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Sample records for population salinas valley

  1. Nitrate Contamination of Deep Aquifers in the Salinas Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, J. E.; Esser, B. K.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Holtz, M.; Roberts, S. K.; Singleton, M. J.; Visser, A.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Belitz, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Salinas Valley, known as 'the salad bowl of the world', has been an agricultural center for more than 100 years. Irrigated row crops such as lettuce and strawberries dominate both land use and water use. Groundwater is the exclusive supply for both irrigation and drinking water. Some irrigation wells and most public water supply wells in the Salinas Valley are constructed to draw water from deep portions of the aquifer system, where contamination by nitrate is less likely than in the shallow portions of the aquifer system. However, a number of wells with top perforations greater than 75 m deep, screened below confining or semi-confining units, have nitrate concentrations greater than the Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL) of 45 mg/L as NO3-. This study uses nitrate concentrations from several hundred irrigation, drinking water, and monitoring wells (Monterey County Water Resources Agency, 1997), along with tritium-helium groundwater ages acquired at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory through the State of California Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program (reported in Kulongoski et al., 2007 and in Moran et al., in press), to identify nitrate 'hot spots' in the deep aquifer and to examine possible modes of nitrate transport to the deep aquifer. In addition, observed apparent groundwater ages are compared with the results of transport simulations that use particle tracking and a stochastic-geostatistical framework to incorporate aquifer heterogeneity to determine the distribution of travel times from the water table to each well (Fogg et al., 1999). The combined evidence from nitrate, tritium, tritiogenic 3He, and radiogenic 4He concentrations, reveals complex recharge and flow to the capture zone of the deep drinking water wells. Widespread groundwater pumping for irrigation accelerates vertical groundwater flow such that high nitrate groundwater reaches some deep drinking water wells. Deeper portions of the wells often draw in water that recharged

  2. Pesticide Risk Communication, Risk Perception, and Self-Protective Behaviors among Farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.; Leckie, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide use is the highest of any industry, yet there is little research evaluating farmworkers' understandings of the health risks chemical exposure poses. This study examines pesticide education, risk perception, and self-protective behaviors among farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley. Fifty current and former farmworkers…

  3. A century of plant virus management in the Salinas valley of California, 'East of Eden'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisler, G C; Duffus, J E

    2000-11-01

    The mild climate of the Salinas Valley, CA lends itself well to a diverse agricultural industry. However, the diversity of weeds, crops and insect and fungal vectors also provide favorable conditions for plant virus disease development. This paper considers the incidence and management of several plant viruses that have caused serious epidemics and been significant in the agricultural development of the Salinas Valley during the 20th century. Beet curly top virus (BCTV) almost destroyed the newly established sugarbeet industry soon after its establishment in the 1870s. A combination of resistant varieties, cultural management of beet crops to provide early plant emergence and development, and a highly coordinated beet leafhopper vector scouting and spray programme have achieved adequate control of BCTV. These programmes were first developed by the USDA and still operate. Lettuce mosaic virus was first recognized as causing a serious disease of lettuce crops in the 1930s. The virus is still a threat but it is controlled by a lettuce-free period in December and a seed certification programme that allows only seed lots with less than one infected seed in 30000 to be grown. 'Virus Yellows' is a term used to describe a complex of yellows inducing viruses which affect mainly sugarbeet and lettuce. These viruses include Beet yellows virus and Beet western yellows virus. During the 1950s, the complex caused significant yield losses to susceptible crops in the Salinas Valley. A beet-free period was introduced and is still used for control. The fungus-borne rhizomania disease of sugarbeet caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus was first detected in Salinas Valley in 1983. Assumed to have been introduced from Europe, this virus has now become widespread in California wherever beets are grown and crop losses can be as high as 100%. Movement of infested soil and beets accounts for its spread throughout the beet-growing regions of the United States. Control of rhizomania

  4. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Monterey Bay, Salinas Valley, and adjacent highland areas, Southern Coast Ranges, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen

    2018-05-30

    The Monterey-Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit covers approximately 7,820 square kilometers (km2) in Santa Cruz, Monterey, and San Luis Obispo Counties in the Central Coast Hydrologic Region of California. The study unit was divided into four study areas—Santa Cruz, Pajaro Valley, Salinas Valley, and Highlands. More than 75 percent of the water used for drinking-water supply in the Central Coast Hydrologic Region of California is groundwater, and there are more than 8,000 well driller’s logs for domestic wells (California Department of Water Resources, 2013).

  5. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Monterey Bay, Salinas Valley, and adjacent highland areas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen

    2018-05-30

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the groundwater basins around Monterey Bay, the Salinas Valley, and the highlands adjacent to the Salinas Valley constitute one of the study units.

  6. Rainfall leaching is critical for long-term use of recycled water in the Salinas Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda E. Platts

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1998, Monterey County Water Recycling Projects began delivering water to 12,000 acres in the northern Salinas Valley. Two years later, an ongoing study began assessing the effects of the recycled water on soil salinity. Eight sites are receiving recycled water and a control site is receiving only well water. In data collected from 2000 to 2012, soil salinity of the 36-inch-deep profile was on average approximately double that of the applied water, suggesting significant leaching from applied water (irrigation or rainfall. In this study, we investigated some of the soil water hydrology factors possibly controlling the soil salinity results. Using soil water balance modeling, we found that rainfall had more effect on soil salinity than did leaching from irrigation. Increasing applied water usually only correlated significantly with soil salinity parameters in the shallow soil profile (1 to 12 inches depth and at 24 to 36 inches at sites receiving fairly undiluted recycled water. Winter rains, though, had a critical effect. Increasing rainfall depths were significantly correlated with decreasing soil salinity of the shallow soil at all test sites, though this effect also diminished with increased soil depth. When applied water had high salinity levels, winter rainfall in this area was inadequate to prevent soil salinity from increasing.

  7. Understanding Environmental Factors that Affect Violence in Salinas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    the lettuce produced in the United States is grown there, earning the Salinas Valley the nickname “Salad Bowl of the World.”1 The agricultural...1 City of Salinas, “ History of Salinas,” http://www.ci.salinas.ca.us/visitors/history.cfm. 2 State of the Cities...Chief of Police Louis Fetherolf reviewed the history of gang problems in Salinas. Highlights included: gang fights reaching ‘epidemic

  8. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, 2005-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,000 square mile (2,590 km2) Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (MS) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in central California in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA MS study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers). The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 by the USGS from 97 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifers were defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the MS study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the MS study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California regulatory or

  9. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley study unit was investigated from July through October 2005 as part of the California Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 94 public-supply wells and 3 monitoring wells in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. Ninety-one of the public-supply wells sampled were selected to provide a spatially distributed, randomized monitoring network for statistical representation of the study area. Six wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry: three wells along a ground-water flow path were sampled to evaluate lateral changes, and three wells at discrete depths from land surface were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry with depth from land surface. The ground-water samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, pesticide degradates, nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, radioactivity, microbial indicators, and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, helium-4, and the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. In total, 270 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated for this study. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. In addition, regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. In this study, only six constituents, alpha radioactivity, N

  10. The efficiency of a new hydrodynamic cavitation pilot system on Artemia salina cysts and natural population of copepods and bacteria under controlled mesocosm conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Martina; Grego, Mateja; Turk, Valentina

    2016-04-15

    A study of the efficiency of hydrodynamic cavitation and separation was carried out to evaluate an innovative, environmentally safe and acceptable system for ballast water treatment for reducing the risk of introducing non-native species worldwide. Mesocosm experiments were performed to assess the morphological changes and viability of zooplankton (copepods), Artemia salina cysts, and the growth potential of marine bacteria after the hydrodynamic cavitation treatment with a different number of cycles. Our preliminary results confirmed the significant efficiency of the treatment since more than 98% of the copepods and A. salina cysts were damaged, in comparison with the initial population. The efficiency increased with the number of the hydrodynamic cavitation cycles, or in combination with a separation technique for cysts. There was also a significant decrease in bacterial abundance and growth rate, compared to the initial number and growth potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Salinas : theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2004-08-01

    This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas , we refer the reader to Salinas, User's Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programer-notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  12. Salinas : theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2011-11-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas, we refer the reader to Salinas, User's Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  13. Variación espacial y temporal de la diversidad de hormigas en el Jardín Botánico del valle de Zapotitlán de las Salinas, Puebla Spatial and temporal variation of the diversity ants in the Botanic Garden from Zapotitlán de las Salinas Valley, Puebla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Guzmán-Mendoza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Debido al escaso conocimiento que se tiene de las hormigas de las zonas áridas de México, se evaluó la biodiversidad de este taxón en el Jardín Botánico de Zapotitlán de las Salinas, Puebla. Se realizaron 2 colectas, una en época de lluvias (agosto de 2004 y otra en la temporada de secas (febrero de 2005. En ambas ocasiones se seleccionaron 2 sitios contrastantes en estructura vegetal y se colocaron 10 trampas de caída para cada sitio. La captura fue más abundante en temporada de lluvias. El sitio con menor diversidad y cobertura vegetal mostró una mayor diversidad de hormigas durante el estudio. Comparado con otras zonas áridas de México, el valle de Zapotitlán de las Salinas resultó ser una de las zonas semiáridas con mayor riqueza en especies de hormigas; con 12 nuevos registros se incrementó a 27 el número de especies, sólo una por debajo de otras localidades cercanas al valle. Los datos sugieren que con un mayor esfuerzo de muestreo y la aplicación combinada de otras técnicas de recolección, la riqueza de especies en el área podría elevarse considerablemente.The knowledge about ants of arid zones of Mexico is very poor. For this reason we assessed the biodiversity of this taxon in 2 sites with different vegetation structure. Ten pitfall traps were placed in each site, and 2 surveys were conducted, 1 in August (rainy season, 2004 and another in February (dry season, 2005. The capture was more abundant in the rainy season; however, during the study, a higher ant diversity was observed in the site with low vegetation cover and few plant diversity. Compared with other arid zones of Mexico, the Zapotitlán de las Salinas Valley is the site with the highest ant species richness. The new records have increased richness to 27 ant species, which is very close to the number of species registered in other localities near Zapotitlan. Our data suggest that increasing sampling effort and application of different sampling

  14. Fungal population in soils producing quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd, under different management systems in the community Kerecaya Municipality of Salinas de Garci Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paco-Pérez Victor

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Kerecaya community (3700-4000 msnm of the municipality of Salinas of Garci Mendoza of the south altiplano of Bolivia, in spite of your climatics risks. The plots of quinoa present lower organic matter to 0.93%, humidity of the smaller earth to 12.9%, temperature of the earth for under 8.5 oC and pH lower to 8.0. The population of funguses in three types it has studied of earths that went: without farm (without entropic intervention, traditional and mechanized. The humid samples of the earth were gathered to a depth of 6 to 25 cm at random in zig-zag, these to be prosecuted by means of the method of seriate dilution and inoculated in plates with 0.5 mL and it is evaluated the colonies for UFC´s/g of earth, the genre of Penicilli-um spp., with major population of 65.1%, followed for Aspergillus spp., with 24,1% and Trichoderma spp., with minor great quality of 13,8% and the population average in UFC´s/g of earth it went of 1035.4 in with-out farm (without entropic intervention, 959.7 in traditional and 868.2 in the mechanized and the major population was presented in the month of February 1572.8 UFC/g of earth.

  15. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuscher, D.M.; Taki, D.; Ariwite, K.

    1996-01-01

    Critical habitat for endangered Snake River sockeye salmon includes five rearing lakes located in the Sawtooth Valley of central Idaho. Most of the lakes contain either introduced or endemic kokanee populations. Snake River sockeye occur naturally in Redfish Lake, and are being stocked in Redfish and Pettit Lakes. Because kokanee compete with sockeye for limited food resources, understanding population characteristics of both species such as spawn timing, egg-to-fry survival, distribution and abundance are important components of sockeye recovery. This chapter describes some of those characteristics. In 1995, hydroacoustic estimates of O. nerka densities in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes ranged from 57 to 465 fish/ha. Densities were greatest in Pettit followed by Redfish (167), Alturas (95), and Stanley Lakes. O. nerka numbers increased from 1994 values in Pettit and Alturas Lakes, but declined in Redfish and Stanley. Despite a decline in total lake abundance, O. nerka biomass estimates in Redfish Lake increased. Approximately 144,000 kokanee fry recruited to Redfish Lake from Fishhook Creek. O. nerka fry recruitment to Stanley and Alturas lake was 5,000 and 30,000 fry, respectively. Egg-to-fry survival was 14% in Fishhook and 7% in Stanley Lake Creek. In Fishhook Creek, kokanee spawning escapement was estimated using stream surveys and a weir. Escapement estimates were 4,860 from weir counts, and 7,000 from stream surveys. As part of the kokanee reduction program, 385 of the spawning female kokanee were culled. Escapement for Stanley Lake Creek was only 60 fish, a ten fold decrease from 1994. In Alturas Lake, kokanee spawners dropped by 50% to 1,600

  16. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuscher, D.M.; Taki, D.; Ariwite, K.

    1996-05-01

    Critical habitat for endangered Snake River sockeye salmon includes five rearing lakes located in the Sawtooth Valley of central Idaho. Most of the lakes contain either introduced or endemic kokanee populations. Snake River sockeye occur naturally in Redfish Lake, and are being stocked in Redfish and Pettit Lakes. Because kokanee compete with sockeye for limited food resources, understanding population characteristics of both species such as spawn timing, egg-to-fry survival, distribution and abundance are important components of sockeye recovery. This chapter describes some of those characteristics. In 1995, hydroacoustic estimates of O. nerka densities in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes ranged from 57 to 465 fish/ha. Densities were greatest in Pettit followed by Redfish (167), Alturas (95), and Stanley Lakes. O. nerka numbers increased from 1994 values in Pettit and Alturas Lakes, but declined in Redfish and Stanley. Despite a decline in total lake abundance, O. nerka biomass estimates in Redfish Lake increased. Approximately 144,000 kokanee fry recruited to Redfish Lake from Fishhook Creek. O. nerka fry recruitment to Stanley and Alturas lake was 5,000 and 30,000 fry, respectively. Egg-to-fry survival was 14% in Fishhook and 7% in Stanley Lake Creek. In Fishhook Creek, kokanee spawning escapement was estimated using stream surveys and a weir. Escapement estimates were 4,860 from weir counts, and 7,000 from stream surveys. As part of the kokanee reduction program, 385 of the spawning female kokanee were culled. Escapement for Stanley Lake Creek was only 60 fish, a ten fold decrease from 1994. In Alturas Lake, kokanee spawners dropped by 50% to 1,600.

  17. Merging Models and Biomonitoring Data to Characterize Sources andPathways of Human Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides in the SalinasValley of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Castorina, Rosemary; Kuwabara, Yu; Harnly,Martha E.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Bradman, Asa

    2006-06-01

    By drawing on human biomonitoring data and limited environmental samples together with outputs from the CalTOX multimedia, multipathway source-to-dose model, we characterize cumulative intake of organophosphorous (OP) pesticides in an agricultural region of California. We assemble regional OP pesticide use, environmental sampling, and biological tissue monitoring data for a large and geographically dispersed population cohort of 592 pregnant Latina women in California (the CHAMACOS cohort). We then use CalTOX with regional pesticide usage data to estimate the magnitude and uncertainty of exposure and intake from local sources. We combine model estimates of intake from local sources with food intake based on national residue data to estimate for the CHAMACOS cohort cumulative median OP intake, which corresponds to expected levels of urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolite excretion for this cohort. From these results we develop premises about relative contributions from different sources and pathways of exposure. We evaluate these premises by comparing the magnitude and variation of DAPs in the CHAMACOS cohort with the whole U.S. population using data from the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey (NHANES). This comparison supports the premise that in both populations diet is the common and dominant exposure pathway. Both the model results and biomarker comparison supports the observation that the CHAMACOS population has a statistically significant higher intake of OP pesticides that appears as an almost constant additional dose among all participants. We attribute the magnitude and small variance of this intake to non-dietary exposure in residences from local sources.

  18. Y Chromosome analysis of prehistoric human populations in the West Liao River Valley, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yinqiu; Li, Hongjie; Ning, Chao; Zhang, Ye; Chen, Lu; Zhao, Xin; Hagelberg, Erika; Zhou, Hui

    2013-09-30

    The West Liao River valley in Northeast China is an ecologically diverse region, populated in prehistory by human populations with a wide range of cultures and modes of subsistence. To help understand the human evolutionary history of this region, we performed Y chromosome analyses on ancient human remains from archaeological sites ranging in age from 6500 to 2700 BP. 47 of the 70 individuals provided reproducible results. They were assigned into five different Y sub-haplogroups using diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms, namely N1 (xN1a, N1c), N1c, C/C3e, O3a (O3a3) and O3a3c. We also used 17 Y short tandem repeat loci in the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome. There appears to be significant genetic differences between populations of the West Liao River valley and adjacent cultural complexes in the prehistoric period, and these prehistoric populations were shown to carry similar haplotypes as present-day Northeast Asians, but at markedly different frequencies. Our results suggest that the prehistoric cultural transitions were associated with immigration from the Yellow River valley and the northern steppe into the West Liao River valley. They reveal the temporal continuity of Y chromosome lineages in populations of the West Liao River valley over 5000 years, with a concurrent increase in lineage diversity caused by an influx of immigrants from other populations.

  19. Green valley galaxies as a transition population in different environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenda, Valeria; Martínez, Héctor J.; Muriel, Hernán

    2018-02-01

    We present a comparative analysis of the properties of passive, star-forming and transition (green valley) galaxies in four discrete environments: field, groups, the outskirts and the core of X-ray clusters. We construct samples of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in these environments so that they are bound to have similar redshift distributions. The classification of galaxies into the three sequences is based on the UV-optical colour NUV - r. We study a number of galaxy properties: stellar mass, morphology, specific star formation rate and the history of star formation. The analysis of green valley (GV) galaxies reveals that the physical mechanisms responsible for external quenching become more efficient moving from the field to denser environments. We confirm previous findings that GV galaxies have intermediate morphologies; moreover, we find that this appears to be independent of the environment. Regarding the stellar mass of GV galaxies, we find that they tend to be more massive in the field than in denser environments. On average, GV galaxies account for ∼ 20 per cent of all galaxies in groups and X-ray clusters. We find evidence that the field environment is inefficient in transforming low-mass galaxies. GV galaxies have average star formation histories intermediate between passive and star-forming galaxies, and have a clear and consistent dependence on the environment: both, the quenching time and the amplitude of the star formation rate, decrease towards higher density environments.

  20. Year 2000 estimated population dose for the Tennessee Valley region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.F.; Strauch, S.; Siegel, G.R.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    A comprehensive study has recently been completed of the potential regional radiological dose in the Tennessee and Cumberland river basins in the year 2000, resulting from the operation of nuclear facilities. This study, sponsored jointly by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration and the Tennessee Valley Authority, was performed by the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory (ATDL). This study considered the operation in the year 2000 of 33,000 MWe of nuclear capacity within the study area, and of 110,000 MWe in adjacent areas, together with supporting nuclear fuel fabrication and reprocessing facilities. Air and water transport models used and methods for calculating nuclide concentrations on the ground are discussed

  1. The unexpected beneficial effect of the L-valley population on the electron mobility of GaAs nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, E. G.; Ruiz, F. G.; Godoy, A.; Tienda-Luna, I. M.; Gámiz, F.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the L-valley population on the transport properties of GaAs cylindrical nanowires (NWs) is analyzed by numerically calculating the electron mobility under the momentum relaxation time approximation. In spite of its low contribution to the electron mobility (even for high electron populations in small NWs), it is demonstrated to have a beneficial effect, since it significantly favours the Γ-valley mobility by screening the higher Γ-valley energy subbands

  2. Population structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley region of Central Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünwald, N.J.; Flier, W.G.; Sturbaum, A.K.; Garay-Serrano, E.; Bosch, van den G.B.M.; Smart, C.D.; Matuszak, J.M.; Turkensteen, L.J.; Fry, W.E.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the population of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca valley region is genetically differentiated according to habitat. Isolates were sampled in three habitats from (i) wild Solanum spp. (WILD), (ii) land-race varieties in low-input production systems (RURAL), and

  3. Carotenoid fluorescence in Dunaliella salina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Es, van M.A.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Dunaliella salina is a halotolerant green alga that is well known for its carotenoid producing capacity. The produced carotenoids are mainly stored in lipid globules. For various research purposes, such as production and extraction kinetics, we would like to determine and/or localise the carotenoid

  4. Ecology of a heterotrichous ciliate Fabrea salina from salterns of Bombay Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rattan, P.; Ansari, Z.A.; Sreepada, R.A.

    The abundance and population size structure of a heterotrichous ciliate @iFabrea salina@@, was studied in relation to hydrochemical and hydrobiological variables in three hypersaline ponds of Bombay, west coast of India There was a clear seasonal...

  5. Population and Habitat Objectives for Avian Conservation in California's Central Valley Riparian Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen E. Dybala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss1art5Riparian ecosystems provide important ecosystem services and recreational opportunities for people, and habitat for wildlife. In California’s Central Valley, government agencies and private organizations are working together to protect and restore riparian ecosystems, and the Central Valley Joint Venture provides leadership in the formulation of goals and objectives for avian conservation in riparian ecosystems. We defined a long-term conservation goal as the establishment of riparian ecosystems that provide sufficient habitat to support genetically robust, self-sustaining, and resilient bird populations. To achieve this goal, we selected a suite of 12 breeding riparian landbird focal species as indicators of the state of riparian ecosystems in each of four major Central Valley planning regions. Using recent bird survey data, we estimated that over half of the regional focal species populations are currently small (< 10,000 and may be vulnerable to extirpation, and two species have steeply declining population trends. For each focal species in each region, we defined long-term (100-year population objectives that are intended to be conservation endpoints that we expect to meet the goal of genetically robust, self-sustaining, and resilient populations. We then estimated the long-term species density and riparian restoration objectives required to achieve the long-term population objectives. To track progress toward the long-term objectives, we propose short-term (10- year objectives, including the addition of 12,919 ha (31,923 ac of riparian vegetation in the Central Valley (by planning region: 3,390 ha in Sacramento, 2,390 ha in Yolo–Delta, 3,386 ha in San Joaquin, and 3,753 ha in Tulare. We expect that reaching these population, density, and habitat objectives through threat abatement, habitat restoration, and habitat enhancement will result in improvements to riparian ecosystem function and

  6. Salinas. Theory Manual Version 2.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Garth M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walsh, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bhardwaj, Manoj K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas , we refer the reader to Salinas, Users Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  7. Population and Habitat Objectives for Breeding Shorebirds in California’s Central Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khara M. Strum

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available http://escholarship.org/uc/item/2836q0qgThe Central Valley of California provides important breeding habitat to numerous species of wetland-dependent birds, despite the loss of over 90% of naturally occurring wetlands. A majority of shorebirds breeding in this region rely on shallow-flooded habitat adjacent to sparsely vegetated uplands as provided by rice (Oryza sativa, managed wetlands, and other habitats. We estimated the current extent of potential breeding shorebird habitat provided by rice and managed permanent and semi-permanent wetlands in each of four major planning regions of the Central Valley, and estimated the average breeding densities and current population sizes of two species of shorebirds: the Black-Necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus and American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana. Using a population status framework based on principles of conservation biology, we estimated that stilt populations are small (<10,000 individuals or very small (<1,000 individuals in three of the four planning regions, and avocet populations are small or very small in all four planning regions. We then used the framework to define long-term (100-year population objectives for stilts, avocets, and a third species, Killdeer (Charadrius vociferous, designed to meet our long-term conservation goal of supporting self-sustaining, genetically robust, and resilient populations of breeding shorebirds in the Central Valley. We also estimated the long-term species’ density and wetland habitat objectives necessary to achieve the population objectives for all three species. The corresponding short-term (10-year conservation objectives are to restore semi-permanent wetlands to provide an additional 11,537 ha (28,508 ac of habitat for breeding shorebirds (by planning region: 2,842 ha in Sacramento, 2,897 ha in Yolo–Delta, 2,943 ha in San Joaquin, and 2,855 ha in Tulare, and to enhance existing habitat to support density objectives. Our approach provides a

  8. [The impact of population growth on Tamba Kosi, a Himalayan valley in Nepal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verliat, S

    1994-01-01

    Two several-month-long stays in the isolated Tamba Kosi valley in Nepal in 1983 and 1986 allowed an assessment of the importance of changes in rural societies. In about 50 years, the oldest inhabitants of some villages have seen the number of houses quadruple. In the absence of reliable statistical data, the inhabitants say that the Tamba Kosi valley population has doubled in the last 25 years. This population growth exacerbates the multiethnic fight for good land (i.e., ground of modest slope, hot, and humid). Many people have emigrated, which has somewhat eased problems relative to population growth. Soil degradation, which is becoming more and more acute, drives the inhabitants to cut down trees and clear the land for cultivation of new plots. These new plots are running up against steep slopes and high altitude. Most families have barely two hectares, which must suffice to feed 5-6 people on average. This fuels intensification of agricultural production, resulting in low efficacy. Livestock mutilate forests with their hooves and teeth. The marked increase in the variety of livestock accelerates this destruction. Three types of building materials are used in this high valley: thatch, shingles (fir tree), and bamboo matting. The disappearance of wild grasses used to make thatch roofs and people moving to higher and higher altitudes resulted in use of shingles to make roofs. Buildings made of shingles, which demanded changes in construction techniques, changed the conception of homes. They became the preferred building type, which increased the demand for fir trees and deforestation. This lead to a demand for roofing material made of bamboo matting and another change in construction techniques. The retreat of the forest and disappearance of the most wanted plant species are the most spectacular impacts of population growth. This environmental degradation exacerbates erosion at all bioclimatic altitudes.

  9. Historical Population Structure of Central Valley Steelhead and Its Alteration by Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T. Lindley

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Effective conservation and recovery planning for Central Valley steelhead requires an understanding of historical population structure. We describe the historical structure of the Central Valley steelhead evolutionarily significant unit using a multi-phase modeling approach. In the first phase, we identify stream reaches possibly suitable for steelhead spawning and rearing using a habitat model based on environmental envelopes (stream discharge, gradient, and temperature that takes a digital elevation model and climate data as inputs. We identified 151 patches of potentially suitable habitat with more than 10 km of stream habitat, with a total of 25,500 km of suitable habitat. We then measured the distances among habitat patches, and clustered together patches within 35 km of each other into 81 distinct habitat patches. Groups of fish using these 81 patches are hypothesized to be (or to have been independent populations for recovery planning purposes. Consideration of climate and elevation differences among the 81 habitat areas suggests that there are at least four major subdivisions within the Central Valley steelhead ESU that correspond to geographic regions defined by the Sacramento River basin, Suisun Bay area tributaries, San Joaquin tributaries draining the Sierra Nevada, and lower-elevation streams draining to the Buena Vista and Tulare basins, upstream of the San Joaquin River. Of these, it appears that the Sacramento River basin was the main source of steelhead production. Presently, impassable dams block access to 80% of historically available habitat, and block access to all historical spawning habitat for about 38% of the historical populations of steelhead.

  10. Heterozygosity and Fixation Index for ABO Gene in Barak Valley Populations vis-a-vis a Few Exotic Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In a genetic study of 26 human populations including 2 major endogamous populations (Hindus and Muslims of Barak Valley in Assam and 24 exotic populations, observed heterozygosity (Ho, fixation index (F and Panmictic index (P for ABO gene were estimated from gene frequency data to reveal the extent of inbreeding that has taken place in each population during evolution. Observed heterozygosity, a measure of genetic variation, ranged from 0.3254 to 0.6086 in these populations. Expected Hardy-Weinberg heterozygosity of ABO gene was estimated as 0.6666 assuming the occurrence of all the three alleles in equal frequency. Fixation index was the highest in the population of Sudan (51.18% followed by Australia (48.51% and Iceland (38.28% indicating the occurrence of high inbreeding and the presence of more homozygosity in these populations during evolution. But the fixation index was the lowest in the population of South China (8.70% followed by Central Asia (11.82% and Russia (12.96%. It suggested the occurrence of low inbreeding and hence more outbreeding in these populations resulting in the existence of more heterozygosity (high genetic variation in these populations. Panmictic index, a measure of outbreeding, is the opposite of fixation index and it varied from 48.82 (Sudan to 91.30% (South China. The population showing the highest fixation index recorded the lowest panmictic index and vice-versa. In evolutionary context, outbreeding in human populations would be more desirable to reduce the incidence of genetic diseases caused by recessive genes and to enhance heterozygosity for those loci for better adaptation of future generations, possibly at the cost of gradually increasing genetic load in the population.

  11. Contribution of Co2+ in increasing chlorophyll a concentration of Nannochloropsis salina in controlled Conwy medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hala, Y.; Taba, P.; Suryati, E.; Kasih, P.; Firman, N. F.

    2018-03-01

    A research in determining the contribution of Co2+ on the increase of chlorophyll a concentration of Nannochloropsis salina has been caried out. The cultivation of N. salina was conducted in the Conwy medium with a salinity of 5%o and 25%o and various Co2+ concentration (2, 4, and 8 ppm). In this research, Co2+ was exposed early in the cultivation of N. salina. The growth of N. salina was observed daily by counting the number of populations using a haemocytometer while the chlorophyll a concentration was determined by a Uv-Vis spectrophotometer. The results showed that the growth of N. salina in the control was higher than that in the medium containing Co2+. The optimum growth time was achieved on 15th days (5%) and 8th days (25%). In the cultivation medium with a salinity of 5%, Co2+ with a concentration of 2 ppm increased the chlorophyll a level while Co2+ with concentrations of 4 and 8 ppm decreased it. In the medium of cultivation with a salinity of 25%, the increase in chlorophyll a level was observed at Co2+ concentrations of 2 and 4 ppm whereas the decrease in chlorophyl a level was given at a concentration of 8 ppm. It can be concluded that at low concentrations, Co2+ increased the concentration of chlorophyll a in N. salina.

  12. HLA haplotype map of river valley populations with hemochromatosis traced through five centuries in Central Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, K Sigvard; Ritter, Bernd; Hansson, Norbeth; Chowdhury, Ruma R

    2008-07-01

    The hemochromatosis mutation, C282Y of the HFE gene, seems to have originated from a single event which once occurred in a person living in the north west of Europe carrying human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A3-B7. In descendants of this ancestor also other haplotypes appear probably caused by local recombinations and founder effects. The background of these associations is unknown. Isolated river valley populations may be fruitful for the mapping of genetic disorders such as hemochromatosis. In this study, we try to test this hypothesis in a study from central Sweden where the haplotyope A1-B8 was common. HLA haplotypes and HFE mutations were studied in hemochromatosis patients with present or past parental origin in a sparsely populated (1/km(2)) rural district (n = 8366 in the year of 2005), in central Sweden. Pedigrees were constructed from the Swedish church book registry. Extended haplotypes were studied to evaluate origin of recombinations. There were 87 original probands, 36 females and 51 males identified during 30 yr, of whom 86% carried C282Y/C282Y and 14% C282Y/H63D. Of 32 different HLA haplotypes A1-B8 was the most common (34%), followed by A3-B7 (16%), both in strong linkage disequilibrium with controls, (P females. River valley populations may contain HLA haplotypes reflecting their demographic history. This study has demonstrated that the resistance against recombinations between HLA-A and HFE make HLA haplotypes excellent markers for population movements. Founder effects and genetic drift from bottleneck populations (surviving the plague?) may explain the commonness of the mutation in central Scandinavia. The intergenerational time difference >30 yr was greater than expected and means that the age of the original mutation may be underestimated.

  13. Population and Habitat Objectives for Avian Conservation in California’s Central Valley Grassland–Oak Savannah Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan T. DiGaudio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available http://escholarship.org/uc/item/0dn9f9b4In California’s Central Valley, grassland and oak savannah ecosystems provide multiple economic and social benefits, ecosystem services, and vital bird habitat. There is a growing interest in protecting, restoring, and managing these ecosystems, and the Central Valley Joint Venture (CVJV provides leadership in the formulation of conservation goals and objectives. We defined a long-term goal of protecting, restoring, and managing Central Valley grassland and oak savannah ecosystems so that they are capable of supporting genetically robust, self-sustaining, and resilient wildlife populations. To measure progress toward this goal, we selected a suite of 12 landbird focal species that primarily breed in grasslands and oak savannahs as indicators of the state of these ecosystems on the Central Valley floor (primary focus area and in the Central Valley’s surrounding foothills (secondary focus area. Using data on current densities and habitat extent, we estimated that at least three of the focal species populations in the primary focus area and at least two of the focal species populations in the secondary focus area are currently small (<10,000 individuals and may be vulnerable to extirpation. Furthermore, at least two species appear to have steeply declining population trends. We defined long-term (100-year population objectives for each focal species that we expect to meet the goal of genetically robust, self-sustaining, and resilient populations. We then estimated corresponding short-term (10-year habitat objectives of 4,183 ha of additional grassland and 3,433 ha of additional oak savannah that will be required to make progress toward the long-term objectives. We expect that habitat restoration and enhancement efforts aimed at reaching these long-term conservation objectives will result in improvements to the function of Central Valley grassland and oak savannah ecosystems.

  14. Uncanny valley: A preliminary study on the acceptance of Malaysian urban and rural population toward different types of robotic faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, T. T.; Low, Raymond; Loke, H. J.; Chua, Y. L.; Goh, Y. H.

    2018-04-01

    The proliferation of robotic technologies in recent years brings robots closer to humanities. There are many researches on going at various stages of development to bring robots into our homes, schools, nurseries, elderly care centres, offices, hospitals and factories. With recently developed robots having tendency to have appearance which increasingly displaying similarities to household animals and humans, there is a need to study the existence of uncanny valley phenomenon. Generally, the acceptance of people toward robots increases as the robots acquire increasing similarities to human features until a stage where people feel very uncomfortable, eerie, fear and disgust when the robot appearance become almost human like but not yet human. This phenomenon called uncanny valley was first reported by Masahiro Mori. There are numerous researches conducted to measure the existence of uncanny valley in Japan and European countries. However, there is limited research reported on uncanny valley phenomenon in Malaysia so far. In view of the different cultural background and exposure of Malaysian population to robotics technology compared to European or East Asian populations, it is worth to study this phenomenon in Malaysian context. The main aim of this work is to conduct a preliminary study to determine the existence of uncanny valley phenomenon in Malaysian urban and rural populations. It is interesting to find if there are any differences in the acceptance of the two set of populations despite of their differences. Among others the urban and rural populations differ in term of the rate of urbanization and exposure to latest technologies. A set of four interactive robotic faces and an ideal human model representing the fifth robot are used in this study. The robots have features resembling a cute animal, cartoon character, typical robot and human-like. Questionnaire surveys are conducted on respondents from urban and rural populations. Survey data collected are

  15. Crime Trend Prediction Using Regression Models for Salinas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    2 1. History of Violence in Salinas ................................................. 2 2. Current and Past Efforts to...BACKGROUND 1. History of Violence in Salinas Small tribes of Native Americans inhabited the City of Salinas until around 1822. In 1822, Mexico...In the 1920s, sugar beets and beans gave way to the farming of lettuce because of the ice bunkered railroad, allowing fresh produce shipment

  16. The population structure of Phytophthora infestans from the Toluca Valley of Central Mexico suggests genetic differentiation between populations from cultivated potato and wild Solanum spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flier, W.G.; Grünwald, N.J.; Kroon, L.P.N.M.; Sturbaum, A.K.; Bosch, van den G.B.M.; Garay-Serrano, E.; Lozoya-Saldaña, H.; Fry, W.E.; Turkensteen, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    The Population structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley of central Mexico was assessed using 170 isolates collected front cultivated potatoes and the native wild Solanum spp., S. demissum and S. xedinense. All isolates were analyzed for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype and

  17. Can the halophilic ciliate Fabrea salina be used as a bio-control of microalgae blooms in solar salterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Joong Ki

    2015-09-01

    The microlage Dunaliella salina, a major producer in salterns, is a serious problem for salt production. In this study we tried to assess if Fabrea salina can control D. salina. By parameterising numerical and functional response (growth and grazing vs prey abundance, respectively) at 90 psu and 30°C, where the ciliate is abundant and grows well, we developed a predator-prey model. The model is used to explore how change in microalga growth rate affect the dynamics, and the functional response is used in combination with field data to assess the potential impact of F. salina on D. salina. Over the 20 d simulation the ciliate controlled the prey population under all prey growth rates; although once D. salina were exhausted below the threshold level, F. salina died due to starvation, allowing the alga to increase in abundance, resulting in one or two predatorprey cycle, depending on prey growth rate. In general, the model predicted trends observed by others in the field, suggesting that it provided a good prediction of what may occur under the conditions we examined. Likewise we show that the ciliate can have a high impact on microalgal populations in the field. Finally, a literature review indicated that F. salina could be a good competitor with other protozoa and metazoan in salterns, depending on salinity and temperature, which requires further study and attention. In summary, we encourage continued studies on this unique ciliate on solar salterns and suggest that it may be useful in the bio-control of micoalgae.

  18. Not yet? Ya basta: Healing and the horizons of an otherwise in Salinas, California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raschig, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Among a persistently criminalized population of Mexican-Americans in the farmtown-gangland of Salinas, California, healing from the wounds of history has emerged as a critical register of political action, a tacit and uncertain activism recalibrating the pace and tense of personal recoveries and

  19. Population growth and collapse in a multiagent model of the Kayenta Anasazi in Long House Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axtell, Robert L; Epstein, Joshua M; Dean, Jeffrey S; Gumerman, George J; Swedlund, Alan C; Harburger, Jason; Chakravarty, Shubha; Hammond, Ross; Parker, Jon; Parker, Miles

    2002-05-14

    Long House Valley in the Black Mesa area of northeastern Arizona (U.S.) was inhabited by the Kayenta Anasazi from about 1800 before Christ to about anno Domini 1300. These people were prehistoric ancestors of the modern Pueblo cultures of the Colorado Plateau. Paleoenvironmental research based on alluvial geomorphology, palynology, and dendroclimatology permits accurate quantitative reconstruction of annual fluctuations in potential agricultural production (kg of maize per hectare). The archaeological record of Anasazi farming groups from anno Domini 200-1300 provides information on a millennium of sociocultural stasis, variability, change, and adaptation. We report on a multiagent computational model of this society that closely reproduces the main features of its actual history, including population ebb and flow, changing spatial settlement patterns, and eventual rapid decline. The agents in the model are monoagriculturalists, who decide both where to situate their fields as well as the location of their settlements. Nutritional needs constrain fertility. Agent heterogeneity, difficult to model mathematically, is demonstrated to be crucial to the high fidelity of the model.

  20. Tennessee Valley region study: potential year 2000 radiological dose to population resulting from nuclear facility operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    A companion report, DOE/ET-0064/1, presents a geographic, cultural, and demographic profile of the Tennessee Valley Region study area. This report describes the calculations of radionuclide release and transport and of the resultant dose to the regional population, assuming a projected installed capacity of 220,000 MW in the year 2000, of which 144,000 MW would be nuclear. All elements of the fuel cycle were assumed to be in operation. The radiological dose was calculated as a one-year dose based on ingestion of 35 different food types as well as for nine non-food pathways, and was reported as dose to the total body and for six specific organs for each of four age groups (infant, child, teen, and adult). Results indicate that the average individual would receive an incremental dose of 7 x 10 -4 millirems in the year 2000 from the operation of nuclear facilities within and adjacent to the region, five orders of magnitude smaller than the dose from naturally occurring radiation in the area. The major contributor to dose was found to be tritium, and the most significant pathways were immersion in air, inhalation of air, transpiration of tritium (absorption through the skin), and exposure radionuclide-containing soil. 60 references

  1. A network-based meta-population approach to model Rift Valley fever epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ling; Scott, H Morgan; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Scoglio, Caterina

    2012-08-07

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has been expanding its geographical distribution with important implications for both human and animal health. The emergence of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in the Middle East, and its continuing presence in many areas of Africa, has negatively impacted both medical and veterinary infrastructures and human morbidity, mortality, and economic endpoints. Furthermore, worldwide attention should be directed towards the broader infection dynamics of RVFV, because suitable host, vector and environmental conditions for additional epidemics likely exist on other continents; including Asia, Europe and the Americas. We propose a new compartmentalized model of RVF and the related ordinary differential equations to assess disease spread in both time and space; with the latter driven as a function of contact networks. Humans and livestock hosts and two species of vector mosquitoes are included in the model. The model is based on weighted contact networks, where nodes of the networks represent geographical regions and the weights represent the level of contact between regional pairings for each set of species. The inclusion of human, animal, and vector movements among regions is new to RVF modeling. The movement of the infected individuals is not only treated as a possibility, but also an actuality that can be incorporated into the model. We have tested, calibrated, and evaluated the model using data from the recent 2010 RVF outbreak in South Africa as a case study; mapping the epidemic spread within and among three South African provinces. An extensive set of simulation results shows the potential of the proposed approach for accurately modeling the RVF spreading process in additional regions of the world. The benefits of the proposed model are twofold: not only can the model differentiate the maximum number of infected individuals among different provinces, but also it can reproduce the different starting times of the outbreak in multiple locations

  2. Rift Valley fever virus seroprevalence in human rural populations of Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Pourrut

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis caused by a phlebovirus and transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Humans can also be infected through direct contact with blood (aerosols or tissues (placenta, stillborn of infected animals. Although severe clinical cases can be observed, infection with RVF virus (RVFV in humans is, in most cases, asymptomatic or causes a febrile illness without serious symptoms. In small ruminants RVFV mainly causes abortion and neonatal death. The distribution of RVFV has been well documented in many African countries, particularly in the north (Egypt, Sudan, east (Kenya, Tanzania, Somalia, west (Senegal, Mauritania and south (South Africa, but also in the Indian Ocean (Madagascar, Mayotte and the Arabian Peninsula. In contrast, the prevalence of RVFV has rarely been investigated in central African countries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We therefore conducted a large serological survey of rural populations in Gabon, involving 4,323 individuals from 212 randomly selected villages (10.3% of all Gabonese villages. RVFV-specific IgG was found in a total of 145 individuals (3.3% suggesting the wide circulation of Rift Valley fever virus in Gabon. The seroprevalence was significantly higher in the lakes region than in forest and savannas zones, with respective rates of 8.3%, 2.9% and 2.2%. In the lakes region, RVFV-specific IgG was significantly more prevalent in males than in females (respectively 12.8% and 3.8% and the seroprevalence increased gradually with age in males but not in females. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although RVFV was suggested to circulate at a relatively high level in Gabon, no outbreaks or even isolated cases have been documented in the country. The higher prevalence in the lakes region is likely to be driven by specific ecologic conditions favorable to certain mosquito vector species. Males may be more at risk of infection than females because they spend more time farming and

  3. The Selectivity of Milking of Dunaliella salina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    The process of the simultaneous production and extraction of carotenoids, milking, of Dunaliella salina was studied. We would like to know the selectivity of this process. Could all the carotenoids produced be extracted? And would it be possible to vary the profile of the produced carotenoids and,

  4. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND PRODUCTION OF COPAIBA OLEORESIN BETWEEN VALLEYS AND HILLSIDES OF THE MINING AREA OFTROMBETAS RIVER - PARÁ1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Gebara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We aimed in this work to study natural populations of copaiba (Copaifera multijuga Hayne on the Monte Branco mountain at Porto Trombetas-PA, in order to support sustainable management and the exploitation of oleoresin from copaiba. We studied the population structure of copaiba on hillsides and valleys of the south face of Monte Branco, within Saracá Taquera National Forest, where bauxite ore was extracted in the biennium 2013-2014 by Mineração Rio do Norte (MRN. We produced a 100% forest inventory of the specie and of oleoresin extraction in order to quantify the potential production of the remaining area. The density of copaiba individuals with DBH > 30 cm was 0.33 individuals per hectare in the hillside and 0.25 individuals per hectare in the valley. Both environments presented a density of 0.28 individuals per hectare. The average copaiba oleoresin yield was 0.661±0.334 liters in the hillside and 0.765±0.280 liters in the valley. The average value of both environments together (hillside and valley was 0.714±0.218 liters. From all individuals with DBH over 30 cm, 38 (58% produced some amount of oleoresin, averaging 1.113±0.562 liters in the hillside, 1.329±0.448 liters in the valley and 1.190±0.355 liters in both environments together. The results show the need for planning the use of the surroundings of the study area in order to reach the required volume of copaiba to make feasible the sustainable management of oleoresin extraction in the region.

  5. Population Structure of Xylella fastidiosa Associated with Almond Leaf Scorch Disease in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Islam, Md Sajedul; Cabrera-La Rosa, Juan C; Civerolo, Edwin L; Groves, Russell L

    2015-06-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in many commercial crops, including almond leaf scorch (ALS) disease in susceptible almond (Prunus dulcis). In this study, genetic diversity and population structure of X. fastidiosa associated with ALS disease were evaluated. Isolates obtained from two almond orchards in Fresno and Kern County in the San Joaquin Valley of California were analyzed for two successive years. Multilocus simple-sequence repeat (SSR) analysis revealed two major genetic clusters that were associated with two host cultivars, 'Sonora' and 'Nonpareil', respectively, regardless of the year of study or location of the orchard. These relationships suggest that host cultivar selection and adaptation are major driving forces shaping ALS X. fastidiosa population structure in the San Joaquin Valley. This finding will provide insight into understanding pathogen adaptation and host selection in the context of ALS disease dynamics.

  6. Effective dose delivered by conventional radiology to Aosta Valley population between 2002 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenone, F; Aimonetto, S; Catuzzo, P; Peruzzo Cornetto, A; Marchisio, P; Natrella, M; Rosanò, A M; Meloni, T; Pasquino, M; Tofani, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective Medical diagnostic procedures can be considered the main man-made source of ionising radiation exposure for the population. Conventional radiography still represents the largest contribution to examination frequency. The present work evaluates procedure frequency and effective dose from the majority of conventional radiology examinations performed at the Radiological Department of Aosta Hospital from 2002 to 2009. Method Effective dose to the patient was evaluated by means of the software PCXMC. Data provided by the radiological information system allowed us to obtain collective effective and per caput dose. Results The biggest contributors to per caput effective dose from conventional radiology are vertebral column, abdomen, chest, pelvis and (limited to females) breast. Vertebral column, pelvis and breast procedures show a significant dose increment in the period of the study. The mean effective dose per inhabitant from conventional radiology increased from 0.131 mSv in 2002 to 0.156 mSv in 2009. Combining these figures with those from our study of effective dose from CT (0.55 mSv in 2002 to 1.03 mSv in 2009), the total mean effective dose per inhabitant increased from 0.68 mSv to 1.19 mSv. The contribution of CT increased from 81% to 87% of the total. In contrast, conventional radiology accounts for 85% of the total number of procedures, but only 13% of the effective dose. Conclusion The study has demonstrated that conventional radiography still represents the biggest contributor to examination frequency in Aosta Valley in 2009. However, the frequency of the main procedures did not change significantly between 2002 and 2009. PMID:21937611

  7. Pedro Salinas: la letra y la persona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escartín Gual, Montserrat

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a Pedro Salinas's homage in the fifty anniversary of his death. Here, we analise his attitude in front of life and his securities through his poems, personal letters and essais. The poet criticizes the materialistic american stil of life, where he should live during his exile until his death (1936-1951. Against the hurry, the profitable things, the technology, the money..., Salinas believes in his language, slowness, friendship, contemplation of countryside, art, spiritualism, optimism, etc. Son of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza's ideas, his personal ethics looked for the biggest perfection trought the will.Este artículo es un homenaje a Pedro Salinas al cumplirse el cincuentenario de su muerte. En él, se analiza su actitud ante la vida y sus valores a través de sus poesías, cartas personales y ensayos. El poeta critica el materialismo del modelo americano en el que se vio obligado a vivir desde que se exilió hasta su muerte (1936-1951. Frente a la prisa, lo rentable, la tecnología, el dinero...; Salinas cree en su idioma, la lentitud, la amistad, la contemplación del paisaje, el arte, lo espiritual, el optimismo, etc. Hijo de las ideas de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza, su ética personal buscó la mayor perfección a través de la voluntad.

  8. First Report of Widespread Wild Populations of Triatoma infestans (Reduviidae, Triatominae) in the Valleys of La Paz, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Rosio; Waleckx, Etienne; Bosseno, Marie-France; Zoveda, Faustine; Vidaurre, Pablo; Salas, Renata; Mamani, Elio; Noireau, François; Brenière, Simone Frédérique

    2010-01-01

    Wild populations of Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease in the Southern Cone countries, may be involved in reinfestation of human dwellings, limiting the success of vector-control campaigns in Bolivia. Knowledge of the distribution of these populations remains incomplete. We report here the detection of T. infestans wild populations in large areas in the department of La Paz, Bolivia. Among 18 sylvatic areas investigated, 17 were positive with T. infestans specimens. The infection rate of captured T. infestans with Trypanosoma cruzi was 85.7% in adult specimens. These results expand the geographical distribution of wild populations of T. infestans; it may be distributed throughout the Inter-Andean Dry Forest eco-region of Bolivia. The current information allows us to propose the hypothesis that a sylvatic origin of the reinfestation is located in the valleys of La Paz. PMID:20348501

  9. The Population Structure of Phytophthora infestans from the Toluca Valley of Central Mexico Suggests Genetic Differentiation Between Populations from Cultivated Potato and Wild Solanum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flier, Wilbert G; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Kroon, Laurens P N M; Sturbaum, Anne K; van den Bosch, Trudy B M; Garay-Serrano, Edith; Lozoya-Saldaña, Hector; Fry, William E; Turkensteen, Lod J

    2003-04-01

    ABSTRACT The population structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley of central Mexico was assessed using 170 isolates collected from cultivated potatoes and the native wild Solanum spp., S. demissum and S. xendinense. All isolates were analyzed for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) multi-locus fingerprint genotype. Isolate samples were monomorphic for mtDNA haplotype because all isolates tested were of the Ia haplotype. A total of 158 multilocus AFLP genotypes were identified among the 170 P. infestans isolates included in this study. P. infestans populations sampled in the Toluca Valley in 1997 were highly variable and almost every single isolate represented a unique genotype based on the analysis of 165 AFLP marker loci. Populations of P. infestans collected from the commercial potato-growing region in the valley, the subsistence potato production area along the slopes of the Nevado de Toluca, and the native Solanum spp. on the forested slopes of the volcano showed a high degree of genetic diversity. The number of polymorphic loci varied from 20.0 to 62.4% for isolates collected from the field station and wild Solanum spp. On average, 81.8% (135) of the AFLP loci were polymorphic. Hetero-zygosity varied between 7.7 and 19.4%. Significant differentiation was found at the population level between strains originating from cultivated potatoes and wild Solanum spp. (P = 0.001 to 0.022). Private alleles were observed in individual isolates collected from all three populations, with numbers of unique dominant alleles varying from 9 to 16 for isolates collected from commercial potato crops and native Solanum spp., respectively. Four AFLP markers were exclusively found present in isolates collected from S. demissum. Indirect estimation of gene flow between populations indicated restricted gene flow between both P. infestans populations from cultivated potatoes and wild Solanum hosts. There was no evidence

  10. Pedro Salinas y el teatro desde dentro (Pedro Salinas and Theatre from Within

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Benítez Vega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Pedro Salinas y el teatro, desde dentro” es el título de este artículo cuya finalidad consiste en realizar un recorrido por la vocación teatral de Pedro Salinas desde sus primeros años hasta el final de sus días: su asistencia a representaciones teatrales, sus contactos con el teatro y sus proyectos como autor dramático tanto los que se realizaron como los que no llegaron a materializarse. El propósito es adentrarnos en el alma teatral del poeta: cómo, cuándo, por qué surge su vocación por el arte escénico, insistiendo en la necesidad de rescatar la faceta de dramaturgo de Pedro Salinas como una constante más en la labor del poeta, profesor y crítico.Abstract: "Pedro Salinas and the theatre, from inside " it is the title of this article which purpose consists of realizing a tour for Pedro Salinas's theatrical vocation from his first years until the end of his days: his assistance to theatrical representations, his contacts with the theatre and his projects like dramatic author so much those who were realized as those who did not manage to materialize. The intention is to enter the theatrical soul of the poet: how, when, why his vocation arises for the scenic art, insisting on the need to rescue the playwright's facet of Pedro Salinas as one more constant in the labor of the poet, teacher and critic.

  11. Population growth and collapse in a multiagent model of the Kayenta Anasazi in Long House Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Axtell, Robert L.; Epstein, Joshua M.; Dean, Jeffrey S.; Gumerman, George J.; Swedlund, Alan C.; Harburger, Jason; Chakravarty, Shubha; Hammond, Ross; Parker, Jon; Parker, Miles

    2002-01-01

    Long House Valley in the Black Mesa area of northeastern Arizona (U.S.) was inhabited by the Kayenta Anasazi from about 1800 before Christ to about anno Domini 1300. These people were prehistoric ancestors of the modern Pueblo cultures of the Colorado Plateau. Paleoenvironmental research based on alluvial geomorphology, palynology, and dendroclimatology permits accurate quantitative reconstruction of annual fluctuations in potential agricultural production (kg of maize per hectare). The archa...

  12. Cadmium induced oxidative stress in Dunaliella salina | Moradshahi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina contains various antioxidants which protect the cell from oxidative damage due to environmental stresses such as heavy metal stress. In the present study, the response of D. salina at the stationary growth phase to oxidative stress generated by cadmium chloride was ...

  13. Harvesting of Dunaliella salina by membrane filtration at pilot scale

    KAUST Repository

    Monte, Joana

    2017-09-02

    The microalgae Dunaliella salina is industrially produced due to its high content in carotenoids induced by low nitrogen and high salinity conditions. D. salina with low carotenoids content also produces other added value compounds, however its recovery have hardly been studied. This work aims to examine the potential of pre-concentrating D. salina by membrane processing prior to a final harvesting step by low-shear centrifugation. The aim is to minimize the overall energy expenditure and reduce capital costs, while assuring a minimal loss of cell integrity. This task is challenging, considering the sensitivity of D. salina to shear. Harvesting of D. salina by ultrafiltration allowed reaching a final concentration factor of 5.9, with an average permeate flux of 31 L/(m2 h). The Total Cost of Ownership and energy consumption for harvesting are respectively 52% and 45% lower when applying a two-step approach with pre-concentration (ultrafiltration) compared to only harvesting by centrifugation.

  14. Harvesting of Dunaliella salina by membrane filtration at pilot scale

    KAUST Repository

    Monte, Joana; Sá , Marta; Galinha, Clá udia F.; Costa, Luí s; Hoekstra, Herre; Brazinha, Carla; Crespo, Joã o G.

    2017-01-01

    The microalgae Dunaliella salina is industrially produced due to its high content in carotenoids induced by low nitrogen and high salinity conditions. D. salina with low carotenoids content also produces other added value compounds, however its recovery have hardly been studied. This work aims to examine the potential of pre-concentrating D. salina by membrane processing prior to a final harvesting step by low-shear centrifugation. The aim is to minimize the overall energy expenditure and reduce capital costs, while assuring a minimal loss of cell integrity. This task is challenging, considering the sensitivity of D. salina to shear. Harvesting of D. salina by ultrafiltration allowed reaching a final concentration factor of 5.9, with an average permeate flux of 31 L/(m2 h). The Total Cost of Ownership and energy consumption for harvesting are respectively 52% and 45% lower when applying a two-step approach with pre-concentration (ultrafiltration) compared to only harvesting by centrifugation.

