lung function and nutritional status. Given the silent

  16. Crystal structure of a novel cysteinless plant Kunitz-type protease inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Daiane; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra; Verissimo, Paula; Yoo Im, Sonia; Sampaio, Misako Uemura; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela

    2007-01-01

    Bauhinia bauhinioides Cruzipain Inhibitor (BbCI) is a cysteine protease inhibitor highly homologous to plant Kunitz-type inhibitors. However, in contrast to classical Kunitz family inhibitors it lacks cysteine residues and therefore disulfide bridges. BbCI is also distinct in the ability to inactivate enzymes belonging to two different classes, cysteine and serine proteases. Besides inhibiting the cysteine protease cruzipain, BbCI also inhibits cathepsin L and the serine proteases HNE (human neutrophil elastase) and PPE (porcine pancreatic elastase). Monoclinic crystals of the recombinant inhibitor that diffract to 1.7 A resolution were obtained using hanging drop method by vapor diffusion at 18 o C. The refined structure shows the conservative β-trefoil fold features of the Kunitz inhibitors. In BbCI, one of the two characteristic S-S bonds is replaced by the water-mediated interaction between Tyr125 and Gly132. In this work we explore the structural differences between Kunitz-type inhibitors and analyze the essential interactions that maintain the protein structural stability preserving its biological function

  17. Isolation and molecular characterization of porcine calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its endocrine effects in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T N; Bersani, M; Schmidt, P

    1998-01-01

    was found in the two tissues. The adrenal peptide was sequenced and found to differ from human alpha-CGRP at six positions and from human beta-CGRP at three positions. By immunohistochemistry, CGRP was found in nerve fibers in the pancreatic ganglia. A synthetic replica of the porcine peptide was infused...... significantly by 10(-8) M CGRP. In immunoneutralization studies (n = 6) using a high-affinity somatostatin antibody, the inhibitory effect of CGRP at 10(-8) M was reversed to a significant stimulation of insulin and glucagon secretion. Insulin secretion in response to square-wave increases in glucose...

  18. Separation of empty microcapsules after microencapsulation of porcine neonatal islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soojeong; Yoo, Young Je

    2013-12-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is used to treat diabetes mellitus that has minimal complications and avoids hypoglycemic shock. Conformal microencapsulation of pancreatic islets improves their function by blocking immunogenic molecules while protecting fragile islets. However, production of empty alginate capsules during microencapsulation causes enlargement of the transplantation volume of the encapsulated islets and interferes with efficient transfer of nutrients and insulin. In this study, empty alginate capsules were separated after microencapsulation of neonatal porcine islet-like cell clusters (NPCC) using density-gradient centrifugation. Densities of NPCC and alginate capsules were determined using Percoll. Encapsulation products following alginate removal were 97 % of products, with less than 10 % of the capsules remaining empty. The viability of this process compared with manually-selected encapsulated islets indicates the separation process does not harm islets.

  19. Thermal Ablation of the Pancreas With Intraoperative High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound: Safety and Efficacy in a Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, Aurélien; Melodelima, David; Pflieger, Hannah; Chen, Yao; Vincenot, Jérémy; Kocot, Anthony; Langonnet, Stéphan; Rivoire, Michel

    2017-02-01

    New focal destruction technologies such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) may improve the prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Our objectives were to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of intraoperative pancreatic HIFU ablation in a porcine model. In a porcine model (N = 12), a single HIFU ablation was performed in either the body or tail of the pancreas, distant to superior mesenteric vessels. All animals were sacrificed on the eighth day. The primary objective was to obtain an HIFU ablation measuring at least 1 cm without premature death. In total, 12 HIFU ablations were carried out. These ablations were performed within 160 seconds and on average measured 20 (15-27) × 16 (8-26) mm. The primary objective was fulfilled in all but 1 pig. There were no premature deaths or severe complications. High-intensity focused ultrasound treatment was associated with a transitory increase in amylase and lipase levels, and pseudocysts were observed in half of the pigs without being clinically apparent. All ablations were well delimited at both gross and histological examinations. Intraoperative thermal destruction of porcine pancreas with HIFU is feasible. Reproducibility and safety have to be confirmed when applied close to mesenteric vessels and in long-term preclinical studies.

  20. Development of a radioimmunoassay for pig pancreatic kallikrein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, E; Guettel, C [Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Chirurgische Klinik

    1978-07-01

    A radioimmunoassay for the determination of pig pancreatic kallikrein was developed. The chloramine-T method was employed for the labelling of the antigen with /sup 125/I. The assay allows the determination of kallikrein in concentrations as low as 0.4 ..mu..g/l. Pig urinary and pig submandibular kallikreins are indistinguishable from pig pancreatic kallikrein by the assay. No cross reactivity was observed for bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin, porcine trypsin and kallikreins of guinea pig submandibular glands and guinea pig coagulation glands. Because of the high specificity of the assay, which is not attainable with conventional assays based on the enzymatic activity, the radioimmunoassay is highly suited for investigations into the physiological role and the pharmacological mechanism of action of pig glandular kallikreins.

  1. Cell therapy with bone marrow mononuclear cells in elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhini-Dos-Santos, Nathalia; Barbosa-de-Oliveira, Valter Abraão; Kozma, Rodrigo Heras; Faria, Carolina Arruda de; Stessuk, Talita; Frei, Fernando; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

    2013-04-01

    Emphysema is characterized by destruction of alveolar walls with loss of gas exchange surface and consequent progressive dyspnea. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of cell therapy with bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) in an animal model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema. Emphysema was induced in C57Bl/J6 female mice by intranasal instillation of elastase. After 21 days, the mice received bone marrow mononuclear cells from EGFP male mice with C57Bl/J6 background. The groups were assessed by comparison and statistically significant differences (p pulmonary emphysema.

  2. Plant Proteinase Inhibitor BbCI Modulates Lung Inflammatory Responses and Mechanic and Remodeling Alterations Induced by Elastase in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida-Reis, Rafael; Theodoro-Junior, Osmar A.; Oliveira, Bruno T. M.; Oliva, Leandro V.; Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra C.; Bonturi, Camila R.; Brito, Marlon V.; Lopes, Fernanda D. T. Q. S.; Prado, Carla M.; Florencio, Ariana C.; Martins, Mílton A.; Owen, Caroline A.; Leick, Edna A.; Oliva, Maria L. V.; Tibério, Iolanda F. L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Proteinases play a key role in emphysema. Bauhinia bauhinioides cruzipain inhibitor (BbCI) is a serine-cysteine proteinase inhibitor. We evaluated BbCI treatment in elastase-induced pulmonary alterations. Methods.??C57BL/6 mice received intratracheal elastase (ELA group) or saline (SAL group). One group of mice was treated with BbCI (days 1, 15, and 21 after elastase instillation, ELABC group). Controls received saline and BbCI (SALBC group). After 28 days, we evaluated respirator...

  3. Neutrophil elastase-mediated increase in airway temperature during inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Annika; Belaaouaj, Azzaq; Bissinger, Rosi

    2014-01-01

    in the exhaled air of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. To further test our hypothesis, a pouch inflammatory model using neutrophil elastase-deficient mice was employed. Next, the impact of temperature changes on the dominant CF pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth was tested by plating method and RNAseq. Results...

  4. The contribution of vascular smooth muscle, elastin and collagen on the passive mechanics of porcine carotid arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochová, P; Cimrman, R; Kuncová, J; Švíglerová, J; Miklíková, M; Liška, V; Tonar, Z

    2012-01-01

    The main components responsible for the mechanical behavior of the arterial wall are collagen, elastin, and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the medial layer. We determined the structural and mechanical changes in porcine carotid arteries after administration of Triton® X-100, elastase, and collagenase using the inflation–deflation test. The arteries were intraluminarly pressurized from 0 to 200 mmHg, and the outer diameter of the artery was measured. The pressure–strain elastic modulus was determined based on the pressure/diameter ratio. The intima–media thickness, wall thickness, thickness of the tunica adventitia layer, and the area fractions of SMCs, elastin, and collagen within the arterial wall (A A (SMC/elastin/collagen, wall)) were measured using stereological methods. The relative changes in the relevant components of the treated samples were as follows: the decrease in A A (SMC, wall) after administration of Triton® X-100 was 11% ± 7%, the decrease in A A (elastin, wall) after administration of elastase was 40% ± 22%, and the decrease in A A (collagen, wall) after the application of collagenase was 51% ± 22%. The Triton® X-100 treatment led to a decrease in the SMC content that was associated with enlargement of the arterial wall (outer diameter) for pressures up to 120 mmHg, and with mechanical stiffening of the arterial wall at higher pressures. Elastase led to a decrease in the elastin content that was associated with enlargement of the arterial wall, but not with stiffening or softening. Collagenase led to a decrease in collagen content that was associated with a change in the stiffness of the arterial wall, although the exact contribution of mechanical loading and the duration of treatment (enlargement) could not be quantified. (paper)

  5. Inhibitory effects of constituents of Morinda citrifolia seeds on elastase and tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Megumi; Murata, Kazuya; Fukuhama, Akiko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Fujita, Tadashi; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-07-01

    A 50% ethanolic extract (MCS-ext) from seeds of Morinda citrifolia ("noni" seeds) showed more potent in vitro inhibition of elastase and tyrosinase, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than extracts of M. citrifolia leaves or flesh. Activity-guided fractionation of MCS-ext using in vitro assays led to the isolation of ursolic acid as an active constituent of elastase inhibitory activity. 3,3'-Bisdemethylpinoresinol, americanin A, and quercetin were isolated as active constituents having both tyrosinase inhibitory and radical scavenging activities. Americanin A and quercetin also showed superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity. These active compounds were isolated from noni seeds for the first time.

  6. Acinar cell-specific knockout of the PTHrP gene decreases the proinflammatory and profibrotic responses in pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Vandanajay; Rastellini, Cristiana; Han, Song; Aronson, Judith F; Greeley, George H; Falzon, Miriam

    2014-09-01

    Pancreatitis is a necroinflammatory disease with acute and chronic manifestations. Accumulated damage incurred during repeated bouts of acute pancreatitis (AP) can lead to chronic pancreatitis (CP). Pancreatic parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels are elevated in a mouse model of cerulein-induced AP. Here, we show elevated PTHrP levels in mouse models of pancreatitis induced by chronic cerulein administration and pancreatic duct ligation. Because acinar cells play a major role in the pathophysiology of pancreatitis, mice with acinar cell-specific targeted disruption of the Pthrp gene (PTHrP(Δacinar)) were generated to assess the role of acinar cell-secreted PTHrP in pancreatitis. These mice were generated using Cre-LoxP technology and the acinar cell-specific elastase promoter. PTHrP(Δacinar) exerted protective effects in cerulein and pancreatic duct ligation models, evident as decreased edema, histological damage, amylase secretion, pancreatic stellate cell (PSC) activation, and extracellular matrix deposition. Treating acinar cells in vitro with cerulein increased IL-6 expression and NF-κB activity; these effects were attenuated in PTHrP(Δacinar) cells, as were the cerulein- and carbachol-induced elevations in amylase secretion. The cerulein-induced upregulation of procollagen I expression was lost in PSCs from PTHrP(Δacinar) mice. PTHrP immunostaining was elevated in human CP sections. The cerulein-induced upregulation of IL-6 and ICAM-1 (human acinar cells) and procollagen I (human PSCs) was suppressed by pretreatment with the PTH1R antagonist, PTHrP (7-34). These findings establish PTHrP as a novel mediator of inflammation and fibrosis associated with CP. Acinar cell-secreted PTHrP modulates acinar cell function via its effects on proinflammatory cytokine release and functions via a paracrine pathway to activate PSCs. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Localization and stretch-dependence of lung elastase activity in development and compensatory growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sarah Marie; Liu, Sheng; Joshi, Rashika; Batie, Matthew R; Kofron, Matthew; Guo, Jinbang; Woods, Jason C; Varisco, Brian Michael

    2015-04-01

    Synthesis and remodeling of the lung matrix is necessary for primary and compensatory lung growth. Because cyclic negative force is applied to developing lung tissue during the respiratory cycle, we hypothesized that stretch is a critical regulator of lung matrix remodeling. By using quantitative image analysis of whole-lung and whole-lobe elastin in situ zymography images, we demonstrated that elastase activity increased twofold during the alveolar stage of postnatal lung morphogenesis in the mouse. Remodeling was restricted to alveolar walls and ducts and was nearly absent in dense elastin band structures. In the mouse pneumonectomy model of compensatory lung growth, elastase activity increased threefold, peaking at 14 days postpneumonectomy and was higher in the accessory lobe compared with other lobes. Remodeling during normal development and during compensatory lung growth was different with increased major airway and pulmonary arterial remodeling during development but not regeneration, and with homogenous remodeling throughout the parenchyma during development, but increased remodeling only in subpleural regions during compensatory lung growth. Left lung wax plombage prevented increased lung elastin during compensatory lung growth. To test whether the adult lung retains an innate capacity to remodel elastin, we developed a confocal microscope-compatible stretching device. In ex vivo adult mouse lung sections, lung elastase activity increased exponentially with strain and in peripheral regions of lung more than in central regions. Our study demonstrates that lung elastase activity is stretch-dependent and supports a model in which externally applied forces influence the composition, structure, and function of the matrix during periods of alveolar septation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Plant Proteinase Inhibitor BbCI Modulates Lung Inflammatory Responses and Mechanic and Remodeling Alterations Induced by Elastase in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Almeida-Reis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Proteinases play a key role in emphysema. Bauhinia bauhinioides cruzipain inhibitor (BbCI is a serine-cysteine proteinase inhibitor. We evaluated BbCI treatment in elastase-induced pulmonary alterations. Methods.  C57BL/6 mice received intratracheal elastase (ELA group or saline (SAL group. One group of mice was treated with BbCI (days 1, 15, and 21 after elastase instillation, ELABC group. Controls received saline and BbCI (SALBC group. After 28 days, we evaluated respiratory mechanics, exhaled nitric oxide, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In lung tissue we measured airspace enlargement, quantified neutrophils, TNFα-, MMP-9-, MMP-12-, TIMP-1-, iNOS-, and eNOS-positive cells, 8-iso-PGF2α, collagen, and elastic fibers in alveolar septa and airways. MUC-5-positive cells were quantified only in airways. Results. BbCI reduced elastase-induced changes in pulmonary mechanics, airspace enlargement and elastase-induced increases in total cells, and neutrophils in BALF. BbCI reduced macrophages and neutrophils positive cells in alveolar septa and neutrophils and TNFα-positive cells in airways. BbCI attenuated elastic and collagen fibers, MMP-9- and MMP-12-positive cells, and isoprostane and iNOS-positive cells in alveolar septa and airways. BbCI reduced MUC5ac-positive cells in airways. Conclusions. BbCI improved lung mechanics and reduced lung inflammation and airspace enlargement and increased oxidative stress levels induced by elastase. BbCI may have therapeutic potential in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  9. Secapin, a bee venom peptide, exhibits anti-fibrinolytic, anti-elastolytic, and anti-microbial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Sik; Kim, Bo Yeon; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Choi, Yong Soo; Jin, Byung Rae

    2016-10-01

    Bee venom contains a variety of peptide constituents that have various biological, toxicological, and pharmacological actions. However, the biological actions of secapin, a venom peptide in bee venom, remain largely unknown. Here, we provide the evidence that Asiatic honeybee (Apis cerana) secapin (AcSecapin-1) exhibits anti-fibrinolytic, anti-elastolytic, and anti-microbial activities. The recombinant mature AcSecapin-1 peptide was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells. AcSecapin-1 functions as a serine protease inhibitor-like peptide that has inhibitory effects against plasmin, elastases, microbial serine proteases, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. Consistent with these functions, AcSecapin-1 inhibited the plasmin-mediated degradation of fibrin to fibrin degradation products, thus indicating the role of AcSecapin-1 as an anti-fibrinolytic agent. AcSecapin-1 also inhibited both human neutrophil and porcine pancreatic elastases. Furthermore, AcSecapin-1 bound to bacterial and fungal surfaces and exhibited anti-microbial activity against fungi and gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Taken together, our data demonstrated that the bee venom peptide secapin has multifunctional roles as an anti-fibrinolytic agent during fibrinolysis and an anti-microbial agent in the innate immune response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Temperature profiles of different cooling methods in porcine pancreas procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Scott, William E; Ferrer Fábrega, Joana; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Anazawa, Takayuki; O'Brien, Timothy D; Rizzari, Michael D; Karatzas, Theodore; Jie, Tun; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    Porcine islet xenotransplantation is a promising alternative to human islet allotransplantation. Porcine pancreas cooling needs to be optimized to reduce the warm ischemia time (WIT) following donation after cardiac death, which is associated with poorer islet isolation outcomes. This study examines the effect of four different cooling Methods on core porcine pancreas temperature (n = 24) and histopathology (n = 16). All Methods involved surface cooling with crushed ice and chilled irrigation. Method A, which is the standard for porcine pancreas procurement, used only surface cooling. Method B involved an intravascular flush with cold solution through the pancreas arterial system. Method C involved an intraductal infusion with cold solution through the major pancreatic duct, and Method D combined all three cooling Methods. Surface cooling alone (Method A) gradually decreased core pancreas temperature to <10 °C after 30 min. Using an intravascular flush (Method B) improved cooling during the entire duration of procurement, but incorporating an intraductal infusion (Method C) rapidly reduced core temperature 15-20 °C within the first 2 min of cooling. Combining all methods (Method D) was the most effective at rapidly reducing temperature and providing sustained cooling throughout the duration of procurement, although the recorded WIT was not different between Methods (P = 0.36). Histological scores were different between the cooling Methods (P = 0.02) and the worst with Method A. There were differences in histological scores between Methods A and C (P = 0.02) and Methods A and D (P = 0.02), but not between Methods C and D (P = 0.95), which may highlight the importance of early cooling using an intraductal infusion. In conclusion, surface cooling alone cannot rapidly cool large (porcine or human) pancreata. Additional cooling with an intravascular flush and intraductal infusion results in improved core porcine pancreas temperature profiles during procurement and

  11. Expression of human cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) in murine acinar cells promotes pancreatitis and apoptotic cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athwal, T; Huang, W; Mukherjee, R; Latawiec, D; Chvanov, M; Clarke, R; Smith, K; Campbell, F; Merriman, C; Criddle, D; Sutton, R; Neoptolemos, J; Vlatković, N

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is an autosomal dominant disease that displays the features of both acute and chronic pancreatitis. Mutations in human cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) are associated with HP and have provided some insight into the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, but mechanisms responsible for the initiation of pancreatitis have not been elucidated and the role of apoptosis and necrosis has been much debated. However, it has been generally accepted that trypsinogen, prematurely activated within the pancreatic acinar cell, has a major role in the initiation process. Functional studies of HP have been limited by the absence of an experimental system that authentically mimics disease development. We therefore developed a novel transgenic murine model system using wild-type (WT) human PRSS1 or two HP-associated mutants (R122H and N29I) to determine whether expression of human cationic trypsinogen in murine acinar cells promotes pancreatitis. The rat elastase promoter was used to target transgene expression to pancreatic acinar cells in three transgenic strains that were generated: Tg(Ela-PRSS1)NV, Tg(Ela-PRSS1*R122H)NV and Tg(Ela-PRSS1*N29I)NV. Mice were analysed histologically, immunohistochemically and biochemically. We found that transgene expression is restricted to pancreatic acinar cells and transgenic PRSS1 proteins are targeted to the pancreatic secretory pathway. Animals from all transgenic strains developed pancreatitis characterised by acinar cell vacuolisation, inflammatory infiltrates and fibrosis. Transgenic animals also developed more severe pancreatitis upon treatment with low-dose cerulein than controls, displaying significantly higher scores for oedema, inflammation and overall histopathology. Expression of PRSS1, WT or mutant, in acinar cells increased apoptosis in pancreatic tissues and isolated acinar cells. Moreover, studies of isolated acinar cells demonstrated that transgene expression promotes apoptosis rather than necrosis. We therefore

  12. TGF-β1 and granulocyte elastase in the evaluation of activity of inflammatory bowel disease. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim was to assess the usefulness of TGF-β1 and elastase in the evaluation of activity of ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn’s disease (CD.Material and Methods: 32 patients diagnosed with UC, 31 with CD and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Diagnosis of the disease was confirmed by videocolonoscopy and histopathological evaluation of intestinal biopsies. Disease activity was assessed by use of the Mayo Scoring System for Assessment of Ulcerative Colitis Activity in UC patients and by CDAI in CD patients. hsCRP was determined by the immunonephelometric method, TGF-β1 and elastase plasma concentration by ELISA. The results of the study were analyzed using Statistica and R statistical language.Results: In UC a positive correlation between disease activity and platelet level, hsCRP and TGF-β1 concentration was noted. Elastase concentration in UC patients was significantly higher than in CD, but there was no correlation with the activity of the disease. In CD patients we observed a positive correlation between disease activity and leukocytes, platelet levels and elastase concentration, and a very low correlation with hsCRP and TGF-β1.Discussion: Determination of TGF-β1 can be used for evaluation of inflammatory activity in UC and it is connected with elevated concentrations of CRP and platelets. To a lower extent TGF-β1 can also be used for evaluation of inflammatory activity in CD. Examination of elastase concentration may be useful in the assessment of CD activity. Plasma elastase concentration may be helpful in UC and CD differentiation. The preliminary results of this investigation seem promising; nevertheless, more studies are necessary.

  13. The Plant-Derived Bauhinia bauhinioides Kallikrein Proteinase Inhibitor (rBbKI Attenuates Elastase-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Tadeu Martins-Olivera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Elastase mediates important oxidative actions during the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, few resources for the inhibition of elastase have been investigated. Our study evaluated the ability of the recombinant plant derived Bauhinia bauhinioides Kallikrein proteinase Inhibitor (rBbKI to modulate elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation. Methods. C57Bl/6 mice were given intratracheal elastase (ELA group or saline (SAL group and were treated intraperitoneally with rBbKI (ELA-rBbKI and SAL-rBbKI groups. At day 28, the following analyses were performed: (I lung mechanics, (II exhaled nitric oxide (ENO, (III bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, and (IV lung immunohistochemical staining. Results. In addition to decreasing mechanical alterations and alveolar septum disruption, rBbKI reduced the number of cells in the BALF and decreased the cellular expression of TNF-α, MMP-9, MMP-12, TIMP-1, eNOS, and iNOS in airways and alveolar walls compared with the ELA group. rBbKI decreased the volume proportion of 8-iso-PGF2α, collagen, and elastic fibers in the airways and alveolar walls compared with the ELA group. A reduction in the number of MUC-5-positive cells in the airway walls was also observed. Conclusion. rBbKI reduced elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling. rBbKI may be a potential pharmacological tool for COPD treatment.

  14. Neutrophil elastase inhibitor, ONO-5046, modulates acid-induced lung and systemic injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, K; Kudoh, I; Hattori, S; Yamada, H; Ohara, M; Wiener-Kronish, J; Okumura, F

    1997-09-01

    Acid instillation leads to direct lung and to secondary systemic organ injury, probably via activated macrophages and neutrophils. This study investigated the effects of neutrophil elastase on organ injury after unilateral lung acid instillation by administrating a specific neutrophil elastase inhibitor, ONO-5046, before acid instillation. Three groups of anesthetized rabbits (n = 12 in each group) underwent tracheostomies, and instillations were made into their right lower lobe airspaces with either phosphate buffered saline (pH, 7.4; volume, 1.2 ml/kg; n = 12) or HCl (pH, 1.25; volume, 1.2 ml/kg; n = 24). In half of the acid-instilled rabbits, ONO-5046, 10 mg/kg, was given intravenously 15 min before the HCl instillation, and then 10 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1) of the drug was continuously infused throughout the experiment. The other groups of animals received the vehicle intravenously. Anesthesia and mechanical ventilation was continued for 8 h, whereas arterial blood gases were sampled intermittently. Eight hours after saline or acid instillation, the animals were killed, and their lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, and small intestines were harvested. Wet-to-dry weight ratios (W/ D) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) assays of these organs were done, and elastase assays on the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) obtained from each lung also were performed. Pretreatment with ONO-5046 attenuated the physiologic changes seen in the vehicle-treated animals. Significant decreases in W/D of the noninstilled lungs and of the small intestine and normalization of the oxygenation of the experimental animals occurred. The ONO-5046 pretreatment did not affect the neutrophil sequestration in the lungs or in the other organs as determined by neutrophil counts in BALF and by the MPO assays. A neutrophil elastase inhibitor, ONO-5046, administered immediately before acid instillation attenuated the physiologic changes seen in the vehicle-treated animals. The drug blocked neutrophil elastase but

  15. Elastin governs the mechanical response of medial collateral ligament under shear and transverse tensile loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Heath B; Valdez, William R; Scott, Sara A; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2015-10-01

    Elastin is a highly extensible structural protein network that provides near-elastic resistance to deformation in biological tissues. In ligament, elastin is localized between and along the collagen fibers and fascicles. When ligament is stretched along the primary collagen axis, elastin supports a relatively high percentage of load. We hypothesized that elastin may also provide significant load support under elongation transverse to the primary collagen axis and shear along the collagen axis. Quasi-static transverse tensile and shear material tests were performed to quantify the mechanical contributions of elastin during deformation of porcine medial collateral ligament. Dose response studies were conducted to determine the level of elastase enzymatic degradation required to produce a maximal change in the mechanical response. Maximal changes in peak stress occurred after 3h of treatment with 2U/ml porcine pancreatic elastase. Elastin degradation resulted in a 60-70% reduction in peak stress and a 2-3× reduction in modulus for both test protocols. These results demonstrate that elastin provides significant resistance to elongation transverse to the collagen axis and shear along the collagen axis while only constituting 4% of the tissue dry weight. The magnitudes of the elastin contribution to peak transverse and shear stress were approximately 0.03 MPa, as compared to 2 MPa for axial tensile tests, suggesting that elastin provides a highly anisotropic contribution to the mechanical response of ligament and is the dominant structural protein resisting transverse and shear deformation of the tissue. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased systemic elastase and C-reactive protein in aggressive periodontitis (CLOI-D-00160R2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfeil, Martin; Scharf, Susanne; Siegelin, Yasemin; Schacher, Beate; Oremek, Gerhard M; Sauer-Eppel, Hildegund; Schubert, Ralf; Eickholz, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The inflammatory mediators, serum elastase and C-reactive protein (CRP), are associated with an increased risk for coronary heart disease. Thus, the aim of this study is to compare systemic inflammatory mediators in periodontally healthy controls (C), patients with untreated aggressive (AgP) and chronic (ChP) periodontitis. C [periodontal pocket probing depth (PPD)  30% of sites; age >35 years), and AgP (clinically healthy; PDD ≥ 3.6 mm at >30% of sites, bone loss ≥50% at ≥2 teeth; age ≤35 years) were examined clinically, and the body mass index was assessed. Blood was sampled for assessment of serum levels of elastase, CRP, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), interleukin (IL) 6, 8, and leukocyte counts. Thirty C, 31 ChP, and 29 AgP were analyzed. Elastase, CRP, LBP, and IL-6 levels were elevated in AgP compared to C (p C. AgP patients exhibit a stronger systemic inflammatory burden than C patients.

  17. The third serine proteinase with chymotrypsin specificity isolated from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a type-II elastase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgeirsson, B; Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Thórólfsson, M

    1998-01-01

    -Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide, but inactive against the typical elastase substrates succinyl-Ala-Ala-Ala-p-nitroanilide and orcein-elastin. Comparison of the kinetic properties of the cod elastase C with bovine chymotrypsin and cod chymotrypsin variants A and B, using succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide, showed a lower catalytic...

  18. The effect of moderate sedation on exocrine pancreas function in normal healthy subjects: a prospective, randomized, cross-over trial using the synthetic porcine secretin stimulated Endoscopic Pancreatic Function Test (ePFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwell, Darwin L; Zuccaro, Gregory; Purich, Edward; Fein, Seymor; Vanlente, Frederick; Vargo, John; Dumot, John; O'laughlin, Cathy; Trolli, Patricia

    2005-05-01

    We have developed a purely endoscopic collection method for the assessment of pancreatic secretory function (ePFT). The pancreatic secretory effects of sedation medications utilized during endoscopic procedures are not completely known. To study the effect of moderate sedation on the exocrine pancreas gland in a prospective, randomized trial. Healthy volunteers were randomized by computers to one of two treatments (A-no sedation, B-sedation) in period 1 and crossed-over to the other treatment in period 2 with a minimal washout interval of 7 days. Sedation dosage was standardized for each patient based on age, gender and weight from a previously published dosing nomogram. Synthetic porcine secretin (ChiRhoClin, Inc., Burtonsville, Maryland) was used as the pancreatic stimulant. Duodenal fluid samples were aspirated via the endoscope every 5 min for 1 h and sent on ice to our hospital laboratory for the measurement of pancreatic secretory electrolyte concentrations by autoanalyzer. A total of 17 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Sixteen subjects (8 males and 8 females) completed the randomized prospective trial. Median intravenous meperidine and midazolam sedation dose was 62.5 mg and 2.5 mg, respectively. Maximum pancreatic juice flow occurred during the early phase of secretion and maximum bicarbonate concentration occurred during the late phase of secretion. Analysis of the electrolyte composition of the endoscopically collected duodenal drainage fluid revealed a constant cation concentration for both sodium and potassium over the 1 h collection period. The anions, chloride and bicarbonate, exhibited a reciprocal relationship identical to that seen in traditional gastroduodenal tube collection studies. There was no statistical difference observed between the sedation and no sedation groups. The estimated total bicarbonate output (area under curve, AUC) for the sedated and non-sedated groups were 5,017 meq + 724 (range 3,663-6,173) and 5,364 meq +/- 583 (range 4

  19. All-trans retinoic acid results in irregular repair of septa and fails to inhibit proinflammatory macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifart, C; Muyal, J P; Plagens, A; Yildirim, A Ö; Kohse, K; Grau, V; Sandu, S; Reinke, C; Tschernig, T; Vogelmeier, C; Fehrenbach, H

    2011-08-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is controversially discussed in emphysema therapy. We re-evaluated ATRA in the elastase model and hypothesised that beneficial effects should be reflected by increased alveolar surface area, elastin expression and downregulation of inflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Emphysema was induced by porcine pancreatic elastase versus saline in Sprague-Dawley rats. On days 26-37, rats received daily intraperitoneal injections with ATRA (500 μg · kg(-1) body weight) versus olive oil. Lungs were removed at day 38. Rat alveolar epithelial L2 cells were incubated with/without elastase followed by ATRA- or vehicle-treatment, respectively. ATRA only partially ameliorated structural defects. Alveolar walls exhibited irregular architecture: increased arithmetic mean thickness, reduction in surface coverage by alveolar epithelial cells type II. ATRA only partially restored reduced soluble elastin. It tended to increase the ratio of ED1(+):ED2(+) macrophages. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells exhibited a proinflammatory state and high expression of interleukin-1β, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1, tumour necrosis factor-α, nuclear factor-κB, MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-12, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 in emphysema, with ATRA exerting only few effects. MMP-7 was highly induced by ATRA in healthy but not in emphysematous lungs. ATRA reduced both MMP-2 and TIMP-1 activity in BAL fluid of emphysematous lungs. ATRA-therapy may bear the risk of unwanted side-effects on alveolar septal architecture in emphysematous lungs.

  20. Application of chemical arrays in screening elastase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Du, Guan-Hua

    2006-06-01

    Protein chip technology provides a new and useful tool for high-throughput screening of drugs because of its high performance and low sample consumption. In order to screen elastase inhibitors on a large scale, we designed a composite microarray integrating enzyme chip containing chemical arrays on glass slides to screen for enzymatic inhibitors. The composite microarray includes an active proteinase film, screened chemical arrays distributed on the film, and substrate microarrays to demonstrate change of color. The detection principle is that elastase hydrolyzes synthetic colorless substrates and turns them into yellow products. Because yellow is difficult to detect, bromochlorophenol blue (BPB) was added into substrate solutions to facilitate the detection process. After the enzyme had catalyzed reactions for 2 h, effects of samples on enzymatic activity could be determined by detecting color change of the spots. When chemical samples inhibited enzymatic activity, substrates were blue instead of yellow products. If the enzyme retained its activity, the yellow color of the products combined with blue of BPB to make the spots green. Chromogenic differences demonstrated whether chemicals inhibited enzymatic activity or not. In this assay, 11,680 compounds were screened, and two valuable chemical hits were identified, which demonstrates that this assay is effective, sensitive and applicable for high-throughput screening (HTS).

  1. Site-specific epsilon-NH2 monoacylation of pancreatic phospholipase A2. 2. Transformation of soluble phospholipase A2 into a highly penetrating "membrane-bound" form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Wiele, F C; Atsma, W; Roelofsen, B; van Linde, M; Van Binsbergen, J; Radvanyi, F; Raykova, D; Slotboom, A J; De Haas, G H

    1988-03-08

    Long-chain lecithins present in bilayer structures like vesicles or membranes are only very poor substrates for pancreatic phospholipases A2. This is probably due to the fact that pancreatic phospholipases A2 cannot penetrate into the densely packed bilayer structures. To improve the weak penetrating properties of pancreatic phospholipases A2, we prepared and characterized a number of pancreatic phospholipase A2 mutants that have various long acyl chains linked covalently to Lys116 in porcine and to Lys10 in bovine phospholipase A2 [Van der Wiele, F.C., Atsma, W., Dijkman, R., Schreurs, A.M.M., Slotboom, A.J., & De Haas, G.H. (1988) Biochemistry (preceding paper in this issue)]. When monomolecular surface layers of L- and D-didecanoyllecithin were used, it was found that the introduction of caprinic, lauric, palmitic, and oleic acid at Lys116 in the porcine enzyme increases its penetrating power from 13 to about 17, 20, 32, and 22 dyn/cm, respectively, before long lag periods were obtained. Incorporation of a palmitoyl moiety at Lys10 in the bovine enzyme shifted the penetrating power from 11 to about 25 dyn/cm. Only the best penetrating mutant, viz., porcine phospholipase A2 having a palmitoyl moiety at Lys116, was able to cause complete leakage of 6-carboxyfluorescein entrapped in small unilamellar vesicles of egg lecithin under nonhydrolytic conditions. Similarly, only this latter palmitoylphospholipase A2 completely hydrolyzed all lecithin in the outer monolayer of the human erythrocyte at a rate much faster than Naja naja phospholipase A2, the most powerful penetrating snake venom enzyme presently known.

  2. Elastolytic activity of human blood monocytes characterized by a new monoclonal antibody against human leucocyte elastase. Relationship to rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H S; Christensen, L D

    1990-01-01

    The leucocyte elastase of human blood monocytes was investigated by applying a new monoclonal antibody which did not block the enzyme activity against elastin. In a fixed population of mononuclear cells (MNC) and using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), the human leucocyte elastase (HLE...

  3. Elastase production by B16-F10 melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrager, J.B.; Yusa, T.; Netland, P.A.; Zetter, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Elastolytic activity was found in sonicates of mouse B16-F10 melanoma cells and in medium conditioned by these cells. Degradation of elastin was determined by measuring the release of soluble 3 H-peptides from labelled insoluble elastin. The activity secreted from B16-F10 cells was soluble and was not associated with membrane vesicles. The secreted activity was partially inhibited by incubation with phenymethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF) and was abolished by incubation with the alpha-1-protease inhibitor, with pepstatin A or with L-1-tosylamide-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone (TPCK). In contrast, the activity was unaffected by incubation with elastatinal, with the plasmin inhibitor Σ-aminocaproic acid (EACA), the metalloproteinase inhibitor ethylenediamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), the soybean trypsin inhibitor or the trypsin inhibitor N proportional to-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK). These results suggest that the majority of the tumor cell-derived elastolytic activity is attributable to a serine protease that differs in specificity from the well characterized elastases previously isolated from neutrophils, macrophages or from mammalian pancreas. The authors postulate that the release of elastase from lung-colonizing B16-F10 cells may facilitate their invasion of elastin-rich lung tissue

  4. Inhibitory effect of burdock leaves on elastase and tyrosinase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Wu, Hsing-Chen; Chiang, Ni-Na; Lee, Chiu-Fang; Huang, Yu-Syuan; Wang, Hui-Yun; Yang, Jai-Sing; Chen, Fu-An

    2017-01-01

    Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) leaves generate a considerable amount of waste following burdock root harvest in Taiwan. To increase the use of burdock leaves, the present study investigated the optimal methods for producing burdock leaf extract (BLE) with high antioxidant polyphenolic content, including drying methods and solvent extraction concentration. In addition, the elastase and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of BLE was examined. Burdock leaves were dried by four methods: Shadow drying, oven drying, sun drying and freeze-drying. The extract solution was then subjected to total polyphenol content analysis and the method that produced BLE with the highest amount of total antioxidant components was taken forward for further analysis. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl scavenging, antielastase and antityrosinase activity of the BLE were measured to enable the evaluation of the antioxidant and skin aging-associated enzyme inhibitory activities of BLE. The results indicated that the total polyphenolic content following extraction with ethanol (EtOH) was highest using the freeze-drying method, followed by the oven drying, shadow drying and sun drying methods. BLE yielded a higher polyphenol content and stronger antioxidant activity as the ratio of the aqueous content of the extraction solvent used increased. BLE possesses marked tyrosinase and elastase inhibitory activities, with its antielastase activity notably stronger compared with its antityrosinase activity. These results indicate that the concentration of the extraction solvent was associated with the antioxidant and skin aging-associated enzyme inhibitory activity of BLE. The reactive oxygen species scavenging theory of skin aging may explain the tyrosinase and elastase inhibitory activity of BLE. In conclusion, the optimal method for obtaining BLE with a high antioxidant polyphenolic content was freeze-drying followed by 30–50% EtOH extraction. In addition, the antielastase and antityrosinase activities of the

  5. Role of pancreatic polypeptide as a market of transplanted insulin-producing fetal pig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuch, B E; Tabiin, M T; Casamento, F M; Yao, M; Georges, P; Amaratunga, A; Pinto, A N

    2001-01-01

    Transplantation of insulin-producing fetal pancreatic tissue into diabetic recipients has been shown to normalize blood glucose levels after several months. This time period is required for the growth and maturation of the fetal tissue so insulin levels cannot be used as a marker of graft function while the beta-cell is immature. Therefore, we have examined the use of another pancreatic endocrine hormone, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), to monitor graft function. The cell that produces this hormone has been shown to be the first mature endocrine cell in the fetal pancreas. Fetal pig pancreatic tissue, both in the form of 1 mm3 explants and islet-like cell clusters (ICCs), was transplanted into immunodeficient SCID mice and the levels of PP and insulin were measured in plasma and in the graft for up to 12 weeks. PP was detected in the untransplanted explants (0.58 pmol/mg) and ICCs (0.06 pmol/ICC) and the PP to insulin ratio was 2.7% and 5.8%, respectively. PP (but not porcine C-peptide, a marker of insulin secretion) was detectable in the plasma of SCID mice from 4 days to 3 weeks after transplantation, but not thereafter. The highest values were obtained at 4 days to 1 week. In the grafted tissue PP and insulin were present at all time points and the ratio of PP to insulin was 59%, 87%, 75%, 56%, 7%, 8%, and 7% at 4 days, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks, respectively. The decline in PP levels 3 weeks after transplantation was associated with beta-cell development in the graft. PP was also secreted by fetal pig pancreatic explants transplanted into diabetic NOD/SCID mice, with plasma levels measurable in the first week after the tissue was grafted. In immunocompetent BALB/c mice transplanted with the tissue, PP was detectable in plasma for 2 days after transplantation but not at 4 days, when cellular rejection commenced, or thereafter. We conclude that plasma PP levels can be used as a marker of the viability of fetal porcine pancreatic tissue in the first 3 weeks after

  6. Autophagy is essential for the differentiation of porcine PSCs into insulin-producing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lipeng; Yang, Hong; Cui, Yanhua; Xu, Shuanshuan; Sun, Fen; Tian, Na; Hua, Jinlian; Peng, Sha

    2017-07-01

    Porcine pancreatic stem cells (PSCs) are seed cells with potential use for diabetes treatment. Stem cell differentiation requires strict control of protein turnover and lysosomal digestion of organelles. Autophagy is a highly conserved process that controls the turnover of organelles and proteins within cells and contributes to the balance of cellular components. However, whether autophagy plays roles in PSC differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we successfully induced porcine PSCs into insulin-producing cells and found that autophagy was activated during the second induction stage. Inhibition of autophagy in the second stage resulted in reduced differentiational efficiency and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Moreover, the expression of active β-catenin increased while autophagy was activated but was suppressed when autophagy was inhibited. Therefore, autophagy is essential to the formation of insulin-producing cells, and the effects of autophagy on differentiation may be regulated by canonical Wnt signalling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Suspicious Pancreatic Mass in Chronic Pancreatitis: Pancreatic Actinomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. de Clerck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pancreatic actinomycosis is a chronic infection of the pancreas caused by the suppurative Gram-positive bacterium Actinomyces. It has mostly been described in patients following repeated main pancreatic duct stenting in the context of chronic pancreatitis or following pancreatic surgery. This type of pancreatitis is often erroneously interpreted as pancreatic malignancy due to the specific invasive characteristics of Actinomyces. Case. A 64-year-old male with a history of chronic pancreatitis and repeated main pancreatic duct stenting presented with weight loss, fever, night sweats, and abdominal pain. CT imaging revealed a mass in the pancreatic tail, invading the surrounding tissue and resulting in splenic vein thrombosis. Resectable pancreatic cancer was suspected, and pancreatic tail resection was performed. Postoperative findings revealed pancreatic actinomycosis instead of neoplasia. Conclusion. Pancreatic actinomycosis is a rare type of infectious pancreatitis that should be included in the differential diagnosis when a pancreatic mass is discovered in a patient with chronic pancreatitis and prior main pancreatic duct stenting. Our case emphasizes the importance of pursuing a histomorphological confirmation.

  8. Pancreatic Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Rosalie H; Bourdon, Céline; Potani, Isabel; Mhango, Brian; van den Brink, Deborah A; Mponda, John S; Muller Kobold, Anneke C; Bandsma, Robert H; Boele van Hensbroek, Michael; Voskuijl, Wieger P

    2017-11-01

    To assess the benefits of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial in 90 children aged 6-60 months with complicated severe acute malnutrition at the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Malawi. All children received standard care; the intervention group also received PERT for 28 days. Children treated with PERT for 28 days did not gain more weight than controls (13.7 ± 9.0% in controls vs 15.3 ± 11.3% in PERT; P = .56). Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency was present in 83.1% of patients on admission and fecal elastase-1 levels increased during hospitalization mostly seen in children with nonedematous severe acute malnutrition (P Children who died had low fecal fatty acid split ratios at admission. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency was not improved by PERT, but children receiving PERT were more likely to be discharged with every passing day (P = .02) compared with controls. PERT does not improve weight gain in severely malnourished children but does increase the rate of hospital discharge. Mortality was lower in patients on PERT, a finding that needs to be investigated in a larger cohort with stratification for edematous and nonedematous malnutrition. Mortality in severe acute malnutrition is associated with markers of poor digestive function. ISRCTN.com: 57423639. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The fibrinogen cleavage product Aα-Val360, a specific marker of neutrophil elastase activity in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Richard I; Mumford, Richard A; Treonze, Kelly M

    2011-01-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency is the only recognised genetic risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Since A1AT is the major inhibitor of neutrophil elastase (NE), this enzyme has become widely implicated in the p......Alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency is the only recognised genetic risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Since A1AT is the major inhibitor of neutrophil elastase (NE), this enzyme has become widely implicated...

  10. Serological assessment of neutrophil elastase activity on elastin during lung ECM remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jacob Hull; Karsdal, Morten A.; Sand, Jannie M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: During the pathological destruction of lung tissue, neutrophil elastase (NE) degrades elastin, one of the major constituents of lung parenchyma. However there are no non-invasive methods to quantify NE degradation of elastin. We selected specific elastin fragments generated by NE for ...

  11. High-yields heterologous production of the novel Aspergillus fumigatus elastase inhibitor AFUEI in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Nobuo; Komori, Yumiko; Okumura, Yoshiyuki; Uchiya, Kei-Ichi; Matsui, Takeshi; Nishimura, Akira; Ogawa, Kenji; Nikai, Toshiaki

    2011-08-01

    AFUEI, an elastase inhibitor produced by Aspergillus fumigatus strongly inhibits the elastolytic activity of A. fumigatus etc. To purify AFUEI, we constructed a strain that overproduces AFUEI by introducing the gene encoding AFUEI (Genbank accession no. AB546725) under control of the amyB promoter into the heterologous host Aspergillus oryzae. A. oryzae TF-4 displayed strong elastase inhibitory activity and produced considerably more AFUEI than that of A. fumigatus. Furthermore, AFUEI could be purified using culture broth and single ultrafiltration (UF) treatment, allowing for the effective production of AFUEI for use in clinical trials. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Neutrophil elastase-induced elastin degradation mediates macrophage influx and lung injury in 60% O2-exposed neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Azhar; Yi, Man; Belcastro, Rosetta; Li, Jun; Lopez, Lianet; Kantores, Crystal; Jankov, Robert P; Tanswell, A Keith

    2015-07-01

    Neutrophil (PMNL) influx precedes lung macrophage (LM) influx into the lung following exposure of newborn pups to 60% O2. We hypothesized that PMNL were responsible for the signals leading to LM influx. This was confirmed when inhibition of PMNL influx with a CXC chemokine receptor-2 antagonist, SB-265610, also prevented the 60% O2-dependent LM influx, LM-derived nitrotyrosine formation, and pruning of small arterioles. Exposure to 60% O2 was associated with increased lung contents of neutrophil elastase and α-elastin, a marker of denatured elastin, and a decrease in elastin fiber density. This led us to speculate that neutrophil elastase-induced elastin fragments were the chemokines that led to a LM influx into the 60% O2-exposed lung. Inhibition of neutrophil elastase with sivelestat or elafin attenuated the LM influx. Sivelestat also attenuated the 60% O2-induced decrease in elastin fiber density. Daily injections of pups with an antibody to α-elastin prevented the 60% O2-dependent LM influx, impaired alveologenesis, and impaired small vessel formation. This suggests that neutrophil elastase inhibitors may protect against neonatal lung injury not only by preventing structural elastin degradation, but also by blocking elastin fragment-induced LM influx, thus preventing tissue injury from LM-derived peroxynitrite formation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Radiofrequency ablation of pancreas and optimal cooling of peripancreatic tissue in an ex-vivo porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Crha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency ablation is a possible palliative treatment for patients suffering from pancreatic neoplasia. However, radiofrequency-induced damage to the peripancreatic tissues during pancreatic ablation might cause fatal complications. The aim of this experimental ex vivo study on pigs was to verify ablation protocols and evaluate whether or not the cooling of peripancereatic tissues during pancreatic ablation has any benefit for their protection against thermal injury. Radiofrequency ablation was performed on 52 pancreatic specimens obtained from pigs. During each pancreatic ablation, continuous measurements of the temperature in the portal vein and duodenal lumen were performed. Peripancreatic tissues were either not cooled or were cooled by being submerged in 14 °C water, or by a perfusion of the portal vein and duodenum with 14 °C saline. The effects of variation in target temperature of the ablated area (90 °C and 100 °C, duration of ablation (5 and 10 min and the effect of peripancreatic tissues cooling were studied. We proved that optimal radiofrequency ablation of the porcine pancreas can be reached with the temperature of 90  °C for 5 min in the ablated area. The perfusion of the duodenal and portal vein by 14 °C saline was found to be the most effective cooling method for minimizing damage to the walls. Continuous measurement of temperatures in peripancreatic tissues will provide useful feedback to assist in their protection against thermal injury. This therapy could be used in the treatment of pancreatic tumours.