  15. You Can't Unscramble an Egg: Population Genetic Structure of Oncorhynchus mykiss in the California Central Valley Inferred from Combined Microsatellite and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon E. Pearse

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2015v13iss4art3Steelhead/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss are found in all of the major tributaries of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, which flow through California’s Central Valley and enter the ocean through San Francisco Bay and the Golden Gate. This river system is heavily affected by water development, agriculture, and invasive species, and salmon and trout hatchery propagation has been occurring for over 100 years. We collected genotype data for 18 highly variable microsatellite loci and 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from more than 1,900 fish from Central Valley drainages to analyze genetic diversity, population structure, differentiation between populations above and below dams, and the relationship of Central Valley O. mykiss populations to coastal California steelhead. In addition, we evaluate introgression by both hatchery rainbow trout strains, which have primarily native Central Valley ancestry, and imported coastal steelhead stocks. In contrast to patterns typical of coastal steelhead, Central Valley O. mykiss above and below dams within the same tributary were not found to be each others’ closest relatives, and we found no relationship between genetic and geographic distance among below-barrier populations. While introgression by hatchery rainbow trout strains does not appear to be widespread among above-barrier populations, steelhead in the American River and some neighboring tributaries have been introgressed by coastal steelhead. Together, these results demonstrate that the ancestral population genetic structure that existed among Central Valley tributaries has been significantly altered in contemporary populations. Future conservation, restoration, and mitigation efforts should take this into account when working to meet recovery planning goals.

  16. Accelerated crossing of fitness valleys through division of labor and cheating in asexual populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Natalia L.; Urwin, Erin; Wodarz, Dominik

    2012-12-01

    Complex traits can require the accumulation of multiple mutations that are individually deleterious. Their evolution requires a fitness valley to be crossed, which can take relatively long time spans. A new evolutionary mechanism is described that accelerates the emergence of complex phenotypes, based on a ``division of labor'' game and the occurrence of cheaters. If each intermediate mutation leads to a product that can be shared with others, the complex type can arise relatively quickly as an emergent property among cooperating individuals, without any given individual having to accumulate all mutations. Moreover, the emergence of cheaters that destroy cooperative interactions can lead to the emergence of individuals that have accumulated all necessary mutations on a time scale that is significantly faster than observed in the absence of cooperation and cheating. Application of this mechanism to somatic and microbial evolution is discussed, including evolutionary processes in tumors, biofilms, and viral infections.

  17. SMART SfM: SALINAS ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Inzerillo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In these last years, there has been an increasing use of the Structure from Motion (SfM techniques applied to Cultural Heritage. The accessibility of SfM software can be especially advantageous to users in non-technical fields or to those with limited resources. Thanks to SfM using, everyone can make with a digital camera a 3D model applied to an object of both Cultural Heritage, and physically Environment, and work arts, etc. One very interesting and useful application can be envisioned into museum collection digitalization. In the last years, a social experiment has been conducted involving young generation to live a social museum using their own camera to take pictures and videos. Students of university of Catania and Palermo were involved into a national event #digitalinvasion (2015-2016 editions offering their personal contribution: they realized 3D models of the museums collection through the SfM techniques. In particular at the National Archaeological Museum Salinas in Palermo, it has been conducted an organized survey to recognize the most important part of the archaeological collection. It was a success: in both #digitalinvasion National Event 2015 and 2016 the young students of Engineering classes carried out, with Photoscan Agisoft, more than one hundred 3D models some of which realized by phone camera and some other by reflex camera and some other with compact camera too. The director of the museum has been very impressed from these results and now we are going to collaborate at a National project to use the young generation crowdsourcing to realize a semi-automated monitoring system at Salinas Archaeological Museum.

  18. Smart SfM: Salinas Archaeological Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzerillo, L.

    2017-08-01

    In these last years, there has been an increasing use of the Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques applied to Cultural Heritage. The accessibility of SfM software can be especially advantageous to users in non-technical fields or to those with limited resources. Thanks to SfM using, everyone can make with a digital camera a 3D model applied to an object of both Cultural Heritage, and physically Environment, and work arts, etc. One very interesting and useful application can be envisioned into museum collection digitalization. In the last years, a social experiment has been conducted involving young generation to live a social museum using their own camera to take pictures and videos. Students of university of Catania and Palermo were involved into a national event #digitalinvasion (2015-2016 editions) offering their personal contribution: they realized 3D models of the museums collection through the SfM techniques. In particular at the National Archaeological Museum Salinas in Palermo, it has been conducted an organized survey to recognize the most important part of the archaeological collection. It was a success: in both #digitalinvasion National Event 2015 and 2016 the young students of Engineering classes carried out, with Photoscan Agisoft, more than one hundred 3D models some of which realized by phone camera and some other by reflex camera and some other with compact camera too. The director of the museum has been very impressed from these results and now we are going to collaborate at a National project to use the young generation crowdsourcing to realize a semi-automated monitoring system at Salinas Archaeological Museum.

  19. Road density not a major driver of Red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) population demographics in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivana Mali; Brian E. Dickerson; Donald J. Brown; James R. Dixon; Michael R. J. Forstner

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there have been concerns over the conservation and management of freshwater turtle populations in the state of Texas. In 2008 and 2009, we completed several investigations addressing anthropogenic impacts on freshwater turtles in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas. Here, we use a model selection approach within an information-theoretic...

  20. Population structure of giraffes is affected by management in the Great Rift Valley, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Muller

    Full Text Available Giraffe populations in East Africa have declined in the past thirty years yet there has been limited research on this species. This study had four objectives: i to provide a baseline population assessment for the two largest populations of Rothschild's giraffes in Kenya, ii to assess whether there are differences in population structure between the two enclosed populations, iii to assess the potential and possible implications of different management practices on enclosed giraffe populations to inform future decision-making, and iv to add to the availability of information available about giraffes in the wild. I used individual identification to assess the size and structure of the two populations; in Soysambu Conservancy between May 2010 and January 2011, I identified 77 giraffes; in Lake Nakuru National Park between May 2011 and January 2012, I identified 89. Population structure differed significantly between the two sites; Soysambu Conservancy contained a high percentage of juveniles (34% and subadults (29% compared to Lake Nakuru NP, which contained fewer juveniles (5% and subadults (15%. During the time of this study Soysambu Conservancy contained no lions while Lake Nakuru NP contained a high density of lions (30 lions per 100km2. Lions are the main predator of giraffes, and preferential predation on juvenile giraffes has previously been identified in Lake Nakuru NP. My results suggest that high lion density in Lake Nakuru NP may have influenced the structure of the giraffe population by removing juveniles and, consequently, may affect future population growth. I suggest that wildlife managers consider lion densities alongside breeding plans for Endangered species, since the presence of lions appears to influence the population structure of giraffes in enclosed habitats.

  1. Population structure of giraffes is affected by management in the Great Rift Valley, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Zoe

    2018-01-01

    Giraffe populations in East Africa have declined in the past thirty years yet there has been limited research on this species. This study had four objectives: i) to provide a baseline population assessment for the two largest populations of Rothschild's giraffes in Kenya, ii) to assess whether there are differences in population structure between the two enclosed populations, iii) to assess the potential and possible implications of different management practices on enclosed giraffe populations to inform future decision-making, and iv) to add to the availability of information available about giraffes in the wild. I used individual identification to assess the size and structure of the two populations; in Soysambu Conservancy between May 2010 and January 2011, I identified 77 giraffes; in Lake Nakuru National Park between May 2011 and January 2012, I identified 89. Population structure differed significantly between the two sites; Soysambu Conservancy contained a high percentage of juveniles (34%) and subadults (29%) compared to Lake Nakuru NP, which contained fewer juveniles (5%) and subadults (15%). During the time of this study Soysambu Conservancy contained no lions while Lake Nakuru NP contained a high density of lions (30 lions per 100km2). Lions are the main predator of giraffes, and preferential predation on juvenile giraffes has previously been identified in Lake Nakuru NP. My results suggest that high lion density in Lake Nakuru NP may have influenced the structure of the giraffe population by removing juveniles and, consequently, may affect future population growth. I suggest that wildlife managers consider lion densities alongside breeding plans for Endangered species, since the presence of lions appears to influence the population structure of giraffes in enclosed habitats.

  2. Studies on experimental culture of a marine ciliate Fabrea salina

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rattan, R.; Ansari, Z.A.; Chatterji, A.

    Studies were conducted on the culture of a marine ciliate, Fabrea salina in the laboratory condition. Three types of inert feed; commercial yeast, fermented wheat bran and fermented rise bran were tested to study their suitability as artificial feed...

  3. Larvicidal activity of some marine macrophytes against Artemia salina

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    and Microdictyon pseudohapteron, seagrasses (Halophila ovalis and Syringodium isoetifolium and lichens (Umbilicaria arpina) were tested for larvicidal activity using Artemia salina nauplii. The LC50 values for the PE-fraction of M. pseudohapteron and A. muscoides...

  4. A study of gizzard nematodes and renal coccidiosis in Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) of the Mississippi Valley population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggle, Benjamin N.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 309 Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior, of different sex and age groups was collected from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway from 1979-1981 and examined for gizzard nematodes and renal coccidia. Three species of nematodes were removed from the gizzards, Amidostomum anseris, A. spatulatum, and Epomidiostomum crami. The latter two species are reported from this population of geese for the first time. Gizzard nematodes were found in 95.2% of all Canada geese examined, with A. anseris being the most abundant of the three species. There was no statistically significant difference between immatures and adults in the abundance of total nematodes species however, immature geese carried significantly more A. anseris and adult geese harbored significantly more A. spatulatum and E. crami infections. No significant difference in gizzard worm infections between male and female birds was observed. The abundance of overall gizzard nematodes was greatest in Canada geese from Winisk, Ontario (11.9), but the abundance of worms in southern Illinois geese (10.0) was similar. Geese from Horicon National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest abundance of infection, 7.5. The overall abundance of nematodes showed a general increase the second year of the study in each sex and age group and at each collection area. Each of three species of nematodes was responsible for some degree of damage to the gizzard lining and koilin, but E. crami was the most pathogenic of the species recovered. The occurrence of renal coccidiosis in Canada geese of this flyway is reported for the first time; the etiologic agent is Eimeria clarkei. The oocysts and/or endogenous stages of E. clarkei were present in 6.8% of the Canada geese sampled and this was the only species found. Male and female geese showed no significant differences in E. clarkei infections, however, significantly more immature geese than adult geese were infected with this species. A cell

  5. Phototactic orientation mechanism in the ciliate Fabrea salina, as inferred from numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, R; Preosti, G; Colombetti, G

    2000-02-01

    The marine ciliate Fabrea salina shows a clear positive phototaxis, but the mechanism by which a single cell is able to detect the direction of light and orient its swimming accordingly is still unknown. A simple model of phototaxis is that of a biased random walk, where the bias due to light can affect one or more of the parameters that characterize a random walk, i.e., the mean speed, the frequency distribution of the angles of directional changes and the frequency of directional changes. Since experimental evidence has shown no effect of light on the mean speed of Fabrea salina, we have excluded models depending on this parameter. We have, therefore, investigated the phototactic orientation of Fabrea salina by computer simulation of two simple models, the first where light affects the frequency distribution of the angles of directional changes (model M1) and the second where the light bias modifies the frequency of directional changes (model M2). Simulated M1 cells directly orient their swimming towards the direction of light, regardless of their current swimming orientation; simulated M2 cells, on the contrary, are unable to actively orient their motion, but remain locked along the light direction once they find it by chance. The simulations show that these two orientation models lead to different macroscopic behaviours of the simulated cell populations. By comparing the results of the simulations with the experimental ones, we have found that the phototactic behaviour of real cells is more similar to that of the M2 model.

  6. The natural population of bees of the earth (Melipona beecheii) and their flora in the valley San Andrés

    OpenAIRE

    Katiuska Ravelo Pimentel; Fernando Ramón Hernández Martínez; Iván Paneque Torres; Luisa Elena Toledo Peña; Hilda Gutiérrez Hernández

    2014-01-01

    The relationship of the natural population of bees of the earth is evaluated (Melipona beecheii) and its flora in the valley San Andrés, to inclination observations and samplings carried out in the formations studied vegetable. The melliferous plants and their use like tree of the nest of Melipona beecheii were studied for each one of the vegetable formations of the valley San Andrés, the indexes of diversity and their relationship were also analyzed with the values of density of colonies. It...

  7. Analysis of twelve polymorphous bookmarks in the DNA of a population sample of the Costa Rican Central Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, E.; Lobo, J.; Leon, P.

    1999-01-01

    To establish databases of allele frequencies in a Costa Rican Central Valley population sample. Peripheral blood samples from more than 40 individual were used to isolate DNA and analyze each sample with 10 dinucleotide repeat genetic markers and with 2 mini satellite repeats, using the polymerase chain reaction. Alleles were identified by comparison with DNA from CEPH family members. Genotypes were determined by labelling one of the two Pcr primers with 32P before amplification, electrophoresis in sequencing gels and autoradiography. Analysis of this data set indicates that these samples is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and shows no evidence of linkage disequilibrium between markers. These data are compared with results from other human populations analyzed with the same markers, finding similarities in allele frequencies among them. Notably, the Costa Rican sample presents the lowest heterozygosity value, with 4 of the 10 dinucleotide markers tested, followed by a Cerdenian sample. In contrast, the two African samples presented the highest heterozygosity indexes with a larger number of alleles. (L. Jimenez) [es

  8. Simulation modelling of population dynamics of mosquito vectors for rift valley Fever virus in a disease epidemic setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement N Mweya

    Full Text Available Rift Valley Fever (RVF is weather dependent arboviral infection of livestock and humans. Population dynamics of mosquito vectors is associated with disease epidemics. In our study, we use daily temperature and rainfall as model inputs to simulate dynamics of mosquito vectors population in relation to disease epidemics.Time-varying distributed delays (TVDD and multi-way functional response equations were implemented to simulate mosquito vectors and hosts developmental stages and to establish interactions between stages and phases of mosquito vectors in relation to vertebrate hosts for infection introduction in compartmental phases. An open-source modelling platforms, Universal Simulator and Qt integrated development environment were used to develop models in C++ programming language. Developed models include source codes for mosquito fecundity, host fecundity, water level, mosquito infection, host infection, interactions, and egg time. Extensible Markup Language (XML files were used as recipes to integrate source codes in Qt creator with Universal Simulator plug-in. We observed that Floodwater Aedines and Culicine population continued to fluctuate with temperature and water level over simulation period while controlled by availability of host for blood feeding. Infection in the system was introduced by floodwater Aedines. Culicines pick infection from infected host once to amplify disease epidemic. Simulated mosquito population show sudden unusual increase between December 1997 and January 1998 a similar period when RVF outbreak occurred in Ngorongoro district.Findings presented here provide new opportunities for weather-driven RVF epidemic simulation modelling. This is an ideal approach for understanding disease transmission dynamics towards epidemics prediction, prevention and control. This approach can be used as an alternative source for generation of calibrated RVF epidemics data in different settings.

  9. Simulation modelling of population dynamics of mosquito vectors for rift valley Fever virus in a disease epidemic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweya, Clement N; Holst, Niels; Mboera, Leonard E G; Kimera, Sharadhuli I

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is weather dependent arboviral infection of livestock and humans. Population dynamics of mosquito vectors is associated with disease epidemics. In our study, we use daily temperature and rainfall as model inputs to simulate dynamics of mosquito vectors population in relation to disease epidemics. Time-varying distributed delays (TVDD) and multi-way functional response equations were implemented to simulate mosquito vectors and hosts developmental stages and to establish interactions between stages and phases of mosquito vectors in relation to vertebrate hosts for infection introduction in compartmental phases. An open-source modelling platforms, Universal Simulator and Qt integrated development environment were used to develop models in C++ programming language. Developed models include source codes for mosquito fecundity, host fecundity, water level, mosquito infection, host infection, interactions, and egg time. Extensible Markup Language (XML) files were used as recipes to integrate source codes in Qt creator with Universal Simulator plug-in. We observed that Floodwater Aedines and Culicine population continued to fluctuate with temperature and water level over simulation period while controlled by availability of host for blood feeding. Infection in the system was introduced by floodwater Aedines. Culicines pick infection from infected host once to amplify disease epidemic. Simulated mosquito population show sudden unusual increase between December 1997 and January 1998 a similar period when RVF outbreak occurred in Ngorongoro district. Findings presented here provide new opportunities for weather-driven RVF epidemic simulation modelling. This is an ideal approach for understanding disease transmission dynamics towards epidemics prediction, prevention and control. This approach can be used as an alternative source for generation of calibrated RVF epidemics data in different settings.

  10. INFLUENCIA DE LA SALINIDAD Y LA IRRADIANCIA SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO Y COMPOSICIÓN BIOQUÍMICA DE UNA NUEVA CEPA DE Dunaliella salina, PROVENIENTE DE LAS SALINAS DE ARAYA, VENEZUELA | INFLUENCE OF SALINITY AND IRRADIANCE ON GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF A NEW STRAIN of Dunaliella salina FROM THE ARAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guevara

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dunaliella salina is a microalga used for the production of metabolites of high industrial and pharmaceutical value. The combined effect of irradiance and salinity on growth, pigment production and biochemical composition of this strain were evaluated in order to contribute to the knowledge of the physiological responses of this new isolate of D. salina from Araya saltworks, to changes in the conditions of its environment. It was aslo intendend to increase the variety of native microalgae species which can serve as sources of bioproduction for bioactive compounds, biomass and metabolites of application in pharmaceuticals and biomedical industries. Batch cultures of the strain of D. salina were conducted for 22 d at f/2 medium Guillard (0.88 mmol.L-1 of nitrogen at 27 ± 2°C, pH 7.8; photoperiod 12 h light: 12 h darkness, continuous aeration (150 mL.L-1 in two salinities (40 and 250 UPS and irradiances (195 and 295 µmolphotons.m-2.s-1. Population growth was evaluated daily and at the end of the trial the contents of biomass, pigments, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and cell size were determined. The growth rate of the new strain of D. salina decreased with increasing salinity and irradiance. However, cell size, biomass, content of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, total carotenoids and β-carotene increased with increasing irradiance and salinity. In addition, the potential of this strain for the production of β-carotene was shown.

  11. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Salina Quadrangle, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupe, R.D.; Campbell, J.A.; Franczyk, K.J.; Luft, S.J.; Peterson, F.; Robinson, K.

    1982-09-01

    Two stratigraphic units, the Late Jurassic Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation and the Triassic Chinle Formation, were determined to be favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits that meet the minimum size and grade requirements of the US Department of Energy in the Salina 1 x 2 0 Quadrangle, Utah. Three areas judged favorable for the Salt Wash Member are the Tidwell and Notom districts, and the Henry Mountains mineral belt. The criteria used to establish favorability were the presence of: (1) fluvial sandstone beds deposited by low-energy streams; (2) actively moving major and minor structures such as the Paradox basin and the many folds within it; (3) paleostream transport directions approximately perpendicular to the trend of many of the paleofolds; (4) presence of favorable gray lacustrine mudstone beds; and (5) known uranium occurrences associated with the favorable gray mudstones. Four favorable areas have been outlined for the Chinle Formation. These are the San Rafael Swell, Inter River, and the Orange Cliffs subareas and the Capitol Reef area. The criteria used to establish these areas are: the sandstone-to-mudstone ratios and the geographic distribution of the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation which is considered as the probable source for the uranium

  12. Tennessee Valley region study: potential year 2000 radiological dose to population resulting from nuclear facility operations. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A companion report, DOE/ET-0064/1, presents a geographic, cultural, and demographic profile of the Tennessee Valley Region study area. This report describes the calculations of radionuclide release and transport and of the resultant dose to the regional population, assuming a projected installed capacity of 220,000 MW in the year 2000, of which 144,000 MW would be nuclear. All elements of the fuel cycle were assumed to be in operation. The radiological dose was calculated as a one-year dose based on ingestion of 35 different food types as well as for nine non-food pathways, and was reported as dose to the total body and for six specific organs for each of four age groups (infant, child, teen, and adult). Results indicate that the average individual would receive an incremental dose of 7 x 10/sup -4/ millirems in the year 2000 from the operation of nuclear facilities within and adjacent to the region, five orders of magnitude smaller than the dose from naturally occurring radiation in the area. The major contributor to dose was found to be tritium, and the most significant pathways were immersion in air, inhalation of air, transpiration of tritium (absorption through the skin), and exposure radionuclide-containing soil. 60 references.

  13. Population size, group composition and behavioural ecology of geladas (Theropithecus gelada) and human-gelada conflict in Wonchit Valley, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifle, Zewdu; Belay, Gurja; Bekele, Afework

    2013-11-01

    Primates that live in protected areas are intensively studied; however, those that live outside protected areas are less studied by primatologists. Therefore, the present study was carried out outside protected areas on the endemic gelada (Theropithecus gelada) to estimate the population size and group composition and human-gelada conflict in Wonchit Valley, Ethiopia from August 2008-March 2009. Total count method was used to determine the population size and group composition of geladas. A band of geladas was selected to carry out behavioural research. Data were collected on activity, diet and ranging patterns for one band of geladas using scan samples at 15 min intervals. Data on human-gelada conflict was gathered using questionnaire interview method. The total number of geladas in the study area was 1525. The average size of one-male unit was 16.96. Adult male to adult female sex ratio was 1.00:6.61. The average size of the band was 58.03. Group size ranged from 3 to 220. Geladas spent 65.2% of their time feeding, 16.3% moving, 4.6% resting and 13.9% socializing. The total time spent feeding on grass blades was 83.8% and 11.8% for bulbs and roots. The home range size was 1.5 km2 during the dry season and 0.2 km2 during the wet season. Geladas in the study area caused crop damage and shared pasture and drinking water with livestock. They consume crops during harvesting stage more than the seedling and vegetative stages. The study has immense contribution for the conservation and management of this endemic primate in unprotected areas.

  14. Genetic diversity and structure of managed and semi-natural populations of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) in the Huallaga and Ucayali Valleys of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dapeng; Arevalo-Gardini, Enrique; Mischke, Sue; Zúñiga-Cernades, Luis; Barreto-Chavez, Alejandro; Del Aguila, Jorge Adriazola

    2006-09-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is indigenous to the Amazon region of South America, and it is well known that the Peruvian Amazon harbours a large number of diverse cocoa populations. A small fraction of the diversity has been collected and maintained as an ex-situ germplasm repository in Peru. However, incorrect labelling of accessions and lack of information on genetic diversity have hindered efficient conservation and use of this germplasm. This study targeted assessment of genetic diversity and population structure in a managed and a semi-natural population. Using a capillary electrophoresis genotyping system, 105 cocoa accessions collected from the Huallaga and Ucayali valleys of Peru were fingerprinted. Based on 15 loci SSR profiles, genetic identity was examined for each accession and duplicates identified, population structure assessed and genetic diversity analysed in these two populations. Ten synonymous mislabelled groups were identified among the 105 accessions. The germplasm group in the Huallaga valley was clearly separated from the group in Ucayali valley by the Bayesian assignment test. The Huallaga group has lower genetic diversity, both in terms of allelic richness and of gene diversity, than the Ucayali group. Analysis of molecular variance suggested genetic substructure in the Ucayali group. Significant spatial correlation between genetic distance and geographical distances was detected in the Ucayali group by Mantel tests. These results substantiate the hypothesis that the Peruvian Amazon hosts a high level of cocoa genetic diversity, and the diversity has a spatial structure. The introduction of exotic seed populations into the Peruvian Amazon is changing the cocoa germplasm spectrum in this region. The spatial structure of cocoa diversity recorded here highlights the need for additional collecting and conservation measures for natural and semi-natural cocoa populations.

  15. The natural population of bees of the earth (Melipona beecheii and their flora in the valley San Andrés

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    Katiuska Ravelo Pimentel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of the natural population of bees of the earth is evaluated (Melipona beecheii and its flora in the valley San Andrés, to inclination observations and samplings carried out in the formations studied vegetable. The melliferous plants and their use like tree of the nest of Melipona beecheii were studied for each one of the vegetable formations of the valley San Andrés, the indexes of diversity and their relationship were also analyzed with the values of density of colonies. It was determined that the density of colonies of bees of the earth is directly related with the wealth and diversity of species of melliferous plants found in the study area. He was also proven that the arboreal species more used as tree of the nest they are: Bursera simaruba, Guazuma ulmifolia, Psidium guajava, Mangifera indica and Roystonea regia.

  16. Nesting ecology of Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta in Sfax salina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we use the results of a one-year monitoring of nests in Sfax salina to provide information on its nesting parameters, in particular nesting phenology, colony size and hatching success. Our results show that Pied Avocets formed dense colonies at the beginning of the nesting season, but colony size decreased as ...

  17. Effect of enriched Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia salina nauplii by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth, developmental stages and survival rates of Sparus aurata larvae fed with Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia salina nauplii enriched by microalga Tetraselmis chuii were studied. Two experiments were carried out; the first concerning with culturing the microalga (T. chuii) in four different media, then using these ...

  18. Growth effects on mixed culture of Dunaliella salina and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dunaliella salina and Phaeodactylum tricornutum are two important marine microalgae rich in bioactive substances and other high-value constituents. In this study, growth effects on mixed culture of these two microalgae were studied under different inoculation proportions (10:0, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, 0:10) and low, medium and high ...

  19. Phenotypic variation in California populations of valley oak (Quercus lobata Née) sampled along elevational gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana L. Albarrán-Lara; Jessica W. Wright; Paul F. Gugger; Annette Delfino-Mix; Juan Manuel Peñaloza-Ramírez; Victoria L. Sork

    2015-01-01

    California oaks exhibit tremendous phenotypic variation throughout their range. This variation reflects phenotypic plasticity in tree response to local environmental conditions as well as genetic differences underlying those phenotypes. In this study, we analyze phenotypic variation in leaf traits for valley oak adults sampled along three elevational transects and in...

  20. The genetic tale of a recovering lion population (Panthera leo in the Savé Valley region (Zimbabwe: A better understanding of the history and managing the future.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tensen

    Full Text Available The rapid decline of the African lion (Panthera leo has raised conservation concerns. In the Savé Valley Conservancy (SVC, in the Lowveld of Zimbabwe, lions were presumably reduced to approximately 5 to 10 individuals. After ten lions were reintroduced in 2005, the population has recovered to over 200 lions in 2016. Although the increase of lions in the SVC seems promising, a question remains whether the population is genetically viable, considering their small founding population. In this study, we document the genetic diversity in the SVC lion population using both mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers, and compare our results to literature from other lion populations across Africa. We also tested whether genetic diversity is spatially structured between lion populations residing on several reserves in the Lowveld of Zimbabwe. A total of 42 lions were genotyped successfully for 11 microsatellite loci. We confirmed that the loss of allelic richness (probably resulting from genetic drift and small number of founders has resulted in low genetic diversity and inbreeding. The SVC lion population was also found to be genetically differentiated from surrounding population, as a result of genetic drift and restricted natural dispersal due to anthropogenic barriers. From a conservation perspective, it is important to avoid further loss of genetic variability in the SVC lion population and maintain evolutionary potential required for future survival. Genetic restoration through the introduction of unrelated individuals is recommended, as this will increase genetic heterozygosity and improve survival and reproductive fitness in populations.

  1. The genetic tale of a recovering lion population (Panthera leo) in the Savé Valley region (Zimbabwe): A better understanding of the history and managing the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tensen, Laura; Groom, Rosemary J; Khuzwayo, Joy; Jansen van Vuuren, Bettine

    2018-01-01

    The rapid decline of the African lion (Panthera leo) has raised conservation concerns. In the Savé Valley Conservancy (SVC), in the Lowveld of Zimbabwe, lions were presumably reduced to approximately 5 to 10 individuals. After ten lions were reintroduced in 2005, the population has recovered to over 200 lions in 2016. Although the increase of lions in the SVC seems promising, a question remains whether the population is genetically viable, considering their small founding population. In this study, we document the genetic diversity in the SVC lion population using both mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers, and compare our results to literature from other lion populations across Africa. We also tested whether genetic diversity is spatially structured between lion populations residing on several reserves in the Lowveld of Zimbabwe. A total of 42 lions were genotyped successfully for 11 microsatellite loci. We confirmed that the loss of allelic richness (probably resulting from genetic drift and small number of founders) has resulted in low genetic diversity and inbreeding. The SVC lion population was also found to be genetically differentiated from surrounding population, as a result of genetic drift and restricted natural dispersal due to anthropogenic barriers. From a conservation perspective, it is important to avoid further loss of genetic variability in the SVC lion population and maintain evolutionary potential required for future survival. Genetic restoration through the introduction of unrelated individuals is recommended, as this will increase genetic heterozygosity and improve survival and reproductive fitness in populations.

  2. Wild European Apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) Population Dynamics: Insight from Genetics and Ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a Future Conservation Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically “pure” populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple. PMID:24827575

  3. Wild European apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) population dynamics: insight from genetics and ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a future conservation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically "pure" populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple.

  4. Susceptibility to deltamethrin of wild and domestic populations of Triatoma infestans of the Gran Chaco and the Inter-Andean Valleys of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Marinely Bustamante; D'Avila, Grasielle Caldas Pessoa; Orellana, Ana Lineth Garcia; Cortez, Mirko Rojas; Rosa, Aline Cristine Luiz; Noireau, François; Diotaiuti, Liléia Gonçalves

    2014-11-14

    The persistence of Triatoma infestans and the continuous transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Inter-Andean Valleys and in the Gran Chaco of Bolivia are of great significance. Coincidentally, it is in these regions the reach of the vector control strategies is limited, and reports of T. infestans resistance to insecticides, including in wild populations, have been issued. This study aims to characterize the susceptibility to deltamethrin of wild and domestic populations of T. infestans from Bolivia, in order to better understand the extent of this relevant problem. Susceptibility to deltamethrin was assessed in nine, wild and domestic, populations of T. infestans from the Gran Chaco and the Inter-Andean Valleys of Bolivia. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin in acetone (0.2 μL) were topically applied in first instar nymphs (F1, five days old, fasting, weight 1.2 ± 0.2 mg). Dose response results were analyzed with PROBIT version 2, determining the lethal doses, slope and resistance ratios (RR). Qualitative tests were also performed. Three wild T. infestans dark morph samples of Chaco from the Santa Cruz Department were susceptible to deltamethrin with RR50 of Bolivia are less susceptible.

  5. Primary Screening of the Bioactivity of Brackishwater Cyanobacteria: Toxicity of Crude Extracts to Artemia salina Larvae and Paracentrotus lividus Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana R. Lopes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that produce an array of secondary compounds with selective bioactivity against vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, microalgae, fungi, bacteria, viruses and cell lines. The aim of this study was to assess the toxic effects of aqueous, methanolic and hexane crude extracts of benthic and picoplanktonic cyanobacteria isolated from estuarine environments, towards the nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina and embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The A. salina lethality test was used as a frontline screen and then complemented by the more specific sea urchin embryo-larval assay. Eighteen cyanobacterial isolates, belonging to the genera Cyanobium, Leptolyngbya, Microcoleus, Phormidium, Nodularia, Nostoc and Synechocystis, were tested. Aqueous extracts of cyanobacteria strains showed potent toxicity against A. salina, whereas in P. lividus, methanolic and aqueous extracts showed embryo toxicity, with clear effects on development during early stages. The results suggest that the brackishwater cyanobacteria are producers of bioactive compounds with toxicological effects that may interfere with the dynamics of invertebrate populations.

  6. The terebinth population (Pistacia mutica Fisсh. & C.A. Mey. in the Besh-Tash valley (South-East Crimea

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    Viktoria Ju. Letukhova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive work on the study of rare and protected wood plants on the territory of the Besh-Tash valley (South-East Crimea was carried out on the instructions of Karadag Nature Reserve administration in 2013. The Besh-Tash valley (approximate area of 15 hectares is wedged in the territory of the Karadag reserve from the south-west side, but it is not included in its structure. This article describes the material on distribution, abundance, population structure of terebinth (Pistacia mutica in this area. P. mutica is a Mediterranean relict species of the Tertiary period, included in the Red Books of Russia, Crimea and Ukraine. Terebinth creates rare relict plant communities (formation P. mutica listed in the Green Book of Ukraine. In the study area we counted all P. mutica specimens. We determined their taxation parameters, as well as characterized their locality. Based on the literature and our own research age-state classes of P. mutica were characterized for the studied population. As a result, we registered a total number of 3086 specimens of P. mutica: immature (im – 1259 (40.8%, virginal (v – 1054 (34.2%, young generative (g1 – 341 (11.0%, middle-age generative (g2 – 372 (12.0%, mature generative (g3 – 60 (2.0% plants. Senile plants have not been found out. So the age spectrum of the population is normal, not complete (without senile individuals, left-sided with predominance of immature plants. The population density is 206 specimens/ha. In the Besh-Tash valley P. mutica forms its own dense thickets or it is the component of hemixerophytical oak forests with Quercus pubescens, Juniperus deltoides, rarer Cornus mas, Sorbus torminalis. It also grows in shrub communities with Pyrus elaeagrifolia, Paliurus spina-christi, Prunus spinosa, Rosa corymbifera, Cotoneaster tauricus, Crataegus species, rarer Cotinus coggygria, Clematis vitalba. The distribution of the terebinth tree by elevation above sea level is analyzed. The great

  7. Antifouling potential of the marine microalga Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min; Li, Fengchao; Su, Rongguo; Wang, Ke; Li, Xuzhao; Lu, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Marine organisms have usually been viewed as sources of environmentally friendly compounds with antifouling activity. We performed a series of operations to investigate the antifouling potential of the marine microalga Dunaliella salina. For the ethyl acetate crude extract, the antialgal activity was significant, and the EC50 value against Skeletonema costatum was 58.9 μg ml(-1). The isolated purified extract was tested for antifouling activity, the EC 50 value against S. costatum was 21.2 μg ml(-1), and the LC50 against Balanus amphitrite larvae was 18.8 μg ml(-1). Subsequently, both UHR-TOF-MS and GC-MS were used for the structural elucidation of the compounds, and a series of unsaturated and saturated 16- and 18-carbon fatty acids were detected. The data suggested that the fatty acid extracts from D. salina possess high antifouling activity, and could be used as substitutes for potent, toxic antifouling compounds.

  8. Em torno da luz cristalina: clara voz de Pedro Salinas

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    Cristiano Moreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2176-8552.2016n20p147 O texto que segue pretende ler a poesia de Pedro Salinas e Jorge Guillén diante de uma perspectiva que faz da voz uma iluminação e uma resistência diante do tempo histórico e da predominância de uma leitura simples das imagens. Assim, alguns poemas escolhidos permitem uma leitura contemporânea a respeito da voz, seguindo o conceito de Stimmung recuperado por Giorgio Agamben e as lições de poesia de Paul Valéry, e formam aspectos imprescindíveis para ler a poesia destes poetas. Ao manter em sua produção uma conversação com seus predecessores, Pedro Salinas joga com o logos e faz da phoné matéria prima para sua obra.

  9. Evolution under domestication: ongoing artificial selection and divergence of wild and managed Stenocereus pruinosus (Cactaceae) populations in the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Fabiola; Casas, Alejandro; Peñaloza-Ramírez, Juan Manuel; Cortés-Palomec, Aurea C.; Rocha-Ramírez, Víctor; González-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The Tehuacán Valley in Mexico is a principal area of plant domestication in Mesoamerica. There, artificial selection is currently practised on nearly 120 native plant species with coexisting wild, silvicultural and cultivated populations, providing an excellent setting for studying ongoing mechanisms of evolution under domestication. One of these species is the columnar cactus Stenocereus pruinosus, in which we studied how artificial selection is operating through traditional management and whether it has determined morphological and genetic divergence between wild and managed populations. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 83 households of three villages to investigate motives and mechanisms of artificial selection. Management effects were studied by comparing variation patterns of 14 morphological characters and population genetics (four microsatellite loci) of 264 plants from nine wild, silvicultural and cultivated populations. Key Results Variation in fruit characters was recognized by most people, and was the principal target of artificial selection directed to favour larger and sweeter fruits with thinner or thicker peel, fewer spines and pulp colours others than red. Artificial selection operates in agroforestry systems favouring abundance (through not felling plants and planting branches) of the preferred phenotypes, and acts more intensely in household gardens. Significant morphological divergence between wild and managed populations was observed in fruit characters and plant vigour. On average, genetic diversity in silvicultural populations (HE = 0·743) was higher than in wild (HE = 0·726) and cultivated (HE = 0·700) populations. Most of the genetic variation (90·58 %) occurred within populations. High gene flow (NmFST > 2) was identified among almost all populations studied, but was slightly limited by mountains among wild populations, and by artificial selection among wild and managed populations. Conclusions

  10. Evolution under domestication: ongoing artificial selection and divergence of wild and managed Stenocereus pruinosus (Cactaceae) populations in the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Fabiola; Casas, Alejandro; Peñaloza-Ramírez, Juan Manuel; Cortés-Palomec, Aurea C; Rocha-Ramírez, Víctor; González-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    The Tehuacán Valley in Mexico is a principal area of plant domestication in Mesoamerica. There, artificial selection is currently practised on nearly 120 native plant species with coexisting wild, silvicultural and cultivated populations, providing an excellent setting for studying ongoing mechanisms of evolution under domestication. One of these species is the columnar cactus Stenocereus pruinosus, in which we studied how artificial selection is operating through traditional management and whether it has determined morphological and genetic divergence between wild and managed populations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 83 households of three villages to investigate motives and mechanisms of artificial selection. Management effects were studied by comparing variation patterns of 14 morphological characters and population genetics (four microsatellite loci) of 264 plants from nine wild, silvicultural and cultivated populations. Variation in fruit characters was recognized by most people, and was the principal target of artificial selection directed to favour larger and sweeter fruits with thinner or thicker peel, fewer spines and pulp colours other than red. Artificial selection operates in agroforestry systems favouring abundance (through not felling plants and planting branches) of the preferred phenotypes, and acts more intensely in household gardens. Significant morphological divergence between wild and managed populations was observed in fruit characters and plant vigour. On average, genetic diversity in silvicultural populations (H(E) = 0.743) was higher than in wild (H(E) = 0.726) and cultivated (H(E) = 0.700) populations. Most of the genetic variation (90.58 %) occurred within populations. High gene flow (Nm(FST) > 2) was identified among almost all populations studied, but was slightly limited by mountains among wild populations, and by artificial selection among wild and managed populations. Traditional management of S. pruinosus involves

  11. Toxicities of diuron and irgarol on the hatchability and early stage development of Artemia salina

    OpenAIRE

    ALYÜRÜK, Hakan; ÇAVAŞ, Levent

    2013-01-01

    Booster biocides are widely used in antifouling paints as bioactive agents against fouling organisms. In previously published reports, acute toxicity tests on Artemia salina (Linnaeus, 1758) were only focused on a part of the life cycle of the organism. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicities of diuron and irgarol on the hatching stage of A. salina. According to the results, diuron significantly decreased the hatching percentage of A. salina cysts and prevented the hatching of...

  12. Prevalence of Diego blood group antigen and the antibody in three ethnic population groups in Klang valley of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong Tar Wei; Faisal Muti Al-Hassan; Norris Naim; Aishah Knight; Sanmukh R Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diego blood group antigen, Di(a), is very rare among Caucasians and Blacks, but relatively common among the South American Indians and Asians of Mongolian origin. The antibody to Di(a) is clinically significant to cause hemolytic disease in a new-born or hemolytic transfusion reaction. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Di(a) antigen among the blood donors from the three major ethnic groups in Klang Valley of Malaysia as well as to find an incidence...

  13. Assessing Child Obesity and Physical Activity in a Hard-to-Reach Population in California’s Central Valley, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Gomez, Rosa; Sadeghi, Banefsheh; Kaiser, Lucia; German, J. Bruce; de la Torre, Adela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In California’s agricultural Central Valley, the rate of childhood obesity is higher than the national average. Adequate physical activity contributes to obesity prevention and its assessment is useful to evaluate the impact of interventions. Methods Niños Sanos, Familia Sana (Healthy Children, Healthy Family [NSFS]) uses community-based participatory research to implement an intervention program to reduce childhood obesity among people of Mexican origin in the Central Valley. Anthropometric measurements were conducted on more than 650 children enrolled in NSFS. Physical activity data from a subgroup of children aged 4 to 7 years (n = 134) were collected via a wearable accelerometer. Results Children were classified on the basis of age and sex-adjusted body mass index as healthy weight (57.7%); overweight (19.3%), or obese (23%). Logistic regression showed that moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was associated with a child’s likelihood of having a healthy BMI (odds ratio: 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01–1.05; P = .017). Conclusion NSFS’s community-based participatory approach resulted in successful use of a commercial electronic device to measure physical activity quantity and quality in this hard-to-reach population. Promotion of adequate daily MVPA is an appropriate and necessary component of NSFS’s childhood obesity prevention strategy. PMID:26203815

  14. Combining hydrology and mosquito population models to identify the drivers of Rift Valley fever emergence in semi-arid regions of West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soti, Valérie; Tran, Annelise; Degenne, Pascal; Chevalier, Véronique; Lo Seen, Danny; Thiongane, Yaya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Guégan, Jean-François; Fontenille, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne viral zoonosis of increasing global importance. RVF virus (RVFV) is transmitted either through exposure to infected animals or through bites from different species of infected mosquitoes, mainly of Aedes and Culex genera. These mosquitoes are very sensitive to environmental conditions, which may determine their presence, biology, and abundance. In East Africa, RVF outbreaks are known to be closely associated with heavy rainfall events, unlike in the semi-arid regions of West Africa where the drivers of RVF emergence remain poorly understood. The assumed importance of temporary ponds and rainfall temporal distribution therefore needs to be investigated. A hydrological model is combined with a mosquito population model to predict the abundance of the two main mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes) involved in RVFV transmission in Senegal. The study area is an agropastoral zone located in the Ferlo Valley, characterized by a dense network of temporary water ponds which constitute mosquito breeding sites. The hydrological model uses daily rainfall as input to simulate variations of pond surface areas. The mosquito population model is mechanistic, considers both aquatic and adult stages and is driven by pond dynamics. Once validated using hydrological and entomological field data, the model was used to simulate the abundance dynamics of the two mosquito species over a 43-year period (1961-2003). We analysed the predicted dynamics of mosquito populations with regards to the years of main outbreaks. The results showed that the main RVF outbreaks occurred during years with simultaneous high abundances of both species. Our study provides for the first time a mechanistic insight on RVFV transmission in West Africa. It highlights the complementary roles of Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes in virus transmission, and recommends the identification of rainfall patterns favourable for RVFV amplification.

  15. Combining hydrology and mosquito population models to identify the drivers of Rift Valley fever emergence in semi-arid regions of West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Soti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a vector-borne viral zoonosis of increasing global importance. RVF virus (RVFV is transmitted either through exposure to infected animals or through bites from different species of infected mosquitoes, mainly of Aedes and Culex genera. These mosquitoes are very sensitive to environmental conditions, which may determine their presence, biology, and abundance. In East Africa, RVF outbreaks are known to be closely associated with heavy rainfall events, unlike in the semi-arid regions of West Africa where the drivers of RVF emergence remain poorly understood. The assumed importance of temporary ponds and rainfall temporal distribution therefore needs to be investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hydrological model is combined with a mosquito population model to predict the abundance of the two main mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes involved in RVFV transmission in Senegal. The study area is an agropastoral zone located in the Ferlo Valley, characterized by a dense network of temporary water ponds which constitute mosquito breeding sites. The hydrological model uses daily rainfall as input to simulate variations of pond surface areas. The mosquito population model is mechanistic, considers both aquatic and adult stages and is driven by pond dynamics. Once validated using hydrological and entomological field data, the model was used to simulate the abundance dynamics of the two mosquito species over a 43-year period (1961-2003. We analysed the predicted dynamics of mosquito populations with regards to the years of main outbreaks. The results showed that the main RVF outbreaks occurred during years with simultaneous high abundances of both species. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides for the first time a mechanistic insight on RVFV transmission in West Africa. It highlights the complementary roles of Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes in virus transmission, and recommends

  16. Prevalence of Diego blood group antigen and the antibody in three ethnic population groups in Klang valley of Malaysia

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    Cheong Tar Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diego blood group antigen, Di(a, is very rare among Caucasians and Blacks, but relatively common among the South American Indians and Asians of Mongolian origin. The antibody to Di(a is clinically significant to cause hemolytic disease in a new-born or hemolytic transfusion reaction. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Di(a antigen among the blood donors from the three major ethnic groups in Klang Valley of Malaysia as well as to find an incidence of an antibody of the Diego antigen, anti-Di(a, in a tertiary care hospital to ascertain the need to include Di(a+ red cells for an antibody screen cell panel. Materials and Methods: Serological tests were performed by column agglutination technique using commercial reagents and following instruction as per kit insert. Results: Di(a antigen was found with a frequency of 2.1% among the Malaysians donors in three ethnic groups viz, Malay, Chinese and Indian. It was present among 1.25% of 401 Malay, 4.01% of Chinese and 0.88% of 114 Indian origin donors. None of the 1442 patients, including 703 antenatal outpatients, had anti-Di(a in serum. Conclusion: The prevalence of Di(a antigen was found among the donors of all the three ethnic background with varying frequency. Inclusion of Di(a+ red cells in routine antibody screening program would certainly help in detection of this clinically significant antibody and to provide safe blood transfusion in the Klang Valley, though the incidence of antibody appears to be very low in the region.

  17. Prevalence of Diego blood group antigen and the antibody in three ethnic population groups in Klang valley of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cheong Tar; Al-Hassan, Faisal Muti; Naim, Norris; Knight, Aishah; Joshi, Sanmukh R

    2013-01-01

    Diego blood group antigen, Di(a), is very rare among Caucasians and Blacks, but relatively common among the South American Indians and Asians of Mongolian origin. The antibody to Di(a) is clinically significant to cause hemolytic disease in a new-born or hemolytic transfusion reaction. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Di(a) antigen among the blood donors from the three major ethnic groups in Klang Valley of Malaysia as well as to find an incidence of an antibody of the Diego antigen, anti-Di(a), in a tertiary care hospital to ascertain the need to include Di(a+) red cells for an antibody screen cell panel. Serological tests were performed by column agglutination technique using commercial reagents and following instruction as per kit insert. Di(a) antigen was found with a frequency of 2.1% among the Malaysians donors in three ethnic groups viz, Malay, Chinese and Indian. It was present among 1.25% of 401 Malay, 4.01% of Chinese and 0.88% of 114 Indian origin donors. None of the 1442 patients, including 703 antenatal outpatients, had anti-Di(a) in serum. The prevalence of Di(a) antigen was found among the donors of all the three ethnic background with varying frequency. Inclusion of Di(a+) red cells in routine antibody screening program would certainly help in detection of this clinically significant antibody and to provide safe blood transfusion in the Klang Valley, though the incidence of antibody appears to be very low in the region.

  18. Effects of human trampling on populations of soil fauna in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Edward; Nkem, Johnson N; Wall, Diana H; Adams, Byron J; Barrett, J E; Broos, Emma J; Parsons, Andrew N; Powers, Laura E; Simmons, Breana L; Virginia, Ross A

    2008-12-01

    Antarctic ecosystems are often considered nearly pristine because levels of anthropogenic disturbance are extremely low there. Nevertheless, over recent decades there has been a rapid increase in the number of people, researchers and tourists, visiting Antarctica. We evaluated, over 10 years, the direct impact of foot traffic on the abundance of soil animals and soil properties in Taylor Valley within the McMurdo Dry Valleys region of Antarctica. We compared soils from minimally disturbed areas with soils from nearby paths that received intermediate and high levels of human foot traffic (i.e., up to approximately 80 passes per year). The nematodes Scottnema lindsayae and Eudorylaimus sp. were the most commonly found animal species, whereas rotifers and tardigrades were found only occasionally. On the highly trampled footpaths, abundance of S. lindsayae and Eudorylaimus sp. was up to 52 and 76% lower, respectively, than in untrampled areas. Moreover, reduction in S. lindsayae abundance was more pronounced after 10 years than 2 years and in the surface soil than in the deeper soil, presumably because of the longer period of disturbance and the greater level of physical disturbance experienced by the surface soil. The ratio of living to dead Eudorylaimus sp. also declined with increased trampling intensity, which is indicative of increased mortality or reduced fecundity. At one site there was evidence that high levels of trampling reduced soil CO(2) fluxes, which is related to total biological activity in the soil. Our results show that even low levels of human traffic can significantly affect soil biota in this ecosystem and may alter ecosystem processes, such as carbon cycling. Consequently, management and conservation plans for Antarctic soils should consider the high sensitivity of soil fauna to physical disturbance as human presence in this ecosystem increases.

  19. Population Genetics of Two Key Mosquito Vectors of Rift Valley Fever Virus Reveals New Insights into the Changing Disease Outbreak Patterns in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchouassi, David P.; Bastos, Armanda D. S.; Sole, Catherine L.; Diallo, Mawlouth; Lutomiah, Joel; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Borgemeister, Christian; Sang, Rosemary; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks in Kenya have increased in frequency and range to include northeastern Kenya where viruses are increasingly being isolated from known (Aedes mcintoshi) and newly-associated (Ae. ochraceus) vectors. The factors contributing to these changing outbreak patterns are unclear and the population genetic structure of key vectors and/or specific virus-vector associations, in particular, are under-studied. By conducting mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses on >220 Kenyan specimens of Ae. mcintoshi and Ae. ochraceus, we uncovered high levels of vector complexity which may partly explain the disease outbreak pattern. Results indicate that Ae. mcintoshi consists of a species complex with one of the member species being unique to the newly-established RVF outbreak-prone northeastern region of Kenya, whereas Ae. ochraceus is a homogeneous population that appears to be undergoing expansion. Characterization of specimens from a RVF-prone site in Senegal, where Ae. ochraceus is a primary vector, revealed direct genetic links between the two Ae. ochraceus populations from both countries. Our data strongly suggest that unlike Ae. mcintoshi, Ae. ochraceus appears to be a relatively recent, single 'introduction' into Kenya. These results, together with increasing isolations from this vector, indicate that Ae. ochraceus will likely be of greater epidemiological importance in future RVF outbreaks in Kenya. Furthermore, the overall vector complexity calls into question the feasibility of mosquito population control approaches reliant on genetic modification. PMID:25474018

  20. Population genetics of two key mosquito vectors of Rift Valley Fever virus reveals new insights into the changing disease outbreak patterns in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Tchouassi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF outbreaks in Kenya have increased in frequency and range to include northeastern Kenya where viruses are increasingly being isolated from known (Aedes mcintoshi and newly-associated (Ae. ochraceus vectors. The factors contributing to these changing outbreak patterns are unclear and the population genetic structure of key vectors and/or specific virus-vector associations, in particular, are under-studied. By conducting mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses on >220 Kenyan specimens of Ae. mcintoshi and Ae. ochraceus, we uncovered high levels of vector complexity which may partly explain the disease outbreak pattern. Results indicate that Ae. mcintoshi consists of a species complex with one of the member species being unique to the newly-established RVF outbreak-prone northeastern region of Kenya, whereas Ae. ochraceus is a homogeneous population that appears to be undergoing expansion. Characterization of specimens from a RVF-prone site in Senegal, where Ae. ochraceus is a primary vector, revealed direct genetic links between the two Ae. ochraceus populations from both countries. Our data strongly suggest that unlike Ae. mcintoshi, Ae. ochraceus appears to be a relatively recent, single 'introduction' into Kenya. These results, together with increasing isolations from this vector, indicate that Ae. ochraceus will likely be of greater epidemiological importance in future RVF outbreaks in Kenya. Furthermore, the overall vector complexity calls into question the feasibility of mosquito population control approaches reliant on genetic modification.

  1. Optimization of photosynthesis, growth, and biochemical composition of the microalga Rhodomonas salina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuy, Minh Vu Thi; Douëtte, Claire; Rayner, Thomas Allan

    2016-01-01

    The cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina is widely used as feed for copepod cultures. However, culturing conditions to obtain high-quality algae have not yet been efficiently optimized. Therefore, we aimed to develop a cultivation protocol for R. salina to optimize its nutritional value and provide tech...

  2. SALT EFFECTS ON EGGS AND NAUPLII OF ARTEMIA SALINA L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Eleanor; Baas-Becking, L. G. M.

    1931-01-01

    Eggs of Artemia salina L., the brine shrimp, are easily obtainable in large quantities. Ecdysis takes place in two stages: (a) extrusion of the inner membrane, and (b) ecdysis of the nauplius from that membrane. The conditions which allow for the former are much more varied than those for the latter. Nauplii form in only solutions of a few sodium salts; and, in Mg, Ca, and Sr salts, potassium is very toxic. The possible environment for the nauplii (1 M total molarity) has been ascertained for chlorides of Na, K, Mg, and Ca. The facts observed account for the peculiar distribution of the organism. PMID:19872620

  3. California GAMA Special Study: Nitrate Fate and Transport in the Salinas Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Jean E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hillegonds, Darren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Holtz, Marianne [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Roberts, Sarah K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Singleton, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Visser, Ate [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-05-13

    The Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program is a comprehensive groundwater quality monitoring program managed by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). Under the GAMA program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory carries out special studies that address groundwater quality issues of statewide relevance. The study described here is one in a series of special studies that address the fate and transport of nitrate in basins where groundwater is the main source of water for both irrigation and public drinking water supply.

  4. An Economic Analysis of Two Groundwater Allocation Programs for the Salinas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    farm and its proprietary information. TABLE 5-13. AIl! CULTURAL ANALYSIS FOR THE PERIOD 1988 - 1993 ACRES Loom~bu kuadamor I Ave. Grower 1966 729 131 203...allocate water in the United States. vary greatly among different consumoers . 2) Easy to inplement due to prior governmental 2) There is no ecenomic

  5. Metabolic engineering of Dunaliella salina for production of ketocarotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anila, N; Simon, Daris P; Chandrashekar, Arun; Ravishankar, G A; Sarada, R

    2016-03-01

    Dunaliella is a commercially important marine alga producing high amount of β-carotene. The use of Dunaliella as a potential transgenic system for the production of recombinant proteins has been recently recognized. The present study reports for the first time the metabolic engineering of carotenoid biosynthesis in Dunaliella salina for ketocarotenoid production. The pathway modification included the introduction of a bkt gene from H. pluvialis encoding β-carotene ketolase (4,4'β-oxygenase) along with chloroplast targeting for the production of ketocarotenoids. The bkt under the control of Dunaliella Rubisco smaller subunit promoter along with its transit peptide sequence was introduced into the alga through standardized Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure. The selected transformants were confirmed using GFP and GUS expression, PCR and southern blot analysis. A notable upregulation of the endogenous hydroxylase level of transformants was observed where the BKT expression was higher in nutrient-limiting conditions. Carotenoid analysis of the transformants through HPLC and MS analysis showed the presence of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin with maximum content of 3.5 and 1.9 µg/g DW, respectively. The present study reports the feasibility of using D. salina for the production of ketocarotenoids including astaxanthin.