  14. Inhibition of neutrophil elastase and metalloprotease-9 of human adenocarcinoma gastric cells by chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Michela; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Colombo, Elisa; Maschi, Omar; Caruso, Donatella; Bosisio, Enrica; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated whether the antiinflammatory effect of chamomile infusion at gastric level could be ascribed to the inhibition of metalloproteinase-9 and elastase. The infusions from capitula and sifted flowers (250-1500 µg/mL) and individual flavonoids (10 µM) were tested on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated AGS cells and human neutrophil elastase. The results indicate that the antiinflammatory activity associated with chamomile infusions from both the capitula and sifted flowers is most likely due to the inhibition of neutrophil elastase and gastric metalloproteinase-9 activity and secretion; the inhibition occurring in a concentration dependent manner. The promoter activity was inhibited as well and the decrease of metalloproteinase-9 expression was found to be associated with the inhibition of NF-kB driven transcription. The results further indicate that the flavonoid-7-glycosides, major constituents of chamomile flowers, may be responsible for the antiinflammatory action of the chamomile infusion observed here. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Direct interaction between caffeic acid phenethyl ester and human neutrophil elastase inhibits the growth and migration of PANC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianhui; Xiaokaiti, Yilixiati; Fan, Shengjun; Pan, Yan; Li, Xin; Li, Xuejun

    2017-05-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignant tumors of the digestive system, but the mechanisms of its development and progression are unclear. Inflammation is thought to be fundamental to pancreatic cancer development and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is an active component of honey bee resin or propolis with anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. We investigated the inhibitory effects of CAPE on cell growth and migration induced by human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and report that HNE induced cancer cell migration at low doses and growth at higher doses. In contrast, lower CAPE doses inhibited migration and higher doses of CAPE inhibited the growth induced by HNE. HNE activity was significantly inhibited by CAPE (7.5-120 µM). Using quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting, we observed that CAPE (18-60 µM) did not affect transcription and translation of α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT), an endogenous HNE inhibitor. However, in an in silico drug target docking model, we found that CAPE directly bound to the binding pocket of HNE (25.66 kcal/mol) according to CDOCKER, and the residue of the catalytic site stabilized the interaction between CAPE and HNE as evidenced by molecular dynamic simulation. Response unit (RU) values of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) significantly increased with incremental CAPE doses (7.5-120 µM), indicating that CAPE could directly bind to HNE in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, CAPE is an effective inhibitor of HNE via direct interaction whereby it inhibits the migration and growth of PANC-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner.

  16. Pancreatic Tuberculosis or Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Salahuddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Isolated pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis is a challenging diagnosis due to its rarity and variable presentation. Pancreatic tuberculosis can mimic pancreatic carcinoma. Similarly, autoimmune pancreatitis can appear as a focal lesion resembling pancreatic malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration provides an effective tool for differentiating between benign and malignant pancreatic lesions. The immune processes involved in immunoglobulin G4 related systemic diseases and tuberculosis appear to have some similarities. Case Report. We report a case of a 59-year-old Southeast Asian male who presented with fever, weight loss, and obstructive jaundice. CT scan revealed pancreatic mass and enlarged peripancreatic lymph nodes. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration confirmed the presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis. Patient also had high immunoglobulin G4 levels suggestive of autoimmune pancreatitis. He was started on antituberculosis medications and steroids. Clinically, he responded to treatment. Follow-up imaging showed findings suggestive of chronic pancreatitis. Discussion. Pancreatic tuberculosis and autoimmune pancreatitis can mimic pancreatic malignancy. Accurate diagnosis is imperative as unnecessary surgical intervention can be avoided. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration seems to be the diagnostic test of choice for pancreatic masses. Long-term follow-up is warranted in cases of chronic pancreatitis.

  17. High-density lipoproteins potentiate α1-antitrypsin therapy in elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Juan-Antonio; Ortega-Gomez, Almudena; Rubio-Navarro, Alfonso; Louedec, Liliane; Ho-Tin-Noé, Benoit; Caligiuri, Giuseppina; Nicoletti, Antonino; Levoye, Angelique; Plantier, Laurent; Meilhac, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    Several studies report that high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) can carry α1-antitrypsin (AAT; an elastase inhibitor). We aimed to determine whether injection of exogenous HDL, enriched or not in AAT, may have protective effects against pulmonary emphysema. After tracheal instillation of saline or elastase, mice were randomly treated intravenously with saline, human plasma HDL (75 mg apolipoprotein A1/kg), HDL-AAT (75 mg apolipoprotein A1-3.75 mg AAT/kg), or AAT alone (3.75 mg/kg) at 2, 24, 48, and 72 hours. We have shown that HDL-AAT reached the lung and prevented the development of pulmonary emphysema by 59.3% at 3 weeks (alveoli mean chord length, 22.9 ± 2.8 μm versus 30.7 ± 4.5 μm; P pulmonary emphysema than AAT alone, and may represent a significant development for the management of emphysema associated with AAT deficiency.

  18. ENDOCRINE PANCREATIC FUNCTION IN ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Novokhatny

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Among the organs of internal secretion pancreas has a special place thanks to active exocrine function and a wide range of physiological actions of produced hormones. Violations of endocrine pancreas arises in 6.5-38 % of patients with acute pancreatitis. However, there is still no clear understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of hormonal dysfunction of the pancreas in acute pancreatitis, there is no uniform algorithms for its correction. Aim of the research was to study the endocrine function of pancreas in acute pancreatitis. To define the role of endocrine pancreatic function in the etiology and pathogenesis of the acute pancreatitis. To assess the prospects of the use of pancreatic hormones in the treatment and predicting the outcomes of acute pancreatitis. Materials and methods of the research Survey of publications in specialized periodical medical journals, PubMed sources developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Search in PubMed was carried out in the following databases: MEDLINE, Pre MEDLINE. Results of the research. In a significant proportion of patients who recovered from acute pancreatitis, exocrine and endocrine functional impairments were found. This finding was not detected only in patients after severe acute pancreatitis. Routine evaluation of pancreatic function after acute pancreatitis should be considered. The comparative analysis of the synthetic analogues (somatostatin, calcitonin, leu-enkefalin-dalargin influence on the glucose metabolism of rats in acute pancreatitis of was made. Physiological reaction of beta-cells is preserved in infusion of somatostatin. However, infusion of calcitonin results in the distortion of counterregulatory action of insulin and glucagon. It was detected that pancreatic renin-angiotensin system is markedly activated in the experimental rat models of chronic hypoxia and acute pancreatitis. The activation of the pancreatic renin-angiotensin system by

  19. Adenovirus vector expressing keratinocyte growth factor using CAG promoter impairs pulmonary function of mice with elastase-induced emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Hiroshi; Yazawa, Takuya; Baba, Yasuko; Kanegae, Yumi; Sato, Hanako; Sakamoto, Seiko; Goto, Takahisa; Saito, Izumu; Kurahashi, Kiyoyasu

    2017-07-01

    Pulmonary emphysema impairs quality of life and increases mortality. It has previously been shown that administration of adenovirus vector expressing murine keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) before elastase instillation prevents pulmonary emphysema in mice. We therefore hypothesized that therapeutic administration of KGF would restore damage to lungs caused by elastase instillation and thus improve pulmonary function in an animal model. KGF expressing adenovirus vector, which prevented bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a previous study, was constructed. Adenovirus vector (1.0 × 10 9 plaque-forming units) was administered intratracheally one week after administration of elastase into mouse lungs. One week after administration of KGF-vector, exercise tolerance testing and blood gas analysis were performed, after which the lungs were removed under deep anesthesia. KGF-positive pneumocytes were more numerous, surfactant protein secretion in the airspace greater and mean linear intercept of lungs shorter in animals that had received KGF than in control animals. Unexpectedly, however, arterial blood oxygenation was worse in the KGF group and maximum running speed, an indicator of exercise capacity, had not improved after KGF in mice with elastase-induced emphysema, indicating that KGF-expressing adenovirus vector impaired pulmonary function in these mice. Notably, vector lacking KGF-expression unit did not induce such impairment, implying that the KGF expression unit itself may cause the damage to alveolar cells. Possible involvement of the CAG promoter used for KGF expression in impairing pulmonary function is discussed. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. The role of secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor and elafin (elastase-specific inhibitor/skin-derived antileukoprotease as alarm antiproteinases in inflammatory lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallenave Jean-Michel

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor and elafin are two low-molecular-mass elastase inhibitors that are mainly synthesized locally at mucosal sites. It is thought that their physicochemical properties allow them to efficiently inhibit target enzymes, such as neutrophil elastase, released into the interstitium. Historically, in the lung, these inhibitors were first purified from secretions of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. This suggested that they might be important in controlling excessive neutrophil elastase release in these pathologies. They are upregulated by 'alarm signals' such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides, and cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor and have been shown to be active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, so that they have joined the growing list of antimicrobial 'defensin-like' peptides produced by the lung. Their site of synthesis and presumed functions make them very attractive candidates as potential therapeutic agents under conditions in which the excessive release of elastase by neutrophils might be detrimental. Because of its natural tropism for the lung, the use of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer is extremely promising in such applications.

  1. Prevalence of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in patients with chronic pancreatitis without follow-up. PANCR-EVOL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra-Lopez Valenciano, Carlos; Bolado Concejo, Federico; Marín Serrano, Eva; Millastre Bocos, Judith; Martínez-Moneo, Emma; Pérez Rodríguez, Esperanza; Francisco González, María; Del Pozo-García, Andrés; Hernández Martín, Anaiansi; Labrador Barba, Elena; Orera Peña, María Luisa; de-Madaria, Enrique

    2018-02-01

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is an important complication of chronic pancreatitis (CP). Guidelines recommend to rule out EPI in CP, to detect those patients who would benefit from pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of EPI in patients with CP without follow-up in the last 2 years and to describe their nutritional status and quality of life (QoL). This was a cross-sectional, multicenter Spanish study. CP patients without follow-up by a gastroenterologist or surgeon in at least 2 years were included. EPI was defined as fecal elastase test <200mcg/g. For nutritional assessment, laboratory and anthropometric data were obtained. QoL was investigated using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. 64 patients (mean age 58.8±10.3 years, 85.9% men) from 10 centers were included. Median time since diagnosis of CP was 58.7 months [37.7-95.4]. Forty-one patients (64.1%) had EPI. Regarding nutritional status, the following differences were observed (EPI vs. Non-EPI): BMI (23.9±3.5kg/m 2 vs. 25.7±2.5, p=0.03); glucose (121 [96-189] mg/dL vs. 98 [90-116], p=0.006); HbA1c 6.6% [6.0-8.4] vs. 5.5 [5.3-6.0], p=0.0005); Vitamin A (0.44mg/L [0.35-0.57] vs. 0.53 [0.47-0.63], p=0.048) and Vitamin E (11.2±5.0μg/ml vs. 14.4±4.3, p=0.03). EPI group showed a worse EORTC QLQ-C30 score on physical (93.3 [66.7-100] vs. 100 [93.3-100], p=0.048) and cognitive function (100 [83.3-100] vs. 100 [100-100], p=0.04). Prevalence of EPI is high in patients with CP without follow-up. EPI group had higher levels of glucose, lower levels of vitamins A and E and worse QoL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Proglucagon processing in porcine and human pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Bersani, M; Johnsen, A H

    1994-01-01

    In the pancreas proglucagon (PG), a peptide precursor of 160 amino acids is cleaved to produce glucagon and a 30-amino acid N-terminal flanking peptide, but the fate of the C-terminal flanking peptide (99 amino acids) is incompletely known. We subjected acid ethanol extracts of human and porcine...... pancreases to gel filtration and analyzed the fractions with specific radioimmunoassays for the following regions of proglucagon: PG 62-69, PG 72-81, PG 78-87, PG 98-107 amide, PG 126-134, and PG 149-158. Based on these assays and successive purifications by high performance liquid chromatography we isolated...... PG 72-158 = 9971) was isolated from human pancreas together with small amounts of a peptide corresponding to PG 72-107 amide. Thus, the pancreatic processing of the C-terminal flanking peptide in proglucagon includes the formation of equimolar (to glucagon) amounts of PG 64-69 and PG 72-158 (major...

  3. Pharmacokinetics and whole body distribution of elastase derived angiostatin (k1-3) in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molema, Grietje; van Veen-Hof, Ingrid; van Loenen - Weemaes, Anne-miek; Proost, Johannes; de Leij, Lou F.M.H.; Meijer, Dirk K.F.

    2001-01-01

    In the current study, we determined short-term pharmacokinetics and whole body distribution of elastase derived angiostatin [angiostatin((k1-3))] in rats after i.v. injection of radiolabelled protein. Since In gamma-camera studies, no tumor specific angiostatin((k1-3)) accumulation was observed,

  4. The effect of garlic extract on the expression of genes elastase and exotoxin A in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batoul Kavyani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidrug-resistant bacteria make many problems in clinical therapy, design and manufacture of synthetic drugs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important multidrug-resistance bacteria leads to variety infections in human especially in immunocompromised, patients with severe burns, and nosocomial infections. It Recent years, this organism makes a big challenge in clinical treatment of infections using a wide range of antibiotics. Medicinal herbs for thousands of years to prevent or treat infectious diseases were considered. Today, pharmacists have high interest of using medicinal herbs to prepare a new antimicrobial compounds. The goal of this study was to investigation the effect of aqueous and alcoholic extract of fresh garlic on the expression of genes encoding elastase and exotoxin A virulence factors, in P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain. Methods: Present study was an experimental study and performed from 2015 to 2016 in Hamadan University of Medical Science, Iran. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of aqueous and alcoholic extract of garlic was determined. Then in order to investigation the gene expression of elastase and exotoxin A genes, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR method was performed at sub-MBC concentrations. Results: According to the results aqueous extracts of garlic had better impact in comparison with alcoholic alone. At concentration of 64 and 8 mg/ml of aqueous extract the expression of both elastase and exotoxin A genes were decreased. Although, the expression of elastase gene was most affected by garlic at different concentrations than exotoxin A. Conclusion: The results suggested that the compositions of garlic extracts can inhibit the production of virulence factors in P. aeruginosa. So in order to treat infectious diseases in the near future, medicinal plants known as new antimicrobial drugs can be used alone or with antibiotic drugs

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging: a tool to monitor and optimize enzyme distribution during porcine pancreas distention for islet isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William E; Weegman, Bradley P; Balamurugan, Appakalai N; Ferrer-Fabrega, Joana; Anazawa, Takayuki; Karatzas, Theodore; Jie, Tun; Hammer, Bruce E; Matsumoto, Shuchiro; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Maynard, Kristen S; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    Porcine islet xenotransplantation is emerging as a potential alternative for allogeneic clinical islet transplantation. Optimization of porcine islet isolation in terms of yield and quality is critical for the success and cost-effectiveness of this approach. Incomplete pancreas distention and inhomogeneous enzyme distribution have been identified as key factors for limiting viable islet yield per porcine pancreas. The aim of this study was to explore the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool to investigate the homogeneity of enzyme delivery in porcine pancreata. Traditional and novel methods for enzyme delivery aimed at optimizing enzyme distribution were examined. Pancreata were procured from Landrace pigs via en bloc viscerectomy. The main pancreatic duct was then cannulated with an 18-g winged catheter and MRI performed at 1.5-T. Images were collected before and after ductal infusion of chilled MRI contrast agent (gadolinium) in physiological saline. Regions of the distal aspect of the splenic lobe and portions of the connecting lobe and bridge exhibited reduced delivery of solution when traditional methods of distention were utilized. Use of alternative methods of delivery (such as selective re-cannulation and distention of identified problem regions) resolved these issues, and MRI was successfully utilized as a guide and assessment tool for improved delivery. Current methods of porcine pancreas distention do not consistently deliver enzyme uniformly or adequately to all regions of the pancreas. Novel methods of enzyme delivery should be investigated and implemented for improved enzyme distribution. MRI serves as a valuable tool to visualize and evaluate the efficacy of current and prospective methods of pancreas distention and enzyme delivery. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Characterization of cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1). A developmentally regulated elastase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, B C; Aoki, K; Xiang, Y; Campbell, L R; Hull, R J; Xoconostle-Cázares, B; Monzer, J; Lee, J Y; Ullman, D E; Lucas, W J

    2000-11-10

    We report on the molecular, biochemical, and functional characterization of Cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1), a novel 42-kDa serine proteinase inhibitor that is developmentally regulated and has anti-elastase properties. CmPS-1 was purified to near homogeneity from C. maxima (pumpkin) phloem exudate and, based on microsequence analysis, the cDNA encoding CmPS-1 was cloned. The association rate constant (k(a)) of phloem-purified and recombinant His(6)-tagged CmPS-1 for elastase was 3.5 +/- 1.6 x 10(5) and 2.7 +/- 0.4 x 10(5) m(-)(1) s(-)(1), respectively. The fraction of complex-forming CmPS-1, X(inh), was estimated at 79%. CmPS-1 displayed no detectable inhibitory properties against chymotrypsin, trypsin, or thrombin. The elastase cleavage sites within the reactive center loop of CmPS-1 were determined to be Val(347)-Gly(348) and Val(350)-Ser(351) with a 3:2 molar ratio. In vivo feeding assays conducted with the piercing-sucking aphid, Myzus persicae, established a close correlation between the developmentally regulated increase in CmPS-1 within the phloem sap and the reduced ability of these insects to survive and reproduce on C. maxima. However, in vitro feeding experiments, using purified phloem CmPS-1, failed to demonstrate a direct effect on aphid survival. Likely roles of this novel phloem serpin in defense against insects/pathogens are discussed.

  7. Alteration of strain background and a high omega-6 fat diet induces earlier onset of pancreatic neoplasia in EL-Kras transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Eric C; Strouch, Matthew J; Barron, Morgan R; Ding, Yongzeng; Melstrom, Laleh G; Krantz, Seth B; Mullapudi, Bhargava; Adrian, Kevin; Rao, Sambasiva; Adrian, Thomas E; Bentrem, David J; Grippo, Paul J

    2011-06-15

    Diets containing omega-6 (ω-6) fat have been associated with increased tumor development in carcinogen-induced pancreatic cancer models. However, the effects of ω-6 fatty acids and background strain on the development of genetically-induced pancreatic neoplasia is unknown. We assessed the effects of a diet rich in ω-6 fat on the development of pancreatic neoplasia in elastase (EL)-Kras(G12D) (EL-Kras) mice in two different backgrounds. EL-Kras FVB mice were crossed to C57BL/6 (B6) mice to produce EL-Kras FVB6 F1 (or EL-Kras F1) and EL-Kras B6 congenic mice. Age-matched EL-Kras mice from each strain were compared to one another on a standard chow. Two cohorts of EL-Kras FVB and EL-Kras F1 mice were fed a 23% corn oil diet and compared to age-matched mice fed a standard chow. Pancreata were scored for incidence, frequency, and size of neoplastic lesions, and stained for the presence of mast cells to evaluate changes in the inflammatory milieu secondary to a high fat diet. EL-Kras F1 mice had increased incidence, frequency, and size of pancreatic neoplasia compared to EL-Kras FVB mice. The frequency and size of neoplastic lesions and the weight and pancreatic mast cell densities in EL-Kras F1 mice were increased in mice fed a high ω-6 fatty acid diet compared to mice fed a standard chow. We herein introduce the EL-Kras B6 mouse model which presents with increased frequency of pancreatic neoplasia compared to EL-Kras F1 mice. The phenotype in EL-Kras F1 and FVB mice is promoted by a diet rich in ω-6 fatty acid. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  8. The Epidemiology of Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dhiraj; Lowenfels, Albert B.

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal causes for hospital admission in the US. Chronic pancreatitis, although lower in incidence, significantly reduces patients’ quality of life. Pancreatic cancer has high mortality and is 1 of the top 5 causes of death from cancer. The burden of pancreatic disorders is expected to increase over time. The risk and etiology of pancreatitis differ with age and sex, and all pancreatic disorders affect Blacks more than any other race. Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis, and early cholecystectomy eliminates the risk of future attacks. Alcohol continues to be the single most important risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. Smoking is an independent risk factor for acute and chronic pancreatitis, and its effects could synergize with those of alcohol. Significant risk factors for pancreatic cancer include smoking and non-O blood groups. Alcohol abstinence and smoking cessation can alter progression of pancreatitis and reduce recurrence; smoking cessation is the most effective strategy to reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. PMID:23622135

  9. The epidemiology of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dhiraj; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2013-06-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal causes of hospital admission in the United States. Chronic pancreatitis, although lower in incidence, significantly reduces patients' quality of life. Pancreatic cancer is associated with a high mortality rate and is one of the top 5 causes of death from cancer. The burden of pancreatic disorders is expected to increase over time. The risk and etiology of pancreatitis differ with age and sex, and all pancreatic disorders affect the black population more than any other race. Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis, and early cholecystectomy eliminates the risk of future attacks. Alcohol continues to be the single most important risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. Smoking is an independent risk factor for acute and chronic pancreatitis, and its effects could synergize with those of alcohol. Significant risk factors for pancreatic cancer include smoking and non-O blood groups. Alcohol abstinence and smoking cessation can alter the progression of pancreatitis and reduce recurrence; smoking cessation is the most effective strategy to reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Focal pancreatic enlargement: differentiation between pancreatic adenocarcinoma and focal pancreatitis on CT and ERCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Ki Whang; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Hee Soo; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Yu, Jeong Sik; Yoon, Sang Wook

    1995-01-01

    To differentiate the pancreatic adenocarcinoma from focal pancreatitis on CT and ERCP in cases of focal pancreatic enlargement. We analysed CT findings of 66 patients of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 45) or focal pancreatitis (n = 21) with respect to size, density, calcification, pancreatic or biliary duct dilatation, fat plane obliteration around the vessels, direction of retroperitoneal extension, lymphadenopathy, pseudocyst formation and atrophy of pancreas. ERCP available in 48 patients were analysed in respect to morphologic appearance of CBD and pancreatic duct, and distance between the two ducts. The patients in focal pancreatitis were younger with more common history of alcohol drinking. There was no statistical difference in calcifications of the mass (18% in the adenocarcinoma, 33% in the focal pancreatitis), but a tendency of denser, larger number of calcifications was noted in focal pancreatitis. The finding of fat plane obliteration around the vessels were more common in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and fascial thickenings were more prominent in focal pancreatitis, although not statistically significant. On ERCP, there were no differential points of CBD, pancreatic duct morphology, but distance between the two ducts at the lesion center was more wider in focal pancreatitis. Differentiating focal pancreatitis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma is difficult. However, we should consider the possibility of focal pancreatitis in cases of patients with young age, having alcoholic history in association with CT findings of large numbers of and dense calcifications, and ERCP findings of prominent separation of two duct at the lesion center

  11. Characterisation of CART-containing neurons and cells in the porcine pancreas, gastro-intestinal tract, adrenal and thyroid glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsdóttir Anna

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The peptide CART is widely expressed in central and peripheral neurons, as well as in endocrine cells. Known peripheral sites of expression include the gastrointestinal (GI tract, the pancreas, and the adrenal glands. In rodent pancreas CART is expressed both in islet endocrine cells and in nerve fibers, some of which innervate the islets. Recent data show that CART is a regulator of islet hormone secretion, and that CART null mutant mice have islet dysfunction. CART also effects GI motility, mainly via central routes. In addition, CART participates in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis. We investigated CART expression in porcine pancreas, GI-tract, adrenal glands, and thyroid gland using immunocytochemistry. Results CART immunoreactive (IR nerve cell bodies and fibers were numerous in pancreatic and enteric ganglia. The majority of these were also VIP IR. The finding of intrinsic CART containing neurons indicates that pancreatic and GI CART IR nerve fibers have an intrinsic origin. No CART IR endocrine cells were detected in the pancreas or in the GI tract. The adrenal medulla harboured numerous CART IR endocrine cells, most of which were adrenaline producing. In addition CART IR fibers were frequently seen in the adrenal cortex and capsule. The capsule also contained CART IR nerve cell bodies. The majority of the adrenal CART IR neuronal elements were also VIP IR. CART IR was also seen in a substantial proportion of the C-cells in the thyroid gland. The majority of these cells were also somatostatin IR, and/or 5-HT IR, and/or VIP IR. Conclusion CART is a major neuropeptide in intrinsic neurons of the porcine GI-tract and pancreas, a major constituent of adrenaline producing adrenomedullary cells, and a novel peptide of the thyroid C-cells. CART is suggested to be a regulatory peptide in the porcine pancreas, GI-tract, adrenal gland and thyroid.

  12. Pancreatic and snake venom presynaptically active phospholipases A2 inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulfius, Catherine A; Kasheverov, Igor E; Kryukova, Elena V; Spirova, Ekaterina N; Shelukhina, Irina V; Starkov, Vladislav G; Andreeva, Tatyana V; Faure, Grazyna; Zouridakis, Marios; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2017-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes found throughout the animal kingdom. They hydrolyze phospholipids in the sn-2 position producing lysophospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids, agents that can damage membranes. PLA2s from snake venoms have numerous toxic effects, not all of which can be explained by phospholipid hydrolysis, and each enzyme has a specific effect. We have earlier demonstrated the capability of several snake venom PLA2s with different enzymatic, cytotoxic, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties, to decrease acetylcholine-induced currents in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, and to compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acetylcholine binding protein. Since nAChRs are implicated in postsynaptic and presynaptic activities, in this work we probe those PLA2s known to have strong presynaptic effects, namely β-bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus and crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus. We also wished to explore whether mammalian PLA2s interact with nAChRs, and have examined non-toxic PLA2 from porcine pancreas. It was found that porcine pancreatic PLA2 and presynaptic β-bungarotoxin blocked currents mediated by nAChRs in Lymnaea neurons with IC50s of 2.5 and 4.8 μM, respectively. Crotoxin competed with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and human α7 nAChRs and to the acetylcholine binding protein. Pancreatic PLA2 interacted similarly with these targets; moreover, it inhibited radioactive α-bungarotoxin binding to the water-soluble extracellular domain of human α9 nAChR, and blocked acetylcholine induced currents in human α9α10 nAChRs heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These and our earlier results show that all snake PLA2s, including presynaptically active crotoxin and β-bungarotoxin, as well as mammalian pancreatic PLA2, interact with nAChRs. The data obtained suggest that this interaction may be a general property of all PLA2s, which should be proved by

  13. Pancreatic and snake venom presynaptically active phospholipases A2 inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Vulfius

    Full Text Available Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s are enzymes found throughout the animal kingdom. They hydrolyze phospholipids in the sn-2 position producing lysophospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids, agents that can damage membranes. PLA2s from snake venoms have numerous toxic effects, not all of which can be explained by phospholipid hydrolysis, and each enzyme has a specific effect. We have earlier demonstrated the capability of several snake venom PLA2s with different enzymatic, cytotoxic, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties, to decrease acetylcholine-induced currents in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, and to compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs and acetylcholine binding protein. Since nAChRs are implicated in postsynaptic and presynaptic activities, in this work we probe those PLA2s known to have strong presynaptic effects, namely β-bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus and crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus. We also wished to explore whether mammalian PLA2s interact with nAChRs, and have examined non-toxic PLA2 from porcine pancreas. It was found that porcine pancreatic PLA2 and presynaptic β-bungarotoxin blocked currents mediated by nAChRs in Lymnaea neurons with IC50s of 2.5 and 4.8 μM, respectively. Crotoxin competed with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and human α7 nAChRs and to the acetylcholine binding protein. Pancreatic PLA2 interacted similarly with these targets; moreover, it inhibited radioactive α-bungarotoxin binding to the water-soluble extracellular domain of human α9 nAChR, and blocked acetylcholine induced currents in human α9α10 nAChRs heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These and our earlier results show that all snake PLA2s, including presynaptically active crotoxin and β-bungarotoxin, as well as mammalian pancreatic PLA2, interact with nAChRs. The data obtained suggest that this interaction may be a general property of all PLA2s, which

  14. Exocrine pancreatic function in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β-maturity-onset diabetes of the young (HNF1B-MODY) is only moderately reduced: compensatory hypersecretion from a hypoplastic pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjora, E; Wathle, G; Erchinger, F; Engjom, T; Molven, A; Aksnes, L; Haldorsen, I S; Dimcevski, G; Raeder, H; Njølstad, P R

    2013-08-01

    To examine the exocrine pancreatic function in carriers of the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β gene (HNF1B) mutation by direct testing. Patients with HNF1B mutations and control subjects were assessed using rapid endoscopic secretin tests and secretin-stimulated magnetic resonance imaging. Seven patients and 25 controls underwent endoscopy, while eight patients and 20 controls had magnetic resonance imaging. Ductal function was assessed according to peak bicarbonate concentrations and acinar function was assessed according to peak digestive enzyme activities in secretin-stimulated duodenal juice. The association of pancreatic exocrine function and diabetes status with pancreatic gland volume was examined. The mean increase in secretin-stimulated duodenal fluid was smaller in patients than controls (4.0 vs 6.4 ml/min; P = 0.003). We found lower ductal function in patients than controls (median peak bicarbonate concentration: 73 vs 116 mEq/L; P function (median peak lipase activity: 6.4 vs 33.5 kU/ml; P = 0.01; median peak elastase activity: 0.056 vs 0.130 U/ml; P = 0.01). Pancreatic fluid volume outputs correlated significantly with pancreatic gland volumes (r² = 0.71, P = 0.008) in patients. The total fluid output to pancreatic gland volume ratios were higher in patients than controls (4.5 vs 1.3 ml/cm³; P = 0.03), suggesting compensatory hypersecretion in the remaining gland. Carriers of the HNF1B mutation have lower exocrine pancreatic function involving both ductal and acinar cells. Compensatory hypersecretion suggests that the small pancreas of HNF1B mutation carriers is attributable to hypoplasia, not atrophy. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  15. Autoimmune pancreatitis can develop into chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been recognized as a distinct type of pancreatitis that is possibly caused by autoimmune mechanisms. AIP is characterized by high serum IgG4 and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration in affected pancreatic tissue. Acute phase AIP responds favorably to corticosteroid therapy and results in the amelioration of clinical findings. However, the long-term prognosis and outcome of AIP remain unclear. We have proposed a working hypothesis that AIP can develop into ordinary chronic pancreatitis resembling alcoholic pancreatitis over a long-term course based on several clinical findings, most notably frequent pancreatic stone formation. In this review article, we describe a series of study results to confirm our hypothesis and clarify that: 1) pancreatic calcification in AIP is closely associated with disease recurrence; 2) advanced stage AIP might have earlier been included in ordinary chronic pancreatitis; 3) approximately 40% of AIP patients experience pancreatic stone formation over a long-term course, for which a primary risk factor is narrowing of both Wirsung’s and Santorini’s ducts; and 4) nearly 20% of AIP patients progress to confirmed chronic pancreatitis according to the revised Japanese Clinical Diagnostic Criteria, with independent risk factors being pancreatic head swelling and non-narrowing of the pancreatic body duct. PMID:24884922

  16. Autoimmune pancreatitis can develop into chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Masahiro; Watanabe, Takayuki; Kanai, Keita; Oguchi, Takaya; Asano, Jumpei; Ito, Tetsuya; Ozaki, Yayoi; Muraki, Takashi; Hamano, Hideaki; Arakura, Norikazu; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2014-05-21

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been recognized as a distinct type of pancreatitis that is possibly caused by autoimmune mechanisms. AIP is characterized by high serum IgG4 and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration in affected pancreatic tissue. Acute phase AIP responds favorably to corticosteroid therapy and results in the amelioration of clinical findings. However, the long-term prognosis and outcome of AIP remain unclear. We have proposed a working hypothesis that AIP can develop into ordinary chronic pancreatitis resembling alcoholic pancreatitis over a long-term course based on several clinical findings, most notably frequent pancreatic stone formation. In this review article, we describe a series of study results to confirm our hypothesis and clarify that: 1) pancreatic calcification in AIP is closely associated with disease recurrence; 2) advanced stage AIP might have earlier been included in ordinary chronic pancreatitis; 3) approximately 40% of AIP patients experience pancreatic stone formation over a long-term course, for which a primary risk factor is narrowing of both Wirsung's and Santorini's ducts; and 4) nearly 20% of AIP patients progress to confirmed chronic pancreatitis according to the revised Japanese Clinical Diagnostic Criteria, with independent risk factors being pancreatic head swelling and non-narrowing of the pancreatic body duct.

  17. Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Vujasinovic

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Cancer patients experience weight loss for a variety of reasons, commencing with the tumor’s metabolism (Warburg effect and proceeding via cachexia to loss of appetite. In pancreatic cancer, several other factors are involved, including a loss of appetite with a particular aversion to meat and the incapacity of the pancreatic gland to function normally when a tumor is present in the pancreatic head. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is characterized by a deficiency of the enzymes secreted from the pancreas due to the obstructive tumor, resulting in maldigestion. This, in turn, contributes to malnutrition, specifically a lack of fat-soluble vitamins, antioxidants, and other micronutrients. Patients with pancreatic cancer and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency have, overall, an extremely poor prognosis with regard to surgical outcome and overall survival. Therefore, it is crucial to be aware of the mechanisms involved in the disease, to be able to diagnose pancreatic exocrine insufficiency early on, and to treat malnutrition appropriately, for example, with pancreatic enzymes.

  18. Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency in Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujasinovic, Miroslav; Valente, Roberto; Del Chiaro, Marco; Permert, Johan; Löhr, J-Matthias

    2017-02-23

    Abstract : Cancer patients experience weight loss for a variety of reasons, commencing with the tumor's metabolism (Warburg effect) and proceeding via cachexia to loss of appetite. In pancreatic cancer, several other factors are involved, including a loss of appetite with a particular aversion to meat and the incapacity of the pancreatic gland to function normally when a tumor is present in the pancreatic head. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is characterized by a deficiency of the enzymes secreted from the pancreas due to the obstructive tumor, resulting in maldigestion. This, in turn, contributes to malnutrition, specifically a lack of fat-soluble vitamins, antioxidants, and other micronutrients. Patients with pancreatic cancer and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency have, overall, an extremely poor prognosis with regard to surgical outcome and overall survival. Therefore, it is crucial to be aware of the mechanisms involved in the disease, to be able to diagnose pancreatic exocrine insufficiency early on, and to treat malnutrition appropriately, for example, with pancreatic enzymes.

  19. CT diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Baoqing; Jin Erhu; Zhang Lizhen; Jiang Haibin

    1997-01-01

    To improve the diagnostic accuracy of pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis. The CT findings of 154 cases with pancreatic carcinoma, chronic pancreatitis and mis-diagnosed other pancreatic diseases proven clinically and pathologically were analysed. Slice thickness of 8 mm and slice interval of 8 mm were used and thin-section scan and enhancement study were performed in some cases. The main signs in degassing and differential diagnosis between pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis included: (1) focal or diffuse enlargement and density abnormality of pancreas; (2) dilated common bile duct was suddenly obstructed, peripancreatic blood vessels were invaded and cancerous thrombus was revealed, enlargement of abdominal lymph nodes and metastasis in the liver were discovered; (3) calcium deposit in the pancreatic duct area and dilated pancreatic duct which passed through the lesion or not; (4) presence and location of pancreatic cyst and its relationship to pancreatic contour. CT is the imaging modality of choice in the diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis at present. The diagnostic accuracy of CT was over 90% in this series

  20. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  1. Determinants of exocrine pancreatic function as measured by fecal elastase-1 concentrations (FEC in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewald N

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Recently it has been shown that there is not only endocrine insufficiency in diabetic patients, but a frequent co-morbidity of both, the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. The present study was performed to further analyse the determinants of exocrine pancreatic function in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods The records of 1992 patients with diabetes mellitus who had been treated in our hospital during a 2-year period were re-evaluated. Defined parameters were documented in standardized data sheets. Records were further checked for the results of imaging procedures of the pancreas. In 307 patients FEC had been performed and documented. Only these patients were included in further evaluation. Results FEC was inversely correlated with diabetes duration and HbA1c-levels but not with age. C-peptide levels correlated positively with FEC. BMI and FEC were also significantly correlated. There was no correlation between diabetes therapy and exocrine pancreatic function as there was no correlation with any concomitant medication. The presence of diabetes-associated antibodies was not related to FEC. According to the documented data 38 were classified as type-1 diabetes (12.4%, 167 as type-2 (54.4%, and 88 patients met the diagnostic criteria of type-3 (28.7%. Fourteen patients could not be classified because of lacking information (4.6%. Conclusions Exocrine insufficiency might be explained as a complication of diabetes mellitus. However, it is more likely that type-3 diabetes is much more frequent than previously believed. Consequently the evaluation of exocrine function and morphology should be included into the clinical workup of any diabetic patient at least at the time of manifestation.

  2. Porcine endogenous retroviral nucleic acid in peripheral tissues is associated with migration of porcine cells post islet transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binette, Tanya M; Seeberger, Karen L; Lyon, James G; Rajotte, Ray V; Korbutt, Gregory S

    2004-07-01

    Porcine islets represent an alternative source of insulin-producing tissue, however, porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) remains a concern. In this study, SCID mice were transplanted with nonencapsulated (non-EC), microencapsulated (EC) or macroencapsulated (in a TheraCyte trade mark device) neonatal porcine islets (NPIs), and peripheral tissues were screened for presence of viral DNA and mRNA. To understand the role of an intact immune system in PERV incidence, mice with established NPI grafts were reconstituted with splenocytes. Peripheral tissues were screened for PERV and porcine DNA using PCR. Tissues with positive DNA were analyzed for PERV mRNA using RT-PCR. No significant difference was observed between non-EC and EC transplants regarding presence of PERV or porcine-specific DNA or mRNA. In reconstituted animals, little PERV or porcine DNA, and no PERV mRNA was detected. No PERV or porcine-specific DNA was observed in animals implanted with a TheraCyte trade mark device. In conclusion, an intact immune system significantly lowered the presence of PERV. Microencapsulation of islets did not alter PERV presence, however, macroencapsulation in the TheraCyte device did. Lower PERV incidence coincided with lower porcine DNA in peripheral tissues, linking the presence of PERV to migration of porcine cells.

  3. Chronic Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stram, Michelle; Liu, Shu; Singhi, Aatur D

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a debilitating condition often associated with severe abdominal pain and exocrine and endocrine dysfunction. The underlying cause is multifactorial and involves complex interaction of environmental, genetic, and/or other risk factors. The pathology is dependent on the underlying pathogenesis of the disease. This review describes the clinical, gross, and microscopic findings of the main subtypes of chronic pancreatitis: alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, obstructive chronic pancreatitis, paraduodenal ("groove") pancreatitis, pancreatic divisum, autoimmune pancreatitis, and genetic factors associated with chronic pancreatitis. As pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma may be confused with chronic pancreatitis, the main distinguishing features between these 2 diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pancreatic cancer risk in hereditary pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Ulrich Weiss

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is part of the body’s immune response in order to remove harmful stimuli – like pathogens, irritants or damaged cells - and start the healing process. Recurrent or chronic inflammation on the other side seems a predisposing factor for carcinogenesis and has been found associated with cancer development. In chronic pancreatitis mutations of the cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1 gene have been identified as risk factors of the disease. Hereditary pancreatitis is a rare cause of chronic pancreatic inflammation with an early onset, mostly during childhood. Hereditary pancreatitis often starts with recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis and the clinical phenotype is not very much different from other etiologies of the disease. The long-lasting inflammation however generates a tumor promoting environment and represents a major risk factor for tumor development This review will reflect our knowledge concerning the specific risk of hereditary pancreatitis patients to develop pancreatic cancer.

  5. In Vitro Activities against Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens of Synthetic Host Defence Propeptides Processed by Neutrophil Elastase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Desgranges, Stephane

    2011-02-22

    The antimicrobial and haemolytic activities of a host defence peptide can be controlled by modification as a propeptide of reduced net charge which can be processed by neutrophil elastase, a serine protease involved in chronic airway inflammation and infections associated with cystic fibrosis.

  6. Pancreatitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis. This is a swelling of the pancreas. You ...

  7. The influence of hemodynamic forces on biomarkers in the walls of elastase-induced aneurysms in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadirvel, Ramanathan; Ding, Yong-Hong; Dai, Daying; Danielson, Mark A.; Lewis, Debra A.; Cloft, Harry J.; Kallmes, David F. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Zakaria, Hasballah; Robertson, Anne M. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Biological and biophysical factors have been shown to play an important role in the initiation, progression, and rupture of intracranial aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between hemodynamic forces and markers of vascular remodeling in elastase-induced saccular aneurysms in rabbits. Elastase-induced aneurysms were created at the origin of the right common carotid artery in rabbits. Hemodynamic parameters were estimated using computational fluid dynamic simulations based on 3-D-reconstructed models of the vasculature. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), their inhibitors (TIMPs) and markers of vascular remodeling were measured in different spatial regions within the aneurysms. Altered expression of biological markers relative to controls was correlated with the locations of subnormal time-averaged wall shear stress (WSS) but not with the magnitude of pressure. In the aneurysms, WSS was low and expression of biological markers was significantly altered in a time-dependent fashion. At 2 weeks, an upregulation of active-MMP-2, downregulation of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, and intact endothelium were found in aneurysm cavities. However, by 12 weeks, endothelial cells were absent or scattered, and levels of pro- and active-MMP-2 were not different from those in control arteries, but pro-MMP-9 and both TIMPs were upregulated. These results reveal a strong, spatially localized correlation between diminished WSS and differential expression of biological markers of vascular remodeling in elastase-induced saccular aneurysms. The ability of the wall to function and maintain a healthy endothelium in a low shear environment appears to be significantly impaired by chronic exposure to low WSS. (orig.)

  8. Pancreatic Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us DONATE NOW GENERAL DONATION PURPLESTRIDE Pancreatic enzymes Home Facing Pancreatic Cancer Living with Pancreatic Cancer ... and see a registered dietitian. What are pancreatic enzymes? Pancreatic enzymes help break down fats, proteins and ...

  9. Activation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase in Pseudomonas putida by triggering dissociation of the propeptide-enzyme complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, P; Bitter, W; Tommassen, J

    2000-01-01

    The propeptide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase functions both as an intramolecular chaperone required for the folding of the enzyme and as an inhibitor that prevents activity of the enzyme before its secretion into the extracellular medium. Since expression of the lasB gene, which encodes

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase cleaves a C-terminal peptide from human thrombin that inhibits host inflammatory responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Plas, Mariena J A; Bhongir, Ravi K V; Kjellström, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen known for its immune evasive abilities amongst others by degradation of a large variety of host proteins. Here we show that digestion of thrombin by P. aeruginosa elastase leads to the release of the C-terminal thrombin-derived peptide FYT21...

  11. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  12. Pancreatic fibrosis correlates with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after pancreatoduodenectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Tran; G. van 't Hof; G. Kazemier (Geert); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); C.J. Pek (Chulja); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); H. van Dekken (Herman); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Obstruction of the pancreatic duct can lead to pancreatic fibrosis. We investigated the correlation between the extent of pancreatic fibrosis and the postoperative exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function. Methods: Fifty-five patients who were treated for pancreatic and

  13. Emphysema induced by elastase enhances acute inflammatory pulmonary response to intraperitoneal LPS in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Lídia Maria Carneiro; Reboredo, Maycon Moura; Lucinda, Leda Marília Fonseca; Fazza, Thaís Fernanda; Rabelo, Maria Aparecida Esteves; Fonseca, Adenilson Souza; de Paoli, Flavia; Pinheiro, Bruno Valle

    2016-12-01

    Abnormalities in lungs caused by emphysema might alter their response to sepsis and the occurrence of acute lung injury (ALI). This study compared the extension of ALI in response to intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection in Wistar rats with and without emphysema induced by elastase. Adult male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: control, emphysema without sepsis, normal lung with sepsis and emphysema with sepsis. Sepsis was induced, and 24 h later the rats were euthanised. The following analysis was performed: blood gas measurements, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), lung permeability and histology. Animals that received LPS showed significant increase in a lung injury scoring system, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and IL-6, TNF-α and CXCL2 mRNA expression in lung tissue. Animals with emphysema and sepsis showed increased alveolocapillary membrane permeability, demonstrated by higher BAL/serum albumin ratio. In conclusion, the presence of emphysema induced by elastase increases the inflammatory response in the lungs to a systemic stimulus, represented in this model by the intraperitoneal injection of LPS. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2016 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  14. [Chronic pancreatitis diagnosed after the first attack of acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojková, Martina; Dítě, Petr; Uvírová, Magdalena; Dvořáčková, Nina; Kianička, Bohuslav; Kupka, Tomáš; Svoboda, Pavel; Klvaňa, Pavel; Martínek, Arnošt

    2016-02-01

    One of the diseases involving a potential risk of developing chronic pancreatitis is acute pancreatitis. Of the overall number of 231 individuals followed with a diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis, 56 patients were initially treated for acute pancreatitis (24.2 %). Within an interval of 12- 24 months from the first attack of acute pancreatitis, their condition gradually progressed to reached the picture of chronic pancreatitis. The individuals included in the study abstained (from alcohol) following the first attack of acute pancreatitis and no relapse of acute pancreatitis was proven during the period of their monitoring. The etiology of acute pancreatitis identified alcohol as the predominant cause (55.3 %), biliary etiology was proven in 35.7 %. According to the revised Atlanta classification, severe pancreatitis was established in 69.6 % of the patients, the others met the criterion for intermediate form, those with the light form were not included. Significant risk factors present among the patients were smoking, obesity and 18 %, resp. 25.8 % had pancreatogenous diabetes mellitus identified. 88.1 % of the patients with acute pancreatitis were smokers. The majority of individuals with chronic pancreatitis following an attack of acute pancreatitis were of a productive age from 25 to 50 years. It is not only acute alcoholic pancreatitis which evolves into chronic pancreatitis, we have also identified this transition for pancreatitis of biliary etiology.

  15. Does human leukocyte elastase degrade intact skin elastin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmelzer, Christian E H; Jung, Michael C; Wohlrab, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the susceptibility of intact fibrillar human elastin to human leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G. Elastin is a vital protein of the extracellular matrix of vertebrates, and provides exceptional properties including elasticity and tensile strength to many tissues...... and organs, including the aorta, lung, cartilage, elastic ligaments and skin, and is thus critical for their long-term function. Mature elastin is an insoluble and extremely durable protein that undergoes very little turnover, but sustained exposure to proteases may lead to irreversible and severe damage......, and thus to functional loss of the elastic fiber network. Hence, it is a key issue to understand which enzymes actually initiate elastolysis under certain pathological conditions or during intrinsic aging. In this paper, we provide a complete workflow for isolation of pure and intact elastin from very...

  16. Robotic transgastric cystgastrostomy and pancreatic debridement in the management of pancreatic fluid collections following acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirks, Russell C; Sola, Richard; Iannitti, David A; Martinie, John B; Vrochides, Dionisios

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic and peripancreatic fluid collections may develop after severe acute pancreatitis. Organized fluid collections such as pancreatic pseudocyst and walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN) that mature over time may require intervention to treat obstructive or constitutional symptoms related to the size and location of the collection as well as possible infection. Endoscopic, open surgical and minimally invasive techniques are described to treat post-inflammatory pancreatic fluid collections. Surgical intervention may be required to treat collections containing necrotic pancreatic parenchyma or in locations not immediately apposed to the stomach or duodenum. Comprising a blend of the surgical approach and the clinical benefits of minimally invasive surgery, the robot-assisted technique of pancreatic cystgastrostomy with pancreatic debridement is described.

  17. an extended pancreatic normal subjects and ~in pancreatItIs In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    function . . patIents. N. H. GILlNSKY, A. S. MEE, I. N. MARKS. Summary. Exocrine pancreatic response was evaluated in patients with varying degrees of pancreatic damage and in control subjects by ... hormones, the Lundh meal and an oral pancreatic function test .... is any different from that of the cells in me normal gland.

  18. Pancreatic Pseudocyst Pleural Fistula in Gallstone Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sala Abdalla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra-abdominal complications of pancreatitis such as pancreaticopleural fistulae are rare. A pancreaticopleural fistula occurs when inflammation of the pancreas and pancreatic ductal disruption lead to leakage of secretions through a fistulous tract into the thorax. The underlying aetiology in the majority of cases is alcohol-induced chronic pancreatitis. The diagnosis is often delayed given that the majority of patients present with pulmonary symptoms and frequently have large, persistent pleural effusions. The diagnosis is confirmed through imaging and the detection of significantly elevated amylase levels in the pleural exudate. Treatment options include somatostatin analogues, thoracocentesis, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP with pancreatic duct stenting, and surgery. The authors present a case of pancreatic pseudocyst pleural fistula in a woman with gallstone pancreatitis presenting with recurrent pneumonias and bilateral pleural effusions.

  19. The preparation of aneurysm model in rabbits by vessel ligation and elastase-induced technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Chuan; Xie Qianyu; Liu Linxiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To establish an aneurysm model, which is quite similar to the human intracranial aneurysm in morphology, in rabbits by means of vessel ligation together with elastase-induced technique. Methods: Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. Distal carotid ligation and intraluminal elastase incubation was employed in ten rabbits (study group) to create aneurysm on the right common carotid artery. And surgical suture of a segment of the left carotid common artery was carried out in six rabbits (used as control group) to establish the aneurysm model. DSA exam of the created aneurysms by using catheterization via femoral artery was performed at one week and at one month after surgery. The patency, morphology and pathology of the aneurysms were observed. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: The aneurysms in both groups remained patent after they were created. Angiography one week after the surgery showed that all the aneurysms in study group were patent, while in control group only two aneurysms showed opacification with contrast medium and the remaining four aneurysms were all occluded. DSA at one month after the procedure demonstrated that all the aneurysms in study group remained patent, and the previous two patent aneurysms in control group became occluded. The mean width and length of the aneurysmal cavity in study group immediately after the procedure were (3.70 ± 0.16) mm and (6.53 ± 0.65) mm respectively, which enlarged to (5.06 ± 0.31) mm and (9.0 ± 0.52) mm respectively one month after the surgery. The difference in size changes was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Pathologically, almost complete absence of the internal elastic lamina and medial wall elastin of the aneurysms was observed. Conclusion: The aneurysm model prepared with vessel ligation together with elastase-induced technique carries high patent rate and possesses the feature of spontaneous growing, moreover, its morphology is quite similar to the

  20. The Key Genes of Chronic Pancreatitis which Bridge Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer Can be Therapeutic Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Li, Rui; Wang, Heping; Li, Lisha; Li, Huiyu; Li, Yulin

    2018-04-01

    An important question in systems biology is what role the underlying molecular mechanisms play in disease progression. The relationship between chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer needs further exploration in a system view. We constructed the disease network based on gene expression data and protein-protein interaction. We proposed an approach to discover the underlying core network and molecular factors in the progression of pancreatic diseases, which contain stages of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. The chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer core network and key factors were revealed and then verified by gene set enrichment analysis of pathways and diseases. The key factors provide the microenvironment for tumor initiation and the change of gene expression level of key factors bridge chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Some new candidate genes need further verification by experiments. Transcriptome profiling-based network analysis reveals the importance of chronic pancreatitis genes and pathways in pancreatic cancer development on a system level by computational method and they can be therapeutic targets.

  1. Lysophosphatidic acid inhibition of the accumulation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 alginate, pyoverdin, elastase and LasA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laux, D.C.; Corson, J.M.; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2002-01-01

    . In the present study, a lysophospholipid, 1-paimitoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphate [also called monopalmitoylphosphatidic acid (MPPA)], which accumulates in inflammatory exudates, was shown to inhibit the extracellular accumulation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 alginate, elastase, LasA protease and the siderophore...

  2. Pancreatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, R; Bhattacharya, S

    2013-05-01

    Pancreatic trauma occurs in approximately 4% of all patients sustaining abdominal injuries. The pancreas has an intimate relationship with the major upper abdominal vessels, and there is significant morbidity and mortality associated with severe pancreatic injury. Immediate resuscitation and investigations are essential to delineate the nature of the injury, and to plan further management. If main pancreatic duct injuries are identified, specialised input from a tertiary hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) team is advised. A comprehensive online literature search was performed using PubMed. Relevant articles from international journals were selected. The search terms used were: 'pancreatic trauma', 'pancreatic duct injury', 'radiology AND pancreas injury', 'diagnosis of pancreatic trauma', and 'management AND surgery'. Articles that were not published in English were excluded. All articles used were selected on relevance to this review and read by both authors. Pancreatic trauma is rare and associated with injury to other upper abdominal viscera. Patients present with non-specific abdominal findings and serum amylase is of little use in diagnosis. Computed tomography is effective in diagnosing pancreatic injury but not duct disruption, which is most easily seen on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography or operative pancreatography. If pancreatic injury is suspected, inspection of the entire pancreas and duodenum is required to ensure full evaluation at laparotomy. The operative management of pancreatic injury depends on the grade of injury found at laparotomy. The most important prognostic factor is main duct disruption and, if found, reconstructive options should be determined by an experienced HPB surgeon. The diagnosis of pancreatic trauma requires a high index of suspicion and detailed imaging studies. Grading pancreatic injury is important to guide operative management. The most important prognostic factor is pancreatic duct disruption and in these cases

  3. Autoimmune pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Dajčman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autoimmune pancreatitis is a recently described type of pancreatitis of presumed autoimmune etiology. Autoimmune pancreatitis is often misdiagnosed as pancreatic cancer difficult, since their clinical presentations are often similar. The concept of autoimmune pancreatitis was first published in 1961. Since then, autoimmune pancreatitis has often been treated not as an independent clinical entity but rather as a manifestation of systemic disease. The overall prevalence and incidence of the disease have yet to be determined, but three series have reported the prevalence as between 5 and 6 % of all patients with chronic pancreatitis. Patient vary widely in age, but most are older than 50 years. Patients with autoimmune pancreatitis usually complain of the painless jaundice, mild abdominal pain and weight loss. There is no laboratory hallmark of the disease, even if cholestatic profiles of liver dysfunction with only mild elevation of amylase and lipase levels have been reported.Conclusions: Proposed diagnostic criteria contains: (1 radiologic imaging, diffuse enlargement of the pancreas and diffusely irregular narrowing of the main pancreatic duct, (2 laboratory data, elevated levels of serum ã-globulin and/or IgG, specially IgG4, or the presence of autoantibodies and (3 histopathologic examination, fibrotic change with dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the pancreas. For correct diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis, criterion 1 must be present with criterion 2 and/or 3. Autoimmune pancreatitis is frequently associated with rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren’s syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, tubulointersticial nephritis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis. Pancreatic biopsy using an endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy is the most important diagnostic method today. Treatment with corticosteroids leads to the and resolution of pancreatic inflamation, obstruction and

  4. Influence of elastase-induced emphysema and the inhalation of an irritant aerosol on deposition and retention of an inhaled insoluble aerosol in Fischer-344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, E.G.; Mokler, B.V.; Jones, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema and the inhalation of an irritant aerosol (Triton X-100, a nonionic surfactant similar to those used in a number of pressurized consumer products) on pulmonary deposition and retention of an insoluble test aerosol, 59 FE-labeled Fe 2 O 3 . Untreated rats or rats pretreated by intratracheal in stillation with elastase were exposed to an aerosol of 59 Fe-labeled Fe 2 O 3 either 18 hr or 7 days after exposure to aerosslized Triton X-100 which was administered in doses of 20, 100, or 200 μg/g of lung. Rats pretreated with elastase had significantly lower pulmonary deposition of 59 Fe than the untreated controls (p 2 O 3 was unaffected by pretreatment with Triton X-100. Elastase treatment alone had no effect on retention of Fe 2 O 3 . Triton X-100 administered 18 hr prior to exposure of rats to Fe 2 O 3 aerosol resulted in dose-related increases in whole-body retention of 59 Fe. When rats were exposed to Triton X-100 7 days before exposure to Fe 2 O 3 , increased retention of 59 Fe was noted only in those treated at the highest Triton X-100 dose level (200 μg/g). 20 references, 5 tables

  5. Pancreatitis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyasekaran, Malathi; Biradar, Vishnu; Ramaswamy, Ganesh; Srinivas, S; Ashish, B; Sumathi, B; Nirmala, D; Geetha, M

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic disease in children has a wide clinical spectrum and may present as Acute pancreatitis (AP), Acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP), Chronic pancreatitis (CP) and Pancreatic disease without pancreatitis. This article highlights the etiopathogenesis and management of pancreatitis in children along with clinical data from five tertiary care hospitals in south India [Chennai (3), Cochin and Pune].

  6. Monoclonal antibodies specific to heat-treated porcine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Nhari, Raja Mohd Hafidz; Hamid, Muhajir; Rasli, Nurmunirah Mohamad; Omar, Abdul Rahman; El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2016-05-01

    Porcine blood is potentially being utilized in food as a binder, gelling agent, emulsifier or colorant. However, for certain communities, the usage of animal blood in food is strictly prohibited owing to religious concerns and health reasons. This study reports the development of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against heat-treated soluble proteins (HSPs) of autoclaved porcine blood; characterization of MAbs against blood, non-blood and plasma from different animal species using qualitative indirect non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and immunoblotting of antigenic components in HSPs of porcine blood. Fifteen MAbs are specific to heat-treated and raw porcine blood and not cross-reacted with other animal blood and non-blood proteins (meat and non-meat). Twelve MAbs are specific to porcine plasma, while three MAbs specific to porcine plasma are cross-reacted with chicken plasma. Immunoblotting revealed antigenic protein bands (∼60, ∼85-100 and ∼250 kDa) in porcine blood and plasma recognized by the MAbs. Selection of MAbs that recognized 60 kDa HSPs of porcine blood and plasma as novel monoclonal antibodies would be useful for detection of porcine plasma in processed food using the immunoassay method. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Anti–elastase, anti–tyrosinase and matrix metalloproteinase–1 inhibitory activity of earthworm extracts as potential new anti–aging agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhazirah Azmi

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Earthworms extract showed effective inhibition of tyrosinase, elastase and MMP-1 activities. Therefore, this experiment further rationalizes the traditional use of this worm extracts which may be useful as an anti-wrinkle agent.

  8. pH and temperature effects on the molecular conformation of the porcine pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor as detected by hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marco, A.; Menegatti, E.; Guarneri, M.

    1982-01-01

    1 H NMR spectra of the porcine pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI) have been recorded vs. pH and temperature. Of the two tyrosines, one titrates with a pK of 1.25, while the resonances from the other are pH insensitive in the investigated range 4.8 less than or equal to pH less than or equal to 12. This is consistent with PSTI having one Tyr solvent exposed (Try-20) and the other buried (Tyr-31). The resonances from the lysyl epsilon-CH 2 protons titrate with a pK of 10.95. The titration is accompanied by a pronounced line broadening, which starts near pH 8.5. Between pH 11.5 and pH 12 the epsilon-CH 2 resonances recover their low pH line width. Titration curves for the lysines and Tyr-20 reflect single proton ionization equilibria, suggesting that these residues do not interact among themselves. On the basis of double resonance experiments, combined with analysis of chemical shifts, spin-spin couplngs, and line widths, all methyl resonances are identified and followed as functions of pH and temperature. The γ-CH 3 doublet from the N-terminal Thr-1 is assigned by comparison between spectra of forms I and II of the inhibitor, the latter lacking the first four residues of form I. The β-CH 3 resonance from Ala-7 is also assigned. Proton resonance parameters of methyl groups are shown to afford useful NMR probes for the characterization of local nonbonded interactions, microenvironments, and mobilities

  9. Porcine respiratory disease complex: Interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Chanhee

    2016-06-01

    Porcine respiratory disease is a multifactorial and complex disease caused by a combination of infectious pathogens, environmental stressors, differences in production systems, and various management practices; hence the name porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is used. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. Although interactions among the three major respiratory pathogens are well documented, it is also necessary to understand the interaction between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae are well known to potentiate PCV2-associated lesions; however, PRRSV and mycoplasmal vaccines can both enhance PCV2 viraemia regardless of the effects of the actual PRRSV or M. hyopneumoniae infection. On the other hand, M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of pneumonia induced by PRRSV, and vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone is also able to decrease PRRSV viraemia and PRRSV-induced lung lesions in dually infected pigs. This review focuses on (1) interactions between PCV2, PRRSV, and M. hyopneumoniae; and (2) interactions between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An evaluation on elastase enzyme activity in gingival crevicular fluid in periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qujeq D

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Changes in protein levels, host calls enzymes and inflammatory mediators in gingival"ncrevicular Fluid (GCF are considered as diagnostic indicators of Periodontitis."nPurpose: he aim of the present study was to measure the elastase enzyme activity in gingival crevicular Fluid"namong patients with periodontitis."nMaterial and Methods: In this study, 52 periodontitis patients (experimental group and 51 healthy subjects"nwithout any gingival inflammatio (control group were participated. Subjects of the periodontitis group"nshowed pockets of 4-5 mm depth without gingival enlargement and recession or pockets of 1-2 mm depth"nwith gingival recession. For enzyme activity measurement, lOOu,! of gingival fluid of each sample was mixed"nwith lOOu! of enzyme substrate on the tube. The mixture was incubated at 34°c for lh with a buffer solution"nof 1ml volume and absorbance was read at 410nm with spectrophotometer. The enzyme activity differences"nbetween two groups were analyzed by student t test."nResults: The elastase enzyme activity in gingival crevicular fluid in subjects with periodontium destruction"nand control subjects was 153±11.3 and 52.7±10.4 enzyme unit in ml per minute, respectively. The difference"nbetween groups was statistically significant (PO.05."nConclusion: Based on the findings of this study, the measurement of elastae enzyme activity could be a useful"nindication of tissue changes that may ultimately manifest clinically as periodontitis.

  11. Chronic pancreatitis: indications to surgery and remote results assessment criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Klimenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Present indications to surgery include intractable pain syndrome, severe dilation of the Wirsung’s duct, strictures and stones in the Wirsung’s duct, pancreatic pseudocysts, duodenal stenosis and obstructive jaundice because of “inflammatory mass” in the pancreatic head. But these absolute indications mean that in the most cases pancreatic exocrine and endocrine functions are already decompensated. Therefore it is important to produce new indications to surgical treatment of the CP in early stages. Also it is necessary to make such remote results assessment criteria that will allow to range among parenchymapreserving and resectional technics according to anatomical and functional parameters. Goal: to adjust indications to surgical treatment of the CP according to leading pathogenetic factors and develop criteria to assess remote results. Patients and methods: 122 CP patients have undergone surgery. There were 103 (84,4% men and – 19 (15,6% women, mean age - 45. Alcohol etiology of the CP was in 79 (64,8% patients, postpancreonecrotic – in 29 (23,8%, biliary – in 6 (4,9%, idiopathic – in 8 (6,6%. Wirsung’s duct diameter of 4 – 8 mm – was in 65 (53,3% patients, 8 – 12 and more – in 57 (46,7%. By Shalimov classification there were “pseudotumorous” – in 39 (31,9%, “calculouse” – in 40 (32,8%, fibrose-cystic – in 17 (13,9%, fibrose-degenerative with adjacent organs involvement and hampering of their function – in 26 (21,4% patients. All patients had pain syndrome and 79 (64,8% – exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. All patients underwent abdominal CT-scan, fecal elastase test, C-peptide, endogenic insulin, glucose, immunehystochemical investigation of biopsy samples taken from body corpus and tale simultaneously etc. Results: We have found that gastroenterologists poorly recognize “surgical” type of CP and restrain patients from being directed to surgical pancreatologists for surgical therapy. We

  12. Risk of Pancreatic Cancer After a Primary Episode of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkers, Anton P; Bakker, Olaf J; Ahmed Ali, Usama; Hagenaars, Julia C J P; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Besselink, Marc G; Bollen, Thomas L; van Eijck, Casper H

    2017-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis may be the first manifestation of pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of pancreatic cancer after a first episode of acute pancreatitis. Between March 2004 and March 2007, all consecutive patients with a first episode of acute pancreatitis were prospectively registered. Follow-up was based on hospital records audit, radiological imaging, and patient questionnaires. Outcome was stratified based on the development of chronic pancreatitis. We included 731 patients. The median follow-up time was 55 months. Progression to chronic pancreatitis was diagnosed in 51 patients (7.0%). In this group, the incidence rate per 1000 person-years for developing pancreatic cancer was 9.0 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-35.7). In the group of 680 patients who did not develop chronic pancreatitis, the incidence rate per 1000 person-years for developing pancreatic cancer in this group was 1.1 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.3). Hence, the rate ratio of pancreatic cancer was almost 9 times higher in patients who developed chronic pancreatitis compared with those who did not (P = 0.049). Although a first episode of acute pancreatitis may be related to pancreatic cancer, this risk is mainly present in patients who progress to chronic pancreatitis.

  13. Alendronate inhalation ameliorates elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice by induction of apoptosis of alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Manabu; Maeno, Toshitaka; Nishimura, Satoshi; Ogata, Fusa; Masubuchi, Hiroaki; Hara, Kenichiro; Yamaguchi, Kouichi; Aoki, Fumiaki; Suga, Tatsuo; Nagai, Ryozo; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-03-10

    Alveolar macrophages play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of emphysema, for which there is currently no effective treatment. Bisphosphonates are widely used to treat osteoclast-mediated bone diseases. Here we show that delivery of the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate alendronate via aerosol inhalation ameliorates elastase-induced emphysema in mice. Inhaled, but not orally ingested, alendronate inhibits airspace enlargement after elastase instillation, and induces apoptosis of macrophages in bronchoalveolar fluid via caspase-3- and mevalonate-dependent pathways. Cytometric analysis indicates that the F4/80(+)CD11b(high)CD11c(mild) population characterizing inflammatory macrophages, and the F4/80(+)CD11b(mild)CD11c(high) population defining resident alveolar macrophages take up substantial amounts of the bisphosphonate imaging agent OsteoSense680 after aerosol inhalation. We further show that alendronate inhibits macrophage migratory and phagocytotic activities and blunts the inflammatory response of alveolar macrophages by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB signalling. Given that the alendronate inhalation effectively induces apoptosis in both recruited and resident alveolar macrophages, we suggest this strategy may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of emphysema.

  14. Role of α-Helical Structure in Organic Solvent-Activated Homodimer of Elastase Strain K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Fah Wong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant elastase strain K overexpressed from E. coli KRX/pCon2(3 was purified to homogeneity by a combination of hydrophobic interaction chromatography and ion exchange chromatography, with a final yield of 48% and a 25-fold increase in specific activity. The purified protein had exhibited a first ever reported homodimer size of 65 kDa by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF, a size which is totally distinct from that of typically reported 33 kDa monomer from P. aeruginosa. The organic solvent stability experiment had demonstrated a stability pattern which completely opposed the rules laid out in previous reports in which activity stability and enhancement were observed in hydrophilic organic solvents such as DMSO, methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol. The high stability and enhancement of the enzyme in hydrophilic solvents were explained from the view of alteration in secondary structures. Elastinolytic activation and stability were observed in 25 and 50% of methanol, respectively, despite slight reduction in α-helical structure caused upon the addition of the solvent. Further characterization experiments had postulated great stability and enhancement of elastase strain K in broad range of temperatures, pHs, metal ions, surfactants, denaturing agents and substrate specificity, indicating its potential application in detergent formulation.

  15. Interlaboratory testing of porcine sera for antibodies to porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNair, I.; Marshall, M.; McNeilly, F.

    2004-01-01

    A panel of 20 porcine sera was distributed to 5 laboratories across Europe and Canada. Each center was requested to test the sera for the presence of porcine circovirus type 2 antibodies using the routine assays, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and indirect immunoperoxidase monolayer assa...... than did IFA, and paraformaldehyde gave higher titers than did acetone or ethyl alcohol. This report highlights the need for standardized procedures and biologicals for this virus....

  16. A clinical examination of antibiotics in continuous regional arterial infusion (CRAI) therapy for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). A prospective randomized controlled trial of BIPM and IPM/CS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Shigemichi; Ishikura, Hiroyasu; Kamitani, Takanori

    2011-01-01

    Continuous regional arterial infusion (CRAI) therapy using both protease inhibitors and antibiotics are one of the specific therapeutic methods for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). As for the administered antibiotics, imipenem/cilastatin sodium (IPM/CS) is generally chosen as a first step, but there are only a few reports comparing IPM/CS with other antibiotics. Therefore, we performed a prospective randomized controlled trial between biapenem (BIPM) and IPM/CS as CRAI antibiotics. Twelve patients with SAP were admitted to our institution during April, 2009 since August, 2006, and were randomized into two groups. They were treated with 120 mg/day of nafamostat mesilate and either 1.2 g/day of BIPM (n=6) or 2.0 g/day of IPM/CS (n=6) for CRAI therapy within 48 hours after the administration. The clinical data, inflammatory markers (WBC, CRP), serum pancreatic enzymes (lipase, tripsin, phospholipase A2, elastase 1 and pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI) and contrast-enhanced abdominal Computed Tomography findings were compared between the two groups and the adverse effects were monitored. CRAI therapy was performed for seven days. The curative effect of this therapy was evaluated at the beginning of the treatment, the day 7 and the day 14. Our results suggested that BIPM was a non-recessive antibiotic which had an equal effect in CRAI therapy in comparison with IPM/CS. (author)

  17. Solitary main pancreatic ductal calculus of possible biliary origin causing acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparala, Ramakrishna Prasad Chowdary; Patel, Rafiuddin; Guthrie, James Ahsley; Davies, Mervyn Huw; Guillou, Pierre J; Menon, Krishna V

    2005-09-10

    Pancreatic ductal calculi are most often associated with chronic pancreatitis. Radiological features of chronic pancreatitis are readily evident in the presence of these calculi. However, acute pancreatitis due to a solitary main pancreatic ductal calculus of biliary origin is rare. A 59-year-old man presented with a first episode of acute pancreatitis. Contrast enhanced computerized tomography (CT) scan and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed a calculus in the main pancreatic duct in the head of the pancreas causing acute pancreatitis. There were no features suggestive of chronic pancreatitis on CT scanning. The episode acute pancreatitis was managed conservatively. ERCP extraction of the calculus failed as the stone was impacted in the main pancreatic duct resulting in severe acute pancreatitis. Once this resolved, a transduodenal exploration and extraction of the pancreatic ductal calculus was performed successfully. Crystallographic analysis revealed the composition of the calculus was different to that seen in chronic pancreatitis, but more in keeping with a calculus of biliary origin. This could be explained by migration of the biliary calculus via the common channel into the main pancreatic duct. Following the operation the patient made an uneventful recovery and was well at two-year follow up. Acute pancreatitis due to a solitary main pancreatic ductal calculus of biliary origin is rare. Failing endoscopic extraction, transduodenal exploration and extraction is a safe option after resolution of acute pancreatitis.

  18. Risk of Recurrent Pancreatitis and Progression to Chronic Pancreatitis After a First Episode of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Ali, Usama; Issa, Yama; Hagenaars, Julia C; Bakker, Olaf J; van Goor, Harry; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B; Bollen, Thomas L; van Ramshorst, Bert; Witteman, Ben J; Brink, Menno A; Schaapherder, Alexander F; Dejong, Cornelis H; Spanier, B W Marcel; Heisterkamp, Joos; van der Harst, Erwin; van Eijck, Casper H; Besselink, Marc G; Gooszen, Hein G; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Boermeester, Marja A

    2016-05-01

    Patients with a first episode of acute pancreatitis can develop recurrent or chronic pancreatitis (CP). However, little is known about the incidence or risk factors for these events. We performed a cross-sectional study of 669 patients with a first episode of acute pancreatitis admitted to 15 Dutch hospitals from December 2003 through March 2007. We collected information on disease course, outpatient visits, and hospital readmissions, as well as results from imaging, laboratory, and histology studies. Standardized follow-up questionnaires were sent to all available patients to collect information on hospitalizations and interventions for pancreatic disease, abdominal pain, steatorrhea, diabetes mellitus, medications, and alcohol and tobacco use. Patients were followed up for a median time period of 57 months. Primary end points were recurrent pancreatitis and CP. Risk factors were evaluated using regression analysis. The cumulative risk was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Recurrent pancreatitis developed in 117 patients (17%), and CP occurred in 51 patients (7.6%). Recurrent pancreatitis developed in 12% of patients with biliary disease, 24% of patients with alcoholic etiology, and 25% of patients with disease of idiopathic or other etiologies; CP occurred in 3%, 16%, and 10% of these patients, respectively. Etiology, smoking, and necrotizing pancreatitis were independent risk factors for recurrent pancreatitis and CP. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores at admission also were associated independently with recurrent pancreatitis. The cumulative risk for recurrent pancreatitis over 5 years was highest among smokers at 40% (compared with 13% for nonsmokers). For alcohol abusers and current smokers, the cumulative risks for CP were similar-approximately 18%. In contrast, the cumulative risk of CP increased to 30% in patients who smoked and abused alcohol. Based on a retrospective analysis of patients admitted to Dutch hospitals, a first

  19. Environmental risk factors for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Claudia; Simon, Peter; Weiss, F Ulrich; Fluhr, Gabriele; Weber, Eckhard; Gärtner, Simone; Behn, Claas O; Kraft, Matthias; Ringel, Jörg; Aghdassi, Ali; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis has long been thought to be mainly associated with immoderate alcohol consumption. The observation that only ∼10% of heavy drinkers develop chronic pancreatitis not only suggests that other environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, are potent additional risk factors, but also that the genetic component of pancreatitis is more common than previously presumed. Either disease-causing or protective traits have been indentified for mutations in different trypsinogen genes, the gene for the trypsin inhibitor SPINK1, chymotrypsinogen C, and the cystic fibrosis transmembane conductance regulator (CFTR). Other factors that have been proposed to contribute to pancreatitis are obesity, diets high in animal protein and fat, as well as antioxidant deficiencies. For the development of pancreatic cancer, preexisting chronic pancreatitis, more prominently hereditary pancreatitis, is a risk factor. The data on environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer are, with the notable exception of tobacco smoke, either sparse, unconfirmed or controversial. Obesity appears to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer in the West but not in Japan. Diets high in processed or red meat, diets low in fruits and vegetables, phytochemicals such as lycopene and flavonols, have been proposed and refuted as risk or protective factors in different trials. The best established and single most important risk factor for cancer as well as pancreatitis and the one to clearly avoid is tobacco smoke. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  1. Acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Vege, Santhi S

    2015-09-01

    To summarize recent data on classification systems, cause, risk factors, severity prediction, nutrition, and drug treatment of acute pancreatitis. Comparison of the Revised Atlanta Classification and Determinant Based Classification has shown heterogeneous results. Simvastatin has a protective effect against acute pancreatitis. Young black male, alcohol, smoldering symptoms, and subsequent diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis are risk factors associated with readmissions after acute pancreatitis. A reliable clinical or laboratory marker or a scoring system to predict severity is lacking. The PYTHON trial has shown that oral feeding with on demand nasoenteric tube feeding after 72 h is as good as nasoenteric tube feeding within 24 h in preventing infections in predicted severe acute pancreatitis. Male sex, multiple organ failure, extent of pancreatic necrosis, and heterogeneous collection are factors associated with failure of percutaneous drainage of pancreatic collections. The newly proposed classification systems of acute pancreatitis need to be evaluated more critically. New biomarkers are needed for severity prediction. Further well designed studies are required to assess the type of enteral nutritional formulations for acute pancreatitis. The optimal minimally invasive method or combination to debride the necrotic collections is evolving. There is a great need for a drug to treat the disease early on to prevent morbidity and mortality.

  2. Circumportal Pancreas-a Must Know Pancreatic Anomaly for the Pancreatic Surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Andreas Minh; Braumann, C; Herzog, T; Janot, M; Uhl, W; Chromik, A M

    2017-02-01

    Circumportal pancreas is a rare congenital pancreatic anomaly with encasement of the portal vein and/or the superior mesenteric vein by pancreatic tissue. It is often overlooked on cross-sectional imaging studies and can be encountered during pancreatic surgery. Pancreatic head resection with circumportal pancreas is technically difficult and bears an increased risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula. A retrospective chart review of our data base for all patients who had undergone pancreatic head resection between 2004 and 2015 was performed. We identified six patients out of 1102 patients who had undergone pancreatic head surgery in the study period. CT-scan and MRI were never able to identify circumportal pancreas prior to surgery. The right hepatic an artery derived from the superior mesenteric artery in four cases (67%). Additional resection of the pancreatic body was always performed. Postoperative course was uneventful in all cases without occurrence of pancreatic fistula. Circumportal pancreas is a rare entity every pancreatic surgeon should be aware of. It is difficult to identify on cross-sectional imaging studies. A right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery should raise suspicion of circumportal pancreas. Additional pancreatic tissue resection should be performed during pancreatic head resections to avoid pancreatic fistula.

  3. Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkegård, Jakob; Mortensen, Frank Viborg; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre

    2017-09-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a putative risk factor for pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude and temporality of this association. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for observational studies investigating the association between chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. We computed overall effect estimates (EEs) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects meta-analytic model. The EEs were stratified by length of follow-up from chronic pancreatitis diagnosis to pancreatic cancer (lag period). Robustness of the results was examined in sensitivity analyses. We identified 13 eligible studies. Pooled EEs for pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis were 16.16 (95% CI: 12.59-20.73) for patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer within 2 years from their chronic pancreatitis diagnosis. The risk of pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis decreased when the lag period was increased to 5 years (EE: 7.90; 95% CI: 4.26-14.66) or a minimum of 9 years (EE: 3.53; 95% CI: 1.69-7.38). In conclusion, chronic pancreatitis increases the risk of pancreatic cancer, but the association diminishes with long-term follow-up. Five years after diagnosis, chronic pancreatitis patients have a nearly eight-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We suggest that common practice on inducing a 2-year lag period in these studies may not be sufficient. We also recommend a close follow-up in the first years following a diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis to avoid overlooking a pancreatic cancer.

  4. Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. Some risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include Smoking Long-term diabetes Chronic pancreatitis Certain ...

  5. Pancreatic Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enzymes become prematurely active and irritate the pancreas (pancreatitis). Pseudocysts can also result from injury to the ... alcohol use and gallstones are risk factors for pancreatitis, and pancreatitis is a risk factor for pseudocysts. ...

  6. Dendritic Cells Promote Pancreatic Viability in Mice with Acute Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Andrea S.; Nguyen, Andrew H.; Hackman, Michael; Connolly, Michael K.; Malhotra, Ashim; Ibrahim, Junaid; Cieza-Rubio, Napoleon E.; Henning, Justin R.; Barilla, Rocky; Rehman, Adeel; Pachter, H. Leon; Medina-Zea, Marco V.; Cohen, Steven M.; Frey, Alan B.; Acehan, Devrim; Miller, George

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Acute pancreatitis increases morbidity and mortality from organ necrosis by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) can promote or suppress inflammation, depending on their subtype and context. We investigated the roles of DC in development of acute pancreatitis. Methods Acute pancreatitis was induced in CD11c.DTR mice using caerulein or L-arginine; DCs were depleted by administration of diphtheria toxin. Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results Numbers of MHC II+CD11c+DC increased 100-fold in pancreas of mice with acute pancreatitis, to account for nearly 15% of intra-pancreatic leukocytes. Intra-pancreatic DC acquired an immune phenotype in mice with acute pancreatitis; they expressed higher levels of MHC II and CD86 and increased production of interleukin-6, membrane cofactor protein (MCP)-1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. However, rather than inducing an organ-destructive inflammatory process, DC were required for pancreatic viability; the exocrine pancreas died in mice that were depleted of DC and challenged with caerulein or L-arginine. All mice with pancreatitis that were depleted of DC died from acinar cell death within 4 days. Depletion of DC from mice with pancreatitis resulted in neutrophil infiltration and increased levels of systemic markers of inflammation. However, the organ necrosis associated with depletion of DC did not require infiltrating neutrophils, activation of NF-κB, or signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinase or TNF-α. Conclusions DC are required for pancreatic viability in mice with acute pancreatitis and might protect organs against cell stress. PMID:21801698

  7. Tri-domain Bifunctional Inhibitor of Metallocarboxypeptidases A and Serine Proteases Isolated from Marine Annelid Sabellastarte magnifica*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-del-Rivero, Maday; Trejo, Sebastian A.; Reytor, Mey L.; Rodriguez-de-la-Vega, Monica; Delfin, Julieta; Diaz, Joaquin; González-González, Yamile; Canals, Francesc; Chavez, Maria Angeles; Aviles, Francesc X.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a novel bifunctional metallocarboxypeptidase and serine protease inhibitor (SmCI) isolated from the tentacle crown of the annelid Sabellastarte magnifica. SmCI is a 165-residue glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 19.69 kDa (mass spectrometry) and 18 cysteine residues forming nine disulfide bonds. Its cDNA was cloned and sequenced by RT-PCR and nested PCR using degenerated oligonucleotides. Employing this information along with data derived from automatic Edman degradation of peptide fragments, the SmCI sequence was fully characterized, indicating the presence of three bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor/Kunitz domains and its high homology with other Kunitz serine protease inhibitors. Enzyme kinetics and structural analyses revealed SmCI to be an inhibitor of human and bovine pancreatic metallocarboxypeptidases of the A-type (but not B-type), with nanomolar Ki values. SmCI is also capable of inhibiting bovine pancreatic trypsin, chymotrypsin, and porcine pancreatic elastase in varying measures. When the inhibitor and its nonglycosylated form (SmCI N23A mutant) were overproduced recombinantly in a Pichia pastoris system, they displayed the dual inhibitory properties of the natural form. Similarly, two bi-domain forms of the inhibitor (recombinant rSmCI D1-D2 and rSmCI D2-D3) as well as its C-terminal domain (rSmCI-D3) were also overproduced. Of these fragments, only the rSmCI D1-D2 bi-domain retained inhibition of metallocarboxypeptidase A but only partially, indicating that the whole tri-domain structure is required for such capability in full. SmCI is the first proteinaceous inhibitor of metallocarboxypeptidases able to act as well on another mechanistic class of proteases (serine-type) and is the first of this kind identified in nature. PMID:22411994

  8. Laparoscopic pancreatic cystogastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Robert J; Fisher, William E; Salameh, Jihad R; Jeyapalan, Manjula; Sweeney, John F; Brunicardi, F Charles

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of the review was to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of laparoscopic pancreatic cystogastrostomy for operative drainage of symptomatic pancreatic pseudocysts. A retrospective review of all patients who underwent laparoscopic pancreatic cystogastrostomy between June 1997 and July 2001 was performed. Data regarding etiology of pancreatitis, size of pseudocyst, operative time, complications, and pseudocyst recurrence were collected and reported as median values with ranges. Laparoscopic pancreatic cystogastrostomy was attempted in 6 patients. Pseudocyst etiology included gallstone pancreatitis (3), alcohol-induced pancreatitis (2), and post-ERCP pancreatitis (1). The cystogastrostomy was successfully performed laparoscopically in 5 of 6 patients. However, the procedure was converted to open after creation of the cystgastrostomy in 1 of these patients. There were no complications in the cases completed laparoscopically and no deaths in the entire group. No pseudocyst recurrences were observed with a median followup of 44 months (range 4-59 months). Laparoscopic pancreatic cystgastrostomy is a feasible surgical treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts with a resultant low pseudocyst recurrence rate, length of stay, and low morbidity and mortality.

  9. [Pancreatic anastomosis in operative treatment of chronic pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, E; Izbicki, J R; Bockhorn, M

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an irreversible, inflammatory process, which is characterized by progressive fibrosis of the pancreas and leads to abdominal pain, endocrine and exocrine insufficiency. Surgical therapy is indicated by the absence of pain relief and local complications. The target of the surgical approach is to relieve the pancreatic and bile ducts and resection of the fibrotic and calcified parenchyma. Drainage procedures, such as the Partington-Rochelle method, are used in patients with isolated congestion of the pancreatic duct without further organ complications, such as inflammatory processes of the pancreatic head; however, patients with CP often have an inflammatory swelling of the pancreatic head. In this case classical pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) or organ-sparing duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) with its various techniques (e.g. Beger, Frey, Bern and V‑shape) can be applied. Due to similar long-term results PD should be carried out in cases of suspicion or detection of malignancies and DPPHR for treatment of CP.

  10. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is stimulated in piglets fed Fish oil compared with those fed Coconut Oil or Lard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Engberg, Ricarda M.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing fat sources with different fatty acid composition (fish oil, coconut oil or lard, 10 g/100 g diet) on exocrine pancreatic secretion in piglets after weaning. A total of 16 barrows were weaned at 4 wk of age; 3 d later...... the coconut oil or lard diets. The output [U/(h. kg(0.75))] of lipase was higher in piglets fed fish oil than in piglets fed lard or coconut oil. The output of colipase was greater in piglets fed fish oil and coconut oil than in those fed lard. The dietary treatments did not affect the output of carboxylester...... hydrolase. The output of trypsin was significantly lower in piglets fed lard than in piglets fed fish oil or coconut oil diets and the output of carboxypeptidase B was greater in those fed the fish oil diet. Protein, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, elastase and amylase outputs did not differ among...

  11. Incidence of and risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yujin; Kamisawa, Terumi; Anjiki, Hajime; Takuma, Kensuke; Egawa, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer sometimes occurs during the course of chronic pancreatitis. This study aimed to identify risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer associated with chronic pancreatitis. The incidence of pancreatic cancer developing in 218 patients with chronic pancreatitis and clinical features of the chronic pancreatitis patients who developed pancreatic cancer were studied. Nine patients developed pancreatic cancer. Average period from the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis to the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer was 9.6 years. All pancreatic cancers were diagnosed at an advanced stage. Only 2 patients had been followed-up periodically. There were no significant differences between chronic pancreatitis patients who developed pancreatic cancer and those who did not in male/female ratio (3.5 vs. 8), average age on diagnosis (65.0 vs. 56.5), alcoholic/non-alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (1.6 vs. 2.6), smoking habits (62.5% vs. 70.7%), diabetes mellitus (77.8% vs. 54.4%), and continued alcohol drinking (37.5% vs. 53.1%). Over the period examined, 4% of chronic pancreatitis patients developed pancreatic cancer. Sex ratio, onset age, etiology, smoking habits, diabetes mellitus, and continued alcohol drinking were not significant risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer in chronic pancreatitis patients. Periodic follow-up due to the possibility of pancreatic cancer is necessary in chronic pancreatitis patients.

  12. Normal pancreatic exocrine function does not exclude MRI/MRCP chronic pancreatitis findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaade, Samer; Cem Balci, Numan; Momtahen, Amir Javad; Burton, Frank

    2008-09-01

    Abnormal pancreatic function tests have been reported to precede the imaging findings of chronic pancreatitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is increasingly accepted as the primary imaging modality for the detection of structural changes of early mild chronic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate MRI/MRCP findings in patients with symptoms consistent with chronic pancreatitis who have normal Secretin Endoscopic Pancreatic Function test. A retrospective study of 32 patients referred for evaluation of chronic abdominal pain consistent with chronic pancreatitis and reported normal standard abdominal imaging (ultrasound, computed tomography, or MRI). All patients underwent Secretin Endoscopic Pancreatic Function testing and pancreatic MRI/MRCP at our institution. We reviewed the MRI/MRCP images in patients who had normal Secretin Endoscopic Pancreatic Function testing. MRI/MRCP images were assessed for pancreatic duct morphology, gland size, parenchymal signal and morphology, and arterial contrast enhancement. Of the 32 patients, 23 had normal Secretin Endoscopic Pancreatic Function testing, and 8 of them had mild to marked spectrum of abnormal MRI/MRCP findings that were predominantly focal. Frequencies of the findings were as follows: pancreatic duct stricture (n=3), pancreatic duct dilatation (n=3), side branch ectasia (n=4), atrophy (n=5), decreased arterial enhancement (n=5), decreased parenchymal signal (n=1), and cavity formation (n=1). The remaining15 patients had normal pancreatic structure on MRI/MRCP. Normal pancreatic function testing cannot exclude abnormal MRI/MRCP especially focal findings of chronic pancreatitis. Further studies needed to verify significance of these findings and establish MRI/MRCP imaging criteria for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis.

  13. Simultaneous characterization of pancreatic stellate cells and other pancreatic components within three-dimensional tissue environment during chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyan; Fu, Ling

    2013-05-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) and other pancreatic components that play a critical role in exocrine pancreatic diseases are generally identified separately by conventional studies, which provide indirect links between these components. Here, nonlinear optical microscopy was evaluated for simultaneous characterization of these components within a three-dimensional (3-D) tissue environment, primarily based on multichannel detection of intrinsic optical emissions and cell morphology. Fresh rat pancreatic tissues harvested at 1 day, 7 days, and 28 days after induction of chronic pancreatitis were imaged, respectively. PSCs, inflammatory cells, blood vessels, and collagen fibers were identified simultaneously. The PSCs at day 1 of chronic pancreatitis showed significant enlargement compared with those in normal pancreas (ppancreatic components coincidently within 3-D pancreatic tissues. It is a prospect for intravital observation of dynamic events under natural physiological conditions, and might help uncover the key mechanisms of exocrine pancreatic diseases, leading to more effective treatments.

  14. Pancreatic stellate cells promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Masamune, Atsushi; Watanabe, Takashi; Ariga, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Hiromichi; Hamada, Shin; Satoh, Kennichi; Egawa, Shinichi; Unno, Michiaki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Recent studies have shown that pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote the progression of pancreatic cancer. → Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed loose cell contacts and scattered, fibroblast-like appearance. → PSCs decreased the expression of epithelial markers but increased that of mesenchymal markers, along with increased migration. → This study suggests epithelial-mesenchymal transition as a novel mechanism by which PSCs contribute to the aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer cells. -- Abstract: The interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), a major profibrogenic cell type in the pancreas, is receiving increasing attention. There is accumulating evidence that PSCs promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by increasing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as by protecting them from radiation- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Because epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in the progression of pancreatic cancer, we hypothesized that PSCs promote EMT in pancreatic cancer cells. Panc-1 and SUIT-2 pancreatic cancer cells were indirectly co-cultured with human PSCs isolated from patients undergoing operation for pancreatic cancer. The expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers was examined by real-time PCR and immunofluorescent staining. The migration of pancreatic cancer cells was examined by scratch and two-chamber assays. Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed loose cell contacts and a scattered, fibroblast-like appearance. The expression of E-cadherin, cytokeratin 19, and membrane-associated β-catenin was decreased, whereas vimentin and Snail (Snai-1) expression was increased more in cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs than in mono-cultured cells. The migration of pancreatic cancer cells was increased by co-culture with PSCs. The PSC-induced decrease of E-cadherin expression was not altered by treatment with anti

  15. [External pancreatic fistulas management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepan, E V; Ermolov, A S; Rogal', M L; Teterin, Yu S

    The main principles of treatment of external postoperative pancreatic fistulas are viewed in the article. Pancreatic trauma was the reason of pancreatic fistula in 38.7% of the cases, operations because of acute pancreatitis - in 25.8%, and pancreatic pseudocyst drainage - in 35.5%. 93 patients recovered after the treatment. Complex conservative treatment of EPF allowed to close fistulas in 74.2% of the patients with normal patency of the main pancreatic duct (MPD). The usage of octreotide 600-900 mcg daily for at least 5 days to decrease pancreatic secretion was an important part of the conservative treatment. Endoscopic papillotomy was performed in patients with major duodenal papilla obstruction and interruption of transporting of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Stent of the main pancreatic duct was indicated in patients with extended pancreatic duct stenosis to normalize transport of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Surgical formation of anastomosis between distal part of the main pancreatic duct and gastro-intestinal tract was carried out when it was impossible to fulfill endoscopic stenting of pancreatic duct either because of its interruption and diastasis between its ends, or in the cases of unsuccessful conservative treatment of external pancreatic fistula caused by drainage of pseudocyst.

  16. Eosinophilic Pancreatitis: A Rare Cause of Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Reppucci

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic pancreatitis is a rare form of recurrent acute pancreatitis that demonstrates distinct histologic features, including diffuse, periductal, acinar, and septal inflammatory infiltrates comprised of a pure or predominant population of eosinophils, eosinophilic phlebitis and arteritis, and localized eosinophilic infiltrates with pseudocyst formation. It is associated with elevated serum immunoglobulin E levels, an elevated eosinophil count with systemic manifestations, and eosinophilic infiltrates in other organs of the gastrointestinal tract. We present a case of eosinophilic pancreatitis in a 44-year-old man who was diagnosed after pancreatic resection for recurrent bouts of acute pancreatitis. While the gross and histologic evaluations matched other reported cases of eosinophilic pancreatitis, our patient had only minimal peripheral eosinophilia, no reported history of symptoms related to elevated eosinophilia or immunoglobulin E, and only mild eosinophilic infiltrates in his gallbladder.

  17. Pancreatic panniculitis associated with acute pancreatitis and hemorrhagic pseudocysts: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Yong Suk; Kim, Mi Sung; Park, Chan Sub; Park, Ji Yeon; Park, Noh Hyuck

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic panniculitis is an inflammation and necrosis of fat at distant foci in patients with pancreatic disorders, most frequently, pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma. Clinically, pancreatic panniculitis is manifested by painless or painful subcutaneous nodules on the legs, buttocks, or trunk. The usual sites are the distal parts of the lower extremities. To the best of our knowledge, there have not been many reports for the radiologic findings of pancreatic panniculitis. In this article, we report a case of pancreatic panniculitis, including radiologic findings of CT and ultrasonography. The patient was presented with painful subcutaneous nodules on the trunk, and had underlying acute pancreatitis and hemorrhagic pseudocysts

  18. Pancreatic panniculitis associated with acute pancreatitis and hemorrhagic pseudocysts: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yong Suk; Kim, Mi Sung; Park, Chan Sub; Park, Ji Yeon; Park, Noh Hyuck [Kwandong Univ., Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Pancreatic panniculitis is an inflammation and necrosis of fat at distant foci in patients with pancreatic disorders, most frequently, pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma. Clinically, pancreatic panniculitis is manifested by painless or painful subcutaneous nodules on the legs, buttocks, or trunk. The usual sites are the distal parts of the lower extremities. To the best of our knowledge, there have not been many reports for the radiologic findings of pancreatic panniculitis. In this article, we report a case of pancreatic panniculitis, including radiologic findings of CT and ultrasonography. The patient was presented with painful subcutaneous nodules on the trunk, and had underlying acute pancreatitis and hemorrhagic pseudocysts.

  19. Lateral Pancreaticojejunostomy for Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Ductal Dilation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Adil A; Petrosyan, Mikael; Kane, Timothy D

    2018-06-06

    Pancreatic ductal obstruction leading to ductal dilation and recurrent pancreatitis is uncommon in children. Treatment is dependent upon etiology but consists of decompression of the pancreatic duct (PD) proximally, if possible, by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) intervention or surgical decompression with pancreaticojejunal anastomosis. After institutional review board approval, we retrospectively reviewed the records for 2 children who underwent lateral pancreaticojejunostomy for pancreatic ductal dilation. Data, including demographics, diagnostic studies, operative details, complications, outcomes, and follow-up, were analyzed. Case 1 was a 4-year-old female with pancreatic ductal obstruction with multiple episodes of recurrent pancreatitis and failure of ERCP to clear her PD of stones. She underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy with a lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (Puestow procedure). She recovered well with no further episodes of pancreatitis and normal pancreatic function 4 years later. Case 2 was a 2-year-old female who developed recurrent pancreatitis and was found to have papillary stenosis and long common bile-PD channel. Despite multiple sphincterotomies, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and laparoscopic hepaticoduodenostomy, she continued to experience episodes of pancreatitis. She underwent a laparoscopy converted to open lateral pancreaticojejunostomy. Her recovery was also smooth having had no episodes of pancreatitis or hospital admissions for over 2 years following the Puestow. Indication for lateral pancreaticojejunostomy or Puestow procedure is rare in children and even less often performed using laparoscopy. In our small experience, both patients with pancreatic ductal obstruction managed with Puestow's procedure enjoy durable symptom and pain relief in the long term.