  6. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valley fever. These fungi are commonly found in soil in specific regions. The fungi's spores can be stirred into the air by ... species have a complex life cycle. In the soil, they grow as a mold with long filaments that break off into airborne ...

  7. Sediment storage and transport in Pancho Rico Valley during and after the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, Coast Ranges of central California (Monterey County)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.F.; Mahan, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Factors influencing sediment transport and storage within the 156??6 km2 drainage basin of Pancho Rico Creek (PRC), and sediment transport from the PRC drainage basin to its c. 11000 km2 mainstem drainage (Salinas River) are investigated. Numeric age estimates are determined by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating on quartz grains from three sediment samples collected from a 'quaternary terrace a (Qta)' PRC terrace/PRC-tributary fan sequence, which consists dominantly of debris flow deposits overlying fluvial sediments. OSL dating results, morphometric analyses of topography, and field results indicate that the stormy climate of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition caused intense debris-flow erosion of PRC- tributary valleys. However, during that time, the PRC channel was backfilled by Qta sediment, which indicates that there was insufficient discharge in PRC to transport the sediment load produced by tributary-valley denudation. Locally, Salinas Valley alluvial stratigraphy lacks any record of hillslope erosion occurring during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, in that the alluvial fan formed where PRC enters the Salinas Valley lacks lobes correlative to Qta. This indicates that sediment stripped from PRC tributaries was mostly trapped in Pancho Rico Valley despite the relatively moist climate of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Incision into Qta did not occur until PRC enlarged its drainage basin by c. 50% through capture of the upper part of San Lorenzo Creek, which occurred some time after the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. During the relatively dry Holocene, PRC incision through Qta and into bedrock, as well as delivery of sediment to the San Ardo Fan, were facilitated by the discharge increase associated with stream-capture. The influence of multiple mechanisms on sediment storage and transport in the Pancho Rico Valley-Salinas Valley system exemplifies the complexity that (in some instances) must be recognized in order to correctly

  8. [Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta) pastes as feed for Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Miguel; Bastardo, Leandro; Cortez, Roraysi; Arredondo-Vega, Bertha; Romero, Lolymar; Gómez, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    Rotifers are an important live feed for first feeding larvae of many fish species. The use of concentrated algae cells in the mass culture of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (Brachionidae) has opened new horizons for research on this organism. Pastes of Rhodomonas salina (Pyrenomonadaceae) obtained either by centrifugation or flocculation with chitosan were preserved, with or without vitamin C, at -20 degrees C for four weeks and were evaluated biochemically (proteins, lipids, pigments and fatty acids contents) and subsequently, were used to feed the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis at a ratio of 25 mg/L/day. Four different microalgae pastes were prepared: (1) centrifuged and preserved with vitamin C (CV), (2) centrifuged and preserved without vitamin C (C), (3) flocculated and with vitamin C (FV) and (4) flocculated without vitamin C (F). All treatments showed similar contents of proteins and total lipids with respect to control culture (a fresh culture of R. salina), with mean values of 40.0 +/- 2.32% and 12.0 +/- 1.45%, respectively. The pheophytin a/chlorophyll a ratio, a general indicator of the chemical status of microalgal concentrates, was similar (0.09-0.11) between centrifuged pastes and control culture, but was found to be higher in flocculated pastes (1.28-1.48). The fatty acid profile varied with respect to the control culture, mainly in the proportion of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Total PUFAs, EPA and DHA contents were statistically similar between centrifuged pastes and control culture (PUFAs: 47%, EPA: 4% and DHA: 4.7%), whereas values obtained for flocculated pastes were significantly lower. The rotifers grew equally well when fed with centrifuged pastes or control culture (maximum density: 320 rotifers/mL; instantaneous growth rate: 0.23 rotifers/day, fecundity: 1.49 eggs/female and productivity: 43 x 10(3) rotifers/L/day. No significant effect of vitamin C was

  9. A Dynamic Simulation Model of Land-Use, Population, and Rural Livelihoods in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garedew, Efrem; Sandewall, Mats; Soderberg, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic interactions between society and land resources have to be taken into account when planning and managing natural resources. A computer model, using STELLA software, was developed through active participation of purposively selected farm households from different wealth groups, age groups and gender within a rural community and some members of Kebelle council. The aim of the modeling was to study the perceived changes in land-use, population and livelihoods over the next 30 years and to improve our understanding of the interactions among them. The modeling output is characterized by rapid population growth, declining farm size and household incomes, deteriorating woody vegetation cover and worsening land degradation if current conditions remain. However, through integrated intervention strategies (including forest increase, micro-finance, family planning, health and education) the woody vegetation cover is likely to increase in the landscape, population growth is likely to slow down and households' income is likely to improve. A validation assessment of the simulation model based on historical data on land-use and population from 1973 to 2006 showed that the model is relatively robust. We conclude that as a supporting tool, the simulation model can contribute to the decision making process.

  10. Population structure of Xylella fastidiosa associated with almond leaf scorch disease in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes disease in many commercial crops including almond leaf scorch (ALS) disease in susceptible almond (Prunus dulcis). In this study, genetic diversity and population structure of Xf associated with ALS disease were evaluated. Strains isolated from two almond production si...

  11. A dynamic simulation model of land-use, population, and rural livelihoods in the central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Garedew, Efrem; Sandewall, Mats; Söderberg, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic interactions between society and land resources have to be taken into account when planning and managing natural resources. A computer model, using STELLA software, was developed through active participation of purposively selected farm households from different wealth groups, age groups and gender within a rural community and some members of Kebelle council. The aim of the modeling was to study the perceived changes in land-use, population and livelihoods over the next 30 years a...

  12. Biodemographic characteristics of North-Western Italian population (Giaglione - Susa Valley between 18th and 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio De Iasio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the study of genetic changes that occur over time in human communities (microevolution anthropologists and biodemographers have favored the use of renewable flow, in particular the registers of marriage. Indeed they allow to easily estimate several biodemographic parameters (endogamy and exogamy; repeated pairs; immigration, even for long periods of time, since it is quite common to have consecutive series of documents relating to the marriage of a population. However, the sources of flow do not always allow to study in depth the factors that have given continuity to the community because they provide only partial information on demographic structure, the mode of aggregation of its members and the processes of change within families. A good alternative to sources of flow may be the use of sources of state, civil (censuses or parish sources (the status animarum, which give a very detailed picture of the state of the population at a given time. The retrieval and analysis of census documentation assume therefore a primary role in order to obviate the intrinsic weaknesses of the sources of flow. In the perspective of biodemographic studies, the integration of the two types of sources is in actual fact the operating optimum. It must be remembered that it is quite difficult to find contemporary sources of flow and of state for the Italian populations of the past.

  13. Acclimation and tolerance of Artemia salina to copper salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba, L.J.; Krzyz, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia salina L. was acclimated in sea water with cupric chloride, acetate, carbonate, and sulfate, each at concentrations of 0.1, 0.05 and 0.025 ppM Cu/sup + +/, together with sea water controls. Growth inhibition was observed in all four compounds, generally in direct relationship to the concentration. It was least in sulfate, and increased progressively in chloride, acetate and carbonate in that order. In toxicity tests, 2-week old larvae from each solution were exposed to concentrations of 10, 7.5, 5, 2.5 and 1 ppM Cu/sup + +/ of the same compounds, together with unacclimated larvae of the same age. Similar tests were held with 6-week old adults. Toxicity to unacclimated larvae and adults differed with the compounds, carbonate being the least toxic, followed by sulfate, chloride and acetate in increasing order. Larvae acclimated in chloride and sulfate showed an increased tolerance to 1 and 2.5 ppM Cu/sup + +/ compared to untreated controls. Tolerance was not enhanced from 5 ppM Cu/sup + +/ upwards. In both compounds, adults acclimated in 0.1 ppM Cu/sup + +/ showed an increased tolerance to concentrations between 1 and 7.5 ppM Cu/sup + +/ compared to controls. Considerable precipitation occurred with the high levels of this compound, thus effecting the ''final'' concentrations. No acclimation effect was observed in acetate for either larvae or adults. It is suggested that in A. salina, copper toxicity depends on the particular form of the metal, and that this difference is also evident in growth inhibition and in the potential acquisition of increased tolerance through exposure to low concentrations.

  14. Distribution and abundance of Artemia salina in the Salt Lake Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaş Ali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the distribution and abundance of Artemia salina in 10 different stations of the Salt Lake basin were investigated. In addition, its relationship to pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, electrical conductivity and water levels were analyzed. Field studies were carried out from July to August of 2010. Artemia salina was observed in five of these stations. Artemia salina was not seen in some stations that have high electrical conductivity. It is determined that, in the station named Tersakan Lake where electrical conductivity was 154 mS/cm, Artemia salina is more abundant when compared to the other stations. But as underground water pumps that are built for the irrigation of agricultural lands decrease water levels, Artemia salina’s life is under threat.

  15. Phototoxicity activity of Psoralea drupacea L. using Atremia salina bioassay system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ramezani

    2011-07-01

    Conclusion: The result showed that P. drupacea methanolic extract and chloroform fraction have phototoxicity in A. salina bioassay system and their toxic effect is related to phototoxic constituents such as psoralen.

  16. The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Duc

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dunaliella salina Teodoresco, a unicellular, halophilic green alga belonging to the Chlorophyceae, is among the most industrially important microalgae. This is because D. salina can produce massive amounts of β-carotene, which can be collected for commercial purposes, and because of its potential as a feedstock for biofuels production. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina have been studied in great detail, virtually nothing is known about the genomes it carries, especially those within its mitochondrion and plastid. This study presents the complete mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences of D. salina and compares them with those of the model green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri. Results The D. salina organelle genomes are large, circular-mapping molecules with ~60% noncoding DNA, placing them among the most inflated organelle DNAs sampled from the Chlorophyta. In fact, the D. salina plastid genome, at 269 kb, is the largest complete plastid DNA (ptDNA sequence currently deposited in GenBank, and both the mitochondrial and plastid genomes have unprecedentedly high intron densities for organelle DNA: ~1.5 and ~0.4 introns per gene, respectively. Moreover, what appear to be the relics of genes, introns, and intronic open reading frames are found scattered throughout the intergenic ptDNA regions -- a trait without parallel in other characterized organelle genomes and one that gives insight into the mechanisms and modes of expansion of the D. salina ptDNA. Conclusions These findings confirm the notion that chlamydomonadalean algae have some of the most extreme organelle genomes of all eukaryotes. They also suggest that the events giving rise to the expanded ptDNA architecture of D. salina and other Chlamydomonadales may have occurred early in the evolution of this lineage. Although interesting from a genome evolution standpoint, the D. salina organelle DNA sequences will aid in the

  17. The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David R.; Lee, Robert W.; Cushman, John C.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Tran, Duc; Polle, Juergen E.

    2010-05-07

    Abstract Background: Dunaliella salina Teodoresco, a unicellular, halophilic green alga belonging to the Chlorophyceae, is among the most industrially important microalgae. This is because D. salina can produce massive amounts of β-carotene, which can be collected for commercial purposes, and because of its potential as a feedstock for biofuels production. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina have been studied in great detail, virtually nothing is known about the genomes it carries, especially those within its mitochondrion and plastid. This study presents the complete mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences of D. salina and compares them with those of the model green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri. Results: The D. salina organelle genomes are large, circular-mapping molecules with ~60% noncoding DNA, placing them among the most inflated organelle DNAs sampled from the Chlorophyta. In fact, the D. salina plastid genome, at 269 kb, is the largest complete plastid DNA (ptDNA) sequence currently deposited in GenBank, and both the mitochondrial and plastid genomes have unprecedentedly high intron densities for organelle DNA: ~1.5 and ~0.4 introns per gene, respectively. Moreover, what appear to be the relics of genes, introns, and intronic open reading frames are found scattered throughout the intergenic ptDNA regions -- a trait without parallel in other characterized organelle genomes and one that gives insight into the mechanisms and modes of expansion of the D. salina ptDNA. Conclusions: These findings confirm the notion that chlamydomonadalean algae have some of the most extreme organelle genomes of all eukaryotes. They also suggest that the events giving rise to the expanded ptDNA architecture of D. salina and other Chlamydomonadales may have occurred early in the evolution of this lineage. Although interesting from a genome evolution standpoint, the D. salina organelle DNA sequences will aid in the development of a viable

  18. Increasing β-carotene content of phytoplankton Dunaliella salina using different salinity media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawan, J.; Masithah, E. D.; Tjahjaningsih, W.; Abdillah, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Dunaliella salina have got great attention in the nutritional, pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies because contain β-carotene. β-carotene functions as antioxidants and precursors of vitamin A and can treat tumors and cancer in humans. The content of β-carotene in D. salina can be increased by increasing salinity levels in the culture medium. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing salinity may increas β-carotene content of phytoplankton D. salina. The research use data collection method with direct observation and then analyzed the result with descriptive method. The results showed that different salinity of media can influenced β-carotene content of D. salina. The highest β-carotene content of D. salina was at treatment B (30 ppt) which equal to 2.312 mg/L on 10th day. The production of β-carotene in D. salina can be increased was other environmental stress treatments in the form of stress-temperature, light and nutrients using.

  19. Interspecific competition and allelopathic interaction between Karenia mikimotoi and Dunaliella salina in laboratory culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong; Liu, Jiao; Hao, Qiang; Ran, Lihua; Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-03-01

    Algal allelopathy is a manifold ecological/physiological phenomenon that is focused on chemical interactions and autotoxicity. We investigated the allelopathic interactions between Karenia mikimotoi and Dunaliella salina in laboratory cultures based on diff erent temperature (15°C, 20°C, and 25°C) and lighting (40, 80, and 160 μmol/(m2·s)) conditions. The growth of D. salina in bi-algae culture (1:1 size/density) was significantly restrained. The results of cell-free filtrate culture indicate that direct cell-tocell contact was not necessary in interspecific competition. Further experimental results demonstrated that allelochemicals released from K. mikimotoi were markedly influenced by both temperature ( P =0.013) and irradiance ( P =0.003), resulting in diff erent growth characteristics of D. salina in filtrate mediums. Compared with the plateau period, K. mikimotoi exudates in the exponential phase had a stronger short-term inhibition effect on D. salina in normal conditions. A clear concentration-dependent relationship was observed in the effect of allelochemicals released from K. mikimotoi with low-promoting and high-repressing effects on D. Salina in a short time-scale. In addition, allelopathic substances remain stable and effective under high temperature and pressure stress. Many flocculent sediments adhering with D. salina cells were observed in all filtrate mediums, while the quantity and color depended on the original culture conditions.

  20. Potential of New Isolates of Dunaliella Salina for Natural β-Carotene Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The halotolerant microalga Dunaliella salina has been widely studied for natural β-carotene production. This work shows biochemical characterization of three newly isolated Dunaliella salina strains, DF15, DF17, and DF40, compared with D. salina CCAP 19/30 and D. salina UTEX 2538 (also known as D. bardawil. Although all three new strains have been genetically characterized as Dunaliella salina strains, their ability to accumulate carotenoids and their capacity for photoprotection against high light stress are different. DF15 and UTEX 2538 reveal great potential for producing a large amount of β-carotene and maintained a high rate of photosynthesis under light of high intensity; however, DF17, DF40, and CCAP 19/30 showed increasing photoinhibition with increasing light intensity, and reduced contents of carotenoids, in particular β-carotene, suggesting that the capacity of photoprotection is dependent on the cellular content of carotenoids, in particular β-carotene. Strong positive correlations were found between the cellular content of all-trans β-carotene, 9-cis β-carotene, all-trans α-carotene and zeaxanthin but not lutein in the D. salina strains. Lutein was strongly correlated with respiration in photosynthetic cells and strongly related to photosynthesis, chlorophyll and respiration, suggesting an important and not hitherto identified role for lutein in coordinated control of the cellular functions of photosynthesis and respiration in response to changes in light conditions, which is broadly conserved in Dunaliella strains. Statistical analysis based on biochemical data revealed a different grouping strategy from the genetic classification of the strains. The significance of these data for strain selection for commercial carotenoid production is discussed.

  1. Heterologous gene expression driven by carbonic anhydrase gene promoter in Dunaliella salina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurong, Chai; Yumin, Lu; Tianyun, Wang; Weihong, Hou; Lexun, Xue

    2006-12-01

    Dunaliella salina, a halotolerant unicellular green alga without a rigid cell wall, can live in salinities ranging from 0.05 to 5 mol/L NaCl. These features of D. salina make it an ideal host for the production of antibodies, oral vaccine, and commercially valuable polypeptides. To produce high level of heterologous proteins from D. salina, highly efficient promoters are required to drive expression of target genes under controlled condition. In the present study, we cloned a 5' franking region of 1.4 kb from the carbonic anhydrase ( CAH) gene of D. salina by genomic walking and PCR. The fragment was ligated to the pMD18-T vector and characterized. Sequence analysis indicated that this region contained conserved motifs, including a TATA- like box and CAAT-box. Tandem (GT)n repeats that had a potential role of transcriptional control, were also found in this region. The transcription start site (TSS) of the CAH gene was determined by 5' RACE and nested PCR method. Transformation assays showed that the 1.4 kb fragment was able to drive expression of the selectable bar (bialaphos resistance) gene when the fusion was transformed into D. salina by biolistics. Northern blotting hybridizations showed that the bar transcript was most abundant in cells grown in 2 mol/L NaCl, and less abundant in 0.5 mol/L NaCl, indicating that expression of the bar gene was induced at high salinity. These results suggest the potential use of the CAH gene promoter to induce the expression of heterologous genes in D. salina under varied salt condition.

  2. Cultural heritage and food identity: The pre-Hispanic salt of Zapotitlán Salinas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renard, Marie-Christine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt production in Zapotitlán de las Salinas (Puebla, Mexico dates back to pre-Hispanic times when the Popolocas inhabiting the Tehuacán Valley paid it as tribute to the Aztecs. The technique to obtain salt has changed little over the past 500 years and know-how continues to be transmitted from generation to generation of salters (salineros. It is a resource that is deeply anchored in the identity of the inhabitants of Zapotitlán and regional cuisine. Salt has endured over the centuries as a perennial resource and constitutes a source of income for its owners. However, despite these historical and cultural factors of territorial anchorage, salters have not attained the level of organization necessary to obtain a fair value in the market. Failure to appreciate this product has led to the abandonment of a large percentage of the saltworks that once existed. This essay will analyze the socio-economic and cultural constraints that have prevented this community from attaining the level of territorial governance necessary to enhance the market value of Zapotitlán salt on the market but how, with the depletion of other economic options, its people are returning to the salt, with new strategies. Lastly, the paper will conclude with a consideration of its future potential.La producción de sal de Zapotitlán de las Salinas (Puebla, México se remonta a épocas prehispánicas cuando los popolocas, moradores del valle de Tehuacán, lo tributaban a los aztecas. La técnica para la obtención de la sal ha cambiado poco desde hace 500 años y el saber-hacer se sigue transmitiendo entre las generaciones de salineros. Es un recurso profundamente anclado en la identidad de los habitantes de Zapotitlán y en la gastronomía regional. Su existencia ha perdurado en el transcurso de los siglos por ser un recurso perenne y constituir una renta para sus dueños. Sin embargo, a pesar de los factores históricos y culturales de anclaje territorial, los salineros no

  3. Neutral lipid production in Dunaliella salina during osmotic stress and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Shuo; Lu, Jingquan; Sárossy, Zsuzsa

    2016-01-01

    The salt-tolerant green microalga Dunaliella salina can survive both hyper- and hypo-osmotic shock. Upon osmotic shock, the cells transiently and rapidly decreased or increased in size within minutes and slowly over hours acquired their original cell size and volume. Cell size distribution differs...... significantly in the cultures grown in the salinity range from 1.5 to 15 % NaCl. By using Nile Red fluorescence to detect neutral lipids, it became clear that only hyper-osmotic shock on cells induced transient neutral lipid appearance in D. salina, while those transferred from 9 to 15 % NaCl stimulated...

  4. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY, MICROBIOLOGICAL AND CYTOTOXICITYTY ACTIVITY IN Artemia salina LEACH, AERIAL PARTS OF Petiveria alliacea L. PHYTOLACCACEAE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darllen Suzanny Barbosa de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to phytochemical study of the aerial parts of Petiveria alliacea L. (young branches and leaves, cytotoxicity evaluation (LC50 of leaves in relation to Artemia salina L. and antimicrobial activity, which were used strains of gram-positive bacterium: Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative: Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, these submitted to the methanol crude extract (MCE of leaves, at the following concentrations: 25.50 and 100mg/mL. It was possible to identify in the young branches of P. alliacea L. the presence of organic acids, phenols and tannins in the alkaloids leaves, steroids and triterpenoids, saponins, phenols and tannins, where the activities of these metabolites match with some information alleged by the population. The leaves’ Methanol Crude Extract showed LC50=1709.77μg/mL, being nontoxic at the tested concentrations, whereas for plant extract in relation to A.salina are considered nontoxic when LC50>1000μg/mL. The antimicrobial activity of the Methanol Crude Extract of the leaves showed inhibition only for the bacteria Escherichia coli at 100mg/mL concentration, and this activity may be related to the presence of phenols and tannins in the extract. The obtained results turn the species promising in search of secondary metabolites, but there is the need of further studies to identify its main active ingredients. Palavras-chave: Mucuracaa, Phytochemical Screening, Class of Compounds. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v3n3p76-82

  5. Toxicity and trophic transfer of P25 TiO2 NPs from Dunaliella salina to Artemia salina: Effect of dietary and waterborne exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, M; Thiagarajan, Vignesh; Nemade, Prateek; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2018-01-01

    The recent increase in nanoparticle (P25 TiO 2 NPs) usage has led to concerns regarding their potential implications on environment and human health. The food chain is the central pathway for nanoparticle transfer from lower to high trophic level organisms. The current study relies on the investigation of toxicity and trophic transfer potential of TiO 2 NPs from marine algae Dunaliella salina to marine crustacean Artemia salina. Toxicity was measured in two different modes of exposure such as waterborne (exposure of TiO 2 NPs to Artemia) and dietary exposure (NP-accumulated algal cells are used to feed the Artemia). The toxicity and accumulation of TiO 2 NPs in marine algae D. salina were also studied. Artemia was found to be more sensitive to TiO 2 NPs (48h LC 50 of 4.21mgL -1 ) as compared to marine algae, D. salina (48h LC 50 of 11.35mgL -1 ). The toxicity, uptake, and accumulation of TiO 2 NPs were observed to be more in waterborne exposure as compared to dietary exposure. Waterborne exposure seemed to cause higher ROS production and antioxidant enzyme (SOD and CAT) activity as compared to dietary exposure of TiO 2 NPs in Artemia. There were no observed biomagnification (BMF) and trophic transfer from algae to Artemia through dietary exposure. Histopathological studies confirmed the morphological and internal damages in Artemia. This study reiterates the possible effects of the different modes of exposure on trophic transfer potential of TiO 2 NPs and eventually the consequences on aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Spring migration ecology of the mid-continent sandhill crane population with an emphasis on use of the Central Platte River Valley, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, Gary L.; Brandt, David A.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Pearse, Aaron T.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a 10-year study (1998–2007) of the Mid-Continent Population (MCP) of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) to identify spring-migration corridors, locations of major stopovers, and migration chronology by crane breeding affiliation (western Alaska–Siberia [WA–S], northern Canada–Nunavut [NC–N], west-central Canada–Alaska [WC–A], and east-central Canada–Minnesota [EC–M]). In the Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska, we evaluated factors influencing staging chronology, food habits, fat storage, and habitat use of sandhill cranes. We compared our findings to results from the Platte River Ecology Study conducted during 1978–1980. We determined spring migration corridors used by the breeding affiliations (designated subpopulations for management purposes) by monitoring 169 cranes marked with platform transmitter terminals (PTTs). We also marked and monitored 456 cranes in the CPRV with very high frequency (VHF) transmitters to evaluate length and pattern of stay, habitat use, and movements. An estimated 42% and 58% of cranes staging in the CPRV were greater sandhill cranes (G. c. tabida) and lesser sandhill cranes (G. c. canadensis), and they stayed for an average of 20 and 25 days (2000–2007), respectively. Cranes from the WA–S, NC–N, WC–A, and EC–M affiliations spent an average of 72, 77, 52, and 53 days, respectively, in spring migration of which 28, 23, 24, and 18 days occurred in the CPRV. The majority of the WA–S subpopulation settled in the CPRV apparently because of inadequate habitat to support more birds upstream, although WA–S cranes accounted for >90% of birds staging in the North Platte River Valley. Crane staging duration in the CPRV was negatively correlated with arrival dates; 92% of cranes stayed >7 days. A program of annual mechanical removal of mature stands of woody growth and seedlings that began in the early 1980s primarily in the main channel of the Platte River has allowed distribution of crane

  7. Pseudomonas salina sp. nov., isolated from a salt lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Hou, Ting-Ting; Liu, Hong-Can; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Wang, Fang; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2015-09-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, facultatively aerobic bacterium, strain XCD-X85(T), was isolated from Xiaochaidan Lake, a salt lake (salinity 9.9%, w/v) in Qaidam basin, Qinghai province, China. Its taxonomic position was determined by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain XCD-X85(T) were non-endospore-forming rods, 0.4-0.6 μm wide and 1.0-1.6 μm long, and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Strain XCD-X85(T) was catalase- and oxidase-positive. Growth was observed in the presence of 0-12.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1.0-2.0%) and at 4-35 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C) and pH 6.5-10.5 (optimum, pH 8.0-8.5). Strain XCD-X85(T) contained (>10%) summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c), C12 : 0, C16 : 0 and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) as the predominant fatty acids. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 9 (Q-9). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content was 57.4 mol%. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain XCD-X85(T) was associated with the genus Pseudomonas, and showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Pseudomonas pelagia CL-AP6(T) (99.0%) and Pseudomonas bauzanensis BZ93(T) (96.8%). DNA-DNA relatedness of strain XCD-X85T to P. pelagia JCM 15562(T) was 19 ± 1%. On the basis of the data presented above, it is concluded that strain XCD-X85(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas salina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XCD-X85(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12482(T) = JCM 19469(T)).

  8. Aburra Valley: Quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, Michel

    2008-01-01

    These paper intents a brief description of the evolution that characterised natural risk prevention in the area surrounding the city of Medellin, Colombia, called the Aburra Valley. Both the lithological and structural composition of the Valle and its topographic and climatic conditions contribute to the abundance of destructive natural phenomena as earthquakes, slope movements, flash floods and, in a lower proportion, to floods. The population increase, which reaches now 3.5 millions inhabitants and the frequent occupation of sites exposed to natural hazards have resulted in numerous disasters. At present two entities called SIMPAD and DAPARD work on risk prevention, on city and department scale respectively. The amount of knowledge about physical environment is considered to be insufficient, together with regulations which should direct land use in accordance to restrictions related to natural hazards. Several seminars on this topic have already been carried out and the organisers of the present one, destined to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the Villatina disaster, should make the decision to meet each two years. Furthermore, the creation of a permanent commission dedicated to study past events, to foster information broadcasting and to seek a better knowledge of the Aburra Valley, should be considered

  9. EPA Region 1 - Map Layers for Valley ID Tool (Hosted Feature Service)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Valley Service Feature Layer hosts spatial data for EPA Region 1's Valley Identification Tool. These layers contain attribute information added by EPA R1 GIS Center to help identify populated valleys:- Fac_2011NEI: Pollution sources selected from the National Emissions Inventory (EPA, 2011).- NE_Towns_PopValleys: New England Town polygons (courtesy USGS), with Population in Valleys and Population Density in Valleys calculated by EPA R1 GIS, from 2010 US Census blocks. - VT_E911: Vermont residences (courtesy VT Center for Geographic Information E-911).

  10. Salinas de interior en el territorio de la Región de Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gil Guirado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La sal es un elemento necesario en la actividad de los grupos humanos. Para su captación y recolección se ha ordenado el territorio, con unos paisajes propios: las salinas. Podemos distinguir dos tipos: las salinas costeras y las salinas de interior. En estas últimas, su localización y explotación está ligada a la presencia de algún material salino que atraviesa el agua. En ellas se pueden distinguir tres áreas, la de captación del agua (generalmente pozos horizontales del tipo minado o galería; la de almacenaje (con balsas y recocederos dónde acumular y calentar; y finalmente la de cristalización (con parcelas más o menos aterrazadas conocidas como eras. A través del estudio combinado del trabajo de campo y la documentación de archivos, hemos podido localizar una veintena de salinas en el interior de la Región de Murcia; huella de una actividad económica y de una cultura del agua entre la variedad de paisajes surestinos.

  11. Dichotomosiphon salina sp. nov. - a new marine algal form from Goa estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Jagtap, T.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    A new species Dichotomosiphon salina sp. of family Vaucheriaceae has been reported from brackish water areas of Goa. The high salinity tolerance of 40 ppt and the variation in size as well as shape of the reproductive organs are the main...

  12. Evaluation of the photodynamic activity of Xanthene Dyes on Artemia salina described by chemometric approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo S. Pellosi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of drugs for photodynamic therapy (PDT is an important area of research due to their growing use in medical applications. Therefore, it is important to develop new bioassay methods for PDT photosensitizers that are inexpensive, easy to handle and highly sensitive to environmental conditions. Xanthene dyes (fluorescein, rose bengal B, erythrosine B and eosin Y with LED light sources were investigated using Artemia salina as a bioindicator of photodynamic activity. In this study, three factors were investigated: (i photosensitizers concentration, (ii the LED irradiation time and (iii the waiting time between the addition of the photosensitizers and the beginning of the irradiation. To analyze the photo-killing of A. salina, it was employed a 23 full factorial design. The death of A. salina was related to dye structure and the interaction between the irradiation time and the photosensitizers concentration. About 60% of crustaceans death was obtained using rose bengal B, which presentes the highest quantum yield of singlet oxygen due to the number of iodide substituents in the xanthenes ring. The proposed bioassay using A. salina, xanthene dyes and LED irradiation was found suitable for quantitative PDT drug evaluation.

  13. Antioxidant activity of three microalgae Dunaliella salina, Tetraselmis chuii and Isochrysis galbana clone Tahiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widowati, Ita; Zainuri, Muhammad; Pancasakti Kusumaningrum, Hermien; Susilowati, Ragil; Hardivillier, Yann; Leignel, Vincent; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Mouget, Jean-Luc

    2017-02-01

    Natural alternatives antioxidant source has become a trending topic in the past decades to replace synthetic antioxidant. Microalgae have been mentioned to show interesting bioactive properties and one of them is its antioxidant activity. This study aims to evaluate the potential of three microalgae Dunaliella salina, Tetraselmis chuii and Isochrysis galbanaas new source of natural antioxidant. Proximate analysis and total phenolic content of D. salina, T. chuii and I. galbanas were determined. Antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of these three species prepared in different concentration (50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 ppm) was performed through DPPH assay. I. galbana clone Tahiti demonstrated a highest antioxidant potential with 61.64 of inhibition at 50 ppm followed by D. salina with 58.45 % of inhibition and T. chuii with 52.58 % of inhibition. I. galbana clone Tahiti was the best antioxidant with total phenol content of 17.798 mg GAE g-1 extract at 50 ppm; followed by T. chuii 16.868 mg GAE g-1 extract and the lowest was D. salina with 4.672 mg GAE g-1 extract. Results suggest that these microalgae posses antioxidant potential which could be considered for future applications in medicine, dietary supplements, cosmetics or food industries.

  14. Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea infecting the south European toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae from a hypersaline environment in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huyse Tine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, non-native species of Gambusia (Poeciliidae have been used to control larval stages of the Asian tiger mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta Reinert, Harbach et Kitching, 2004 throughout Italy. The potential utility of indigenous populations of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae as an appropriate alternative biological control is currently being explored. A sub-sample of ten fish collected from Cervia Saline, Italy (salinity 65 ppt; 30°C to assess their reproductive capability in captivity, harboured a moderate infection of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea. A subsequent morphological and molecular study identified this as being a new species. Results Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. is described from the skin, fins and gills of A. fasciatus. Light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM examination of the opisthaptoral armature and their comparison with all other recorded species suggested morphological similarities to Gyrodactylus rugiensoides Huyse et Volckaert, 2002 from Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas. Features of the ventral bar, however, permit its discrimination from G. rugiensoides. Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene and a comparison with all species listed in GenBank confirmed they are unique and represent a new species (most similar to Gyrodactylus anguillae Ergens, 1960, 8.3% pair-wise distance based on 5.8S+ITS2. This represents the first species of Gyrodactylus to be described from Aphanius and, to date, has the longest ITS1 (774 bp sequenced from any Gyrodactylus. Additional sampling of Cervia Saline throughout the year, found G. salinae n. sp. to persist in conditions ranging from 35 ppt and 5°C in December to 65 ppt and 30°C in July, while in captivity a low level of infection was present, even in freshwater conditions (0 ppt. Conclusions The ability of G. salinae n. sp. to tolerate a wide

  15. Fluctuations of population density in Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) related to fruit availability in the Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia: a 10-year record including two mast fruitings and three other peak fruitings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Tomoko; Kuze, Noko; Bernard, Henry; Malim, Titol Peter; Kohshima, Shiro

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the population density of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) and fruit availability for 10 years (2005-2014), in primary lowland dipterocarp forests in the Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia. During the research period, two mast fruitings and three other peak fruiting events of different scales occurred in the study area. The orangutan population density, estimated every 2 months by the marked nest count method, changed between 0.3 and 4.4 ind/km 2 and the mean population density was 1.3 ind/km 2  ± SE 0.1 (n = 56). The population density increased markedly during mast and peak fruiting periods. A significant positive correlation was observed between the population density and fruit availability in the study period (Spearman, R = 0.3, P < 0.01, n = 56). During non-fruiting periods, however, no significant correlation was observed between them. These results suggest that the spatial difference in fruit availability during mast and peak fruiting periods was larger than during non-fruiting periods, and many orangutans temporarily moved to the study site from the surrounding areas seeking fruit.

  16. Valley polarization in bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauque, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    The electronic structure of certain crystal lattices can contain multiple degenerate valleys for their charge carriers to occupy. The principal challenge in the development of valleytronics is to lift the valley degeneracy of charge carriers in a controlled way. In bulk semi-metallic bismuth, the Fermi surface includes three cigar-shaped electron valleys lying almost perpendicular to the high symmetry axis known as the trigonal axis. The in-plane mass anisotropy of each valley exceeds 200 as a consequence of Dirac dispersion, which drastically reduces the effective mass along two out of the three orientations. According to our recent study of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in bismuth, a flow of Dirac electrons along the trigonal axis is extremely sensitive to the orientation of in-plane magnetic field. Thus, a rotatable magnetic field can be used as a valley valve to tune the contribution of each valley to the total conductivity. As a consequence of a unique combination of high mobility and extreme mass anisotropy in bismuth, the effect is visible even at room temperature in a magnetic field of 1 T. Thus, a modest magnetic field can be used as a valley valve in bismuth. The results of our recent investigation of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in other semi-metals and doped semiconductors suggest that a rotating magnetic field can behave as a valley valve in a multi-valley system with sizeable mass anisotropy.

  17. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Monterey-Salinas Shallow Aquifer Study Unit, 2012–13: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen; Wright, Michael

    2018-05-30

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 7,820-square-kilometer (km2) Monterey-Salinas Shallow Aquifer (MS-SA) study unit was investigated from October 2012 to May 2013 as part of the second phase of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is in the central coast region of California in the counties of Santa Cruz, Monterey, and San Luis Obispo. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.The MS-SA study was designed to provide a statistically robust assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the shallow aquifer systems. The assessment was based on water-quality samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 100 groundwater sites and 70 household tap sites, along with ancillary data such as land use and well-construction information. The shallow aquifer systems were defined by the depth interval of wells associated with domestic supply. The MS-SA study unit consisted of four study areas—Santa Cruz (210 km2), Pajaro Valley (360 km2), Salinas Valley (2,000 km2), and Highlands (5,250 km2).This study had two primary components: the status assessment and the understanding assessment. The first primary component of this study—the status assessment—assessed the quality of the groundwater resource indicated by data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally present inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the shallow aquifer system of the MS-SA study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. As opposed to the public wells, however, water from private wells, which often tap the shallow aquifer, is usually consumed without any treatment. The second

  18. Heterologous overexpression of sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Kyu Kang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oleaginous microalgae of the Nannochloropsis genus are considered excellent candidates for biofuels and value-added products owing to their high biomass productivity and lipid content. Here, we report the first overexpression and detection of a heterologous sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina in order to develop a transformation toolbox for future genetic improvements. Particle bombardment was employed for transformation, and expression of Shble under the control of TUB and UEP promoters, cloned from N. salina, was used to confer resistance to Zeocin antibiotics, resulting in 5.9 and 4.7 transformants per 108 cells, respectively. Stable integration of the markers into the genome was confirmed using a restriction enzyme site-directed amplification (RESDA PCR. The expression of sfCherry fluorescent protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy. These results suggest new possibilities of efficient genetic engineering of Nannochloropsis for the production of biofuels and other biochemicals.

  19. Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcanjo, D D R; Albuquerque, A C M; Melo-Neto, B; Santana, L C L R; Medeiros, M G F; Citó, Amgl

    2012-08-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity) and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinal plants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis and Equisetum sp.) against Artemia salina. Biological activity was evaluated for extracts at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL in triplicate, and the mean lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained by probit analysis. The species Acmella uliginosa showed the highest bioactivity, and its flower extract was more active than its leaf extract.

  20. Dunaliella salina as marine microalga highly tolerant to but a poor remover of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folgar, S.; Torres, E.; Perez-Rama, M.; Cid, A.; Herrero, C.; Abalde, J.

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium tolerance and removal in the marine microalga Dunaliella salina were studied in cultures exposed to different metal concentrations (5-120 mg Cd l -1 ) for 96 h. This microalga can be included in the group of microalgal species most tolerant to cadmium due to the high value of EC50 that it possesses (48.9 mg Cd l -1 at 96 h of culture). The greater percentage of cadmium removed was obtained in cultures exposed to 5 mg Cd l -1 at 96 h, but removing only 11.3% of the added cadmium. In all cultures, the quantity of cadmium removed intracellularly was much lower than the bioadsorbed quantity and it was proportional to the sulfhydryl group levels. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were suitable for describing the short-term biosorption of cadmium by living cells of D. salina.

  1. Quaternary geologic map of the north-central part of the Salinas River Valley and Arroyo Seco, Monterey County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    Arroyo Seco, a perennial drainage in the central Coast Range of California, records a sequence of strath terraces. These terraces preserve an erosional and depositional history, controlled by both climate change and regional tectonics. These deposits have been mapped and correlated on the basis of field investigations, digital terrain analysis, stream gradient profiles, evaluation of published regional soil maps, and satellite imagery. Seven of the strath terraces and associated alluvial fans have been dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) or infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). The OSL and IRSL dates on seven of the strath terraces and associated alluvial fans in Arroyo Seco are approximately >120 ka, >65 ka, 51–46 ka, 36–35 ka, 9 ka, and 2–1 ka. These dates generally fall within the range of ages reported from many well-dated marine terraces on the California coast that are formed during sea-level high stands. Tectonic movements, consistently upward, result in a constantly and slowly emerging coastline, however, the regional effects of climate change and resulting eustatic sea-level rises are interpreted as the driving mechanism for erosion and aggradation in Arroyo Seco.

  2. Evidence of Protaphorura fimata (Collembola: Poduromorpha: Onychiuridae) feeding on germinating lettuce in the Salinas Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shimat V; Bettiga, Christopher; Ramirez, Christian; Soto-Adames, Felipe N

    2015-02-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to determine the impact of Protaphorura fimata Gisin (Family: Onychiuridae) feeding on seeds and germinating seedlings of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae). First, various densities of P. fimata were incubated with 25 lettuce seeds for 7 d and feeding injury was evaluated in three soilless arena experiments. As a second step, 100 P. fimata were incubated with 25 lettuce seeds in three arena experiments with soil media. Finally, in a commercial field the incidence and impact of P. fimata on recently planted lettuce was assessed following applications of pyrethroid-insecticides: 2 d before planting, at planting, and 20 d later. In experiments without soil, the number of ungerminated seeds, feeding injury sites, and plants with injury were significantly greater in arenas with P. fimata than without. Similarly, the number of germinated seedlings, shoot fresh, and dry weights, and the length and width of fully opened-leaves were greater in arenas without than with P. fimata in assays with soil. In the field, P. fimata densities were significantly lower in beds that received insecticides at 2 d before and at planting than in untreated beds. Also, the fresh and dry weights of lettuce plants were significantly greater in the beds that received insecticide than in untreated. The results clearly show that P. fimata is a pest of lettuce and can cause severe feeding injury to germinating seeds or seedlings, thereby reducing their growth rate. The potential implications of P. fimata feeding and feeding injury characteristics are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina using anaerobic digestion effluent as a nutrient source for biofuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Ting; Park, Stephen Y.; Racharaks, Ratanachat; Li, Yebo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina with effluent of anaerobic digestion (AD). • The highest biomass yield was obtained at 6% AD effluent loading. • Lipid content and productivity decreased with increased effluent loading from 3% to 18%. • Biomass productivity increased by up to 49% as harvest ratio increased from 25% to 50%. - Abstract: The biomass and lipid productivities and the nutrient removal capacity of microalgae Nannochloropsis salina grown using anaerobically digested municipal wastewater effluent as a nutrient source were evaluated in this study. Results from bench-scale batch reactors showed that N. salina grew well under 3%, 6%, 12%, and 18% (v/v) anaerobic digestion (AD) effluent loading with the highest growth rate being 0.645 d −1 obtained at 6% AD effluent loading. The growth of N. salina decreased when the effluent loading was increased to 24%. The highest biomass productivity of 92 mg l −1 d −1 was obtained with 6% effluent loading. Three harvesting frequencies (1, 2, and 3 d intervals) and two harvesting ratios (25% and 50%, v/v) were tested in semi-continuous bench-scale reactors with 6% effluent loading. The highest lipid productivity of 38.7 mg l −1 d −1 was achieved with a 2-d harvesting interval and 50% harvesting ratio, where nitrogen and phosphorus were removed at rates of 35.3 mg l −1 d −1 and 3.8 mg l −1 d −1 , respectively. The fatty acid (FA) profile showed that palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) were the major components, accounting for 32.1%, 26%, and 15.7% of the total FAs, respectively

  4. Integrated assessment of the impacts of agricultural drainwater in the Salinas River (California, USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B.S.; Hunt, J.W.; Phillips, B.M.; Nicely, P.A.; Vlaming, V. de; Connor, V.; Richard, N.; Tjeerdema, R.S

    2003-08-01

    Invertebrate mortality was correlated with levels of water and sediment contaminatioin in the Salinas River. - The Salinas River is the largest of the three rivers that drain into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary in central California. Large areas of this watershed are cultivated year-round in row crops and previous laboratory studies have demonstrated that acute toxicity of agricultural drainwater to Ceriodaphnia dubia is caused by the organophosphate (OP) pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. In the current study, we used a combination of ecotoxicologic tools to investigate incidence of chemical contamination and toxicity in waters and sediments in the river downstream of a previously uncharacterized agricultural drainage creek system. Water column toxicity was investigated using a cladoceran C. dubia while sediment toxicity was investigated using an amphipod Hyalella azteca. Ecological impacts of drainwater were investigated using bioassessments of macroinvertebrate community structure. The results indicated that Salinas River water downstream of the agricultural drain is acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia, and toxicity to this species was highly correlated with combined toxic units (TUs) of chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Laboratory tests were used to demonstrate that sediments in this system were acutely toxic to H. azteca, which is a resident genus. Macroinvertebrate community structure was moderately impacted downstream of the agricultural drain input. While the lowest macroinvertebrate abundances were measured at the station demonstrating the greatest water column and sediment toxicity and the highest concentrations of pesticides, macroinvertebrate metrics were more significantly correlated with bank vegetation cover than any other variable. Results of this study suggest that pesticide pollution is the likely cause of laboratory-measured toxicity in the Salinas River samples and that this factor may interact with other factors to impact the

  5. Integrated assessment of the impacts of agricultural drainwater in the Salinas River (California, USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.S.; Hunt, J.W.; Phillips, B.M.; Nicely, P.A.; Vlaming, V. de; Connor, V.; Richard, N.; Tjeerdema, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    Invertebrate mortality was correlated with levels of water and sediment contaminatioin in the Salinas River. - The Salinas River is the largest of the three rivers that drain into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary in central California. Large areas of this watershed are cultivated year-round in row crops and previous laboratory studies have demonstrated that acute toxicity of agricultural drainwater to Ceriodaphnia dubia is caused by the organophosphate (OP) pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. In the current study, we used a combination of ecotoxicologic tools to investigate incidence of chemical contamination and toxicity in waters and sediments in the river downstream of a previously uncharacterized agricultural drainage creek system. Water column toxicity was investigated using a cladoceran C. dubia while sediment toxicity was investigated using an amphipod Hyalella azteca. Ecological impacts of drainwater were investigated using bioassessments of macroinvertebrate community structure. The results indicated that Salinas River water downstream of the agricultural drain is acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia, and toxicity to this species was highly correlated with combined toxic units (TUs) of chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Laboratory tests were used to demonstrate that sediments in this system were acutely toxic to H. azteca, which is a resident genus. Macroinvertebrate community structure was moderately impacted downstream of the agricultural drain input. While the lowest macroinvertebrate abundances were measured at the station demonstrating the greatest water column and sediment toxicity and the highest concentrations of pesticides, macroinvertebrate metrics were more significantly correlated with bank vegetation cover than any other variable. Results of this study suggest that pesticide pollution is the likely cause of laboratory-measured toxicity in the Salinas River samples and that this factor may interact with other factors to impact the

  6. Morphological changes about Artemia Salina by the effect of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, P.; Kunova, V; Kratochvil, B.; Salplachta, J.; Benova, K.

    2004-01-01

    Direction Council of Europe require restriction of laboratory vertebrae in biological experiments. Once by possibilities is using biological test II. generation among which belongs to and test for Artemia salina. Still this time published test however value only lethality in dependence on dose, exposition and time survival. This work document possibility watch of expressive morphological changes, which consist in retardation development brine shrimps stage in dependence on dose gamma radiation 60 Co. (authors)

  7. Greening Turner Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed remedial activities undertaken in the Turner Valley. Remedial action in the valley must satisfy the financial concerns of engineers and investors as well as the environmental concerns of residents and regulators. Natural gas production in the Turner Valley began in 1914. The production practices were harmful and wasteful. Soil and water pollution was not considered a problem until recently. The impacts of cumulative effects and other pollution hazards are now being considered as part of many oil and gas environmental management programs. Companies know it is cheaper and safer to prevent pollutants from being released, and more efficient to clean them up quickly. Oil and gas companies are also committed to remediating historical problems. Several factors have simplified remediation plans in the Turner Valley. Area real estate values are now among the highest in Alberta. While the valley residents are generally friendly to the petroleum industry, strong communication with all stakeholders in the region is needed. 1 fig.

  8. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of Dunaliella (Chlorophyta) from Indian salinas and their diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Dunaliella (Class – Chlorophyceae) is widely studied for its tolerance to extreme habitat conditions, physiological aspects and many biotechnological applications, such as a source of carotenoids and many other bioactive compounds. Biochemical and molecular characterization is very much essential to fully explore the properties and possibilities of the new isolates of Dunaliella. In India, hyper saline lakes and salt pans were reported to bloom with Dunaliella spp. However, except for the economically important D. salina, other species are rarely characterized taxonomically from India. Present study was conducted to describe Dunaliella strains from Indian salinas using a combined morphological, physiological and molecular approach with an aim to have a better understanding on the taxonomy and diversity of this genus from India. Results Comparative phenotypic and genetic studies revealed high level of diversity within the Indian Dunaliella isolates. Species level identification using morphological characteristics clearly delineated two strains of D. salina with considerable β-carotene content (>20 pg/cell). The variation in 18S rRNA gene size, amplified with MA1-MA2 primers, ranged between ~1800 and ~2650 base pairs, and together with the phylogeny based on ITS gene sequence provided a pattern, forming five different groups within Indian Dunaliella isolates. Superficial congruency was observed between ITS and rbcL gene phylogenetic trees with consistent formation of major clades separating Indian isolates into two distinct clusters, one with D. salina and allied strains, and another one with D. viridis and allied strains. Further in both the trees, few isolates showed high level of genetic divergence than reported previously for Dunaliella spp. This indicates the scope of more numbers of clearly defined/unidentified species/sub-species within Indian Dunaliella isolates. Conclusion Present work illustrates Indian Dunaliella strains

  9. Genetic characteristics and migration history of a bronze culture population in the West Liao-River valley revealed by ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjie; Zhao, Xin; Zhao, Yongbin; Li, Chunxiang; Si, Dayong; Zhou, Hui; Cui, Yinqiu

    2011-12-01

    In order to study the genetic characteristics of the Lower Xiajiadian culture (LXC) population, a main bronze culture branch in northern China dated 4500-3500 years ago, two uniparentally inherited markers, mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome single-nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs), were analyzed on 14 human remains excavated from the Dadianzi site. The 14 sequences, which contained 13 haplotypes, were assigned to 9 haplogroups, and Y-SNP typing of 5 male individuals assigned them to haplogroups N (M231) and O3 (M122). The results indicate that the LXC population mainly included people carrying haplogroups from northern Asia who had lived in this region since the Neolithic period, as well as genetic evidence of immigration from the Central Plain. Later in the Bronze Age, part of the population migrated to the south away from a cooler climate, which ultimately influenced the gene pool in the Central Plain. Thus, climate change is an important factor, which drove the population migration during the Bronze Age in northern China. Based on these results, the local genetic continuity did not seem to be affected by outward migration, although more data are needed especially from other ancient populations to determine the influence of return migration on genetic continuity.

  10. Host selection and adaptation are major driving forces shaping ALS Xylella fastidiosa population structure in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes disease in many commercial crops including almond leaf scorch (ALS) disease in susceptible almond (Prunus dulcis). In this study, genetic diversity and population structure of Xf associated with ALS disease were evaluated. Strains from two almond production sites in th...

  11. Comparison of sampling techniques for Rift Valley Fever virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    time for trapping potential vectors for Rift Valley Fever virus. ..... Krockel, U., Rose, A., Eiras, A.E. & Geier, M. (2006) New tools for surveillance of adult yellow fever ... baited trapping systems for sampling outdoor mosquito populations in ...

  12. Complexity in a population of Artemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A.A., E-mail: abduladem1@yahoo.co [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Basrah (Iraq); Fortuna, L., E-mail: lfortuna@diees.unict.i [DIEEI, Faculty of Engineering, University of Catania (Italy); Frasca, M., E-mail: mfrasca@diees.unict.i [DIEEI, Faculty of Engineering, University of Catania (Italy); Rashid, M.T., E-mail: mofid76@yahoo.co [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Basrah (Iraq); Xibilia, M.G., E-mail: mxibilia@ingegneria.unime.i [DiSIA, Faculty of Engineering, University of Messina (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: Experiments on collective motion of populations of animals (Artemia salina). Design of low-cost experimental setup for complex systems. Control of collective motion of populations of Artemia. Models of collective motion of populations of Artemia. - Abstract: Artemia salina belongs to a genus of very primordial crustaceans, whose behavior is not widely investigated in literature. Their collective behavior is studied in this paper both experimentally and theoretically. Different experiments have been designed to control the direction of motion of an Artemia population by exploiting their sensitivity to light and to measure the response of the population to light at different wavelengths. Mathematical models have been also derived, explaining the mechanisms underlying Artemia flocking formation when a light spot is applied to the system. The results obtained allow to develop new strategies for distributed control of agents and to test them in a simple and low cost experimental setup.

  13. Complexity in a population of Artemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.A.; Fortuna, L.; Frasca, M.; Rashid, M.T.; Xibilia, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Experiments on collective motion of populations of animals (Artemia salina). → Design of low-cost experimental setup for complex systems. → Control of collective motion of populations of Artemia. → Models of collective motion of populations of Artemia. - Abstract: Artemia salina belongs to a genus of very primordial crustaceans, whose behavior is not widely investigated in literature. Their collective behavior is studied in this paper both experimentally and theoretically. Different experiments have been designed to control the direction of motion of an Artemia population by exploiting their sensitivity to light and to measure the response of the population to light at different wavelengths. Mathematical models have been also derived, explaining the mechanisms underlying Artemia flocking formation when a light spot is applied to the system. The results obtained allow to develop new strategies for distributed control of agents and to test them in a simple and low cost experimental setup.

  14. Setting the conditions for phycoremediation of radionuclide microalgae Dunaliella salina and Chlorella vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatarova, D.; Galanda, D.; Kuruc, J.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation deals with bioremediation using microalgae - by phycoremediation. Microalgae are economically low profile compared to the plants, their cultivation can be carried out in laboratory conditions. They can survive in extreme conditions, they occur in all habitats and have faster growth. Halophilous green D. salina can accumulate heavy metals such as Zn, Cu and Cd. It occurs in hypersaline environment with tolerance (0.2 to 35) % NaCl. It contains high amounts of carotenoids, which protect it against formation of free radicals from UV radiation. Chlorella vulgaris is a representative of eukaryotic green microalgae with the highest chlorophyll content with the appearance in fresh water. Its phycoremediant ability are found in N and P elements, which are used as its nutritional components as well as for Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Au. The experiments were carried out using a peristaltic pump ISMATEC Model: ISM851 (flow rate 2 cm"3 min"-"1) followed by monitoring of time dependence of decrease of activity of the microalgae solutions. For evaluation of the samples was used HPGe gamma spectrometer (measurement time of the samples: 600 sec) from ORTEC Company and measured spectra were evaluated with software GammaVision from ORTEC. The measured results showed that the most effective phycoremediation of microalgae Dunaliella salina toke place in an environment of pH 3, and even more at pH 8. The fact that the D. salina is able of phycoremediation at so acidic pH can contribute to its applications in extreme conditions or in the coastal areas in view of that it is halophilic. At freshwater microalgae Chlorella vulgaris was found the best phytoremediation potential in its natural environment at pH of 6. Because this microalgae is freshwater, it may find application in inland or in liquid radioactive waste from nuclear facilities.(authors)

  15. LIPID PRODUCTION BY DUNALIELLA SALINA IN BATCH CULTURE: EFFECTS OF NITROGEN LIMITATION AND LIGHT INTENSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weldy, C.S.; Huesemann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are increasing and may cause unknown deleterious environmental effects if left unchecked. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has predicted in its latest report a 2°C to 4°C increase in global temperatures even with the strictest CO2 mitigation practices. Global warming can be attributed in large part to the burning of carbon-based fossil fuels, as the concentration of atmospheric CO2 is directly related to the burning of fossil fuels. Biofuels which do not add CO2 to the atmosphere are presently generated primarily from terrestrial plants, i.e., ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybean oil. The production of biofuels from terrestrial plants is severely limited by the availability of fertile land. Lipid production from microalgae and its corresponding biodiesel production have been studied since the late 1970s but large scale production has remained economically infeasible due to the large costs of sterile growing conditions required for many algal species. This study focuses on the potential of the halophilic microalgae species Dunaliella salina as a source of lipids and subsequent biodiesel production. The lipid production rates under high light and low light as well as nitrogen suffi cient and nitrogen defi cient culture conditions were compared for D. salina cultured in replicate photobioreactors. The results show (a) cellular lipid content ranging from 16 to 44% (wt), (b) a maximum culture lipid concentration of 450mg lipid/L, and (c) a maximum integrated lipid production rate of 46mg lipid/L culture*day. The high amount of lipids produced suggests that D. salina, which can be mass-cultured in non-sterile outdoor ponds, has strong potential to be an economically valuable source for renewable oil and biodiesel production.

  16. Energy-producing electro-flocculation for harvest of Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Zhang, Meng; Lv, Tao; Chen, Hongjun; Chika, Anthony Okonkwo; Xiang, Changli; Guo, Minxue; Wu, Minghui; Li, Jianjun; Jia, Lishan

    2017-10-01

    In this study, an efficient electro-flocculation process for Dunaliella salina with energy production by aluminum-air battery has been successfully applied. The formed aluminum hydroxide hydrates during discharging of battery were positively charged, which have a great potential for microalgae flocculation. The precipitation of aluminum hydroxide hydrates by algae also could improve the performance of aluminum-air battery. The harvesting efficiency could reach 97% in 20mins with energy production of 0.11kWh/kg. This discharging electro-flocculation (DEF) technology provides a new energy producing process to effectively harvest microalgae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the bioactivities of some Myanmar medicinal plants using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabai; Khin Khin Win Aung; Nwe Ni Thin; Kyi Shwe; Tin Myint Htwe

    2001-01-01

    For a variety of toxic substances, brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina) are usually used as a simple bioassay method and it is also applied for natural product research. The brine shrimp larvae (nauplii) are obtained by natural hatching method from Artemia cysts. By using the larvae, the results from these experiments lead to the lethal dose, LD 50 values of extracts of selected medicinal plants. Activities of a broad range of plant extracts are manifested as toxicity to the brine shrimp. Screening results with six plant extracts are compared with pure caffeine. This method is rapid, reliable, inexpensive and convenient. (author)

  18. Pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in sediments and organisms from Salina Cruz Port, Oaxaca, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botello, A.V.; Villanueva, S.; Diaz, G.; Pica, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The presence and levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in [sediments and biota from the Port of Salina Cruz, Oaxaca; were evaluated by means of gas capillary chromatography using columns of high resolution. The results show a seasonal variability of the PAH's concentrations in sediments being higher in the port area and lower in oceanic sediments. The increase of the PAH's levels in Crassostrea iridiscens and Penaeus stylirostris is important and related to the bioaccumulation process. The presence of PAH's conformed by 4 y 5 benzene rings in these species must be noted specially because they have carcinogenic properties and their effects on the local fisheries should be considered. (Author)

  19. Fine structure and function of the alimentary epithelium in Artemia salina nauplii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hootman, S R; Conte, F P

    1974-01-01

    The fine structure of the alimentary tract in the second instar nauplius of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina, has been described. The foregut and hindgut of the larva are composed of cuboidal epithelium which is cuticularized. The epithelium of the midgut and gastric caeca is columnar and is characterized by apical microvilli, basal membrane infolds, and abundant mitochondria. The structural characteristics of the midgut cells correlate with previous physiological and biochemical evidence on both adult and larval brine shrimp which indicates that the midgut plays an important role in absorption and osmoregulation in these animals.

  20. Feeding adult of Artemia salina (Crustacea-Branchiopoda on the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium corsicum (Gymnodiniales and the Chryptophyta Rhodomonas baltica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauquírio André Albuquerque Marinho da Costa

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out on feeding performance and survival rates of adult Artemia salina exposed to no axenic strains of the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium corsicum and of the Chryptophyta Rhodomonas baltica. Filtration rates on R. baltica and G. corsicum varied from 3.35 to 7.14 ml.artemia-1.h-1 and from 2.97 to 15.86 ml.artemia-1.h-1, respectively. The ingestion rates observed for A. salina did not indicate any digestive dysfunction or physiological impairment for organisms fed on G. corsicum and their functional response were similar to those observed for other organisms like copepod fed on different food concentrations. Mortality rates oscillated from 2.5% to 100% when A. salina was fed on R. baltica or G. corsicum, respectively. Highest mortality rates observed for organisms fed on G. corsicum indicated that this dinoflagellate presented a hazard effect on A. salina that was not possible to confirm if it was related to toxin production or to nutritive inadequacy of this dinoflagellate as food for organisms of this species.Experimentos foram desenvolvidos para estudar as taxas de alimentação e de sobrevivência de Artemia salina alimentada com cepas não tóxicas do dinoflagelado Gyrodinium corsicum e da Chryptophyta Rhodomonas baltica. As taxas de filtração sobre R. baltica e G. corsicum variaram entre 3,35 e 7,14 ml.artemia-1.h-1 e 2,97 e 15,86 ml.artemia-1.h-, respectivamente. As taxas de ingestão observadas para A. salina não indicaram disfunção digestiva ou prejuízo fisiológico nos organismos alimentados com G. corsicum, sendo a resposta funcional destes organismos similar a observada em copépodos alimentados com diferentes concentrações de alimento. As taxas de mortalidade de A. salina oscilaram entre 2,5 e 100% quando alimentada com R. baltica e G. corsicum, respectivamente. As maiores taxas de mortalidade observadas para os organismos alimentados com G. corsicum indicam que este dinoflagelado apresenta algum efeito

  1. California's Central Valley Groundwater Study: A Powerful New Tool to Assess Water Resources in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Hanson, Randall T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Rogers, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    Competition for water resources is growing throughout California, particularly in the Central Valley. Since 1980, the Central Valley's population has nearly doubled to 3.8 million people. It is expected to increase to 6 million by 2020. Statewide population growth, anticipated reductions in Colorado River water deliveries, drought, and the ecological crisis in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have created an intense demand for water. Tools and information can be used to help manage the Central Valley aquifer system, an important State and national resource.

  2. Interference from ordinarily used solvents in the outcomes of Artemia salina lethality test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahgal Geethaa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol, ethanol, Tween 20 and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO are widely used as dissolving agents in Artemia salina lethality test (aka brine shrimp lethality test [BSLT] to screen the pharmaceutical properties of natural products. Nevertheless, there is lack of toxicity level of these solvents against brine shrimp. High concentration of these organic solvent might be toxic for this zoology invertebrate and interfere in the experimental outcomes. To avoid this, permissible concentration of the solvents used in BSLT was identified. BSLT was performed to evaluate the toxicity effect of Tween 20, methanol, ethanol and DMSO at 24 h post-treatment time point against A. salina. The suggested maximum working concentration (v/v for DMSO, methanol, ethanol was found to be 1.25% and that for Tween 20 was 0.16%. LC 50 for the solvents were 8.5% (DMSO, 6.4% (methanol, 3.4% (ethanol and 2.5% (Tween 20. The findings have shown a toxicity level among the solvents in descending order as Tween 20 > ethanol > methanol > DMSO. DMSO is a safer solvent to be used in BSLT compared with other tested solvents, whereas Tween 20 has been shown to be the most stringent solvent among the tested solvents. The findings are resourcefully useful to avoid interference of solvents in the assessment of natural products using BSLT.

  3. Cytotoxicity evaluation of gold nanoparticles on microalga Dunaliella salina in microplate test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumakov, Daniil; Prilepskii, Artur; Dykman, Lev; Khlebtsov, Boris; Khlebtsov, Nikolai; Bogatyrev, Vladimir

    2018-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles are intensively studied in biomedicine. Assessment of their biocompatibility is highly important. Currently there is lack of evidence, concerning nanotoxicity of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles < 5 nm. Existing data are rather contradictory. The aim of that study was to evaluate the toxicity of 2 nm colloidal gold, using microalga Dunaliella salina. Cellular barriers of that microalga are very similar to animal cells so it might be considered as a valuable model for nanotoxicity testing. Chlorophyll content as a test-function was used. Spectrophotometric method for chlorophyll determination in vivo in suspensions of D.salina cultures was applied. Calculated EC50 48h value of ionic gold was 25.8 +/- 0.3 mg Au/L. EC50 value of phosphine-stabilized gold nanoclusters was 32.2 +/-1.1 mg Au/L. It was not possible to calculate EC50 for 15 nm citrate gold nanoparticles, as they were non-toxic at all concentrations tested. These results are confirmed by fluorescent -microscopic monitoring of the same probes. It was shown that 10-fold growth of phosphine-stabilized gold nanoparticles (from 2.3 +/- 0.9 nm to 21.1 +/- 7.5 nm) led to 7-fold decrease of their toxicity.

  4. Evaluation of hydrologic conditions and nitrate concentrations in the Rio Nigua de Salinas alluvial fan aquifer, Salinas, Puerto Rico, 2002-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2006-01-01

    A ground-water quality study to define the potential sources and concentration of nitrate in the Rio Nigua de Salinas alluvial fan aquifer was conducted between January 2002 and March 2003. The study area covers about 3,600 hectares of the coastal plain within the municipality of Salinas in southern Puerto Rico, extending from the foothills to the Caribbean Sea. Agriculture is the principal land use and includes cultivation of diverse crops, turf grass, bioengineered crops for seed production, and commercial poultry farms. Ground-water withdrawal in the alluvial fan was estimated to be about 43,500 cubic meters per day, of which 49 percent was withdrawn for agriculture, 42 percent for public supply, and 9 percent for industrial use. Ground-water flow in the study area was primarily to the south and toward a cone of depression within the south-central part of the alluvial fan. The presence of that cone of depression and a smaller one located in the northeastern quadrant of the study area may contribute to the increase in nitrate concentration within a total area of about 545 hectares by 'recycling' ground water used for irrigation of cultivated lands. In an area that covers about 405 hectares near the center of the Salinas alluvial fan, nitrate concentrations increased from 0.9 to 6.7 milligrams per liter as nitrogen in 1986 to 8 to 12 milligrams per liter as nitrogen in 2002. Principal sources of nitrate in the study area are fertilizers (used in the cultivated farmlands) and poultry farm wastes. The highest nitrogen concentrations were found at poultry farms in the foothills area. In the area of disposed poultry farm wastes, nitrate concentrations in ground water ranged from 25 to 77 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Analyses for the stable isotope ratios of nitrogen-15/nitrogen-14 in nitrate were used to distinguish the source of nitrate in the coastal plain alluvial fan aquifer. Potential nitrate loads from areas under cultivation were estimated for the

  5. Abelhas (Hymenoptera: apoidea visitantes das flores de goiaba em pomar comercial in Salinas, MG Bee diversity in a commercial guava orchard in Salinas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire Alves Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As abelhas são responsáveis por cerca de 80% a 100% da polinização de culturas agrícolas, especialmente aquelas relacionadas com a produção de sementes e frutos. A investigação da diversidade de abelhas em pomares de goiaba pode ser subsídio para estratégias de incremento da produtividade. Nesta perspectiva, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de goiaba (Psidium guajava, em pomar comercial em Salinas (MG. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em maio de 2005 e foram coletadas as abelhas visitantes das flores nos horários entre 6h e 18h, totalizando-se 44 horas de coleta. Coletaram-se 705 abelhas de 17 espécies, sendo Trigona spinipes a mais freqüente e dominante na cultura da goiaba. Apis mellifera, Melipona quadrifasciata e Tetragonisca angustula foram consideradas acessórias. Aproximadamente 84% dos indivíduos foram coletados da manhã, de 6h às 10h.Pollination is an important factor in agricultural systems, especially in growing fruits and seed production, which depend greatly on bee visiting during blossom season; highly successful gains within these activities varies between 80 and nearly 100 per cent, owing to the bees. The assessment of bee diversity in commercial orchards of guava may contribute to a more desirable strategic design and consequent improvement of production. The aim of the study was identify the diversity of visiting bees to guava flowers (Psidium guajava in a commercial orchard in Salinas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The work was carried during blossom season of May - 2005. Field works occurred between 6:00 am to 6:00 pm, counting with 44 hours of collection, when 705 bees were collected. The richness observed was of 17 species, the most frequent and dominant being Trigona spinipes. Among the collection there were some considered accessory species: Apis mellifera, Melipona quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula. Most of individual bees have been captured

  6. Effect of mixing rate on Beta-carotene production and extraction by dunaliella salina in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.; Andrysiewicz, E.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    beta-Carotene has many applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries; Dunaliella salina is currently the main source for natural beta-carotene. We have investigated the effect of mixing rate and whether it leads to the facilitated release of beta-carotene from the cells of

  7. Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Coachella Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Coachella study area is approximately 820 square miles (2,124 square kilometers) and includes the Coachella Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Coachella Valley has an arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The runoff from the surrounding mountains drains to rivers that flow east and south out of the study area to the Salton Sea. Land use in the study area is approximately 67 percent (%) natural, 21% agricultural, and 12% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban areas are the cities of Indio and Palm Springs (2010 populations of 76,000 and 44,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Coachella Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Coachella Valley are completed to depths between 490 and 900 feet (149 to 274 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 260 to 510 feet (79 to 155 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to

  8. Analysis of toxicity of Anacardium occidentale L. extract submitted to ionizing radiation on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Lima, Claudia S.A.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Ribeiro, Luanna R.S.; Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B.

    2013-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation as a sterilization method for herbs, herbal medicines and foods, shows positive results regarding the retention of such products, economy and safety of the method. However, it is known that this method of processing plant material can cause chemical changes in these products related to the type of material, its components and the dose received. Evaluated, in the present study, the action of gamma radiation as a modifier of toxicity extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. To evaluate the toxicity of the extract irradiated at doses of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy and concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L was used bioassays with Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata. For the test to A. salina, 520 specimens were used divided into groups of 10 larvae. For the bioassay with B. glabrata, 3900 specimens were used divided into groups of, approximately, 100 embryos. Larvae of A. salina and embryos were subjected to extracts irradiated and unirradiated for 24 hours. The bioassay with A. salina, showed a decrease, compared to extract unirradiated and irradiated at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 kGy, of extract irradiated with 10 kGy, where the mortality did not differ from the control group. In tests with embryos was observed an increase in the toxicity of the extract at a dose of 7.5 kGy and a decrease in the dose of 10.0 kGy. The radiation promoted changes in the toxicity of leaves extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn. on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina. (author)

  9. Analysis of toxicity of Anacardium occidentale L. extract submitted to ionizing radiation on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Lima, Claudia S.A.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: hiannaamfs@gmail.com, E-mail: luismuma6@gmail.com, E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.com, E-mail: amancioff@bol.com.br, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Ribeiro, Luanna R.S.; Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B., E-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com, E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia

    2013-07-01

    The use of gamma radiation as a sterilization method for herbs, herbal medicines and foods, shows positive results regarding the retention of such products, economy and safety of the method. However, it is known that this method of processing plant material can cause chemical changes in these products related to the type of material, its components and the dose received. Evaluated, in the present study, the action of gamma radiation as a modifier of toxicity extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. To evaluate the toxicity of the extract irradiated at doses of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy and concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L was used bioassays with Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata. For the test to A. salina, 520 specimens were used divided into groups of 10 larvae. For the bioassay with B. glabrata, 3900 specimens were used divided into groups of, approximately, 100 embryos. Larvae of A. salina and embryos were subjected to extracts irradiated and unirradiated for 24 hours. The bioassay with A. salina, showed a decrease, compared to extract unirradiated and irradiated at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 kGy, of extract irradiated with 10 kGy, where the mortality did not differ from the control group. In tests with embryos was observed an increase in the toxicity of the extract at a dose of 7.5 kGy and a decrease in the dose of 10.0 kGy. The radiation promoted changes in the toxicity of leaves extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn. on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina. (author)

  10. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  11. Groundwater availability of the Central Valley Aquifer, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.

    2009-01-01

    California's Central Valley covers about 20,000 square miles and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. More than 250 different crops are grown in the Central Valley with an estimated value of $17 billion per year. This irrigated agriculture relies heavily on surface-water diversions and groundwater pumpage. Approximately one-sixth of the Nation's irrigated land is in the Central Valley, and about one-fifth of the Nation's groundwater demand is supplied from its aquifers. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California's expanding urban population. Since 1980, the population of the Central Valley has nearly doubled from 2 million to 3.8 million people. The Census Bureau projects that the Central Valley's population will increase to 6 million people by 2020. This surge in population has increased the competition for water resources within the Central Valley and statewide, which likely will be exacerbated by anticipated reductions in deliveries of Colorado River water to southern California. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conservation of agricultural land, conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS Groundwater Resources Program made a detailed assessment of groundwater availability of the Central Valley aquifer system, that includes: (1) the present status of groundwater resources; (2) how these resources have changed over time; and (3) tools to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate variability and change. This effort builds on previous investigations, such as the USGS Central Valley Regional Aquifer System and Analysis (CV-RASA) project and several other groundwater studies in the Valley completed by Federal, State and local agencies at differing scales. The

  12. IDENTIFIKASI DAN UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIKANKER EKSTRAK SPONS Ianthella basta TERHADAP LARVA Artemia salina L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Sri Sukmarianti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to determine the toxicity of extracts sponge Ianthella basta against Artemia salina larvae and to identify the chemical compounds contained in those toxic isolates. The preliminary test of the anticancer activity has conducted by Brine Shrimp Letalithy (BST test. The results showed that the chloroform extract was the most toxic with LC50 value of 22,39 ppm. Futher, the cloroform extract was separated and purified by coloumn chromatography using eluent of solvent mixture of chloroform : ethyl acetate : n-hexane by 7 : 2 : 1 and 4 fractions were obtained. The most toxic fraction was the fraction C with LC50 value of 35,36 ppm. Based on the GC-MS results, the toxic isolate is allegedly containing chemicals compound of hexadecanoic methyl ester and hexadecanoic acid.

  13. Altered lipid accumulation in Nannochloropsis salina CCAP849/3 following EMS and UV induced mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Beacham

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have potential as a chemical feed stock in a range of industrial applications. Nannochloropsis salina was subject to EMS mutagenesis and the highest lipid containing cells selected using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Assessment of growth, lipid content and fatty acid composition identified mutant strains displaying a range of altered traits including changes in the PUFA content and a total FAME increase of up to 156% that of the wild type strain. Combined with a reduction in growth this demonstrated a productivity increase of up to 76%. Following UV mutagenesis, lipid accumulation of the mutant cultures was elevated to more than 3 fold that of the wild type strain, however reduced growth rates resulted in a reduction in overall productivity. Changes observed are indicative of alterations to the regulation of the omega 6 Kennedy pathway. The importance of these variations in physiology for industrial applications such as biofuel production is discussed.

  14. First secondary metabolites from Herissantia crispa L (Brizicky) and the toxicity activity against Artemia salina Leach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Danielly Albuquerque da; Matias, Wemerson Neves; Lima, Igara Oliveira; Xavier, Aline Lira; Costa, Vivian Bruna Machado; Diniz, Margareth de Fatima Formiga Melo; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Batista, Leonia Maria; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica Prof. Delby Fernandes de Medeiros; Silva, Davi Antas e [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Serra Talhada, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Herissantia crispa led to the isolation of seven compounds, identified as: sitosterol 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (kaempferol), 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (quercetin), unpublished in the genus Herissantia, besides {beta}-sitosterol, kaempferol 3-O-{beta}-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroil) (tiliroside) glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3,7-di-O-{alpha}-L-ramnopyranoside (lespedin), described for the first time in the species. The structural determination of the compounds was made by means of spectroscopy methods such as Infrared Spectroscopy, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, with the aid of two dimensional techniques, and by comparison with literature data. The toxicity activity of the MeOH extract and lespedin on Artemia salina Leach. was also carried out. (author)

  15. Storage conditions affect oxidative stability and nutritional composition of freeze-dried Nannochloropsis salina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Langvad, Sten; Møller, Peter

    2017-01-01

    composition of microalgae biomass. In order to investigate the worsening of the nutritional quality of freeze dried biomass, a multifactorial storage experiment was conducted on a high EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) Nannochloropsis salina biomass. The storage time (0–56 days), storage temperature (5, 20,and 40...... °C and packaging conditions (under vacuum and ambient pressure)used as main factors. During the 56 days of storage, both time and temperature strongly influenced the oxidation reactions which result in deterioration of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, tocopherols, and EPA. Lipid deterioration......, or cosmetics requires the knowledge of the optimum storage conditions to prevent the value-added compounds from deterioration. Results of this study improve our understanding of the chemical deterioration under different storage conditions and can help the producers/customers to extend the shelf life...

  16. Preliminary results of the Artemia salina experiments in biostack on LDEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graul, E.H.; Ruether, W.; Hiendl, C.O.

    1992-01-01

    The mosaic egg of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina, resting in blastula or gastrula state represents a system that during further development, proceeds without any further development to the larval stage, the free swimming nauplius. Therefore, injury to a single cell of the egg will be manifest in the larvae. In several experiments, it was shown that the passage of a single heavy ion through the shrimp egg damaged a cellular area large enough to disturb either embryogenesis or further development of the larvae, or the integrity of the adult individual. Emergence from the egg shell was heavily disturbed by the heavy ions as was hatching. Additional late effects, due to a hit by a heavy ion, are delayed of growth and of sexual maturity, and reduced fertility. Anomalies in the body and the extremities could be observed more frequently for the nauplii which had developed from eggs hit by heavy ions

  17. Metabolic studies with NMR spectroscopy of the alga Dunaliella salina trapped within agarose beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bental, M; Pick, U; Avron, M; Degani, H

    1990-02-22

    A technique for the entrapment of the unicellular algae Dunaliella salina in agarose beads and their perfusion during NMR measurements is presented. The trapped cells maintained their ability to proliferate under normal growth conditions, and remained viable and stable under steady-state conditions for long periods during NMR measurements. Following osmotic shock in the dark, prominent changes were observed in the intracellular level of ATP and polyphosphates, but little to no changes in the intracellular pH or orthoposphate content. When cells were subjected to hyperosmotic shock, the ATP level decreased. The content of NMR-visible polyphosphates decreased as well, presumably due to the production of longer, NMR-invisible structures. Following hypoosmotic shock, the ATP content increased and longer polyphosphates were broken down to shorter, more mobile polymers.

  18. First secondary metabolites from Herissantia crispa L (Brizicky) and the toxicity activity against Artemia salina Leach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Danielly Albuquerque da; Matias, Wemerson Neves; Lima, Igara Oliveira; Xavier, Aline Lira; Costa, Vivian Bruna Machado; Diniz, Margareth de Fatima Formiga Melo; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Batista, Leonia Maria; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de; Silva, Davi Antas e

    2009-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Herissantia crispa led to the isolation of seven compounds, identified as: sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (kaempferol), 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (quercetin), unpublished in the genus Herissantia, besides β-sitosterol, kaempferol 3-O-β-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroil) (tiliroside) glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3,7-di-O-α-L-ramnopyranoside (lespedin), described for the first time in the species. The structural determination of the compounds was made by means of spectroscopy methods such as Infrared Spectroscopy, 1 H and 13 C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, with the aid of two dimensional techniques, and by comparison with literature data. The toxicity activity of the MeOH extract and lespedin on Artemia salina Leach. was also carried out. (author)

  19. Spatial scale and the diversity of benthic cyanobacteria and diatoms in a salina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nübel, U.; Garcia-Pichel, F.; Kühl, Michael

    1999-01-01

    We characterized the richness of benthic cyanobacteria and diatoms in a salina system using traditional and molecular biological methods. After determining the different morphotypes and 16S rRNA genes present in various localities within this hypersaline system, an analysis of the increase......, and for the estimation of the average degree of dissemination of community members within the system. We found interesting differences between analyses based on morphotypes or 16S rRNA genes. The cumulative number of rRNA gene sequences exceeded that of morphotypes by more than two-fold. This indicates that many...... organisms possessing distinct 16S rRNA gene sequences could not be distinguished on the basis of morphology. Thus, some of the apparently widely distributed morphotypes may in fact conceal several ecologically independent genotypes....

  20. Pastas de Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta como alimento para Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guevara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pastas de Rhodomonas salina, obtenidas mediante centrifugación y floculación con quitosano y preservadas con o sin vitamina C, a -20°C fueron evaluadas bioquímicamente y proporcionadas como alimento al rotífero Brachionus plicatilis. Las pastas microalgales: (1 centrifugada y con vitamina C (CV, (2 centrifugada y sin vitamina C (C, (3 floculada y con vitamina C (FV y (4 floculada y sin adición de vitamina C (F; mantuvieron sus contenidos de proteínas y lípidos totales similares al cultivo control, con valores de 40.0±2.32% y 12.0±1.45%, respectivamente. La relación feofitina a/clorofila a fue similar (0.09-0.11 entre las pastas centrifugadas y el cultivo control, pero mayor en las pastas floculadas (1.28-1.48. Las pastas centrifugadas presentaron porcentajes de PUFAs totales, EPA y DHA similares al cultivo control (PUFAs: 47%, EPA: 4% y DHA: 4.7% y superiores al de las pastas floculadas. Las pastas obtenidas por centrifugación indujeron un crecimiento del rotífero igual al obtenido con el alimento control (densidad máxima: 320rotíferos/mL; tasa instantánea de crecimiento: 0.23rotíferos/día, fecundidad: 1.49huevos/ hembra y productividad: 43x103rotíferos/L/día. Se concluye que la pasta de R. salina centrifugada y congelada a -20°C, durante cuatro semanas, sin adición de vitamina C, mantiene su calidad nutricional similar a la del alga fresca y puede ser usada como alimento de Brachionus plicatilis.

  1. Depositional environment, sand provenance, and diagenesis of the Basal Salina Formation (lower Eocene), northwestern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaglia, K. M.; Carozzi, A. V.

    The Basal Salina Formation is a lower Eocene transgressive sequence consisting of interbedded shales, siltstones, and conglomeratic sandstones. This formation occurs in the Talara basin of northwestern Peru and is one of a series of complexly faulted hydrocarbon-producing formations within this extensional forearc basin. These sediments were probably deposited in a fan-delta complex that developed along the ancestral Amotape Mountains during the early Eocene. Most of the sediment was derived from the low-grade metamorphic and plutonic rocks that comprise the Amotape Mountains, and their sedimentary cover. Detrital modes of these sandstones reflect the complex tectonic history of the area, rather than the overall forearc setting. Unlike most forearc sediments, these are highly quartzose, with only minor percentages of volcanic detritus. This sand is variably indurated and cemented by chlorite, quartz, calcite, and kaolinite. Clay-mineral matrix assemblages show gradational changes with depth, from primarily detrital kaolinite to diagenetic chlorite and mixed-layered illite/smectite. Basal Salina sandstones exhibit a paragenetic sequence that may be tied to early meteoric influx or late-stage influx of thermally driven brines associated with hydrocarbon migration. Much of the porosity is secondary, resulting from a first-stage dissolution of silicic constituents (volcanic lithic fragments, feldspar, and fibrous quartz) and a later dissolution of surrounding carbonate cement. Types of pores include skeletal grains, grain molds, elongate pores, and fracture porosity. Measured porosity values range up to 24% and coarser samples tend to be more porous. Permeability is enhanced by fractures and deterred by clay-mineral cements and alteration residues.

  2. Pastas de Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta como alimento para Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guevara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pastas de Rhodomonas salina, obtenidas mediante centrifugación y floculación con quitosano y preservadas con o sin vitamina C, a -20°C fueron evaluadas bioquímicamente y proporcionadas como alimento al rotífero Brachionus plicatilis. Las pastas microalgales: (1 centrifugada y con vitamina C (CV, (2 centrifugada y sin vitamina C (C, (3 floculada y con vitamina C (FV y (4 floculada y sin adición de vitamina C (F; mantuvieron sus contenidos de proteínas y lípidos totales similares al cultivo control, con valores de 40.0±2.32% y 12.0±1.45%, respectivamente. La relación feofitina a/clorofila a fue similar (0.09-0.11 entre las pastas centrifugadas y el cultivo control, pero mayor en las pastas floculadas (1.28-1.48. Las pastas centrifugadas presentaron porcentajes de PUFAs totales, EPA y DHA similares al cultivo control (PUFAs: 47%, EPA: 4% y DHA: 4.7% y superiores al de las pastas floculadas. Las pastas obtenidas por centrifugación indujeron un crecimiento del rotífero igual al obtenido con el alimento control (densidad máxima: 320rotíferos/mL; tasa instantánea de crecimiento: 0.23rotíferos/día, fecundidad: 1.49huevos/ hembra y productividad: 43x103rotíferos/L/día. Se concluye que la pasta de R. salina centrifugada y congelada a -20°C, durante cuatro semanas, sin adición de vitamina C, mantiene su calidad nutricional similar a la del alga fresca y puede ser usada como alimento de Brachionus plicatilis.Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta pastes as feed for Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera. Rotifers are an important live feed for first feeding larvae of many fish species. The use of concentrated algae cells in the mass culture of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (Brachionidae has opened new horizons for research on this organism. Pastes of Rhodomonas salina (Pyrenomonadaceae obtained either by centrifugation or flocculation with chitosan were preserved, with or without vitamin C, at -20°C for four weeks and were evaluated

  3. High-EPA Biomass from Nannochloropsis salina Cultivated in a Flat-Panel Photo-Bioreactor on a Process Water-Enriched Growth Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Hass, Michael Z.; Møller, Per

    2016-01-01

    salina biomass, with a focus on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Variations in fatty acid composition, lipids, protein, amino acids, tocopherols and pigments were studied and results compared to algae cultivated on F/2 media as reference. Mixed growth media and process water enhanced the nutritional quality...... of Nannochloropsis salina in laboratory scale when compared to algae cultivated in standard F/2 medium. Data from laboratory scale translated to the large scaleusing a 4000 L flat panel photo-bioreactor system. The algae growth rate in winter conditions in Denmark was slow, but results revealed that large...... after 21 days of cultivation. Variations in chemical compositions of Nannochloropsis salina were studied during the course of cultivation. Nannochloropsis salina can be presented as a good candidate for winter time cultivation in Denmark.The resulting biomass is a rich source of EPA and also a good...

  4. Analysis of impact of temperature and saltwater on Nannochloropsis salina bio-oil production by ultra high resolution APCI FT-ICR MS

    KAUST Repository

    Sanguineti, Michael Mario; Hourani, Nadim; Witt, Matthí as; Sarathy, Mani; Thomsen, Laurenz A.; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    Concentrated Nannochloropsis salina paste was reconstituted in distilled water and synthetic saltwater and processed at 250°C and 300°C via hydrothermal liquefaction. The resulting bio-oils yielded a diverse distribution of product classes

  5. Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Kai

    2016-02-29

    In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge or spin. Interest in valleytronics has been revived in recent years following the discovery of atomically thin materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides. However, the valley coherence time—a crucial quantity for valley pseudospin manipulation—is difficult to directly probe. In this work, we use two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy to resonantly generate and detect valley coherence of excitons (Coulomb-bound electron–hole pairs) in monolayer WSe2 (refs ,). The imposed valley coherence persists for approximately one hundred femtoseconds. We propose that the electron–hole exchange interaction provides an important decoherence mechanism in addition to exciton population recombination. This work provides critical insight into the requirements and strategies for optical manipulation of the valley pseudospin for future valleytronics applications.

  6. Prospecção fitoquímica de Sonchus oleraceus e sua toxicidade sobre o microcrustáceo Artemia salina Phytochemical prospecting of Sonchus oleraceus and its toxicity to Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Lima

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A espécie vegetal Sonchus oleraceus é uma planta daninha presente em diversas culturas no Brasil e de utilização na medicina popular. Neste trabalho, realizou-se a prospecção fitoquímica dessa espécie com extratos em etanol, água e diclorometano, bem como testes de toxicidade sobre o microcrustáceo Artemia salina. O extrato aquoso apresentou em sua composição açúcares redutores, compostos fenólicos, taninos, flavonóides e cumarinas. No extrato etanólico, observaram-se os mesmos compostos qualificados no extrato aquoso, com exceção de cumarinas. Em diclorometano, verificou se a presença de saponinas, derivados triterpênicos e esteróides. No teste de toxicidade sobre Artemia salina, os dados convergiram para frações de extrato aquoso de 5.117,2 ppm, indicando ser um extrato de baixa toxicidade.Sonchus oleraceus is a common weed in Brazil, also used as a medicinal plant. Phytochemical prospecting of this species was carried out in this work using extracts obtained in ethanol, water and dichloromethane. A toxicity study of the aqueous extract was also conducted, using the micro crustaceous Artemia salina. The aqueous extract presented sugar reducers, phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids and coumarins in its composition. The compounds found in the aqueous extract were also detected in the ethanol extract, except for the coumarins. Saponin, triterpenes and steroids were identified in the dichloromethane extract. The toxicity test on Artemia salina pointed to aqueous extract fractions of 5,117.2 ppm, indicative of low toxicity.

  7. The impact of local extinction on genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus in the Central Valley of Costa Rica: consequences for the conservation of plant genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barrantes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant populations may experience local extinction and at the same time new populations may appear in nearby suitable locations. Species may also colonize the same site on multiple occasions. Here, we examined the impact of local extinction and recolonization on the genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus in the Central valley of Costa Rica. We compared genetic diversity from the samples taken from the populations before and after extinction at 13 locations using microsatellite markers. Locations were classified according to the occurrence of extinction episodes during the previous five years into three groups: 1 populations that experienced extinction for more than one year, and were later recolonized (recolonized, 2 populations that did not experience local extinction (control, and 3 populations that did not experience local extinction during the study, but were cut to experimentally simulate extinction (experimental. Our data did not show a clear tendency in variation in allele frequencies, expected heterozygosity, and effective number of alleles within and between groups of populations. However, we found that the level of genetic differentiation between samples collected at different times at the same location was different in the three groups of populations. Recolonized locations showed the highest level of genetic differentiation (mean Fst= 0.2769, followed by control locations (mean Fst= 0.0576 and experimental locations (mean Fst= 0.0189. Similar findings were observed for Nei’s genetic distance between samples (di,j= 0.1786, 0.0400, and 0.0037, respectively. Our results indicate that genetic change in lima beans depends on the duration and frequency of local extinction episodes. These findings also showed that control populations are not in equilibrium. Implications of these results for the establishment of conservation strategies of genetic resources of lima beans are discussed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3

  8. Different strategies of osmoadaptation in the closely related marine myxobacteria Enhygromyxa salina SWB007 and Plesiocystis pacifica SIR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Moghaddam, Jamshid; Boehringer, Nils; Burdziak, Amal; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Galinski, Erwin A; Schäberle, Till F

    2016-02-03

    Only a few myxobacteria are known to date which are classified as marine due to their salt-dependency. In this study, the salt tolerance mechanism of these bacteria was investigated. Therefore, a growth medium was designed, in which the mutated Escherichia coli strain BKA13 served as sole food source for the predatory, heterotrophic myxobacteria. This enabled measurement of the osmolytes without any background and revealed that the closely related strains Enhygromyxa salina SWB007 and Plesiocystis pacifica SIR-1 developed different strategies to handle salt stress. P. pacifica SIR-1, which was grown between 1-4 % NaCl, relies solely on the accumulation of amino acids, while E. salina SWB007, which was grown between 0.5-3 % NaCl, employs, beside betaine, hydroxyectoine as the major compatible solute. In accordance with this analysis, only in the latter strain a gene locus was identified which codes for genes corresponding to the biosynthesis of betaine, ectoine, and hydroxyectoine.

  9. Biotechnological potential of Synechocystis salina co-cultures with selected microalgae and cyanobacteria: Nutrients removal, biomass and lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ana L; Pires, José C M; Simões, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Cultivation of microalgae and cyanobacteria has been the focus of several research studies worldwide, due to the huge biotechnological potential of these photosynthetic microorganisms. However, production of these microorganisms is still not economically viable. One possible alternative to improve the economic feasibility of the process is the use of consortia between microalgae and/or cyanobacteria. In this study, Chlorella vulgaris, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Microcystis aeruginosa were co-cultivated with Synechocystis salina to evaluate how dual-species cultures can influence biomass and lipid production and nutrients removal. Results have shown that the three studied consortia achieved higher biomass productivities than the individual cultures. Additionally, nitrogen and phosphorus consumption rates by the consortia provided final concentrations below the values established by European Union legislation for these nutrients. In the case of lipid productivities, higher values were determined when S. salina was co-cultivated with P. subcapitata and M. aeruginosa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Approaches about prescriptions and corporal practices in schools in Pirapora, Januária and Salinas (1906-1927

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISÂNGELA CHAVES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The text analyses the proposal of the corporal education in schools in the north of Minas Gerais during 1906 and 1927, especially in Pirapora, januária and Salinas. As main source, the research made use of oral reports and other documents directly related to school memory to understand how physical activities were realized as habit and attitude-forming, in a historic moment in which Brazil used to cherish the modernizing speech.

  11. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga,Pablo; Pérez,Karen R.; Cruz,Sully M.; Cáceres,Armando

    2010-01-01

    Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest) and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest), were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex ...

  12. 97 Etude éco-biologique d'Artémia salina des zones humides de l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grenelle

    l'aviculture de poissons marins [1]. En Algérie, les travaux effectués sur ce crustacé sont relativement rares. Dans le présent ..... dépassent pour certains les normes établies par l'OMS, ce qui peut provoquer le comportement et la dynamique de la reproduction de l'Artémia salina, sans oublier aussi l'action anthropique qui ...

  13. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National Park, Inyo... an Environmental Impact Statement for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan, Death Valley... analysis process for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death Valley [[Page 33238...

  14. Desenvolvimento de mudas de pinhão-manso irrigadas com água salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Santos Matos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de água salina na irrigação torna-se importante alternativa diante daescassez de água de boa qualidade em todo o mundo. O pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L. possui baixa exigência hídrica, sobrevive e apresenta produção satisfatória em solos de baixa fertilidade. No entanto, a sua produção é maior em cultivos irrigados, o que reforça a necessidade de desenvolvimento de pesquisas para uso de água salina. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação nas características morfofisiológicas de mudas de pinhão-manso. Para isso, foi conduzido experimento em casa de vegetação com interceptação de 50 % da radiação solar, localizada na Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Ipameri, Goiás. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos com capacidade de 4 L de solo, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. As plantas foram irrigadas diariamente com 150 mL de água não salina, durante os 30 primeiros dias após a germinação das sementes. Do 31º ao 50º dia, as plantas foram submetidas a quatro tratamentos: plantas diariamente irrigadas com água de condutividade elétrica igual a 0,5; 8; 16 e 24 dS m-1. Aos 50 dias após a germinação, analisaram-se as seguintes características nas mudas de pinhão-manso: número de folhas; altura de planta; diâmetro de ramo; teor relativo de água; área foliar; clorofila total; razões de massa radicular, massa caulinar, massa foliar e parte aérea/sistema radicular; e biomassa total. Os resultados evidenciaram que as mudas de pinhão-manso irrigadas com água de condutividade elétrica 8 dS m-1 não apresentaram redução do crescimento vegetativo. Todavia, a água de irrigação com condutividade elétrica 16 dS m-1 causou redução no crescimento vegetativo e elevou a senescência e abscisão foliar. Água com condutividade elétrica elétrica de pinhão-manso na fase de mudas.

  15. Identifying primary stressors impacting macroinvertebrates in the Salinas River (California, USA): Relative effects of pesticides and suspended particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.S.; Phillips, B.M.; Hunt, J.W.; Connor, V.; Richard, N.; Tjeerdema, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory dose-response experiments with organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides, and dose-response experiments with increasing particle loads were used to determine which of these stressors were likely responsible for the toxicity and macroinvertebrate impacts previously observed in the Salinas River. Experiments were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the baetid mayfly Procloeon sp., and the midge Chironomus dilutus (Shobanov, formerly Chironomus tentans). The results indicate the primary stressor impacting H. azteca was pesticides, including chlorpyrifos and permethrin. The mayfly Procloeon sp. was sensitive to chlorpyrifos and permethrin within the range of concentrations of these pesticides measured in the river. Chironomus dilutus were sensitive to chlorpyrifos within the ranges of concentrations measured in the river. None of the species tested were affected by turbidity as high as 1000 NTUs. The current study shows that pesticides are more important acute stressors of macroinvertebrates than suspended sediments in the Salinas River. - Pesticides are the primary stressor impacting macroinvertebrates in sections of the lower Salinas River

  16. Identifying primary stressors impacting macroinvertebrates in the Salinas River (California, USA): Relative effects of pesticides and suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B.S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: anderson@ucdavis.edu; Phillips, B.M. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hunt, J.W. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Connor, V. [Division of Water Quality, State Water Resources Control Board, 1001 I. Street, Sacramento, CA 95814 (United States); Richard, N. [Division of Water Quality, State Water Resources Control Board, 1001 I. Street, Sacramento, CA 95814 (United States); Tjeerdema, R.S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Laboratory dose-response experiments with organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides, and dose-response experiments with increasing particle loads were used to determine which of these stressors were likely responsible for the toxicity and macroinvertebrate impacts previously observed in the Salinas River. Experiments were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the baetid mayfly Procloeon sp., and the midge Chironomus dilutus (Shobanov, formerly Chironomus tentans). The results indicate the primary stressor impacting H. azteca was pesticides, including chlorpyrifos and permethrin. The mayfly Procloeon sp. was sensitive to chlorpyrifos and permethrin within the range of concentrations of these pesticides measured in the river. Chironomus dilutus were sensitive to chlorpyrifos within the ranges of concentrations measured in the river. None of the species tested were affected by turbidity as high as 1000 NTUs. The current study shows that pesticides are more important acute stressors of macroinvertebrates than suspended sediments in the Salinas River. - Pesticides are the primary stressor impacting macroinvertebrates in sections of the lower Salinas River.

  17. Metabolic responses and β-carotene production by the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina exposed to leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Einali

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present work investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus globulus and elderberry ( Sambucus ebulus leaves on β-carotene productivity in Dunaliella salina, a green microalga. Leaf extracts from eucalyptus have greater amounts of phenolics and flavonoids, as well as greater ferric reducing antioxidant potential than elderberry. The extracts of both species greatly inhibited growth of algal suspensions. However, chlorophyll and β-carotene concentration increased in cells treated with leaf extracts, and the highest values were detected in 1 % eucalyptus and 2 % elderberry extracts. Fresh weight, total sugar, and protein content significantly increased following exposure of cells to different doses of leaf extracts. However, in doses containing more than 2 % eucalyptus, the upward trend for total sugar and protein ceased and remained statistically unchanged. These results suggest that metabolic modifications enable D. salina cells to tolerate the stress induced by the leaf extracts through allocating carbon flux to the synthesis of osmolytes and putative antioxidant molecules (e.g. sugars and β-carotene. Therefore, the use of leaf extracts holds potential to be a promising and effective way to improve D. salina cultivation for β-carotene production and other biotechnological and industrial applications.

  18. Arqueología de un espacio habitado, trabajado y defendido. El sistema fortificado de Salinas de Añana (Álava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plata Montero, Alberto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The stratigraphic analysis of the wall of the village of Salinas de Añana (Álava together with the excavations within its fortified area have offered a lot of information about the evolution of its built environment from the Early Medieval period until now. This research paper consists of two parts. Main recorded phases obtained thanks to the archaeological work are firstly described. Comprehension of spatial order resulted after the foundation of a village at the beginnings of the 12th century and the gathering of several hamlets that since the Late Antiquity populated, worked and defended the Valle Salado, is exposed in the second part. In order to understand this process, space syntax analysis, methodology developed within English scientific context, has been applied, showing an special attention to those instruments which enable to determine a global pattern of settlements (Alpha analysis, because this pattern links the social logic of space with the spatial logic of the society that created it.La lectura estratigráfica de la muralla de la villa alavesa de Salinas de Añana, así como la ejecución de excavaciones en su recinto fortificado, nos han proporcionado abundante información sobre la evolución de su paisaje construido desde la Alta Edad Media hasta la actualidad. La investigación que presentamos se divide en dos partes. En la primera, describimos las principales fases documentadas durante la intervención arqueológica. En la segunda, nos hemos centrado en comprender el ordenamiento espacial resultante tras el proceso de fundación de una villa creada a principios del siglo XII en la que, además, se agruparon las distintas comunidades aldeanas que desde la Tardoantigüedad habitaban, trabajaban y defendían el Valle Salado. Para ello, hemos empleado la metodología del «Análisis Sintáctico del Espacio» desarrollada en el mundo anglosajón, prestando una especial atención a las herramientas dirigidas a determinar el patr

  19. The California Valley grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Schoenherr, Allan A.

    1990-01-01

    Grasslands are distributed throughout California from Oregon to Baja California Norte and from the coast to the desert (Brown 1982) (Figure 1). This review will focus on the dominant formation in cismontane California, a community referred to as Valley Grassland (Munz 1959). Today, Valley Grassland is dominated by non-native annual grasses in genera such as Avena (wild oat), Bromus (brome grass), and Hordeum (barley), and is often referred to as the California annual grassland. On localized sites, native perennial bunchgrasses such as Stipa pultra (purple needle grass) may dominate and such sites are interpreted to be remnants of the pristine valley grassland. In northwestern California a floristically distinct formation of the Valley Grassland, known as Coast Prairie (Munz 1959) or Northern Coastal Grassland (Holland and Keil 1989) is recognized. The dominant grasses include many native perennial bunchgrasses in genera such as Agrostis, Calamagrostis, Danthonia, Deschampsia, Festuca, Koeleria and Poa (Heady et al. 1977). Non-native annuals do not dominate, but on some sites non-native perennials like Anthoxanthum odoratum may colonize the native grassland (Foin and Hektner 1986). Elevationally, California's grasslands extend from sea level to at leas 1500 m. The upper boundary is vague because montane grassland formations are commonly referred to as meadows; a community which Munz (1959) does not recognize. Holland and Keil (1989) describe the montane meadow as an azonal community; that is, a community restricted not so much to a particular climatic zone but rather controlled by substrate characteristics. They consider poor soil-drainage an over-riding factor in the development of montane meadows and, in contrast to grasslands, meadows often remain green through the summer drought. Floristically, meadows are composed of graminoids; Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and rhizomatous grasses such as Agropyron (wheat grass). Some bunchgrasses, such as Muhlenbergia rigens, are

  20. [Immunocytochemical studies on the phase of differentiation of hatching gland cells in brine shrimp, Artemia salina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Fan, Ting Jun; Wang, Xiao Feng; Cong, Ri Shan; Yu, Qiu Tao; Zhong, Qi Wang

    2004-04-01

    Hatching enzyme (HE), synthesized in hatching gland cells (HGCs), plays vital roles in animal hatching. Immunocytochemical techniques employing anti-GST-UVS.2 antiserum, prepared from Xenopus HE and with specificity to brine shrimp HE, were first used to investigate the differentiation and variability of hatching gland cells (HGCs) in the hatching process of embryos of brine shrimp, Artemia salina, in this study. HGCs with immunoreactivity to anti-GST-UVS.2 antiserum were identified, for the first time, in brine shrimp embryos during hatching process. Immunocytochemical staining results showed that, (1) HE-positive immunoreactivity is really specific to Artemia HE, and its appearance and disappearance are closely correlated with the hatching process of Artemia salina. (2) Artemia HGCs, first appeared in embryos 5 hours before hatching and disappeared 4 hours after hatching, were also a transient type of cells, with an existence period of 9 hours. (3) The head portion of Artemia embryo is probably the initial position of HE secretion, and likely to be the main position of HE secretion as well. The detailed process and mechanism need to be studied. (4) The appearance of HGCs is in a synchronous mode from places all over the embryos, and their disappearance is also in a synchronous mode. (5) The number of HGCs increased gradually along with embryo development process and reached a maximum number at hatching. Contrarily, the number of HGCs decreased gradually after hatching, and HGCs disappeared 5 hours after hatching. However, the intensity of HE-positive reaction was almost at the same level at the period of HGCs'presence. (6) Artemia HGCs were distributed throughout the body of embryos at all time during their presence. Therefore, it can concluded that Artemia HGCs, as a transient type of cells, first appeared in embryos 4 hours before hatching and disappeared in embryos 5 hours after hatching, and with distinguished patterns of appearance, disappearance and

  1. Effect of salinity on metal mobility in Sečovlje salina sediment (northern Adriatic, Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač, N.; Ramšak, T.; Glavaš, N.; Dolenec, M.; Rogan Šmuc, N.

    2016-12-01

    Saline sediment (saline healing mud or "fango") from the Sečovlje Salina (northern Adriatic, Slovenia) is traditionally used in the coastal health resorts as a virgin material for medical treatment, wellness and relax purposes. Therapeutic qualities of the healing mud depend on its mineralogical composition and physical, mineralogical, geochemical and biological properties. Their microbial and potentially toxic elements contamination are the most important features affecting user safety. However, the degree of metal toxicity (and its regulation) for natural healing mud is still under discussion. Therefore, the influence of the overlying water salinity on the mobility of heavy metals (and some other geochemical characteristic) was studied for saline sediments of the Sečovlje Salina. Experiments takes place in tanks under defined conditions i.e. at day (21 °C): night (16 °C) cycle for three months. Sediment was covered with water of different salinities (36, 155, 323 g NaCl L-1 and distillate water) and mixed/stirred every week during the experimental period. At the same time, the evaporated water was replaced with distilled water. The mud samples were analyzed, at the beginning and at the end of experiment, for mineral (XRD), elemental composition (ICP-MS) and organic content (% TOC, % TN). Geochemical analysis of the aqueous phase (content of cations and anions) have also been carried out in an accredited Canadian laboratory Actlabs (Activation Laboratories, Canada). Salinity and maturation of sediment does not significantly affect its mineral composition. The samples taken at the end of the experiment have higher percent of water but lower organic carbon concentration. Concentrations of investigated elements are comparable to that in surface sediments from Central Adriatic Sea. In the water phase, concentrations of most elements (As, Ba, Cu, Mo, Mn, Ni, Sr, Sb) rise from the beginning to the end of the experiment, whereas the metal (potentially toxic elements

  2. Rift Valley Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Amy

    2017-06-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe veterinary disease of livestock that also causes moderate to severe illness in people. The life cycle of RVF is complex and involves mosquitoes, livestock, people, and the environment. RVF virus is transmitted from either mosquitoes or farm animals to humans, but is generally not transmitted from person to person. People can develop different diseases after infection, including febrile illness, ocular disease, hemorrhagic fever, or encephalitis. There is a significant risk for emergence of RVF into new locations, which would affect human health and livestock industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Un carnaval para el yo lésbico: Los cuentos de Gilda Salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Madrigal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilda Salinas rompe las unidades cuentísticas tradicionales al hacer de cada texto de Del destete al desempance. Cuentos lésbicos y un colado un episodio en la vida de una lesbiana que, con “voz propia”, narra sus peripecias nocturnas por la ciudad de México, de los años setenta a la actualidad. Al ubicar las acciones en sitios de diversión lésbica que no existen más, la voz, cual cronista, rescata un ámbito de la vida homosexual a la vez que fija bromas y códigos lingüísticos que por su origen oral hubieran corrido el riesgo de perderse con las generaciones que los animaron. Sus estrategias carnavalizan el tema lésbico a la vez que legitiman la validez de las búsquedas expresivas y de comportamiento del ser lesbiana en un tiempo y en un lugar. Su aportación en los planos del género literario y de la formación de constantes en la narrativa homosexual mexicana indudablemente enriquece los medios expresivos, la visibilidad, la diversidad, las vidas y las historias de la y las lesbianas.

  4. Geology of the Delta, Escalante, Price, Richfield, and Salina 10 x 20 quadrangles, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, P.A.

    1981-11-01

    The National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program was established to evaluate domestic uranium resources in the continental United States and to identify areas favorable for uranium exploration. The Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy is responsible for administering the program. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is responsible for hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance (HSSR) of 3.9 million km 2 (1,500,000 mi 2 ) in 37 eastern and western states. This document provides geologic and mineral resources reports for the Delta, Escalante, Price, Richfield, and Salina 1 0 x 2 0 National Topographic Map Series quadrangles, Utah. The purpose of these reports is to provide background geologic and mineral resources information to aid in the interpretation of NURE geochemical reconnaissance data. Except for the Escalante Quadrangle, each report is accompanied by a geologic map and a mineral locality map (Plates 1-8, in pocket). The US Geological Survey previously published a 1 0 x 2 0 geologic map of the Escalante Quadrangle and described the uranium deposits in the area (Hackman and Wyant, 1973). NURE hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance data for these quadrangles have been issued previously in some of the reports included in the references

  5. Bicarbonate-based cultivation of Dunaliella salina for enhancing carbon utilization efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeong; Heo, Jina; Kim, Hee-Sik; Han, Jong-In

    2017-08-01

    In this study, bicarbonate was proposed as an alternative carbon source to overcome exceedingly low CO 2 fixation efficiency of conventional microalgae cultivation system. 5gL -1 of sodium bicarbonate was found to well support the growth of Dunaliella salina, showing 2.84-fold higher specific growth rate than a bicarbonate-free control. This bicarbonate-fed cultivation also could yield biomass productivity similar to that of CO 2 -based system as long as pH was controlled. While the supplied CO 2 , because of its being a gas, was mostly lost and only 3.59% of it was used for biomass synthesis, bicarbonate was effectively incorporated into the biomass with 91.40% of carbon utilization efficiency. This study showed that the bicarbonate-based microalgae cultivation is indeed possible, and can even become a truly environment-friendly and workable approach, provided that a CO 2 mineralization technology is concomitantly established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Light and Temperature on Fatty Acid Production in Nannochloropsis Salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wagenen, Jonathan M.; Miller, Tyler W.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Hook, Paul W.; Crowe, Braden J.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2012-03-12

    Accurate prediction of algal biofuel yield will require empirical determination of physiological responses to the climate, particularly light and temperature. One strain of interest, Nannochloropsis salina, was subjected to ranges of light intensity (5-850 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and temperature (13-40 C); exponential growth rate, total fatty acids (TFA) and fatty acid composition were measured. The maximum acclimated growth rate was 1.3 day{sup -1} at 23 C and 250 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) after transesterification to corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). A sharp increase in TFA containing elevated palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) during exponential growth at high light was observed, indicating likely triacylglycerol accumulation due to photo-oxidative stress. Lower light resulted in increases in the relative abundance of unsaturated fatty acids; in thin cultures, increases were observed in palmitoleic and eicosapentaenoeic acids (C20:5{omega}3). As cultures aged and the effective light intensity per cell converged to very low levels, fatty acid profiles became more similar and there was a notable increase of oleic acid (C18:1{omega}9). The amount of unsaturated fatty acids was inversely proportional to temperature, demonstrating physiological adaptations to increase membrane fluidity. This data will improve prediction of fatty acid characteristics and yields relevant to biofuel production.