  20. Possibilities of radiologic diagnosis of pancreatic calcinosis and chronic calculous pancreatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loginov, A.S.; Sivash, Eh.S.; Kudryavtseva, G.V.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray diagnosis of the pancreatic gland calculous damage as well as chronic pancreatitis have been studied in 23 patients. A methodologic approach to examination of this group of patients was defined. Posteroanterior radiography has been shown to be of decisive importance in diagnosis of the calcified pancreatic gland. Duodenography and choleduodenography both considerably promote recognition of chronic pancreatitis. The radiologic method also allows one to reveal a series of complications: the common bile duct compression, duodenal stenosis, pancreatic tumor in the presence of chronic pancreatitis, malabsorption syndrome

  1. Endoscopic versus surgical drainage of the pancreatic duct in chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cahen, Djuna L.; Gouma, Dirk J.; Nio, Yung; Rauws, Erik A. J.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Busch, Olivier R.; Stoker, Jaap; Lameris, Johan S.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Huibregtse, Kees; Bruno, Marco J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For patients with chronic pancreatitis and a dilated pancreatic duct, ductal decompression is recommended. We conducted a randomized trial to compare endoscopic and surgical drainage of the pancreatic duct. METHODS: All symptomatic patients with chronic pancreatitis and a distal

  2. Pancreatitis-imaging approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busireddy, Kiran K; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Ramalho, Miguel; Kalubowila, Janaka; Baodong, Liu; Santagostino, Ilaria; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatitis is defined as the inflammation of the pancreas and considered the most common pancreatic disease in children and adults. Imaging plays a significant role in the diagnosis, severity assessment, recognition of complications and guiding therapeutic interventions. In the setting of pancreatitis, wider availability and good image quality make multi-detector contrast-enhanced computed tomography (MD-CECT) the most used imaging technique. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers diagnostic capabilities similar to those of CT, with additional intrinsic advantages including lack of ionizing radiation and exquisite soft tissue characterization. This article reviews the proposed definitions of revised Atlanta classification for acute pancreatitis, illustrates a wide range of morphologic pancreatic parenchymal and associated peripancreatic changes for different types of acute pancreatitis. It also describes the spectrum of early and late chronic pancreatitis imaging findings and illustrates some of the less common types of chronic pancreatitis, with special emphasis on the role of CT and MRI. PMID:25133027

  3. Surgery for chronic pancreatitis decreases the risk for pancreatic cancer: a multicenter retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Junji; Tanaka, Masao; Ohtsuka, Takao; Tokunaga, Shoji; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2013-03-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is suggested to be one of the risk factors for the development of pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to confirm the high incidence of pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis in Japan and to determine the factors associated with the risk for pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The working group of the Research Committee of Intractable Disease supported by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan carried out a nationwide survey to investigate the relationship between chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. This retrospective study included patients diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis who had had at least 2 years of follow-up. They were contacted through 22 Japanese referral centers experienced in the management of chronic pancreatitis. The standardized incidence ratio (95 CI) of pancreatic cancer was 11.8 (7.1-18.4). The incidence of pancreatic cancer was significantly lower in patients who had received surgery for chronic pancreatitis than in those who had not undergone surgery (hazard ratio estimated by Cox regression 0.11; 95% CI, 0.0014-0.80; P = .03). Patients who continued to drink alcohol after diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis showed a significantly higher incidence of pancreatic cancer than those who stopped drinking after diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis (hazard ratio, 5.07; 95% CI, 1.13-22.73; P = .03). This study confirmed that chronic pancreatitis is an important risk factor for the development of pancreatic cancer in Japan. Patients who underwent surgery for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis had significantly lower incidences of pancreatic cancer. Surgery for chronic pancreatitis may inhibit the development of pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of pancreatic polypeptide and peptide YY on pancreatic blood flow and pancreatic exocrine secretion in the anesthetized dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMar, A.R.; Lake, R.; Fink, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and peptide YY (PYY) are inhibitors of pancreatic exocrine secretion in vivo but not in vitro, which suggests intermediate mechanisms of action. To examine the role of pancreatic blood flow in these inhibitory effects, xenon-133 gas clearance was used to measure pancreatic blood flow while simultaneously measuring pancreatic exocrine secretion. PP or PYY (400 pmol/kg/h) was administered during the intermediate hour of a 3-h secretin (125 ng/kg/h)/cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) (50 ng/kg/h) infusion. Exocrine secretion and pancreatic blood flow during the PP or PYY hours were compared with that observed in the first and third hours of the secretin/CCK-8 infusion. PP and PYY significantly inhibited secretin/CCK-8-induced pancreatic exocrine secretion. In addition, PYY (but not PP) significantly reduced pancreatic blood flow during secretin/CCK-8 stimulation. Nevertheless, there was no correlation between pancreatic blood flow and bicarbonate or protein outputs. It is concluded that changes in pancreatic blood flow do not mediate the inhibitory effects of PP or PYY on the exocrine pancreas

  5. Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the hormones insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream. Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. It happens when digestive enzymes start digesting the pancreas itself. Pancreatitis can be acute or chronic. Either form is ...

  6. Sequential changes from minimal pancreatic inflammation to advanced alcoholic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, M; Dreiling, D A; Bordalo, O

    1983-11-01

    A correlation of several clinical parameters and pancreatitis morphological alterations observed in chronic alcoholics with and without pancreatic is presented. Three groups of patients were studied: asymptomatic chronic alcoholics (24); non-alcoholic controls (10); and cases with advanced chronic pancreatitis (6). Clinical, biochemical and functional studies were performed. Morphological studies were made on surgical biopsy specimens in light and electron microscopy. The results of this study showed: 1) fat accumulates within pancreatic acinar cells in alcoholics drinking more than 80 g of ethanol per day; 2) ultrastructural changes found in acinar cells of the alcoholics are similar to those described for liver cells; 3) the alterations found in alcoholics without pancreatitis are also observed in those with advanced chronic pancreatitis. An attempt to correlate the sequential changes in the histopathology of alcoholic pancreatic disease with the clinical picture and secretory patterns was made. According to these observations, admitting the ultrastructural similarities between the liver and the pancreas and the recently demonstrated abnormalities of lipid metabolism in pancreatic cells in experimental animal research, the authors postulate a toxic-metabolic mechanism as a likely hypothesis for the pathogenesis of chronic alcoholic inflammation of the pancreas.

  7. Endoscopic versus surgical drainage of the pancreatic duct in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahen, Djuna L; Gouma, Dirk J; Nio, Yung; Rauws, Erik A J; Boermeester, Marja A; Busch, Olivier R; Stoker, Jaap; Laméris, Johan S; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Huibregtse, Kees; Bruno, Marco J

    2007-02-15

    For patients with chronic pancreatitis and a dilated pancreatic duct, ductal decompression is recommended. We conducted a randomized trial to compare endoscopic and surgical drainage of the pancreatic duct. All symptomatic patients with chronic pancreatitis and a distal obstruction of the pancreatic duct but without an inflammatory mass were eligible for the study. We randomly assigned patients to undergo endoscopic transampullary drainage of the pancreatic duct or operative pancreaticojejunostomy. The primary end point was the average Izbicki pain score during 2 years of follow-up. The secondary end points were pain relief at the end of follow-up, physical and mental health, morbidity, mortality, length of hospital stay, number of procedures undergone, and changes in pancreatic function. Thirty-nine patients underwent randomization: 19 to endoscopic treatment (16 of whom underwent lithotripsy) and 20 to operative pancreaticojejunostomy. During the 24 months of follow-up, patients who underwent surgery, as compared with those who were treated endoscopically, had lower Izbicki pain scores (25 vs. 51, Psurgical drainage (P=0.007). Rates of complications, length of hospital stay, and changes in pancreatic function were similar in the two treatment groups, but patients receiving endoscopic treatment required more procedures than did patients in the surgery group (a median of eight vs. three, PSurgical drainage of the pancreatic duct was more effective than endoscopic treatment in patients with obstruction of the pancreatic duct due to chronic pancreatitis. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN04572410 [controlled-trials.com].). Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  8. Endosonography of groove pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tio, T. L.; Luiken, G. J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    Groove pancreatitis is a rare form of chronic pancreatitis. Distinction between pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma is often difficult. Two cases of groove pancreatitis diagnosed by endosonography are described. A hypoechoic pattern between the duodenal wall and pancreas was clearly imaged in both

  9. Characteristic findings in images of extra-pancreatic lesions associated with autoimmune pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinaga, Yasunari, E-mail: fujinaga@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, 390-8621 (Japan); Kadoya, Masumi [Department of Radiology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, 390-8621 (Japan); Kawa, Shigeyuki [Center of Health, Safety and Environmental Management, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, 390-8621 (Japan); Hamano, Hideaki [Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, 390-8621 (Japan); Ueda, Kazuhiko; Momose, Mitsuhiro; Kawakami, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Sachie; Hatta, Tomoko; Sugiyama, Yukiko [Department of Radiology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, 390-8621 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: Autoimmune pancreatitis is a unique form of chronic pancreatitis characterized by a variety of extra-pancreatic involvements which are frequently misdiagnosed as lesions of corresponding organs. The purpose of this study was to clarify the diagnostic imaging features of extra-pancreatic lesions associated with autoimmune pancreatitis. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed diagnostic images of 90 patients with autoimmune pancreatitis who underwent computer-assisted tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and/or gallium-67 scintigraphy before steroid therapy was initiated. Results: AIP was frequently (92.2%) accompanied by a variety of extra-pancreatic lesions, including swelling of lachrymal and salivary gland lesions (47.5%), lung hilar lymphadenopathy (78.3%), a variety of lung lesions (51.2%), wall thickening of bile ducts (77.8%), peri-pancreatic or para-aortic lymphadenopathy (56.0%), retroperitoneal fibrosis (19.8%), a variety of renal lesions (14.4%), and mass lesions of the ligamentum teres (2.2%). Characteristic findings in CT and MRI included lymphadenopathies of the hilar, peri-pancreatic, and para-aortic regions; wall thickening of the bile duct; and soft tissue masses in the kidney, ureters, aorta, paravertebral region, ligamentum teres, and orbit. Conclusions: Recognition of the diagnostic features in the images of various involved organs will assist in the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis and in differential diagnoses between autoimmune pancreatitis-associated extra-pancreatic lesions and lesions due to other pathologies.

  10. TRAUMATIC PANCREATITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Clarence J.; Walters, Robert L.

    1953-01-01

    Traumatic pancreatitis should be considered as a diagnostic possibility when trauma to the epigastrium is followed by phenomena suggestive of intra-abdominal injury. The presence or absence of hyperamylasemia should be established immediately. Even when traumatic pancreatitis is believed to exist, any suggestion of injury to other viscera should indicate laparotomy. Retroperitoneal rupture of the duodenum may simulate traumatic pancreatitis in all respects, including hyperamylasemia. X-ray studies may be of value in differentiation. Non-complicated traumatic pancreatitis is best treated conservatively. Gunshot and knife wounds of the pancreas should be drained. PMID:13094537

  11. Increased galectin-3 levels are associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm progression and inhibition of galectin-3 decrease elastase-induced AAA development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-García, Carlos-Ernesto; Tarin, Carlos; Roldan-Montero, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) evolution is unpredictable. Moreover, no specific treatment exists for AAA, except surgery to prevent aortic rupture. Galectin-3 has been previously associated with CVD, but its potential role in AAA have not been addressed. Galectin-3 levels were increased in plasma...... of AAA patients (n=225) compared to controls (n=100). Moreover, galectin-3 concentrations were associated with need for surgical repair, independently of potential confounding factors. Galectin-3 mRNA and protein expression were increased in human AAA samples compared to healthy aortas. Experimental AAA...... in mice was induced by aortic elastase perfusion. Mice were treated i.v. with the galectin-3 inhibitor modified citrus pectin (MCP, 10mg/kg, every other day) or saline. Similar to humans, galectin-3 serum and aortic mRNA levels were also increased in elastase-induced AAA mice compared to control mice...

  12. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  13. Risk of Recurrent Pancreatitis and Progression to Chronic Pancreatitis After a First Episode of Acute Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed Ali, Usama; Issa, Yama; Hagenaars, Julia C.; Bakker, Olaf J.; van Goor, Harry; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B.; Bollen, Thomas L.; van Ramshorst, Bert; Witteman, Ben J.; Brink, Menno A.; Schaapherder, Alexander F.; Dejong, Cornelis H.; Spanier, B. W. Marcel; Heisterkamp, Joos; van der Harst, Erwin; van Eijck, Casper H.; Besselink, Marc G.; Gooszen, Hein G.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with a first episode of acute pancreatitis can develop recurrent or chronic pancreatitis (CP). However, little is known about the incidence or risk factors for these events. We performed a cross-sectional study of 669 patients with a first episode of acute pancreatitis admitted to 15 Dutch

  14. Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Madsen, P

    1990-01-01

    Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure was measured in 10 patients undergoing drainage operations for painful chronic pancreatitis. The pressure was measured by the needle technique in the three anatomic regions of the pancreas before and at different stages of the drainage procedure, and the results...... a decrease in pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for pain in chronic pancreatitis. Regional pressure decrease were apparently unrelated to ERCP findings....

  15. Pathogenic mechanisms of pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Murli; Verma, Alok Kumar; Venkateshaiah, Sathisha Upparahalli; Sanders, Nathan L; Mishra, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatitis is inflammation of pancreas and caused by a number of factors including pancreatic duct obstruction, alcoholism, and mutation in the cationic trypsinogen gene. Pancreatitis is represented as acute pancreatitis with acute inflammatory responses and; chronic pancreatitis characterized by marked stroma formation with a high number of infiltrating granulocytes (such as neutrophils, eosinophils), monocytes, macrophages and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). These inflammatory cells are known to play a central role in initiating and promoting inflammation including pancreatic fibrosis, i.e., a major risk factor for pancreatic cancer. A number of inflammatory cytokines are known to involve in promoting pancreatic pathogenesis that lead pancreatic fibrosis. Pancreatic fibrosis is a dynamic phenomenon that requires an intricate network of several autocrine and paracrine signaling pathways. In this review, we have provided the details of various cytokines and molecular mechanistic pathways (i.e., Transforming growth factor-β/SMAD, mitogen-activated protein kinases, Rho kinase, Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators, and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase) that have a critical role in the activation of PSCs to promote chronic pancreatitis and trigger the phenomenon of pancreatic fibrogenesis. In this review of literature, we discuss the involvement of several pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as in interleukin (IL)-1, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 IL-10, IL-18, IL-33 and tumor necrosis factor-α, in the pathogenesis of disease. Our review also highlights the significance of several experimental animal models that have an important role in dissecting the mechanistic pathways operating in the development of chronic pancreatitis, including pancreatic fibrosis. Additionally, we provided several intermediary molecules that are involved in major signaling pathways that might provide target molecules for future therapeutic treatment strategies for

  16. An update on pancreatic pathophysiology (do we have to rewrite pancreatic pathophysiology?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Heinz F

    2014-02-01

    This review focuses on seven aspects of physiology and pathophysiology of the exocrine pancreas that have been intensively discussed and studied within the past few years: (1) the role of neurohormonal mechanisms like melatonin, leptin, or ghrelin in the stimulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion; (2) the initiation processes of acute pancreatitis, like fusion of zymogen granules with lysosomes leading to intracellular activation of trypsinogen by the lysosomal enzyme cathepsin B, or autoactivation of trypsinogen; (3) the role of genes in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis; (4) the role of alcohol and constituents of alcoholic beverages in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis; (5) the role of pancreatic hypertension, neuropathy, and central mechanisms for the pathogenesis of pain in chronic pancreatitis; (6) the relation between exocrine pancreatic function and diabetes mellitus; and (7) pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic steatorrhea.

  17. Hereditary chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mössner Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary chronic pancreatitis (HCP is a very rare form of early onset chronic pancreatitis. With the exception of the young age at diagnosis and a slower progression, the clinical course, morphological features and laboratory findings of HCP do not differ from those of patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. As well, diagnostic criteria and treatment of HCP resemble that of chronic pancreatitis of other causes. The clinical presentation is highly variable and includes chronic abdominal pain, impairment of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function, nausea and vomiting, maldigestion, diabetes, pseudocysts, bile duct and duodenal obstruction, and rarely pancreatic cancer. Fortunately, most patients have a mild disease. Mutations in the PRSS1 gene, encoding cationic trypsinogen, play a causative role in chronic pancreatitis. It has been shown that the PRSS1 mutations increase autocatalytic conversion of trypsinogen to active trypsin, and thus probably cause premature, intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation disturbing the intrapancreatic balance of proteases and their inhibitors. Other genes, such as the anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2, the serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1 and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR have been found to be associated with chronic pancreatitis (idiopathic and hereditary as well. Genetic testing should only be performed in carefully selected patients by direct DNA sequencing and antenatal diagnosis should not be encouraged. Treatment focuses on enzyme and nutritional supplementation, pain management, pancreatic diabetes, and local organ complications, such as pseudocysts, bile duct or duodenal obstruction. The disease course and prognosis of patients with HCP is unpredictable. Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated. Therefore, HCP patients should strongly avoid environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer.

  18. Acute Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Nationwide Matched-cohort Study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegård, Jakob; Cronin Fenton, Deirdre; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe

    2018-01-01

    . Pancreatic cancer risk was expressed as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Cox models were stratified by age, sex, and year of pancreatitis diagnosis and adjusted for alcohol- and smoking-related conditions, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score. Results We...... included 41,669 patients diagnosed with incident acute pancreatitis and 208,340 comparison individuals. Patients with acute pancreatitis had an increased risk of pancreatic cancer compared with the age- and sex-matched general population throughout the follow-up period. The risk decreased over time......Background & Aims Acute pancreatitis may be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. However, findings from studies on this association are conflicting. We investigated the association between acute pancreatitis and increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Methods We conducted a nationwide, population...

  19. Chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeff, Jorg; Whitcomb, David C; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Esposito, Irene; Lerch, Markus M; Gress, Thomas; Mayerle, Julia; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Rebours, Vinciane; Akisik, Fatih; Muñoz, J Enrique Domínguez; Neoptolemos, John P

    2017-09-07

    Chronic pancreatitis is defined as a pathological fibro-inflammatory syndrome of the pancreas in individuals with genetic, environmental and/or other risk factors who develop persistent pathological responses to parenchymal injury or stress. Potential causes can include toxic factors (such as alcohol or smoking), metabolic abnormalities, idiopathic mechanisms, genetics, autoimmune responses and obstructive mechanisms. The pathophysiology of chronic pancreatitis is fairly complex and includes acinar cell injury, acinar stress responses, duct dysfunction, persistent or altered inflammation, and/or neuro-immune crosstalk, but these mechanisms are not completely understood. Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by ongoing inflammation of the pancreas that results in progressive loss of the endocrine and exocrine compartment owing to atrophy and/or replacement with fibrotic tissue. Functional consequences include recurrent or constant abdominal pain, diabetes mellitus (endocrine insufficiency) and maldigestion (exocrine insufficiency). Diagnosing early-stage chronic pancreatitis is challenging as changes are subtle, ill-defined and overlap those of other disorders. Later stages are characterized by variable fibrosis and calcification of the pancreatic parenchyma; dilatation, distortion and stricturing of the pancreatic ducts; pseudocysts; intrapancreatic bile duct stricturing; narrowing of the duodenum; and superior mesenteric, portal and/or splenic vein thrombosis. Treatment options comprise medical, radiological, endoscopic and surgical interventions, but evidence-based approaches are limited. This Primer highlights the major progress that has been made in understanding the pathophysiology, presentation, prevalence and management of chronic pancreatitis and its complications.

  20. Altered central pain processing after pancreatic surgery for chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwense, S. A.; Ahmed Ali, U.; ten Broek, R. P.; Issa, Y.; van Eijck, C. H.; Wilder-Smith, O. H.; van Goor, H.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is common in chronic pancreatitis (CP) and may involve altered central pain processing. This study evaluated the relationship between pain processing and pain outcome after pancreatic duct decompression and/or pancreatic resection in patients with CP. Patients with CP

  1. Long-term follow-up of nutritional status, pancreatic function, and morphological changes of the pancreatic remnant after pancreatic tumor resection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugito, Kiminobu; Furuya, Takeshi; Kaneda, Hide; Masuko, Takayuki; Ohashi, Kensuke; Inoue, Mikiya; Ikeda, Taro; Koshinaga, Tsugumichi; Tomita, Ryouichi; Maebayashi, Toshiya

    2012-05-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine nutritional status, pancreatic function, and morphological changes of the pancreatic remnant after pancreatic tumor resection in children. The nutritional status was evaluated by the patterns of growth. Pancreatic function was evaluated by using a questionnaire, the Bristol stool form chart, the serum levels of fasting blood glucose, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Morphological changes of the pancreatic remnant were evaluated by computed tomography, magnetic resonance image, or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. The present study consisted of 6 patients with pancreatic tumor (5 solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas and 1 pancreatoblastoma) who underwent the following operations: tumor enucleation (3), distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (1), and pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD [2]). The serum levels of HbA1c have been gradually elevated in 2 patients with PPPD. A significant decrease in pancreatic parenchymal thickness and dilatation of the main pancreatic duct were observed in 2 patients with PPPD. Endocrine pancreatic insufficiency after PPPD may be explainable by obstructive pancreatitis after operation. Taking together the results of pancreatic endocrine function and morphological changes of pancreatic remnant after PPPD, tumor enucleation should be considered as surgical approach in children with pancreas head tumor whenever possible.

  2. Characterisation of Neutropenia-Associated Neutrophil Elastase Mutations in a Murine Differentiation Model In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wiesmeier

    Full Text Available Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN is characterised by a differentiation block in the bone marrow and low neutrophil numbers in the peripheral blood, which correlates with increased risk of bacterial infections. Several underlying gene defects have been identified in SCN patients. Mutations in the neutrophil elastase (ELANE gene are frequently found in SCN and cyclic neutropenia. Both mislocalization and misfolding of mutant neutrophil elastase protein resulting in ER stress and subsequent induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR have been proposed to be responsible for neutrophil survival and maturation defects. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms still remain unclear, in part due to the lack of appropriate in vitro and in vivo models. Here we used a system of neutrophil differentiation from immortalised progenitor lines by conditional expression of Hoxb8, permitting the generation of mature near-primary neutrophils in vitro and in vivo. NE-deficient Hoxb8 progenitors were reconstituted with murine and human forms of typical NE mutants representative of SCN and cyclic neutropenia, and differentiation of the cells was analysed in vitro and in vivo. ER stress induction by NE mutations could be recapitulated during neutrophil differentiation in all NE mutant-reconstituted Hoxb8 cells. Despite ER stress induction, no change in survival, maturation or function of differentiating cells expressing either murine or human NE mutants was observed. Further analysis of in vivo differentiation of Hoxb8 cells in a murine model of adoptive transfer did not reveal any defects in survival or differentiation in the mouse. Although the Hoxb8 system has been found to be useful for dissection of defects in neutrophil development, our findings indicate that the use of murine systems for analysis of NE-mutation-associated pathogenesis is complicated by differences between humans and mice in the physiology of granulopoiesis, which may go beyond possible

  3. Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BACK Contact Us DONATE NOW GENERAL DONATION PURPLESTRIDE Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Home Facing Pancreatic Cancer Living with Pancreatic Cancer Diet and Nutrition Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Ver esta página en ...

  4. Recurrent pancreatitis in pregnancy after preconception Whipple for pseudopapillary pancreatic tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Danielle; Dahlke, Joshua D; Rouse, Dwight J

    2014-08-01

    Solid pseudopapillary pancreatic tumor is a rare tumor affecting young women. Case reports have presented pregnancy outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure) in pregnancy for this neoplasm. We report a case of a woman who underwent a preconception Whipple procedure for a solid pseudopapillary pancreatic tumor who experienced recurrent pancreatitis confined to pregnancy. A 28-year-old gravida 2 para 1 woman with a history of a Whipple procedure for a solid pseudopapillary pancreatic tumor 2 years prior had three episodes of severe pancreatitis in pregnancy. She was managed conservatively with each episode. She delivered at term and did not have a recurrence in the 8 months since her delivery. Recurrent pancreatitis in pregnancy after a preconception Whipple procedure can be managed conservatively without surgical intervention.

  5. The anti-dermatophyte activity of Zataria multiflora essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, M; HeidaryTabar, R; Mahdizadeh, E

    2017-06-01

    Dermtophytes are a group of pathogenic fungi and the major cause of dermatophytosis in humans and animals. Fighting dermatophytes by natural essential oils is one important issue in new researches. In this investigation, we evaluated the anti-dermatophyte activities of three samples of Z. multiflora essential oils against dermatophytes along with analysis of chemical compositions of the essential oils and their anti-elastase activities on elastase production in dermatophytes. Carvacrol (1.5-34.4%), thymol (25.8-41.2%), carvacrol methyl ether (1.9-28.3%) and p-cymene (2.3-8.3%) were the main components of Z. multiflora essential oils. Z. multiflora essential oils (100ppm) inhibited the mycelium growth of dermatophytes (6±1.7-47.0±1.4%) and had the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 0.03-0.25μl/ml against dermatophytes. Essential oils inhibited elastase produced in dermatophytes and pure porcine elastase. Z. multiflora essential oils can be used as natural anti-dermatophyte agent for fighting dermatophytes in further preclinical and clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Aminopeptidase-N-independent entry of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus into Vero or porcine small intestine epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chun-Miao; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Jiyong; Huang, Yao-Wei

    2018-04-01

    A monkey cell line Vero (ATCC CCL-81) is commonly used for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) propagation in vitro. However, it is still controversial whether the porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN) counterpart on Vero cells (Vero-APN) confers PEDV entry. We found that endogenous expression of Vero-APN was undetectable in the mRNA and the protein levels in Vero cells. We cloned the partial Vero-APN gene (3340-bp) containing exons 1 to 9 from cellular DNA and subsequently generated two APN-knockout Vero cell lines by CRISPR/Cas9 approach. PEDV infection of two APN-knockout Vero cells had the same efficiency as the Vero cells with or without neuraminidase treatment. A Vero cells stably expressing pAPN did not increase PEDV production. SiRNA-knockdown of pAPN in porcine jejunum epithelial cells had no effects on PEDV infection. The results suggest that there exists an additional cellular receptor on Vero or porcine jejunal cells independent of APN for PEDV entry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a feeding tube or an IV to prevent malnutrition and improve healing. Does my child have to ... Acute Pancreatitis in Children Chronic Pancreatitis in Children Childhood Inherited Disorders Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic Cancer Risks and ...

  8. Nutritional and Metabolic Derangements in Pancreatic Cancer and Pancreatic Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Taylor M; Villafane-Ferriol, Nicole; Shah, Kevin P; Shah, Rohan M; Tran Cao, Hop S; Massarweh, Nader N; Silberfein, Eric J; Choi, Eugene A; Hsu, Cary; McElhany, Amy L; Barakat, Omar; Fisher, William; Van Buren, George

    2017-03-07

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. The disease and its treatment can cause significant nutritional impairments that often adversely impact patient quality of life (QOL). The pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions and, in the setting of cancer, both systems may be affected. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) manifests as weight loss and steatorrhea, while endocrine insufficiency may result in diabetes mellitus. Surgical resection, a central component of pancreatic cancer treatment, may induce or exacerbate these dysfunctions. Nutritional and metabolic dysfunctions in patients with pancreatic cancer lack characterization, and few guidelines exist for nutritional support in patients after surgical resection. We reviewed publications from the past two decades (1995-2016) addressing the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with pancreatic cancer, grouping them into status at the time of diagnosis, status at the time of resection, and status of nutritional support throughout the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. Here, we summarize the results of these investigations and evaluate the effectiveness of various types of nutritional support in patients after pancreatectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We outline the following conservative perioperative strategies to optimize patient outcomes and guide the care of these patients: (1) patients with albumin 10% should postpone surgery and begin aggressive nutrition supplementation; (2) patients with albumin endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency alongside implementation of appropriate treatment to improve the patient's quality of life.

  9. [Pancreatic trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvieux, C; Guillon, F; Létoublon, Ch; Oughriss, M

    2003-10-01

    Early diagnosis of pancreatic trauma has always been challenging because of the lack of correlation between the initial clinical symptomatology, radiologic and laboratory findings, and the severity of the injury. Thanks to the improved performance of spiral CT scanning and magnetic resonance pancreatography, it is now often possible to make an early diagnosis of pancreatic contusion, to localize the site of the injury, and (most importantly) to identify injury to the main pancreatic duct which has major implications for the management of the case. When the trauma victim is unstable, radiologic work-up may be impossible and urgent laparotomy is required. Control of hemorrhage is the primary concern here and a damage control approach with packing may be appropriate; if the pancreatic head has been destroyed, a pancreaticoduodenectomy with delayed reconstruction may be required. If the trauma victim is stable, the treatment strategy will be governed by a variety of parameters--age, clinical condition, associated local anatomic findings (pancreatitis, injury to the duodenum or biliary tract), involvement of the pancreatic duct, and localization of the injury within the gland (to right or left of the mesenteric vessels).

  10. Quantification of Porcine Vocal Fold Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kimberly A; Thomson, Scott L; Jetté, Marie E; Thibeault, Susan L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify porcine vocal fold medial surface geometry and three-dimensional geometric distortion induced by freezing the larynx, especially in the region of the vocal folds. The medial surface geometries of five excised porcine larynges were quantified and reported. Five porcine larynges were imaged in a micro-CT scanner, frozen, and rescanned. Segmentations and three-dimensional reconstructions were used to quantify and characterize geometric features. Comparisons were made with geometry data previously obtained using canine and human vocal folds as well as geometries of selected synthetic vocal fold models. Freezing induced an overall expansion of approximately 5% in the transverse plane and comparable levels of nonuniform distortion in sagittal and coronal planes. The medial surface of the porcine vocal folds was found to compare reasonably well with other geometries, although the compared geometries exhibited a notable discrepancy with one set of published human female vocal fold geometry. Porcine vocal folds are qualitatively geometrically similar to data available for canine and human vocal folds, as well as commonly used models. Freezing of tissue in the larynx causes distortion of around 5%. The data can provide direction in estimating uncertainty due to bulk distortion of tissue caused by freezing, as well as quantitative geometric data that can be directly used in developing vocal fold models. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of pancreatic scintigram in the diagnosis of pancreatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takai, Yukihiro; Ueda, Noriyuki; Takasago, Noritsugu; Minemoto, Hiromasa; Namiki, Masayoshi

    1981-01-01

    The classification of accumulative patterns with the pancreatic scintigram findings of chronic pancreatitis and carcinoma of the pancreas were compared with endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) findings and Pancreozymin-Secretin test (P-S test). I) The frequency of pancreatic cancer was 93%, whilst, the chronic pancreatitis was 88% in the abnormal pancreatic scintigram. II) In the scintigram the type II (localyzed defect shadows) of pancreatic cancer was comparatively high and it is proportional to evidence. derived from ERP. Localized diagnostic certainty is helpful, although the two tests are related. The P-S test is only restricted to the carcinoma of head, whilst, scintigram is more useful to detect the carcinoma of the body and tail of the pancreas. III) As for the chronic pancreatitis, there are various accumulative patterns. This is resemblance to that of ERP findings, but in the P-S normal test, it showed discrepancy in part of the result. Particularly, in the type I (slightly generalized low uptake with density silhouette) and type II. Therefore in order to obtain an accurate diagnosis, it is essential to have both the P-S test and scintigram. (author)

  12. Irreversible Electroporation of the Pancreas Using Parallel Plate Electrodes in a Porcine Model: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, Steffi J E; Nijkamp, Maarten W; van Dijck, Willemijn P M; Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Konings, Maurits; van Hillegersberg, R; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Wittkampf, Fred H; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2017-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) with needle electrodes is being explored as treatment option in locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Several studies have shown promising results with IRE needles, positioned around the tumor to achieve tumor ablation. Disadvantages are the technical difficulties for needle placement, the time needed to achieve tumor ablation, the risk of needle track seeding and most important the possible occurrence of postoperative pancreatic fistula via the needle tracks. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the feasibility of a new IRE-technique using two parallel plate electrodes, in a porcine model. Twelve healthy pigs underwent laparotomy. The pancreas was mobilized to enable positioning of the paddles. A standard monophasic external cardiac defibrillator was used to perform an ablation in 3 separate parts of the pancreas; either a single application of 50 or 100J or a serial application of 4x50J. After 6 hours, pancreatectomy was performed for histology and pigs were terminated. Histology showed necrosis of pancreatic parenchyma with neutrophil influx in 5/12, 11/12 and 12/12 of the ablated areas at 50, 100, and 4x50J respectively. The electric current density threshold to achieve necrosis was 4.3, 5.1 and 3.4 A/cm2 respectively. The ablation threshold was significantly lower for the serial compared to the single applications (p = 0.003). The content of the ablated areas differed between the applications: areas treated with a single application of 50 J often contained vital areas without obvious necrosis, whereas half of the sections treated with 100 J showed small islands of normal looking cells surrounded by necrosis, while all sections receiving 4x 50 J showed a homogeneous necrotic lesion. Pancreatic tissue can be successfully ablated using two parallel paddles around the tissue. A serial application of 4x50J was most effective in creating a homogeneous necrotic lesion.

  13. Irreversible Electroporation of the Pancreas Using Parallel Plate Electrodes in a Porcine Model: A Feasibility Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi J E Rombouts

    Full Text Available Irreversible electroporation (IRE with needle electrodes is being explored as treatment option in locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Several studies have shown promising results with IRE needles, positioned around the tumor to achieve tumor ablation. Disadvantages are the technical difficulties for needle placement, the time needed to achieve tumor ablation, the risk of needle track seeding and most important the possible occurrence of postoperative pancreatic fistula via the needle tracks. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the feasibility of a new IRE-technique using two parallel plate electrodes, in a porcine model.Twelve healthy pigs underwent laparotomy. The pancreas was mobilized to enable positioning of the paddles. A standard monophasic external cardiac defibrillator was used to perform an ablation in 3 separate parts of the pancreas; either a single application of 50 or 100J or a serial application of 4x50J. After 6 hours, pancreatectomy was performed for histology and pigs were terminated.Histology showed necrosis of pancreatic parenchyma with neutrophil influx in 5/12, 11/12 and 12/12 of the ablated areas at 50, 100, and 4x50J respectively. The electric current density threshold to achieve necrosis was 4.3, 5.1 and 3.4 A/cm2 respectively. The ablation threshold was significantly lower for the serial compared to the single applications (p = 0.003. The content of the ablated areas differed between the applications: areas treated with a single application of 50 J often contained vital areas without obvious necrosis, whereas half of the sections treated with 100 J showed small islands of normal looking cells surrounded by necrosis, while all sections receiving 4x 50 J showed a homogeneous necrotic lesion.Pancreatic tissue can be successfully ablated using two parallel paddles around the tissue. A serial application of 4x50J was most effective in creating a homogeneous necrotic lesion.

  14. Differentiation of autoimmune pancreatitis from suspected pancreatic cancer by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Yayoi; Hamano, Hideaki; Oguchi, Kazuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been widely used for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Because autoimmune pancreatitis is easily misdiagnosed as pancreatic cancer and can be tested for by FDG-PET analysis based on the presence of suspected pancreatic cancer, we attempted to clarify the differences in FDG-PET findings between the two conditions. We compared FDG-PET findings between 15 patients with autoimmune pancreatitis and 26 patients with pancreatic cancer. The findings were evaluated visually or semiquantitatively using the maximum standardized uptake value and the accumulation pattern of FDG. FDG uptake was found in all 15 patients with autoimmune pancreatitis, whereas it was found in 19 of 26 patients (73.1%) with pancreatic cancer. An accumulation pattern characterized by nodular shapes was significantly more frequent in pancreatic cancer, whereas a longitudinal shape indicated autoimmune pancreatitis. Heterogeneous accumulation was found in almost all cases of autoimmune pancreatitis, whereas homogeneous accumulation was found in pancreatic cancer. Significantly more cases of pancreatic cancer showed solitary localization, whereas multiple localization in the pancreas favored the presence of autoimmune pancreatitis. FDG uptake by the hilar lymph node was significantly more frequent in autoimmune pancreatitis than in pancreatic cancer, and uptake by the lachrymal gland, salivary gland, biliary duct, retroperitoneal space, and prostate were seen only in autoimmune pancreatitis. FDG-PET is a useful tool for differentiating autoimmune pancreatitis from suspected pancreatic cancer, if the accumulation pattern and extrapancreatic involvement are considered. IgG4 measurement and other current image tests can further confirm the diagnosis. (author)

  15. Diagnostic investigation of porcine periweaning failure-to-thrive syndrome: lack of compelling evidence linking to common porcine pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyun; Gauvreau, Henry; Harding, John

    2012-01-01

    Porcine periweaning failure-to-thrive syndrome (PFTS), an increasingly recognized syndrome in the swine industry of North America, is characterized by the anorexia of nursery pigs noticeable within 1 week of weaning, and progressive loss of body condition and lethargy during the next 1-2 weeks. Morbidity caused by PFTS is moderate, but case fatality is high. The etiology of PFTS is presently unknown and may include infectious agent(s), noninfectious factors, or both. PFTS was identified in a high health status farm with good management in early 2007. A diagnostic investigation was undertaken to identify the pathological lesions of, and infectious agents associated with, pigs demonstrating typical clinical signs. Affected (PFTS-SICK) and unaffected (PFTS-HLTHY) pigs from an affected farm, and unaffected pigs from 2 unaffected farms, were examined. The most prevalent lesions in PFTS-SICK pigs were superficial lymphocytic fundic gastritis, atrophic enteritis, superficial colitis, lymphocytic and neutrophilic rhinitis, mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, and thymic atrophy. Rotavirus A and Betacoronavirus 1 (Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus) were identified only in PFTS-SICK pigs, but the significance of the viruses is uncertain because PFTS is not consistent with the typical presentation following infection by these pathogens. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Porcine circovirus-2, Influenza A virus, Alphacoronavirus 1 (Transmissible gastroenteritis virus), Torque teno virus 1, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, and Brachyspira pilosicoli were not identified in PFTS-SICK pigs. Suid herpesvirus 2 (Porcine cytomegalovirus), Porcine enteric calicivirus, Torque teno virus 2, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and coccidia were detected in both PFTS-SICK and PFTS-HLTHY pigs. It was concluded that there is a lack of compelling evidence that PFTS is caused by any of these pathogens.

  16. Therapy of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Yutaka; Kitagawa, Toru; Nakamori, Shoji

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most difficult diseases to cure. Japan pancreas society guidelines for management of pancreatic cancer indicate therapeutic algorithm according to the clinical stage. For locally limited pancreatic cancer (cStage I, II, III in Japanese classification system), surgical resection is recommended, however prognosis is still poor. Major randomized controlled trials of resected pancreatic cancer indicates that adjuvant chemotherapy is superior to observation and gemcitabine is superior to 5-fluorouracil (FU). For locally advanced resectable pancreatic cancer (cStage IVa in Japanese classification system (JCS)), we perform neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Phase I study established a recommended dose of 800 mg gemcitabine and radiation dose of 36 Gy. For locally advanced nonresectable pancreatic cancer (cStage IVa in JCS), chemoradiotherapy followed by chemotherapy is recommended. Although pancreatic cancer is chemotherapy resistant tumor, systemic chemotherapy is recommended for metastatic pancreatic cancer (cStage IVb in JCS). Single-agent gemcitabine is the standard first line agent for the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. Meta-analysis of chemotherapy showed possibility of survival benefit of gemcitabine combination chemotherapy over gemcitabine alone. We hope gemcitabine combination chemotherapy or molecular targeted therapy will improve prognosis of pancreatic cancer in the future. (author)

  17. Imaging of pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prassopoulos, P.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas with variable involvement of peripancreatic tissues or remote organ systems. Mild AP accounts for 75-80% of the cases and it is characterized by interstitial oedema, absent or minimal organ dysfunction, lack of complications and, usually, uneventful recovery. Severe AP is characterized by pancreatic necrosis, protracted clinical course, high incidence of complications, and high mortality rate. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (AP) is generally based on clinical and laboratory findings. The role of imaging is to confirm diagnosis, to assess disease severity - especially by detecting pancreatic necrosis-, to reveal complications of the disease and to guide interventions). Contrast- enhanced multidetector CT is the current 'gold standard' imaging modality in the evaluation of patients with AP. The spectrum of findings seen on CT ranges from a normal appearance to diffuse pancreatic enlargement with poorly defined pancreatic contour and heterogeneous attenuation. Stranding of the fat surrounding the pancreas and fluid collections in the anterior pararenal space, the peritoneal cavity or elsewhere, acquiring the form of the anatomic space where they are developed, may also be disclosed. Lack of pancreatic parenchyma enhancement is indicative of the presence of pancreatic necrosis. CT may reveal biliary tract calculi, calcifications in patients with AP combined with chronic pancreatitis- and air in an inflamed pancreas. Pancreatic abscess is usually seen on CT as a focal low attenuation area with a thick wall that may exhibit enhancement following i.v. contrast media administration. Haemorrhage, pseudoaneurysms, renal and splenic parenchyma complications can also be demonstrated by CT. Balthazar et.al have developed CT classification and severity scores based on the presence of fluid collections and pancreatic necrosis. These scores correlate with the incidence of morbidity and

  18. Analogues of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III (CMTI-III) with elastase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rózycki, J; Kupryszewski, G; Rolka, K; Ragnarsson, U; Zbyryt, T; Krokoszyńska, I; Wilusz, T

    1994-04-01

    Three new CMTI-III analogues containing the Val residue in the reactive site (position 5) were synthesized by the solid-phase method. The analogues displayed an elastase inhibitory activity. It is shown that the removal of the N-terminal Arg residue and the introduction of the Gly-Pro-Gln tripeptide in the region 23-25 decreases the antielastase activity by two orders of magnitude. The removal of the disulfide bridge in positions 16-28 and the substitution of Ala for Cys16 and Gly for Cys28 decreases the activity (measured as Ka with HLE) by five orders of magnitude as compared with [Val5]CMTI-III.

  19. Rapid Evolution from the First Episode of Acute Pancreatitis to Chronic Pancreatitis in Human Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Elie Aoun; Adam Slivka; Dionysios J Papachristou; David C Whitcomb; Ferga C Gleeson; Georgios I Papachristou

    2007-01-01

    Context Growing evidence suggests that recurrent acute pancreatitis leads to chronic pancreatitis, but this sequence is seldom reported in human subjects. The sentinel acute pancreatitis event hypothesis suggests that an initial episode of acute pancreatitis is the first step in a complicated series of events ultimately leading to chronic pancreatitis. Objective To identify patients who evolved from recurrent acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatitis. Setting The Severity of Acute Pancreatit...

  20. Incidental intraoperative discovery of a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor associated with chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surlin Valeriu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are a rare entity with an incidence between 2 per million to 5 per 100 000. Association with pancreatitis (acute or chronic is rare and is considered to be determined by the tumoral obstruction of pancreatic ducts, but sometimes occurs without any apparent relationship between them. Non-functional neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors are usually diagnosed when either very large or metastatic. Small ones are occasionally diagnosed when imagery is performed for other diagnostic reasons. Intraoperative discovery is even rarer and poses problems of differential diagnosis with other pancreatic tumors. Association with chronic pancreatitis is rare and usually due to pancreatic duct obstruction by the tumor. We describe the case of a patient with a small non-functioning neuroendocrine tumor in the pancreatic tail accidentally discovered during surgery for delayed traumatic splenic rupture associated with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. The tumor of 1.5cm size was well differentiated and confined to the pancreas, and was resected by a distal splenopancreatectomy. Conclusions Surgeons should be well aware of the rare possibility of a non-functional neuroendocrine tumor in the pancreas, associated with chronic pancreatitis, surgical resection being the optimal treatment for cure. Histopathology is of utmost importance to establish the correct diagnosis, grade of differentiation, malignancy and prognosis. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2114470176676003.

  1. Selective effect of irreversible electroporation on parenchyma of the pancreas and its vascular structures - an in vivo experiment on a porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Svatoň

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irreversible electroporation is a local, non-thermal ablation method, where short electrical pulses of high voltage lead to changes in cell membrane permeability and cell death. Recent experimental studies have shown that it does not lead to damage of blood vessels, nerves, bile duct or ureters. The aim of our experimental study was to evaluate the negative effect of irreversible electroporation regarding damage to the vascular wall and porcine pancreatic tissue. Irreversible electroporation of the pancreas was performed in 6 pigs after medial laparotomy. Irreversible electroporation was applied to each pig to the splenic lobe of the pancreas in order to assess damage to the pancreatic tissue and to the duodenal lobe of the pancreas to assess damage to the vascular structure of the pancreatic tissue. Higher ablation electric intensity (minimum 500 V/cm – maximum 1,750 V/cm, step 250 V/cm in 90 μs pulses was utilized on each pig. After 7 days, macroscopic and microscopic evaluations of en bloc resected specimen (pancreas with duodenum were performed. During 7 post-ablation days, no deaths or clinical worsening occurred in any of the pigs. Necrotic changes in the pancreatic tissue were recorded at an electric intensity of 750 V/cm. Changes in the outer layers of the wall of the arteries and veins occurred at 1,000 V/cm. Transmural vascular wall damage was not recorded in any case. Irreversible electroporation allows for relatively efficient cell death in the target tissues. Our independent experimental work confirms the safety of this method towards vascular structures located in the ablation zone.

  2. Ny klassifikation af pancreatitis acuta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benny Østerbye; Schmidt, Palle Nordblad

    2011-01-01

    The course of acute pancreatitis is in the initial phase dominated by a systemic inflammatory response, later by local complications. A new classification defines three specific types of pancreatitis: 1) interstitial oedematous pancreatitis and 2) necrotizing pancreatitis with pancreatic...

  3. Tachykinins in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Tornøe, K; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2000-01-01

    The localization, release, and effects of substance P and neurokinin A were studied in the porcine pancreas and the localization of substance P immunoreactive nerve fibers was examined by immunohistochemistry. The effects of electrical vagus stimulation and capsaicin infusion on tachykinin release...... and the effects of substance P and neurokinin A infusion on insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and exocrine secretion were studied using the isolated perfused porcine pancreas with intact vagal innervation. NK-1 and NK-2 receptor antagonists were used to investigate receptor involvement. Substance P immunoreactive...

  4. The significance of pancreatic juice trace-element concentration in chronic pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persigehl, M.; Loeffler, A.; Hoeck, A.