  7. Variabilidade sazonal dos constituintes da própolis vermelha e bioatividade em Artermia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívio César Cunha Nunes

    Full Text Available A própolis é uma substância resinosa coletada pelas abelhas de diversas partes das plantas. Sua composição depende da época, vegetação e local de coleta. Apresenta diversas atividades biológicas como antimicrobiana, antioxidante, antitumoral, dentre outras. Foi realizado estudo da variabilidade sazonal, nos meses de fevereiro, junho e outubro de 2006, dos constituintes voláteis da própolis vermelha de Pernambuco através da extração por headspace dinâmico e identificação por cromatografia gasosa acoplada com espectrometria de massas (CG-EM. Foram identificados 34 constituintes voláteis, sendo monoterpenos e monoterpenóides, sesquiterpenos e sesquiterpenóides, fenilpropanóides, aldeídos, cetonas e η-alcanos. Os constituintes majoritários foram o trans-anetol, α-copaeno e o metil cis-isoeugenol. Também foi realizado o perfil fitoquímico por cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD, através da qual os constituintes fenólicos foram identificados como majoritários. Com o extrato bruto metanólico da própolis, realizou-se o ensaio de letalidade em Artemia salina, que demonstrou DL50 de 18,9 µg/mL, sugerindo uma possível atividade antitumoral.

  8. Obtención de glicerol a partir de la Microalga Dunaliella Salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisethy Hernández Nazario

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available En el campo de la tecnología farmacéutica, el glicerol es un disolvente ampliamente utilizado en virtud de sus propiedades físico-químicas en la formulación de diferentes formas farmacéuticas. Se investigaron las posibilidades de obtención de glicerol como un subproducto del proceso de extracción de ß-carotenos a partir de cultivos de Dunaliella salina, desarrollados bajo régimen autotrófico en el Centro de Investigaciones de Energía Solar. El flujo tecnológico propuesto comprende el tratamiento de la biomasa con hidróxido de calcio, la filtración del producto resultante, la extracción del ß-carotenos con un solvente insoluble en agua y, por último, la separación del glicerol neutralizando convenientemente del filtrado con ácido. El rendimiento de glicerol fue del 4-5 %, valor susceptible de ser incrementado mediante la inducción metabólica de los cultivos.

  9. Isolasi Senyawa Aktif Ekstrak Etanol Biji Alpukat (Persea americana dan Uji Toksisitas Terhadap Artemia Salina Leach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Nur Fitriani Abubakar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Avocado seed (Persea americana is recognized as one of medicinal plants. It contains several secondary metabolites, which have toxic activity. However, efforts to identify active compounds from avocado seeds (Persea americana are still relatively rare. Therefore, isolation and toxicity assay have been conducted foward the active compound of avocado seed. Maceration one kilogram of seed dried powder by ethanol obtained 49,7464 gram extract. Separation of etanol extract by column chromatography generated 0,0698 grams of pure white needle crytal, which is positively triterpenoid based on Lieberman-Buchard test. In addition, infrared spectrum showed the existence of OH, C=C, C-C, C=O, -C-H, -CH3,-CH2 and C-O stretch, which support the presumed compound. The result of toxicity test on Artemia salina Leach showed that the extract, fraction and pure isolates of the etanol extract are toxic with LC50 values 13,274 g/mL; 9,528 g/mL and 8,128 g/mL, respectively.

  10. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  11. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive

  12. Groundwater quality in the Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Antelope Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Antelope study area is approximately 1,600 square miles (4,144 square kilometers) and includes the Antelope Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Antelope Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lakebeds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 68 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland and grassland), 24% agricultural, and 8% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Palmdale and Lancaster (2010 populations of 152,000 and 156,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Antelope Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Antelope Valley are completed to depths between 360 and 700 feet (110 to 213 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 180 to 350 feet (55 to 107 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation and sewer and septic

  13. Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Owens Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Owens study area is approximately 1,030 square miles (2,668 square kilometers) and includes the Owens Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Owens Valley has a semiarid to arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff primarily from the Sierra Nevada draining east to the Owens River, which flows south to Owens Lake dry lakebed at the southern end of the valley. Beginning in the early 1900s, the City of Los Angeles began diverting the flow of the Owens River to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, resulting in the evaporation of Owens Lake and the formation of the current Owens Lake dry lakebed. Land use in the study area is approximately 94 percent (%) natural, 5% agricultural, and 1% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Bishop (2010 population of 4,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to the Owens Lake dry lakebed. The primary aquifers in Owens Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database

  14. Valley development on Hawaiian volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Gulick, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Work in progress on Hawaiian drainage evolution indicates an important potential for understanding drainage development on Mars. Similar to Mars, the Hawaiian valleys were initiated by surface runoff, subsequently enlarged by groundwater sapping, and eventually stabilized as aquifers were depleted. Quantitative geomorphic measurements were used to evaluate the following factors in Hawaiian drainage evolution: climate, stream processes, and time. In comparing regions of similar climate, drainage density shows a general increase with the age of the volcani island. With age and climate held constant, sapping dominated valleys, in contrast to runoff-dominated valleys, display the following: lower drainage densities, higher ratios of valley floor width to valley height, and more positive profile concavities. Studies of stream junction angles indicate increasing junction angles with time on the drier leeward sides of the major islands. The quantitative geomorphic studies and earlier field work yielded important insights for Martian geomorphology. The importance of ash mantling in controlling infiltration on Hawaii also seems to apply to Mars. The Hawaiian valley also have implications for the valley networks of Martian heavily cratered terrains

  15. Efeito do meio Erd Schreiber no cultivo das microalgas Dunaliella salina, Tetraselmis chuii e Isochrysis galbana = Erd Schreiber medium effect in culture of microalgae Dunaliella salina, Tetraselmis chuii and Isochrysis galbana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Mota Klein

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available As microalgas são utilizadas como fonte de alimento em aqüicultura. Neste trabalho cultivaram-se D. salina, T. chuii e I. galbana. O objetivo do trabalho consistiu em determinar o efeito do meio Erd Schreiber sobre o seu crescimento. Iniciou-se o cultivo com a mistura de 200 mg de Na2HPO4,7H2O, 100 mg de NaNO3 e 50 mL de extrato de solo. No monitoramento, manteve-se a temperatura entre 24 - 28 oC, a salinidade a 34 ppt, à iluminação constante, a densidade celular com uma câmara de Neubauer e um microscópio binocular modelo ZEISS. Como resultado, I. galbana, D. salina e T. chuii atingiram 969 104 cel/mL, 457 x 104 cel/mL e 258,66 x 104 cel/mL, respectivamente, e oscoeficientes angulares b foram 3,76 x 104 cel./mL/dia, 6,84 x 104 cel./mL/dia e 2,08 x 104 cel./mL/dia respectivamente, indicando bom desempenho de todas as microalgas no meio Erd Shreiber.The microalgae is used as food source in aqüicultura. In this work they had cultivated D. salina , T. chuii and I. galbana . The objective of the work is to determine the effect of Erd Schreiber´s culture medium on the microalgae growth. The culture initiated mixting 200mg of Na2HPO4,7H2O, 100 mg of NaNO3 and 50 mL of soil extract. During the culture the temperature had varied between 24 and 28oC, the salinity was fixed on 34 %o, and the illumination was maintained constant. The assessment of the culture was made by a chamber of Neubauer and a binocular microscope ZEISS model. As result I. galbana D. salina and T.chuii reached 969 104 cel/mL, 457 x 104cel/mL and 258,66 x 104 cel/mL respectively and as angular coefficient 3,76 x 104 cel/mL/dia, 6,84 x 104 cel/mL/dia and 2,08 104 x cel/mL/dia respectively, showing good answer of the microalgae to the effect of Erd Schreiber´ s medium.

  16. Prospecção fitoquímica de Sonchus oleraceus e sua toxicidade sobre o microcrustáceo Artemia salina Phytochemical prospecting of Sonchus oleraceus and its toxicity to Artemia salina

    OpenAIRE

    J.M. Lima; C.A. Silva; M.B. Rosa; J.B. Santos; T.G. Oliveira; M.B. Silva

    2009-01-01

    A espécie vegetal Sonchus oleraceus é uma planta daninha presente em diversas culturas no Brasil e de utilização na medicina popular. Neste trabalho, realizou-se a prospecção fitoquímica dessa espécie com extratos em etanol, água e diclorometano, bem como testes de toxicidade sobre o microcrustáceo Artemia salina. O extrato aquoso apresentou em sua composição açúcares redutores, compostos fenólicos, taninos, flavonóides e cumarinas. No extrato etanólico, observaram-se os mesmos compostos qual...

  17. Toxicоlogical evaluation of the plant products using Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina L. model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Меntor R. Hamidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many natural products could serve as the starting point in the development of modern medicines because of their numerous biological and pharmacological activities. However, some of them are known to carry toxicological properties as well. In order to achieve a safe treatment with plant products, numerous research studies have recently been focused on both pharmacology and toxicity of medicinal plants. Moreover, these studies employed efforts for alternative biological assays. Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay is the most convenient system for monitoring biological activities of various plant species. This method is very useful for preliminary assessment of toxicity of the plant extracts. Rapidness, simplicity and low requirements are several advantages of this assay. However, several conditions need to be completed, especially in the means of standardized experimental conditions (temperature, pH of the medium, salinity, aeration and light. The toxicity of herbal extracts using this assay has been determined in a concentration range of 10, 100 and 1000 µg/ml of the examined herbal extract. Most toxicity studies which use the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay determine the toxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the tested sample. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of the test samples is obtained by a plot of percentage of the dead shrimps against the logarithm of the sample concentration. LC50 values are estimated using a probit regression analysis and compared with either Meyer’s or Clarkson’s toxicity criteria. Furthermore, the positive correlation between Meyer’s toxicity scale for Artemia salina and Gosselin, Smith and Hodge’s toxicity scale for higher animal models confirmed that the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay is an excellent predictive tool for the toxic potential of plant extracts in humans.

  18. Evaluation of Alpha and Gamma Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticle Accumulation, Toxicity and Depuration in Artemia Salina Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Mehmet; Demir, Veysel; Arslan, Zikri; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O.; Bogatu, Corneliu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Artemia salina (crustacean filter feeders) larvae were used as a test model to investigate the toxicity of aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) on marine microorganisms. The uptake, toxicity and elimination of α-Al2O3 (50 nm and 3.5 μm) and γ-Al2O3 (5 nm and 0.4 μm) NPs were studied. Twenty-four and ninety-six hour exposures of different concentrations of Al2O3 NPs to Artemia larvae were conducted in a seawater medium. When suspended in water, Al2O3 NPs aggregated substantially with the sizes ranging from 6.3 nm to > 0.3 μm for spherical NPs, and from 250 to 756 nm for rod-shaped NPs. The phase contrast microscope images revealed that NPs deposited inside the guts as aggregates. ICP-MS analysis showed that large particles (3.5 μm α-Al2O3) were not taken up by Artemia, while fine NPs (0.4 μm γ-Al2O3) and ultra-fine NPs (5 nm γ-Al2O3 and 50 nm α-Al2O3) accumulated substantially. Differences in toxicity were detected as changing with NP size and morphology. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels indicated that smaller γ-Al2O3 (5 nm) NPs were more toxic than larger γ-Al2O3 (0.4 μm) particulates in 96 h. The highest mortality was measured as 34% in 96 h for γ-Al2O3 NPs (5 nm) at 100 mg/L (LC50 > 100 mg/L). γ-Al2O3 NPs were more toxic than α-Al2O3 NPs at in all conditions. PMID:24753078

  19. A DECADE FROM THE MAJOR LAYOFFS IN THE JIU VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN VALENTIN FULGER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an overview of how the population of the largest coalfield of Romania Jiu Valley, the perceived major staff cuts in the mining industry, the solutions required for economic rehabilitation of the area and difficulties of everyday faced by residents of the region.

  20. Re-Emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast describes the re-emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar during two rainy seasons in 2008 and 2009. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Pierre Rollin discusses what researchers learned about the outbreak and about infections in the larger population in Madagascar.

  1. The Luangwa Valley, Zambia: flyway and stopover site for White ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyses of satellite telemetry data of White Storks Ciconia ciconia from the eastern populations at their stopover sites and staging areas document the importance of the Luangwa Valley, eastern Zambia, as a migration corridor bridging eastern and southern Africa. Twice each year from November to April, up to 100 000 ...

  2. Stand development of trembling aspen in Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Rentch; James T. Anderson

    2008-01-01

    In wetlands of Canaan Valley, West Virginia, trembling aspen occurs as a disjunct population well south of its primary natural range. Based on sample data from 15 stands, we found that aspen occurs as nearly monospecific stands or clones. Eight stands had median ages between 30 and 40 yrs, and we suggest that stand initiation was related to changes in land use after...

  3. Executive summary of a draft report on the geology and salt deposits of the Salina Salt Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The study discussed is the first phase of a program for the geologic evaluation of the Silurian-age bedded salt of the Salina Group. The Salina Salt Basin, as used in this study, includes those portions of the Appalachian and Michigan basins that are underlain by the Salina Group. The full draft report consists of a regional reconnaissance, identification of study areas in New York and Ohio which are deserving of a more thorough evaluation, and a program plan to accomplish that evaluation. The entire draft report is in two volumes, contains 1068 pages and 204 figures, and has a bibliography that consists of over 1100 separate entries. This summary has been prepared for the benefit of those who wish to review the results of this phase of the evaluation but who do not want to go through the exhaustive detail that is present in the full report. The regional reconnaissance was accomplished by a very thorough and extensive literature review, addressing the following topics: depth of salt, thickness, stratigraphy, tectonics, structure, seismicity, hydrology, erosion and denudation, and mineral resources. Before further technical evaluation proceeds, the draft report and the proposed program are being subjected to a thorough evaluation by a number of groups, including appropriate state agencies. This rather extensive review process is being conducted to ensure that the program is performed entirely in the open and subject to continuous public surveillance. This report does not represent the first work that has been done in this region with regard to evaluating the salt deposits for waste disposal. Previous efforts have been limited, however, and have been done by individual consultants. At the present time, the U.S. Geological Survey is also participating in the technical evaluation; their results will be issued separately. In addition to the technical evaluations, environmental surveys will also be conducted as an integral part of this thorough evaluation program

  4. The Drentsche Aa valley system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, W. de.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis is composed of five papers concerned with Late Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Aa valley system. The correlation and chronostratigraphic position of the layers have been established by radiocarbon dating. (Auth.)

  5. IL MUSEO SALINAS, PARADOSSO DEL WEB MARKETING CULTURALE La comunicazione archeologica ai tempi dei social media, a museo chiuso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bonacini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to offer the case study of the archaeological museum Antonino Salinas in Palermo, that - closed for many years for the restoration of the architectural complex that houses it, the seventeenth-century Olivella’ s House of the Philippine Fathers - has invented new strategies of the archaeological communication on the social media. After two years, waiting for its reopening, the museum has been able to create a real brand and to renovate the museum’s reputation. The solutions adopted by the Museum could “inspire” other institutions to adopt those web marketing cultural strategies.

  6. La sedimentación salina actual en las lagunas de La Mancha: una síntesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Zarzuelo, Antonio de la; Marfil, R.

    1986-01-01

    [ES] La Mancha es una región natural de más de 30.000 Km2, caracterizada por una topografía extraordinariamente plana y un clima de tipo semiárido (Cuadro 1, Fig. 2), en la que existen numerosas lagunas salinas (Fig. 1), la mayoría de las cuales, por su régimen anual, pueden ser consideradas como «playa-lakes» (Fig. 3). Desde el punto de vista hidroquimico sus salmueras están integradas por: a) aniones: SO4 y Cl, con CO3 y CO 3H subordinados, y b) cationes: Mg 2+ y ...

  7. Nivel de conocimiento sobre tuberculosis pulmonar y actitud de los pacientes, centro salud San Juan de Salinas, 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Atuncar Mendoza, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo del estudios de investigación fue determinar la relación que existe entre el nivel de conocimiento sobretuberculosis pulmonar y la actitud hacia el tratamiento detuberculosis pulmonar de los pacientes dela Estrategia Sanitaria Nacional de Prevención y Control de la Tuberculosis, Centro de Salud San Juan de Salinas, San Martinde Porres, año 2017. En cuanto a lametodología fue de tipo de investigación aplicada, nivel descriptivo correccional,la población estuvo conformada por 50 p...

  8. High-EPA Biomass from Nannochloropsis salina Cultivated in a Flat-Panel Photo-Bioreactor on a Process Water-Enriched Growth Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Safafar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nannochloropsis salina was grown on a mixture of standard growth media and pre-gasified industrial process water representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of enriched growth media and cultivation time on nutritional composition of Nannochloropsis salina biomass, with a focus on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. Variations in fatty acid composition, lipids, protein, amino acids, tocopherols and pigments were studied and results compared to algae cultivated on F/2 media as reference. Mixed growth media and process water enhanced the nutritional quality of Nannochloropsis salina in laboratory scale when compared to algae cultivated in standard F/2 medium. Data from laboratory scale translated to the large scale using a 4000 L flat panel photo-bioreactor system. The algae growth rate in winter conditions in Denmark was slow, but results revealed that large-scale cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina at these conditions could improve the nutritional properties such as EPA, tocopherol, protein and carotenoids compared to laboratory-scale cultivated microalgae. EPA reached 44.2% ± 2.30% of total fatty acids, and α-tocopherol reached 431 ± 28 µg/g of biomass dry weight after 21 days of cultivation. Variations in chemical compositions of Nannochloropsis salina were studied during the course of cultivation. Nannochloropsis salina can be presented as a good candidate for winter time cultivation in Denmark. The resulting biomass is a rich source of EPA and also a good source of protein (amino acids, tocopherols and carotenoids for potential use in aquaculture feed industry.

  9. Craniofacial chronological microdifferentiation of human prehistoric populations of the Azapa valley, northern Chile Microdiferenciación cronológica craneofacial de poblaciones humanas prehistóricas del Valle de Azapa, norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO ROTHHAMMER

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Archeological evidence suggest that the cultural developments occurred in the highlands around lake Titicaca in the Central Andes, exerted influence on the cultural elaborations of the human groups that peopled the valley of Azapa, close to the city of Arica, and the Pacific coast of northern Chile. In this communication we show by means of a distance analysis, that a craniofacial differentiation accompanied the process of cultural evolution in the valley. The biological influence of Tiwanaku is partially reflected in craniofacial morphology, providing preliminary evidence that cultural changes were associated to intermittent gene flow from the highlands, specially during the Alto Ramírez and San Miguel phasesLos desarrollos culturales ocurridos en el altiplano en el área circumtiticaca en los Andes centrales, ejercieron influencia sobre las elaboraciones culturales de los grupos humanos que poblaban el Valle de Azapa cercano a la ciudad de Arica y la costa del norte de Chile. En esta comunicación presentamos un análisis de distancias que demostró que una diferenciación craniofacial acompaño en el valle el proceso de evolución cultural. La influencia biológica de Tiwanaku se refleja parcialmente en la morfología craniofacial, proporcionando evidencia preliminar de que los cambios culturales en el valle se realizaron acompañados de flujo génico intermitente desde el altiplano, especialmente durante las fases Alto Ramírez y San Miguel

  10. Construcción macrotextual y cancionero amoroso (Un acercamiento analítico a "La voz a ti debida" de Pedro Salinas)

    OpenAIRE

    Corencia Cruz, Joaquín

    2008-01-01

    La tesis Construcción macrotextual y cancionero amoroso. Unacercamiento analítico a La voz a ti debida de Pedro Salinas. Fue leídapor Joaquín Corencia Cruz en la Sala de Juntas de la Facultad deFilología de la Universidad de Valencia (España) el 7 de noviembre de2008.El trabajo investigador se desarrolla a lo largo de nuevecapítulos. En el primero se produce una introducción a la tesisrevisando desde la trayectoria vital y profesional de Pedro Salinas acómo el macrotexto poético de La voz se ...

  11. A skin test survey of valley fever in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrich, B E

    1989-01-01

    Results of a study of the prevalence of valley fever among 1128 residents of Tijuana, Baja California are presented. Children from primary and middle schools (n = 497) and adults from technical institutes and maquiladoras (assembly plants) were tested for reaction to both spherulin and coccidioidin during 1985-1986, and they completed a questionnaire containing 23 variables on their socio-environment. Place of residence was mapped. The population sampled is largely middle class. Discriminant analysis indicates the distribution of positive cases is not clustered, nor can it be correlated with geomorphic factors such as mesa tops, canyons, or valley bottoms.

  12. Land Subsidence Caused by Groundwater Exploitation in Quetta Valley, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeebullah Kakar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Land subsidence is affecting several metropolitan cities in developing as well as developed countries around the world such as Nagoya (Japan, Shanghai (China, Venice (Italy and San Joaquin valley (United States. This phenomenon is attributed to natural as well as anthropogenic activities that include extensive groundwater withdrawals. Quetta is the largest city of Balochistan province in Pakistan. This valley is mostly dry and ground water is the major source for domestic and agricultural consumption. The unplanned use of ground water resources has led to the deterioration of water quality and quantity in the Quetta valley. Water shortage in the region was further aggravated by the drought during (1998-2004 that hit the area forcing people to migrate from rural to urban areas. Refugees from the war torn neighboring Afghanistan also contributed to rapid increase in population of Quetta valley that has increased from 0.26 million in 1975 to 3.0 million in 2016. The objective of this study was to measure the land subsidence in Quetta valley and identify the effects of groundwater withdrawals on land subsidence. To achieve this goal, data from five Global Positioning System (GPS stations were acquired and processed. Furthermore the groundwater decline data from 41 observation wells during 2010 to 2015 were calculated and compared with the land deformation. The results of this study revealed that the land of Quetta valley is subsiding from 30mm/y on the flanks to 120 mm/y in the central part. 1.5-5.0 m/y of groundwater level drop was recorded in the area where the rate of subsidence is highest. So the extensive groundwater withdrawals in Quetta valley is considered to be the driving force behind land subsidence.

  13. Evaluation of Culture Conditions to Obtain Fatty Acids from Saline Microalgae Species: Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Castilla Casadiego

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the saline microalgae, Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp., was explored as an alternative source for the production of fatty acids using fertilizer and glycerol as culture media. The nutrient medium used contained “Nutrifoliar,” a commercial fertilizer, and/or glycerol, in natural sea water. The microalgae were placed in cultures with different conditions. The parameters that favored the largest production of fatty acids were 24 hours of agitation and illumination, 1620 L/day of air supply, 2.25 L of air/min, and a temperature of 32°C using “Nutrifoliar” as the culture media. Results indicated that, from 3 g of microalgae in wet base of Chroomonas sp., 54.43 mg of oil was produced. The chromatographic characterization of oil obtained revealed the presence of essential fatty acids such as 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (omega-3 and 4,7,10-hexadecatrienoic acid (omega-6 from the species Dunaliella salina. On the other hand, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (omega-6 and cis-11-eicosenoic acid (omega-9 were identified from the species Chroomonas sp. The temperature variations played an important role in the velocity of growth or the production of the algae biomass, the amount of oil, and the ability to produce fatty acids.

  14. Salinity-Induced Palmella Formation Mechanism in Halotolerant Algae Dunaliella salina Revealed by Quantitative Proteomics and Phosphoproteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Wei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Palmella stage is critical for some unicellular algae to survive in extreme environments. The halotolerant algae Dunaliella salina is a good single-cell model for studying plant adaptation to high salinity. To investigate the molecular adaptation mechanism in salinity shock-induced palmella formation, we performed a comprehensive physiological, proteomics and phosphoproteomics study upon palmella formation of D. salina using dimethyl labeling and Ti4+-immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC proteomic approaches. We found that 151 salinity-responsive proteins and 35 salinity-responsive phosphoproteins were involved in multiple signaling and metabolic pathways upon palmella formation. Taken together with photosynthetic parameters and enzyme activity analyses, the patterns of protein accumulation and phosphorylation level exhibited the mechanisms upon palmella formation, including dynamics of cytoskeleton and cell membrane curvature, accumulation and transport of exopolysaccharides, photosynthesis and energy supplying (i.e., photosystem II stability and activity, cyclic electron transport, and C4 pathway, nuclear/chloroplastic gene expression regulation and protein processing, reactive oxygen species homeostasis, and salt signaling transduction. The salinity-responsive protein–protein interaction (PPI networks implied that signaling and protein synthesis and fate are crucial for modulation of these processes. Importantly, the 3D structure of phosphoprotein clearly indicated that the phosphorylation sites of eight proteins were localized in the region of function domain.

  15. Influencia del medio ambiente en los materiales de construcción III. Dinámica salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Paris, José Manuel

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Las sales y la humedad son los dos factores que condicionan las alteraciones de los materiales de construcción. Los citados materiales, bien de por sí —piedras y ladrillos—, bien una vez endurecidos —morteros y hormigones—, están estructurados por partículas sólidas granulares, separadas por un sistema poroso, que constituye el medio -dinámico para el transporte de las disoluciones salinas procedentes del medio ambiente. La motilidad de las sales a través de la red de poros es función de tres variables físicoclimáticas: temperatura, humedad y condiciones de aireación. La dinámica salina se efectúa mediante procesos de difusión, unas veces de naturaleza química: difusión iónica, otras de naturaleza física: difusión capilar.

  16. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Mayorga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest, were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Fabaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass., Asteraceae, Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccaceae, and Ocimum campechianum Mill., Lamiaceae. The five others: Curatella americana L., Dilleniaceae, Prunus barbata Koehne, Rosaceae, Quercus crispifolia Trel., Fagaceae, Rhizophora mangle L., Rhizophoraceae, and Smilax domingensis Willd., Smilacaceae, do not. All plants without anti-Artemia activity had no lethal effects in both assays with A. salina. For the plants with anti-Artemia activity the Artoxkit M was not sensitive to G. sepium and the conventional Artemia test was not sensitive to S. americanum, G. sepium and N. lobata. All the plant extracts, except for that of C. americana, had lethal effects on T. platyurus and the lethal median concentration (LC50 levels for this organism were in all cases substantially lower than those of the salt-water test species. This study revealed that T. platyurus is a promising test species worth further in depth investigation for toxicity screening of plant extracts with potential medicinal properties.

  17. Ethanol fermentation with Kluyveromyces marxianus from Jerusalem artichoke grown in salina and irrigated with a mixture of seawater and freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W J; Zhao, X Q; Ge, X M; Bai, F W

    2008-12-01

    To study fuel ethanol fermentation with Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC8554 from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) grown in salina and irrigated with a mixture of seawater and freshwater. The growth and ethanol fermentation of K. marxianus ATCC8554 were studied using inulin as substrate. The activity of inulinase, which attributes to the hydrolysis of inulin, the main carbohydrate in Jerusalem artichoke, was monitored. The optimum temperatures were 38 degrees C for growth and inulinase production, and 35 degrees C for ethanol fermentation. Aeration was not necessary for ethanol fermentation with the K. marxianus from inulin. Then, the fresh Jerusalem artichoke tubers grown in salina and irrigated with 25% and 50% seawater were further examined for ethanol fermentation with the K. marxianus, and a higher ethanol yield was achieved for the Jerusalem artichoke tuber irrigated with 25% seawater. Furthermore, the dry meal of the Jerusalem artichoke tubers irrigated with 25% seawater was examined for ethanol fermentation at three solid concentrations of 200, 225 and 250 g l(-1), and the highest ethanol yield of 0.467, or 91.5% of the theoretical value of 0.511, was achieved for the slurry with a solid concentration of 200 g l(-1). Halophilic Jerusalem artichoke can be used for fuel ethanol production. Halophilic Jerusalem artichoke, not competing with grain crops for arable land, is a sustainable feedstock for fuel ethanol production.

  18. Processing recommendations for using low-solids digestate as nutrient solution for poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate production with Synechocystis salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, K; Fritz, I; Daffert, C; Markl, K; Fuchs, W; Drosg, B

    2016-12-20

    Within the last decades, environmental pollution with persistent plastics steadily increased; therefore the production of biodegradable materials like poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is essential. Currently, PHB is produced with heterotrophic bacteria from crops. This leads to competition with food and feed production, which can be avoided by using photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, as Synechocystis salina, synthesizing PHB from CO 2 at nutrient limitation. This study aims to increase the economic efficiency of PHB production with cyanobacteria by using nutrients from anaerobic digestate. First, growth and PHB production of S. salina in digestate fractions (supernatant and permeate, with/without precipitating agents) and dilutions thereof and then the scale-up (photobioreactor, 200 L working volume) were evaluated. With precipitated and centrifuged digestate diluted 1/3 the highest biomass (1.55gL -1 ) and PHB concentrations (95.4mgL -1 ), being 78% of those in mineral media, were achieved. In the photobioreactor-experiments biomass (1.63gL -1 ) and PHB concentrations (88.7mgL -1 ), being 79% and 72% of those in mineral medium, were reached, but in a cultivation time 10days longer than in mineral medium. The possibility to use digestate as sustainable and low cost nutrient solution for microalgae cultivation and photoautotrophic PHB production, instead of applying it on fields or processing it to achieve discharge limits, makes this application a highly valid option. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifikasi Metabolit Sekunder Ekstrak Etil Asetat Biji Alpukat (Persea americana Mill. dan Uji Toksisitas Terhadap Larva Udang Artemia salina Leach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdia Asdar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Identification of metabolite compound in acetone Extract from Fruits Avocado seed (Percea americana Mill and toxicity test against Artemia salina Leach. Aim of this research is to identify the secondary metabolite compound in aceton extract from fruits Avocado seed (Percea americana Mill and to determine the potential of secondary metabolites from an avocado extract as anticancer. The compound was obtained from Identification process in several stages, namely extraction, fractination, purification and identification. The identification process was color test, TLC, spectroscopy IR. The toxicity test by Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT to Artemia salina Leach. The compound obtained from this research was yellow-white crystalline needle-shaped, the purity test with TLC analysis showed a stain in three eluen system on the stain test on three eluent systems with Rf proportions as follows; 0,15 from chloroform:ethyl acetat (6:4, 0,33 from methanol:chloroform (1:9, 0,75 for acetone:ethyl acetat, and positively to the reagent Wagner and gave brown precipitate for indicate as alcaloid group. This result is supported by spectroscopy from compound.While toxicity tests showed condensed acetone extracts  and pure compounds are toxic with LC50 value of each is 20.61 mg/mL and 39,81 mg/mL.

  20. Fitness-valley crossing with generalized parent-offspring transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmond, Matthew M; Otto, Sarah P

    2015-11-01

    Simple and ubiquitous gene interactions create rugged fitness landscapes composed of coadapted gene complexes separated by "valleys" of low fitness. Crossing such fitness valleys allows a population to escape suboptimal local fitness peaks to become better adapted. This is the premise of Sewall Wright's shifting balance process. Here we generalize the theory of fitness-valley crossing in the two-locus, bi-allelic case by allowing bias in parent-offspring transmission. This generalization extends the existing mathematical framework to genetic systems with segregation distortion and uniparental inheritance. Our results are also flexible enough to provide insight into shifts between alternate stable states in cultural systems with "transmission valleys". Using a semi-deterministic analysis and a stochastic diffusion approximation, we focus on the limiting step in valley crossing: the first appearance of the genotype on the new fitness peak whose lineage will eventually fix. We then apply our results to specific cases of segregation distortion, uniparental inheritance, and cultural transmission. Segregation distortion favouring mutant alleles facilitates crossing most when recombination and mutation are rare, i.e., scenarios where crossing is otherwise unlikely. Interactions with more mutable genes (e.g., uniparental inherited cytoplasmic elements) substantially reduce crossing times. Despite component traits being passed on poorly in the previous cultural background, small advantages in the transmission of a new combination of cultural traits can greatly facilitate a cultural transition. While peak shifts are unlikely under many of the common assumptions of population genetic theory, relaxing some of these assumptions can promote fitness-valley crossing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching, treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be more than $500/lb of U 3 O 8 by heap leach or conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is economically unattractive

  2. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesarič, Tina; Gambardella, Chiara; Milivojević, Tamara; Faimali, Marco; Drobne, Damjana; Falugi, Carla; Makovec, Darko; Jemec, Anita; Sepčić, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon-based nanomaterials adsorb onto the body surface of A. salina larvae. • Surface adsorption results in concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming. • Carbon-based nanomaterials induce no significant mortality of A. salina larvae. - Abstract: We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5 mg/mL carbon black and 0.1 mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change

  3. 78 FR 37790 - In the Matter of: Mario Salinas-Lucio, Inmate Number #61687-279, FCI La Tuna, Federal Corrections...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Mario Salinas-Lucio... Order with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security. The appeal must be filed within 45....S.C. 793, 794 or 798; section 4(b) of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783(b)), or...

  4. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesarič, Tina, E-mail: tina.mesaric84@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gambardella, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.gambardella@ge.ismar.cnr.it [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Genova (Italy); Milivojević, Tamara, E-mail: milivojevictamara@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faimali, Marco, E-mail: marco.faimali@ismar.cnr.it [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Genova (Italy); Drobne, Damjana, E-mail: damjana.drobne@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CO Nanocentre), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence in Advanced Materials and Technologies for the Future (CO NAMASTE), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Falugi, Carla, E-mail: carlafalugi@hotmail.it [Department of Earth, Environment and Life Sciences, University of Genova, Genova (Italy); Makovec, Darko, E-mail: darko.makovec@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jemec, Anita, E-mail: anita.jemec@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sepčić, Kristina, E-mail: kristina.sepcic@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Carbon-based nanomaterials adsorb onto the body surface of A. salina larvae. • Surface adsorption results in concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming. • Carbon-based nanomaterials induce no significant mortality of A. salina larvae. - Abstract: We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5 mg/mL carbon black and 0.1 mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change.

  5. Comparative study on toxicity of ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles on Artemia salina: effect of pre-UV-A and visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, M; Sagar, Bhawana; Doshi, Siddharth; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity potential of ZnO and TiO 2 nanoparticles under pre-UV-A irradiation and visible light condition on Artemia salina. The nanoparticle suspension was prepared in seawater medium and exposed under pre-UV-A (0.23 mW/cm 2 ) and visible light (0.18 mW/cm 2 ) conditions. The aggregation profiles of both nanoparticles (NPs) and dissolution of ZnO NPs under both irradiation conditions at various kinetic intervals (1, 24, 48 h) were studied. The 48-h LC 50 values were found to be 27.62 and 71.63 mg/L for ZnO NPs and 117 and 120.9 mg/L for TiO 2 NPs under pre-UV-A and visible light conditions. ZnO NPs were found to be more toxic to A. salina as compared to TiO 2 NPs. The enhanced toxicity was observed under pre-UV-A-irradiated ZnO NPs, signifying its phototoxicity. Accumulation of ZnO and TiO 2 NPs into A. salina depends on the concentration of particles and type irradiations. Elimination of accumulated nanoparticles was also evident under both irradiation conditions. Other than ZnO NPs, the dissolved Zn 2+ also had a significant effect on toxicity and accumulation in A. salina. Increased catalase (CAT) activity in A. salina indicates the generation of oxidative stress due to NP interaction. Thus, this study provides an understanding of the toxicity of photoreactive ZnO and TiO 2 NPs as related to the effects of pre-UV-A and visible light irradiation.

  6. Influence of PbS nanoparticle polymer coating on their aggregation behavior and toxicity to the green algae Dunaliella salina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamani, Hajar; Moradshahi, Ali; Jahromi, Hamed Dehdashti; Sheikhi, Mohammad Hosein

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Lead sulfide nanoparticles (PbS NPs) are toxic to D. salina. • Gum-Arabic coating alters the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Cell-NPs agglomerates and lipid peroxidation could explain the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Shading effect and dissolution do not seem to contribute to the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Particle–particle interaction was reduced by coating; therefore, PbS NPs were stabilized in the culture media. - Abstract: The potential hazards of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment and to living organisms need to be considered for a safe development of nanotechnology. In the present study, the potential toxic effects of uncoated and gum Arabic-coated lead sulfide nanoparticles (GA-coated PbS NPs) on the growth, lipid peroxidation, reducing capacity and total carotenoid content of the hypersaline unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina were investigated. Coatings of PbS NPs with GA, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, reduced the toxicity of PbS NPs. Uncoated PbS NP toxicity to D. salina was attributed to higher algal cell-NP agglomerate formation, higher lipid peroxidation, lower content of total reducing substances and lower total carotenoid content. Low levels of Pb 2+ in the growth culture media indicate that PbS NP dissolution does not occur in the culture. Also, the addition of 100 μM Pb 2+ to the culture media had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on algal growth. The shading of light (shading effect) by PbS NPs, when simulated using activated charcoal, did not contribute to the overall toxic effect of PbS NPs which was evident by insignificant (P > 0.05) reduction in the growth and antioxidant capacity of the algae. When PbS NP aggregation in culture media (without algal cells) was followed for 60 min, uncoated form aggregated rapidly reaching aggregate sizes with hydrodynamic diameter of over 2500 nm within 60 min. Effective particle–particle interaction was reduced in the GA-coated NPs. Aggregates of about 440 nm

  7. Influence of PbS nanoparticle polymer coating on their aggregation behavior and toxicity to the green algae Dunaliella salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Hajar [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradshahi, Ali, E-mail: moradshahi@susc.ac.ir [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahromi, Hamed Dehdashti; Sheikhi, Mohammad Hosein [Nanotechnology Research Institute, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Lead sulfide nanoparticles (PbS NPs) are toxic to D. salina. • Gum-Arabic coating alters the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Cell-NPs agglomerates and lipid peroxidation could explain the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Shading effect and dissolution do not seem to contribute to the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Particle–particle interaction was reduced by coating; therefore, PbS NPs were stabilized in the culture media. - Abstract: The potential hazards of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment and to living organisms need to be considered for a safe development of nanotechnology. In the present study, the potential toxic effects of uncoated and gum Arabic-coated lead sulfide nanoparticles (GA-coated PbS NPs) on the growth, lipid peroxidation, reducing capacity and total carotenoid content of the hypersaline unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina were investigated. Coatings of PbS NPs with GA, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, reduced the toxicity of PbS NPs. Uncoated PbS NP toxicity to D. salina was attributed to higher algal cell-NP agglomerate formation, higher lipid peroxidation, lower content of total reducing substances and lower total carotenoid content. Low levels of Pb{sup 2+} in the growth culture media indicate that PbS NP dissolution does not occur in the culture. Also, the addition of 100 μM Pb{sup 2+} to the culture media had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on algal growth. The shading of light (shading effect) by PbS NPs, when simulated using activated charcoal, did not contribute to the overall toxic effect of PbS NPs which was evident by insignificant (P > 0.05) reduction in the growth and antioxidant capacity of the algae. When PbS NP aggregation in culture media (without algal cells) was followed for 60 min, uncoated form aggregated rapidly reaching aggregate sizes with hydrodynamic diameter of over 2500 nm within 60 min. Effective particle–particle interaction was reduced in the GA-coated NPs. Aggregates of about

  8. Temperature-dose relationships with aflatoxin M1 in milk on the brine shrimp (Artemia salina larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Duraković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature-dose relationships with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 were studied using the brine shrimp Artemia salina larvae as an biological indicator in the temperature range from 20 °C to 40 °C. Increase in the incubation temperature resulted in sensitivity increase by the brine shrimp to AFM1. Optimum sensitivity occured at 30 °C. Positive results were obtained at 0.18 μg AFM1 x L-1 of whole pasteurized milk with a mortality of over 15%. Greater than 90 % mortality occurred at dose levels of 0.9 μg AFM1 x L-1 and above. The test can be conducted during 30-60 hours.

  9. Regulatory Project Manager for Salina and Permian Basins for the NWTS [National Waste Terminal Storage] Program: Final techical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The identification of candidate sites for nuclear waste repositories involves geological and environmental studies to characterize potential sites. These investigations include the collection and analysis of detailed geological and environmental data and comparison of the data against predetermined site performance criteria, i.e., geologic characteristics, environmental protection, and socioeconomic impacts. The work summarized in this final technical report encompasses mainly ''environmental characterization'' studies in the Permian Basin in the Texas Panhandle during the period of 1977-86; in the earlier phase of the contract, regional environmental work was also done in the Salina Basin (1977-79) and certain licensing support activities and safety analyses were conducted (1977-82). Considerable regulatory support work was also performed during 1986. 9 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Growth of mussels Mytilus edulis at algal (Rhodomonas salina) concentrations below and above saturation level for reduced filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Pleissner, Daniel; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2013-01-01

    Average filtration and growth rates of groups of juvenile Mytilus edulis (n =2545 of 22-35 mm shell length) were measured at different concentrations of an algal cell monoculture in 9 laboratory experiments of duration 14-30 days, 4 experiments below and 5 above the limit of incipient saturation...... concentration (Csat ≈ 6000-7000 Rhodomonas salina cells ml-1). From a nearly constant filtration rate (F ≈ 30 ml min-1 for a 30 mm shell length) at measured algal concentrations below Csat the steady-state filtration rate decreased approximately as 1/C for increasing algal concentrations (C) above Csat...... is exceeded and then as partial valve closure and reduced filtration and growth rates along with production of pseudofaeces. A survey of naturally occurring phytoplankton biomass in the sea shows that this is generally below Csat except for the short spring bloom periods; hence mussels generally feed...

  11. Road infrastructure and mobility of consumption in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley border area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Mungaray-Moctezuma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the mobility of consumption in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley border area. The study shows that the population in the Mexicali sections closer to border crossings generates the greatest amount of consumption dynamics with places located in Imperial Valley. Conversely, Imperial Valley sections that are more distant from the border concentrate a greater number of destination sites for these cross-border trips. It is concluded that a higher quality and more integrated road infrastructure allows the new consumption centers in Imperial Valley to be located farther away from the border and that the Mexicali population with visas can cross indiscriminately through any border crossing by taking longer journeys toward these centers.

  12. Changes in the Structure of the Microbial Community Associated with Nannochloropsis salina following Treatments with Antibiotics and Bioactive Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Haifeng; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary B.; Lane, Todd W.; Sale, Kenneth L.; Yu, Eizadora T.

    2016-01-01

    Open microalgae cultures host a myriad of bacteria, creating a complex system of interacting species that influence algal growth and health. Many algal microbiota studies have been conducted to determine the relative importance of bacterial taxa to algal culture health and physiological states, but these studies have not characterized the interspecies relationships in the microbial communities. We subjected Nanochroloropsis salina cultures to multiple chemical treatments (antibiotics and quorum sensing compounds) and obtained dense time-series data on changes to the microbial community using 16S gene amplicon metagenomic sequencing (21,029,577 reads for 23 samples) to measure microbial taxa-taxa abundance correlations. Short-term treatment with antibiotics resulted in substantially larger shifts in the microbiota structure compared to changes observed following treatment with signaling compounds and glucose. We also calculated operational taxonomic unit (OTU) associations and generated OTU correlation networks to provide an overview of possible bacterial OTU interactions. This analysis identified five major cohesive modules of microbiota with similar co-abundance profiles across different chemical treatments. The Eigengenes of OTU modules were examined for correlation with different external treatment factors. This correlation-based analysis revealed that culture age (time) and treatment types have primary effects on forming network modules and shaping the community structure. Additional network analysis detected Alteromonadeles and Alphaproteobacteria as having the highest centrality, suggesting these species are “keystone” OTUs in the microbial community. Furthermore, we illustrated that the chemical tropodithietic acid, which is secreted by several species in the Alphaproteobacteria taxon, is able to drastically change the structure of the microbiota within 3 h. Taken together, these results provide valuable insights into the structure of the microbiota

  13. Land use in the northern Coachella Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, J. B.; Bowden, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Satellite imagery has proved to have great utility for monitoring land use change and as a data source for regional planning. In California, open space desert resources are under severe pressure to serve as a source for recreational gratification to individuals living in the heavily populated southern coastal plain. Concern for these sensitive arid environments has been expressed by both federal and state agencies. The northern half of the Coachella Valley has historically served as a focal point for weekend recreational activity and second homes. Since demand in this area has remained high, land use change from rural to urban residential has been occurring continuously since 1968. This area of rapid change is an ideal site to illustrate the utility of satellite imagery as a data source for planning information, and has served as the areal focus of this investigation.

  14. Re-Emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-27

    This podcast describes the re-emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar during two rainy seasons in 2008 and 2009. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Pierre Rollin discusses what researchers learned about the outbreak and about infections in the larger population in Madagascar.  Created: 5/27/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/27/2010.

  15. Biogeochemical studies of wintering waterfowl in the Imperial and Sacramento Valleys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koranda, J.J.; Stuart, M.; Thompson, S.; Conrado, C.

    1979-10-01

    Trace and major elemental composition were determined in the organs of wintering waterfowl in the Imperial and Sacramento Valleys of California, and in soils, sediments, and agricultural fertilizer that constitute the various sources of elements in the waterfowl. These data provide a biogeochemical baseline for waterfowl populations wintering in an area being developed for geothermal power. This baseline in the Imperial Valley is affected by soil and sediment composition, agricultural effluents in irrigation and stream water, and spent shot deposited by hunters in waterfowl habitats. The waterfowl acquire a set of trace elements from these sources and concentrations increase in their organs over the wintering period. Nickel, arsenic, selenium, bromine, and lead are the primary elements acquired from soil sources, agricultural effluents, and spent shot in the Imperial Valley. The assessment of effects from geothermal effluents on waterfowl populations in complex because there are large influxes of materials into the Imperial Valley ecosystem that contain trace elements, i.e., irrigation water, phosphatic fertilizers, pesticides, and lead shot. Multiple sources exist for many elements prominent in the expected geothermal effluents. The relationships between the two California valleys, the Imperial and Sacramento, are apparent in the trace element concentrations in the organs of waterfowl obtained in those two valleys. Arsenic is absent in the waterfowl organs obtained in the Sacramento Valley and relatively common in the Imperial Valley waterfowl. The effect of any release of geothermal effluent in the Imperial Valley waterfowl habitats will be difficult to describe because of the complexity of the biogeochemical baseline and the multiple sources of trace and major elements in the ecosystem.

  16. Better building of valley fills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chironis, N.P.

    1980-03-01

    Current US regulations for building valley fills or head of hollow fills to hold excess spoil resulting from contour mining are meeting with considerable opposition, particularly from operators in steep-slope areas. An alternative method has been submitted to the Office of Surface Mining by Virgina. Known as the zoned concept method, it has already been used successfully in building water-holding dams and coal refuse embankments on sloping terrain. The ways in which drainage and seepage are managed are described.

  17. Effects of salinity, commercial salts, and water type on cultivation of the cryptophyte microalgae Rhodomonas salina and the calanoid Copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Per Meyer; Thoisen, Christina V.; Carron-Cabaret, Thibaut

    2018-01-01

    Marine aquaculture facilities positioned far from the sea need access to seawater (SW); hence, commercial salts are often the chosen solution. In marine hatcheries, most fish larvae require live feed (zooplankton) that are in turn fed with microalgae. The objective of this research was to investi......Marine aquaculture facilities positioned far from the sea need access to seawater (SW); hence, commercial salts are often the chosen solution. In marine hatcheries, most fish larvae require live feed (zooplankton) that are in turn fed with microalgae. The objective of this research...... was to investigate the applicability of commercial salts and clarify the potential effects on the cultivation of the microalga Rhodomonas salina and the copepod Acartia tonsa. Three commercial salts were tested, Red Sea Salt (RS), Red Sea – Coral Pro Salt (CP), and Blue Treasure Salt. R. salina was cultured...

  18. Uso da solução salina para manutenção de acessos venosos em adultos: uma revisão

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Francimar Tinoco de; Silva,Lolita Dopico da

    2006-01-01

    Trata-se de uma revisão bibliográfica sobre a prática da salinização em cateteres venosos periféricos. O estudo objetivou analisar os artigos científicos sobre o uso de solução salina na manutenção da permeabilidade de cateteres venosos periféricos em adultos, indexados no MedLine e LILACS no período de 1995 a 2005. A amostra consistiu de 5 artigos os quais foram analisados quanto à procedência e periódico de publicação, ao delineamento do estudo, a amostragem, e ao efeito da solução salina. ...

  19. Cytotoxic activity of carotenoid rich fractions from Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina microalgae and the identification of the phytoconstituents using LC-DAD/ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baz, Farouk K; Hussein, Rehab A; Mahmoud, Khaled; Abdo, Sayeda M

    2018-02-01

    Microalgae represent a rich source that satisfies the growing need for novel ingredients of nutriceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and food supplements. Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina microalgae are isolated from the Egyptian hydro-flora and are reported for their potent antioxidant activities. The cytotoxic activity of different fractions of both microalgae was investigated on 4 cell lines HePG2, MCF7, HCT116, and A549. The carotenoid rich fraction of H. pluvialis showed potent cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cell line and moderate activity against both liver and breast cancer cell lines. On the other hand, the carotenoid rich fraction of D. salina showed mild cytotoxic activity on breast and liver cancer cell lines. The carotenoid rich fraction of H. pluvialis was analysed using LC-DAD/ESI-MS and the major carotenoids were identified either free as well as bounded to fatty acids. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Effects of UV/Ag-TiO2/O3 advanced oxidation on unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina: implications for removal of invasive species from ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Donghai; You, Hong; Du, Jiaxuan; Chen, Chuan; Jin, Darui

    2011-01-01

    The UV/Ag-TiO2/O3 process was investigated for ballast water treatment using Dunaliella salina as an indicator. Inactivation curves were obtained, and the toxicity of effluent was determined. Compared with individual unit processes using ozone or UV/Ag-TiO2, the inactivation efficiency of D. salina by the combined UV/Ag-TiO2/O3 process was enhanced. The presence of ozone caused an immediate decrease in chlorophyll a (chl-a) concentration. Inactivation efficiency and ch1-a removal efficiency were positively correlated with ozone dose and ultraviolet intensity. The initial total residual oxidant (TRO) concentration of effluent increased with increasing ozone dose, and persistence of TRO resulted in an extended period of toxicity. The results suggest that UV/Ag-TiO2/O3 has potential for ballast water treatment.

  1. Efeito alelopático e toxicidade frente à Artemia salina Leach dos extatos do fruto de Euterpe edulis Martius Allelopathic effects and toxicity against Artemia salina Leach of extracts of the fruit of Euterpe edulis Martius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Peitz de Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Alelopatia é um processo envolvendo metabólitos secundários produzidos por plantas que infl uenciam o crescimento e desenvolvimento de sistemas agrícolas. Devido à toxicidade dos herbicidas sintéticos para o meio ambiente e para a saúde humana tem-se aumentado o interesse na exploração da alelopatia como uma alternativa para o controle de plantas daninhas. O presente trabalho avaliou efeito dos extratos dos frutos de Euterpe edulis Martius sobre o desenvolvimento de cipselas e plântulas de Lactuca sativa Linné, foram determinados o índice de velocidade de germinação, o crescimento da radícula e do hipocótilo. Para a avaliação da toxicidade dos extratos foi realizado o ensaio de toxicidade frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach determinando-se a CL50 e percentual de mortalidade. A fração remanescente demonstrou efeito alelopático, pois todas as concentrações alteraram os valores do índice de velocidade de germinação e as concentrações de 0,2 e 0,4 mg inibiram tanto o crescimento da radícula quanto o crescimento do hipocótilo. No ensaio de toxicidade todos os extratos apresentaram CL50 superior a 1000 ppm e 0% de mortalidade das artemias, indicando a não toxicidade dos extratos.Allelopathy is a process involving secondary metabolites produced by plants that influence growth and development of agricultural systems. Because of the toxicity of synthetic herbicides to the environment and human health, there has been increased interest in exploiting allelopathy as an alternative for weed control. This study evaluated the eff ect of extracts of Euterpe edulis Martius fruits on the development of cypselae and seedlings of Lactuca sativa Linné; the germination speed index, radicle and hypocotyl growth were determined. To evaluate the toxicity of the extracts the toxicity test against Artemia salina Leach was used, where the LC50 and mortality rate were determined. Th e remaining fraction showed allelopathic effect

  2. Aplicación del bioensayo de Artemia salina en el análisis general de plantas medicinales brasileñas

    OpenAIRE

    Montanher, Ana Beatriz Pimentel; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa

    2002-01-01

    Extractos de once especies de la flora brasileña fueron estudiados para evaluar la actividad citotóxica por el test de Artemia salina. Las plantas seleccionadas fueron: Baccharis pseudotenuifolia, Baccharis ligustrina, Baccharis platypoda, Baccharis coridifolia, Polygala paniculata, Polygala sabulosa, Croton celtidifolius, Cyathea phalerata, Trichilia catigua, Eugenia uniflora y Schinus molle. Los resultados obtenidos para los extractos crudos de B. pseudotenuifolia, B. ligustrina, B. c...

  3. Effect of salinity on the quantity and quality of carotenoids accumulated by Dunaliella salina (strain CONC-007 and Dunaliella bardawil (strain ATCC 30861 Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA I GÓMEZ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dunaliella salina and D. bardawil are well-known microalgae accumulating high levels of b-carotene under growth-limiting conditions. In both taxa, this pigment is primarily composed of the isomers 9-cis and all-trans. The 9-cis b-carotene occurs only in natural sources and is the most attractive from a commercial point of view. The conditions that enhance the preferred accumulation of 9-cis b-carotene in D. salina are controversial and they have not been well established yet. This study examined the effect of salinity on the quantity and quality of total carotenoids and b-carotene isomers accumulated by D. salina (strain CONC-007 and D. bardawil (strain ATCC 30861 grown in two media with different nutritional compositions (PES and ART and at salt concentrations of 1M, 2M and 3M NaCl. Total carotenoids were determined by spectrophotometry and b-carotene isomers, by HPLC. The highest carotenoid contents per cell were obtained at 2M NaCl in both taxa. In both media, an increase of the 9-cis/all-trans b-carotene ratio was observed in D. bardawil when the salt concentration increased, with a maximum value of 2.6 (in ART medium at 3M NaCl. In D. salina this ratio did not exhibit the same pattern, and the salt concentrations for maximal ratios were different in both media. The highest ratio obtained for this strain was 4.3 (in ART medium at 2M NaCl.

  4. Developmental toxicity of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes on Artemia salina cysts and larvae: Uptake, accumulation, excretion and toxic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Song; Luo, Fei; Tu, Xiao; Chen, Wei-Chao; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2017-10-01

    Using Artemia salina (A. salina) cysts (capsulated and decapsulated) and larvae [instar I (0-24 h), II (24-48 h) and III (48-72 h)] as experimental models, developmental toxicity of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (O-MWCNTs) was evaluated. Results revealed that hatchability of capsulated and decapsulated cysts was significantly decreased (p larvae in 600 mg/L. The EC 50 values for swimming inhibition of instar I, II and III were 535, 385 and 472 mg/L, respectively. Instar II showed the greatest sensitivity to O-MWCNTs, and followed by instar III, instar I, decapsulated cysts and capsulated cysts. Effects on hatchability, mortality and swimming were accounted for O-MWCNTs rather than metal catalyst impurities. Body length was decreased with the concentrations increased from 0 to 600 mg/L. O-MWCNTs attached onto the cysts, gill and body surface, resulting in irreversible damages. Reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde content, total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) activities were increased following exposure, indicating that the effects were related to oxidative stress. O-MWCNTs were ingested and distributed in phagocyte, lipid vesicle and intestine. Most of the accumulated O-MWCNTs were excreted by A. salina at 72 h, but some still remained in the organism. Data of uptake kinetics showed that O-MWCNTs contents in A. salina were gradually increased from 1 to 48 h and followed by rapidly decreased from 48 to 72 h with a range from 5.5 to 28.1 mg/g. These results so far indicate that O-MWCNTs have the potential to affect aquatic organisms when released into the marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lung cancer in the Kashmir valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koul Parvaiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung cancer has been found to be the second commonest cancer according to a hospital-based data from Kashmir, India. However, no incidence studies are available. Objective: To ascertain the incidence of lung cancer in Kashmir. Materials and Methods: All newly histologically diagnosed cases of lung cancer seen in various hospital and private laboratories of the Kashmir valley were registered over a period of two years (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2005. Also included were patients attending the various oncological service areas of the institute and those diagnosed from any other laboratory outside the state. The incidence rate was calculated using the January 2005 population as the reference population estimated using the census-based projected populations. Results: Four hundred and sixty-two incident cases of lung cancer were seen during the study period. The crude incidence rate, age standardized (world and truncated age adjusted (40-69 years, world incidence rates for lung cancer per 100 000 population were 4.01, 6.48 and 15.28 respectively (males 6.55, 10.09 and 23.94 respectively and females 1.19, 2.14 and 4.65. The age adjusted rates for males in district Srinagar was 19.34 per 100 000. One hundred and fifty nine (69.8% of the 221 had a history of Hukkah smoking. Conclusions: Even though Kashmir as a whole is a low incidence area for lung cancer (ASR of < 15, Srinagar district has the highest incidence of lung cancer among the males in Kashmir. The data presented is assumed to be the closest approximation to a population-based data registry and the geographical incidence maps of ICMR need appropriate updating

  6. Assembly of the Lactuca sativa, L. cv. Tizian draft genome sequence reveals differences within major resistance complex 1 as compared to the cv. Salinas reference genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwaaijen, Bart; Wibberg, Daniel; Nelkner, Johanna; Gordin, Miriam; Rupp, Oliver; Winkler, Anika; Bremges, Andreas; Blom, Jochen; Grosch, Rita; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2018-02-10

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) is an important annual plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). The commercial lettuce cultivar Tizian has been used in various scientific studies investigating the interaction of the plant with phytopathogens or biological control agents. Here, we present the de novo draft genome sequencing and gene prediction for this specific cultivar derived from transcriptome sequence data. The assembled scaffolds amount to a size of 2.22 Gb. Based on RNAseq data, 31,112 transcript isoforms were identified. Functional predictions for these transcripts were determined within the GenDBE annotation platform. Comparison with the cv. Salinas reference genome revealed a high degree of sequence similarity on genome and transcriptome levels, with an average amino acid identity of 99%. Furthermore, it was observed that two large regions are either missing or are highly divergent within the cv. Tizian genome compared to cv. Salinas. One of these regions covers the major resistance complex 1 region of cv. Salinas. The cv. Tizian draft genome sequence provides a valuable resource for future functional and transcriptome analyses focused on this lettuce cultivar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tolerance induction to stress caused by lavender (Lavandula angustifolia extracts in the microalga Dunaliella salina through metabolic modifications and β-carotene production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Mazang-Ghasemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory or stimulatory effect of one plant on other plant species through the released chemical compounds into the environment, known as allelochemicals, is called allelopathy. In the present study, effect of aqueous extracts of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia leaves on growth pattern and ability of β-carotene production in unicellular green alga, Dunaliella salina was investigated. Based on these results, phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of the extracts was relatively low. Treated cultures with extract concentrations of 1, 2, 3 and 4 % showed that the process of cell division was ceased because of extracts phytotoxicity. However, the chlorophyll and β-carotene concentration pronouncedly increased in phytotoxin-treated cells, so that the highest of these values were detected in 3 % extracts-exposed cells. Percentage change of all three fresh weight, total sugar and protein between 0 and 48 h of phytotoxins treatment was significantly increased concurrently with increasing dose of extracts. These results suggest that D. salina tolerate allelochemicals-induced stress by metabolic modifications. Therefore, phytotoxins-tolerance mechanisms in D. salina are associated with physiological and metabolic adjustments by allocating the carbon flux to the synthesis of the sugars, chlorophyll and β-carotene, which induce phytotoxins stress tolerance in this alga.

  8. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  9. Analysis, design and interventions on valley floors at the city of Alfenas [MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Cardoso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The floor of valleys are areas with important physical and environmental characteristics, interacting with diverse natural processes that occur in our planet. With the urbanization, degradation of such areas usually occurs, resulting in the physical, social and cultural withdrawing of the population from the urban river and stream lands. The purpose of this paper is to study the action of the public administration on valley floors and the management tools which may render feasable thee environmental preservation as well as environment and landscape renaturalization of such areas thus promoting echological and functional balance in the urban fluviatic lands. In order to prepare a proposal, several items were studied: the physical environmental characteristics of the valley floors, the transformations associated to urbanization. Based on this research, a plan was made for city of Alfenas [MG] as regards the management of the valley floor lands: a proposal of intervention in one of the hydrographic basins.

  10. The laboratory environmental algae pond simulator (LEAPS) photobioreactor: Validation using outdoor pond cultures of Chlorella sorokiniana and Nannochloropsis salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesemann, M.; Williams, P.; Edmundson, S.; Chen, P.; Kruk, R.; Cullinan, V.; Crowe, B.; Lundquist, T.

    2017-09-01

    A bench-scale photobioreactor system, termed Laboratory Environmental Algae Pond Simulator (LEAPS), was designed and constructed to simulate outdoor pond cultivation for a wide range of geographical locations and seasons. The LEAPS consists of six well-mixed glass column photobioreactors sparged with CO2-enriched air to maintain a set-point pH, illuminated from above by a programmable multicolor LED lighting (0 to 2,500 µmol/m2-sec), and submerged in a temperature controlled water-bath (-2 °C to >60 °C). Measured incident light intensities and water temperatures deviated from the respective light and temperature set-points on average only 2.3% and 0.9%, demonstrating accurate simulation of light and temperature conditions measured in outdoor ponds. In order to determine whether microalgae strains cultured in the LEAPS exhibit the same linear phase biomass productivity as in outdoor ponds, Chlorella sorokiniana and Nannochloropsis salina were cultured in the LEAPS bioreactors using light and temperature scripts measured previously in the respective outdoor pond studies. For Chlorella sorokiniana, the summer season biomass productivity in the LEAPS was 6.6% and 11.3% lower than in the respective outdoor ponds in Rimrock, Arizona, and Delhi, California; however, these differences were not statistically significant. For Nannochloropsis salina, the winter season biomass productivity in the LEAPS was statistically significantly higher (15.2%) during the 27 day experimental period than in the respective outdoor ponds in Tucson, Arizona. However, when considering only the first 14 days, the LEAPS biomass productivity was only 9.2% higher than in the outdoor ponds, a difference shown to be not statistically significant. Potential reasons for the positive or negative divergence in LEAPS performance, relative to outdoor ponds, are discussed. To demonstrate the utility of the LEAPS in predicting productivity, two other strains – Scenedesmus obliquus and Stichococcus minor

  11. Small martian valleys: Pristine and degraded morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Partridge, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The equatorial heavily cratered uplands of Mars are dissected by two classes of small valleys that are intimately associated in compound networks. Pristine valleys with steep valley walls preferentially occupy downstream portions of compound basins. Degraded valleys with eroded walls are laterally more extensive and have higher drainage densities than pristine valleys. Morphometric and crater-counting studies indicate that relatively dense drainage networks were emplaced on Mars during the heavy bombardment about 4.0 b.y. ago. Over a period of approximately 10 8 years, these networks were degraded and subsequently invaded by headwardly extending pristine valleys. The pristine valleys locally reactivated the compound networks, probably through sapping processes dependent upon high water tables. Fluvial activity in the heavily cratered uplands generally ceased approximately 3.8--3.9 b.y. ago, coincident with the rapid decline in cratering rates. The relict compound valleys on Mars are morphometrically distinct from most terrestrial drainage systems. The differences might be caused by a Martian valley formation episode characterized by hyperaridity, by inadequate time for network growth, by very permeable rock types, or by a combination of factors

  12. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1.Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model (USGS, 30m) by finding the local average elevation, subtracting the actual elevation from the average, and selecting areas where the actual elevation was below the average. The landscape was sampled at seven scales (circles of 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, and 22 km radius) to take into account the diversity of valley shapes and sizes. Areas selected in at least four scales were designated as valleys.

  13. A landscape scale valley confinement algorithm: Delineating unconfined valley bottoms for geomorphic, aquatic, and riparian applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Nagel; John M. Buffington; Sharon L. Parkes; Seth Wenger; Jaime R. Goode

    2014-01-01

    Valley confinement is an important landscape characteristic linked to aquatic habitat, riparian diversity, and geomorphic processes. This report describes a GIS program called the Valley Confinement Algorithm (VCA), which identifies unconfined valleys in montane landscapes. The algorithm uses nationally available digital elevation models (DEMs) at 10-30 m resolution to...

  14. Birds of the St. Croix River valley: Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    continuing expansion of the nearby Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan region has degraded or destroyed many woodlots, upland fields, and wetlands. In numerous instances, degradation of natural habitats has influenced the abundance and distribution of bird species. Because of these changes, both the Federal government and State Departments of Natural Resources have listed several species in various categories based on their current status. In the St. Croix River Valley, seven species are endangered, eight are threatened, and 29 are watch or priority status in either or both states. Data presented in this report are of value to land managers, land use specialists, and ornithologists, in assessing current and projected habitat alterations on the avifauna of this valley. The St. Croix River bisects a large region of western Wisconsin and east central Minnesota that exhibits a wide range of habitat types. This region supports not only birds, but many mammals, fishes, reptiles and amphibians, and several thousand species of vascular and nonvascular plants. The river itself is relatively clean through most of its course, and its natural flow is interrupted by only two small dams. Because the river lies within a 1-day drive of nearly 10 million people (Waters 1977), use of the area for recreational purposes is extremely heavy. Recreational pursuits include sunbathing, boating, and wild river kayaking in the summer, and ice fishing and cross-country skiing in the winter. The large number of unique and highly fragile habitats that exist there may never be compatible with the uses and abuses of the land that go with expanding human populations. Through the efforts of a number of citizens concerned with the quality of their environment and the foresightedness of several local, State, and Federal legislators, a portion of the upper St. Croix River Valley (hereafter termed 'the Valley') was established as a National Wild and Scenic River. Through establishment of t

  15. Tennessee Valley Region: a year 2000 profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the potential radiological implications of nuclear facilities in the combined watersheds of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, an area covering portions of 7 states of varied topography. The regional population in 1970 was about 4.6 million and is expected to increase to about 7 million by the year 2000. A 1973 projection estimated the installed electric generating capacity of the region to increase from a 1970 value of 45,000 megawatts to a total of 222,000 megawatts by the year 2000. In that year, about 144,000 megawatts were projected to be nuclear plants. The profile of the Tennessee Valley Region in the year 2000, as drawn from this report, contains the essential data for calculation of the radiological dose from operation of nuclear facilities in that year. Those calculations are reported in the companion document, DOE/ET-0064/2. Specifically, Volume I establishes the parameters describing where the people live, what they eat, the activities in which they engage, and the environmental surroundings that enable an evaluation of the potential radiation dose to the population. Airborne radionuclides from nuclear facilities in this zone may enter the study area and be deposited on the ground, on growing food, and on water surfaces. Consideration was not given to waterborne radionuclides external to the study region. 17 references

  16. Tennessee Valley Region: a year 2000 profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the potential radiological implications of nuclear facilities in the combined watersheds of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, an area covering portions of 7 states of varied topography. The regional population in 1970 was about 4.6 million and is expected to increase to about 7 million by the year 2000. A 1973 projection estimated the installed electric generating capacity of the region to increase from a 1970 value of 45,000 megawatts to a total of 222,000 megawatts by the year 2000. In that year, about 144,000 megawatts were projected to be nuclear plants. The profile of the Tennessee Valley Region in the year 2000, as drawn from this report, contains the essential data for calculation of the radiological dose from operation of nuclear facilities in that year. Those calculations are reported in the companion document, DOE/ET-0064/2. Specifically, Volume I establishes the parameters describing where the people live, what they eat, the activities in which they engage, and the environmental surroundings that enable an evaluation of the potential radiation dose to the population. Airborne radionuclides from nuclear facilities in this zone may enter the study area and be deposited on the ground, on growing food, and on water surfaces. Consideration was not given to waterborne radionuclides external to the study region. 17 references. (MCW)

  17. West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Under the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Public Law 96-368, liquid high-level radioactive waste stored at the Western New York Nuclear Services Center, West Valley, New York, that resulted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations conducted between 1966 and 1972, is to be solidified in borosilicate glass and transported to a federal repository for geologic disposal. A major milestone was reached in May 1988 when the Project began reducing the volume of the liquid high-level waste. By the end of 1988, approximately 15 percent of the initial inventory had been processed into two waste streams. The decontaminated low-level liquid waste is being solidified in cement. The high-level waste stream is being stored in an underground tank pending its incorporation into borosilicate glass. Four tests of the waste glass melter system were completed. These tests confirmed equipment operability, control system reliability, and provided samples of waste glass for durability testing. In mid-1988, the Department validated an integrated cost and schedule plan for activities required to complete the production of the waste borosilicate glass. Design of the radioactive Vitrification Facility continued

  18. The Pocatello Valley, Idaho, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. M.; Langer, C.J.; Bucknam, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    A Richter magnitude 6.3 earthquake occurred at 8:31 p.m mountain daylight time on March 27, 1975, near the Utah-Idaho border in Pocatello Valley. The epicenter of the main shock was located at 42.094° N, 112.478° W, and had a focal depth of 5.5 km. This earthquake was the largest in the continental United States since the destructive San Fernando earthquake of February 1971. The main shock was preceded by a magnitude 4.5 foreshock on March 26. 

  19. Radwaste challenge at Beaver Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Duquesne Light Company met the problem of accumulating low-level radioactive waste at its Beaver Valley nuclear plant with an aggressive program to reduce the quantity of contaminated material and demonstrate that the plant was improving its radiological protection. There was also an economic incentive to reduce low-level wastes. The imaginative campaign involved workers in the reduction effort through training and the adoption of practical approaches to reducing the amount of material exposed to radiation that include sorting trash by radiation level and a compacting system. 4 figures

  20. The Owens Valley Millimeter Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padin, S.; Scott, S.L.; Woody, D.P.; Scoville, N.Z.; Seling, T.V.

    1991-01-01

    The telescopes and signal processing systems of the Owens Valley Millimeter Array are considered, and improvements in the sensitivity and stability of the instrument are characterized. The instrument can be applied to map sources in the 85 to 115 GHz and 218 to 265 GHz bands with a resolution of about 1 arcsec in the higher frequency band. The operation of the array is fully automated. The current scientific programs for the array encompass high-resolution imaging of protoplanetary/protostellar disk structures, observations of molecular cloud complexes associated with spiral structure in nearby galaxies, and observations of molecular structures in the nuclei of spiral and luminous IRAS galaxies. 9 refs

  1. Childhood asthma, air quality, and social suffering among Mexican Americans in California's San Joaquin Valley: "Nobody talks to us here".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Norah Anita; Pepper, David

    2009-10-01

    Nearly one in five Mexican American children residing in California's San Joaquin Valley (the Valley) in 2007 had an asthma attack at some point in their life. Numerous epidemiological studies have suggested that compared with other ethnic groups and Latino subgroups residing in the United States, Mexican origin children have the lowest rates of pediatric asthma. Ethnographic research conducted in central California, however, suggests otherwise. Known for its agricultural produce, extreme poverty, and poor air quality, the Valley is a magnet for the Mexican immigrant farm worker population. We conducted an exploratory ethnographic study to examine health disparities, social suffering, and childhood asthma in the Valley. Many Valley residents believe that their children's health concerns are being ignored. Open-ended interviews uncovered a largely rural community suffering not only from the effects of childhood asthma but the inability to have their experiences taken seriously.

  2. Corrosividade Causada por Soluções Salinas Empregadas na Estabilização Dimensional da Madeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivou-se avaliar a corrosividade de soluções salinas antes e depois de sua impregnação na madeira. Soluções com 5% de concentração de cloreto de lítio, carbonato de sódio, sulfato de magnésio, sulfato de zinco e sulfato de cobre II foram mantidas durante 6 horas, a 25 °C, 45 °C e 100 °C em contato com amostras de 1,25 cm × 0,1 cm × 7,5 cm (largura × espessura × comprimento produzidas com chapas de aço carbono antes e depois de seu contato com amostras de madeira de Corymbia torelliana e Eucalyptus cloeziana. Não se observou efeito da temperatura na corrosão das soluções puras. Depois do contato com a madeira houve incremento da corrosividade para as soluções de sulfato de zinco e de cobre II. O sulfato de cobre II ocasionou a maior perda de massa nas chapas, não sendo recomendado seu contato com superfícies metálicas, como usinas de tratamento e câmaras de secagem de madeira.

  3. Growth of mono- and mixed cultures of Nannochloropsis salina and Phaeodactylum tricornutum on struvite as a nutrient source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Siccardi, Anthony J. [Texas AgriLife Research Mariculture Lab., Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Huysman, Nathan D. [Texas AgriLife Research Mariculture Lab., Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Wyatt, Nicholas B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hewson, John C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lane, Todd W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-26

    In this paper, the suitability of crude and purified struvite (MgNH4PO4), a major precipitate in wastewater streams, was investigated for renewable replacement of conventional nitrogen and phosphate resources for cultivation of microalgae. Bovine effluent wastewater stone, the source of crude struvite, was characterized for soluble N/P, trace metals, and biochemical components and compared to the purified mineral. Cultivation trials using struvite as a major nutrient source were conducted using two microalgae production strains, Nannochloropsis salina and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, in both lab and outdoor pilot-scale raceways in a variety of seasonal conditions. Both crude and purified struvite-based media were found to result in biomass productivities at least as high as established media formulations (maximum outdoor co-culture yield ~20 ± 4 g AFDW/m2/day). Finally, analysis of nutrient uptake by the alga suggest that struvite provides increased nutrient utilization efficiency, and that crude struvite satisfies the trace metals requirement and results in increased pigment productivity for both microalgae strains.

  4. Las expediciones a salinas: caravanas en la pampa colonial. El abastecimiento de sal a Buenos Aires (Siglos XVII y XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Darío Taruselli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El abastecimiento de sal en cantidades sufi cientes fue una de las principales preocupaciones del Cabildo de Buenos Aires. Fue este un producto de importancia vital no sólo por su aplicación en las comidas cotidianas, sino también por su aplicación en la conservación de las carnes y los cueros. Las características de su uso y su obtención, aumentaron su valor, no sólo comercial sino también estratégico. El hallazgo de yacimientos locales permitió a los habitantes de Buenos Aires abastecerse mediante la práctica de expediciones periódicas que fueron promovidas por las autoridades capitulares, lo que les permitió ejercer un mayor control sobre dicha producción. Como la actividad requería una importante capacidad de transporte y de mano de obra, era una práctica aprovechada por muchos para emplearse en ella y para obtener benefi cios con el comercio que se generaba en la oportunidad. Esto convertía a las expediciones a salinas, organizadas por las autoridades de la ciudad, en grandes caravanas que se internaban en pleno territorio indí-gena, involucrando un amplio conjunto de actores sociales tanto de la ciudad como de la campaña y el mundo indígena

  5. Laboratory scale photobioreactor for high production of microalgae Rhodomonas salina used as food for intensive copepod cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuy, Minh Vu Thi; Jepsen, Per Meyer; Hansen, Benni Winding

    Introduction Microalgae are essential feeds for many cultured molluscs, larvae of marine fishes, crustaceans as well as other important live feeds including rotifers, Artemia and copepods (Muller-Feuga, 2000). Microalgae are grown either in open culture systems (ponds) or closed systems (photobio......Introduction Microalgae are essential feeds for many cultured molluscs, larvae of marine fishes, crustaceans as well as other important live feeds including rotifers, Artemia and copepods (Muller-Feuga, 2000). Microalgae are grown either in open culture systems (ponds) or closed systems...... for copepods (Støttrup and Jensen, 1990; Zhang et al., 2013). Despite the benefit of using R. salina in cultivation of copepods, to our knowledge, there is no report on the production of this microalga at industrial scale to supply sufficient food for mass production of copepods. We intend to conduct the basic...... was cultivated continuously at temperature of 20ºC and salinity of 30ppt in two tubular PBRs with addition of CO2. The experiment was run two times and each PBR in 18 - 30 days. Periodically, the algae were sampled for analyzing the growth, biochemical composition and production. An exponential light model...

  6. Effects of selected metal oxide nanoparticles on Artemia salina larvae: evaluation of mortality and behavioural and biochemical responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambardella, Chiara; Mesarič, Tina; Milivojević, Tamara; Sepčić, Kristina; Gallus, Lorenzo; Carbone, Serena; Ferrando, Sara; Faimali, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the toxicity of selected metal oxide nanoparticles (MO-NPs) on the brine shrimp Artemia salina, by evaluating mortality and behavioural and biochemical responses. Larvae were exposed to tin(IV) oxide (stannic oxide (SnO2)), cerium(IV) oxide (CeO2) and iron(II, III) oxide (Fe3O4) NPs for 48 h in seawater, with MO-NP suspensions from 0.01 to 1.0 mg/mL. Mortality and behavioural responses (swimming speed alteration) and enzymatic activities of cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase were evaluated. Although the MO-NPs did not induce any mortality of the larvae, they caused changes in behavioural and biochemical responses. Swimming speed significantly decreased in larvae exposed to CeO2 NPs. Cholinesterase and glutathione-S-transferase activities were significantly inhibited in larvae exposed to SnO2 NPs, whereas cholinesterase activity significantly increased after CeO2 NP and Fe3O4 NP exposure. Catalase activity significantly increased in larvae exposed to Fe3O4 NPs. In conclusion, swimming alteration and cholinesterase activity represent valid endpoints for MO-NP exposure, while glutathione-S-transferase and catalase activities appear to be NP-specific.

  7. Topography and stoichiometry of acidic proteins in large ribosomal subunits from Artemia salina as determined by crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiumi, T.; Wahba, A.J.; Traut, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The 60S subunits isolated from Artemia salina ribosomes were treated with the crosslinking reagent 2-iminothiolane under mild conditions. Proteins were extracted and fractions containing crosslinked acidic proteins were obtained by stepwise elution from CM-cellulose. Each fraction was analyzed by diagonal (two-dimensional nonreducing-reducing) NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Crosslinked proteins below the diagonal were radioiodinated and identified by two-dimensional acidic urea-NaDodSO 4 gel electrophoresis. Each of the acidic proteins P1 and P2 was crosslinked individually to the same third protein, PO. The fractions containing acidic proteins were also analyzed by two-dimensional nonequilibrium isoelectric focusing-NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two crosslinked complexes were observed that coincide in isoelectric positions with monomeric P1 and P2, respectively. Both P1 and P2 appear to form crosslinked homodimers. These results suggest the presence in the 60S subunit of (P1) 2 and (P2) 2 dimers, each of which is anchored to PO. Protein PO appears to play the same role as L10 in Escherichia coli ribosomes and may form a pentameric complex with the two dimers in the 60S subunits

  8. EL PAN VS. SALINAS O EL DILEMA DEL PRISIONERO: REFORMA INSTITUCIONAL Y COOPERACIÓN COMO ESTRATEGIA POLÍTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gómez López

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza, desde el punto de vista de la teoría de juegos, la estrategia que el Partido Acción Nacional desarrolló frente al gobierno de Carlos Salinas de Gortari luego de la turbulenta elección presidencial de 1988. El objetivo es demostrar que entre estos adversarios se estableció un tipo de juego cuyo modelo a menudo se utiliza para analizar procesos de transición: el Dilema del prisionero, con un desenlace, al menos en este caso, cooperativo. Como en todo dilema, en este juego la posibilidad de la cooperación implica la existencia de un escenario aceptable para ambos adversarios, pese a que en primer lugar se busquen resultados opuestos. En este caso, dicho escenario se relaciona con el hecho de que el objetivo central en la estrategia panista era lograr reformas institucionales que hicieran avanzar la transición mexicana, de manera que le fuera posible llegar al poder; un objetivo cuya materia —las reformas institucionales— resultaba perfectamente negociable para su adversario presidencial.

  9. Groundwater-quality data in the Monterey–Salinas shallow aquifer study unit, 2013: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Davis, Tracy A.

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater quality in the 3,016-square-mile Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from October 2012 to May 2013 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project. The GAMA Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the shallow-aquifer systems in parts of Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The shallow-aquifer system in the Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit was defined as those parts of the aquifer system shallower than the perforated depth intervals of public-supply wells, which generally corresponds to the part of the aquifer system used by domestic wells. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers can differ from the quality in the deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater can be more vulnerable to surficial contamination.Samples were collected from 170 sites that were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method. The study unit was divided into 4 study areas, each study area was divided into grid cells, and 1 well was sampled in each of the 100 grid cells (grid wells). The grid wells were domestic wells or wells with screen depths similar to those in nearby domestic wells. A greater spatial density of data was achieved in 2 of the study areas by dividing grid cells in those study areas into subcells, and in 70 subcells, samples were collected from exterior faucets at sites where there were domestic wells or wells with screen depths similar to those in nearby domestic wells (shallow-well tap sites).Field water-quality indicators (dissolved oxygen, water temperature, pH, and specific conductance) were measured, and samples for analysis of inorganic

  10. Valley-dependent band structure and valley polarization in periodically modulated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Tao

    2016-08-01

    The valley-dependent energy band and transport property of graphene under a periodic magnetic-strained field are studied, where the time-reversal symmetry is broken and the valley degeneracy is lifted. The considered superlattice is composed of two different barriers, providing more degrees of freedom for engineering the electronic structure. The electrons near the K and K' valleys are dominated by different effective superlattices. It is found that the energy bands for both valleys are symmetric with respect to ky=-(AM+ξ AS) /4 under the symmetric superlattices. More finite-energy Dirac points, more prominent collimation behavior, and new crossing points are found for K' valley. The degenerate miniband near the K valley splits into two subminibands and produces a new band gap under the asymmetric superlattices. The velocity for the K' valley is greatly renormalized compared with the K valley, and so we can achieve a finite velocity for the K valley while the velocity for the K' valley is zero. Especially, the miniband and band gap could be manipulated independently, leading to an increase of the conductance. The characteristics of the band structure are reflected in the transmission spectra. The Dirac points and the crossing points appear as pronounced peaks in transmission. A remarkable valley polarization is obtained which is robust to the disorder and can be controlled by the strain, the period, and the voltage.

  11. Sustainable agricultural development in inland valleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    The inland valley in Africa are common landscapes that have favorable conditions for agricultural production. Compared to the surrounding uplands they are characterized by a relatively high and secure water availability and high soil fertility levels. Inland valleys thus have a high agricultural

  12. Valley dependent transport in graphene L junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. S.

    2018-05-01

    We studied the valley dependent transport in graphene L junctions connecting an armchair lead and a zigzag lead. The junction can be used in valleytronic devices and circuits. Electrons injected from the armchair lead into the junction is not valley polarized, but they can become valley polarized in the zigzag lead. There are Fermi energies, where the current in the zigzag lead is highly valley polarized and the junction is an efficient generator of valley polarized current. The features of the valley polarized current depend sensitively on the widths of the two leads, as well as the number of dimers in the armchair lead, because this number has a sensitive effect on the band structure of the armchair lead. When an external potential is applied to the junction, the energy range with high valley polarization is enlarged enhancing its function as a generator of highly valley polarized current. The scaling behavior found in other graphene devices is also found in L junctions, which means that the results presented here can be extended to junctions with larger dimensions after appropriate scaling of the energy.

  13. Beaver assisted river valley formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Cherie J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Many-body effects in valleytronics: direct measurement of valley lifetimes in single-layer MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Cong; Barrette, Andrew; Yu, Yifei; Semenov, Yuriy G; Kim, Ki Wook; Cao, Linyou; Gundogdu, Kenan

    2014-01-08

    Single layer MoS2 is an ideal material for the emerging field of "valleytronics" in which charge carrier momentum can be finely controlled by optical excitation. This system is also known to exhibit strong many-body interactions as observed by tightly bound excitons and trions. Here we report direct measurements of valley relaxation dynamics in single layer MoS2, by using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. Our results show that strong Coulomb interactions significantly impact valley population dynamics. Initial excitation by circularly polarized light creates electron-hole pairs within the K-valley. These excitons coherently couple to dark intervalley excitonic states, which facilitate fast electron valley depolarization. Hole valley relaxation is delayed up to about 10 ps due to nondegeneracy of the valence band spin states. Intervalley biexciton formation reveals the hole valley relaxation dynamics. We observe that biexcitons form with more than an order of magnitude larger binding energy compared to conventional semiconductors. These measurements provide significant insight into valley specific processes in 2D semiconductors. Hence they could be used to suggest routes to design semiconducting materials that enable control of valley polarization.

  15. Tuning Valley Polarization in a WSe_{2} Monolayer with a Tiny Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Smoleński

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In monolayers of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, the light helicity (σ^{+} or σ^{-} is locked to the valley degree of freedom, leading to the possibility of optical initialization of distinct valley populations. However, an extremely rapid valley pseudospin relaxation (at the time scale of picoseconds occurring for optically bright (electric-dipole active excitons imposes some limitations on the development of opto-valleytronics. Here, we show that valley pseudospin relaxation of excitons can be significantly suppressed in a WSe_{2} monolayer, a direct-gap two-dimensional semiconductor with the exciton ground state being optically dark. We demonstrate that the already inefficient relaxation of the exciton pseudospin in such a system can be suppressed even further by the application of a tiny magnetic field of about 100 mT. Time-resolved spectroscopy reveals the pseudospin dynamics to be a two-step relaxation process. An initial decay of the pseudospin occurs at the level of dark excitons on a time scale of 100 ps, which is tunable with a magnetic field. This decay is followed by even longer decay (>1  ns, once the dark excitons form more complex pseudo-particles allowing for their radiative recombination. Our findings of slow valley pseudospin relaxation easily manipulated by the magnetic field open new prospects for engineering the dynamics of the valley pseudospin in transition metal dichalcogenides.

  16. Valley dynamics of intravalley and intervalley multiexcitonic states in monolayer WS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiyong; Bezerra, Andre; Qu, Fanyao

    2018-03-01

    We present a comprehensive model comprising of a complete set of rate equations, which account for charge transfer among multiexcitonic channels including excitons, trions, and biexcitons, to investigate valley (locked with spin) dynamics in monolayer WS2. The steady-state photoluminescence (PL) spectra, underlying the laser power dependence of excitonic populations, are also determined. Our computed PL for all excitonic states agrees with the experimental data of Paradisanos et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 193102 (2017), 10.1063/1.4983285]. We find that the relative weight of PL, stemmed from different excitonic channels, strongly depends on the laser power even under dynamical conditions. Remarkably, the biexciton channel, having the weakest PL intensity at low laser powers, tends to prevail in PL over other excitonic states as the power strengthens. In addition, by accounting for intervalley scatterings, which enable transfer of excitonic states from one valley to the other, we determine the valley polarization, which strongly depends on intervalley scatterings and the exciton generation rates in the two valleys. On the other hand, the valley polarization for all excitonic channels is found almost independent of the laser power, consistent with experimental measurements as well. Finally, the valley dynamics involving both intra- and intervalley trions is discussed. Our model and numerical outcome should be beneficial to experiments especially featuring the interplay of multiexcitonic channels in, e.g., elucidating experimental data, estimating central excitonic quantities including recombination times and transition rates, and in widening possible new experimental scopes.

  17. Fifty years after Welles and Welles: Distribution and genetic structure of Desert Bighorn Sheep in Death Valley National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Clinton W.; Wehausen, John D.; Sloan, William B.; Holt, Stacy; Creech, Tyler G.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; Jaeger, Jef R.; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Monello, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    The status of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in the mountains around Death Valley was first evaluated in 1938, shortly after designation of Death Valley National Monument. However, the most comprehensive evaluation of bighorn sheep in the region was conducted by Ralph and Florence Welles during 1955-1961. They documented patterns of use at water sources and other focal areas around Death Valley and roughly estimated numbers of bighorn sheep from observational data. Data collection on bighorn sheep in the area since that time has

  18. Hidden Valley Search at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Verducci, M

    2011-01-01

    A number of extensions of the Standard Model result in neutral and weakly-coupled particles that decay to multi hadrons or multi leptons with macroscopic decay lengths. These particles with decay paths that can be comparable with ATLAS detector dimensions represent, from an experimental point of view, a challenge both for the trigger and for the reconstruction capabilities of the ATLAS detector. We will present a set of signature driven triggers for the ATLAS detector that target such displaced decays and evaluate their performances for some benchmark models and describe analysis strategies and limits on the production of such long-lived particles. A first estimation of the Hidden Valley trigger rates has been evaluated with 6 pb-1 of data collected at ATLAS during the data taking of 2010.

  19. IRRIGAÇÃO COM ÁGUA SALINA NA CULTURA DO AMENDOIM EM SOLO COM BIOFERTILIZANTE BOVINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geocleber Gomes de Sousa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental da Estação Agrometereológica, UFC, em Fortaleza/Ceará, no período de setembro a novembro de 2012, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da salinidade da água de irrigação nas características agronômicas do amendoinzeiro, cultivar BRS 1 em solo com e sem biofertilizante bovino. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, com cinco repetições, referente aos valores de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação:0,8; 1,5; 3,0; 4,5 e 6,0 dS m-1, em solo sem e com biofertilizante bovino, aplicado de uma única vez, ao nível de 10% do volume do substrato, três dias antes da semeadura. As variáveis analisadas foram: número de folhas, altura de plantas, diâmetro do caule, área foliar, comprimento de raiz, matéria seca da parte aérea, da raiz e total. O aumento da concentração salina da água de irrigação reduziu a área foliar, matéria seca da parte aérea, matéria seca total e comprimento da raiz do amendoinzeiro, porém com menor intensidade no solo com o biofertilizante bovino. A elevação da salinidade do solo decorrente da irrigação com água salina provoca redução na altura da planta, diâmetro do caule e matéria seca da raiz. Palavra-chave: estresse salino, índices fisiológicos, insumo orgânico. PEANUT CULTURE IRRIGATED WITH SALINE WATER IN SOIL WITH BOVINE BIOFERTILIZER ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted at the agrometeorological experimental station, at the UFC, Fortaleza-CE (BR, in the period from September 2012 to November 2012, aiming to evaluate the effects of irrigation water salinity on the agronomic characteristics of BRS 1 peanut plant, in bio fertilized and non-bio fertilized soil. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, with five repetitions. Five different saline solutions (or irrigation water, identified by their respective electrical

  20. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological assessment of Laguna de las Salinas, Ponce, Puerto Rico, January 2003-September 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-López, Luis R.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús

    2005-01-01

    The Laguna de Las Salinas is a shallow, 35-hectare, hypersaline lagoon (depth less than 1 meter) in the municipio of Ponce, located on the southern coastal plain of Puerto Rico. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data in the lagoon were collected between January 2003 and September 2004 to establish baseline conditions. During the study period, rainfall was about 1,130 millimeters, with much of the rain recorded during three distinct intense events. The lagoon is connected to the sea by a shallow, narrow channel. Subtle tidal changes, combined with low rainfall and high evaporation rates, kept the lagoon at salinities above that of the sea throughout most of the study. Water-quality properties measured on-site (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and Secchi disk transparency) exhibited temporal rather than spatial variations and distribution. Although all physical parameters were in compliance with current regulatory standards for Puerto Rico, hyperthermic and hypoxic conditions were recorded during isolated occasions. Nutrient concentrations were relatively low and in compliance with current regulatory standards (less than 5.0 and 1.0 milligrams per liter for total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively). The average total nitrogen concentration was 1.9 milligrams per liter and the average total phosphorus concentration was 0.4 milligram per liter. Total organic carbon concentrations ranged from 12.0 to 19.0 milligrams per liter. Chlorophyll a was the predominant form of photosynthetic pigment in the water. The average chlorophyll a concentration was 13.4 micrograms per liter. Chlorophyll b was detected (detection limits 0.10 microgram per liter) only twice during the study. About 90 percent of the primary productivity in the Laguna de Las Salinas was generated by periphyton such as algal mats and macrophytes such as seagrasses. Of the average net productivity of 13.6 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day derived from the diel

  1. Urban air quality of kathmandu valley "Kingdom of Nepal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. K.

    The oval shaped tectonic basin of Kathmandu valley, occupying about 656 sq.km is situated in the middle sector of Himalayan range. There are three districts in the valley, i.e. Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. Out of the three, the most populated is Kathmandu city (the capital of Kingdom of Nepal) which has a population of 668,00 in an area of approximately 50 km 2. The energy consumption of the city population is about 1/3 of the total import to Nepal of gasoline, diesel, kerosene, furnace oil and cooking gas. This has resulted heavy pollution of air in the city leading to bronchitis, and throat and chest diseases. Vehicles have increased several fold in recent months and there are 100,000 in number on the road and they have 900 km of road, out of which only 25% is metalled. Most of the two and three wheelers are polluting the air by emission of gases as well as dust particulate. SO 2 has been found to go as high as 202 μg cm -3 and NO 2 to 126 μg cm -3 particularly in winter months when a thick layer of fog covers the valley up to 10 am in the morning. All the gases are mixed within the limited air below the fog and the ground. This creates the problem. Furthermore, municipal waste of 500 m 3 a day and also liquid waste dumped directly into the Bagmati river at the rate of 500,000 ℓ d -1 makes the city ugly and filthy. Unless pollution of air, water and lard are controlled in time, Nepal will lose much of its foreign exchange earnings from the tourist industry. It is found that tourist arrivals have considerably reduced in recent years and most of hotels occupancy is 50-60% in peak time. Nepal is trying to introduce a legal framework for pollution control but it will take time to become effective.

  2. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening Comparação de bioensaios com os crustáceos Artemia salina e Thamnocephalus platyurus para abordagem de extratos de plantas com toxicidade

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Mayorga; Karen R. Pérez; Sully M. Cruz; Armando Cáceres

    2010-01-01

    Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest) and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest), were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex ...

  3. Proteomic Analyses Reveal the Mechanism of Dunaliella salina Ds-26-16 Gene Enhancing Salt Tolerance in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlong Wang

    Full Text Available We previously screened the novel gene Ds-26-16 from a 4 M salt-stressed Dunaliella salina cDNA library and discovered that this gene conferred salt tolerance to broad-spectrum organisms, including E. coli (Escherichia coli, Haematococcus pluvialis and tobacco. To determine the mechanism of this gene conferring salt tolerance, we studied the proteome of E. coli overexpressing the full-length cDNA of Ds-26-16 using the iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification approach. A total of 1,610 proteins were identified, which comprised 39.4% of the whole proteome. Of the 559 differential proteins, 259 were up-regulated and 300 were down-regulated. GO (gene ontology and KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes enrichment analyses identified 202 major proteins, including those involved in amino acid and organic acid metabolism, energy metabolism, carbon metabolism, ROS (reactive oxygen species scavenging, membrane proteins and ABC (ATP binding cassette transporters, and peptidoglycan synthesis, as well as 5 up-regulated transcription factors. Our iTRAQ data suggest that Ds-26-16 up-regulates the transcription factors in E. coli to enhance salt resistance through osmotic balance, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress protection. Changes in the proteome were also observed in E. coli overexpressing the ORF (open reading frame of Ds-26-16. Furthermore, pH, nitric oxide and glycerol content analyses indicated that Ds-26-16 overexpression increases nitric oxide content but has no effect on glycerol content, thus confirming that enhanced nitric oxide synthesis via lower intercellular pH was one of the mechanisms by which Ds-26-16 confers salt tolerance to E. coli.

  4. Clorofila e carotenoides em maracujazeiro-amarelo irrigado com águas salinas no solo com biofertilizante bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Ferreira Cavalcante

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos deletérios provocados pelo estresse salino resultam em modificações nos mecanismos bioquímicos e fisiológicos das plantas, alterando, dentre outros, os teores foliares de clorofila e carotenoides, comprometendo a atividade fotossintética e, consequentemente, o crescimento, o desenvolvimento, a produção e a adaptabilidade aos ambientes adversos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes condutividades elétricas da água de irrigação (CEai, associadas às épocas de aplicação de biofertilizante, sobre os teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos para a determinação dos pigmentos cloroplastídicos (clorofila a, b, total e carotenoides do maracujazeiro-amarelo. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 5 x 4, referentes aos valores de CEai: 0,5; 1,5; 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 dS m-1, em quatro épocas de aplicação do biofertilizante: sem biofertilizante (SB; aplicação uma semana antes do transplantio (1SAT; a cada 90 dias, a partir do transplantio (90DAT; uma semana antes e a cada 90 dias, após o transplantio (1SAT+90DAT. O aumento da concentração salina da água de irrigação reduziu a eficiência fotossintética nas folhas do maracujazeiro-amarelo, sendo mais drástico na condutividade superior a 2,5 dS m-1. As frequências de aplicação do biofertilizante não influenciaram nas concentrações dos pigmentos fotossintéticos.

  5. Coculture induced improved production of biosurfactant by Staphylococcus lentus SZ2: Role in protecting Artemia salina against Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Faseela; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita

    2018-07-01

    Coculturing microorganisms can lead to enhanced production of bioactive compounds as a result of cross-species or cross-genera interactions. In this study, we demonstrate improved production of the biosurfactant (BS-SLSZ2 with antibiofilm properties) by the marine epibiotic bacterium Staphylococcus lentus SZ2 after cross-genera interactions with an aquaculture pathogen Vibrio harveyi. In cocultures, growth of V. harveyi was completely inhibited and resultant biofilms were exclusively composed of S. lentus. The cell free supernatant (CFS) derived from cocultures displayed improved antibiofilm activity with enhanced contents of BS-SLSZ2 compared to monocultured S. lentus. During coculture experiments, after short periods of incubation (6 and 12 h), 2.3 fold increased production of BS-SLSZ2 was observed. Planktonic growth of V. harveyi was also inhibited after coculturing with S. lentus as evidenced from plate culture-based studies and microscopic observations. The CFS derived from monocultures and cocultures did not display bactericidal activity and the observed inhibition of V. harveyi could be of competitive nature. During in vivo challenge experiments, S. lentus protected the model aquaculture system Artemia salina from V. harveyi infections. Seven days post infection, survival of the group of larvae infected with V. harveyi was 5 ± 4.47%. Better survival rates (73.33 ± 5.16%, comparable with the unexposed group) were observed in the group of larvae incubated with S. lentus and V. harveyi. This study highlights increased biosurfactant production by cocultured S. lentus and the application of this bacterium as a protective probiotic strain for inclusion in aquaculture practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioatividade de três espécies vegetais nativas da Floresta Atlântica brasileira frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M Pompilho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo a investigação fitoquímica e propriedades antioxidantes de extratos das folhas de Trigynaea oblongifolia Schltdl (Annonaceae, Ottonia frutescens Trel (Piperaceae, e Bathysa australis (St Hill Hooz (Rubiaceae, bem como avaliar, in vitro, a letalidade frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach. Os extratos foram preparados por maceração em metanol 10% (p/v por sete dias, à temperatura ambiente. A atividade antioxidante dos extratos foi determinada pela metodologia que utiliza o radical estável DPPH. A toxicidade dos extratos foi avaliada frente ao microcrustáceo A. salina. Os extratos de O. frutescens e B. australis apresentaram as seguintes classes de metabólitos secundários: Alcalóides, Antraquinonas, Cumarinas, Polifenóis (Taninos, Saponinas. Nos extratos de T. oblongifolia, além dos metabólitos citados anteriormente, foi detectada a presença de Flavonóides. A atividade antioxidante, observada em 30 minutos na concentração de 24 µg/mL de extrato, foi de: O. frutescens - 38,3%, T. oblongifolia - 32,3%, e B. australis - 32,1%. A Concentração Letal, CL50, dos extratos em A. salina foi de: O. frutescens - 149,75 ± 1,02 µg/mL, T. oblongifolia - 148,8 ± 1,74 µg/mL, e B. australis - 684 ± 9,04 µg/mL. Neste contexto, destacamos as espécies, nativas da Floresta Atlântica, O. frutescens e T. oblongifolia de grande potencial na bioprospecção de moléculas biologicamente ativas.

  7. Control of medfly by SIT in the Nereva river valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjelis, Mario; Ljubetic, Visnja; Novosel, Nevenka

    2006-01-01

    A feasibility study of medfly suppression by means of sterile males released program in the Neretva Vallley, Croatia, is presented. The increase of medfly infestation is considered, as almost all cultures of the region represent host plants for the insect. Environmental friendly methods such well developed SIT technique associated with other organic methods are mentioned as an option of no disruption of the present natural balance. Area study and strategy planning is briefly presented. Population dynamics of Ceratitis capitata in the different parts of the delta Neretva valley, during period 2002 - 2004 Year is reported. Medfly capture on selected locations with different host availability in Neretva river is studied. (MAC)

  8. Control of medfly by SIT in the Nereva river valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjelis, Mario, E-mail: mario.bjelis@zzb.h [Institut for Plant Protection in Agriculture and Foresty of Republic of Croatia, Zagreb, Zvonimirova (Croatia); Ljubetic, Visnja [Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Watter Managment of Republic of Croatia, Zagreb (Croatia); Novosel, Nevenka [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    A feasibility study of medfly suppression by means of sterile males released program in the Neretva Vallley, Croatia, is presented. The increase of medfly infestation is considered, as almost all cultures of the region represent host plants for the insect. Environmental friendly methods such well developed SIT technique associated with other organic methods are mentioned as an option of no disruption of the present natural balance. Area study and strategy planning is briefly presented. Population dynamics of Ceratitis capitata in the different parts of the delta Neretva valley, during period 2002 - 2004 Year is reported. Medfly capture on selected locations with different host availability in Neretva river is studied. (MAC)

  9. Evaluation of toxic effects with transition metal ions, EDTA, SBTI and acrylic polymers on Aedes aegypti (L., 1762 (Culicidae and Artemia salina (Artemidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José de Arruda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the toxicity of some insecticides compounds on Aedes aegypti and Artemia salina larvae. Bioassays were carried out to evaluate the toxic effect after of 24 and 72 h using the compounds or associations. The LC10, LC50 and LC90 values were obtained and utilized for toxicity comparations. For Ae. aegypti, LC50 were 32.65 mg L-1 in 24 h for Na2[EDTA-Cu(II] and total mortality in 72 h for SAP-Na2[EDTA-Cu(II].

  10. Crescimento, consumo hídrico e composição mineral de alface cultivada em hidroponia com águas salinas

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus,Dalva; Paulus,Eloi; Nava,Gilmar Antônio; Moura,Cláudia Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o crescimento, o consumo hídrico e a extração de nutrientes, por alface (Lactuca sativa L.) em sistema hidropônico NFT (fluxo laminar de nutrientes), com a utilização de águas salinas no preparo da solução nutritiva e reposição da lâmina diária evapotranspirada. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, em ambiente protegido. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, sendo estudados os efeitos de cinco níveis de salinidade da água, utilizando-se Na...

  11. El turismo de naturaleza en espacios naturales. El caso del parque regional de las Salinas y Arenales de San Pedro del Pinatar

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros Pelegrín, Gustavo Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Los espacios naturales atraen a turistas que buscan el contacto con la naturaleza, surgiendo nuevos productos turísticos. Surgen, de este modo, nuevos productos turísticos. En la oferta de turismo de naturaleza del Parque Regional de las Salinas y Arenales de San Pedro del Pinatar destaca: deportes en la naturaleza, aventura y ecoturismo. Este último se divide en: turismo ornitológico y fotográfico, que junto al tradicional de sol y playa y de salud, se ve favorecido por su situación geográfi...

  12. Atributos biológicos de dos suelos de Quibor con aplicación de abono orgánico y soluciones salinas

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, Betty; Florentino, Adriana; Hernández-Hernández, Rosa Mary; Aciego, Juan; Torres, Duilio; Vera, Elena

    2013-01-01

    La evaluación del efecto de la aplicación de abono orgánico y soluciones salinas sobre los atributos biológicos de suelos de Quibor estado Lara, Venezuela, uno bajo manejo convencional (CV) y otro bajo manejo conservacionista (CS), se realizó mediante un ensayo de invernadero. Se utilizaron tres dosis de materia orgánica (MO): 0, 15 y 30 Mg ha-1 y cuatro soluciones de riego (SR): testigo con agua (T), sulfato de calcio (SC), cloruro de sodio (CN) y la mezcla de sulfato de calcio con cloruro d...

  13. Salt-stimulation of caesium accumulation in the euryhaline green microalga Chlorella salina: potential relevance to the development of a biological Cs-removal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, S. V.; Codd, G. A.; Gadd, G. M. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)

    1993-07-01

    Accumulation of Cs{sup +} by Chlorella salina was 28-fold greater in cells incubated in the presence than in the absence of 0.5 M-NaCl. An approximate 70% removal of external Cs{sup +} resulted after 15 h incubation of cells with 50 μ;M-CsCl and 0.5 M-NaCl. LiCl also had a stimulatory effect on Cs{sup +} uptake, although mannitol did not. Cs{sup +} influx increased with increasing external NaCl concentration and was maximal between 25-500 mM-NaCl at approximately 4 nmol Cs{sup +} h−1 (10{sup 6} cells){sup −1}. Little effect on Cs{sup +} uptake resulted from the presence of Mg{sup 2+} or Ca{sup 2+} or from varying the external pH, and Cs{sup +} was relatively non-toxic towards C. salina. At increasing cell densities (from 4 × 10{sup 5} to 1 × 10{sup 7} cells ml{sup +1}), decreasing amounts of Cs{sup +} were accumulated per cell although the rate of Cs{sup +} removal from the external medium was still greatest at the higher cell densities examined. Freely suspended C. salina and cell-loaded alginate microbeads accumulated similar levels of Cs{sup +}, however, 46% of total Cs{sup +} uptake was attributable to the calcium-alginate matrix in the latter case. When Cs{sup +}-loaded cells were subjected to hypoosmotic shock, loss of cellular Cs{sup +} occurred allowing easy Cs{sup +} recovery. This loss exceeded 90% of cellular Cs{sup +} when cells were washed with solutions containing ≤ 50 mM-NaCl between consecutive Cs{sup +} uptake periods; these cells subsequently lost their ability to accumulate large amounts of Cs{sup +}. Maximal Cs{sup +} uptake (approximately 85.1% removal after three 15 h incubations) occurred when cells were washed with a solution containing 500 mM-NaCl and 200 mM-KCl between incubations. The relevance of these results to the possible use of C. salina in a salt-dependent biological Cs-removal process is discussed. (author)

  14. Estudo fitoquímico preliminar e bioensaio toxicológico frente a larvas de Artemia salina Leach. de extrato obtido de frutos de Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hill (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gonzaga de Freitas Araújo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Neste trabalho avaliou-se o perfil fitoquímico e a toxicidade preliminar frente a larvas de Artemia salina do extrato etanólico de frutos de Solanum lycocarpum. O extrato foi submetido à analise fitoquímica preliminar para identificação das principais classes de metabolitos secundários presentes e testado frente a larvas de A. salina para obtenção das concentrações letais médias (CL50%. Os testes fitoquímicos demonstraram a presença de fenóis, taninos, saponinas, alcalóides e esteróides e triterpenos livres. O extrato foi fracionado em diferentes solventes para a avaliação da toxicidade frente à A. salina, apresentando considerável citotoxicidade encontrada na fração hidroalcoólica (CL50% = 285,546 µg/mL. Palavras-chave: Solanum lycocarpum, Artemia salina, triagem fitoquímica preliminar. ABSTRACT The phytochemical profile of ethanolic extract of Solanum lycocarpum fruits was analyzed and preliminary toxicity tests were performed against brine shrimp larvae. The extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis to identify the main classes of secondary metabolites and tested against the larvae of A. salina to obtain the median lethal concentrations (LC50%. The phytochemical tests showed the presence of phenols, tannins, saponins, alkaloids and free steroids. The extract was fractionated with various solvents for toxicity testing against the larvae and the hydroalcoholic fraction showed considerable cytotoxicity (CL50% = 285.546 g/mL. Keywords: Solanum lycocarpum, Artemia salina, phytochemical screening

  15. Identificação dos citoplasmas "S", "T" e "N" via PCR em populações de cebola no Vale do São Francisco Identification of "S", "T" and "N" cytoplasm via PCR in onion populations in the Sao Francisco river Valley, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio F Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A identificação do tipo de citoplasma em cebola foi facilitada com a publicação de primers de DNA específicos para os tipos "S", "T" e "N". O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar, por meio de marcadores moleculares, o tipo de citoplasma presente na cultivar de cebola BRS São Francisco e numa população experimental em desenvolvimento na Embrapa Semi-Árido, de forma a orientar o desenvolvimento de híbridos de cebola adaptados à região. Na amostra de 19 plantas da 'BRS Alfa São Francisco' observou-se a amplificação de fragmentos de 180 pb, ausência do fragmento de 414 pb com os primers 5'cob e a amplificação do fragmento de 473 pb dos primers OrfA501, indicando que o citoplasma presente nesta população é o citoplasma T. Foi também identificada a presença de citoplasma N na população BRS Alfa São Francisco. Na amostra de 44 plantas da população experimental cascuda-bronzeada observou-se a amplificação de produtos consistentes com os fragmentos de 180 e 414 pb dos primers 5'cob, bem como a amplificação de fragmento de 473 pb dos primers OrfA501, indicando que o citoplasma presente na população é o citoplasma S. Não foi identificada a presença de citoplasma N na população cascuda-bronzeada. Estes resultados indicam a possibilidade do desenvolvimento de híbrido tropical, tendo como base a cultivar BRS Alfa São Francisco, enquanto que, na população cascuda-bronzeada será necessário a introgressão do citoplasma "N" para o desenvolvimento de linhagens mantenedoras.The identification of the onion cytoplasm was obtained by the development of DNA specific primers to "S", "T" and "N" types. The goal of this work was the identification of the cytoplasm type in two different onion populations in the São Francisco river Valley, in order to facilitate the development of onion hybrids from Northeast Brazil. In the sample of 19 plants of the BRS Alfa São Francisco cultivar was observed the amplification of

  16. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): Morphological transformation of galaxies across the green valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, M. N.; Phillipps, S.; Kelvin, L. S.; De Propris, R.; Kennedy, Rebecca; Moffett, Amanda J.; Bamford, S.; Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S. P.; Häußler, B.; Holwerda, B.; Hopkins, A.; James, P. A.; Liske, J.; Percival, S.; Taylor, E. N.

    2018-05-01

    We explore constraints on the joint photometric and morphological evolution of typical low redshift galaxies as they move from the blue cloud through the green valley and on to the red sequence. We select Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey galaxies with 10.25 sensitive K-band profiles of red and green galaxy populations are very similar while g-band profiles indicate more disc-like morphologies for the green galaxies: apparent (optical) morphological differences arise primarily from radial mass-to-light ratio variations. Two-component fits show that most green galaxies have significant bulge and disc components and that the blue to red evolution is driven by colour change in the disc. Together, these strongly suggest that galaxies evolve from blue to red through secular disc fading and that a strong bulge is present prior to any decline in star formation. The relative abundance of the green population implies a typical time-scale for traversing the green valley ˜1-2 Gyr and is independent of environment, unlike that of the red and blue populations. While environment likely plays a rôle in triggering the passage across the green valley, it appears to have little effect on time taken. These results are consistent with a green valley population dominated by (early type) disc galaxies that are insufficiently supplied with gas to maintain previous levels of disc star formation, eventually attaining passive colours. No single event is needed to quench their star formation.