    1979-01-01

    The diagnosis of exocrine pancreas insufficiency in patients with chronic pancreatitis is still not easy. The best-suited method to confirm the diagnosis seems to be the secretin pancreozymin test (SPT). As previous results have shown, the determination of trace elements in the pancreatic juice can improve the diagnostic value of the SPT. During the SPT, the concentrations of Zn, Fe, Rb, Co, Cr, Se, Sb, Cs, Sc and Ag were measured in the duodenal aspirate of 50 patients by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Of the 50 patients, 24 suffered from pancreatic insufficiency in chronic pancreatitis and 26 had no signs of pancreatic insufficiency. Only the concentration of zinc differed significantly in the two groups; the other elements showed a similar behaviour. In patients without disease of the exocrine pancreas the zinc content of the pancreatic juice during the SPT ws 0.46+-0.13μg/ml, whereas in patients with pancreatic insufficiency it was only 0.18+-0.07μg/ml. The corresponding output was 171+-49.3μg zinc in controls and 41+-17.4μg in patients. After stimulation with pancreozymin the concentrations of zinc increased in normal patients to 1.13+-0.14μg/ml and to 0.22+-0.12μg/ml in patients with pancreatic insufficiency. The data demonstrate that the measurement of zinc in the duodenal juice during the SPT improves the diagnostic value of the test and that zinc should also be determined in doubtful cases of pancreatic insufficiency. (author)

  5. Methods for the detection and serum depletion of porcine galectin-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliaz, Isaac; Patil, Aarti; Navarro-Alvarez, Nalu; Wang, Zhirui; Eliaz, Amity; Weil, Elaine; Wilk, Barry; Sachs, David H; Huang, Christene A

    2017-10-01

    Circulating galectin-3 (Gal-3) is elevated in systemic inflammatory disorders, fibrotic diseases, and in cancers. Gal-3 is a promising cancer target where it promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis, as well as in renal, pulmonary, hepatic, and cardiovascular diseases, because of its role as a driver of fibrotic remodeling. This reports goal was to establish methods for the detection and removal of porcine Gal-3 that will enable further studies of the therapeutic potential of Gal-3 depletion by apheresis in porcine disease models. The long-term aim is to develop a safe, effective method of removing Gal-3 via apheresis as a standalone therapeutic tool and as an adjuvant to other therapies. Purified recombinant porcine Gal-3 was prepared and used as the standard for development of a porcine Gal-3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Different affinity column matrices that incorporated either a rat IgG2a anti-Gal-3 monoclonal antibody or carbohydrate ligand were assessed for depletion of Gal-3 from porcine serum. A porcine Gal-3 ELISA with a linear range from 0.3 to 20 ng/mL was able to detect native porcine Gal-3 in both fetal (∼150-200 ng/mL) and juvenile (∼5-15 ng/mL) porcine serum samples. Use of an anti-Gal-3 monoclonal antibody affinity column depleted Gal-3 from porcine serum to at least 313 pg/mL, the limit of ELISA detection. Methods have been developed for the detection and depletion of porcine Gal-3. These methods will be used to study the specific effects of Gal-3 depletion via apheresis in porcine models of disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Screening for malnutrition in patients with gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Sheharyar A; Burch, Nicola; Druce, Maralyn; Hattersley, John G; Khan, Saboor; Gopalakrishnan, Kishore; Darby, Catherine; Wong, John L H; Davies, Louise; Fletcher, Simon; Shatwell, William; Sothi, Sharmila; Randeva, Harpal S; Dimitriadis, Georgios K; Weickert, Martin O

    2016-05-04

    To investigate whether screening for malnutrition using the validated malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST) identifies specific characteristics of patients at risk, in patients with gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NET). Cross-sectional study. University Hospitals Coventry & Warwickshire NHS Trust; European Neuroendocrine Tumour Society Centre of Excellence. Patients with confirmed GEP-NET (n=161) of varying primary tumour sites, functioning status, grading, staging and treatment modalities. To identify disease and treatment-related characteristics of patients with GEP-NET who score using MUST, and should be directed to detailed nutritional assessment. MUST score was positive (≥1) in 14% of outpatients with GEP-NET. MUST-positive patients had lower faecal elastase concentrations compared to MUST-negative patients (244±37 vs 383±20 µg/g stool; p=0.018), and were more likely to be on treatment with long-acting somatostatin analogues (65 vs 38%, p=0.021). MUST-positive patients were also more likely to have rectal or unknown primary NET, whereas, frequencies of other GEP-NET including pancreatic NET were comparable between MUST-positive and MUST-negative patients. Given the frequency of patients identified at malnutrition risk using MUST in our relatively large and diverse GEP-NET cohort and the clinical implications of detecting malnutrition early, we recommend routine use of malnutrition screening in all patients with GEP-NET, and particularly in patients who are treated with long-acting somatostatin analogues. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Differential diagnosis of groove pancreatic carcinomas vs. groove pancreatitis: Usefulness of the portal venous phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigami, Kousei; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Nishie, Akihiro; Kakihara, Daisuke; Fujita, Nobuhiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Irie, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Masafumi; Takahata, Shunichi; Ito, Tetsuhide; Honda, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify if the portal venous phase is helpful for the differential diagnosis of groove pancreatic carcinomas and groove pancreatitis. Materials and methods: MDCT and MRI of groove pancreatic carcinomas (n = 7) and groove pancreatitis (n = 15) were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists independently. The signal intensity on T2-weighted images was subjectively assessed. The presence or absence of common bile duct (CBD) and main pancreatic duct (MPD) strictures, calcifications, and cystic lesions was evaluated. Additionally, the appearance of groove pancreatic carcinoma and that of groove pancreatitis in the portal venous phase on dynamic MDCT and MRI were compared. Results: There were no significant differences in the signal intensity on T2-weighted images and in the presence or absence of CBD and MPD strictures, calcifications, and cystic lesions between groove pancreatic carcinomas and groove pancreatitis. However, patchy focal enhancement in the portal venous phase was more commonly observed in groove pancreatitis than groove pancreatic carcinoma (Reviewers 1 and 2: 14/15 [93.3%] vs. 1/7 [14.3%], P < 0.0001). In addition, peripheral enhancement was only seen in groove pancreatic carcinomas (Reviewer 1: 4/7 [57.1%] vs. 0/15 [0%], P < 0.005, and Reviewer 2: 3/7 [42.9%] vs. 0/15 [0%], P < 0.05). Conclusion: The portal venous phase may be helpful for the differential diagnosis of groove pancreatic carcinomas and groove pancreatitis.

  8. Diagnosing autoimmune pancreatitis with the Unifying-Autoimmune-Pancreatitis-Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Alexander; Michaely, Henrik; Rückert, Felix; Weiss, Christel; Ströbel, Philipp; Belle, Sebastian; Hirth, Michael; Wilhelm, Torsten J; Haas, Stephan L; Jesenofsky, Ralf; Schönberg, Stefan; Marx, Alexander; Singer, Manfred V; Ebert, Matthias P; Pfützer, Roland H; Löhr, J Matthias

    We had developed the Unifying-Autoimmune-Pancreatitis-Criteria (U-AIP) to diagnose autoimmune pancreatitis (AiP) within the M-ANNHEIM classification of chronic pancreatitis. In 2011, International-Consensus-Diagnostic-Criteria (ICDC) to diagnose AiP have been published. We had applied the U-AIP long before the ICDC were available. The aims of the study were, first, to describe patients with AiP diagnosed by the U-AIP; second, to compare diagnostic accuracies of the U-AIP and other diagnostic systems; third, to evaluate the clinical applicability of the U-AIP. From 1998 until 2008, we identified patients with AiP using U-AIP, Japanese-, Korean-, Asian-, Mayo-HISORt-, Revised-Mayo-HISORt- and Italian-criteria. We retrospectively verified the diagnosis by ICDC and Revised-Japanese-2011-criteria, compared diagnostic accuracies of all systems and evaluated all criteria in consecutive patients with pancreatitis (2009 until 2010, Pancreas-Outpatient-Clinic-Cohort, n = 84). We retrospectively validated our diagnostic approach in consecutive patients with a pancreatic lesion requiring surgery (Surgical-Cohort, n = 98). Overall, we identified 21 patients with AiP. Unifying-Autoimmune-Pancreatitis-Criteria and ICDC presented the highest diagnostic accuracies (each 98.8%), highest Youden indices (each 0.95238), and highest proportions of diagnosed patients (each n = 20/21, U-AIP/ICDC vs. other diagnostic systems, p Pancreatitis-Criteria revealed a satisfactory clinical applicability and offered an additional approach to diagnose AiP. Copyright © 2017 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lentiviral Vector Gene Transfer to Porcine Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick L Sinn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated lentiviral vector development and transduction efficiencies in well-differentiated primary cultures of pig airway epithelia (PAE and wild-type pigs in vivo. We noted gene transfer efficiencies similar to that observed for human airway epithelia (HAE. Interestingly, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV-based vectors transduced immortalized pig cells as well as pig primary cells more efficiently than HIV-1–based vectors. PAE express TRIM5α, a well-characterized species-specific lentiviral restriction factor. We contrasted the restrictive properties of porcine TRIM5α against FIV- and HIV-based vectors using gain and loss of function approaches. We observed no effect on HIV-1 or FIV conferred transgene expression in response to porcine TRIM5α overexpression or knockdown. To evaluate the ability of GP64-FIV to transduce porcine airways in vivo, we delivered vector expressing mCherry to the tracheal lobe of the lung and the ethmoid sinus of 4-week-old pigs. One week later, epithelial cells expressing mCherry were readily detected. Our findings indicate that pseudotyped FIV vectors confer similar tropisms in porcine epithelia as observed in human HAE and provide further support for the selection of GP64 as an appropriate envelope pseudotype for future preclinical gene therapy studies in the porcine model of cystic fibrosis (CF.

  10. Assessment value of quantitative indexes of pancreatic CT perfusion scanning for malignant degree of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Xia Lei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the assessment value of the quantitative indexes of pancreatic CT perfusion scanning for malignant degree of pancreatic cancer. Methods: A total of 58 patients with space-occupying pancreatic lesions were divided into 20 patients with pancreatic cancer and 38 patients with benign pancreatic lesions after pancreatic CT perfusion. Patients with pancreatic cancer received palliative surgery, and the cancer tissue and para-carcinoma tissue specimens were collected during operation. The differences in pancreatic CT perfusion scanning parameter values and serum tumor marker levels were compared between patients with pancreatic cancer and patients with benign pancreatic lesions, mRNA expression levels of malignant molecules in pancreatic cancer tissue and para-carcinoma tissue were further determined, and the correlation between pancreatic CT perfusion scanning parameter values and malignant degree of pancreatic cancer was analyzed. Results: CT perfusion scanning BF, BV and Per values of patients with pancreatic cancer were lower than those of patients with benign pancreatic lesions; serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 levels were higher than those of patients with benign pancreatic lesions (P<0.05; mRNA expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin in pancreatic cancer tissue samples were higher than those in paracarcinoma tissue samples, and mRNA expression levels of P53 and Bax were lower than those in para-carcinoma tissue samples (P<0.05; CT perfusion scanning parameters BF, BV and Per values of patients with pancreatic cancer were negatively correlated with CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 levels in serum as well as mRNA expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin in pancreatic cancer tissue, and positively correlated with mRNA expression levels of P53 and Bax in pancreatic cancer tissue (P<0.05. Conclusions: Pancreatic CT perfusion scanning is a reliable way to judge the malignant degree of pancreatic cancer and plays a

  11. Pancreatic stellate cells enhance stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Shin; Masamune, Atsushi; Takikawa, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Noriaki; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Hirota, Morihisa; Hamada, Hirofumi; Kobune, Masayoshi; Satoh, Kennichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote the progression of pancreatic cancer. ► Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed enhanced spheroid formation. ► Expression of stem cell-related genes ABCG2, Nestin and LIN28 was increased. ► Co-injection of PSCs enhanced tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. ► This study suggested a novel role of PSCs as a part of the cancer stem cell niche. -- Abstract: The interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), a major profibrogenic cell type in the pancreas, is receiving increasing attention. There is accumulating evidence that PSCs promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by increasing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as by protecting them from radiation- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Recent studies have identified that a portion of cancer cells, called “cancer stem cells”, within the entire cancer tissue harbor highly tumorigenic and chemo-resistant phenotypes, which lead to the recurrence after surgery or re-growth of the tumor. The mechanisms that maintain the “stemness” of these cells remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that PSCs might enhance the cancer stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells. Indirect co-culture of pancreatic cancer cells with PSCs enhanced the spheroid-forming ability of cancer cells and induced the expression of cancer stem cell-related genes ABCG2, Nestin and LIN28. In addition, co-injection of PSCs enhanced tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. These results suggested a novel role of PSCs as a part of the cancer stem cell niche.

  12. Risk of pancreatitis after pancreatic duct guidewire placement during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ishikawa-Kakiya

    Full Text Available Advanced techniques have been developed to overcome difficult cannulation cases in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP. Pancreatic duct guidewire placement method (PGW is performed in difficult cannulation cases; it is possible that it places patients at risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP. The mechanism of PEP is still unclear, but pancreatic duct pressure and injury of pancreatic duct are known causes of PEP. Therefore, we hypothesized a relationship between pancreatic duct diameter and PEP and predicted that PGW would increase the risk of PEP in patients with non-dilated pancreatic ducts. This study aimed to investigate whether PGW increased the risk of PEP in patients with pancreatic duct diameter ≤ 3 mm.We analyzed 332 patients with pancreatic duct ≤ 3 mm who performed first time ERCP session. The primary endpoint was the rate of adverse event of PEP. We evaluated the risk of PEP in patients who had undergone PGW compared to those who had not, using the inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW analysis.PGW was found to be an independent risk factor for PEP by univariate analysis (odds ratio [OR], 2.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-5.38; p = 0.03 after IPTW in patients with pancreatic duct diameter ≤ 3 mm. Adjusted for all covariates, PGW remained an independent risk factor for PEP (OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.33-7.33; p = 0.01.Our results indicate that PGW in patients with pancreatic duct diameter ≤ 3 mm increases the risk of PEP.

  13. Improved Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Diagnosis in Jaundiced and Non-Jaundiced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Patients through the Combination of Routine Clinical Markers Associated to Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, María José; Saez, Marc; Figueras, Joan; Fort, Esther; Sabat, Miriam; López-Ben, Santiago; de Llorens, Rafael; Aleixandre, Rosa Núria; Peracaula, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    There is still no reliable biomarker for the diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) is a tumor marker only recommended for pancreatic adenocarcinoma follow-up. One of the clinical problems lies in distinguishing between this cancer and other benign pancreatic diseases such as chronic pancreatitis. In this study we will assess the value of panels of serum molecules related to pancreatic cancer physiopathology to determine whether alone or in combination could help to discriminate between these two pathologies. CA 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), C-reactive protein, albumin, insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein-3 were measured using routine clinical analyzers in a cohort of 47 pancreatic adenocarcinoma, 20 chronic pancreatitis and 15 healthy controls. The combination of CA 19-9, IGF-1 and albumin resulted in a combined area under the curve (AUC) of 0.959 with 93.6% sensitivity and 95% specificity, much higher than CA 19-9 alone. An algorithm was defined to classify the patients as chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer with the above specificity and sensitivity. In an independent validation group of 20 pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 13 chronic pancreatitis patients, the combination of the four molecules classified correctly all pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 12 out of 13 chronic pancreatitis patients. Although this panel of markers should be validated in larger cohorts, the high sensitivity and specificity values and the convenience to measure these parameters in clinical laboratories shows great promise for improving pancreatic adenocarcinoma diagnosis.

  14. Improved Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Diagnosis in Jaundiced and Non-Jaundiced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Patients through the Combination of Routine Clinical Markers Associated to Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Pathophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Ferri

    Full Text Available There is still no reliable biomarker for the diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9 is a tumor marker only recommended for pancreatic adenocarcinoma follow-up. One of the clinical problems lies in distinguishing between this cancer and other benign pancreatic diseases such as chronic pancreatitis. In this study we will assess the value of panels of serum molecules related to pancreatic cancer physiopathology to determine whether alone or in combination could help to discriminate between these two pathologies.CA 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, C-reactive protein, albumin, insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and IGF binding protein-3 were measured using routine clinical analyzers in a cohort of 47 pancreatic adenocarcinoma, 20 chronic pancreatitis and 15 healthy controls.The combination of CA 19-9, IGF-1 and albumin resulted in a combined area under the curve (AUC of 0.959 with 93.6% sensitivity and 95% specificity, much higher than CA 19-9 alone. An algorithm was defined to classify the patients as chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer with the above specificity and sensitivity. In an independent validation group of 20 pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 13 chronic pancreatitis patients, the combination of the four molecules classified correctly all pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 12 out of 13 chronic pancreatitis patients.Although this panel of markers should be validated in larger cohorts, the high sensitivity and specificity values and the convenience to measure these parameters in clinical laboratories shows great promise for improving pancreatic adenocarcinoma diagnosis.

  15. Differential diagnosis of focal pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulik, T. M.; Moojen, T. M.; van Geenen, R.; Rauws, E. A.; Obertop, H.; Gouma, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    The differentiation of focal, chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic cancer (PAC) poses a diagnostic dilemma. Both conditions may present with the same symptoms and signs. The complexity of differential diagnosis is enhanced because PAC is frequently associated with secondary inflammatory changes

  16. [Duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection and pancreatic head resection with segmental duodenostomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Tadahiro; Yasuda, Hideki; Nagashima, Ikuo; Amano, Hodaka; Yoshiada, Masahiro; Toyota, Naoyuki

    2003-06-01

    A duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) was first reported by Beger et al. in 1980. However, its application has been limited to chronic pancreatitis because of it is a subtotal pancreatic head resection. In 1990, we reported duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection (DPTPHR) in 26 cases. This opened the way for total pancreatic head resection, expanding the application of this approach to tumorigenic morbidities such as intraductal papillary mucinous tumor (IMPT), other benign tumors, and small pancreatic cancers. On the other hand, Nakao et al. reported pancreatic head resection with segmental duodenectomy (PHRSD) as an alternative pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy technique in 24 cases. Hirata et al. also reported this technique as a new pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenostomy with increased vessel preservation. When performing DPTPHR, the surgeon should ensure adequate duodenal blood supply. Avoidance of duodenal ischemia is very important in this operation, and thus it is necessary to maintain blood flow in the posterior pancreatoduodenal artery and to preserve the mesoduodenal vessels. Postoperative pancreatic functional tests reveal that DPTPHR is superior to PPPD, including PHSRD, because the entire duodenum and duodenal integrity is very important for postoperative pancreatic function.

  17. Progress, problems and prospects of porcine pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning WANG,Yangli PEI,Ning LI,Jianyong HAN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced PSCs (iPSCs, can differentiate into cells of the three germ layers, suggesting that PSCs have great potential for basic developmental biology research and wide applications for clinical medicine. Genuine ESCs and iPSCs have been derived from mice and rats, but not from livestock such as the pig─an ideal animal model for studying human disease and regenerative medicine due to similarities with human physiologic processes. Efforts to derive porcine ESCs and iPSCs have not yielded high-quality PSCs that can produce chimeras with germline transmission. Thus, exploration of the unique porcine gene regulation network of preimplantation embryonic development may permit optimization of in vitro culture systems for raising porcine PSCs. Here we summarize the recent progress in porcine PSC generation as well as the problems encountered during this progress and we depict prospects for generating porcine naive PSCs.

  18. Remnant pancreatic parenchymal volume predicts postoperative pancreatic exocrine insufficiency after pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Keisuke; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Nakagawa, Naoya; Uemura, Kenichiro; Sudo, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Yasushi; Kondo, Naru; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro

    2016-03-01

    Pancreatectomy, including pancreatoduodenectomy and distal pancreatectomy, often causes postoperative pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI). Our aim was to clarify a relationship between remnant pancreatic volume and postoperative PEI. A total of 227 patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy or distal pancreatectomy were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent a (13)C-labeled mixed triglyceride breath test to assess pancreatic exocrine function and abdominal dynamic computed tomography for assessing remnant pancreatic volume after pancreatectomy at a median of 7 months postoperatively. The percent (13)CO2 cumulative dose at 7 hours (% dose (13)C cum 7 h) pancreatectomy were performed in 174 (76.7%) and 53 (23.3%) patients, respectively. Of the 227 patients, 128 (56.3%) developed postoperative PEI. Postoperative % dose (13)C cum 7 h was strongly correlated with remnant pancreatic volume (r = .509, P pancreatectomy (P pancreatectomy. Remnant pancreatic volume may predict postoperative PEI in patients who undergo pancreatectomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lysosome associated membrane proteins maintain pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis: LAMP-2 deficient mice develop pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareninova, Olga A; Sendler, Matthias; Malla, Sudarshan Ravi; Yakubov, Iskandar; French, Samuel W; Tokhtaeva, Elmira; Vagin, Olga; Oorschot, Viola; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Blanz, Judith; Dawson, David; Klumperman, Judith; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia; Gukovsky, Ilya; Gukovskaya, Anna S

    2015-11-01

    The pathogenic mechanism of pancreatitis is poorly understood. Recent evidence implicates defective autophagy in pancreatitis responses; however, the pathways mediating impaired autophagy in pancreas remain largely unknown. Here, we investigate the role of lysosome associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) in pancreatitis. We analyzed changes in LAMPs in experimental models and human pancreatitis, and the underlying mechanisms: LAMP de-glycosylation and degradation. LAMP cleavage by cathepsin B (CatB) was analyzed by mass spectrometry. We used mice deficient in LAMP-2 to assess its role in pancreatitis. Pancreatic levels of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 greatly decrease across various pancreatitis models and in human disease. Pancreatitis does not trigger LAMPs' bulk de-glycosylation, but induces their degradation via CatB-mediated cleavage of LAMP molecule close to the boundary between luminal and transmembrane domains. LAMP-2 null mice spontaneously develop pancreatitis that begins with acinar cell vacuolization due to impaired autophagic flux, and progresses to severe pancreas damage characterized by trypsinogen activation, macrophage-driven inflammation, and acinar cell death. LAMP-2 deficiency causes a decrease in pancreatic digestive enzymes content, stimulates the basal and inhibits CCK-induced amylase secretion by acinar cells. The effects of LAMP-2 knockout and acute cerulein pancreatitis overlap, which corroborates the pathogenic role of LAMP decrease in experimental pancreatitis models. The results indicate a critical role for LAMPs, particularly LAMP-2, in maintaining pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis, and provide evidence that defective lysosomal function, resulting in impaired autophagy, leads to pancreatitis. Mice with LAMP-2 deficiency present a novel genetic model of human pancreatitis caused by lysosomal/autophagic dysfunction.

  20. Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure and pain in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N

    1992-01-01

    A casual relation between pancreatic pressure and pain has been searched for decades but lack of appropriate methods for pressure measurements has hindered progress. During the 1980's the needle method has been used for direct intraoperative pancreatic tissue fluid pressure measurements and later...... for percutaneous sonographically-guided pressure measurements. Clinical and experimental evaluation of the method showed comparable results at intraoperative and percutaneous measurements and little week-to-week variation. Furthermore, comparable pressures in duct and adjacent pancreatic tissue were found, i.......e. the needle pressure mirrors the intraductal pressure. Comparisons of pain registrations, morphological and functional parameters with pancreatic tissue fluid pressure measurements have revealed a relation between pressure and pain which probably is causal. In patients with pain the high pressures previously...

  1. Oxidative and proteolysis-related parameters of skeletal muscle from hamsters with experimental pulmonary emphysema: a comparison between papain and elastase induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnquell, Cláudia R; Vieira, Nichelle A; Sábio, Laís R; Sczepanski, Felipe; Cecchini, Alessandra L; Cecchini, Rubens; Guarnier, Flávia A

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether emphysema induced by elastase or papain triggers the same effects on skeletal muscle, related to oxidative stress and proteolysis, in hamsters. For this purpose, we evaluated pulmonary lesions, body weight, muscle loss, oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, total and oxidized glutathiones, chemiluminescence stimulated by tert-butyl hydroperoxide and carbonyl proteins), chymotrypsin-like and calpain-like proteolytic activities and muscle fibre cross-sectional area in the gastrocnemius muscles of emphysemic hamsters. Two groups of animals received different intratracheal inductions of experimental emphysema: by 40 mg/ml papain (EP) or 5.2 IU/100 g animal (EE) elastase (n = 10 animals/group). The control group received intratracheal instillation of 300 μl sterile NaCl 0.9%. Compared with the control group, the EP group had reduced muscle weight (18.34%) and the EE group had increased muscle weight (8.37%). Additionally, tert-butyl hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence, carbonylated proteins and chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity were all elevated in the EP group compared to the CS group, while total glutathione was decreased compared to the EE group. The EE group showed more fibres with increased cross-sectional areas and increased calpain-like activity. Together, these data show that elastase and papain, when used to induce experimental models of emphysema, lead to different speeds and types of adaptation. These findings provide more information on choosing a suitable experimental model for studying skeletal muscle adaptations in emphysema. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2015 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  2. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, chronic pancreatitis, and MODY-8 diabetes: is bile salt-dependent lipase (or carboxyl ester lipase) at the crossroads of pancreatic pathologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Dominique; Silvy, Françoise; Crenon, Isabelle; Martinez, Emmanuelle; Collignon, Aurélie; Beraud, Evelyne; Mas, Eric

    2018-02-23

    Pancreatic adenocarcinomas and diabetes mellitus are responsible for the deaths of around two million people each year worldwide. Patients with chronic pancreatitis do not die directly of this disease, except where the pathology is hereditary. Much current literature supports the involvement of bile salt-dependent lipase (BSDL), also known as carboxyl ester lipase (CEL), in the pathophysiology of these pancreatic diseases. The purpose of this review is to shed light on connections between chronic pancreatitis, diabetes, and pancreatic adenocarcinomas by gaining an insight into BSDL and its variants. This enzyme is normally secreted by the exocrine pancreas, and is diverted within the intestinal lumen to participate in the hydrolysis of dietary lipids. However, BSDL is also expressed by other cells and tissues, where it participates in lipid homeostasis. Variants of BSDL resulting from germline and/or somatic mutations (nucleotide insertion/deletion or nonallelic homologous recombination) are expressed in the pancreas of patients with pancreatic pathologies such as chronic pancreatitis, MODY-8, and pancreatic adenocarcinomas. We discuss the possible link between the expression of BSDL variants and these dramatic pancreatic pathologies, putting forward the suggestion that BSDL and its variants are implicated in the cell lipid metabolism/reprogramming that leads to the dyslipidemia observed in chronic pancreatitis, MODY-8, and pancreatic adenocarcinomas. We also propose potential strategies for translation to therapeutic applications.

  3. Surgical Approaches to Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hartmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disease resulting in permanent structural damage of the pancreas. It is mainly characterized by recurring epigastric pain and pancreatic insufficiency. In addition, progression of the disease might lead to additional complications, such as pseudocyst formation or development of pancreatic cancer. The medical and surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis has changed significantly in the past decades. With regard to surgical management, pancreatic head resection has been shown to be a mainstay in the treatment of severe chronic pancreatitis because the pancreatic head mass is known to trigger the chronic inflammatory process. Over the years, organ-preserving procedures, such as the duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection and the pylorus-preserving Whipple, have become the surgical standard and have led to major improvements in pain relief, preservation of pancreatic function, and quality of life of patients.

  4. Porcine circovirus diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristoski Trpe

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus type 2 belongs on the family Circoviridae. This virus family includes small, non-enveloped viruses, with a circular, single-standed DNA genome.This virus causes mainly subclinical infections, but a number of diseases have been linked to it (porcine circovirus diseases, PCVD. The most economically important PCVD is postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, which mainly affects pigs of 2 to 5 months of age, with progressive wasting, diarrhea and respiratory disorders. Main PMWS lesions are found in lymphoid tissues, which are characterized by lymphocyte depletion with granulomatous (histiocytic and multinucleate giant cell infiltration. PMWS is considered as multifactorial disease, with a number of infectious and non-infectious factors able to act as disease triggering in PCV2 infected pigs. PCVDs are worldwide distributed, and PMWS was diagnosed in Macedonia in 2007.

  5. Food-Induced Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Murli; Verma, Alok K; Upparahalli Venkateshaiah, Sathisha; Goyal, Hemant; Mishra, Anil

    2017-12-01

    Food allergy, a commonly increasing problem worldwide, defined as an adverse immune response to food. A variety of immune-related effector cells such as mast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, and T cells are involved in food-related allergic responses categorized as IgE mediated, non-IgE mediated, and mixed (IgE and non-IgE) depending upon underlying immunological mechanisms. The dietary antigens mainly target the gastrointestinal tract including pancreas that gets inflamed due to food allergy and leads acute pancreatitis. Reports indicate several food proteins induce pancreatitis; however, detailed underlying mechanism of food-induced pancreatitis is unexplored. The aim of the review is to understand and update the current scenario of food-induced pancreatitis. A comprehensive literature search of relevant research articles has been performed through PubMed, and articles were chosen based on their relevance to food allergen-mediated pancreatitis. Several cases in the literature indicate that acute pancreatitis has been provoked after the consumption of mustard, milk, egg, banana, fish, and kiwi fruits. Food-induced pancreatitis is an ignored and unexplored area of research. The review highlights the significance of food in the development of pancreatitis and draws the attention of physicians and scientists to consider food allergies as a possible cause for initiation of pancreatitis pathogenesis.

  6. Deciphering the porcine intestinal microRNA transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While more than 700 microRNAs (miRNAs are known in human, a comparably low number has been identified in swine. Because of the close phylogenetic distance to humans, pigs serve as a suitable model for studying e.g. intestinal development or disease. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are key regulators of intestinal development and their aberrant expression leads to intestinal malignancy. Results Here, we present the identification of hundreds of apparently novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine. MiRNAs were first identified by means of deep sequencing followed by miRNA precursor prediction using the miRDeep algorithm as well as searching for conserved miRNAs. Second, the porcine miRNAome along the entire intestine (duodenum, proximal and distal jejunum, ileum, ascending and transverse colon was unraveled using customized miRNA microarrays based on the identified sequences as well as known porcine and human ones. In total, the expression of 332 intestinal miRNAs was discovered, of which 201 represented assumed novel porcine miRNAs. The identified hairpin forming precursors were in part organized in genomic clusters, and most of the precursors were located on chromosomes 3 and 1, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of the expression data revealed subsets of miRNAs that are specific to distinct parts of the intestine pointing to their impact on cellular signaling networks. Conclusions In this study, we have applied a straight forward approach to decipher the porcine intestinal miRNAome for the first time in mammals using a piglet model. The high number of identified novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine points out their crucial role in intestinal function as shown by pathway analysis. On the other hand, the reported miRNAs may share orthologs in other mammals such as human still to be discovered.

  7. Imaging of pancreatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akisada, Masayoshi; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Tatezawa, Akira; Matsumoto, Kunihiko

    1982-01-01

    There has been no definite examining technique for the early diagnosis of pancreatic diseases, especially small cancers of the pancreas less than 3 cm. Plain abdominal X-rays do not produce reliable roentgenological signs of acute pancreatitis, but the advent of CT has elucidated the condition to some extent. Upper gastrointestinal series are alleged to demonstrate abnormal findings in 80% of cases of pancreatic cancer or cyst. Pancreatic RI scintigraphy expresses the function and anatomy, and the sensitivity with 75 Se is 88%, similar to 87% by US and 80% by CT. Although endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography visualizes extrapancreatic secretory function, as well as the morphology of pancreas, differentiation is not easy in many cases. The greatest indication for US was cysts. The detection rate of pancreatic cancers is similar between plain and contrast CTs, and pancreatic angiography is not specific for pancreatic cancers. (Chiba, N.)

  8. Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Madsen, P

    1990-01-01

    Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure was measured in 10 patients undergoing drainage operations for painful chronic pancreatitis. The pressure was measured by the needle technique in the three anatomic regions of the pancreas before and at different stages of the drainage procedure, and the results...... were compared with preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) morphology. The preoperatively elevated pressure decreased in all patients but one, to normal or slightly elevated values. The median pressure decrease was 50% (range, 0-90%; p = 0.01). The drainage anastomosis (a...... a decrease in pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for pain in chronic pancreatitis. Regional pressure decrease were apparently unrelated to ERCP findings....

  9. Role of pancreatic polypeptide in the regulation of pancreatic exocrine secretion in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiratori, Keiko; Lee, K.Y.; Chang, Tamin; Jo, Y.H.; Coy, D.H.; Chey, W.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of intravenous infusion of synthetic human pancreatic polypeptide (HPP) or a rabbit anti-PP serum on pancreatic exocrine secretion was studied in 10 dogs with gastric and Thomas duodenal cannulas. The infusion of HPP, achieved a plasma PP concentration that mimicked the peak plasma concentration of PP in both interdigestive and postprandial states. This dose of HPP significantly inhibited pancreatic secretion in the interdigestive state. By contrast, immunoneutralization of circulating PP by a rabbit anti-PP serum resulted in significant increases in both interdigestive and postprandial pancreatic secretion, including water, bicarbonate, and protein. The increase in the pancreatic secretion paralleled a decrease in circulating PP level, which lasted for as long as 5 days. Furthermore, the anti-PP serum blocked the inhibitory action of exogenous HPP on pancreatic exocrine secretion. The present study indicates that endogenous PP plays a significant role in the regulation of the pancreatic exocrine secretion in both interdigestive and digestive states. Thus the authors conclude that PP is another hormone regulating pancreatic exocrine secretion in dogs

  10. Hereditary pancreatitis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael KL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kara L Raphael, Field F Willingham Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Hereditary pancreatitis (HP is a rare cause of acute, recurrent acute, and chronic pancreatitis. It may present similarly to other causes of acute and chronic pancreatitis, and often there has been a protracted evaluation prior to the diagnosis of HP. Since it was first described in 1952, multiple genetic defects that affect the action of digestive enzymes in the pancreas have been implicated. The most common mutations involve the PRSS1, CFTR, SPINK1, and CTRC genes. New mutations in these genes and previously unrecognized mutations in other genes are being discovered due to the increasing use of next-generation genomic sequencing. While the inheritance pathways of these genetic mutations may be variable and complex, sometimes involving coinheritance of other mutations, the clinical presentation of patients tends to be similar. Interactions with environmental triggers often play a role. Patients tend to present at an early age (prior to the second decade of life and have a significantly increased risk for the development of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Patients with HP may develop sequelae of chronic pancreatitis such as strictures and fluid collections as well as exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Management of patients with HP involves avoidance of environmental triggers, surveillance for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, medical therapy for endocrine and exocrine insufficiency, pain management, and endoscopic or surgical treatment for complications. Care for affected patients should be individualized, with an emphasis on early diagnosis and multidisciplinary involvement to develop a comprehensive treatment strategy. Keywords: pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis, idiopathic pancreatitis, pancreatitis, familial pancreatitis, genetic mutations

  11. Role of chymotrypsin C in development and progression of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Zejie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chymotrypsin C (CTRC is a trypsinogen synthesized by pancreatic acinar cells and secreted by pancreatic duct cells and belongs to the family of serine chymotrypsin. The main function of CTRC is to regulate the balance between activation and degradation of trypsin and maintain the structural and functional integrity of the pancreas. CTRC gene mutations can cause abnormal activation of trypsinogen and abnormal degradation of trypsin and then lead to the development of pancreatitis. The downregulation or absence of CTRC expression may be associated with the development and metastasis of pancreatic cancer. This article introduces the structure and biological function of CTRC and its mechanism of action in the development and progression of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

  12. Biological Mechanisms Underlying the Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Formation of Skin Wrinkling and Sagging I: Reduced Skin Elasticity, Highly Associated with Enhanced Dermal Elastase Activity, Triggers Wrinkling and Sagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    The repetitive exposure of skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) preferentially elicits wrinkling while ultraviolet A (UVA) predominantly elicits sagging. In chronically UVB or UVA-exposed rat skin there is a similar tortuous deformation of elastic fibers together with decreased skin elasticity, whose magnitudes are greater in UVB-exposed skin than in UVA-exposed skin. Comparison of skin elasticity with the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the dermis of ovariectomized rats after UVB or UVA irradiation demonstrates that skin elasticity is more significantly decreased in ovariectomized rats than in sham-operated rats, which is accompanied by a reciprocal increase in elastase activity but not in the activities of collagenases I or IV. Clinical studies using animal skin and human facial skin demonstrated that topical treatment with a specific inhibitor or an inhibitory extract of skin fibroblast-derived elastase distinctly attenuates UVB and sunlight-induced formation of wrinkling. Our results strongly indicated that the upregulated activity of skin fibroblast-derived elastase plays a pivotal role in wrinkling and/or sagging of the skin via the impairment of elastic fiber configuration and the subsequent loss of skin elasticity. PMID:25856675

  13. Growth hormone-specific induction of the nuclear localization of porcine growth hormone receptor in porcine hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, H N; Hong, P; Li, R N; Shan, A S; Zheng, X

    2017-10-01

    The phenomenon of nuclear translocation of growth hormone receptor (GHR) in human, rat, and fish has been reported. To date, this phenomenon has not been described in a domestic animal (such as pig). In addition, the molecular mechanisms of GHR nuclear translocation have not been thoroughly elucidated. To this end, porcine hepatocytes were isolated and used as a cell model. We observed that porcine growth hormone (pGH) can induce porcine GHR's nuclear localization in porcine hepatocytes. Subsequently, the dynamics of pGH-induced pGHR's nuclear localization were analyzed and demonstrated that pGHR's nuclear localization occurs in a time-dependent manner. Next, we explored the mechanism of pGHR nuclear localization using different pGHR ligands, and we demonstrated that pGHR's nuclear translocation is GH(s)-dependent. We also observed that pGHR translocates into cell nuclei in a pGH dimerization-dependent fashion, whereas further experiments indicated that IMPα/β is involved in the nuclear translocation of the pGH-pGHR dimer. The pGH-pGHR dimer may form a pGH-GHR-JAK2 multiple complex in cell nuclei, which would suggest that similar to its function in the cell membrane, the nuclear-localized pGH-pGHR dimer might still have the ability to signal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute pancreatitis: staging with CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gialeli, E.; Petrocheilou, G.; Georgaki, S.; Tzemailas, I.; Adraktas, A.; Charilas, G.; Patsiogiannis, V.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Computed Tomography (CT) is the imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis and staging of acute pancreatitis and its complications. Objectives and tasks: The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate the findings in CT images which are useful for staging acute pancreatitis according to Balthazar, their significance and restrictions. Materials and methods: CT images from patients who were referred to our Department for an abdominal CT scan for the diagnosis or/and staging of acute pancreatitis were retrospectively studied. Results: In acute pancreatitis, CT helps to stage the severity of inflammatory process, to detect pancreatic necrosis and to depict local complications. CT severity index (CTSI), which was proposed by Balthazar et al, combines the grade of pancreatitis with the extent of pancreatic necrosis assigning points to the patients in order to find the severity index which scales from 0-10. More points are given for a higher grade of pancreatitis and for more extensive necrosis. Types of pancreatitis according to CTSI are: interstitial (Balthazar grade A-C), exudative (Balthazar grade D or E), necrotising (Balthazar grade E, CTSI:10) and central gland necrotising. Patients with pancreatitis but no collections or necrosis have an interstitial (mild) pancreatitis. In exudative pancreatitis there is normal enhancement of the entire pancreas associated with extensive peripancreatic collections. Necrotizing (severe) pancreatitis is characterized by protacted clinical course, high incidence of local complications and high mortality rate. Central gland necrosis is a subtype of necrotizing pancreatitis. Conclusions: The combination of CT imaging and clinical and laboratory evaluation allows the early diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis may vary from a mild uneventful disease to a severe life-threatening illness with multisystemic organ failure. Thus, it is crucial to identify patients who are at high risk of severe

  15. Morphohistological features of pancreatic stump are the main determinant of pancreatic fistula after pancreatoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Cristina; Angiolini, Maria Rachele; Gavazzi, Francesca; Spaggiari, Paola; Tinti, Maria Carla; Uccelli, Fara; Madonini, Marco; Montorsi, Marco; Zerbi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic surgery is challenging and associated with high morbidity, mainly represented by postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) and its further consequences. Identification of risk factors for POPF is essential for proper postoperative management. Evaluation of the role of morphological and histological features of pancreatic stump, other than main pancreatic duct diameter and glandular texture, in POPF occurrence after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Between March 2011 and April 2013, we performed 145 consecutive pancreaticoduodenectomies. We intraoperatively recorded morphological features of pancreatic stump and collected data about postoperative morbidity. Our dedicated pathologist designed a score to quantify fibrosis and inflammation of pancreatic tissue. Overall morbidity was 59,3%. Mortality was 4,1%. POPF rate was 28,3%, while clinically significant POPF were 15,8%. Male sex (P = 0.009), BMI ≥ 25 (P = 0.002), prolonged surgery (P = 0.001), soft pancreatic texture (P < 0.001), small pancreatic duct (P < 0.001), pancreatic duct decentralization on stump anteroposterior axis, especially if close to the posterior margin (P = 0.031), large stump area (P = 0.001), and extended stump mobilization (P = 0.001) were related to higher POPF rate. Our fibrosis-and-inflammation score is strongly associated with POPF (P = 0.001). Pancreatic stump features evaluation, including histology, can help the surgeon in fitting postoperative management to patient individual risk after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  16. Comparison of regional pancreatic tissue fluid pressure and endoscopic retrograde pancreatographic morphology in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Madsen, P

    1990-01-01

    The relation between pancreatic tissue fluid pressure measured by the needle method and pancreatic duct morphology was studied in 16 patients with chronic pancreatitis. After preoperative endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) the patients were submitted to a drainage operation. The predrain......The relation between pancreatic tissue fluid pressure measured by the needle method and pancreatic duct morphology was studied in 16 patients with chronic pancreatitis. After preoperative endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) the patients were submitted to a drainage operation...

  17. Asparaginase-associated pancreatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Raheel Altaf; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Frandsen, Thomas Leth

    2012-10-01

    l-asparaginase has been an element in the treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma since the late 1960s and remains an essential component of their combination chemotherapy. Among the major toxicities associated with l-asparaginase therapy are pancreatitis, allergic reactions, thrombotic events, hepatotoxicity and hyperlipidaemia. Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common reasons for stopping treatment with l-asparaginase. Short-term complications of asparaginase-associated pancreatitis include development of pseudocysts and pancreatic necrosis. Long-term complications include chronic pancreatitis and diabetes. The pathophysiology of asparaginase-associated pancreatitis remains to be uncovered. Individual clinical and genetic risk factors have been identified, but they are only weak predictors of pancreatitis. This review explores the definition, possible risk factors, treatment and complications of asparaginase-associated pancreatitis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Nutritional and Metabolic Derangements in Pancreatic Cancer and Pancreatic Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor M. Gilliland

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. The disease and its treatment can cause significant nutritional impairments that often adversely impact patient quality of life (QOL. The pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions and, in the setting of cancer, both systems may be affected. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI manifests as weight loss and steatorrhea, while endocrine insufficiency may result in diabetes mellitus. Surgical resection, a central component of pancreatic cancer treatment, may induce or exacerbate these dysfunctions. Nutritional and metabolic dysfunctions in patients with pancreatic cancer lack characterization, and few guidelines exist for nutritional support in patients after surgical resection. We reviewed publications from the past two decades (1995–2016 addressing the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with pancreatic cancer, grouping them into status at the time of diagnosis, status at the time of resection, and status of nutritional support throughout the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. Here, we summarize the results of these investigations and evaluate the effectiveness of various types of nutritional support in patients after pancreatectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC. We outline the following conservative perioperative strategies to optimize patient outcomes and guide the care of these patients: (1 patients with albumin < 2.5 mg/dL or weight loss > 10% should postpone surgery and begin aggressive nutrition supplementation; (2 patients with albumin < 3 mg/dL or weight loss between 5% and 10% should have nutrition supplementation prior to surgery; (3 enteral nutrition (EN should be preferred as a nutritional intervention over total parenteral nutrition (TPN postoperatively; and, (4 a multidisciplinary approach should be used to allow for early detection of symptoms of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency alongside implementation of

  19. DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT OF EXCRETORY DEFICIENCY OF PANCREAS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Bel’mer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Excretory pancreatic insufficiency is relatively frequent pathology in pediatric and therapeutic practice. It can be divided to primary and secondary, inborn and acquired, absolute and relative one. The causes of primary pancreatic insufficiency are agenesia or hypoplasia of pancreas, cystic fibrosis, Shwachman–Diamond syndrome. Secondary excretory pancreatic insufficiency can be caused by resection of pancreas, pancreatitis, pathology of mucous tunic of small intestine, abnormality of antitrypsinactivation with enterokinase deficiency, inactivation of enzymes by acid of duodenal contents in the presence of gastric hyper secretion and others. Excretory pancreatic deficiency has determined clinical signs and can be relatively easily diagnosed by simple laboratory methods: coprogramm and detection of elastase 1 in stool. The ways of its correction are determined by causes of disease, but modern high-active pancreatic enzymes medications must be necessary component of treatment in all cases.Key words: children, pancreatic insufficiency, celiac disease, pancreatic enzymes medications.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(2:114-118

  20. Conservative treatment of chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhr, J-Matthias; Haas, Stephen L; Lindgren, Fredrik; Enochsson, Lars; Hedström, Aleksandra; Swahn, Fredrik; Segersvärd, Ralf; Arnelo, Urban

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disease giving rise to several complications that need to be treated accordingly. Because pancreatic surgery has significant morbidity and mortality, less invasive therapy seems to be an attractive option. This paper reviews current state-of-the-art strategies to treat chronic pancreatitis without surgery and the current guidelines for the medical therapy of chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic therapy of complications of chronic pancreatitis such as pain, main pancreatic duct strictures and stones as well as pseudocysts is technically feasible and safe. The long-term outcome, however, is inferior to definitive surgical procedures such as resection or drainage. On the other hand, the medical therapy of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine insufficiency is well established and evidence based. Endoscopic therapy may be an option to bridge for surgery and in children/young adolescents and those unfit for surgery. Pain in chronic pancreatitis as well as treatment of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency follows established guidelines. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Morphological and Biomechanical Differences in the Elastase and AngII apoE−/− Rodent Models of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan H. Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is a potentially fatal cardiovascular disease with multifactorial development and progression. Two preclinical models of the disease (elastase perfusion and angiotensin II infusion in apolipoprotein-E-deficient animals have been developed to study the disease during its initiation and progression. To date, most studies have used ex vivo methods to examine disease characteristics such as expanded aortic diameter or analytic methods to look at circulating biomarkers. Herein, we provide evidence from in vivo ultrasound studies of the temporal changes occurring in biomechanical parameters and macromolecules of the aortic wall in each model. We present findings from 28-day studies in elastase-perfused rats and AngII apoE−/− mice. While each model develops AAAs specific to their induction method, they both share characteristics with human aneurysms, such as marked changes in vessel strain and blood flow velocity. Histology and nonlinear microscopy confirmed that both elastin and collagen, both important extracellular matrix molecules, are similarly affected in their levels and spatial distribution. Future studies could make use of the differences between these models in order to investigate mechanisms of disease progression or evaluate potential AAA treatments.

  2. INACTIVITY OF RECOMBINANT ELA2B PROVIDES A NEW EXAMPLE OF EVOLUTIONARY ELASTASE SILENCING IN HUMANS

    OpenAIRE

    Szepessy, Edit; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The archetypal mammalian elastase (ELA1) is not expressed in the human pancreas, because evolutionary mutations suppressed transcription of the ELA1 gene. AIMS. In this study we tested the theory that the unique duplication of the ELA2 gene in humans might compensate for the loss of ELA1. METHODS. Recombinant ELA2A and ELA2B were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their activity was tested on Glt-Ala-Ala-Pro-Leu-p-nitroanilide, DQ elastin and bovine milk protein. RESULTS. Surprisi...

  3. Poly herbal formulation with anti-elastase and anti-oxidant properties for skin anti-aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyana Sundaram, Induja; Sarangi, Deepika Deeptirekha; Sundararajan, Vignesh; George, Shinomol; Sheik Mohideen, Sahabudeen

    2018-01-29

    Skin forms an important part of human innate immune system. Wrinkles, thinning and roughening of skin are some of the symptoms that affect the skin as it ages. Reactive oxygen species induced oxidative stress plays a major role in skin aging by modulating the elastase enzyme level in the skin. Extrinsic factors that affect skin aging such as UV radiation can also cause malignant melanoma. Here we selected four medicinal plant materials, namely, leaves of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, unripe and ripe Aegle marmelos fruit pulp and the terminal meristem of Musa paradisiaca flower and investigated their anti-aging properties and cytotoxicity in vitro individually as well as in a poly herbal formulation containing the four plant extracts in different ratios. The phytochemical contents of the plant extracts were investigated for radical scavenging activity and total reducing power. Based upon its anti-oxidant properties, a poly herbal formulation containing leaves of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, unripe and ripe fruit pulp of Aegle marmelos, and the terminal meristem of Musa paradisiaca flower in the ratio 6:2:1:1 (Poly Herbal Formulation 1) and 1:1:1:1 (Poly Herbal Formulation 2), respectively were formulated. It has been observed that the Poly Herbal Formulation 1 was more potent than Poly Herbal Formulation 2 due to better anti-oxidant and anti-elastase activities in NIH3T3 fibroblast cells. In addition Poly Herbal formulation 1 also had better anti-cancer activity in human malignant melanoma cells. Based on these results these beneficial plant extracts were identified for its potential application as an anti-aging agent in skin creams as well as an anti-proliferation compound against cancer cells.