  17. Outlook for Mississippi Alluvial Valley forests: a subregional report from the Southern Forest Futures Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner

    2015-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley, which can be broadly subdivided into the Holocene Deposits section and the Deltaic Plain section, is a 24.9-million-acre area generally approximating the alluvial floodplain and delta of the lower Mississippi River. Its robust agricultural economy is maintained by a largely rural population, and recreational resources draw high...

  18. Valley-filtered edge states and quantum valley Hall effect in gated bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Long; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun

    2017-05-10

    Electron edge states in gated bilayer graphene in the quantum valley Hall (QVH) effect regime can carry both charge and valley currents. We show that an interlayer potential splits the zero-energy level and opens a bulk gap, yielding counter-propagating edge modes with different valleys. A rich variety of valley current states can be obtained by tuning the applied boundary potential and lead to the QVH effect, as well as to the unbalanced QVH effect. A method to individually manipulate the edge states by the boundary potentials is proposed.

  19. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005 and...

  20. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.

  1. Meie mees Silicon Valleys / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. dets. lk. 4. Peaminister Andrus Ansip avas Eesti Ettevõtluse Sihtasutuse esinduse Silicon Valley pealinnas San Joses. Vt. samas: Ränioru kliima on tehnoloogiasõbralik; Andrus Viirg

  2. Meie ingel Silicon Valleys / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse esinduse töölepanekust USAs Silicon Valleys räägib esinduse juht Andrus Viirg. Vt. ka: Eestlasi leidub San Franciscos omajagu; Muljetavaldav karjäär; USAga ammune tuttav

  3. Burrowing Owl - Palo Verde Valley [ds197

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is an...

  4. Electrical valley filtering in transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Chou, Mei-Yin; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates the feasibility of electrical valley filtering for holes in transition metal dichalcogenides. We look specifically into the scheme that utilizes a potential barrier to produce valley-dependent tunneling rates, and perform the study with both a k .p -based analytic method and a recursive Green's function-based numerical method. The study yields the transmission coefficient as a function of incident energy and transverse wave vector, for holes going through lateral quantum barriers oriented in either armchair or zigzag directions, in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. The main findings are the following: (1) The tunneling current valley polarization increases with increasing barrier width or height; (2) both the valley-orbit interaction and band structure warping contribute to valley-dependent tunneling, with the former contribution being manifest in structures with asymmetric potential barriers, and the latter being orientation dependent and reaching maximum for transmission in the armchair direction; and (3) for transmission ˜0.1 , a tunneling current valley polarization of the order of 10 % can be achieved.

  5. Groundwater quality in the Indian Wells Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Indian Wells Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Indian Wells study area is approximately 600 square miles (1,554 square kilometers) and includes the Indian Wells Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Indian Wells Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lake beds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 97.0 percent (%) natural, 0.4% agricultural, and 2.6% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Ridgecrest (2010 population of 28,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from the Sierra Nevada to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and direct infiltration from irrigation and septic systems. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells and evapotranspiration near the dry lakebeds. The primary aquifers in the Indian Wells study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in

  6. Specific Gravity Variation in a Lower Mississippi Valley Cottonwood Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. E. Farmer; J. R. Wilcox

    1966-01-01

    Specific gravity varied from 0,32 to 0.46, averaging 0.38. Most of the variation was associated with individual trees; samples within locations accounted for a smaller, but statistically significant, portion of the variation. Variation between locatians was not significant. It was concluded that individual high-density trees' should be sought throughout the...

  7. Pomada orgânica natural ou solução salina isotônica no tratamento de feridas limpas induzidas em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahal Sheila Canevese

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 40 ratos Wistar, machos, com peso inicial médio de 225 gramas, separados em dois grupos. Após serem anestesiados com éter, foi induzida uma ferida limpa na região torácica dorsal cranial, mediante a utilização de molde metálico de 2,0 x 1,5cm. No grupo I, foi utilizada pomada contendo óleo de fígado de bacalhau, extrato de confrei, extrato cítrico, óxido de zinco e veículo (Creamex®; no grupo II, a ferida foi apenas limpa com solução salina isotônica. Para a avaliação histológica, foram submetidos à eutanásia cinco animais de cada grupo no 3º, 7º, 14º e 21º dia de pós-operatório. O grupo tratado com a pomada orgânica apresentou padrão cicatricial de qualidade superior em relação ao grupo tratado com salina isotônica, representado por formação de fibras colágenas, neoformação de vasos e reepitelização completa da epiderme.

  8. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesarič, Tina; Gambardella, Chiara; Milivojević, Tamara; Faimali, Marco; Drobne, Damjana; Falugi, Carla; Makovec, Darko; Jemec, Anita; Sepčić, Kristina

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration-dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5mg/mL carbon black and 0.1mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Avaliação da bioatividade dos extratos de cúrcuma (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae em Artemia salina e Biomphalaria glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. M. da Silva Filho

    Full Text Available A cúrcuma é o rizoma limpo, em boas condições, seco e moído da Curcuma longa L., uma planta herbácea da família Zingiberaceae. Visando novas alternativas para o controle da esquistossomose, os extratos de Curcuma longa L. foram testados para a avaliação da atividade moluscicida contra caramujos adultos da espécie Biomphalaria glabrata, e toxicidade (ensaio de letalidade com Artemia salina. A oleoresina e o óleo essencial de cúrcuma foram ativos contra Artemia salina (CL50 = 80,43 e CL50 = 319,82 μg/mL, respectivamente e também ativos contra os indivíduos adultos de Biomphalaria glabrata (CL50 = 58,3 e CL50 = 46,73 μg/mL, respectivamente. A partir dos resultados obtidos pôde ser concluído que ambos os extratos podem constituir uma alternativa no controle da população desses caramujos e na redução da esquistossomose.

  10. AIR POLLUTION FEATURES OF THE VALLEY-BASED TOWNS IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. UTASI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There are 30 valley-based towns with >10,000 inhabitants in Hungary, filled by 1.023 million people i.e. 10 % of the population. Two criteria are used to define the valley-based town. They are: (i Vertical difference between the lowest point in the town and the highest one around it should be >100 m. At the same time, (ii the same difference on the opposite side should be >50 m. Air pollution data by the National Air Pollution Observation Network are used. Five contaminants were selected and analysed for 2007, 2010 and 2013. Due to a sharp reduction in the network, we could find data for a small part of the valley-based towns. Control towns with equal air-quality observations and similar cumulative number of inhabitants were also selected. The contaminants and the number of the settlements are: NO2 manual (14 valley-based vs. 2x14 control, NO2 automatic (8 vs. 8, SO2 automatic (7 vs. 2x6, PM10 automatic (8 vs. 2x7 and PM10 deposition manual (6 vs. 8. Average values, as well as high concentration episodes (>98%thresholds are equally analysed and evaluated. The main conclusion is that there are so big differences between the years both in absolute values and relative sequence of valley-based and control groups that the analysed there years is not enough to make any final conclusion. For step-over frequencies, however valley-based towns have some advantage, possibly due to the valley-hill wind system.

  11. Microbial ecology of extreme environments: Antarctic dry valley yeasts and growth in substrate limited habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishniac, H. S.

    1981-01-01

    The multiple stresses temperature, moisture, and for chemoheterotrophs, sources of carbon and energy of the Dry Valley Antarctica soils allow at best depauperate communities, low in species diversity and population density. The nature of community structure, the operation of biogeochemical cycles, the evolution and mechanisms of adaptation to this habitat are of interest in informing speculations upon life on other planets as well as in modeling the limits of gene life. Yeasts of the Cryptococcus vishniacil complex (Basidiobiastomycetes) are investigated, as the only known indigenes of the most hostile, lichen free, parts of the Dry Valleys. Methods were developed for isolating these yeasts (methods which do not exclude the recovery of other microbiota). The definition of the complex was refined and the importance of nitrogen sources was established as well as substrate competition in fitness to the Dry Valley habitats.

  12. Topological Valley Transport in Two-dimensional Honeycomb Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Jiang, Hua; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2018-01-25

    Two-dimensional photonic crystals, in analogy to AB/BA stacking bilayer graphene in electronic system, are studied. Inequivalent valleys in the momentum space for photons can be manipulated by simply engineering diameters of cylinders in a honeycomb lattice. The inequivalent valleys in photonic crystal are selectively excited by a designed optical chiral source and bulk valley polarizations are visualized. Unidirectional valley interface states are proved to exist on a domain wall connecting two photonic crystals with different valley Chern numbers. With the similar optical vortex index, interface states can couple with bulk valley polarizations and thus valley filter and valley coupler can be designed. Our simple dielectric PC scheme can help to exploit the valley degree of freedom for future optical devices.

  13. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  14. The Salinas formation in the type-area, Northeastern Minas Gerais: a proposal to review the stratigraphy of the Aracuai belt on sedimentary, metamorphic and U-Pb SHRIMP evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Sirlene A. de Abreu; Pedrosa Soares, Antonio C.; Cordani, Umberto G.; Nutman, Allen

    2002-01-01

    The Salinas Formation has been considered to be a stratigraphic unit of the Macaubas Group. This group comprises the rift to passive margin sequences of the precursor basin of the Neo proterozoic Aracuai Orogeny, eastern Brazil. However, new road cuts show extensive and spectacular outcrops with very well-preserved sedimentary structures, allowing detailed studies in the type-locality of this formation, located in the Salinas town and surroundings, northeast Minas Gerais State. In its type-locality, the Salinas Formation consists of graywacke, pelite and clast-supported conglomerate, metamorphosed in the green schist facies. The sedimentary lithofacies are grouped into three facies association (shelf, slope and deep-sea), indicating sedimentation from shelf deposits to deep-water turbidites. The shelf sedimentation was influenced by storm-wave during deposition. The slump and deep-sea deposits were generated by gravitational flows and high- to low-concentration turbidity currents. Shelf sandstone, clast-supported conglomerate and proximal to distal turbidites outline a submarine fan system. U-Pb SHRIMP data from detrital zircons of graywacke samples indicate a maximum sedimentation age of ca. 568 Ma. Thus, the Salinas Formation is much younger than the Macaubas Group, and represents late orogenic deposits (ca. 568- 500 Ma). The distal, passive margin unit of the Macaubas Group is now called Ribeirao da Folha Formation (ca. 800 Ma). (author)

  15. Ethnobotanical survey of Leepa valley

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.M.Ishtiaq Ch.

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... Illicit export, incessant agriculture expansion ... China, homeopathic medicine system (HMS) of Pakistan, ayurvedic ...... exponential growth of population but not increase in income or ... Leaf Epidermal Anatomy of. Medicinal ...

  16. Analysis of Mining-induced Valley Closure Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Mitra, R.; Oh, J.; Hebblewhite, B.

    2016-05-01

    Valley closure movements have been observed for decades in Australia and overseas when underground mining occurred beneath or in close proximity to valleys and other forms of irregular topographies. Valley closure is defined as the inward movements of the valley sides towards the valley centreline. Due to the complexity of the local geology and the interplay between several geological, topographical and mining factors, the underlying mechanisms that actually cause this behaviour are not completely understood. A comprehensive programme of numerical modelling investigations has been carried out to further evaluate and quantify the influence of a number of these mining and geological factors and their inter-relationships. The factors investigated in this paper include longwall positional factors, horizontal stress, panel width, depth of cover and geological structures around the valley. It is found that mining in a series passing beneath the valley dramatically increases valley closure, and mining parallel to valley induces much more closure than other mining orientations. The redistribution of horizontal stress and influence of mining activity have also been recognised as important factors promoting valley closure, and the effect of geological structure around the valley is found to be relatively small. This paper provides further insight into both the valley closure mechanisms and how these mechanisms should be considered in valley closure prediction models.

  17. Transport of particle pollution into the Maipo Valley: winter 2015 campaign results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneeus, Nicolás; Mazzeo, Andrea; Ordóñez, César; Donoso, Nicolás; Gallardo, Laura; Molina, Luisa; Moreno, Valeria; Muñoz, Ricardo; Orfanoz, Andrea; Vizcarra, Aldo

    2016-04-01

    Each winter, Santiago (33° 27'S, 70° 40'W) the capital of Chile with a population of about 7 million people, experiences episodes with particulate matter (PM) concentrations larger than allowed by Chilean environmental regulations. Transport and residential heating largely dominate emissions prior to and during these episodes. Important impact of black carbon (BC) on the cryosphere has been documented in other parts of the world associated with urban pollution. In order to explore if BC from Santiago has the potential to reach the Andean cryosphere during the aforementioned episodes, a one week-long campaign was conducted in Santiago and the Maipo Valley between 18th and 25th of July 2015 when the air quality conditions of the city reached twice the critical levels (pre-emergency in Chilean regulations). Measurements were carried out at three sites: downtown Santiago, the entrance of the valley (and outskirts of Santiago) and 12 km inside the Maipo Valley. At each of these sites both surface and vertically distributed measurements were conducted. A meteorological station measuring standard meteorological parameters and an E-Sampler measuring PM10 concentrations were installed at each site. In addition, a tethered balloon equipped with a sonde and a mini-aethalometer was used in each site to measure vertical profiles of standard meteorological parameters and BC concentrations, respectively. The tethered balloon was raised every three hours up to a maximum of 1000 meters above ground level, whenever meteorological conditions allowed. In general, the BC concentrations inside the valley, both at the surface and in the vertical, were dominated by emissions within the valley and BC was limited to shallow layers above the ground. However, on both days with critical air quality levels, winds blowing from the city and deeper BC layers were observed inside the valley. Furthermore, during these days observations at the entrance of the valley and those taken inside were

  18. Reposição de volume na sepse com solução salina hipertônica Sepsis volume reposition with hypertonic saline solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Friedman

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão discute os efeitos hemodinâmicos e imunomoduladores da solução hipertônica em choque experimental e em pacientes com sepse. Comentamos sobre os mecanismos de ação da solução hipertônica, recorrendo a dados sobre choque hemorrágico e séptico. Atuações específicas da solução salina hipertônica aplicáveis a sepse grave e choque séptico são enfatizadas. Os dados disponíveis corroboram os benefícios em potencial da infusão de solução salina hipertônica em vários aspetos da fisiopatologia da sepse, inclusive hipoperfusão dos tecidos, consumo reduzido de oxigênio, disfunção endotelial, depressão miocárdica e presença de um amplo elenco de citocinas próinflamatórias e várias espécies de oxidantes. Uma terapia que, ao mesmo tempo, bloqueie os componentes prejudiciais da sepse terá um impacto no seu tratamento. Estudos prospectivos adequadamente desenhados poderão no futuro comprovar o papel benéfico da solução salina hipertônica.The present review discusses the hemodynamic and immune-modulatory effects of hypertonic saline in experimental shock and in patients with sepsis. We comment on the mechanisms of action of hypertonic saline, calling upon data in hemorrhagic and septic shock. Specific actions of hypertonic saline applicable to severe sepsis and septic shock are highlighted. Data available support potential benefits of hypertonic saline infusion in various aspects of the pathophysiology of sepsis, including tissue hypoperfusion, decreased oxygen consumption, endothelial dysfunction, cardiac depression, and the presence of a broad array of pro-inflammatory cytokines and various oxidant species. A therapy that simultaneously blocks the damaging components of sepsis will have an impact on the management of sepsis. Proper designed prospective studies may prove a beneficial role for hypertonic saline solution in the future.

  19. The lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the proceedings of a workshop on the Lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley that was held in conjunction with the CRP on The Use of Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations. The paper presents a review of the geological, hydrogeological and physical limnological setting of the lakes in the Jordan Rift Valley, Lake Hula, Lake Kinneret and the Dead Sea. This is complemented by a description of the isotope hydrology of the system that includes the use of a wide range of isotopes: oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, carbon-14, carbon-13, chlorine isotopes, boron-11 and helium-3/4. Environmental isotope aspects of the salt balances of the lakes, their palaeolimnology and biogeochemical tracers are also presented. The scope of application of isotopic tracers is very broad and provides a clear insight into many aspects of the physical, chemical and biological limnology of the Rift Valley Lakes. (author)

  20. A new Proposal to Mexico Valley Zonification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Estrella, H. C.; Yussim, S.; Lomnitz, C.

    2004-12-01

    The effects of the Michoacan earthquake (19th September, 1985, Mw 8.1) in Mexico City caused a significant change in the political, social and scientific history, as it was considered the worst seismic disaster ever lived in Mexico. Since then, numerous efforts have been made to understand and determine the parameters that caused the special features registered. One of these efforts had began on 1960 with the work by Marsal and Masari, who published the Mexico Valley seismological and geotechnical zonification (1969), based on gravimetric and shallow borehole data. In this work, we present a revision of the studies that proposed the zonification, a description of the valley geology, and basing on it we propose a new zonification for Mexico Valley.

  1. Geologic summary of the Owens Valley drilling project, Owens and Rose Valleys, Inyo County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, D.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Owens Valley Drilling Project consists of eight drill holes located in southwest Inyo County, California, having an aggregate depth of 19,205 feet (5853 m). Project holes penetrated the Coso Formation of upper Pliocene or early Pleistocene age and the Owens Lake sand and lakebed units of the same age. The project objective was to improve the reliability of uranium-potential-resource estimates assigned to the Coso Formation in the Owens Valley region. Uranium-potential-resource estimates for this area in $100 per pound U 3 O 8 forward-cost-category material have been estimatd to be 16,954 tons (15,384 metric tons). This estimate is based partly on project drilling results. Within the Owens Valley project area, the Coso Formation was encountered only in the Rose Valley region, and for this reason Rose Valley is considered to be the only portion of the project area favorable for economically sized uranium deposits. The sequence of sediments contained in the Owens Valley basin is considered to be largely equivalent but lithologically dissimilar to the Coso Formation of Haiwee Ridge and Rose Valley. The most important factor in the concentration of significant amounts of uranium in the rock units investigated appears to be the availability of reducing agents. Significant amounts of reductants (pyrite) were found in the Coso Formation. No organic debris was noted. Many small, disconnected uranium occurrences, 100 to 500 ppM U 3 O 8 , were encountered in several of the holes

  2. Potential effects of drought on carrying capacity for wintering waterfowl in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Mark J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Wolder, Mike A.; Isola, Craig R.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Skalos, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    We used the bioenergetics model TRUEMET to evaluate potential effects of California's recent drought on food supplies for waterfowl wintering in the Central Valley under a range of habitat and waterfowl population scenarios. In nondrought years in the current Central Valley landscape, food supplies are projected to be adequate for waterfowl from fall through early spring (except late March) even if waterfowl populations reach North American Waterfowl Management Plan goals. However, in all drought scenarios that we evaluated, food supplies were projected to be exhausted for ducks by mid- to late winter and by late winter or early spring for geese. For ducks, these results were strongly related to projected declines in winter-flooded rice fields that provide 45% of all the food energy available to ducks in the Central Valley in nondrought water years. Delayed flooding of some managed wetlands may help alleviate food shortages by providing wetland food resources better timed with waterfowl migration and abundance patterns in the Central Valley, as well as reducing the amount of water needed to manage these habitats. However, future research is needed to evaluate the impacts of delayed flooding on waterfowl hunting, and whether California's existing water delivery system would make delayed flooding feasible. Securing adequate water supplies for waterfowl and other wetland-dependent birds is among the greatest challenges facing resource managers in coming years, especially in the increasingly arid western United States.

  3. Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Kai; Moody, Galan; Wu, Fengcheng; Dass, Chandriker Kavir; Xu, Lixiang; Chen, Chang Hsiao; Sun, Liuyang; Li, Ming-yang; Li, Lain-Jong; MacDonald, Allan H.; Li, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge

  4. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  5. Mechanical control over valley magnetotransport in strained graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ning, E-mail: maning@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Shengli, E-mail: zhangsl@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Daqing, E-mail: liudq@cczu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Physics, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2016-05-06

    Recent experiments report that the graphene exhibits Landau levels (LLs) that form in the presence of a uniform strain pseudomagnetic field with magnitudes up to hundreds of tesla. We further reveal that the strain removes the valley degeneracy in LLs, and leads to a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. This accordingly gives rise to the well separated valley Hall plateaus and Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations. These effects are absent in strainless graphene, and can be used to generate and detect valley polarization by mechanical means, forming the basis for the new paradigm “valleytronics” applications. - Highlights: • We explore the mechanical strain effects on the valley magnetotransport in graphene. • We analytically derive the dc collisional and Hall conductivities under strain. • The strain removes the valley degeneracy in Landau levels. • The strain causes a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. • The strain leads to the well separated valley Hall and Shubnikov–de Haas effects.

  6. The Health Valley: Global Entrepreneurial Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuis, Benoit

    2014-12-01

    In the space of a decade, the Lake Geneva region has become the Health Valley, a world-class laboratory for discovering and developing healthcare of the future. Through visionary individuals and thanks to exceptional infrastructure this region has become one of the most dynamic in the field of innovation, including leading scientific research and exceptional actors for the commercialization of academic innovation to industrial applications that will improve the lives of patients and their families. Here follows the chronicle of a spectacular expansion into the Health Valley.

  7. Solar energy innovation and Silicon Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    The growth of the U. S. and global solar energy industry depends on a strong relationship between science and engineering innovation, manufacturing, and cycles of policy design and advancement. The mixture of the academic and industrial engine of innovation that is Silicon Valley, and the strong suite of environmental policies for which California is a leader work together to both drive the solar energy industry, and keep Silicon Valley competitive as China, Europe and other area of solar energy strength continue to build their clean energy sectors.

  8. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Coachella Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ICF Kaiser

    1999-05-20

    Southern California's Coachella Valley became a Clean Cities region in 1996. Since then, they've made great strides. SunLine Transit, the regional public transit provider, was the first transit provider to replace its entire fleet with compressed natural gas buses. They've also built the foundation for a nationally recognized model in the clean air movement, by partnering with Southern California Gas Company to install a refueling station and developing a curriculum for AFV maintenance with the College of the Desert. Today the valley is home to more than 275 AFVs and 15 refueling stations.

  9. Climatology of atmospheric PM10 concentration in the Po Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, A.; Ghermandi, G.

    2014-01-01

    The limits to atmospheric pollutant concentration set by the European Commission provide a challenging target for the municipalities in the Po Valley, because of the characteristic climatic conditions and high population density of this region. In order to assess climatology and trends in the concentration of atmospheric particles in the Po Valley, a dataset of PM10 data from 41 sites across the Po Valley have been analysed, including both traffic and background sites (either urban, suburban or rural). Of these 41 sites, 18 with 10 yr or longer record have been analysed for long term trend in de-seasonalized monthly means, in annual quantiles and in monthly frequency distribution. A widespread significant decreasing trend has been observed at most sites, up to few percent per year, by Generalised Least Square and Theil-Sen method. All 41 sites have been tested for significant weekly periodicity by Kruskal-Wallis test for mean anomalies and by Wilcoxon test for weekend effect magnitude. A significant weekly periodicity has been observed for most PM10 series, particularly in summer and ascribed mainly to anthropic particulate emissions. A cluster analysis has been applied in order to highlight stations sharing similar pollution conditions over the reference period. Five clusters have been found, two gathering the metropolitan areas of Torino and Milano and their respective nearby sites and the other three clusters gathering north-east, north-west and central Po Valley sites respectively. Finally the observed trends in atmospheric PM10 have been compared to trends in provincial emissions of particulates and PM precursors, and analysed along with data on vehicular fleet age, composition and fuel sales. Significant basin-wide drop in emissions occurred for gaseous pollutants, contrarily to emissions of PM10 and PM2.5, whose drop resulted low and restricted to few provinces. It is not clear whether the decrease for only gaseous emissions is sufficient to explain the

  10. An Epidemiological Model of Rift Valley Fever with Spatial Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianchan Niu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a category A agent in the Center for Disease Control bioterrorism list, Rift Valley fever (RVF is considered a major threat to the United States (USA. Should the pathogen be intentionally or unintentionally introduced to the continental USA, there is tremendous potential for economic damages due to loss of livestock, trade restrictions, and subsequent food supply chain disruptions. We have incorporated the effects of space into a mathematical model of RVF in order to study the dynamics of the pathogen spread as affected by the movement of humans, livestock, and mosquitoes. The model accounts for the horizontal transmission of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV between two mosquito and one livestock species, and mother-to-offspring transmission of virus in one of the mosquito species. Space effects are introduced by dividing geographic space into smaller patches and considering the patch-to-patch movement of species. For each patch, a system of ordinary differential equations models fractions of populations susceptible to, incubating, infectious with, or immune to RVFV. The main contribution of this work is a methodology for analyzing the likelihood of pathogen establishment should an introduction occur into an area devoid of RVF. Examples are provided for general and specific cases to illustrate the methodology.

  11. Future Parking Demand at Rail Stations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Phooi Wai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Klang Valley, Malaysia is currently undergoing a massive development of rail transportation system expansion where the current integrated rail transit system will see new extensions of two MRT lines and an LRT line by year 2020. By year 2017, the first MRT line will be ready to run with 31 new rail stations connected to the current passenger rail network. The existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are commonly known as being unable to sufficiently cater for the current parking space demand. Therefore, with the expansion of many additional rail stations which are rapidly under construction, there are doubts that the future parking space at rail stations will be able to accommodate the sudden rise of rail passengers. Although the authorities are increasing parking bays at various locations, will the future parking demand at rail stations be sufficient? This paper studies the factors influencing parking demand in terms of population, car ownership, new car registrations and passenger rail ridership and estimating the future parking demand using Linear Regression method. Result shows that the forecasted parking demand at rail stations after the implementation of the first new MRT system in 2017 is 2.7 times more than in 2014.

  12. Estudio de caracterización de emprendedores de la Parroquia Salinas de la Provincia de Bolívar - Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Goyes Noboa

    2016-09-01

    Salinas de Guaranda. Se han identificado variables y factores sociales, económicos, de financiamiento, organizacionales, estructuras administrativas, económicas, cultura organizacional, formas asociativas, motivación para crear negocios, estructuras de negocios predominantes que impulsan la economía social y solidaria presente en la zona. El mayor número de emprendimientos está ligado directa e indirectamente (66% de negocios a las organizaciones sociales y fundaciones salineras, son negocios relativamente jóvenes (menos de 10 años de existencia que han surgido por la necesidad de generar actividades económicas que apoyen al ingreso familiar y comunitario, con lo que afianza el modelo de desarrollo social vigente.

  13. Diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de Citrus em pomares de laranjeira e tangerineira Diversity of flowers visiting bees of Citrus in salinas, state of minas gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tigre do Nascimento

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A presença de abelhas em culturas de valor comercial, no período de florescimento, é importante não apenas para garantir a polinização cruzada, quando indispensável, mas também para incrementar a produção de frutos e sementes. Nessa perspectiva, o presente trabalho teve a finalidade de identificar as abelhas visitantes das flores em pomar de laranjeira (Citrus sinensis e tangerineira (Citrus reticulata em Salinas - MG. O trabalho foi conduzido na fazenda experimental Santa Isabel, da Escola Agrotécnica Federal de Salinas - MG, em pomares de laranjeira com as variedades, pera, baía e baianinha, e de tangerineira, variedade poncã. As coletas das abelhas visitantes das culturas da laranjeira e tangerineira foram feitas nas floradas principais, entre os meses de agosto e outubro. Foram coletadas as abelhas que visitaram as flores nos horários entre 06 h e 18 h, totalizando 52 horas na laranjeira e 50 horas na tangerineira. No pomar de laranjeira, foram coletados 5.045 espécimes com riqueza de 12 espécies, e na tangerineira, 1.428 espécimes com 20 espécies. As espécies de abelhas de maior predominância e dominância em todos os horários amostrados foram Apis mellifera e Trigona spinipes na cultura da laranjeira e A. mellifera, T. spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula na cultura da tangerineira.The presence of bees on cultures with commercial value during flowering is important to ensure the cross-pollination, when necessary, but also to increase the production of fruits and seeds. This work aimed to identify flowers' visiting bees on orange and tangerine orchards in Salinas - MG. The work was leaded on Santa Isabel experimental farm of the Federal Agro-technical School of Salinas - MG, on orange orchards (Citrus sinensis with pear, bahia and baianinha varieties in the spacing of 5,0 x 6,0, and on tangerine orchards (C. reticulate using poncã variety in the spacing of 5,0 x 5,0. The sampling of visiting bees from orange and tangerine

  14. Encapsulación de moléculas pequeñas mediante la precipitación salina de poliuretanos catioméricos

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández d’Arlas, Borja; Corcuera, María Ángeles; Eceiza, Arantxa

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudia un copolímero de poliuretano catiomérico (PU) con alta proporción de uretano como agente encapsulante de fármacos modelos (FM) mediante la encapsulación inducida por precipitación salina del PU y FM a pH < pI del PU. Mediante espectroscopia UV-Vis se ha estimado el porcentaje de encapsulación de varios FMs proponiéndose un modelo semi-empírico para determinar la distribución observada en las eficiencias de encapsulación, E, en función de su volumen molar...

  15. Effect of temperature and viscosity on swimming velocity of the copepod Acartia tonsa, brine shrimp Artemia salina and rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Madsen, C.V.; Riisgard, H.U.

    2008-01-01

    Beating cilia are important organelles for swimming in many zooplanktonic aquatic organisms, including many invertebrate larvae, rotifers and ciliates, but other planktonic organisms, such as copepods and brine shrimps, use muscle-powered swimming appendages. In recent studies we found...... of swimming velocity for a 10 degrees C temperature reduction) that is found to be largest for the brine shrimp Artemia salina nauplius (37 %) and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (26%), but negligible for the copepod Acartia tonsa (4%). We suggest that experimental data on change in swimming velocity (V......) due to change in kinematic viscosity (v) be correlated in terms of a power law, V proportional to v(-m). The present data on swimming velocity of copepods, brine shrimps and rotifers show values of exponent m approximate to 1.5 to 3, with a trend of decreasing values for increasing size of species...

  16. The Cytotoxicity Study of Carboxymethyl Starch (CMS) of Sago Starch (Metro xylon sago) by Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (Artemia salina nauplii)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim Ijang; Fazliana Mohd Saaya; Zainon Othman

    2014-01-01

    CMS can be produced by substitution of the hydroxyl groups with sodium monochloroacetate in the presence of strong alkali. Carboxy methylation can be performed in water as a solvent or in a water-miscible organic solvent containing a small amount of water such as ethanol, isopropanol, methanol or toluene. The use of organic solvent will preserve the final product in the granular form and the side product can be washed out easily but some of them may be having potential toxicity and carcinogenic effect. In this study, CMS was investigated the level of toxicity by using brine shrimp lethality (BSLT). Brine shrimp test method was used to screen CMS for their biological activity. The screening results showed that the LC50, of CMS is more than 100 mg/ ml dose concentration. In conclusion, CMS is not cytotoxicity to Artemia salina nauplii and BSLT method is simple, inexpensive and convenient assay for the detection of cytotoxic compound. (author)

  17. El turismo de naturaleza en espacios naturales. El caso del Parque Regional de las Salinas y Arenales de San Pedro del Pinatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Ballesteros Pelegrín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los espacios naturales atraen a turistas que buscan el contacto con la naturaleza, surgiendo nuevos productos turísticos. Surgen, de este modo, nuevos productos turísticos. En la oferta de turismo de naturaleza del Parque Regional de las Salinas y Arenales de San Pedro del Pinatar destaca: deportes en la naturaleza, aventura y ecoturismo. Este último se divide en: turismo ornitológico y fotográfico, que junto al tradicional de sol y playa y de salud, se ve favorecido por su situación geográfica, condiciones naturales y amplia oferta hotelera. Sin embargo, el turismo cultural basado en la tradición salinera y pesquera no ha sido desarrollado.

  18. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.27 Lime Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley...

  19. An example of Alaknanda valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014) have been best explained by the geometry .... flows through narrow valley confined by the steep valley slopes. ... valley (figure 3b) which opens up around Srina- ... Method. 4.1 Drainage basin and stream network. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) helps in extracting ... was processed to fill the pits or sinks, and to obtain.

  20. Crescimento, consumo hídrico e composição mineral de alface cultivada em hidroponia com águas salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Paulus

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o crescimento, o consumo hídrico e a extração de nutrientes, por alface (Lactuca sativa L. em sistema hidropônico NFT (fluxo laminar de nutrientes, com a utilização de águas salinas no preparo da solução nutritiva e reposição da lâmina diária evapotranspirada. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, em ambiente protegido. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, sendo estudados os efeitos de cinco níveis de salinidade da água, utilizando-se NaCl. O aumento da salinidade da água reduziu, de forma linear, o crescimento e o consumo hídrico da alface. A salinidade reduziu a concentração de macronutrientes na parte aérea, mas não se observaram sintomas de deficiência nutricional. O rendimento (massa de matéria fresca da parte aérea foi reduzido entre 6 e 6,5% por dS m-1, no primeiro e segundo cultivo, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos em sistema de cultivo NFT podem indicar a possibilidade do uso da água salina como alternativa para produção de hortaliças, para produtores que têm disponibilidade restrita de água doce, porém, com redução de produtividade.

  1. Trocas gasosas e conteúdo de carboidratos e compostos nitrogenados em pinhão-manso irrigado com águas residuária e salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Evami Cavalcante Sousa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alterações nas trocas gasosas e nos conteúdos de carboidratos e compostos nitrogenados, em pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas irrigado com águas residuária e salina. Empregou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições: irrigação plena com água de abastecimento a 0,6 dS m-1 (controle; irrigação plena com água salinizada a 2,4 dS m-1 (SAL; e irrigação com água residuária de esgoto, plena (R100 e a 50% da capacidade de campo (R50. O tratamento R50 reduziu fortemente as trocas gasosas e a área foliar, comparado ao controle, seguido pelos tratamentos SAL e R100. A redução na fotossíntese diminuiu o nível de sacarose nas folhas, nos quatro tratamentos. Os teores de açúcares solúveis aumentaram nos tratamentos R50, SAL e R100, enquanto o conteúdo de amido permaneceu praticamente inalterado. Os conteúdos de prolina e glicina betaína aumentaram nos três tratamentos, mas a última foi mais importante, em termos quantitativos, como protetor celular e osmótico. A irrigação plena com água residuária induz efeitos similares aos causados pela irrigação com água salina. A irrigação limitada com água residuária causa estresse agudo às plantas, provavelmente pela combinação de deficiência hídrica e acúmulo de solutos no solo.

  2. Emergência e crescimento inicial de plântulas de albízia submetidas à irrigação com água salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayky F. P. de Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de sais na água de irrigação sob a emergência e o crescimento inicial de plântulas de albízia (Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth.. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação do departamento de Ciências Vegetais da Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido, Mossoró, RN, usando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições, com 24 sementes em cada parcela. Os tratamentos foram constituídos das concentrações salinas 0,68 (água de abastecimento; 1,5; 3,0; 4,5; 6,0 e 7,5 dS m-1, obtidas através da adição de NaCl em água. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem de emergência de plântulas, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento da parte aérea, comprimento de raiz, número de folíolos, condutividade elétrica acumulada do substrato, índice de conteúdo de clorofila, massa seca da raiz, do caule, das folhas e total. O aumento da salinidade na água de irrigação interfere negativamente na emergência e no crescimento inicial de plântulas de albízia, sendo recomendado água com concentração salina até 1,5 dS m-1, caracterizando esta espécie como glicófita, sensível à salinidade.

  3. Crescimento e fitomassa da beterraba sob irrigação suplementar com água de diferentes concentrações salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Pereira dos Santos

    Full Text Available RESUMO O uso da água salina na agricultura é uma alternativa viável, tendo-se em vista o aumento da demanda de água doce. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o crescimento e a produção de fitomassa da beterraba, sob irrigação com água de diferentes concentrações salinas, em experimento em condição de campo, no Campus da Universidade Federal de Alagoas, em Arapiraca. Os tratamentos foram cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica (1,0; 2,0; 3,0; 4,0 e 5,0 dS m-1. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. O máximo rendimento da beterraba aos 27 dias após aplicação dos tratamentos salinos foi obtido com uma salinidade de 3,0 dS m-1, para as variáveis altura de planta (AP, diâmetro do caule (DC, comprimento da raiz (CR, fitomassa seca da parte aérea (FSPA e fitomassa seca total (FST. Aos 42 dias após aplicação dos tratamentos salinos, as variáveis fitomassa fresca da parte aérea (FFPA, fitomassa fresca da raiz (FFR, fitomassa fresca total (FFT, fitomassa seca da parte aérea (FSPA e fitomassa seca total (FST aumentaram com o aumento da salinidade da água. A chuva pode ter influenciado os resultados obtidos para as avaliações, realizadas aos 42 dias após aplicação dos tratamentos salinos.

  4. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-12

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.  Created: 5/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2011.

  5. Rift Valley Fever, Mayotte, 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giry, Claude; Gabrie, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Pettinelli, François; Collet, Louis; D’Ortenzio, Eric; Renault, Philippe; Pierre, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    After the 2006–2007 epidemic wave of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa and its circulation in the Comoros, laboratory case-finding of RVF was conducted in Mayotte from September 2007 through May 2008. Ten recent human RVF cases were detected, which confirms the indigenous transmission of RFV virus in Mayotte. PMID:19331733

  6. SADF EARLYIRON AGE EXCAVATIONS IN THETUGELA VALLEY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect of the high flanking ridges of the Tugela. Valley. The high ... fire. Police intervention and the Bhengu superior- ity in numbers brought an end to the fights just prior to the ..... The tail and three legs of the reptile are miss- ing . . ~C£.'.':.-:".

  7. Potential hydrologic characterization wells in Amargosa Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyles, B.; Mihevc, T.

    1994-09-01

    More than 500 domestic, agricultural, and monitoring wells were identified in the Amargosa Valley. From this list, 80 wells were identified as potential hydrologic characterization wells, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Test Area/Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (UGTA/RIFS). Previous hydrogeologic studies have shown that groundwater flow in the basin is complex and that aquifers may have little lateral continuity. Wells located more than 10 km or so from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) boundary may yield data that are difficult to correlate to sources from the NTS. Also, monitoring well locations should be chosen within the guidelines of a hydrologic conceptual model and monitoring plan. Since these do not exist at this time, recompletion recommendations will be restricted to wells relatively close (approximately 20 km) to the NTS boundary. Recompletion recommendations were made for two abandoned agricultural irrigation wells near the town of Amargosa Valley (previously Lathrop Wells), for two abandoned wildcat oil wells about 10 km southwest of Amargosa Valley, and for Test Well 5 (TW-5), about 10 km east of Amargosa Valley

  8. Geomorphological hazards in Swat valley, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, A.

    1999-01-01

    This study attempts to describe, interpret and analyze, in depth, the varied geomorphological hazards and their impacts prevailing in the swat valley locate in the northern hilly and mountainous regions of Pakistan. The hills and mountains re zones of high geomorphological activity with rapid rates of weathering, active tectonic activities, abundant precipitation, rapid runoff and heavy sediment transport. Due to the varied topography, lithology, steep slope, erodible soil, heavy winter snowfall and intensive rainfall in the spring and summer seasons, several kinds of geomorphological hazards, such as geomorphic gravitational hazards, Fluvial hazards, Glacial hazards, Geo tectonic hazards, are occurring frequently in swat valley. Amongst them, geomorphic gravitational hazards, such as rock fall rock slide, debris slide mud flow avalanches, are major hazards in mountains and hills while fluvial hazards and sedimentation are mainly confined to the alluvial plain and lowlands of the valley. The Getechtonic hazards, on the other hand, have wide spread distribution in the valley the magnitude and occurrence of each king of hazard is thus, varied according to intensity of process and physical geographic environment. This paper discusses the type distribution and damage due to the various geomorphological hazards and their reduction treatments. The study would to be of particular importance and interest to both natural and social scientists, as well as planner, environmentalists and decision-makers for successful developmental interventions in the region. (author)

  9. Antelope Valley Community College District Education Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmyer, Joe

    An analysis is provided of a proposal to the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges by the Antelope Valley Community College District (AVCCD) to develop an education center in Palmdale to accommodate rapid growth. First, pros and cons are discussed for the following major options: (1) increase utilization and/or expand the…

  10. Ecological Researches in the Yagnob Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razykov, Z.A.; Yunusov, M.M.; Bezzubov, N.I.; Murtazaev, Kh.; Fajzullaev, B.G.

    2002-01-01

    The article dwells on the resents of the estimation of the ecology surroundings of the Yagnob Valley. The researches included appraisal of radiation background, determination of the amount of heavy and radioactive elements in soil, bottom sedimentations, ashes in plants, water in rivers and wells. Designing on the premise of the researches implemented the ecology surrounding are estimated as propitious man's habitation. (Authors)

  11. 27 CFR 9.174 - Yadkin Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Yadkin Valley...-Salem, N.C.; VA; Tenn. (1953, Limited Revision 1962), and, (2) Charlotte, North Carolina; South Carolina... North Carolina within Wilkes, Surry, Yadkin and portions of Stokes, Forsyth, Davidson, and Davie...

  12. 27 CFR 9.41 - Lancaster Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lancaster Valley. 9.41 Section 9.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... through the town of Gap and along Mine Ridge to the 76°07′30″ west longitude line in Paradise Township. (9...

  13. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU 366)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events.

  14. College in Paradise! (Paradise Valley Shopping Mall).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolland, Lucile B.

    Rio Salado Community College (RSCC), a non-campus college within the Maricopa Community College District, offers hundreds of day, late afternoon, and evening classes at locations throughout the county. The Paradise Valley community had always participated heavily in the evening classes offered by RSCC at local high schools. In fall 1982, an effort…

  15. Temperature profiles from Salt Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J. H.; Lachenbruch, A. H.; Smith, E. P.

    Temperature profiles were obtained in the nine drilled wells as part of a thermal study of the Salt Valley anticline, Paradox Basin, Utha. Thermal conductivities were also measured on 10 samples judged to be representative of the rocks encountered in the deepest hole. The temperature profiles and thermal conductivities are presented, together with preliminary interpretive remarks and suggestions for additional work.

  16. Poultry Slaughter facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a slaughterhouse, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of

  17. Business plan Hatchery Facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a hatchery, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of the

  18. Eco-Hydrological Modelling of Stream Valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole

    a flow reduction in the order of 20 % in a natural spring, whereas no effect could be measured in neither short nor deep piezometers in the river valley 50 m from the spring. Problems of measuring effects of pumping are partly caused by disturbances from natural water level fluctuations. In this aspect...

  19. Produtividade do repolho utilizando cobertura morta e diferentes intervalos de irrigação com água moderadamente salina Cabbage yield using mulching and different irrigation intervals with moderately saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. de Carvalho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O manejo da irrigação em áreas sob escassez hídrica é imperativo para o incremento da eficiência do uso da água, particularmente em áreas susceptíveis a salinização e a elevadas demandas atmosféricas. Neste estudo avaliou-se o efeito da cobertura morta e de intervalos de irrigação utilizando-se água moderadamente salina sobre a produtividade do repolho e sobre suas variáveis relacionadas, em vale aluvial no semiárido. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, com 4 repetições, mediante a aplicação de intervalos de irrigação de 12, 24 e 48 h, com utilização de uma fração de lixiviação de 20%, e presença ou ausência de cobertura morta sobre o solo. Verificou-se que as produtividades foram afetadas pelos intervalos de irrigação e pela presença da cobertura morta. A máxima eficiência uso da água foi obtida aplicando-se o intervalo de irrigação de 12 h com cobertura morta, correspondendo a 110,49 Mg ha-1 mm-1, em consequência da menor variação da umidade ao longo do experimento. A relevância da cobertura morta ficou evidenciada para o tratamento com intervalo de irrigação de 48 h, tendendo a controlar as perdas de umidade e manter a produtividade do repolho.The irrigation management in areas under water scarcity is imperative to increase the water use efficiency particularly in areas with salinization risk and high atmospheric demands. In this study, effect of mulching and irrigation intervals was evaluated using moderately saline water on cabbage yield and on its related variables in an alluvial valley in the semiarid. The experimental design was in random blocks using a 3 x 2 factorial scheme, with 4 replications, adopting irrigation application intervals of 12, 24 and 48 h, and a leaching fraction of 20%, and considering mulching presence or absence on the soil. It was verified that productivities have been affected by the irrigation interval and by mulching. The

  20. The geochemistry of groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley: The impact of the Rift Valley brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, Amarisa; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Polak, A.; Shavit, U.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the Jordan Valley, along the section between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is investigated in order to evaluate the origin of the groundwater resources and, in particular, to elucidate the role of deep brines on the chemical composition of the regional groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley. Samples were collected from shallow groundwater in research boreholes on two sites in the northern and southern parts of the Jordan Valley, adjacent to the Jordan River. Data is also compiled from previous published studies. Geochemical data (e.g., Br/Cl, Na/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios) and B, O, Sr and S isotopic compositions are used to define groundwater groups, to map their distribution in the Jordan valley, and to evaluate their origin. The combined geochemical tools enabled the delineation of three major sources of solutes that differentially affect the quality of groundwater in the Jordan Valley: (1) flow and mixing with hypersaline brines with high Br/Cl (>2 ?? 10-3) and low Na/Cl (shallow saline groundwaters influenced by brine mixing exhibit a north-south variation in their Br/Cl and Na/Cl ratios. This chemical trend was observed also in hypersaline brines in the Jordan valley, which suggests a local mixing process between the water bodies. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A valley-filtering switch based on strained graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Feng; Ma, Yanling; Zhang, Ying-Tao

    2011-09-28

    We investigate valley-dependent transport through a graphene sheet modulated by both the substrate strain and the fringe field of two parallel ferromagnetic metal (FM) stripes. When the magnetizations of the two FM stripes are switched from the parallel to the antiparallel alignment, the total conductance, valley polarization and valley conductance excess change greatly over a wide range of Fermi energy, which results from the dependence of the valley-related transmission suppression on the polarity configuration of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Thus the proposed structure exhibits the significant features of a valley-filtering switch and a magnetoresistance device.

  2. A valley-filtering switch based on strained graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Feng; Ma Yanling; Zhang Yingtao

    2011-01-01

    We investigate valley-dependent transport through a graphene sheet modulated by both the substrate strain and the fringe field of two parallel ferromagnetic metal (FM) stripes. When the magnetizations of the two FM stripes are switched from the parallel to the antiparallel alignment, the total conductance, valley polarization and valley conductance excess change greatly over a wide range of Fermi energy, which results from the dependence of the valley-related transmission suppression on the polarity configuration of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Thus the proposed structure exhibits the significant features of a valley-filtering switch and a magnetoresistance device. (paper)

  3. Cleanup and valuation of waters of the aquifer of M’zab Valley (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouled Belkhir Cheikh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The M’zab valley is a hyper arid region of average rainfall not exceeding 100 mm per year. However, the rare floods that occur in M’zab River drain large volumes of surface water. Thanks to the genius of the local population, traditional dams were made for artificial recharge of groundwater. Grace of traditional wells drilled in the valley, farmers irrigate their palm groves and gardens. However, since more than half a century, the contribution of deep drilling for the exploitation of the aquifer of the Continental Intercalary posed environmental problems. On the basis of investigations and surveys of the local population during the years 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, it appears that these modern techniques in water catchment caused harmful consequences to the region like the rising of water consumption, pollution of groundwater and soil salinity. Solutions and recommendations are outlined in this article.

  4. New geoarchaeological investigations of the valley systems in the Aksum area of northern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    French, Charles; Sulas, Federica; Madella, Marco

    2009-01-01

    landscape stability and resilience. This is reflected in the development of soils with vertic-like properties, which instead appear to be more like organic brown earths that gradually begin to aggrade through colluvial and alluvial additions. How much this is the result of sympathetic, long-term landscape...... of the sediment captured in the valley systems and lower slopes to the north of Aksum. This no doubt reflects a growing population and arable intensification....

  5. Microscopic Identification of Prokaryotes in Modern and Ancient Halite, Saline Valley and Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Brian A.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Timofeeff, Michael N.

    2009-06-01

    Primary fluid inclusions in halite crystallized in Saline Valley, California, in 1980, 2004-2005, and 2007, contain rod- and coccoid-shaped microparticles the same size and morphology as archaea and bacteria living in modern brines. Primary fluid inclusions from a well-dated (0-100,000 years), 90 m long salt core from Badwater Basin, Death Valley, California, also contain microparticles, here interpreted as halophilic and halotolerant prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are distinguished from crystals on the basis of morphology, optical properties (birefringence), and uniformity of size. Electron micrographs of microparticles from filtered modern brine (Saline Valley), dissolved modern halite crystals (Saline Valley), and dissolved ancient halite crystals (Death Valley) support in situ microscopic observations that prokaryotes are present in fluid inclusions in ancient halite. In the Death Valley salt core, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions occur almost exclusively in halite precipitated in perennial saline lakes 10,000 to 35,000 years ago. This suggests that trapping and preservation of prokaryotes in fluid inclusions is influenced by the surface environment in which the halite originally precipitated. In all cases, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions in halite from the Death Valley salt core are miniaturized (<1 μm diameter cocci, <2.5 μm long, very rare rod shapes), which supports interpretations that the prokaryotes are indigenous to the halite and starvation survival may be the normal response of some prokaryotes to entrapment in fluid inclusions for millennia. These results reinforce the view that fluid inclusions in halite and possibly other evaporites are important repositories of microbial life and should be carefully examined in the search for ancient microorganisms on Earth, Mars, and elsewhere in the Solar System.

  6. Assessment and recommendations for two sites with active and potential aquaculture production in Rift Valley and Coast Provinces, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenya has a long history of local fish consumption. The population in the Lake Victoria area (Rift Valley Province) Northwest of Nairobi and coastal communities (Coast Province) have historically included fish in their diet. Migration from villages to urban areas and increasing commerce has created ...

  7. Estudo de processos de produção de etanol anidro através da destilação extrativa salina com recuperação do agente de separação

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana Luci Ligero

    1999-01-01

    Resumo: : Uma técnica amplamente utilizada na produção de etanol é a destilação azeotrópica benzeno, cuja propriedade cancerígena é bastante conhecida. Um processo alternativo, ecologicamente viável, é a destilação extrativa salina. O emprego de um sal solúvel na desidratação do etanol possibilita uma redução no consumo energético, além de produzir um etanol livre do agente de separação. Uma etapa importante na produção de etanol anidro através da destilação extrativa salina é a recuperação d...

  8. Valley Topological Phases in Bilayer Sonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiuyang; Qiu, Chunyin; Deng, Weiyin; Huang, Xueqin; Li, Feng; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Shuqi; Liu, Zhengyou

    2018-03-01

    Recently, the topological physics in artificial crystals for classical waves has become an emerging research area. In this Letter, we propose a unique bilayer design of sonic crystals that are constructed by two layers of coupled hexagonal array of triangular scatterers. Assisted by the additional layer degree of freedom, a rich topological phase diagram is achieved by simply rotating scatterers in both layers. Under a unified theoretical framework, two kinds of valley-projected topological acoustic insulators are distinguished analytically, i.e., the layer-mixed and layer-polarized topological valley Hall phases, respectively. The theory is evidently confirmed by our numerical and experimental observations of the nontrivial edge states that propagate along the interfaces separating different topological phases. Various applications such as sound communications in integrated devices can be anticipated by the intriguing acoustic edge states enriched by the layer information.

  9. Composição química e toxicidade frente Aedes aegypti L. e Artemia salina Leach do óleo essencial das folhas de Myrcia sylvatica (G. Mey. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. ROSA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A dengue está entre as doenças virais de propagação vetorial mais importante no mundo, causando sérios impactos de morbidade e mortalidade. Desta forma, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a composição química e a toxicidade do óleo essencial de Myrcia sylvatica (G. Mey D.C. frente Aedes aegypti e Artemia salina. Folhas de M. sylvatica foram coletadas no Parque Nacional da Chapada das Mesas, no município de Carolina (MA no mês de fevereiro de 2012. O óleo foi obtido por hidrodestilação e sua composição química foi determinada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massa (CG/EM. O bioensaio frente Artemia salina e às larvas de 3° estádio de Aedes aegypti foram realizados em diferentes concentrações. Os dados de mortalidade foram avaliados por regressão linear para determinar os valores de CL50. Obteve-se 0,5% de rendimento, sendo o (E-cariofileno o constituinte majoritário. O óleo essencial apresentou uma CL50 = 79,44 µg/mL frente A. salina, sendo considerado altamente tóxico. No entanto, este óleo não demonstrou efeito sobre as larvas de A. aegypti. Considerando que o teste de Artemia salina tem correlação com atividades biológicas de grande interesse terapêutico como antitumoral, o óleo essencial das folhas de M. sylvatica demonstrou potencial para desenvolvimento de produtos farmacêuticos.

  10. Ward Valley transfer stalled by Babbitt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt announced on November 24 that he would not authorize the land transfer for the proposed low-level waste disposal site at Ward Valley, California, until a legal challenge to the facility's license and environmental impact statement is resolved. Even if the matter is resolved quickly, there exists the possibility that yet another hearing will be held on the project, even though state courts in California have stated flatly that no such hearings are required

  11. Ward Valley transfer stalled by Babbitt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt announced on November 24 that he would not authorize the land transfer for the proposed low-level waste disposal site at Ward Valley, California, until a legal challenge to the facility's license and environmental impact statement is resolved. Even if the matter is resolved quickly, there exists the possibility that yet another hearing will be held on the project, even though state courts in California have stated flatly that no such hearings are required.

  12. Ground water in Dale Valley, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Allan D.

    1979-01-01

    Dale Valley is a broad valley segment, enlarged by glacial erosion, at the headwaters of Little Tonawanda Creek near Warsaw , New York. A thin, shallow alluvial aquifer immediately underlies the valley floor but is little used. A deeper gravel aquifer, buried beneath many feet of lake deposits, is tapped by several industrial wells. A finite-difference digital model treated the deep aquifer as two-dimensional with recharge and discharge through a confining layer. It was calibrated by simulating (1) natural conditions, (2) an 18-day aquifer test, and (3) 91 days of well-field operation. Streamflow records and model simulations suggest that in moderately wet years such as 1974, a demand of 750 gallons per minute could be met by withdrawal from the creek and from the aquifer without excessive drawdown at production wells or existing domestic wells. With reasonable but unverified model adjustments to simulate an unusually dry year, the model predicts that a demand of 600 gallons per minute could be met from the same sources. Water high in chloride has migrated from bedrock into parts of the deep aquifer. Industrial pumpage, faults in the bedrock, and the natural flow system may be responsible. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Tratamiento del prolapso rectal en la infancia con infiltración de solución salina al 16,5 %

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ramírez Pérez

    Full Text Available Introducción: cuando falla el tratamiento médico conservador en los pacientes pediátricos con prolapso rectal se impone la infiltración perirrectal con sustancias irritantes. En la década de los 90 esas infiltraciones en nuestro centro se hacían con glicerina, pero escaseó en el mercado, y ante tal problema, se buscó otro agente infiltrante alternativo. En el presente trabajo se describe la experiencia con la utilización de solución salina al 16,5 %. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de intervención, longitudinal, prospectivo, experimental, del tipo ensayo clínico no controlado. Consta de una segunda parte en la que se utilizó la aleatorización con un grupo control para la validación. El universo estuvo constituido por 27 pacientes y la muestra, por 16 pacientes con prolapso rectal, que fueron atendidos en el servicio de gastroenterología del Hospital Pediátrico Provincial de Holguín en el quinquenio 2003-2007. Las variables desarrolladas fueron: concentración idónea para el tratamiento, cantidad de sustancia a infiltrar, complicaciones, recurrencia, número de infiltraciones y curación al año o más. Los resultados se exponen en forma de tablas porcentuales. Resultados: la eficacia con la utilización de solución salina al 16,5 % fue del 100 %, todos los pacientes curaron, y ninguno presentó recurrencia, por lo que no fueron necesarias 2 o más sesiones de tratamiento. Se comentó de un niño que, luego de fallar la infiltración con leche materna en primera opción y fallido también el cerclaje, finalmente resolvió con este método. Las complicaciones fueron relativamente pocas (18,9 %: un absceso, una celulitis y una retención urinaria con necesidad de sondaje durante 2 semanas, sin secuelas posteriores. Se realizó aleatorización con igual número de pacientes en quienes se usó la glicerina, los resultados del uso de ambas sustancias fueron muy parecidos, y el número de complicaciones fue ligeramente mayor en el

  14. Wintertime Ambient Ammonia Concentrations in Northern Utah's Urban Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, I. A.; Martin, R. S.; Silva, P.; Baasandorj, M.