  4. Pseudocyst in the pancreatic tail associated with chronic pancreatitis successfully treated by transpapillary cyst drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naitoh, Itaru; Ohara, Hirotaka; Okayama, Yasutaka; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Ando, Tomoaki; Hayashi, Kazuki; Okumura, Fumihiro; Kitajima, Yasuhiro; Ban, Tessin; Miyabe, Katsuyuki; Ueno, Koichiro; Joh, Takashi; Sano, Hitoshi

    2008-09-01

    We report a 50-year-old male with pseudocysts in the pancreatic tail associated with chronic pancreatitis successfully treated by transpapillary cyst drainage. He had previously undergone ultrasonography-guided percutaneous cyst drainage for a pancreatic pseudocyst in our hospital. He was readmitted due to abdominal pain and fever. Computed tomography showed recurrence of a pseudocyst in the pancreatic tail measuring 5 cm in diameter. Since conservative treatment failed, endoscopic retrograde pancreatography was performed. There was communication between the pseudocyst and the main pancreatic duct, and pancreatic duct stenosis proximal to the pseudocyst. First, transpapillary pancreatic duct drainage was performed using a plastic stent, but the pseudocyst did not decrease in size and became infected. After removal of the stent, a pigtail type nasocystic catheter was placed in the pseudocyst via the pancreatic duct. The pseudocyst infection immediately disappeared, and the pseudocyst gradually decreased and disappeared. After removal of the nasocystic catheter, no recurrence was observed. As transpapillary drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst, cyst drainage and pancreatic duct drainage have been reported. In our patient with pseudocyst in the pancreatic tail, duct drainage was ineffective and the pseudocyst was infected, whereas cyst drainage was very effective. We considered that cyst drainage by a nasocystic catheter was the first-line therapy as the transpapillary drainage of the pancreatic pseudocyst.

  5. Pseudocyst in the Pancreatic Tail Associated with Chronic Pancreatitis Successfully Treated by Transpapillary Cyst Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itaru Naitoh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a 50-year-old male with pseudocysts in the pancreatic tail associated with chronic pancreatitis successfully treated by transpapillary cyst drainage. He had previously undergone ultrasonography-guided percutaneous cyst drainage for a pancreatic pseudocyst in our hospital. He was readmitted due to abdominal pain and fever. Computed tomography showed recurrence of a pseudocyst in the pancreatic tail measuring 5 cm in diameter. Since conservative treatment failed, endoscopic retrograde pancreatography was performed. There was communication between the pseudocyst and the main pancreatic duct, and pancreatic duct stenosis proximal to the pseudocyst. First, transpapillary pancreatic duct drainage was performed using a plastic stent, but the pseudocyst did not decrease in size and became infected. After removal of the stent, a pigtail type nasocystic catheter was placed in the pseudocyst via the pancreatic duct. The pseudocyst infection immediately disappeared, and the pseudocyst gradually decreased and disappeared. After removal of the nasocystic catheter, no recurrence was observed. As transpapillary drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst, cyst drainage and pancreatic duct drainage have been reported. In our patient with pseudocyst in the pancreatic tail, duct drainage was ineffective and the pseudocyst was infected, whereas cyst drainage was very effective. We considered that cyst drainage by a nasocystic catheter was the first-line therapy as the transpapillary drainage of the pancreatic pseudocyst.

  6. Acute pancreatitis: clinical vs. CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.C.; Barkin, J.; Isikoff, M.B.; Silver stein, W.; Kalser, M.

    1982-01-01

    In a prospective study of 91 patients with acute pancreatitis, computed tomographic (CT) findings were correlated with the clinical type of acute pancreatitis. In acute edematous pancreatitis (63 patients; 16 with repeat CT), CT was normal (28%) or showed inflammation limited to the pancreas (61%). Phlegmonous changes were present in 11%, including one patient with focal pancreatic hemorrhage, indicating that clinically unsuspected hemorrhagic pancreatitis can occur. In acute necrotizing (hemorrhagic, suppurative) pancreatitis (nine patients; eight with repeat CT), no patient had a normal CT scan and 89% had phlegmonous changes. One patient had hemorrhagic pancreatitis and three had abscesses. In acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis (10 patients; three with repeat CT), there were pancreatic calcifications (70%), a focal mass (40%), and pancreatic ductal dilation (30%). On follow-up CT, the findings of acute pancreatitis did not always disappear with resolution of the clinical symptons. This was especialy true of phlegmonous pancreatitis, where the CT findings could persist for months

  7. [Robot-assisted pancreatic resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müssle, B; Distler, M; Weitz, J; Welsch, T

    2017-06-01

    Although robot-assisted pancreatic surgery has been considered critically in the past, it is nowadays an established standard technique in some centers, for distal pancreatectomy and pancreatic head resection. Compared with the laparoscopic approach, the use of robot-assisted surgery seems to be advantageous for acquiring the skills for pancreatic, bile duct and vascular anastomoses during pancreatic head resection and total pancreatectomy. On the other hand, the use of the robot is associated with increased costs and only highly effective and professional robotic programs in centers for pancreatic surgery will achieve top surgical and oncological quality, acceptable operation times and a reduction in duration of hospital stay. Moreover, new technologies, such as intraoperative fluorescence guidance and augmented reality will define additional indications for robot-assisted pancreatic surgery.

  8. Sequence conservation between porcine and human LRRK2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud; Madsen, Lone Bruhn

    2009-01-01

     Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a member of the ROCO protein superfamily (Ras of complex proteins (Roc) with a C-terminal Roc domain). Mutations in the LRRK2 gene lead to autosomal dominant Parkinsonism. We have cloned the porcine LRRK2 cDNA in an attempt to characterize conserved...... and expression patterns are conserved across species. The porcine LRRK2 gene was mapped to chromosome 5q25. The results obtained suggest that the LRRK2 gene might be of particular interest in our attempt to generate a transgenic porcine model for Parkinson's disease...

  9. Groove Pancreatitis – A Mimic of Pancreatic and Periampullary Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakami R Pradheepkumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Groove Pancreatitis (GP is a rare form of focal chronic pancreatitis involving the pancreatico-duodenal groove (PDG. GP was first described by Becker in 1973. Though, GP has been described so many years ago, it is still unfamiliar among most physicians because of lack of sufficient case studies and clinical similarity of GP to conventional pancreatitis. Imaging based differentiation of GP from other lesions, like pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma is also not possible in all the cases, unless there are typical findings favoring GP. Since, the line of treatment and outcome is totally different in these two conditions, appreciation of the fine differences between these two entities is very significant. Groove pancreatitis is symptomatically treated with medicines and only for patients with continuous and severe symptoms which are not amenable to medical treatment surgical management is considered. Radiological differentiation of GP from pancreatic and periampullary malignancies will help to avoid unnecessary surgery in the initial stages. We report two cases of GP, one of pure and other of segmental form where we found typical imaging features which pointed to the diagnosis of GP with a small discussion about the Computed tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI appearance of this entity as well as its differential diagnosis.

  10. Pancreatic duct stones in patients with chronic pancreatitis: surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo-Nan; Zhang, Tai-Ping; Zhao, Yu-Pei; Liao, Quan; Dai, Meng-Hua; Zhan, Han-Xiang

    2010-08-01

    Pancreatic duct stone (PDS) is a common complication of chronic pancreatitis. Surgery is a common therapeutic option for PDS. In this study we assessed the surgical procedures for PDS in patients with chronic pancreatitis at our hospital. Between January 2004 and September 2009, medical records from 35 patients diagnosed with PDS associated with chronic pancreatitis were retrospectively reviewed and the patients were followed up for up to 67 months. The 35 patients underwent ultrasonography, computed tomography, or both, with an overall accuracy rate of 85.7%. Of these patients, 31 underwent the modified Puestow procedure, 2 underwent the Whipple procedure, 1 underwent simple stone removal by duct incision, and 1 underwent pancreatic abscess drainage. Of the 35 patients, 28 were followed up for 4-67 months. There was no postoperative death before discharge or during follow-up. After the modified Puestow procedure, abdominal pain was reduced in patients with complete or incomplete stone clearance (P>0.05). Steatorrhea and diabetes mellitus developed in several patients during a long-term follow-up. Surgery, especially the modified Puestow procedure, is effective and safe for patients with PDS associated with chronic pancreatitis. Decompression of intraductal pressure rather than complete clearance of all stones predicts postoperative outcome.

  11. Targeting pancreatic expressed PAX genes for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Petra I; López-Noriega, Livia; Gauthier, Benoit R

    2017-01-01

    Four members of the PAX family, PAX2, PAX4, PAX6 and PAX8 are known to be expressed in the pancreas. Accumulated evidences indicate that several pancreatic expressed PAX genes play a significant role in pancreatic development/functionality and alterations in these genes are involved in the pathogenesis of pancreatic diseases. Areas covered: In this review, we summarize the ongoing research related to pancreatic PAX genes in diabetes mellitus and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. We dissect the current knowledge at different levels; from mechanistic studies in cell lines performed to understand the molecular processes controlled by pancreatic PAX genes, to in vivo studies using rodent models that over-express or lack specific PAX genes. Finally, we describe human studies associating variants on pancreatic-expressed PAX genes with pancreatic diseases. Expert opinion: Based on the current literature, we propose that future interventions to treat pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and diabetes mellitus could be developed via the modulation of PAX4 and/or PAX6 regulated pathways.

  12. Metabolic pancreatitis: Etiopathogenesis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is a medical emergency. Alcohol and gallstones are the most common etiologies accounting for 60%-75% cases. Other important causes include postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedure, abdominal trauma, drug toxicity, various infections, autoimmune, ischemia, and hereditary causes. In about 15% of cases the cause remains unknown (idiopathic pancreatitis. Metabolic conditions giving rise to pancreatitis are less common, accounting for 5%-10% cases. The causes include hypertriglyceridemia, hypercalcemia, diabetes mellitus, porphyria, and Wilson′s disease. The episodes of pancreatitis tend to be more severe. In cases of metabolic pancreatitis, over and above the standard routine management of pancreatitis, careful management of the underlying metabolic abnormalities is of paramount importance. If not treated properly, it leads to recurrent life-threatening bouts of acute pancreatitis. We hereby review the pathogenesis and management of various causes of metabolic pancreatitis.

  13. [Delayed complications after pancreatic surgery: Pancreatic insufficiency, malabsorption syndrome, pancreoprivic diabetes mellitus and pseudocysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, U; Siveke, J; Friess, H; Kleeff, J

    2015-06-01

    Benign and malignant pathologies of the pancreas can result in a relevant chronic disease burden. This is aggravated by morbidities resulting from surgical resections as well as from progression of the underlying condition. The aim was to summarize the current evidence regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, as well as of pancreatic pseudocysts. A selective literature search was performed and a summary of the currently available data on the surgical sequelae after pancreatic resection is given. Reduction of healthy pancreatic parenchyma down to 10-15 % leads to exocrine insufficiency with malabsorption and gastrointestinal complaints. Orally substituted pancreatic enzymes are the therapy of choice. Loss of pancreatic islets and/or islet function leads to endocrine insufficiency and pancreoprivic diabetes mellitus. Inflammatory, traumatic and iatrogenic injuries of the pancreas can lead to pancreatic pseudocysts, which require endoscopic, interventional or surgical drainage if symptomatic. Finally, pancreatic surgery harbors the long-term risk of gastrointestinal anastomotic ulcers, bile duct stenosis, portal vein thrombosis and chronic pain syndrome. As the evidence is limited, an interdisciplinary and individually tailored approach for delayed pancreatic morbidity is recommended.

  14. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-News Sign-Up Home Patient Information Children/Pediatric Chronic Pancreatitis in Children Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child have? Frequent or chronic abdominal pain is the most common symptom of pancreatitis. The ...

  15. Exocrine Dysfunction Correlates with Endocrinal Impairment of Pancreas in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna Kumar, H R; Gowdappa, H Basavana; Hosmani, Tejashwi; Urs, Tejashri

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic abnormal metabolic condition, which manifests elevated blood sugar level over a prolonged period. The pancreatic endocrine system generally gets affected during diabetes, but often abnormal exocrine functions are also manifested due to its proximity to the endocrine system. Fecal elastase-1 (FE-1) is found to be an ideal biomarker to reflect the exocrine insufficiency of the pancreas. The aim of this study was conducted to assess exocrine dysfunction of the pancreas in patients with type-2 DM (T2DM) by measuring FE levels and to associate the level of hyperglycemia with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction. A prospective, cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on both T2DM patients and healthy nondiabetic volunteers. FE-1 levels were measured using a commercial kit (Human Pancreatic Elastase ELISA BS 86-01 from Bioserv Diagnostics). Data analysis was performed based on the important statistical parameters such as mean, standard deviation, standard error, t -test-independent samples, and Chi-square test/cross tabulation using SPSS for Windows version 20.0. Statistically nonsignificant ( P = 0.5051) relationship between FE-1 deficiency and age was obtained, which implied age as a noncontributing factor toward exocrine pancreatic insufficiency among diabetic patients. Statistically significant correlation ( P = 0.003) between glycated hemoglobin and FE-1 levels was also noted. The association between retinopathy ( P = 0.001) and peripheral pulses ( P = 0.001) with FE-1 levels were found to be statistically significant. This study validates the benefit of FE-1 estimation, as a surrogate marker of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, which remains unmanifest and subclinical.

  16. [Autoimmune pancreatitis. Evidence based management guidelines of the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubravcsik, Zsolt; Farkas, Gyula; Hegyi, Péter; Hritz, István; Kelemen, Dezső; Lásztity, Natália; Morvay, Zita; Oláh, Attila; Pap, Ákos; Párniczky, Andrea; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Szentkereszti, Zsolt; Szmola, Richárd; Takács, Tamás; Tiszlavicz, László; Szücs, Ákos; Czakó, László

    2015-02-22

    Autoimmune pancreatitis is a rare disease which can even mimic pancreatic tumor, however, unlike the latter, it requires not surgical but conservative management. Correct diagnosis and differential diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis and treatment of these patients requires up-to-date and evidence based management guidelines. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group proposed to prepare an evidence based guideline based on the available international guidelines and evidences. The preparatory and consultation task force appointed by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group translated and complemented and/or modified the international guidelines if it was necessary. 29 relevant clinical questions in 4 topics were defined (Basics; Diagnosis; Differential diagnostics; Therapy). Evidence was classified according to the UpToDate(®) grading system. The draft of the guidelines was presented and discussed at the consensus meeting on September 12, 2014. All clinial questions were accepted with almost total (more than 95%) agreement. The present guideline is the first evidence based autoimmune pancreatitis guideline in Hungary. The guideline may provide very important and helpful data for tuition of autoimmune pancreatitis, for everyday practice and for establishing proper finance. Therefore, the authors believe that these guidelines will widely become a basic reference in Hungary.

  17. First identification of porcine parvovirus 6 in North America by viral metagenomic sequencing of serum from pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirtzinger, Erin E; Suddith, Andrew W; Hause, Benjamin M; Hesse, Richard A

    2015-10-16

    Currently, eight species in four genera of parvovirus have been described that infect swine. These include ungulate protoparvovirus 1 (classical porcine parvovirus, PPV), ungulate tetraparvovirus 2 (PPV3), ungulate tetraparvovirus 3 (which includes PPV2, porcine hokovirus, porcine partetravirus and porcine PARV4), ungulate copiparvovirus 2 (which includes PPV4 and PPV5), ungulate bocaparvovirus 2 (which includes porcine bocavirus 1, 2 and 6), ungulate bocaparvovirus 3 (porcine bocavirus 5), ungulate bocaparvovirus 4 (porcine bocavirus 7) and ungulate bocaparvovirus 5 (porcine bocavirus 3, 4-1 and 4-2). PPV6, the most recently described porcine parvovirus, was first identified in China in late 2014 in aborted pig fetuses. Prevalence of PPV6 in China was found to be similar in finishing age pigs from farms with and without evidence of swine reproductive failure. Porcine parvovirus 6 (PPV6) was detected by sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA) and confirmed by overlapping and real-time PCR in the serum of porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSv) positive samples. Seven nearly complete genomes of PPV6 were identified in PRRSv genotype 2 positive serum samples submitted to state veterinary diagnostic laboratories in 2014. Further testing using overlapping and real-time PCR determined PPV6 to be present in 13.2 % of the serums tested. Additionally, PPV6 was present in samples from all of the geographic locations sampled encompassing nine states in the United States and one state in Mexico. The presence of PPV6 in serum indicates that the PPV6 infection is disseminated and not localized to a specific tissue type. Alignments of the near full length genomes, NS1, and capsid genes identified one of the five PPV6 isolates from China (98.6-99.5 % identity with the North American strains) to be the North American strains nearest relative. These results are the first to report the presence of PPV6 in North America and demonstrate that the virus is

  18. MRI findings of pancreatic lymphoma and autoimmune pancreatitis: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigami, Kousei, E-mail: Ishigamikousei@aol.co [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582 (Japan); Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Nishie, Akihiro; Ushijima, Yasuhiro [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582 (Japan); Fujita, Nobuhiro [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan); Asayama, Yoshiki; Kakihara, Daisuke; Irie, Hiroyuki [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582 (Japan); Ito, Tetsuhide; Igarashi, Hisato [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan); Nakamura, Masafumi [Department of Surgery and Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose: To clarify whether there are differences in MRI findings between pancreatic lymphomas and autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Materials and methods: MRI of 8 patients with pancreatic lymphomas and 21 patients with AIP were retrospectively reviewed. For multifocal pancreatic lymphomas (n = 2) and AIP (n = 4), the largest 2 lesions were evaluated. Ten pancreatic lymphomas and 25 AIP were compared on three bases: the signal intensity on T2-weighted images, internal homogeneity, and presence or absence of capsule-like rim. In 8 lymphomas and 19 AIP, the enhancement pattern on dynamic MRI was compared, as well. Results: On T2-weighted images, pancreatic lymphomas comprised 5, 5 and 4 lesions with low (iso), slightly high, and moderately high intensity, respectively, while the numbers for AIP were 14, 10, and 1 (P < 0.01). Nine of 10 (90%) lymphomas appeared homogenous, and 11 of 25 (44%) AIP were homogenous (P < 0.05). A capsule-like rim was present in 9 of 25 (36%) AIP, but was not seen in lymphomas (P < 0.05). On dynamic MRI, 18 of 19 (94.7%) AIP showed persistent (n = 5) or delayed enhancement (n = 13), and 6 of 8 (75%) lymphomas showed low intensity without delayed enhancement (P < 0.001). Conclusion: MRI findings for pancreatic lymphomas and AIP were significantly different, which may be helpful for the differential diagnosis of these two diseases.

  19. Segmental pancreatic autotransplantation for chronic pancreatitis. A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, R.L.; Braasch, J.W.; O' Bryan, E.M.; Watkins, E. Jr.

    1983-03-01

    A patient who underwent 95% pancreatectomy with autotransplantation of the body and tail of the gland to the femoral area for chronic pancreatitis is presented. The pain resolved, and the patient's blood glucose level remained within normal limits. High levels of insulin were found in the iliac vein on the transplanted side. Patency of the graft was demonstrated by technetium scan and arteriography and followed by a color-coded Doppler imaging system. Segmental pancreatic autotransplantation offers a method of relieving pain with preservation of endocrine function in selected patients with chronic pancreatitis.

  20. Morphohistological Features of Pancreatic Stump Are the Main Determinant of Pancreatic Fistula after Pancreatoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ridolfi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pancreatic surgery is challenging and associated with high morbidity, mainly represented by postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF and its further consequences. Identification of risk factors for POPF is essential for proper postoperative management. Aim of the Study. Evaluation of the role of morphological and histological features of pancreatic stump, other than main pancreatic duct diameter and glandular texture, in POPF occurrence after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Patients and Methods. Between March 2011 and April 2013, we performed 145 consecutive pancreaticoduodenectomies. We intraoperatively recorded morphological features of pancreatic stump and collected data about postoperative morbidity. Our dedicated pathologist designed a score to quantify fibrosis and inflammation of pancreatic tissue. Results. Overall morbidity was 59,3%. Mortality was 4,1%. POPF rate was 28,3%, while clinically significant POPF were 15,8%. Male sex (P=0.009, BMI≥25 (P=0.002, prolonged surgery (P=0.001, soft pancreatic texture (P<0.001, small pancreatic duct (P<0.001, pancreatic duct decentralization on stump anteroposterior axis, especially if close to the posterior margin (P=0.031, large stump area (P=0.001, and extended stump mobilization (P=0.001 were related to higher POPF rate. Our fibrosis-and-inflammation score is strongly associated with POPF (P=0.001. Discussion and Conclusions. Pancreatic stump features evaluation, including histology, can help the surgeon in fitting postoperative management to patient individual risk after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  1. Pancreatic cancer risk in hereditary pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Frank U.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is part of the body’s immune response in order to remove harmful stimuli – like pathogens, irritants or damaged cells - and start the healing process. Recurrent or chronic inflammation on the other side seems a predisposing factor for carcinogenesis and has been found associated with cancer development. In chronic pancreatitis mutations of the cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) gene have been identified as risk factors of the disease. Hereditary pancreatitis is a rare cause of chronic...

  2. ENDOCRINE PANCREATIC FUNCTION IN ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    OpenAIRE

    P. V. Novokhatny

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Among the organs of internal secretion pancreas has a special place thanks to active exocrine function and a wide range of physiological actions of produced hormones. Violations of endocrine pancreas arises in 6.5-38 % of patients with acute pancreatitis. However, there is still no clear understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of hormonal dysfunction of the pancreas in acute pancreatitis, there is no uniform algorithms for its correction. Aim of the research was to study...

  3. Management of acute pancreatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-El-Haija, Maisam; Lin, Tom K; Nathan, Jaimie D

    2017-10-01

    Pediatric acute pancreatitis has been on the rise in the last decades, with an incidence close to adult pancreatitis. In the majority of cases acute pancreatitis resolves spontaneously, but in a subset of children the disease progresses to severe acute pancreatitis with attendant morbidity and mortality. Pediatric acute pancreatitis in this era is recognized as a separate entity from adult acute pancreatitis given that the causes and disease outcomes are different. There are slow but important advances made in understanding the best management for acute pancreatitis in children from medical, interventional, and surgical aspects. Supportive care with fluids, pain medications, and nutrition remain the mainstay for acute pancreatitis management. For complicated or severe pancreatitis, specialized interventions may be required with endoscopic or drainage procedures. Surgery has an important but limited role in pediatric acute pancreatitis.

  4. Increased galectin-3 levels are associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm progression and inhibition of galectin-3 decreases elastase-induced AAA development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-García, Carlos-Ernesto; Tarin, Carlos; Roldan-Montero, Raquel; Martinez-Lopez, Diego; Torres-Fonseca, Monica; Lindhot, Jes S; Vega de Ceniga, Melina; Egido, Jesus; Lopez-Andres, Natalia; Blanco-Colio, Luis-Miguel; Martín-Ventura, Jose-Luis

    2017-11-15

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) evolution is unpredictable and no specific treatment exists for AAA, except surgery to prevent aortic rupture. Galectin-3 has been previously associated with CVD, but its potential role in AAA has not been addressed. Galectin-3 levels were increased in the plasma of AAA patients ( n =225) compared with the control group ( n =100). In addition, galectin-3 concentrations were associated with the need for surgical repair, independently of potential confounding factors. Galectin-3 mRNA and protein expression were increased in human AAA samples compared with healthy aortas. Experimental AAA in mice was induced via aortic elastase perfusion. Mice were treated intravenously with the galectin-3 inhibitor modified citrus pectin (MCP, 10 mg/kg, every other day) or saline. Similar to humans, galectin-3 serum and aortic mRNA levels were also increased in elastase-induced AAA mice compared with control mice. Mice treated with MCP showed decreased aortic dilation, as well as elastin degradation, vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) loss, and macrophage content at day 14 postelastase perfusion compared with control mice. The underlying mechanism(s) of the protective effect of MCP was associated with a decrease in galectin-3 and cytokine (mainly CCL5) mRNA and protein expression. Interestingly, galectin-3 induced CCL5 expression by a mechanism involving STAT3 activation in VSMC. Accordingly, MCP treatment decreased STAT3 phosphorylation in elastase-induced AAA. In conclusion, increased galectin-3 levels are associated with AAA progression, while galectin-3 inhibition decreased experimental AAA development. Our data suggest the potential role of galectin-3 as a therapeutic target in AAA. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  5. Pancreatic scintiphotography in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Norimasa; Sowa, Etsuji; Fujii, Satoru; Seki, Junichi; Wada, Masahisa

    1975-01-01

    Pancreatic scintiphotography was performed in 108 cases of patients with diabetes mellitus. Scintiphotos were taken at 30 min. after intravenous injection of approximately 200μCi of 75 Se-selenomethionine using a Toshiba gamma camera. The relationship between the degree of pancreatic uptake of 75 Se-selenomethionine and the types and duration of diabetes, vascular complications and the average range of fasting blood sugar levels were studied. In some cases, pancreatic scintiphotos were taken at 10, 30 and 50 min. after injection of 75 Se-selenomethionine, and the degrees of the pancreatic uptake were compared on each time course. Only two out of 24 cases of insulin-dependent diabetics showed normal pancreatic scintiphotos. On the other hand, two out of 47 cases of mild diabetics treated with diet alone showed no uptake in pancreatic scintiphotos. There was a tendency toward abnormal pancreatic scintiphotos in chronic diabetics. Especially, of the 15 cases who had diabetes for more than eleven years, only one case showed a normal pancreatic scintiphoto. Abnormal pancreatic scintiphotos were found more frequently in the group of poorly controlled diabetics than in the group of well controlled diabetics. In cases showing normal pancreatic scintiphotos, diabetic retinopathy was less frequently found. Out of 36 cases which had sequential pancreatic scintiphotos, hypertension and/or arteriosclerosis were found more frequently in the 20 cases which showed a delay in reaching a plateau of the activity. However, the uptake in sequential pancreatic scintiphotos showed no definite correlation between diabetic retinopathy and other diabetic conditions. (auth.)

  6. Pancreatic scintiphotography in diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, N; Sowa, E; Fujii, S; Seki, J; Wada, M [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-09-01

    Pancreatic scintiphotography was performed in 108 cases of patients with diabetes mellitus. Scintiphotos were taken at 30 min. after intravenous injection of approximately 200..mu..Ci of /sup 75/Se-selenomethionine using a Toshiba gamma camera. The relationship between the degree of pancreatic uptake of /sup 75/Se-selenomethionine and the types and duration of diabetes, vascular complications and the average range of fasting blood sugar levels were studied. In some cases, pancreatic scintiphotos were taken at 10, 30 and 50 min. after injection of /sup 75/Se-selenomethionine, and the degrees of the pancreatic uptake were compared on each time course. Only two out of 24 cases of insulin-dependent diabetics showed normal pancreatic scintiphotos. On the other hand, two out of 47 cases of mild diabetics treated with diet alone showed no uptake in pancreatic scintiphotos. There was a tendency toward abnormal pancreatic scintiphotos in chronic diabetics. Especially, of the 15 cases who had diabetes for more than eleven years, only one case showed a normal pancreatic scintiphoto. Abnormal pancreatic scintiphotos were found more frequently in the group of poorly controlled diabetics than in the group of well controlled diabetics. In cases showing normal pancreatic scintiphotos, diabetic retinopathy was less frequently found. Out of 36 cases which had sequential pancreatic scintiphotos, hypertension and/or arterioscl-erosis were found more frequently in the 20 cases which showed a delay in reaching a plateau of the activity. However, the uptake in sequential pancreatic scintiphotos showed no definite correlation between diabetic retinopathy and other diabetic conditions.

  7. Surgical Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jens; Uhl, Waldemar; Büchler, Markus W.

    2003-10-01

    Patients with predicted severe necrotizing pancreatitis as diagnosed by C-reactive protein (>150 mg/L) and/or contrast-enhanced computed tomography should be managed in the intensive care unit. Prophylactic broad-spectrum antibiotics reduce infection rates and survival in severe necrotizing pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic sphincterotomy is a causative therapy for gallstone pancreatitis with impacted stones, biliary sepsis, or obstructive jaundice. Fine needle aspiration for bacteriology should be performed to differentiate between sterile and infected pancreatic necrosis in patients with sepsis syndrome. Infected pancreatic necrosis in patients with clinical signs and symptoms of sepsis is an indication for surgery. Patients with sterile pancreatic necrosis should be managed conservatively. Surgery in patients with sterile necrosis may be indicated in cases of persistent necrotizing pancreatitis and in the rare cases of "fulminant acute pancreatitis." Early surgery, within 14 days after onset of the disease, is not recommended in patients with necrotizing pancreatitis. The surgical approach should be organ-preserving (debridement/necrosectomy) and combined with a postoperative management concept that maximizes postoperative evacuation of retroperitoneal debris and exudate. Minimally invasive surgical procedures have to be regarded as an experimental approach and should be restricted to controlled trials. Cholecystectomy should be performed to avoid recurrence of gallstone-associated acute pancreatitis.

  8. Spatial clustering of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena A Ngowi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Porcine cysticercosis is caused by a zoonotic tapeworm, Taenia solium, which causes serious disease syndromes in human. Effective control of the parasite requires knowledge on the burden and pattern of the infections in order to properly direct limited resources. The objective of this study was to establish the spatial distribution of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania, to guide control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study is a secondary analysis of data collected during the baseline and follow-up periods of a randomized community trial aiming at reducing the incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis through an educational program. At baseline, 784 randomly selected pig-keeping households located in 42 villages in 14 wards were included. Lingual examination of indigenous pigs aged 2-12 (median 8 months, one randomly selected from each household, were conducted. Data from the control group of the randomized trial that included 21 of the 42 villages were used for the incidence study. A total of 295 pig-keeping households were provided with sentinel pigs (one each and reassessed for cysticercosis incidence once or twice for 2-9 (median 4 months using lingual examination and antigen ELISA. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was computed in Epi Info 3.5. The prevalence and incidence of porcine cysticercosis were mapped at household level using ArcView 3.2. K functions were computed in R software to assess general clustering of porcine cysticercosis. Spatial scan statistics were computed in SatScan to identify local clusters of the infection. The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 7.3% (95% CI: 5.6, 9.4; n = 784. The K functions revealed a significant overall clustering of porcine cysticercosis incidence for all distances between 600 m and 5 km from a randomly chosen case household based on Ag-ELISA. Lingual examination revealed clustering from 650 m to 6 km and between 7.5 and 10 km

  9. Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure in chronic pancreatitis. Relation to pain, morphology, and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Bülow, J

    1990-01-01

    The relation between pancreatic tissue fluid pressure and pain, morphology, and function was studied in a cross-sectional investigation. Pressure measurements were performed by percutaneous fine-needle puncture. Thirty-nine patients with chronic pancreatitis were included, 25 with pain and 14...... without (p = 0.004 and p = 0.0003, respectively). The pressure was significantly related (inversely) to pancreatic duct diameter only in the group of 19 patients with earlier pancreatic surgery (R = -0.57, p = 0.02). The pressure was not related to functional factors or the presence of pancreatic...... without pain. The pressure was higher in patients with pain than in patients without pain (p = 0.000001), and this was significantly related to a pain score from a visual analogue scale (p less than 0.001). Patients with pancreatic pseudocysts had both higher pressure and higher pain score than patients...

  10. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applied to hepato-bilio-pancreatic and the digestive system—current state of the art and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Michele; Schiraldi, Luigi; Liu, Yu-Yin; Memeo, Riccardo; Mutter, Didier; Pessaux, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as a valid minimally-invasive image-guided treatment of malignancies. We aimed to review to current state of the art of HIFU therapy applied to the digestive system and discuss some promising avenues of the technology. Methods Pertinent studies were identified through PubMed and Embase search engines using the following keywords, combined in different ways: HIFU, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, colon, rectum, and cancer. Experimental proof of the concept of endoluminal HIFU mucosa/submucosa ablation using a custom-made transducer has been obtained in vivo in the porcine model. Results Forty-four studies reported on the clinical use of HIFU to treat liver lesions, while 19 series were found on HIFU treatment of pancreatic cancers and four studies included patients suffering from both liver and pancreatic cancers, reporting on a total of 1,682 and 823 cases for liver and pancreas, respectively. Only very limited comparative prospective studies have been reported. Conclusions Digestive system clinical applications of HIFU are limited to pancreatic and liver cancer. It is safe and well tolerated. The exact place in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) management algorithm remains to be defined. HIFU seems to add clear survival advantages over trans arterial chemo embolization (TACE) alone and similar results when compared to radio frequency (RF). For pancreatic cancer, HIFU achieves consistent cancer-related pain relief. Further research is warranted to improve targeting accuracy and efficacy monitoring. Furthermore, additional work is required to transfer this technology on appealing treatments such as endoscopic HIFU-based therapies. PMID:27500145

  11. Porcine SLITRK1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Momeni, Jamal; Farajzadeh, Leila

    2014-01-01

    The membrane protein SLITRK1 functions as a developmentally regulated stimulator of neurite outgrowth and variants in this gene have been implicated in Tourette syndrome. In the current study we have cloned and characterized the porcine SLITRK1 gene. The genomic organization of SLITRK1 lacks...

  12. PKD signaling and pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jingzhen; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is a serious medical disorder with no current therapies directed to the molecular pathogenesis of the disorder. Inflammation, inappropriate intracellular activation of digestive enzymes, and parenchymal acinar cell death by necrosis are the critical pathophysiologic processes of acute pancreatitis. Thus, it is necessary to elucidate the key molecular signals that mediate these pathobiologic processes and develop new therapeutic strategies to attenuate the appropriate signaling pathways in order to improve outcomes for this disease. A novel serine/threonine protein kinase D (PKD) family has emerged as key participants in signal transduction, and this family is increasingly being implicated in the regulation of multiple cellular functions and diseases. Methods This review summarizes recent findings of our group and others regarding the signaling pathway and the biological roles of the PKD family in pancreatic acinar cells. In particular, we highlight our studies of the functions of PKD in several key pathobiologic processes associated with acute pancreatitis in experimental models. Results Our findings reveal that PKD signaling is required for NF-κB activation/inflammation, intracellular zymogen activation, and acinar cell necrosis in rodent experimental pancreatitis. Novel small-molecule PKD inhibitors attenuate the severity of pancreatitis in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Further, this review emphasizes our latest advances in the therapeutic application of PKD inhibitors to experimental pancreatitis after the initiation of pancreatitis. Conclusions These novel findings suggest that PKD signaling is a necessary modulator in key initiating pathobiologic processes of pancreatitis, and that it constitutes a novel therapeutic target for treatments of this disorder. PMID:26879861

  13. β-Cell regeneration through the transdifferentiation of pancreatic cells: Pancreatic progenitor cells in the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Sup; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic progenitor cell research has been in the spotlight, as these cells have the potential to replace pancreatic β-cells for the treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetic patients with the absence or reduction of pancreatic β-cells. During the past few decades, the successful treatment of diabetes through transplantation of the whole pancreas or isolated islets has nearly been achieved. However, novel sources of pancreatic islets or insulin-producing cells are required to provide sufficient amounts of donor tissues. To overcome this limitation, the use of pancreatic progenitor cells is gaining more attention. In particular, pancreatic exocrine cells, such as duct epithelial cells and acinar cells, are attractive candidates for β-cell regeneration because of their differentiation potential and pancreatic lineage characteristics. It has been assumed that β-cell neogenesis from pancreatic progenitor cells could occur in pancreatic ducts in the postnatal stage. Several studies have shown that insulin-producing cells can arise in the duct tissue of the adult pancreas. Acinar cells also might have the potential to differentiate into insulin-producing cells. The present review summarizes recent progress in research on the transdifferentiation of pancreatic exocrine cells into insulin-producing cells, especially duct and acinar cells.

  14. Functional verification of a porcine myostatin propeptide mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dezun; Jiang, Shengwang; Gao, Pengfei; Qian, Lili; Wang, Qingqing; Cai, Chunbo; Xiao, Gaojun; Yang, Jinzeng; Cui, Wentao

    2015-10-01

    Myostatin is a member of TGF-β superfamily that acts as a key negative regulator in development and growth of embryonic and postnatal muscles. In this study, the inhibitory activities of recombinant porcine myostatin propeptide and its mutated form (at the cleavage site of metalloproteinases of BMP-1/TLD family) against murine myostatin was evaluated in vivo by intraperitoneal injection into mice. Results showed that both wild type and mutated form of porcine propeptide significantly inhibited myostatin activity in vivo. The average body weight of mice receiving wild type propeptide or its mutated form increased by 12.5 % and 24.14%, respectively, compared to mice injected with PBS, implying that the in vivo efficacy of porcine propeptide mutant is greater than its wild type propeptide. Transgenic mice expressing porcine myostatin propeptide mutant were generated to further verify the results obtained from mice injected with recombinant porcine propeptide mutant. Compared with wild type (non-transgenic) mice, relative weight of gastrocnemius, rectusfemoris, and tibialis anterior increased by 22.14 %, 34.13 %, 25.37%, respectively, in transgenic male mice, and by 19.90 %, 42.47 %, 45.61%, respectively, in transgenic female mice. Our data also demonstrated that the mechanism by which muscle growth enhancement is achieved by these propeptides is due to an increase in fiber sizes, not by an increase in number of fiber cells.

  15. CT findings of pancreatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mi Sook; Park, In Sook; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song; Won, Jong Jin

    1988-01-01

    CT was found to be a reliable, often specific, and noninvasive method for detecting pancreatic diseases. In a study of pancreatic lesions, 37 cases having satisfactory operative and histological proofs were analyzed by CT at PMC from Jan. 1986 to Oct. 1987. The results were as following: 1. Male:female is 26:11. 2. The incidence of pancreatic disease were as follows: 1) Pancreatic cancer:21 cases (56%) a.Head:12 cases b.Body:4 cases c.Tail:1 case d.Body and tail:1 case e.Uncinate process:2 cases f.Entire pancreas: 1 case 2) Acute pancreatitis: 6 cases (16%) 3) Chronic pancreatitis:5 cases (14%) 3. The characteristic CT findings: 1) 100% of pancreatic head cancer showed focal mass or alteration of pancreatic head contour and biliary tree dilatation, and 33% (7/12) fat line obliteration. 2) All of other pancreatic cancer except head appeared as focal mass or contour alteration and fat line obliteration. 3) Total 6 cases of acute pancreatitis showed that 5 cases diffuse enlargement of pancreas, 3 fluid collection (2 cases:left anterior pararenal and posterior pararenal space and lesser sac, 1 case:only pancreas body) and 1 case abscess formation. 4) Total 5 cases of chronic pancreatitis revealed diffuse enlargement 2 cases and atrophy 1 case, pancreatic ductal dilatation 3 cases, calcification 2 cases, and biliary tree dilatation with CBD tapering appearance 1 case. 5) All cases of pseudocysts were well marginated cystic lesions that located at head in 3 cases and tail 3 cases, and 4 cases were well defined pure cystic masses but 1 case was well capsulated cyst with multiple internal septation

  16. Drug-induced acute pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. Eland (Ingo)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAcute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas with sudden onset. The severity of acute pancreatitis may vary from mild to life threatening. There are many risk factors for acute pancreatitis, among which gallstones and alcohol abuse are most widely known. Drugs are

  17. Role of pancreatic fat in the outcomes of pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Chathur; Navina, Sarah; Singh, Vijay P

    2014-01-01

    The role of obesity in relation to various disease processes is being increasingly studied, with reports over the last several years increasingly mentioning its association with worse outcomes in acute disease. Obesity has also gained recognition as a risk factor for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).The mortality in SAP may be as high as 30% and is usually attributable to multi system organ failure (MSOF) earlier in the disease, and complications of necrotizing pancreatitis later [9-11]. To date there is no specific treatment for acute pancreatitis (AP) and the management is largely expectant and supportive. Obesity in general has also been associated with poor outcomes in sepsis and other pathological states including trauma and burns. With the role of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) as propagators in SAP having recently come to light and with the recognition of acute lipotoxicity, there is now an opportunity to explore different strategies to reduce the mortality and morbidity in SAP and potentially other disease states associated with such a pathophysiology. In this review we will discuss the role of fat and implications of the consequent acute lipotoxicity on the outcomes of acute pancreatitis in lean and obese states and during acute on chronic pancreatitis. Copyright © 2014 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Targeted Porcine Genome Engineering with TALENs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yonglun; Lin, Lin; Golas, Mariola Monika

    2015-01-01

    confers precisely editing (e.g., mutations or indels) or insertion of a functional transgenic cassette to user-designed loci. Techniques for targeted genome engineering are growing dramatically and include, e.g., zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs......, including construction of sequence-specific TALENs, delivery of TALENs into primary porcine fibroblasts, and detection of TALEN-mediated cleavage, is described. This chapter is useful for scientists who are inexperienced with TALEN engineering of porcine cells as well as of other large animals....

  19. Alcohol and the pancreas. II. Pancreatic morphology of advanced alcoholic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, M; Bordalo, O; Dreiling, D A

    1981-08-01

    The histopathology of advanced chronic alcoholic pancreatitis is dominated by cellular degeneration, atrophy and fibrosis. Sequential changes in the histopathology of alcoholic pancreatic disease has been defined and traced from initial injury to end-stage disease. These sequential histopathologies have been correlated with clinical syndrome and secretory patterns. The data are more consistent with a toxic-metabolic pathogenesis of alcoholic pancreatitis than the previous Big Duct and Small Duct hypotheses.

  20. Pancreatic Sarcoma Mimicking Pseudocyst After Pancreatitis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chi Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old female presented with abdominal pain for 3 days without trauma history. The pain was located over the epigastric area with radiation to the back. A pancreatic pseudocyst was impressed initially according to clinical symptoms, laboratory data, and image studies. However, rapid progression of the lesions was noted later after discharge. Following image studies showed circumscribed tumors in the head, body, and tail regions of the pancreas. Surgery with the Whipple operation was performed during the second admission. The post operation course was uneventful. Pathologic results showed sarcoma of the pancreas. Primary pancreatic sarcomas are extremely rare lesions accounting for < 0.1% of all pancreatic malignancies. Pancreatic sarcomas tend to be aggressive and have a poor prognosis. In addition, < 5% of pancreatic tumors are cystic. The rarest cystic neoplasm is also the primary pancreatic sarcoma, with only a few cases having been documented. However, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic cystic lesions.

  1. Chronic pancreatitis. Some important historical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Salvador

    2018-06-08

    Since ancient times the increase of size and hardness sometimes presented by the abdominal structure known as the pancreas has attracted attention. Portal was the first to describe the clinical signs of chronic pancreatitis in 1803. In 1815, Fleischman speculated about the potential role of excessive alcohol consumption. Comfort coined the term "chronic relapsing pancreatitis" in 1946 and described hereditary pancreatitis 6 years later. Zuidema defined tropical pancreatitis in 1959 and 2 years later Sarles described another form of pancreatitis to which Yoshida gave the name autoimmune pancreatitis in 1995. Groove pancreatitis was described by Potet in 1970. Obstructive pancreatitis was defined in 1984 and Ammann identified idiopathic pancreatitis 3 years later. This article gives a historical account of the pioneers who developed the knowledge of how to assess the characteristics that allowed the different forms of chronic pancreatitis to be defined. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Pancreatic Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancreatic cancer can form in exocrine cells and neuroendocrine cells. The exocrine type is more common and is usually found at an advanced stage. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are less common but have a better prognosis. Start here to find information on pancreatic cancer treatment, research, and statistics.

  3. Pancreatic HIF2α Stabilization Leads to Chronic Pancreatitis and Predisposes to Mucinous Cystic Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather K. Schofield

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: We show that pancreatic HIF2α stabilization disrupts pancreatic homeostasis, leading to chronic pancreatitis, and, in the context of oncogenic Kras, MCN formation. These findings provide new mouse models of both chronic pancreatitis and MCN, as well as illustrate the importance of hypoxia signaling in the pancreas.

  4. Prevention of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kuroczycki-Saniutycz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA accounts for 95% of all pancreatic cancers. About 230,000 PDA cases are diagnosed worldwide each year. PDA has the lowest five-year survival rate as compared to others cancers. PDA in Poland is the fifth leading cause of death after lung, stomach, colon and breast cancer. In our paper we have analysed the newest epidemiological research, some of it controversial, to establish the best practical solution for pancreatic cancer prevention in the healthy population as well as treatment for patients already diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. We found that PDA occurs quite frequently but is usually diagnosed too late, at its advanced stage. Screening for PDA is not very well defined except in subgroups of high-risk individuals with genetic disorders or with chronic pancreatitis. We present convincing, probable, and suggestive risk factors associated with pancreatic cancer, many of which are modifiable and should be introduced and implemented in our society.

  5. Necrotizing pancreatitis: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendersky VA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Victoria A Bendersky,1 Mohan K Mallipeddi,2 Alexander Perez,2 Theodore N Pappas,2 1School of Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Acute pancreatitis is a common disease that can progress to gland necrosis, which imposes significant risk of morbidity and mortality. In general, the treatment for pancreatitis is a supportive therapy. However, there are several reasons to escalate to surgery or another intervention. This review discusses the pathophysiology as well as medical and interventional management of necrotizing pancreatitis. Current evidence suggests that patients are best served by delaying interventions for at least 4 weeks, draining as a first resort, and debriding recalcitrant tissue using minimally invasive techniques to promote or enhance postoperative recovery while reducing wound-related complications. Keywords: necrotizing pancreatitis, pancreatic necrosectomy, VARD, pancreatic debridement, pancreatic collections

  6. A Case of Pancreatic Cancer in the Setting of Autoimmune Pancreatitis with Nondiagnostic Serum Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju D. Chandrasegaram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP often mimics pancreatic cancer. The diagnosis of both conditions is difficult preoperatively let alone when they coexist. Several reports have been published describing pancreatic cancer in the setting of AIP. Case Report. The case of a 53-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain, jaundice, and radiological features of autoimmune pancreatitis, with a “sausage-shaped” pancreas and bulky pancreatic head with portal vein impingement, is presented. He had a normal serum IgG4 and only mildly elevated Ca-19.9. Initial endoscopic ultrasound-(EUS- guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA of the pancreas revealed an inflammatory sclerosing process only. A repeat EUS guided biopsy following biliary decompression demonstrated both malignancy and features of autoimmune pancreatitis. At laparotomy, a uniformly hard, bulky pancreas was found with no sonographically definable mass. A total pancreatectomy with portal vein resection and reconstruction was performed. Histology revealed adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreatic head and autoimmune pancreatitis and squamous metaplasia in the remaining pancreas. Conclusion. This case highlights the diagnostic and management difficulties in a patient with pancreatic cancer in the setting of serum IgG4-negative, Type 2 AIP.

  7. Porcine aminopeptidase N mediated polarized infection by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in target cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Yingying; Li, Xiaoxue; Bai, Yunyun [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Lv, Xiaonan [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); CAS Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience & Technology of China, Beijing 100090 (China); Herrler, Georg [Institute for Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover D-30559 (Germany); Enjuanes, Luis [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Campus Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Zhou, Xingdong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Qu, Bo [Faculty of Life Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Meng, Fandan [Institute for Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover D-30559 (Germany); Cong, Chengcheng [College Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161 (China); Ren, Xiaofeng; Li, Guangxing [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was characterized. Indirect immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed PEDV can be successfully propagated in immortalized swine small intestine epithelial cells (IECs). Infection involved porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN), a reported cellular receptor for PEDV, transient expression of pAPN and siRNA targeted pAPN increased and decreased the infectivity of PEDV in IECs, respectively. Subsequently, polarized entry into and release from both Vero E6 and IECs was analyzed. PEDV entry into polarized cells and pAPN grown on membrane inserts occurs via apical membrane. The progeny virus released into the medium was also quantified which demonstrated that PEDV is preferentially released from the apical membrane. Collectively, our data demonstrate that pAPN, the cellular receptor for PEDV, mediates polarized PEDV infection. These results imply the possibility that PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in intestinal epithelial cells. - Highlights: • PEDV infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was characterized. • Porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN) facilitated PEDV infection in IECs. • PEDV entry into and release from polarized cell via its apical membrane. • PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in IECs.

  8. Porcine aminopeptidase N mediated polarized infection by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in target cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong, Yingying; Li, Xiaoxue; Bai, Yunyun; Lv, Xiaonan; Herrler, Georg; Enjuanes, Luis; Zhou, Xingdong; Qu, Bo; Meng, Fandan; Cong, Chengcheng; Ren, Xiaofeng; Li, Guangxing

    2015-01-01

    Infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was characterized. Indirect immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed PEDV can be successfully propagated in immortalized swine small intestine epithelial cells (IECs). Infection involved porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN), a reported cellular receptor for PEDV, transient expression of pAPN and siRNA targeted pAPN increased and decreased the infectivity of PEDV in IECs, respectively. Subsequently, polarized entry into and release from both Vero E6 and IECs was analyzed. PEDV entry into polarized cells and pAPN grown on membrane inserts occurs via apical membrane. The progeny virus released into the medium was also quantified which demonstrated that PEDV is preferentially released from the apical membrane. Collectively, our data demonstrate that pAPN, the cellular receptor for PEDV, mediates polarized PEDV infection. These results imply the possibility that PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in intestinal epithelial cells. - Highlights: • PEDV infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was characterized. • Porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN) facilitated PEDV infection in IECs. • PEDV entry into and release from polarized cell via its apical membrane. • PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in IECs

  9. Comparison of commercial and experimental porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines using a triple challenge with PCV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine parvovirus (PPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H G; Beach, N M; Huang, Y W; Halbur, P G; Meng, X J; Opriessnig, T

    2010-08-23

    The efficacies of commercial porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines and a live PCV1-2a chimeric vaccine were compared in conventional, PCV2-positive piglets using a PCV2-porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-porcine parvovirus (PPV) coinfection challenge model. Seventy-three, 2-week-old pigs were randomized into seven groups including five vaccinated and two control groups. Pigs in the vaccinated groups were vaccinated at 3 weeks (one dose) or at 3 and 6 weeks (two dose) of age. All vaccine regimens tested were effective in reducing naturally occurring PCV2 viremia at 16 weeks of age and after PCV2 challenge, demonstrating the capability of the products to induce a lasting protective immunity despite the presence of PCV2 viremia at the time of vaccination. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk of Recurrent Pancreatitis and Progression to Chronic Pancreatitis After a First Episode of Acute Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed Ali, Usama; Issa, Yama; Hagenaars, Julia C.; Bakker, Olaf J.; van Goor, Harry; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B.; Bollen, Thomas L.; van Ramshorst, Bert; Witteman, Ben J.; Brink, Menno A.; Schaapherder, Alexander F.; Dejong, Cornelis H.; Spanier, B. W Marcel; Heisterkamp, Joos; van der Harst, Erwin; van Eijck, Casper H.; Besselink, Marc G.; Gooszen, Hein G.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims: Patients with a first episode of acute pancreatitis can develop recurrent or chronic pancreatitis (CP). However, little is known about the incidence or risk factors for these events. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 669 patients with a first episode of acute

  11. Risk of Recurrent Pancreatitis and Progression to Chronic Pancreatitis After a First Episode of Acute Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, U.A.; Issa, Y.; Hagenaars, J.C.; Bakker, O.J.; Goor, H. van; Nieuwenhuijs, V.B.; Bollen, T.L.; Ramshorst, B. van; Witteman, B.J.; Brink, M.A.; Schaapherder, A.F.; Dejong, C.H.; Spanier, B.W.; Heisterkamp, J.; Harst, E. van der; Eijck, C.H. van; Besselink, M.G.; Gooszen, H.G.; Santvoort, H.C. van; Boermeester, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with a first episode of acute pancreatitis can develop recurrent or chronic pancreatitis (CP). However, little is known about the incidence or risk factors for these events. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 669 patients with a first episode of acute

  12. Constitutive and inducible expression of SKALP/elafin provides anti-elastase defense in human epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfundt, R; van Ruissen, F; van Vlijmen-Willems, I M; Alkemade, H A; Zeeuwen, P L; Jap, P H; Dijkman, H; Fransen, J; Croes, H; van Erp, P E; Schalkwijk, J

    1996-01-01

    Skin-derived antileukoproteinase (SKALP), also known as elafin, is a serine proteinase inhibitor first discovered in keratinocytes from hyperproliferative human epidermis. In addition to the proteinase inhibiting domain which is directed against polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) derived enzymes such as elastase and proteinase 3, SKALP contains multiple transglutaminase (TGase) substrate domains which enable crosslinking to extracellular and cell envelope proteins. Here we show that SKALP is constitutively expressed in several epithelia that are continuously subjected to inflammatory stimuli, such as the oral cavity and the vagina where it co-localizes with type 1 TGase. All epithelia from sterile body cavities are negative for SKALP. In general, stratified squamous epithelia are positive, whereas pseudostratified epithelia, simple/glandular epithelia and normal epidermis are negative. SKALP was found in fetal tissues of the oral cavity from 17 wk gestation onwards where it continued to be expressed up to adult life. Remarkably, in fetal epidermis SKALP was found from week 28 onwards, but was downregulated to undetectable levels in neonatal skin within three months, suggesting a role during pregnancy in feto-maternal interactions or in the early maturation phase of the epidermis. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed the presence of SKALP in secretory vesicles including the lamellar granules. In culture models for epidermal keratinocytes we found that expression of the endogenous SKALP gene provided protection against cell detachment caused by purified elastase or activated PMNs. Addition of exogenous recombinant SKALP fully protected the keratinocytes against PMN-dependent detachment whereas superoxide dismutase and catalase were only marginally effective. These findings strongly suggest that the constitutive expression of SKALP in squamous epithelia, and the inducible expression in epidermis participate in the control of epithelial integrity, by inhibiting PMN

  13. Circovirose suína Porcine circovirosis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticiana do Nascimento França

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Por meio de revisão da literatura pertinente foram coligidos e são apresentados os principais dados relativos aos aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, anátomo e histopatológicos observados na infecção por Circovírus Porcino tipo 2 (PCV-2 em suínos. São abordados a Síndrome Definhante Multissistêmica dos Suínos Desmamados (SDMDS, o Tremor Congênito Suíno (TCS, a Síndrome da Nefropatia e Dermatite Porcina (SNDP, bem como outras enfermidades associadas ou correlatas, a Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Porcina (SRRP, a Pneumonia Necrotizante Proliferativa (PNP e as falhas reprodutivas. Uma vez que a SDMSD já foi registrada na Região Sul do Brasil e no Estado do Rio de Janeiro esse estudo objetiva chamar a atenção para o especial significado dessa virose para a suinocultura brasileira, em função dos prejuízos econômicos por ela determinados.The literature of Porcine Circovirosis, including the main data on epidemiology and clinical, macroscopic and microscopic alterations of the infection of swine by Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV-2, is reviewed. There are various forms of infection: the [Porcine] Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS, Porcine Congenital Tremor, Porcine Dermatitis and Nephropathy Syndrome, and other associated or correlated diseases as the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, Proliferative Necrotizing Pneumonia, and reproductive disorders. As PMWS already has been reported from southern Brazil and from the state of Rio de Janeiro, the objective of this review is to draw attention to the implications of this virosis for swine production in Brazil and its economical importance.

  14. Evaluation of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency by cine-dynamic MRCP using spatially selective inversion-recovery (IR) pulse: Correlation with severity of chronic pancreatitis based on morphological changes of pancreatic duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasokawa, Kazuya; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Kanki, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Akira; Torigoe, Teruyuki; Sato, Tomohiro; Tamada, Tsutomu

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the correlation between the pancreatic exocrine insufficiency estimated by cine-dynamic MRCP using spatially selective IR pulse and the severity stages (modified Cambridge classification) based on morphological changes of the pancreatic duct in patients with suspected chronic pancreatitis. Thirty-nine patients with suspected chronic pancreatitis underwent cine-dynamic MRCP with a spatially selective IR pulse. The secretion grading score (5-point scale) based on the moving distance of pancreatic juice inflow on cine-dynamic MRCP was assessed, and compared with the stage of the severity of chronic pancreatitis based on morphological changes of pancreatic duct. The stage of the severity of chronic pancreatitis based on morphological changes had significant negative correlations with the secretion grade (r=-0.698, P0.70 in 2 (33%) of 6 patients showing normal pancreatic exocrine function. It should be noted that the degree of morphological changes of pancreatic duct does not necessarily reflect the severity of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency at cine-dynamic MRCP in stage 2-3 chronic pancreatitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Growth Factor Mediated Signaling in Pancreatic Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandy, Debashis; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata, E-mail: mukhopadhyay.debabrata@mayo.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Guggenheim 1321C, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2011-02-24

    Functionally, the pancreas consists of two types of tissues: exocrine and endocrine. Exocrine pancreatic disorders mainly involve acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis typically is benign, while chronic pancreatitis is considered a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Most pancreatic cancers develop in the exocrine tissues. Endocrine pancreatic tumors are more uncommon, and typically are less aggressive than exocrine tumors. However, the endocrine pancreatic disorder, diabetes, is a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality. Importantly, different growth factors and their receptors play critical roles in pancreatic pathogenesis. Hence, an improved understanding of how various growth factors affect pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma is necessary to determine appropriate treatment. This chapter describes the role of different growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF) in various pancreatic pathophysiologies. Finally, the crosstalk between different growth factor axes and their respective signaling mechanisms, which are involved in pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma, are also discussed.

  16. Growth Factor Mediated Signaling in Pancreatic Pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandy, Debashis; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2011-01-01

    Functionally, the pancreas consists of two types of tissues: exocrine and endocrine. Exocrine pancreatic disorders mainly involve acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis typically is benign, while chronic pancreatitis is considered a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Most pancreatic cancers develop in the exocrine tissues. Endocrine pancreatic tumors are more uncommon, and typically are less aggressive than exocrine tumors. However, the endocrine pancreatic disorder, diabetes, is a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality. Importantly, different growth factors and their receptors play critical roles in pancreatic pathogenesis. Hence, an improved understanding of how various growth factors affect pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma is necessary to determine appropriate treatment. This chapter describes the role of different growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF) in various pancreatic pathophysiologies. Finally, the crosstalk between different growth factor axes and their respective signaling mechanisms, which are involved in pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma, are also discussed

  17. COMPARING THE ENZYME REPLACEMENT THERAPY COST IN POST PANCREATECTOMY PATIENTS DUE TO PANCREATIC TUMOR AND CHRONIC PANCREATITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Anna Victoria; Pedroso, Martha Regina; Herman, Paulo; Montagnini, André Luis

    2016-01-01

    Among late postoperative complications of pancreatectomy are the exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiencies. The presence of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency imposes, as standard treatment, pancreatic enzyme replacement. Patients with chronic pancreatitis, with intractable pain or any complications with surgical treatment, are likely to present exocrine pancreatic insufficiency or have this condition worsened requiring adequate dose of pancreatic enzymes. The aim of this study is to compare the required dose of pancreatic enzyme and the enzyme replacement cost in post pancreatectomy patients with and without chronic pancreatitis. Observational cross-sectional study. In the first half of 2015 patients treated at the clinic of the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery at Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil, who underwent pancreatectomy for at least 6 months and in use of enzyme replacement therapy were included in this series. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of chronic pancreatitis prior to pancreatic surgery. For this study, Ptreatment was R$ 2150.5 ± 729.39; R$ 2118.18 ± 731.02 in patients without pancreatitis and R$ 2217.74 ± 736.30 in patients with pancreatitis. There was no statistically significant difference in the cost of treatment of enzyme replacement post pancreatectomy in patients with or without chronic pancreatitis prior to surgical indication.

  18. Familial Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Lanspa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer’s high mortality rate equates closely with its incidence, thereby showing the need for development of biomarkers of its increased risk and a better understanding of its genetics, so that high-risk patients can be better targeted for screening and early potential lifesaving diagnosis. Its phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity is extensive and requires careful scrutiny of its pattern of cancer associations, such as malignant melanoma associated with pancreatic cancer, in the familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome, due to the CDKN2A germline mutation. This review is designed to depict several of the hereditary pancreatic cancer syndromes with particular attention given to the clinical application of this knowledge into improved control of pancreatic cancer.

  19. Type 3c (pancreatogenic) diabetes mellitus secondary to chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Phil A; Bellin, Melena D; Andersen, Dana K; Bradley, David; Cruz-Monserrate, Zobeida; Forsmark, Christopher E; Goodarzi, Mark O; Habtezion, Aida; Korc, Murray; Kudva, Yogish C; Pandol, Stephen J; Yadav, Dhiraj; Chari, Suresh T

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases defined by persistent hyperglycaemia. Type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent form, is characterised initially by impaired insulin sensitivity and subsequently by an inadequate compensatory insulin response. Diabetes can also develop as a direct consequence of other diseases, including diseases of the exocrine pancreas. Historically, diabetes due to diseases of the exocrine pancreas was described as pancreatogenic or pancreatogenous diabetes mellitus, but recent literature refers to it as type 3c diabetes. It is important to note that type 3c diabetes is not a single entity; it occurs because of a variety of exocrine pancreatic diseases with varying mechanisms of hyperglycaemia. The most commonly identified causes of type 3c diabetes are chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, haemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, and previous pancreatic surgery. In this Review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical relevance of type 3c diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and highlight several important knowledge gaps. PMID:28404095

  20. Analyses of pancreas development by generation of gfp transgenic zebrafish using an exocrine pancreas-specific elastaseA gene promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Haiyan; Korzh, Svitlana; Li Zhen; Mudumana, Sudha Puttur; Korzh, Vladimir; Jiang Yunjin; Lin Shuo; Gong Zhiyuan

    2006-01-01

    In contrast to what we know on development of endocrine pancreas, the formation of exocrine pancreas remains poorly understood. To create an animal model that allows observation of exocrine cell differentiation, proliferation, and morphogenesis in living animals, we used the zebrafish elastaseA (elaA) regulatory sequence to develop transgenic zebrafish that display highly specific exocrine pancreas expression of GFP in both larvae and adult. By following GFP expression, we found that the pancreas in early development was a relatively compact organ and later extended posterior along the intestine. By transferring the elaA:gfp transgene into slow muscle omitted mutant that is deficient in receiving Hedgehog signals, we further showed that Hedgehog signaling is required for exocrine morphogenesis but not for cell differentiation. We also applied the morpholino knockdown and toxin-mediated cell ablation approaches to this transgenic line. We showed that the development of exocrine pancreas is Islet-1 dependent. Injection of the diphtheria toxin A (DTA) construct under the elastaseA promoter resulted in selective ablation of exocrine cells while the endocrine cells and other endodermal derivatives (liver and intestine) were not affected. Thus, our works demonstrated the new transgenic line provided a useful experimental tool in analyzing exocrine pancreas development

  1. Oxidative stress and nitrosative stress are involved in different stages of proteolytic pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzetti, Manuella; da Costa, Cristiane Aguiar; Nesi, Renata Tiscoski; Barroso, Marina Valente; Martins, Vanessa; Victoni, Tatiana; Lagente, Vincent; Pires, Karla Maria Pereira; e Silva, Patrícia Machado Rodrigues; Resende, Angela Castro; Porto, Luis Cristóvão; Benjamim, Cláudia Farias; Valença, Samuel Santos

    2012-12-01

    Our aim was to investigate the role of oxidative stress in elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to pancreatic porcine elastase (PPE) instillation (0.05 or 0.5 U per mouse, i.t.) to induce pulmonary emphysema. Lungs were collected on days 7, 14, and 21 after PPE instillation. The control group was sham injected. Also, mice treated with 1% aminoguanidine (AMG) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) knockout mice received 0.5 U PPE (i.t.), and lungs were analyzed 21 days after. We performed bronchoalveolar lavage, biochemical analyses of oxidative stress, and lung stereology and morphometry assays. Emphysema was observed histologically at 21 days after 0.5 U PPE treatment; tissues from these mice exhibited increased alveolar linear intercept and air-space volume density in comparison with the control group. TNF-α was elevated at 7 and 14 days after 0.5 U PPE treatment, concomitant with a reduction in the IL-10 levels at the same time points. Myeloperoxidase was elevated in all groups treated with 0.5 U PPE. Oxidative stress was observed during early stages of emphysema, with increased nitrite levels and malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase activity at 7 days after 0.5 U PPE treatment. Glutathione peroxidase activity was increased in all groups treated with 0.5 U PPE. The emphysema was attenuated when iNOS was inhibited using 1% AMG and in iNOS knockout mice. Furthermore, proteolytic stimulation by PPE enhanced the expression of nitrotyrosine and iNOS, whereas the PPE+AMG group showed low expression of iNOS and nitrotyrosine. PPE stimulus also induced endothelial (e) NOS expression, whereas AMG reduced eNOS. Our results suggest that the oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways are triggered by nitric oxide production via iNOS expression in pulmonary emphysema. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pancreatic cancer stromal biology and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dacheng; Xie, Keping

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies. Significant progresses have been made in understanding of pancreatic cancer pathogenesis, including appreciation of precursor lesions or premalignant pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanINs), description of sequential transformation from normal pancreatic tissue to invasive pancreatic cancer and identification of major genetic and epigenetic events and the biological impact of those events on malignant behavior. However, the currently used therapeutic strategies targeting tumor epithelial cells, which are potent in cell culture and animal models, have not been successful in the clinic. Presumably, therapeutic resistance of pancreatic cancer is at least in part due to its drastic desmoplasis, which is a defining hallmark for and circumstantially contributes to pancreatic cancer development and progression. Improved understanding of the dynamic interaction between cancer cells and the stroma is important to better understanding pancreatic cancer biology and to designing effective intervention strategies. This review focuses on the origination, evolution and disruption of stromal molecular and cellular components in pancreatic cancer, and their biological effects on pancreatic cancer pathogenesis. PMID:26114155

  3. Walled-off pancreatic necrosis and other current concepts in the radiological assessment of acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Elen Freitas de Cerqueira; Rocha, Manoel de Souza; Pereira, Fabio Payao; Blasbalg, Roberto; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition caused by intracellular activation and extravasation of inappropriate proteolytic enzymes determining destruction of pancreatic parenchyma and peripancreatic tissues. This is a fairly common clinical condition with two main presentations, namely, endematous pancreatitis - a less severe presentation - and necrotizing pancreatitis - the most severe presentation that affects a significant part of patients. The radiological evaluation, particularly by computed tomography, plays a fundamental role in the definition of the management of severe cases, especially regarding the characterization of local complications with implications in the prognosis and in the definition of the therapeutic approach. New concepts include the subdivision of necrotizing pancreatitis into the following presentations: pancreatic parenchymal necrosis with concomitant peripancreatic tissue necrosis, and necrosis restricted to peripancreatic tissues. Moreover, there was a systematization of the terms acute peripancreatic fluid collection, pseudocyst, post-necrotic pancreatic/peripancreatic fluid collections and walled-off pancreatic necrosis. The knowledge about such terms is extremely relevant to standardize the terminology utilized by specialists involved in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. (author)

  4. Walled-off pancreatic necrosis and other current concepts in the radiological assessment of acute pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Elen Freitas de Cerqueira [Image Memorial/DASA and Diagnoson Medicina Diagnostica, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Rocha, Manoel de Souza; Pereira, Fabio Payao; Blasbalg, Roberto; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USPU), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2014-05-15

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition caused by intracellular activation and extravasation of inappropriate proteolytic enzymes determining destruction of pancreatic parenchyma and peripancreatic tissues. This is a fairly common clinical condition with two main presentations, namely, endematous pancreatitis - a less severe presentation - and necrotizing pancreatitis - the most severe presentation that affects a significant part of patients. The radiological evaluation, particularly by computed tomography, plays a fundamental role in the definition of the management of severe cases, especially regarding the characterization of local complications with implications in the prognosis and in the definition of the therapeutic approach. New concepts include the subdivision of necrotizing pancreatitis into the following presentations: pancreatic parenchymal necrosis with concomitant peripancreatic tissue necrosis, and necrosis restricted to peripancreatic tissues. Moreover, there was a systematization of the terms acute peripancreatic fluid collection, pseudocyst, post-necrotic pancreatic/peripancreatic fluid collections and walled-off pancreatic necrosis. The knowledge about such terms is extremely relevant to standardize the terminology utilized by specialists involved in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. (author)

  5. Discovering Bisdemethoxycurcumin from Curcuma longa rhizome as a potent small molecule inhibitor of human pancreatic α-amylase, a target for type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Sudha; Zinjarde, Smita; Bhargava, Shobha; Rajamohanan, P R; Ravikumar, Ameeta

    2012-12-15

    Curcuma longa rhizome is used extensively in culinary preparations in Far East and South-East Asia. Health benefits of curcuminoids from C. longa as antioxidants, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory molecules have been well documented. We report here for the first time that Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) from C. longa, acts as an inhibitor to inactivate human pancreatic α-amylase, a therapeutic target for oral hypoglycemic agents in type-2 diabetes. Bioactivity guided isolation of rhizome isopropanol extract led to the identification by HPLC and NMR of BDMC as a lead small molecule inhibitor of porcine and human pancreatic α-amylase with an IC(50) value of 0.026 and 0.025 mM, respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed that using starch as the substrate, HPA exhibited an uncompetitive mode of inhibition with an apparent K(i) of 3.0 μM. The study gains importance as BDMC could be a good drug candidate in development of new inhibitors of HPA and of functional foods for controlling starch digestion in order to reduce post-prandial hyperglycemia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The kinetics of interaction of porcine - alpha-, and porcine - beta -trypsin with intact and modified soybean trypsin inhibitor (kunitz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The association of porcine trypsin with soybean trypsin inhibitor (Kunitz) resulted in characteristic changes in absorption spectrum, indicating an alteration of the micro environments of the enzyme chromophores as a consequence of the interaction. The rates of formation of the stable trypsin - inhibitor complexes from porcine - alpha - trypsin and soybean trypsin inhibitor and from porcine - beta - trypsin and either intact or modified soybean trypsin inhibitor were measured by mixing the equimolar concentration of the reactants in a Stopped - Flow apparatus at pH (4.5 to 10.0). The reaction of trypsin with soybean trypsin inhibitor was of first order with respect to the concentration of the reactants used. The rates of dissociation of the stable complexes, alpha - trypsin - soybean trypsin inhibitor, beta -trypsin - soybean trypsin inhibitor and beta -trypsin modified soybean trypsin inhibitor were also measured at pH (1.92 to 3.58). The values of first order rate constant, k/sub D/ obtained for the dissociation of all the three complexes were identical with one another. The kinetics results obtained for the porcine trypsin were compared with those of bovine trypsin system and it was suggested that the reaction mechanisms in both these systems were identical. (author)

  7. CT of pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Toshio

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and two cases of acute and chronic pancreatitis were studied by computed tomography. Fluid collection was detected by CT in 45 cases, and the common extrapancreatic sites of involvement included the lesser sac (13 cases), anterior pararenal space (9 cases), transverse mesocolon (7 cases) and posterior pararenal space (5 cases). Ten cases of spontaneous resolution of pancreatic pseudocysts were encountered. Cystojejunostomy was done on 6 patients. A 4-to-6-weeks time interval has been currently accepted as necessary for pseudocyst wall maturation. However, the surgery was not possible in two patients in this series since the cyst wall was too thin. It is considered that the time over 3 months is required for surgical anastomosis of the cyst to the gastrointestinal tract. Pancreatic abscess has become the most common cause of death from pancreatitis. In this series pancreatic abscess occurred in 8 patients. Gas collection in the pancreas was observed in only one patient. In the other patients, pseudocysts had become infected and converted to abscesses. The CT number of 4 infected pseudocysts was less than 15 HU. Thus, it was not possible to distinguish infected from noninfected pseudocysts by CT. The author studied 9 patients with focal inflammatory mass of the pancreas with histologically proved severe fibrosis. All masses were small. Angiography showed occlusion or marked stenosis of the splenic vein in 3 cases. The postcontract CT (after intravenous bolus injection) in 7 cases of focal inflammatory mass demonstrated almost equal enhanced effect of the mass as compared with the adjacent normal pancreatic parenchyma. This finding is considered to be useful in distinguishing inflammatory mass from pancreatic carcinoma. (author)

  8. COMPARING THE ENZYME REPLACEMENT THERAPY COST IN POST PANCREATECTOMY PATIENTS DUE TO PANCREATIC TUMOR AND CHRONIC PANCREATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Victoria FRAGOSO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background - Among late postoperative complications of pancreatectomy are the exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiencies. The presence of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency imposes, as standard treatment, pancreatic enzyme replacement. Patients with chronic pancreatitis, with intractable pain or any complications with surgical treatment, are likely to present exocrine pancreatic insufficiency or have this condition worsened requiring adequate dose of pancreatic enzymes. Objective - The aim of this study is to compare the required dose of pancreatic enzyme and the enzyme replacement cost in post pancreatectomy patients with and without chronic pancreatitis. Methods - Observational cross-sectional study. In the first half of 2015 patients treated at the clinic of the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery at Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil, who underwent pancreatectomy for at least 6 months and in use of enzyme replacement therapy were included in this series. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of chronic pancreatitis prior to pancreatic surgery. For this study, P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results - The annual cost of the treatment was R$ 2150.5 ± 729.39; R$ 2118.18 ± 731.02 in patients without pancreatitis and R$ 2217.74 ± 736.30 in patients with pancreatitis. Conclusion - There was no statistically significant difference in the cost of treatment of enzyme replacement post pancreatectomy in patients with or without chronic pancreatitis prior to surgical indication.

  9. [Identifying the severe acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo Tizón, Anais; Targarona Modena, Javier; Málaga Rodríguez, Germán; Barreda Cevasco, Luis

    2011-01-01

    To compare patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis without any additional complications during their hospital stay (Group A) versus patients with Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis with additional complications during their hospital stay (Group B). Data obtained from a pre-existing base from hospitalized patients with diagnosis of acute necrotizing pancreatitis in the specialized unit of "Unidad de Pancreatitis Aguda Grave del Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins" between 2000 and 2010. Data included patients with diagnosis of acute necrotizing pancreatitis, of ages 18 and over. Data from 215 patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis was included. Patients from Group A represented 32% (68) and from Group B 68% (147). Group A had a average of 39 hospitalized days and Group B had an average of 56 days (p=0.01). From Group A 22% had more than 50% of necrosis while 43% of Group B had this extension of necrosis (p pancreatitis, based on the presence of necrosis, behave likewise. It is an extended necrosis, described as more than 50% of pancreatic necrosis, and not the presence itself which will determine additional complications during the course of disease and a greater mortality.

  10. [Acute pancreatitis associated with hypercalcaemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun-Abraham, Mauro Enrique; Obregón-Guerrero, Gabriela; Romero-Espinoza, Larry; Valencia-Jiménez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Hypercalcaemia due to primary hyperparathyroidism is a rare cause of acute pancreatitis, with a reported prevalence of 1.5 to 8%. There is no clear pathophysiological basis, but elevated parathyroid hormone and high serum calcium levels could be responsible for calcium deposit in the pancreatic ducts and activation of pancreatic enzymes, which may be the main risk factor for developing acute pancreatitis. The aim of this report is to describe four cases. Four cases are reported of severe pancreatitis associated with hypercalcaemia secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism; three of them with complications (two pseudocysts and one pancreatic necrosis). Cervical ultrasound, computed tomography, and scintigraphy using 99mTc-Sestambi, studies showed the parathyroid adenoma. Surgical resection was the definitive treatment in all four cases. None of the patients had recurrent acute pancreatitis events during follow-up. Acute pancreatitis secondary to hypercalcaemia of primary hyperparathyroidism is rare; however, when it occurs it is associated with severe pancreatitis. It is suspected in patients with elevated serum calcium and high parathyroid hormone levels. Imaging techniques such as cervical ultrasound, computed tomography, and scintigraphy using 99mTc-Sestambi, should be performed, to confirm clinical suspicion. Surgical resection is the definitive treatment with excellent results. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fisher, Iben Wendelboe; Larsen, Isabelle Myriam

    2013-01-01

    Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion. Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal ...

  12. Bacteriospermia in extended porcine semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althouse, Gary C; Lu, Kristina G

    2005-01-15

    Bacteriospermia is a frequent finding in freshly extended porcine semen and can result in detrimental effects on semen quality and longevity if left uncontrolled. The primary source of bacterial contamination is the boar. Other sources that have been identified include environment, personnel, and the water used for extender preparation. A 1-year retrospective study was performed on submissions of extended porcine semen for routine quality control bacteriological screening at the University of Pennsylvania. Out of 250 sample submissions, 78 (31.2%) tested positive for bacterial contamination. The most popular contaminants included Enterococcus spp. (20.5%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (15.4%), Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (10.3%), Serratia marcescens (10.3%), Acinetobacter lwoffi (7.7%), Escherichia coli (6.4%), Pseudomonas spp. (6.4%), and others (23.0%). Prudent individual hygiene, good overall sanitation, and regular monitoring can contribute greatly in controlling bacterial load. Strategies that incorporate temperature-dependent bacterial growth and hyperthermic augmentation of antimicrobial activity are valuable for effective control of susceptible bacterial loads. Aminoglycosides remain the most popular antimicrobial class used in porcine semen extenders, with beta-lactam and lincosamide use increasing. With the advent of more novel antimicrobial selection and semen extender compositions in swine, prudent application and understanding of in vitro pharmacodynamics are becoming paramount to industry success in the use of this breeding modality.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Hereditary pancreatitis Hereditary pancreatitis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary pancreatitis is a genetic condition characterized by recurrent episodes ...

  14. Revision of anastomotic stenosis after pancreatic head resection for chronic pancreatitis: is it futile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Katherine A; Fontenot, Bennett B; Harvey, Norman R; Adams, David B

    2010-01-01

    Background: Because survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for cancer is limited, it is difficult to assess longterm pancreaticojejunal anastomotic patency. However, in patients with benign disease, pancreaticojejunal anastomotic stenosis may become problematic. What happens when pancreaticojejunal anastomosis revision is undertaken? Methods: Patients undergoing pancreatic anastomotic revision after pancreatic head resection for benign disease between 1997 and 2007 at the Medical University of South Carolina were identified. A retrospective chart review and analysis were undertaken with the approval of the Institutional Review Board for the Evaluation of Human Subjects. Longterm follow-up was obtained by patient survey at a clinic visit or by telephone. Results: During the study period, 237 patients underwent pancreatic head resection. Of these, 27 patients (17 women; median age 42 years) underwent revision of pancreaticojejunal anastomosis. Six patients (22%) had a pancreatic leak or abscess at the time of the index pancreatic head resection. The indication for revision of anastomosis was intractable pain. All patients underwent preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), which indicated anastomotic stricture in 18 patients (63%). Nine other patients underwent exploration based on clinical suspicion caused by recurrent pancreatitis and stenosis was confirmed at the time of surgery. Six patients (22%) had perioperative complications after revision. The median length of stay was 12 days. There were no perioperative deaths; however, late mortality occurred in four patients (15%). Six of 23 survivors (26%) at the time of follow-up (median 56 months) reported longterm pain relief. Conclusions: Stricture of the pancreaticojejunal anastomosis after pancreatic head resection presents with recurrent pancreatitis and pancreatic pain. MRCP has good specificity in the diagnosis of anastomotic obstruction, but lacks sensitivity. Pancreaticojejunal revision

  15. Diagnostic Management of Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabizzi, Emanuele [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic Florida, 4500 San Pablo Road, Jacksonville, Florida 32224 (United States); Assef, Mauricio Saab [Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de São Paulo, Rua Dr. Cesário Motta Jr. #61 Cep: 01221-020, São Paulo (Brazil); Raimondo, Massimo, E-mail: raimondo.massimo@mayo.edu [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic Florida, 4500 San Pablo Road, Jacksonville, Florida 32224 (United States)

    2011-01-31

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most deadly solid tumors, with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Due to a non-specific clinical presentation, it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and is rarely amenable for curative treatment. Therefore early diagnosis and appropriate staging are still essential to define the best care and to improve patient survival. Several imaging modalities are currently available for the evaluation of pancreatic cancer. This review focuses on different techniques and discusses the diagnostic management of patients with pancreatic cancer. This review was conducted utilizing Pubmed and was limited to papers published within the last 5 years. The search key words pancreatic cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, pancreatic tumors, diagnosis, radiology, imaging, nuclear imaging, endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound and biochemical markers were used.

  16. Diagnostic Management of Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabizzi, Emanuele; Assef, Mauricio Saab; Raimondo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most deadly solid tumors, with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Due to a non-specific clinical presentation, it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and is rarely amenable for curative treatment. Therefore early diagnosis and appropriate staging are still essential to define the best care and to improve patient survival. Several imaging modalities are currently available for the evaluation of pancreatic cancer. This review focuses on different techniques and discusses the diagnostic management of patients with pancreatic cancer. This review was conducted utilizing Pubmed and was limited to papers published within the last 5 years. The search key words pancreatic cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, pancreatic tumors, diagnosis, radiology, imaging, nuclear imaging, endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound and biochemical markers were used

  17. Type 3c (pancreatogenic) diabetes mellitus secondary to chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Phil A; Bellin, Melena D; Andersen, Dana K; Bradley, David; Cruz-Monserrate, Zobeida; Forsmark, Christopher E; Goodarzi, Mark O; Habtezion, Aida; Korc, Murray; Kudva, Yogish C; Pandol, Stephen J; Yadav, Dhiraj; Chari, Suresh T

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases defined by persistent hyperglycaemia. Type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent form, is characterised initially by impaired insulin sensitivity and subsequently by an inadequate compensatory insulin response. Diabetes can also develop as a direct consequence of other diseases, including diseases of the exocrine pancreas. Historically, diabetes due to diseases of the exocrine pancreas was described as pancreatogenic or pancreatogenous diabetes mellitus, but recent literature refers to it as type 3c diabetes. It is important to note that type 3c diabetes is not a single entity; it occurs because of a variety of exocrine pancreatic diseases with varying mechanisms of hyperglycaemia. The most commonly identified causes of type 3c diabetes are chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, haemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, and previous pancreatic surgery. In this Review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical relevance of type 3c diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and highlight several important knowledge gaps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Exosomes Derived From Pancreatic Stellate Cells: MicroRNA Signature and Effects on Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takikawa, Tetsuya; Masamune, Atsushi; Yoshida, Naoki; Hamada, Shin; Kogure, Takayuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) interact with pancreatic cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment. Cell constituents including microRNAs may be exported from cells within membranous nanovesicles termed exosomes. Exosomes might play a pivotal role in intercellular communication. This study aimed to clarify the microRNA signature of PSC-derived exosomes and their effects on pancreatic cancer cells. Exosomes were prepared from the conditioned medium of immortalized human PSCs. MicroRNAs were prepared from the exosomes and their source PSCs, and the microRNA expression profiles were compared by microarray. The effects of PSC-derived exosomes on proliferation, migration, and the mRNA expression profiles were examined in pancreatic cancer cells. Pancreatic stellate cell-derived exosomes contained a variety of microRNAs including miR-21-5p. Several microRNAs such as miR-451a were enriched in exosomes compared to their source PSCs. Pancreatic stellate cell-derived exosomes stimulated the proliferation, migration and expression of mRNAs for chemokine (C - X - C motif) ligands 1 and 2 in pancreatic cancer cells. The stimulation of proliferation, migration, and chemokine gene expression by the conditioned medium of PSCs was suppressed by GW4869, an exosome inhibitor. We clarified the microRNA expression profile in PSC-derived exosomes. Pancreatic stellate cell-derived exosomes might play a role in the interactions between PSCs and pancreatic cancer cells.

  19. Pancreatitis and systemic lupus erythematosus Pancreatitis y lupus eritematoso sistémico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lariño Noia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with SLE are common, specifically abdominal pain. However, the rate of pancreatic diseases is much lower and does not reach 5% according to published series in Europe and the USA. This association between SLE and pancreatic disease is basically at the expense of episodes of acute pancreatitis. An association with chronic pancreatitis is much more uncommon, and only four articles have been published showing this relationship. Three cases of SLE-associated pancreatitis are described, and disease onset, etiological factors, and clinical progression are analyzed. A review of the literature and a brief discussion about pathophysiological mechanisms and the role of corticosteroids are also included.Los síntomas gastrointestinales en los pacientes con lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES son comunes, específicamente el dolor abdominal. Sin embargo la tasa de enfermedades pancreáticas es mucho menor, una tasa que no alcanza ni al 5% según las series publicadas en Europa y EE. UU. Esta asociación entre enfermedades pancreáticas y LES es fundamentalmente a expensas de episodios de pancreatitis aguda. La asociación con pancreatitis crónica es muchísimo más infrecuente, teniendo en cuenta que tan sólo cuatro artículos han sido publicados reflejando esta asociación. Describimos tres casos de asociación entre pancreatitis y LES, analizando el debut de la enfermedad, los factores etiológicos y también la evolución clínica. Hemos realizado, además, una breve discusión de la fisiopatología y del papel de corticosteroides, así como una revisión de la literatura.

  20. Exocrine dysfunction correlates with endocrinal impairment of pancreas in Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H R Prasanna Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic abnormal metabolic condition, which manifests elevated blood sugar level over a prolonged period. The pancreatic endocrine system generally gets affected during diabetes, but often abnormal exocrine functions are also manifested due to its proximity to the endocrine system. Fecal elastase-1 (FE-1 is found to be an ideal biomarker to reflect the exocrine insufficiency of the pancreas. Aim: The aim of this study was conducted to assess exocrine dysfunction of the pancreas in patients with type-2 DM (T2DM by measuring FE levels and to associate the level of hyperglycemia with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction. Methodology: A prospective, cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on both T2DM patients and healthy nondiabetic volunteers. FE-1 levels were measured using a commercial kit (Human Pancreatic Elastase ELISA BS 86-01 from Bioserv Diagnostics. Data analysis was performed based on the important statistical parameters such as mean, standard deviation, standard error, t-test-independent samples, and Chi-square test/cross tabulation using SPSS for Windows version 20.0. Results: Statistically nonsignificant (P = 0.5051 relationship between FE-1 deficiency and age was obtained, which implied age as a noncontributing factor toward exocrine pancreatic insufficiency among diabetic patients. Statistically significant correlation (P = 0.003 between glycated hemoglobin and FE-1 levels was also noted. The association between retinopathy (P = 0.001 and peripheral pulses (P = 0.001 with FE-1 levels were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: This study validates the benefit of FE-1 estimation, as a surrogate marker of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, which remains unmanifest and subclinical.

  1. Assessment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: use of low-dose whole pancreatic CT perfusion and individualized dual-energy CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hai-ou; Guo, Jun; Li, Xiao; Qi, Yao-dong; Wang, Xi-ming; Xu, Zhuo-dong; Liu, Cheng; Chen, Jiu-hong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the value of low-dose whole pancreatic computed tomography (CT) perfusion integrated with individualized dual-energy CT (DECT) scanning in the diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Twenty patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma underwent pancreatic CT perfusion as well as individualized dual-phase DECT pancreatic scans. Perfusion characteristics of non-tumourous pancreatic parenchyma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma were analysed. Weighted-average 120 kVp images and the optimal monoenergetic images in dual phase were reconstructed and the contrast noise ratio (CNR) of pancreas-to-tumour were compared. There were significant difference on blood flow as well as blood volume between pancreatic adenocarcinoma and the non-tumourous pancreatic parenchyma (P < 0.05), whereas no difference on permeability (P > 0.05). CNRs of pancreas-to-tumour in individualized pancreatic phase were significantly higher than those in venous phase (P < 0.05), and CNRs of optimal monoenergetic images were higher than those on weighted-average 120 kVp images (P < 0.05) in both phase. Total effective radiation dose of CT examination was around 9.32–13.75 mSv. Low-dose whole pancreatic CT perfusion can provide functional information, and the individualized pancreatic phase DECT scan is the optimal method for detecting pancreatic adenocarcinomas. The integration of the two techniques has great value in clinical application.

  2. Porcine UCHL1: genomic organization, chromosome localization and expression analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Bendixen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    to and protection from Parkinson’s disease. Here we report cloning, characterization, expression analysis and mapping of porcine UCHL1. The UCHL1 cDNA was amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using oligonucleotide primers derived from in silico sequences. The porcine cDNA codes...... in developing porcine embryos. UCHL1 transcript was detected as early as 40 days of gestation. A significant decrease in UCHL1 transcript was detected in basal ganglia from day 60 to day 115 of gestation...

  3. Diabetes, pancreatic cancer, and metformin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eGong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer carries a poor prognosis as most patients present with advanced disease and preferred chemotherapy regimens offer only modest effects on survival. Risk factors include smoking, obesity, heavy alcohol, and chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatic cancer has a complex relationship with diabetes, as diabetes can be both a risk factor for pancreatic cancer and a result of pancreatic cancer. Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, and certain hormones play an important role in promoting neoplasia in diabetics. Metformin appears to reduce risk for pancreatic cancer and improve survival in diabetics with pancreatic cancer primarily by decreasing insulin/IGF signaling, disrupting mitochondrial respiration, and inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway. Other potential anti-tumorigenic effects of metformin include the ability to downregulate specificity protein transcription factors and associated genes, alter microRNAs, decrease cancer stem cell proliferation, and reduce DNA damage and inflammation. Here, we review the most recent knowledge on risk factors and treatment of pancreatic cancer and the relationship between diabetes, pancreatic cancer, and metformin as a potential therapy.

  4. A case of severe acute pancreatitis with near total pancreatic necrosis diagnosed by dynamic CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kazunori; Kakugawa, Yoichiro; Amikura, Katsumi; Miyagawa, Kikuo; Matsuno, Seiki; Sato, Toshio

    1987-01-01

    A 42 year-old woman with severe acute pancreatitis had drainage of the pancreatic bed, cholecystostomy and jejunostomy on admission, but symptoms were not improved. Fourteen days after admission, clinical sepsis and septisemia were recognized. Dynamic CT scanning of the pancreas showed near total pancreatic necrosis. Symptoms were improved after necrosectomy of the pancreas and debridement of the peripancreatic necrotic tissue were performed. Our experience suggests the usefulness of dynamic CT scanning for detection of pancreatic necrosis in severe acute pancreatitis. (author)

  5. Surgical Management of Chronic Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Dilip; Natarajan, Sathima

    2015-10-01

    Advances over the past decade have indicated that a complex interplay between environmental factors, genetic predisposition, alcohol abuse, and smoking lead towards the development of chronic pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a complex disorder that causes significant and chronic incapacity in patients and a substantial burden on the society. Major advances have been made in the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease and the role of genetic predisposition is increasingly coming to the fore. Advances in noninvasive diagnostic modalities now allow for better diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis at an early stage of the disease. The impact of these advances on surgical treatment is beginning to emerge, for example, patients with certain genetic predispositions may be better treated with total pancreatectomy versus lesser procedures. Considerable controversy remains with respect to the surgical management of chronic pancreatitis. Modern understanding of the neurobiology of pain in chronic pancreatitis suggests that a window of opportunity exists for effective treatment of the intractable pain after which central sensitization can lead to an irreversible pain syndrome in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Effective surgical procedures exist for chronic pancreatitis; however, the timing of surgery is unclear. For optimal treatment of patients with chronic pancreatitis, close collaboration between a multidisciplinary team including gastroenterologists, surgeons, and pain management physicians is needed.

  6. Redox signaling in acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreatic gland that eventually may lead to a severe systemic inflammatory response. A key event in pancreatic damage is the intracellular activation of NF-κB and zymogens, involving also calcium, cathepsins, pH disorders, autophagy, and cell death, particularly necrosis. This review focuses on the new role of redox signaling in acute pancreatitis. Oxidative stress and redox status are involved in the onset of acute pancreatitis and also in the development of the systemic inflammatory response, being glutathione depletion, xanthine oxidase activation, and thiol oxidation in proteins critical features of the disease in the pancreas. On the other hand, the release of extracellular hemoglobin into the circulation from the ascitic fluid in severe necrotizing pancreatitis enhances lipid peroxidation in plasma and the inflammatory infiltrate into the lung and up-regulates the HIF–VEGF pathway, contributing to the systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis. PMID:25778551

  7. Redox signaling in acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Pérez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreatic gland that eventually may lead to a severe systemic inflammatory response. A key event in pancreatic damage is the intracellular activation of NF-κB and zymogens, involving also calcium, cathepsins, pH disorders, autophagy, and cell death, particularly necrosis. This review focuses on the new role of redox signaling in acute pancreatitis. Oxidative stress and redox status are involved in the onset of acute pancreatitis and also in the development of the systemic inflammatory response, being glutathione depletion, xanthine oxidase activation, and thiol oxidation in proteins critical features of the disease in the pancreas. On the other hand, the release of extracellular hemoglobin into the circulation from the ascitic fluid in severe necrotizing pancreatitis enhances lipid peroxidation in plasma and the inflammatory infiltrate into the lung and up-regulates the HIF–VEGF pathway, contributing to the systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis.

  8. Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Yoh; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2011-12-07

    Before the concept of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) was established, this form of pancreatitis had been recognized as lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis or non-alcoholic duct destructive chronic pancreatitis based on unique histological features. With the discovery in 2001 that serum IgG4 concentrations are specifically elevated in AIP patients, this emerging entity has been more widely accepted. Classical cases of AIP are now called type 1 as another distinct subtype (type 2 AIP) has been identified. Type 1 AIP, which accounts for 2% of chronic pancreatitis cases, predominantly affects adult males. Patients usually present with obstructive jaundice due to enlargement of the pancreatic head or thickening of the lower bile duct wall. Pancreatic cancer is the leading differential diagnosis for which serological, imaging, and histological examinations need to be considered. Serologically, an elevated level of IgG4 is the most sensitive and specific finding. Imaging features include irregular narrowing of the pancreatic duct, diffuse or focal enlargement of the pancreas, a peri-pancreatic capsule-like rim, and enhancement at the late phase of contrast-enhanced images. Biopsy or surgical specimens show diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration containing many IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. A dramatic response to steroid therapy is another characteristic, and serological or radiological effects are normally identified within the first 2 or 3 weeks. Type 1 AIP is estimated as a pancreatic manifestation of systemic IgG4-related disease based on the fact that synchronous or metachronous lesions can develop in multiple organs (e.g. bile duct, salivary/lacrimal glands, retroperitoneum, artery, lung, and kidney) and those lesions are histologically identical irrespective of the organ of origin. Several potential autoantigens have been identified so far. A Th2-dominant immune reaction and the activation of regulatory T-cells are assumed

  9. Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zen Yoh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Before the concept of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP was established, this form of pancreatitis had been recognized as lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis or non-alcoholic duct destructive chronic pancreatitis based on unique histological features. With the discovery in 2001 that serum IgG4 concentrations are specifically elevated in AIP patients, this emerging entity has been more widely accepted. Classical cases of AIP are now called type 1 as another distinct subtype (type 2 AIP has been identified. Type 1 AIP, which accounts for 2% of chronic pancreatitis cases, predominantly affects adult males. Patients usually present with obstructive jaundice due to enlargement of the pancreatic head or thickening of the lower bile duct wall. Pancreatic cancer is the leading differential diagnosis for which serological, imaging, and histological examinations need to be considered. Serologically, an elevated level of IgG4 is the most sensitive and specific finding. Imaging features include irregular narrowing of the pancreatic duct, diffuse or focal enlargement of the pancreas, a peri-pancreatic capsule-like rim, and enhancement at the late phase of contrast-enhanced images. Biopsy or surgical specimens show diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration containing many IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. A dramatic response to steroid therapy is another characteristic, and serological or radiological effects are normally identified within the first 2 or 3 weeks. Type 1 AIP is estimated as a pancreatic manifestation of systemic IgG4-related disease based on the fact that synchronous or metachronous lesions can develop in multiple organs (e.g. bile duct, salivary/lacrimal glands, retroperitoneum, artery, lung, and kidney and those lesions are histologically identical irrespective of the organ of origin. Several potential autoantigens have been identified so far. A Th2-dominant immune reaction and the activation of

  10. Management strategies for autoimmune pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisawa, Terumi; Takuma, Kensuke; Hara, Seiichi; Tabata, Taku; Kuruma, Sawako; Inaba, Yoshihiko; Gopalakrishna, Rajesh; Egawa, Naoto; Itokawa, Fumihide; Itoi, Takao

    2011-10-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a newly developed concept for a peculiar type of pancreatitis, and at present is recognized as a pancreatic lesion reflecting IgG4-related systemic disease. It is of utmost importance to differentiate AIP from pancreatic cancer to avoid unnecessary surgery. The current management strategies for AIP, including its clinical features, diagnostic criteria, clinical subtypes, steroid therapy and prognosis are discussed, based on our 66 AIP cases and papers searched in PubMed from 1992 to March 2011, using the term 'autoimmune pancreatitis'. A new clinicopathological entity, an 'IgG4-related sclerosing disease' is also mentioned. AIP should be considered in the differential diagnosis in elderly male patients presented with obstructive jaundice and pancreatic mass. Steroids are a standard therapy for AIP, but their regimen including maintenance therapy should be evaluated in prospective trials.

  11. Management of pancreatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, E; Abba, J; Arvieux, C; Trilling, B; Sage, P Y; Mougin, N; Perou, S; Lavagne, P; Létoublon, C

    2016-08-01

    Pancreatic trauma (PT) is associated with high morbidity and mortality; the therapeutic options remain debated. Retrospective study of PT treated in the University Hospital of Grenoble over a 22-year span. The decision for initial laparotomy depended on hemodynamic status as well as on associated lesions. Main pancreatic duct lesions were always searched for. PT lesions were graded according to the AAST classification. Of a total of 46 PT, 34 were grades II or I. Hemodynamic instability led to immediate laparotomy in 18 patients, for whom treatment was always drainage of the pancreatic bed; morbidity was 30%. Eight patients had grade III injuries, six of whom underwent immediate operation: three underwent splenopancreatectomy without any major complications while the other three who had simple drainage required re-operation for peritonitis, with one death related to pancreatic complications. Four patients had grades IV or V PT: two pancreatoduodenectomies were performed, with no major complication, while one patient underwent duodenal reconstruction with pancreatic drainage, complicated by pancreatic and duodenal fistula requiring a hospital stay of two months. The post-trauma course was complicated for all patients with main pancreatic duct involvement. Our outcomes were similar to those found in the literature. In patients with distal PT and main pancreatic duct involvement, simple drainage is associated with high morbidity and mortality. For proximal PT, the therapeutic options of drainage versus pancreatoduodenectomy must be weighed; pancreatoduodenectomy may be unavoidable when the duodenum is injured as well. Two-stage (resection first, reconstruction later) could be an effective alternative in the emergency setting when there are other associated traumatic lesions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Pulmonary Administration of GW0742, a High-Affinity Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonist, Repairs Collapsed Alveoli in an Elastase-Induced Mouse Model of Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Chihiro; Horiguchi, Michiko; Akita, Tomomi; Oiso, Yuki; Abe, Kaori; Motomura, Tomoki; Yamashita, Chikamasa

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is a disease in which lung alveoli are irreversibly damaged, thus compromising lung function. Our previous study revealed that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) induces the differentiation of human lung alveolar epithelial type 2 progenitor cells and repairs the alveoli of emphysema model mice. ATRA also reportedly has the ability to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) β/δ. A selective PPARβ/δ ligand has been reported to induce the differentiation of human keratinocytes during wound repair. Here, we demonstrate that treatment using a high-affinity PPARβ/δ agonist, GW0742, reverses the lung tissue damage induced by elastase in emphysema-model mice and improves respiratory function. Mice treated with elastase, which collapsed their alveoli, were then treated with either 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in saline (control group) or GW0742 (1.0 mg/kg twice a week) by pulmonary administration. Treatment with GW0742 for 2 weeks increased the in vivo expression of surfactant proteins A and D, which are known alveolar type II epithelial cell markers. GW0742 treatment also shortened the average distance between alveolar walls in the lungs of emphysema model mice, compared with a control group treated with 10% DMSO in saline. Treatment with GW0742 for 3 weeks also improved tissue elastance (cm H2O/mL), as well as the ratio of the forced expiratory volume in the first 0.05 s to the forced vital capacity (FEV 0.05/FVC). In each of these experiments, GW0742 treatment reversed the damage caused by elastase. In conclusion, PPARβ/δ agonists are potential therapeutic agents for pulmonary emphysema.

  13. Hereditary pancreatitis for the endoscopist

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Milan R.; Eppolito, Amanda L.; Willingham, Field F.

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary pancreatitis shares a majority of clinical and morphologic features with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, but may present at an earlier age. The term hereditary pancreatitis has primarily been associated with mutations in the serine protease 1 gene (PRSS1) which encodes for cationic trypsinogen. PRSS1 mutations account for approximately 68–81% of hereditary pancreatitis. Mutations in other genes, primarily serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) and the cystic fibrosis trans...

  14. New stepwise cooling system for short-term porcine islet preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Fujita, Yasutaka; Takita, Morihito; Shimoda, Masayuki; Sugimoto, Koji; Jackson, Andrew; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Shimada, Mitsuo; Levy, Marlon F; Matsumoto, Shinichi

    2010-10-01

    Porcine islets are the most suitable for xeno-islet transplantation. However, it is necessary to establish an effective preservation method against its fragility. Recently, we developed a new cooling and preservation (Keep and Fresh [KFC]; FUJIYA Co, Tokushima, Japan) system, which can maintain viability of hepatocyte. In this study, we examined the KFC for porcine islet preservation. Isolated porcine islets were preserved in CMRL 1066 culture media with bovine serum at 37°C, 22°C, and 4°C and KFC for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Islet recovery rate, purity, and viability were evaluated. After 24-hour preservation, the recovery rate was the highest in the KFC, but no significant difference was found. After 48-hour preservation, the recovery rate by the KFC was 73.9% ± 17.3%, which was significantly higher than the other groups (48.7% ± 28.6% at 37°C, P KFC group, purities and viabilities were the highest among the groups after 24-, 48-, and 72-hour preservation. The KFC system significantly improved porcine islet preservation; therefore, the KFC might be useful for porcine islet preservation.

  15. Spectrum and outcome of pancreatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantharia, Chetan V; Prabhu, R Y; Dalvi, A N; Raut, Abhijit; Bapat, R D; Supe, Avinash N

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic trauma is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis is often difficult and surgery poses a formidable challenge. Data from 17 patients of pancreatic trauma gathered from a prospectively maintained database were analysed and the following parameters were considered: mode of injury, diagnostic modalities, associated injury, grade of pancreatic trauma and management. Pancreatic trauma was graded from I through IV, as per Modified Lucas Classification. The median age was 39 years (range 19-61). The aetiology of pancreatic trauma was blunt abdominal trauma in 14 patients and penetrating injury in 3. Associated bowel injury was present in 4 cases (3 penetrating injury and 1 blunt trauma) and 1 case had associated vascular injury. 5 patients had grade I, 3 had grade II, 7 had grade III and 2 had grade IV pancreatic trauma. Contrast enhanced computed tomography scan was used to diagnose pancreatic trauma in all patients with blunt abdominal injury. Immediate diagnosis could be reached in only 4 (28.5%) patients. 7 patients responded to conservative treatment. Of the 10 patients who underwent surgery, 6 required it for the pancreas and the duodenum. (distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy-3, pylorus preserving pancreatoduodenectomy-1, debridement with external drainage-1, associated injuries-duodenum-1). Pancreatic fistula, recurrent pancreatitis and pseudocyst formation were seen in 3 (17.05%), 2 (11.7%) and 1 (5.4%) patient respectively. Death occurred in 4 cases (23.5%), 2 each in grades III and IV pancreatic trauma. Contrast enhanced computed tomography scan is a useful modality for diagnosing, grading and following up patients with pancreatic trauma. Although a majority of cases with pancreatic trauma respond to conservative treatment, patients with penetrating trauma, and associated bowel injury and higher grade pancreatic trauma require surgical intervention and are also associated with higher morbidity and mortality.

  16. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Qi; Zhao, Yue; Renner, Andrea; Niess, Hanno; Seeliger, Hendrik; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Bruns, Christiane J., E-mail: christiane.bruns@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Surgery, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Klinikum Grosshadern, Marchioninistr. 15, D-81377, Munich (Germany)

    2010-08-19

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC therapy in pancreatic cancer.

  17. Acute and chronic pancreatitis: surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzakovic, Alexander; Superina, Riccardo

    2012-08-01

    Pancreatitis is becoming increasingly prevalent in children, posing new challenges to pediatric health care providers. Although some general adult treatment paradigms are applicable in the pediatric population, diagnostic workup and surgical management of acute and chronic pancreatitis have to be tailored to anatomic and pathophysiological entities peculiar to children. Nonbiliary causes of acute pancreatitis in children are generally managed nonoperatively with hydration, close biochemical and clinical observation, and early initiation of enteral feeds. Surgical intervention including cholecystectomy or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is often required in acute biliary pancreatitis, whereas infected pancreatic necrosis remains a rare absolute indication for pancreatic debridement and drainage via open, laparoscopic, or interventional radiologic procedure. Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by painful irreversible changes of the parenchyma and ducts, which may result in or be caused by inadequate ductal drainage. A variety of surgical procedures providing drainage, denervation, resection, or a combination thereof are well established to relieve pain and preserve pancreatic function. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Extraction Socket Preservation Using Porcine-Derived Collagen Membrane Alone or Associated with Porcine-Derived Bone. Clinical Results of Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Guarnieri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of present randomized controlled clinical trial was to clinically evaluate hard tissue changes after extraction socket preservation procedures compared to natural spontaneous healing. Material and Methods: Thirty patients were enrolled in the present study and underwent single-tooth extraction in the premolar/molar areas. Ten sites were grafted with porcine-derived bone covered by collagen membrane, 10 covered by porcine-derived collagen membrane alone, and 10 underwent natural spontaneous healing. Vertical and horizontal bone changes after 3-month were evaluated at implant placement. Results: The vertical and horizontal bone changes at the extraction sockets treated with collagen membrane alone (vertical: -0.55 [SD 0.11] mm, and horizontal: -1.21 [SD 0.69] mm and collagen membrane plus porcine-derived bone (vertical: -0.37 [SD 0.7] mm, and horizontal: -0.91 [SD 0.53] mm were found significantly lower (P < 0.001, when compared to non-grafted sockets (vertical: -2.09 [SD 0.19] mm, and horizontal: -3.96 [SD 0.87] mm. In type 1 extraction sockets, in premolar sites, and in presence of vestibular bone thicknesses ≥ 1.5 mm, the use of collagen membrane alone revealed similar outcomes to those with additional graft material. Conclusions: At the re-entry surgery, extraction sockets grafted with porcine-derived bone and covered by collagen membrane, and extraction sockets covered by porcine-derived collagen membrane alone, showed significantly lower vertical and horizontal bone changes, compared to extraction sockets sites underwent natural spontaneous healing. However, a complete prevention of remodelling is not achievable, irrespective of the technique used.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of pancreatitis: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkavasakar, Sriluxayini; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Busireddy, Kiran K; Ramalho, Miguel; Nilmini, Viragi; Alagiyawanna, Madhavi; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and staging of acute and chronic pancreatitis and may represent the best imaging technique in the setting of pancreatitis due to its unmatched soft tissue contrast resolution as well as non-ionizing nature and higher safety profile of intravascular contrast media, making it particularly valuable in radiosensitive populations such as pregnant patients, and patients with recurrent pancreatitis requiring multiple follow-up examinations. Additional advantages include the ability to detect early forms of chronic pancreatitis and to better differentiate adenocarcinoma from focal chronic pancreatitis. This review addresses new trends in clinical pancreatic MR imaging emphasizing its role in imaging all types of acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatitis complications and other important differential diagnoses that mimic pancreatitis. PMID:25356038

  20. Collagenase mRNA Overexpression and Decreased Extracellular Matrix Components Are Early Events in the Pathogenesis of Emphysema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola S Z Robertoni

    Full Text Available To describe the progression of parenchymal remodeling and metalloproteinases gene expression in earlier stages of emphysema, mice received porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE instillation and Control groups received saline solution. After PPE instillation (1, 3, 6 hours, 3 and 21 days we measured the mean linear intercept, the volume proportion of types I and III collagen, elastin, fibrillin and the MMP-1, -8, -12 and -13 gene expression. We observed an initial decrease in type I (at the 3rd day and type III collagen (from the 6th hour until the 3rd day, in posterior time points in which we detected increased gene expression for MMP-8 and -13 in PPE groups. After 21 days, the type III collagen fibers increased and the type I collagen values returned to similar values compared to control groups. The MMP-12 gene expression was increased in earlier times (3 and 6 hours to which we detected a reduced proportion of elastin (3 days in PPE groups, reinforcing the already established importance of MMP-12 in the breakdown of ECM. Such findings will be useful to better elucidate the alterations in ECM components and the importance of not only metalloelastase but also collagenases in earlier emphysema stages, providing new clues to novel therapeutic targets.

  1. Risk factors for pancreatic stone formation in autoimmune pancreatitis over a long-term course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Masahiro; Arakura, Norikazu; Ozaki, Yayoi; Watanabe, Takayuki; Ito, Tetsuya; Yoneda, Suguru; Maruyama, Masafumi; Muraki, Takashi; Hamano, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2012-05-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has the potential to progress to a chronic state that forms pancreatic stones. The aim of this study was to clarify the risk factors underlying pancreatic stone formation in AIP. Sixty-nine patients with AIP who had been followed for at least 3 years were enrolled for evaluation of clinical and laboratory factors as well as computed tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography findings. During the course of this study, increased or de novo stone formation was seen in 28 patients, who were defined as the stone-forming group. No stones were observed in 32 patients, who were defined as the non-stone-forming group. Nine patients who had stones at diagnosis but showed no change during the course of this study were excluded from our cohort. Univariate analysis revealed no significant differences in clinical or laboratory factors associated with AIP-specific inflammation between the two groups. However, pancreatic head swelling (P = 0.006) and narrowing of both Wirsung's and Santorini's ducts in the pancreatic head region (P = 0.010) were significantly more frequent in the stone-forming group. Furthermore, multivariate analysis identified Wirsung and Santorini duct narrowing at diagnosis as a significant independent risk factor for pancreatic stone formation (OR 4.4, P = 0.019). A primary risk factor for pancreatic stone formation in AIP was narrowing of both Wirsung's and Santorini's ducts, which most presumably led to pancreatic juice stasis and stone development.

  2. Systemic treatment with epidermal growth factor in pigs induces ductal proliferations in the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Juhl, C O; Teglbjaerg, P S

    1997-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha), and the EGF receptor are often overexpressed in chronic pancreatitis and in malignant pancreatic growth. Transgenic mice overexpressing TGF-alpha develop tissue changes in the pancrease resembling changes found in chronic...... pancreatitis. The effects of systemic treatment with EGF on the porcine pancrease were investigated in this study....

  3. Multidisciplinaire behandeling van chronische pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempeneers, M. A.; Besselink, M. G.; Issa, Y.; van Hooft, J. E.; van Goor, H.; Bruno, M. J.; van Santvoort, H. C.; Boermeester, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    - Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disease, which leads to a severe decrease in quality of life and reduced life expectancy.- 85-90% of patients with chronic pancreatitis consult the doctor because of pain.- Pain in chronic pancreatitis has a multifactorial aetiology, with

  4. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Qi; Zhao, Yue; Renner, Andrea; Niess, Hanno; Seeliger, Hendrik; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Bruns, Christiane J.

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC therapy in pancreatic cancer. PMID:24281178

  5. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Walter Jauch

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC therapy in pancreatic cancer.

  6. Acute Pancreatitis: Etiology, Pathology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Shirin; Golembioski, Adam; Wilson, Stephen L; Thompson, Errington C

    2017-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a fascinating disease. In the United States, the two most common etiologies of acute pancreatitis are gallstones and excessive alcohol consumption. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is made with a combination of history, physical examination, computed tomography scan, and laboratory evaluation. Differentiating patients who will have a benign course of their pancreatitis from patients who will have severe pancreatitis is challenging to the clinician. C-reactive protein, pro-calcitonin, and the Bedside Index for Severity of Acute Pancreatitis appeared to be the best tools for the early and accurate diagnosis of severe pancreatitis. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is indicated for patients with mild gallstone pancreatitis. For patients who are going to have a prolonged hospitalization, enteral nutrition is preferred. Total parenteral nutrition should be reserved for patients who cannot tolerate enteral nutrition. Prophylactic antibiotics are not indicated for patients with pancreatic necrosis. Surgical intervention for infected pancreatic necrosis should be delayed as long as possible to improve patient outcomes.

  7. Porcine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane

    2008-01-01

    The development of porcine embryonic stem cell lines (pESC) has received renewed interest given the advances being made in the production of immunocompatible transgenic pigs. However, difficulties are evident in the production of pESCs in-vitro. This may largely be attributable to differences...

  8. Aggressive re-warming at 38.5 degrees C following deep hypothermia at 21 degrees C increases neutrophil membrane bound elastase activity and pro-inflammatory factor release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Min; Zhao, Xiao-gang; He, Yi; Gu, Yan; Mei, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is often performed under hypothermic condition. The effects of hypothermia and re-warming on neutrophil activity are unclear. This study aimed to compare the effects of different hypothermia and re-warming regimens on neutrophil membrane bound elastase (MBE)

  9. Short article: Presence, extent and location of pancreatic necrosis are independent of aetiology in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Robert C; Sternby, Hanna; Dimova, Alexandra; Ignatavicius, Povilas; Koiva, Peter; Penttila, Anne K; Ilzarbe, Lucas; Regner, Sara; Rosendahl, Jonas; Bollen, Thomas L

    2018-03-01

    The most common aetiologies of acute pancreatitis (AP) are gallstones, alcohol and idiopathic. The impact of the aetiology of AP on the extent and morphology of pancreatic and extrapancreatic necrosis (EXPN) has not been clearly established. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of aetiology on the presence and location of pancreatic necrosis in patients with AP. We carried out a post-hoc analysis of a previously established multicentre cohort of patients with AP in whom a computed tomography was available for review. Clinical data were obtained from the medical records. All computed tomographies were revised by the same expert radiologist. The impact of aetiology on pancreatic and EXPN was calculated. In total, 159 patients with necrotizing pancreatitis were identified from a cohort of 285 patients. The most frequent aetiologies were biliary (105 patients, 37%), followed by alcohol (102 patients, 36%) and other aetiologies including idiopathic (78 patients, 27%). No relationship was found between the aetiology and the presence of pancreatic necrosis, EXPN, location of pancreatic necrosis or presence of collections. We found no association between the aetiology of AP and the presence, extent and anatomical location of pancreatic necrosis.

  10. Hypermutation In Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphris, Jeremy L; Patch, Ann-Marie; Nones, Katia; Bailey, Peter J; Johns, Amber L; McKay, Skye; Chang, David K; Miller, David K; Pajic, Marina; Kassahn, Karin S; Quinn, Michael C J; Bruxner, Timothy J C; Christ, Angelika N; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Manning, Suzanne; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Stone, Andrew; Wilson, Peter J; Anderson, Matthew; Fink, J Lynn; Holmes, Oliver; Kazakoff, Stephen; Leonard, Conrad; Newell, Felicity; Waddell, Nick; Wood, Scott; Mead, Ronald S; Xu, Qinying; Wu, Jianmin; Pinese, Mark; Cowley, Mark J; Jones, Marc D; Nagrial, Adnan M; Chin, Venessa T; Chantrill, Lorraine A; Mawson, Amanda; Chou, Angela; Scarlett, Christopher J; Pinho, Andreia V; Rooman, Ilse; Giry-Laterriere, Marc; Samra, Jaswinder S; Kench, James G; Merrett, Neil D; Toon, Christopher W; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Jamieson, Nigel B; McKay, Colin J; Carter, C Ross; Dickson, Euan J; Graham, Janet S; Duthie, Fraser; Oien, Karin; Hair, Jane; Morton, Jennifer P; Sansom, Owen J; Grützmann, Robert; Hruban, Ralph H; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Schulick, Richard D; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Morgan, Richard A; Lawlor, Rita T; Rusev, Borislav; Corbo, Vincenzo; Salvia, Roberto; Cataldo, Ivana; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A; Hofmann, Oliver; Eshleman, James R; Pilarsky, Christian; Scarpa, Aldo; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Gill, Anthony J; Pearson, John V; Grimmond, Sean M; Waddell, Nicola; Biankin, Andrew V

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is molecularly diverse, with few effective therapies. Increased mutation burden and defective DNA repair are associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in several other cancer types. We interrogated 385 pancreatic cancer genomes to define hypermutation and its causes. Mutational signatures inferring defects in DNA repair were enriched in those with the highest mutation burdens. Mismatch repair deficiency was identified in 1% of tumors harboring different mechanisms of somatic inactivation of MLH1 and MSH2. Defining mutation load in individual pancreatic cancers and the optimal assay for patient selection may inform clinical trial design for immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic basis of chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, JBMJ; Morsche, RT; van Goor, Harry; Drenth, JPH

    2002-01-01

    Background: Pancreatitis has a proven genetic basis in a minority of patients. Methods: Review of the literature on genetics of pancreatitis. Results: Ever since the discovery that in most patients with hereditary pancreatitis a mutation in the gene encoding for cationic trypsinogen (R122H) was

  12. Current knowledge on pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan eIovanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death with a median survival of 6 months and a dismal 5-year survival rate of 3-5%. The development and progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and the deregulation of many signalling pathways. Therefore, the strategies targeting these molecules as well as their downstream signalling could be promising for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. However, although targeted therapies for pancreatic cancer have yielded encouraging results in vitro and in animal models, these findings have not been translated into improved outcomes in clinical trials. This failure is due to an incomplete understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer and to the selection of poorly efficient or imperfectly targeted agents. In this review, we will critically present the current knowledge regarding the molecular, biochemical, clinical and therapeutic aspects of pancreatic cancer.

  13. Current Knowledge on Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovanna, Juan; Mallmann, Maria Cecilia; Gonçalves, Anthony; Turrini, Olivier; Dagorn, Jean-Charles

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death with a median survival of 6 months and a dismal 5-year survival rate of 3–5%. The development and progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways. Therefore, the strategies targeting these molecules as well as their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. However, although targeted therapies for pancreatic cancer have yielded encouraging results in vitro and in animal models, these findings have not been translated into improved outcomes in clinical trials. This failure is due to an incomplete understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer and to the selection of poorly efficient or imperfectly targeted agents. In this review, we will critically present the current knowledge regarding the molecular, biochemical, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of pancreatic cancer.

  14. Current Knowledge on Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iovanna, Juan [INSERM U624, Stress Cellulaire, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, Marseille (France); Mallmann, Maria Cecilia [Centre d’Investigation Clinique de Marseille, Marseille (France); Gonçalves, Anthony [Département d’Oncologie Médicale, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille (France); Turrini, Olivier [Département de Chirurgie Oncologique, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille (France); Dagorn, Jean-Charles, E-mail: juan.iovanna@inserm.fr [INSERM U624, Stress Cellulaire, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, Marseille (France)

    2012-01-31

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death with a median survival of 6 months and a dismal 5-year survival rate of 3–5%. The development and progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways. Therefore, the strategies targeting these molecules as well as their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. However, although targeted therapies for pancreatic cancer have yielded encouraging results in vitro and in animal models, these findings have not been translated into improved outcomes in clinical trials. This failure is due to an incomplete understanding of the biology of pancreatic cancer and to the selection of poorly efficient or imperfectly targeted agents. In this review, we will critically present the current knowledge regarding the molecular, biochemical, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of pancreatic cancer.

  15. Abdominal ultrasonogram of autoimmune pancreatitis: Five cases of pancreatic lesions accompanied by Sjögren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, Hideo; Takeuchi, Kazuo; Okuda, Chikao; Honjyo, Hajime; Yamamoto, Takatugu; Kora, Tetuo; Takamori, Yoriyuki

    2002-09-01

    The concept of autoimmune pancreatitis has recently been established, and ultrasonographic findings we obtained from five cases consistent with autoimmune pancreatitis are reported here. Case 1, a 77-year-old man, was admitted complaining of loss of body weight. Serum hepatobiliary enzymes and γ-globulin levels were elevated, and antinuclear antibody was positive, Abdominal ultrasonography showed dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct, wall thickening of the common bile duct and hypoechoic swelling of the pancreatic head and body. ERCP revealed multiple stenosis of the intra-and extra-hepatic bile ducts, and diffuse irregular narrowing of the main pancreatic duct. The patient complained of thirst, and the minor salivary gland was examined histologically. Our diagnosis was Sjögren syndrome accompanied by sclerosing cholangitis and a pancreatic lesion. Obstructive jaundice also developed, and PTCD was therefore performed. Both the pancreatic swelling and multiple stenosis of the bile duct improved after steroids were administered. Case 2, a 71-year-old man, was admitted with jaundice. Abdominal ultrasonography showed hypoechoic swelling of the pancreas. ERCP showed stenosis of the common bile duct in the pancreatic head region and diffuse irregular narrowing of the main pancreatic duct. Histological examination of the minor salivary gland suggested Sjögren syndrome. Steroids were therefore administered because the presence of both hyper-γ-globulinemia and positive antinuclear antibody suggested involvement of the autoimmune mechanism. Steroid therapy improved the jaundice as well as the findings from the cholangiograms and pancreatograms. We also encountered three similar cases, all consistent with the concept of autoimmune pancreatitis. The ultrasonographic findings of the pancreatic lesion (1) showed them as homogeneous and markedly hypoechoic areas and, (2) visualized the main pancreatic duct in the lesion, which facilitated a differential diagnosis of the

  16. Proteomics portrait of archival lesions of chronic pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Pan

    Full Text Available Chronic pancreatitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the pancreas. The etiology is multi-fold, but all lead to progressive scarring and loss of pancreatic function. Early diagnosis is difficult; and the understanding of the molecular events that underlie this progressive disease is limited. In this study, we investigated differential proteins associated with mild and severe chronic pancreatitis in comparison with normal pancreas and pancreatic cancer. Paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tissues from five well-characterized specimens each of normal pancreas (NL, mild chronic pancreatitis (MCP, severe chronic pancreatitis (SCP and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC were subjected to proteomic analysis using a "label-free" comparative approach. Our results show that the numbers of differential proteins increase substantially with the disease severity, from mild to severe chronic pancreatitis, while the number of dysregulated proteins is highest in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Important functional groups and biological processes associated with chronic pancreatitis and cancer include acinar cell secretory proteins, pancreatic fibrosis/stellate cell activation, glycoproteins, and inflammatory proteins. Three differential proteins were selected for verification by immunohistochemistry, including collagen 14A1, lumican and versican. Further canonical pathway analysis revealed that acute phase response signal, prothrombin activation pathway, and pancreatic fibrosis/pancreatic stellate cell activation pathway were the most significant pathways involved in chronic pancreatitis, while pathways relating to metabolism were the most significant pathways in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Our study reveals a group of differentially expressed proteins and the related pathways that may shed light on the pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis and the common molecular events associated with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  17. Incidence, risk factors and clinical course of pancreatic fluid collections in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Mei Lan; Kim, Kook Hyun; Kim, Ho Gak; Han, Jimin; Kim, Hyunsoo; Cho, Kwang Bum; Jung, Min Kyu; Cho, Chang Min; Kim, Tae Nyeun

    2014-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas with variable involvement of other regional tissues or remote organ systems. Acute fluid collections and pseudocyst formation are the most frequent complications of acute pancreatitis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and clinical course of pancreatic fluid collections and pseudocyst formation following acute pancreatitis. A prospective multicenter study was conducted in five participating centers with 302 patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis from January 2011 to July 2012. The incidence of pancreatic fluid collections and pseudocyst was 42.7 and 6.3 %, respectively. Patients with fluid collections were significantly younger, compared to those without fluid collections (51.5 ± 15.9 vs. 60.4 ± 16.5 years, P = 0.000). The proportion of alcoholic etiology (54.3 %) in patients with fluid collections was significantly higher compared to other etiologies (P = 0.000). C-reactive protein (CRP) (48 h) was significantly higher in patients with fluid collections, compared to patients without fluid collections (39.2 ± 77.4 vs. 15.1 ± 36.2 mg/dL, P = 0.016). LDH (48 h) was significantly higher in patients with pseudocyst formation, compared to patients with complete resolution (1,317.6 ± 706.4 vs. 478.7 ± 190.5 IU/L, P = 0.000). Pancreatic fluid collections showed spontaneous resolution in 69.8 % (90/129) and 84.2 % of the pseudocysts disappeared or decreased in size during follow up. Age, CRP (48 h), and alcohol etiology are risk factors for pancreatic fluid collections. LDH (48 h) appears to be a risk factor for pseudocyst formation. Most pseudocysts showed a decrease in size or spontaneous resolution with conservative management.

  18. Pancreatic Cancer: Multicenter Prospective Data Collection and Analysis by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Gábor; Balázs, Anita; Kui, Balázs; Gódi, Szilárd; Szücs, Ákos; Szentesi, Andrea; Szentkereszty, Zsolt; Szmola, Richárd; Kelemen, Dezső; Papp, Róbert; Vincze, Áron; Czimmer, József; Pár, Gabriella; Bajor, Judit; Szabó, Imre; Izbéki, Ferenc; Halász, Adrienn; Leindler, László; Farkas, Gyula; Takács, Tamás; Czakó, László; Szepes, Zoltán; Hegyi, Péter; Kahán, Zsuzsanna

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with poor prognosis. There is very limited information available regarding the epidemiology and treatment strategies of pancreatic cancer in Central Europe. The purpose of the study was to prospectively collect and analyze data of pancreatic cancer in the Hungarian population. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group (HPSG) organized prospective, uniform data collection. Altogether 354 patients were enrolled from 14 Hungarian centers. Chronic pancreatitis was present in 3.7% of the cases, while 33.7% of the patients had diabetes. Family history for pancreatic cancer was positive in 4.8%. The most frequent presenting symptoms included pain (63.8%), weight loss (63%) and jaundice (52.5%). The reported frequency of smoking and alcohol consumption was lower than expected (28.5% and 27.4%, respectively). The majority of patients (75.6%) were diagnosed with advanced disease. Most patients (83.6%) had a primary tumor located in the pancreatic head. The histological diagnosis was ductal adenocarcinoma in 90.7% of the cases, while neuroendocrine tumor was present in 5.3%. Biliary stent implantation was performed in 166 patients, 59.2% of them received metal stents. Primary tumor resection was performed in 60 (16.9%) patients. Enteral or biliary bypass was done in 35 and 49 patients, respectively. In a multivariate Cox-regression model, smoking status and presence of gemcitabine-based chemotherapy were identified as independent predictors for overall survival. We report the first data from a large cohort of Hungarian pancreatic cancer patients. We identified smoking status and chemotherapy as independent predictors in this cohort.

  19. Pancreatic Exocrine Function Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, J. Edward

    1982-01-01

    It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and par...

  20. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fischer, Iben Wendelboe Deleuran

    2014-01-01

    food intake is more or less substituted with alcohol, tobacco and coffee. Alcohol and drug interaction are known to influence the pharmacokinetics by altering either drug absorption or by affecting liver metabolism. Since patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience severe pain, opioids......Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion....... Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases...

  1. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fischer, Iben Wendelboe Deleuran

    2014-01-01

    food intake is more or less substituted with alcohol, tobacco and coffee. Alcohol and drug interaction are known to influence the pharmacokinetics by altering either drug absorption or by affecting liver metabolism. Since patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience severe pain, opioids....... Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases......Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion...

  2. Hypothermia-Related Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyawzaw Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis (AP is an inflammatory disease presenting from mild localized inflammation to severe infected necrotic pancreatic tissue. In the literature, there are a few cases of hypothermia-induced AP. However, the association between hypothermia and AP is still a myth. Generally, mortality from acute pancreatitis is nearly 3–6%. Here, we present a 40-year-old chronic alcoholic female who presented with acute pancreatitis induced by transient hypothermia. A 40-year-old chronic alcoholic female was hypothermic at 81°F on arrival which was improved to 91.7°F with warming blanket and then around 97°F in 8 h. Laboratory tests including complete blood count, lipid panel, and comprehensive metabolic panels were within the normal limit. Serum alcohol level was 0.01, amylase 498, lipase 1,200, ammonia 26, serum carboxyhemoglobin level 2.4, and β-HCG was negative. The entire sepsis workup was negative. During rewarming period, she had one episode of witnessed generalized tonic-clonic seizure. It was followed by transient hypotension. Fluid challenge was successful with 2 L of normal saline. Sonogram (abdomen showed fatty liver and trace ascites. CAT scan (abdomen and pelvis showed evidence of acute pancreatitis without necrosis, peripancreatic abscess, pancreatic mass, or radiopaque gallstones. The patient was managed medically and later discharged from the hospital on the 4th day as she tolerated a normal low-fat diet. In our patient, transient hypothermia from chronic alcohol abuse and her social circumstances might predispose to microcirculatory disturbance resulting in acute pancreatitis. Early and aggressive fluid resuscitation prevents complications.

  3. [Treatments for Pancreatic Cancer with Oligometastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Junji

    2017-10-01

    Pancreatic cancer, adenocarcinoma, generally rapidly progresses, and if a metastatic lesion is detected, chemotherapy is applied even in solitary metastasis. However, surgical resection for solitary metastasis have been reported to achieve long survival in some pancreatic cancer patients. In a prospective study of surgery for hepatic and lymph node oligometastasis of pancreatic cancer, long survival of 5 years or more was reported around 10%. Furthermore, longer survival and fewer rerecurrence were achieved with surgery in lung metastasis than in liver metastasis and loco-regional recurrence. Although there has been no establishment of concept or no consensus of treatment strategy for oligometastasis in pancreatic cancer, some patients with pancreatic cancer have long disease-free survival by surgery for oligometastasis. A population of pancreatic cancer patients who have benefits of surgery for oligometastasis should be identified, and it is necessary to establish treatments for oligometastasis as standard treatments in pancreatic cancer.

  4. ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN Report on the Assessment of Exocrine Pancreatic Function and Pancreatitis in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, Christopher J.; Chen, Kathy; Horvath, Karoly; Hughes, David; Lowe, Mark E.; Mehta, Devendra; Orabi, Abrahim I.; Screws, Jeremy; Thomson, Mike; Van Biervliet, Stephanie; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Husain, Sohail Z.; Wilschanski, Michael

    The purpose of this clinical report is to discuss several recent advances in assessing exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) and pancreatitis in children, to review the array of pancreatic function tests, to provide an update on the inherited causes of EPI, with special emphasis on newly available

  5. Isolation and purification of porcine LH for radioimmunoassay and radioreceptor assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziecik, A.; Goralska, M.; Krzymowski, T.; Pogorzelski, K.

    1979-01-01

    The procedure of isolation and purification of LH from porcine pituitary glands is described. From 1 kg of pituitary glands 150 mg of LH GPZ-1 preparation of high purity were obtained. Immunization of rabbits with the prepared hormone gave homogeneous antibodies against porcine LH with high affinity and low cross-reactions with FSH. Radioreceptor assay with the use of the prepared porcine LH demonstrated the high capacity of cell membrane receptors of the boar tests for binding this hormone. (author)

  6. Immunological half-life of porcine proinsulin C-peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, H; Horino, M; Matsumura, S [Kawasaki Medical Coll., Kurashiki (Japan). Div. of Endocrinology; Kobayshi, K; Suetsugu, N [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-11-01

    Immunological half-lifes of injected porcine C-peptide and insulin with RIA were studied and calculated as 9.8 and 8.0 minutes. Higher circulating levels of C-peptide as compared to insulin in normal young swines lead to speculation about a longer half-life of C-peptide. This hypothesis was verified in this study. Immunological half-lifes of porcine proinsulin and insulin in the pig were 20 and 6 minutes, respectively.

  7. Autoimmune Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Shounak; Takahashi, Naoki; Chari, Suresh T

    2017-07-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a chronic fibroinflammatory disease of the pancreas that belongs to the spectrum of immunoglobulin G-subclass4-related diseases (IgG4-RD) and typically presents with obstructive jaundice. Idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis (IDCP) is a closely related but distinct disease that mimics AIP radiologically but manifests clinically most commonly as recurrent acute pancreatitis in young individuals with concurrent inflammatory bowel disease. IgG4 levels are often elevated in AIP and normal in IDCP. Histologically, lymphoplasmacytic acinar inflammation and storiform fibrosis are seen in both. In addition, the histologic hallmark of IDCP is the granulocyte epithelial lesion: intraluminal and intraepithelial neutrophils in medium-sized and small ducts with or without granulocytic acinar inflammation often associated with destruction of ductal architecture. Initial treatment of both AIP and IDCP is with oral corticosteroids for duration of 4 weeks followed by a gradual taper. Relapses are common in AIP and relatively uncommon in IDCP, a relatively rare disease for which the natural history is not well understood. For patients with relapsing AIP, treatment with immunomodulators and more recently rituximab has been recommended. Although rare instances of pancreaticobiliary malignancy has been reported in patients with AIP, overall the lifetime risk of developing pancreatic cancer does not appear to be elevated.

  8. Selective modulation of the CD4 molecular complex by Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease and elastase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, B K; Kharazmi, A; Theander, T G

    1987-01-01

    The binding of monoclonal antibodies against CD4 was specifically inhibited by treatment of human CD4+ cells with either alkaline protease (AP) or elastase (Ela), purified from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Binding of antibodies against CD3 (pan T), CD5 (pan T), CD8 (T suppressor/cytotoxic), HLA-ABC, HLA......-DR, HLA-DQ, HLA-DP/DR, and beta 2 microglobulin was not inhibited by AP or Ela. Heat-inactivation of the proteases at 65 degrees C for 20 min or treatment with the metal chelator EDTA abolished the inhibitory activity of both proteases. These findings may serve to develop novel immunological methods...

  9. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Casari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  10. [Pancreatic ultrasonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, T; Segura-Grau, A; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, A; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2015-04-01

    Despite the recent technological advances in imaging, abdominal ultrasonography continues to be the first diagnostic test indicated in patients with a suspicion of pancreatic disease, due to its safety, accessibility and low cost. It is an essential technique in the study of inflammatory processes, since it not only assesses changes in pancreatic parenchyma, but also gives an indication of the origin (bile or alcoholic). It is also essential in the detection and tracing of possible complications as well as being used as a guide in diagnostic and therapeutic punctures. It is also the first technique used in the study of pancreatic tumors, detecting them with a sensitivity of around 70% and a specificity of 90%. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Emerging technologies to create inducible and genetically defined porcine cancer models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence B Schook

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an emerging need for new animal models that address unmet translational cancer research requirements. Transgenic porcine models provide an exceptional opportunity due to their genetic, anatomic and physiological similarities with humans. Due to recent advances in the sequencing of domestic animal genomes and the development of new organism cloning technologies, it is now very feasible to utilize pigs as a malleable species, with similar anatomic and physiological features with humans, in which to develop cancer models. In this review, we discuss genetic modification technologies successfully used to produce porcine biomedical models, in particular the Cre-loxP System as well as major advances and perspectives the CRISPR/Cas9 System. Recent advancements in porcine tumor modeling and genome editing will bring porcine models to the forefront of translational cancer research.

  12. Emerging Technologies to Create Inducible and Genetically Defined Porcine Cancer Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schook, Lawrence B; Rund, Laurie; Begnini, Karine R; Remião, Mariana H; Seixas, Fabiana K; Collares, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    There is an emerging need for new animal models that address unmet translational cancer research requirements. Transgenic porcine models provide an exceptional opportunity due to their genetic, anatomic, and physiological similarities with humans. Due to recent advances in the sequencing of domestic animal genomes and the development of new organism cloning technologies, it is now very feasible to utilize pigs as a malleable species, with similar anatomic and physiological features with humans, in which to develop cancer models. In this review, we discuss genetic modification technologies successfully used to produce porcine biomedical models, in particular the Cre-loxP System as well as major advances and perspectives the CRISPR/Cas9 System. Recent advancements in porcine tumor modeling and genome editing will bring porcine models to the forefront of translational cancer research.

  13. Endoscopic transpapillary stenting for pancreatic fistulas after necrosectomy with necrotizing pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjula, Heikki; Saarela, Arto; Vaarala, Anne; Niemelä, Jarmo; Mäkelä, Jyrki

    2015-01-01

    Data concerning the incidence and treatment of pancreatic fistula after necrosectomy in severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis (SAP) are scarce. Our aim was to assess the incidence of pancreatic fistula, and the feasibility and results of endoscopic transpapillary stenting (ETS) in patients with SAP after necrosectomy. From January 2009 to December 2012 twenty-nine consecutive patients with SAP and necrosectomy in Oulu University Hospital were enrolled into this study. Five patients died before ETS because of the rapid progress of the disease and were, therefore, excluded. ERP was performed for the remaining 24 patients demonstrating fistula in 22/24 patients (92 %). ETS was successful in 23 patients and the fistula closed in all of them after a median of 82 (2-210) days with acceptable morbidity and no procedure-related mortality. All patients after necrosectomy for SAP seem to have internal or external pancreatic fistula. EST aimed at internal drainage of the necrosectomy cavity is a feasible and effective therapy in these patients.

  14. New Insights into the Pathogenesis of Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Raghuwansh P.; Dawra, Rajinder K.; Saluja, Ashok K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review In this article, we review important advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of pancreatitis. Recent Findings The relative contribution of intra-pancreatic trypsinogen activation and NFκB activation, the two major early independent cellular events in the etiology of pancreatitis, have been investigated using novel genetic models. Trypsinogen activation has traditionally held the spotlight for many decades as it is believed to be the central pathogenic event of pancreatitis However, recent experimental evidence points to the role of trypsin activation in early acinar cell damage but not in the inflammatory response of acute pancreatitis through NFκB activation. Further, chronic pancreatitis in the caerulein model develops independently of typsinogen activation. Sustained activation of the NFκB pathway, but not persistent intra-acinar expression of active trypsin, was shown to result in chronic pancreatitis. Calcineurin-NFAT signaling was shown to mediate downstream effects of pathologic rise in intracellular calcium. IL-6 was identified as a key cytokine mediating pancreatitis-associated lung injury. Summary Recent advances challenge the long-believed trypsin-centered understanding of pancreatitis. It is becoming increasingly clear that activation of intense inflammatory signaling mechanisms in acinar cells is crucial to the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, which may explain the strong systemic inflammatory response in pancreatitis. PMID:23892538

  15. Infarto esplénico secundario a pancreatitis aguda Splenic infarction secondary to acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Arenal Vera

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento y objetivo: la estrecha relación anatómica del páncreas con los vasos esplénicos y el bazo es responsable de complicaciones esplénicas en el curso de la pancreatitis aguda. El objetivo es presentar dos casos clínicos de pancreatitis aguda grave que sufrieron infarto esplénico como complicación de la enfermedad pancreática. Pacientes, participantes: en un periodo de tres meses, dos pacientes fueron diagnosticados de infarto esplénico secundario a pancreatitis aguda. En ambos casos el diagnóstico y seguimiento evolutivo del infarto esplénico se hizo a través de tomografía axial computerizada. Resultados: en el primer paciente, las imágenes muestran de forma inequívoca la afectación de la arteria esplénica por el proceso inflamatorio pancreático. En el segundo, no se pudo demostrar afectación de los vasos esplénicos, por lo que la única posible explicación etiológica es un incremento de coagulabilidad intravascular. Conclusiones: sería recomendable añadir las complicaciones esplénicas al conjunto de complicaciones graves extrapancreáticas de la pancreatitis aguda. La tomografía axial computerizada es de gran utilidad para la detección y seguimiento de las complicaciones esplénicas de la pancreatitis aguda.Background and objective: the close anatomic relationship of the pancreas with the splenic vessels and the spleen is responsible for splenic complications in the course of acute pancreatitis. Our objective was to report two cases of severe acute pancreatitis complicated by splenic infarction. Patients: in a three-month period of time two patients were diagnosed with splenic infarction secondary to acute pancreatitis. In both cases splenic infarction diagnosis and follow-up were carried out using computed tomography. Results: in the first case images clearly showed a narrowing of the splenic artery due to the inflammatory pancreatic condition. In the second case no involvement of the splenic vessels could

  16. Systemic therapy of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrezalova Vochyanova, I.; Salek, T.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth comment cause of cancer-related death in men. Most patients with pancreatic cancer are diagnosed at advanced, non-resectable stage. Late detection, early metastases, difficult surgical approached, cancer resistant to systemic chemo and radiotherapy - all contribute to its in faust prognosis. Only about 5 % of patients will live 5 years after diagnosis. Gemcitabine - based combination treatments is the standard for advanced pancreatic cancer. The combination of fluorouracil, folinic acid, irinotecan and oxaliplatin led to median survival of 11 months. No standard second-line treatment exists for pancreatic cancer. (author)

  17. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma and diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotna, T.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance or frank diabetes mellitus is known to occur more frequently in patients with pancreatic cancer than in the general population. At the time of the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, more than 70% of patients taking the glucose tolerance test show diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (1). Relationship among diabetes mellitus and pancreatic cancer is vague but sure, although neither the nature nor the sequence of the possible cause – effect relationship has been established. The reason for the high frequency of glucose intolerance in patients with pancreatic cancer remains controversial. (author)

  18. Outcome of Acute Pancreatic and Peripancreatic Collections Occurring in Patients With Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrai, Manish; Kochhar, Rakesh; Gupta, Vikas; Yadav, Thakur Deen; Dhaka, Narendra; Kalra, Naveen; Sinha, Saroj K; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2018-02-01

    To study the outcome of acute collections occurring in patients with acute pancreatitis BACKGROUND:: There are limited data on natural history of acute collections arising after acute pancreatitis (AP). Consecutive patients of AP admitted between July 2011 and December 2012 were evaluated by imaging for development of acute collections as defined by revised Atlanta classification. Imaging was repeated at 1 and 3 months. Spontaneous resolution, evolution, and need for intervention were assessed. Of the 189 patients, 151 patients (79.9%) had acute collections with severe disease and delayed hospitalization being predictors of acute collections. Thirty-six patients had acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis, 8 of whom developed acute peripancreatic fluid collections, of which 1 evolved into pseudocyst. Among the 153 patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis, 143 (93.4%) developed acute necrotic collection (ANC). Twenty-three of 143 ANC patients died, 21 had resolved collections, whereas 84 developed walled-off necrosis (WON), with necrosis >30% (P = 0.010) and Computed Tomographic Severity Index score ≥7 (P = 0.048) predicting development of WON. Of the 84 patients with WON, 8 expired, 53 patients required an intervention, and 23 were managed conservatively. Independent predictors of any intervention among all patients were Computed Tomographic Severity Index score ≥7 (P 7 days (P = 0.04). Patients with severe AP and delayed hospitalization more often develop acute collections. Pancreatic pseudocysts are a rarity in acute interstitial pancreatitis. A majority of patients with necrotising pancreatitis will develop ANC, more than half of whom will develop WON. Delay in hospitalization and higher baseline necrosis score predict need for intervention.

  19. Molecular biology of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoral, Miroslav; Minarikova, Petra; Zavada, Filip; Salek, Cyril; Minarik, Marek

    2011-06-28

    In spite of continuous research efforts directed at early detection and treatment of pancreatic cancer, the outlook for patients affected by the disease remains dismal. With most cases still being diagnosed at advanced stages, no improvement in survival prognosis is achieved with current diagnostic imaging approaches. In the absence of a dominant precancerous condition, several risk factors have been identified including family history, chronic pancreatitis, smoking, diabetes mellitus, as well as certain genetic disorders such as hereditary pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, familial atypical multiple mole melanoma, and Peutz-Jeghers and Lynch syndromes. Most pancreatic carcinomas, however, remain sporadic. Current progress in experimental molecular techniques has enabled detailed understanding of the molecular processes of pancreatic cancer development. According to the latest information, malignant pancreatic transformation involves multiple oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes that are involved in a variety of signaling pathways. The most characteristic aberrations (somatic point mutations and allelic losses) affect oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes within RAS, AKT and Wnt signaling, and have a key role in transcription and proliferation, as well as systems that regulate the cell cycle (SMAD/DPC, CDKN2A/p16) and apoptosis (TP53). Understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms should promote development of new methodology for early diagnosis and facilitate improvement in current approaches for pancreatic cancer treatment.

  20. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fisher, Iben Wendelboe; Larsen, Isabel