    2017-12-01

    Many of the population centers in northern Utah are currently classified as non-attainment or serious non-attainment, Wasatch Front, for PM2.5 and previous studies have shown ammonium nitrate to often be the largest contributor to the particulate mass. Furthermore, measurements have shown several of the Wasatch Front cities and Cache Valley (UT/ID) consistently recorded some of the highest ambient ammonia (NH3) concentrations in the continental United States. As a part of the multi-organization 2017 Utah Winter Fine Particulate Study real-time NH3 concentrations were monitored in the Cache Valley at the Logan, UT site, collocated at an EPA sampling trailer near the Utah State University (USU) campus. A Picarro model G2508 was to used collect 5-sec averaged concentrations of NH3, carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) from January 16th to February 14th, 2017. Parts of three inversion events, wherein the PM2.5 concentrations approached or exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards, were captured during the sampling period, including a 10-day event from January 25th to February 4th. Concentrations of all three of the observed species showed significant accumulation during the events, with NH3 concentrations ranging from below the detection limit (70 ppb. Preliminary analysis suggested the temporal NH3 changes tracked the increase in PM2.5 throughout the inversion events; however, a one-day period of NH3 depletion during the main inversion event was observed while PM2.5 continued to increase. Additionally, a network of passive NH3 samplers (Ogawa Model 3300) were arrayed at 25 sites throughout the Cache Valley and at 11 sites located along the Wasatch Front. These networks sampled for three 7-day periods, during the same study time frame. Ion chromatographic (IC) analyses of the sample pads are not yet finalized; however, preliminary results show concentrations in the tens of ppb and seemingly spatially correlate with previous studies showing elevated

  15. [The use of RAPD and ITE molecular markers to study genetical structure of the Crimean population of Triticum boeoticum Boiss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallabaeva, D Sh; Ignatov, A N; Sheĭko, I A; Isikov, V P; Geliuta, V P; Boĭko, N G; Seriapin, A A; Dorokhov, D B

    2007-01-01

    Wild wheat Triticum boeoticum Boiss. is the rare species are included in the Red Book of Ukraine. This species are reducing the magnitude of population and the area of distribution under anthropogenic activity. We studied genetic structure of two populations of T. boeoticum, located on Sapun Mountain and in Baidar Valley in Crimea. According RAPD and ITE molecular analysis we have estimated that the population of T. boeoticum on Sapun Mountain is genetically more impoverished than a population from the Baidar Valley. For preservation of maximal natural genetic polymorphism of the rare species it is recommended to direct efforts to preservations of a population of T. boeoticum from the Baidar Valley.

  16. Sleeping sickness and its relationship with development and biodiversity conservation in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Neil E; Mubanga, Joseph; Machila, Noreen; Atkinson, Peter M; Dzingirai, Vupenyu; Welburn, Susan C

    2015-04-15

    The Luangwa Valley has a long historical association with Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) and is a recognised geographical focus of this disease. It is also internationally acclaimed for its high biodiversity and contains many valuable habitats. Local inhabitants of the valley have developed sustainable land use systems in co-existence with wildlife over centuries, based on non-livestock keeping practices largely due to the threat from African Animal Trypanosomiasis. Historical epidemics of human sleeping sickness have influenced how and where communities have settled and have had a profound impact on development in the Valley. Historical attempts to control trypanosomiasis have also had a negative impact on conservation of biodiversity.Centralised control over wildlife utilisation has marginalised local communities from managing the wildlife resource. To some extent this has been reversed by the implementation of community based natural resource management programmes in the latter half of the 20(th) century and the Luangwa Valley provides some of the earliest examples of such programmes. More recently, there has been significant uncontrolled migration of people into the mid-Luangwa Valley driven by pressure on resources in the eastern plateau region, encouragement from local chiefs and economic development in the tourist centre of Mfuwe. This has brought changing land-use patterns, most notably agricultural development through livestock keeping and cotton production. These changes threaten to alter the endemically stable patterns of HAT transmission and could have significant impacts on ecosystem health and ecosystem services.In this paper we review the history of HAT in the context of conservation and development and consider the impacts current changes may have on this complex social-ecological system. We conclude that improved understanding is required to identify specific circumstances where win-win trade-offs can be achieved between the conservation of

  17. Aquatic habitats of Canaan Valley, West Virginia: Diversity and environmental threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, C.D.; Young, J.A.; Stout, B. M.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted surveys of aquatic habitats during the spring and summer of 1995 in Canaan Valley, WV, to describe the diversity of aquatic habitats in the valley and identify issues that may threaten the viability of aquatic species. We assessed physical habitat and water chemistry of 126 ponds and 82 stream sites, and related habitat characteristics to landscape variables such as geology and terrain. Based on our analyses, we found two issues likely to affect the viability of aquatic populations in the valley. The first issue was acid rain and the extent to which it potentially limits the distribution of aquatic and semi-aquatic species, particularly in headwater portions of the watershed. We estimate that nearly 46%, or 56 kilometers of stream, had pH levels that would not support survival and reproduction of Salvelinuw fontinalis (brook trout), one of the most acid-tolerant fishes in the eastern US. The second issue was the influence of Castor canadensis (beaver) activity. In the Canaan Valley State Park portion of the valley, beaver have transformed 4.7 kilometers of stream (approximately 17% of the total) to pond habitat through their dam building. This has resulted in an increase in pond habitat, a decrease in stream habitat, and a fragmented stream network (i.e., beaver ponds dispersed among stream reaches). In addition, beaver have eliminated an undetermined amount of forested riparian area through their foraging activities. Depending on the perspective, beaver-mediated changes can be viewed as positive or negative. Increases in pond habitat may increase habitat heterogeneity with consequent increases in biological diversity. In contrast, flooding associated with beaver activity may eliminate lowland wetlands and associated species, create barriers to fish dispersal, and possibly contribute to low dissolved oxygen levels in the Blackwater River. We recommend that future management strategies for the wildlife refuge be viewed in the context of these two issues

  18. [Concentrations of alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, polyphenols and saponins in selected medicinal plants from Ecuador and their relationship with acute toxicity against Artemia salina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo Jaramillo, Carmita; Jaramillo Espinoza, Anyi; D'Armas, Haydelba; Troccoli, Luis; Rojas de Astudillo, Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Alkaloids, polyphenols, cyanogenic glycosides and saponins are among the main chemical compounds synthesized by plants but not considered essential for their basic metabolism. These compounds have different functions in plants, and have been recognized with medicinal and pharmacological properties. In this research, concentrations of the mentioned secondary metabolites were determined in the medicinal plants Artemisia absinthium, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Parthenium hysterophorus, Piper carpunya and Taraxacum officinale, from Ecuador, and related with cytotoxic effects against Artemia salina. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts from leaves of these selected plants were prepared at different concentrations. To assess cytotoxicity of these extracts, different bioassays with A. salina were undertaken, and the mortality rates and LC50 were obtained. Besides, concentrations of alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, phenols, tannins and saponins were determined by spectrophotometric methods; this constituted the first report of quantification of secondary metabolites in the selected plants from Ecuador. T. officinale had the highest concentration of total phenols (22.30 ± 0.23 mg/g) and tannins (11.70 ± 0.10 mg/g), C. aconitifolius of cyanogenic glycosides (5.02 ± 0.37 µg/g) and P. hysterophorus of saponins (6.12 ± 0.02 mg/g). Tannins values obtained were not adverse to their consumption. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of selected plants had hemolytic activity depending on the concentration of saponins. Although the values of cyanogenic glycosides were permissible, it was necessary to monitor the presence of this metabolite in plants to minimize health problems. LC50 values ranged from extremely toxic (3.37 µg/mL) to highly toxic (274.34 μg/mL), in P. carpunya and T. officinale, respectively. From correlation analysis, it was observed that increase values of alkaloids concentrations had highly significant (pplants cytotoxicity decreased significantly (pplant extracts

  19. ROS and calcium signaling mediated pathways involved in stress responses of the marine microalgae Dunaliella salina to enhanced UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Bin; Wang, You

    2017-08-01

    UV-B ray has been addressed to trigger common metabolic responses on marine microalgae, however, the upstream events responsible for these changes in marine microalgae are poorly understood. In the present study, a species of marine green microalgae Dunaliella salina was exposed to a series of enhanced UV-B radiation ranging from 0.25 to 1.00 KJ·m -2 per day. The role of ROS and calcium signaling in the D. salina responses to UV-B was discussed. Results showed that enhanced UV-B radiation markedly decreased the cell density in a dose-dependent manner, but the contents of protein and glycerol that were essential for cell growth increased. It suggested that it was cell division instead of cell growth that UV-B exerted negative effects on. The subcellular damages on nuclei and plasmalemma further evidenced the hypothesis. The nutrient absorption was affected with UV-B exposure, and the inhibition on PO 4 3- uptake was more serious compared to NO 3 - uptake. UV-B radiation promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) contents, decreased the redox status and altered the antioxidant enzyme activities. The addition of the ROS scavenger and the glutathione biosynthesis precursor N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) alleviated the stress degree, implying ROS-mediated pathway was involved in the stress response to UV-B radiation. Transient increase in Ca 2+ -ATPase was triggered simultaneously with UV-B exposure. Meanwhile, the addition of an intracellular free calcium chelator aggravated the damage of cell division, but exogenous calcium and ion channel blocker applications did not, inferring that endogenously initiated calcium signaling played roles in response to UV-B. Cross-talk analysis showed a relatively clear relationship between ROS inhibition and Ca 2+ -ATPase suppression, and a relation between Ca 2+ inhibition and GPx activity change was also observed. It was thus presumed that ROS-coupled calcium signaling via the

  20. Comportamiento geoquímico de las formaciones salinas bajo el efecto de la temperatura y la irradiación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pueyo, J. J.

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available The production of radiation induced defects, as well as fluid migration (brine and gases, are the most relevant phenomena due to the combined effects of heat and irradiation in repositories emplaced in rock salt. In order to gain knowledge of these phenomena, laboratory experiments on samples coming from the Sallent Mine (Barcelona have been performed. The water content ranges between 0.04 and 1.00 %. Nevertheless, smaller releases of brine are expected, since part of it is present in fluid inclusions of a size below 100 µm. The chemical composition of the brine, which is a key issue in the study of container corrosion, is in the case of the fluid inc1usions enriched in magnesium (1.15 mol/l and potassium (0.31 mol/l. The study of the gas content reveals the absence of toxic gases and the scarcity of hydrogen and methane. Finally, the amount of radiation induced defects, which are controlled by the mineralogical composition of the rock salt, is similar to those obtained with the Jain-Lidiard model.La generación de defectos cristalinos y la migración de las fases fluidas (salmueras y gases, son los efectos más relevantes de la irradiación y la temperatura sobre una formación salina, susceptible de albergar un almacenamiento de residuos radiactivos. Para determinar dichos efectos se ha puesto a punto la metodología necesaria y se ha verificado sobre muestras salinas de la mina de Sallent (Barcelona. El contenido en agua oscila entre 0,04 y 1 %. Sin embargo, la cantidad de salmuera susceptible de migrar será inferior a la total, debido a que parte de esta se encuentra en inclusiones fluidas inferiores a 100 µm. La composición química de la salmuera, factor clave para el estudio de corrosión de contenedores, es de carácter magnésico (1,15 moles/litro y potásico (0,31 moles/litro en el caso de las inclusiones. El análisis de los gases presentes indica la ausencia de gases tóxicos y concentraciones muy bajas de hidrógeno y metano

  1. Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, Mortimer Hay; Bauer, Herman L.

    1951-01-01

    The Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada, is near the Oregon-Nevada border in the Sheldon Game Refuge. Nineteen claims owned by Jack and Toni Crane were examined, sampled, and tested radiometrically for uranium. Numerous discontinuous layers of opal are interbedded with a gently-dipping series of vitric tuff and ash which is at least 300 ft thick. The tuff and ash are capped by a dark, vesicular basalt in the eastern part of the area and by a thin layer of terrace qravels in the area along the west side of Virgin Valley. Silicification of the ash and tuff has produced a rock that ranges from partly opalized rock that resembles silicified shale to completely altered rock that is entirely translucent, and consists of massive, brown and pale-green opal. Carnotite, the only identified uranium mineral, occurs as fracture coatings or fine layers in the opal; in places, no uranium minerals are visible in the radioactive opal. The opal layers are irregular in extent and thickness. The exposed length of the layers ranges from 8 to 1, 200 ft or more, and the thickness of the layers ranges from 0. 1 to 3. 9 ft. The uranium content of each opal layer, and of different parts of the same layer, differs widely. On the east side of Virgin Valley four of the seven observed opal layers, nos. 3, 4, 5, and 7, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 002 to 0. 12 percent. Two samples, taken 5 ft apart across opal layer no. 7, contained 0. 003 and 0. -049 percent uranium. On the west side of the valley only four of the fifteen observed opal layers, nos; 9, , 10, 14, and 15, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 004 to 0. 047 percent. Material of the highest grade was found in a small discontinuous layer of pale-green opal (no. 4) on the east side of Virgin Valley. The grade of this layer ranged from 0. 027 to 0. 12 percent uranium.

  2. The home range of a recently established group of Southern ground-hornbill (Bucorvus leadbeateri in the Limpopo Valley, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Theron

    2013-10-01

    Conservation implications: The Limpopo Valley SGH population is one of the most significant outside protected areas in South Africa. This population is especially vulnerable to threats such as poisoning, persecution for window breaking and drought, as shown by their near extirpation from the area. Conservation efforts need to focus on awareness amongst local farmers, provision of artificial nests and continued monitoring of groups.

  3. The sociology of landowner interest in restoring fire-adapted, biodiverse habitats in the wildland-urban interface of Oregon's Willamette Valley ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max Nielsen-Pincus; Robert G. Ribe; Bart R. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    In many parts of the world, the combined effects of wildfire, climate change, and population growth in the wildland-urban interface pose increasing risks to both people and biodiversity. These risks are exemplified in western Oregon's Willamette Valley Ecoregion, where population is projected to double by 2050 and climate change is expected to increase wildfire...

  4. Nucleation and growth of new particles in Po Valley, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol number distribution measurements are reported at San Pietro Capofiume (SPC station (44°39' N, 11°37' E for the time period 2002–2005. The station is located in Po Valley, the largest industrial, trading and agricultural area in Italy with a high population density. New particle formation was studied based on observations of the particle size distribution, meteorological and gas phase parameters. The nucleation events were classified according to the event clarity based on the particle number concentrations, and the particle formation and growth rates. Out of a total of 769 operational days from 2002 to 2005 clear events were detected on 36% of the days whilst 33% are clearly non-event days. The event frequency was high during spring and summer months with maximum values in May and July, whereas lower frequency was observed in winter and autumn months. The average particle formation and growth rates were estimated as ~6 cm−3 s−1 and ~7 nm h−1, respectively. Such high growth and formation rates are typical for polluted areas. Temperature, wind speed, solar radiation, SO2 and O3 concentrations were on average higher on nucleation days than on non-event days, whereas relative and absolute humidity and NO2 concentration were lower; however, seasonal differences were observed. Backtrajectory analysis suggests that during majority of nucleation event days, the air masses originate from northern to eastern directions. We also study previously developed nucleation event correlations with environmental variables and show that they predict Po Valley nucleation events with variable success.

  5. Investigating Groundwater Depletion and Aquifer Degradation in Central Valley California from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, C.; Shirzaei, M.; Werth, S.; Argus, D. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Central Valley in California includes one of the world's largest and yet most stressed aquifer systems. The large demand for groundwater, accelerated by population growth and extreme droughts, has been depleting the region's groundwater resources for decades. However, the lack of dense monitoring networks and inaccurate information on geophysical aquifer response pose serious challenges to water management efforts in the area and put the groundwater at high risk. Here, we performed a joint analysis of large SAR interferometric data sets acquired by ALOS L-band satellite in conjunction with the groundwater level observations across the Central Valley. We used 420 L-band SAR images acquired on the ascending orbit track during period Dec 24, 2006 - Jan 1, 2010, and generated more than 1600 interferograms with a pixel size of 100 m × 100 m. We also use data from 1600 observational wells providing continuous measurements of groundwater level within the study period for our analysis. We find that in the south and near Tulare Lake, north of Tule and south of Kaweah basin in San Joaquin valley, the subsidence rate is greatest at up to 20-25 cm/yr, while in Sacramento Valley the subsidence rate is lower at 1-3 cm/yr. From the characterization of the elastic and inelastic storage coefficients, we find that Kern, Tule, Tulare, Kaweah and Merced basins in the San Joaquin Valley are more susceptible to permanent compaction and aquifer storage loss. Kern County shows 0.23%-1.8% of aquifer storage loss during the study period, and has higher percentage loss than adjacent basins such as Tule and Tulare Lake with 0.15%-1.2% and 0.2 %-1.5% loss, respectively. Overall, we estimate that the aquifers across the valley lost a total of 28 km3 of groundwater and 2% of their storage capacity during the study period. Our unique observational evidence including valley-wide estimate of mechanical properties of aquifers and model results will not only facilitate monitoring water deficits

  6. Valley and spin thermoelectric transport in ferromagnetic silicene junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping Niu, Zhi; Dong, Shihao

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the valley and spin resolved thermoelectric transport in a normal/ferromagnetic/normal silicene junction. Due to the coupling between the valley and spin degrees of freedom, thermally induced pure valley and spin currents can be demonstrated. The magnitude and sign of these currents can be manipulated by adjusting the ferromagnetic exchange field and local external electric field, thus the currents are controllable. We also find fully valley and/or spin polarized currents. Similar to the currents, owing to the band structure symmetry, tunable pure spin and/or valley thermopowers with zero charge counterpart are generated. The results obtained here suggest a feasible way of generating a pure valley (spin) current and thermopower in silicene

  7. Valley-orbit hybrid states in Si quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, John; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.

    2013-03-01

    The conduction band for electrons in layered Si nanostructures oriented along (001) has two low-lying valleys. Most theoretical treatments assume that these valleys are decoupled from the long-wavelength physics of electron confinement. In this work, we show that even a minimal amount of disorder (a single atomic step at the quantum well interface) is sufficient to mix valley states and electron orbitals, causing a significant distortion of the long-wavelength electron envelope. For physically realistic electric fields and dot sizes, this valley-orbit coupling impacts all electronic states in Si quantum dots, implying that one must always consider valley-orbit hybrid states, rather than distinct valley and orbital degrees of freedom. We discuss the ramifications of our results on silicon quantum dot qubits. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-08-1-0482) and NSF (DMR-0805045).

  8. Valley Hall effect and Nernst effect in strain engineered graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhi Ping; Yao, Jian-ming

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically predict the existence of tunneling valley Hall effect and Nernst effect in the normal/strain/normal graphene junctions, where a strained graphene is sandwiched by two normal graphene electrodes. By applying an electric bias a pure transverse valley Hall current with longitudinal charge current is generated. If the system is driven by a temperature bias, a valley Nernst effect is observed, where a pure transverse valley current without charge current propagates. Furthermore, the transverse valley current can be modulated by the Fermi energy and crystallographic orientation. When the magnetic field is further considered, we obtain a fully valley-polarized current. It is expected these features may be helpful in the design of the controllable valleytronic devices.

  9. Changes in the land use in the valley of Escaba (Province of Tucuman, Argentina) and their environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guido, E.; Sesma, P.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate changes in the land use due to the construction of a dam and reservoir in the valley of Escaba, located southwest of the province of Tucuman ( north of Argentina ) and its implications for the atmosphere. Aerial photographs and satellite images were used for the study. The results show changes in the drainage network of rivers flowing into the center of the valley, changes in base levels and the formation of wetlands of high ecological, social and economic values. The existence of archaeological sites, some of which remain under water and crop areas that have expanded into both riverbanks stands . The enclosure of the valley caused large areas of land disappear under water, altering not only the landscape but also land use and lifestyle of the population, much of which had to be relocated to higher areas

  10. MX Siting Investigation. Gravity Survey - Sevier Desert Valley, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-24

    Cheyenne, Wyoming. DMAHTC reduces the data to Simple Bouguer Anomaly (see Section A1.4, Appendix Al.0). The Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center...Desert Valley, Utah ......... 2 2 Topographic Setting - Sevier Desert Valley, Utah . 3 LIST OF DRAWINGS Drawing Number 1 Complete Bouguer Anomaly...gravity stations were distributed throughout the valley at an approxi- mate interval of 1.4 miles (2.3 km). Drawing 1 is a Complete Bouguer Anomaly

  11. Prospective regional studies: The Rhine Meuse study and the Tennessee Valley study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.

    1980-01-01

    Within the scope of this report two regional studies are presented: - the 'Rhein-Maas-Study' within which the expected radiological impact of the population in the Rhein and Maas basin - which is situated within Central Europe - is assessed on the basis of the planned and forecasted development of nuclear energy in the coming decades. - The 'Tennessee Valley Study' within which the expected radiological impact of the population in the Tennessee-Cumberland basis - which is situated within North America - is assessed likewise on the basis of the planned and forecasted development of nuclear energy in the coming decades. (orig./RW)

  12. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening Comparação de bioensaios com os crustáceos Artemia salina e Thamnocephalus platyurus para abordagem de extratos de plantas com toxicidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Mayorga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest, were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Fabaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass., Asteraceae, Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccaceae, and Ocimum campechianum Mill., Lamiaceae. The five others: Curatella americana L., Dilleniaceae, Prunus barbata Koehne, Rosaceae, Quercus crispifolia Trel., Fagaceae, Rhizophora mangle L., Rhizophoraceae, and Smilax domingensis Willd., Smilacaceae, do not. All plants without anti-Artemia activity had no lethal effects in both assays with A. salina. For the plants with anti-Artemia activity the Artoxkit M was not sensitive to G. sepium and the conventional Artemia test was not sensitive to S. americanum, G. sepium and N. lobata. All the plant extracts, except for that of C. americana, had lethal effects on T. platyurus and the lethal median concentration (LC50 levels for this organism were in all cases substantially lower than those of the salt-water test species. This study revealed that T. platyurus is a promising test species worth further in depth investigation for toxicity screening of plant extracts with potential medicinal properties.Três bioensaios de letalidade com o crustáceo de água salgada Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (teste convencional em microplaca de 96 poós Artoxkit microbiotest M e o crustáceo de água doce Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae (Thamnotoxkit microbiotest F, foram comparados utilizando extratos de dez espécies de plantas da Guatemala. Foi previamente observado que cinco delas possuem atividade anti

  13. Fort, Tower, or House? Building a Landscape of Settlement in the Shala Valley of High Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Galaty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of archaeological, (ethno-historic, and ethnographic research in the Shala River valley of northern Albania. We argue that through time and in different periods of occupation - Middle Palaeolithic, Iron Age, Late Medieval, and Modern - the valley's residents have met similar challenges of extreme geography and a harsh environment differently, in particular by interacting in different ways and at different levels of intensity with the outside world. These shifts caused changes in population, settlement, and socio-political organisation that are reflected strongly in the local landscape and built environment. Population, settlement, and socio-political organisation did not hold constant, but were influenced by external forces, despite the seeming isolation of the valley and its occupants. This article demonstrates how thin material and documentary records can be greatly enhanced through carefully integrated, interdisciplinary studies of settlement, home construction, and neighbourhood expansion and abandonment. We present select results drawn from an on-line database and GIS, along with photos, drawings, and audio recordings of transcribed interviews. An interactive system of blogs allows the authors to direct readers to additional sources of data, and readers to tell authors and other readers how they have accessed and displayed these data, and with what results.

  14. Human biomonitoring for Cd, Hg and Pb in blood of inhabitants of the Sacco Valley (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia D'Ilio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The Sacco Valley (Lazio, Italy is characterized by high density population and several industrial chemical productions that during the time had led to a substantial amount of by-products. The result was a severe environmental pollution of the area and in particular of the river Sacco. In 1991, the analysis of water and soils samples of three industrial landfills revealed the presence of organochlorine compounds and heavy metals. A research project named "Health of residents living in Sacco Valley area", coordinated by the regional Department of Epidemiology, was undertaken and financed to evaluate the state of health of the population living near those polluted areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cd, Hg and Pb were quantified in 246 blood samples of potentially exposed residents of the Sacco Valley by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS. RESULTS. Individuals who agreed to be sampled did not exhibit high levels of the elements. The distance from the river does not seem to be directly connected with the elements levels in blood. The contribution of these contaminants to the total intake due to ingestion of food was difficult to evaluate. The unclear trend of data would require a characterization of the polluted site with environmental sampling of different matrices.

  15. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project Conservation and Rebuilding Program : Supplemental Fnal Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    This document announces Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) proposal to fund three separate but interrelated actions which are integral components of the overall Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild the Snake River Sockeye salmon run in the Sawtooth Valley of south-central Idaho. The three actions are as follows: (1) removing a rough fish barrier dam on Pettit Lake Creek and constructing a weir and trapping facilities to monitor future sockeye salmon adult and smolt migration into and out of Pettit Lake; (2) artificially fertilizing Readfish Lake to enhance the food supply for Snake River sockeye salmon juveniles released into the lake; and (3) trapping kokanee fry and adults to monitor the fry population and to reduce the population of kokanee in Redfish Lake. BPA has prepared a supplemental EA (included) which builds on an EA compled in 1994 on the Sawtooth Valley Project. Based on the analysis in this Supplemental EA, BPA has determined that the proposed actions are not major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Therefore an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  16. Disorder-dependent valley properties in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Kha

    2017-07-19

    We investigate the effect of disorder on exciton valley polarization and valley coherence in monolayer WSe2. By analyzing the polarization properties of photoluminescence, the valley coherence (VC) and valley polarization (VP) are quantified across the inhomogeneously broadened exciton resonance. We find that disorder plays a critical role in the exciton VC, while affecting VP less. For different monolayer samples with disorder characterized by their Stokes shift (SS), VC decreases in samples with higher SS while VP does not follow a simple trend. These two methods consistently demonstrate that VC as defined by the degree of linearly polarized photoluminescence is more sensitive to disorder, motivating further theoretical studies.

  17. Aproximações sobre prescrições e práticas corporais nos Grupos escolares de Pirapora, Januária e Salinas: a educação dos corpos sertanejos - (1906-1927 * Approaches about prescriptions and corporal practices in schools in Pirapora, Januária and Salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISÂNGELA CHAVES

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:14.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} O texto analisa a proposta da educação corporal de grupos escolares localizados no norte de Minas Gerais no período de 1906 a 1927, notadamente nos municípios de Pirapora, Januária e Salinas. A pesquisa tomou como fonte principal relatos orais e demais documentos diretamente relacionados com a memória escolar para compreender como as atividades físicas foram percebidas como modeladoras de hábitos e atitudes, em um momento histórico em que Brasil prezava pelo discurso modernizador. Palavras-chave: Educação corporal – Memória – Desenvolvimento.   Abstract: The text analyses the proposal of the corporal education in schools in the north of Minas Gerais during 1906 and 1927, especially in Pirapora, januária and Salinas. As main source, the research made use of oral reports and other documents directly related to school memory to understand how physical activities were realized as habit and attitude-forming, in a historic moment in which Brazil used to cherish the modernizing speech. Keywords: Corporal education – Memory – Depevolpment.

  18. Burials at a gravesite in Shirak Valley (Armenia: A biological and social approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahit Yu. Khudaverdyan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparative paleopathological study was conducted in order to discern the general health and way of life of these populations. All the skeletal remains are dated to late antiquity (213 individuals in total, from 6 osteoarchaeological series in the Shirak valley. The study of bone lesions indicated cases of injury and alveolodental disease. The traces of injuries which were noted appear significantly more frequently in males. As for skeletal markers of activity, macrotraumas indicate injuries sustained in battle in some cases (skull lesions. During the course of the research, traces of blows and scraping as well as cutting were identified on the bones. The study of skulls from the Shirak valley demonstrated that some of them have been artificially deformed (fronto-occipital as well as round deformations. Cases of dental calculus, caries, periodontal disease, ulcers, and tooth hypoplasia in these skulls were studied.

  19. Remote sensing techniques for monitoring the Rio Grande Valley cotton stalk destruction program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, A.J.; Gerbermann, A.H.; Summy, K.R.; Anderson, G.L. (Department of Agriculture, Weslaco, TX (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Post harvest cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) stalk destruction is a cultural practice used in the Rio Grande Valley to suppress over wintering populations of boll weevils (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) without using chemicals. Consistent application of this practice could substantially reduce insecticide usage, thereby minimizing environmental hazards and increasing cotton production profits. Satellite imagery registered within a geographic information system was used to monitor the cotton stalk destruction program in the Rio Grande Valley. We found that cotton stalk screening procedures based on standard multispectral classification techniques could not reliably distinguish cotton from sorghum. Greenness screening for cotton plant stalks after the stalk destruction deadline was possible only where ground observations locating cotton fields were available. These findings indicate that a successful cotton stalk destruction monitoring program will require satellite images and earth referenced data bases showing cotton field locations.

  20. Risk of diarrhoea from shallow groundwater contaminated with enteropathogens in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sadhana; Haramoto, Eiji; Malla, Rabin; Nishida, Kei

    2015-03-01

    Shallow groundwater is the main water source among many alternatives in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, which has a rapidly growing population and intermittent piped water supply. Although human pathogens are detected in groundwater, its health effects are unclear. We estimated risk of diarrhoea from shallow groundwater use using quantitative microbial risk assessment. Escherichia coli, Giardia cyst and Cryptosporidium oocyst levels were analysed in dug and tube wells samples. E. coli concentrations were converted to those of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). Risks from EPEC in dug wells and from Cryptosporidium and Giardia in both dug and tube wells were higher than the acceptable limit (water treatment decreased the risk six-fold and decreased risk overestimation. Because removal efficiency of POU water treatment has the largest impact on total risk, increasing the coverage and efficiency of POU water treatment could be a practical risk management strategy in the Kathmandu Valley and similar settings.

  1. Analysis of impact of temperature and saltwater on Nannochloropsis salina bio-oil production by ultra high resolution APCI FT-ICR MS

    KAUST Repository

    Sanguineti, Michael Mario

    2015-05-01

    Concentrated Nannochloropsis salina paste was reconstituted in distilled water and synthetic saltwater and processed at 250°C and 300°C via hydrothermal liquefaction. The resulting bio-oils yielded a diverse distribution of product classes, as analyzed by ultra high resolution APCI FT-ICR MS. The organic fractions were analyzed and both higher temperatures and distilled water significantly increase the number of total compounds present and the number of product classes. Major bio-oil products consisted of N1O1, hydrocarbon, and O2 classes, while O1, O4, S1, N1O2, and N2O2 classes represented the more significant minor classes. Both chlorine and sulfur containing compounds were detected in both distilled and saltwater reactions, while fewer numbers of chlorine and sulfur containing products were present in the organic fraction of the saltwater reactions. Further refinement to remove the chlorine and sulfur contents appears necessary with marine microalgal bio-oils produced via hydrothermal liquefaction. The higher heating value (MJ/kg) as calculated by the Boie equation of classes of interest in the bio-oil reveals a significant potential of algal hydrothermal liquefaction products as a sustainable and renewable fuel feedstock. © 2015.

  2. Proteomic analysis of halotolerant proteins under high and low salt stress in Dunaliella salina using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Long Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dunaliella salina, a single-celled marine alga with extreme salt tolerance, is an important model organism for studying fundamental extremophile survival mechanisms and their potential practical applications. In this study, two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE was used to investigate the expression of halotolerant proteins under high (3 M NaCl and low (0.75 M NaCl salt concentrations. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and bioinformatics were used to identify and characterize the differences among proteins. 2D-DIGE analysis revealed 141 protein spots that were significantly differentially expressed between the two salinities. Twenty-four differentially expressed protein spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, including proteins in the following important categories: molecular chaperones, proteins involved in photosynthesis, proteins involved in respiration and proteins involved in amino acid synthesis. Expression levels of these proteins changed in response to the stress conditions, which suggests that they may be involved in the maintenance of intracellular osmotic pressure, cellular stress responses, physiological changes in metabolism, continuation of photosynthetic activity and other aspects of salt stress. The findings of this study enhance our understanding of the function and mechanisms of various proteins in salt stress.

  3. Marine myxobacteria as a source of antibiotics--comparison of physiology, polyketide-type genes and antibiotic production of three new isolates of Enhygromyxa salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäberle, Till F; Goralski, Emilie; Neu, Edith; Erol, Ozlem; Hölzl, Georg; Dörmann, Peter; Bierbaum, Gabriele; König, Gabriele M

    2010-09-03

    Three myxobacterial strains, designated SWB004, SWB005 and SWB006, were obtained from beach sand samples from the Pacific Ocean and the North Sea. The strains were cultivated in salt water containing media and subjected to studies to determine their taxonomic status, the presence of genes for the biosynthesis of polyketides and antibiotic production. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed the type strain Enhygromyxa salina SHK-1(T) as their closest homolog, displaying between 98% (SWB005) and 99% (SWB004 and SWB006) sequence similarity. All isolates were rod-shaped cells showing gliding motility and fruiting body formation as is known for myxobacteria. They required NaCl for growth, with an optimum concentration of around 2% [w/v]. The G + C-content of genomic DNA ranged from 63.0 to 67.3 mol%. Further, the strains were analyzed for their potential to produce polyketide-type structures. PCR amplified ketosynthase-like gene fragments from all three isolates enhances the assumption that these bacteria produce polyketides. SWB005 was shown to produce metabolites with prominent antibacterial activity, including activity towards methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE).

  4. Avaliação de extratos de macroalgas bênticas do litoral catarinense utilizando o teste de letalidade para Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Lhullier

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas amostras de algas marinhas de 19 espécies (sendo 4 pertencentes ao filo Chlorophyta, 5 ao filo Phaeophyta e 10 ao filo Rhodophyta em dois locais do litoral catarinense. Os extratos etanólicos foram submetidos ao teste de letalidade para larvas de Artemia salina com objetivo de realizar uma triagem das espécies. Dos 26 extratos testados, 25 apresentaram toxicidade significativa em pelo menos uma das 3 concentrações testadas. O grupo de algas vermelhas (Rhodophyta foi o que obteve maior porcentagem de extratos com resultados estatisticamente significativos pelo método do qui-quadrado e também menores valores de CL50, com destaque para Acanthophora spicifera, Hypnea musciformis e Pterocladiella capillacea. Observaram-se diferenças entre as espécies de um mesmo gênero (Codium decorticatum e Codium isthmocladium e também a influência de fatores ambientais (Hypnea musciformis na toxicidade dos extratos.

  5. A systematic correlation analysis of carotenoids, chlorophyll, non-pigmented cell mass, and cell number for the blueprint of Dunaliella salina culture in a photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyeon Gi; Byeon, Seon Yeong; Chung, Goo Yong; Jung, Sang-Myung; Choi, Jung Il; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2018-05-28

    Microalgal carotenoids are attractive health ingredients, but their production should be optimized to improve cost-effectiveness. Understanding cellular physiology centered on carotenoid synthesis is the prerequisite for this work. Therefore, systematic correlation analyses were conducted among chlorophyll, carotenoids, non-pigmented cell mass, and cell number of Dunaliella salina in a specified condition over a relatively long culture time. First, an integrated correlation was performed: a temporal profile of the carotenoids was correlated with those of other factors, including chlorophyll, non-pigmented cell mass, and cell number. Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses were performed to identify linearity and monotonicity of the correlation, respectively, and then cross-correlation was executed to determine if the correlation had a time lag. Second, to understand the cellular potential of metabolism, the procedure was repeated to provide a data set composed of the specific synthesis rates of the factors or growth rate, which additionally provided kinetic correlations among the constituting components of the cell, excluding the effect of cell number. This systematic approach could generate a blueprint model that is composed of only what it needs, which could make it possible to efficiently control and optimize the process.

  6. Evaluación de la gestión en el Parque Regional de las Salinas y Arenales de San Pedro del Pinatar (Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Ballesteros Pelegrín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Regional de las Salinas y Arenales de San Pedro del Pinatar es un territorio multifuncional desde el punto de vista social, económico y ambiental, donde es imposible separar y, por tanto gestionar de forma independiente, las tramas paisajísticas y ecológicas de las tramas socioeconómicas. Para su gestión, la Administración se apoya en el Plan de Ordenación de los Recursos Naturales aprobado en 1995, que sin embargo ha sido ejecutado en el 50 % de su articulado. Se desarrollan diversas iniciativas de conservación de fauna y flora silvestre, recogida de residuos sólidos, una adecuada información al visitante y mejora del conocimiento de los diferentes elementos de los espacios protegido. Sin embargo la participación social es escasa, la Junta Rectora se ha reunido en solo cuatro ocasiones, la última en 2001, se han producido desarrollos urbanísticos en la periferia del Parque que producen deterioro paisajístico y se han desarrollado una serie de infraestructuras que han reducido en unas 7 hectáreas la superficie protegida.

  7. Marine Myxobacteria as a Source of Antibiotics—Comparison of Physiology, Polyketide-Type Genes and Antibiotic Production of Three New Isolates of Enhygromyxa salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Bierbaum

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Three myxobacterial strains, designated SWB004, SWB005 and SWB006, were obtained from beach sand samples from the Pacific Ocean and the North Sea. The strains were cultivated in salt water containing media and subjected to studies to determine their taxonomic status, the presence of genes for the biosynthesis of polyketides and antibiotic production. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed the type strain Enhygromyxa salina SHK-1T as their closest homolog, displaying between 98% (SWB005 and 99% (SWB004 and SWB006 sequence similarity. All isolates were rod-shaped cells showing gliding motility and fruiting body formation as is known for myxobacteria. They required NaCl for growth, with an optimum concentration of around 2% [w/v]. The G + C-content of genomic DNA ranged from 63.0 to 67.3 mol%. Further, the strains were analyzed for their potential to produce polyketide-type structures. PCR amplified ketosynthase-like gene fragments from all three isolates enhances the assumption that these bacteria produce polyketides. SWB005 was shown to produce metabolites with prominent antibacterial activity, including activity towards methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE.

  8. Caracterización de bacterias halófilas productoras de amilasas aisladas de las Salinas de San Blas en Junín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Elizabeth Canales Mormontoy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en español: Caracterización de bacterias halófilas productoras de amilasas aisladas de las Salinas de San Blas en Junín Título en ingles: Characterization of halophilic bacteria producing amylase isolated from San Blas Salterns in Junin Título corto: Bacterias halófilas amilolíticas de las Salinas de San Blas Resumen:  El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar bacterias halófilas con actividad amilolítica provenientes de las Salinas de San Blas-Junín, ubicadas en los Andes peruanos aproximadamente a 4100 m de altitud. Este estudio se realizó con 34 bacterias aisladas de muestras de suelos las cuales se cultivaron en agar agua de sales (SW 5 % conteniendo extracto de levadura 0,5 % y almidón 1 %. El 41 % de bacterias mostró la capacidad de hidrolizar almidón, éstas fueron caracterizadas mediante pruebas fisiológicas y bioquímicas convencionales. Tres bacterias fueron Gram-negativas y once Gram-positivas. El 21 % (3/14 creció en un amplio rango de concentración de sales, entre 5 y 20 %. El 14 % (2/14 de las bacterias presentó actividad lipolítica, proteolítica y nucleolítica, y el 29 % (4/14, presentó actividad proteolítica y nucleolítica. Las bacterias se identificaron mediante los perfiles de restricción de los genes ribosómicos 16S amplificados, las enzimas usadas fueron Hae III, BstU I, Hinf I y Cfo I. Los genes ribosómicos 16S de siete bacterias que presentaron perfiles de ADN diferentes se amplificaron, secuenciaron y analizaron mediante programas bioinformáticos. Del análisis fenotípico y molecular de las 14 bacterias amilolíticas se obtuvieron dos grupos, uno perteneciente al género Halomonas (3 y el otro, al género Bacillus (11. Las bacterias amilolíticas caracterizadas podrían ser de potencial uso a nivel industrial.  Palabras clave: Salinas de San Blas, amilasas, genes ribosómicos 16S, ARDRA, Bacillus, Halomonas. Abstract: The aim of this study was to characterize halophilic

  9. The population structure of Lutzomyia verrucarum (Diptera: Psycodidae), a Bartonella bacilliformis and Leishmania peruviana vector in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Caceres, Abraham G; Beati, Lorenza; Munstermann, Leonard E

    2012-01-01

    The population genetic structure of Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend), a sand fly disease vector of Carrion's disease and cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Peruvian Andes, was characterized by sequencing 653 bp of cytochrome b and 1,125 bp of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 genes of its mitochondrial genome. DNA sequence variation within and between valleys was compared in a sample of 220 sand flies from three valleys (Purisima, Huaylas, and Conchucos) and five departments (Amazonas, Cajamarca, Piura, Lima, and Huancavelica). Gene network and phylogenetic analyses indicated a high similarity of haplotypes collected within a single valley (0-0.52% nucleotide divergence). Flies from each valley had unique genotypes not shared with specimens from other valleys or from more distant regions (0.8-3.1% nucleotide divergence). Mountain ranges and geographic distance appear to have impeded migration (N(m) = < 0.18) between valleys and separated populations into discrete genetic units.

  10. A profile of child branding cases in Kashmir valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Arsalaan F; Ahmed, Kaiser; Noor, Farida

    2017-07-01

    The article deals with child branding cases that were researched over a period of two years. Child branding practice is a common occurrence in the rural areas of the Kashmir valley where it is often practiced by faith healers [quacks] having no knowledge of underlying disease processes or the possible differentials of the same; leaving treatment protocols a distant possibility for the same. These illiterate so called healers possibly relieve the initial stigmata of the disease process that is pain by many procedures including burning the affected population with hot coals; embers; and various other pain inducing processes. In this way cutting a painful condition by stimulating another painful condition by possible intervention of body's "pain gating mechanisms" bring a somewhat temporary relief to the sufferer. This undiagnosed and mistreated underlying disease condition meanwhile continues to linger on with increasing severity often causing morbid relapses and ultimately resulting in a highly mortal course when the patient is actually brought for tertiary hospitalization. The present study aims to establish a pattern between child branding and its medical; social and economic correlations .Among these correlations the study will focus on disease related morbidity and mortality; role of community based faith healers ["quacks"]; poverty and illiteracy. The study will also reveal how bits and pieces of scientific information have been used to misdiagnose and mistreat a significant population belonging to pediatric age group. It will further try to evaluate the role of "pain gating" mechanisms as a means of pain relief and the partial success in motivating a significant population by these healers to be part of such practices. A positive outcome of this study is educating a significant part of affected population to shun such practices and follow proper treatment regimens. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies Ecoregion: Chapter 6 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Janis L.

    2012-01-01

    The Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies Ecoregion comprises numerous intermountain valleys and low-elevation foothill prairies spread across the western half of Montana, on both sides of the Continental Divide (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). The ecoregion, which covers approximately 64,658 km2 (24,965 mi2), includes the Flathead Valley and the valleys surrounding Helena, Missoula, Bozeman, Billings, Anaconda, Dillon, and Lewistown (fig. 1). These valleys are generally characterized by shortgrass prairie vegetation and are flanked by forested mountains (Woods and others, 1999); thus, the valleys’ biotas with regards to fish and insects are comparable. In many cases, the valleys are conduits for some of the largest rivers in the state, including Clark Fork and the Missouri, Jefferson, Madison, Flathead, Yellowstone, Gallatin, Smith, Big Hole, Bitterroot, and Blackfoot Rivers (fig. 2). The Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies Ecoregion also includes the “Rocky Mountain front,” an area of prairies along the eastern slope of the northern Rocky Mountains. Principal land uses within the ecoregion include farming, grazing, and mining. The valleys serve as major transportation and utility corridors and also contain the majority of Montana’s human population. The Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies Ecoregion extends into 17 mostly rural counties throughout western Montana. Only three of the counties—Carbon, Yellowstone, and Missoula—are part of a metropolitan statistical area with contiguous built-up areas tied to an employment center. Nearly two-thirds of Montana residents live in nonmetropolitan counties (Albrecht, 2008). Ten of the counties within the ecoregion had population growth rates greater than national averages (9–13 percent) between 1970 and 2000 (table 1). Ravalli and Gallatin Counties had the highest growth rates. Population growth was largely due to amenity-related inmigration and an economy dependent on tourism

  12. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    KAUST Repository

    Haddon, E. K.; Amos, C. B.; Zielke, Olaf; Jayko, A. S.; Burgmann, R.

    2016-01-01

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from approximate to 1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.31.1 m (2 sigma). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between approximate to 0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.80.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is approximate to 6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7-11 m and net average of 4.41.5 m, corresponding to a geologic M-w approximate to 7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.12.0 m, 12.8 +/- 1.5 m, and 16.6 +/- 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between approximate to 0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1 sigma) over the late Quaternary.

  13. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    KAUST Repository

    Haddon, E. K.

    2016-01-10

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from approximate to 1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.31.1 m (2 sigma). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between approximate to 0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.80.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is approximate to 6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7-11 m and net average of 4.41.5 m, corresponding to a geologic M-w approximate to 7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.12.0 m, 12.8 +/- 1.5 m, and 16.6 +/- 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between approximate to 0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1 sigma) over the late Quaternary.

  14. 77 FR 49856 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Salinas to San Luis Obispo Portion of the Coast Corridor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... intercity travel option. These improvements would provide additional capacity to relieve some of the... activity is expected to generate increased travel demand. By 2040, statewide population is expected to grow... continuing transportation challenges as evidenced by the following: Constrained Travel Options--While the...

  15. 78 FR 59840 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ...] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District... of plan. * * * * * (c) * * * (428) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 431.1, ``Sulfur Content of...

  16. 78 FR 45114 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the California State... for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). The Antelope Valley Air Pollution...

  17. The uncanny valley in games and animation

    CERN Document Server

    Tinwell, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Advances in technology have enabled animators and video game designers to design increasingly realistic, human-like characters in animation and games. Although it was intended that this increased realism would allow viewers to appreciate the emotional state of characters, research has shown that audiences often have a negative reaction as the human likeness of a character increases. This phenomenon, known as the Uncanny Valley, has become a benchmark for measuring if a character is believably realistic and authentically human like. This book is an essential guide on how to overcome the Uncanny

  18. Neuroimaging Features of San Luis Valley Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Whitehead

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old Hispanic female with a history of double-outlet right ventricle and developmental delay in the setting of recombinant chromosome 8 syndrome was referred for neurologic imaging. Brain MR revealed multiple abnormalities primarily affecting midline structures, including commissural dysgenesis, vermian and brainstem hypoplasia/dysplasia, an interhypothalamic adhesion, and an epidermoid between the frontal lobes that enlarged over time. Spine MR demonstrated hypoplastic C1 and C2 posterior elements, scoliosis, and a borderline low conus medullaris position. Presented herein is the first illustration of neuroimaging findings from a patient with San Luis Valley syndrome.

  19. Medicinal plants of Usherai valley, Dir, NWFP, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarat, A.; Shah, J.; Ahmad, S.; Nasir, M.; Jan, A.K.; Skindar

    2010-01-01

    This research is based on the results of an ethno-botanical research conducted in Usherai Valley. The main objective was to enlist the wealth of medicinal plants. In total 50 species, belonging to 32 families of wild herbs, shrubs and trees were found to be used as medicinal plants by the inhabitants in the valley. (author)

  20. Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya | Wakhisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya. ... Our finding also contrast with an earlier reported study that indicated that Rift Valley is a low prevalence area for this type of cancer. The mean age ... This may lead to identification of molecular biomarkers to be used in future for the early detection of this neoplasm.

  1. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208... Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snake River Valley” is a term of viticultural...

  2. Rift Valley fever potential mosquito vectors and their infection status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonotic disease. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has been isolated from more than 40 species of mosquitoes from eight genera. This study was conducted to determine the abundance of potential mosquito vectors and their RVFV infection status in Ngorongoro ...

  3. Nematic and Valley Ordering in Anisotropic Quantum Hall Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, S. A.; Abanin, D. A.; Kivelson, S. A.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2010-03-01

    We consider a multi-valley two dimensional electron system in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. We focus on QHE states that arise due to spontaneous breaking of the valley symmetry by the Coulomb interactions. We show that the anisotropy of the Fermi surface in each valley, which is generally present in such systems, favors states where all the electrons reside in one of the valleys. In a clean system, the valley ordering occurs via a finite temperature Ising-like phase transition, which, owing to the Fermi surface anisotropy, is accompanied by the onset of nematic order. In a disordered system, domains of opposite polarization are formed, and therefore long-range valley order is destroyed, however, the resulting state is still compressible. We discuss the transport properties in ordered and disordered regimes, and point out the possible relation of our results to recent experiments in AlAs [1]. [1] Y. P. Shkolnikov, S. Misra, N. C. Bishop, E. P. De Poortere, and M. Shayegan, Observation of Quantum Hall ``Valley Skyrmions", Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 068809 (2005)[2] D.A. Abanin, S.A. Parameswaran, S.A. Kivelson and S.L. Sondhi, Nematic and Valley Ordering in Anisotropic Quantum Hall Systems, to be published.

  4. Some Environmental Issues of Inland Valleys: A Case Study | Asiam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study concluded that inland valleys can be real environmental liability because produce from such valleys can be polluted and hence can be a source of social conflict particularly when they fringe mineral concessions as the adverse impacts could be unfortunately attributed to mining activity and similar land uses.

  5. West Valley Reprocessing Plant. Safety analysis plant, supplement 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Supplement 18 contains the following additions to Appendix II--5.0 Geology and Seismology: Section 12 ''Seismic Investigations for Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facility at West Valley, New York,'' October 20, 1975, and Section 13 ''Earthquake Return Period Analysis at West Valley, New York, for Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.'' November 5, 1975

  6. Salts in the dry valleys of Antartica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Presley, B. J.; Hatfield, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Dry Valleys of Antarctica are examples of polar deserts which are rare geological features on the Earth. Such deserts typically have high salinities associated with their closed-basin waters and on many surficial materials throughout them. In order to examine the possible sources for the salts observed in association with the soils in the Dry Valleys. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the water leachates from 58 soils and core samples were measured. The Cl/Br ratio for seawater is 289 and ratios measured for most of the 58 soils studied (greater than 85% of the soils studied) was larger than the seawater ratio (ratios typically were greater than 1000 and ranged up to 50,000). The enrichment in Cl relative to Br is strong evidence that the alts present within the soils were derived from seawater during ordinary evaporation processes, and not from the deposition of Cl and Br from aerosols or from rock weathering as has often been suggested.

  7. West Valley waste removal system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janicek, G.P.

    1981-04-01

    This study addresses the specific task of removing high-level wastes from underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Center and delivering them to an onsite waste solidification plant. It begins with a review of the design and construction features of the waste storage tanks pertinent to the waste removal task with particular emphasis on the unique and complex tank internals which severely complicate the task of removal. It follows with a review of tank cleaning techniques used and under study at both Hanford and Savannah River and previous studies proposing the use of these techniques at West Valley. It concludes from these reviews that existing techniques are not directly transferable to West Valley and that a new approach is required utilizing selected feature and attributes from existing methodology. The study also concludes, from an investigation of the constraints imposed by the processing facility, that waste removal will be intermittent, requiring batch transfer over the anticipated 3 years of processing operations. Based on these reviews and conclusions, the study proposes that the acid waste be processed first and that one of the 15,000-gallon acid tanks then be used for batch feeding the neutralized waste. The proposed system would employ commercially available pumping equipment to transfer the wastes from the batch tank to processing via existing process piping. A commercially available mixed-flow pump and eight turbine pumps would homogenize the neutralized waste in conjunction with eight custom-fabricated sluicers for periodic transfer to the batch tank

  8. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  9. Polyfluoroalkyl substance exposure in the Mid-Ohio River Valley, 1991-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Robert L; Buckholz, Jeanette; Biro, Frank M; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Xie, Changchun; Pinney, Susan M

    2017-09-01

    Industrial discharges of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to the Ohio River, contaminating water systems near Parkersburg, WV, were previously associated with nearby residents' serum PFOA concentrations above US general population medians. Ohio River PFOA concentrations downstream are elevated, suggesting Mid-Ohio River Valley residents are exposed through drinking water. Quantify PFOA and 10 other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in Mid-Ohio River Valley resident sera collected between 1991 and 2013 and determine whether the Ohio River and Ohio River Aquifer are exposure sources. We measured eleven PFAS in 1608 sera from 931 participants. Serum PFOA concentration and water source associations were assessed using linear mixed-effects models. We estimated between-sample serum PFOA using one-compartment pharmacokinetics for participants with multiple samples. In serum samples collected as early as 1991, PFOA (median = 7.6 ng/mL) was detected in 99.9% of sera; 47% had concentrations greater than US population 95th percentiles. Five other PFAS were detected in greater than 82% of samples; median other PFAS concentrations were similar to the US general population. Serum PFOA was significantly associated with water source, sampling year, age at sampling, tap water consumption, pregnancy, gravidity and breastfeeding. Serum PFOA was 40-60% lower with granular activated carbon (GAC) use. Repeated measurements and pharmacokinetics suggest serum PFOA peaked 2000-2006 for participants using water without GAC treatment; where GAC was used, serum PFOA concentrations decreased from 1991 to 2012. Mid-Ohio River Valley residents appear to have PFOA, but not other PFAS, serum concentrations above US population levels. Drinking water from the Ohio River and Ohio River Aquifer, primarily contaminated by industrial discharges 209-666 km upstream, is likely the primary exposure source. GAC treatment of drinking water mitigates, but does not eliminate, PFOA exposure. Copyright

  10. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAKOOR AHMAD MIR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 6-11. Habitat diversity, elevation, cloud cover, rainfall, seasonal and temperature variations have created many ideal sites for the luxuriant growth of pteridophytes in the Kashmir valley, yet all the regions of the valley have not been surveyed. In Kashmir valley the family Dryopteridaceae is represented by 31 species. During the recent extensive field surveys of Shopian district four more species viz., Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris blanfordii subsp. nigrosquamosa (Ching Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris pulvinulifera (Bedd. Kuntze and Polystichum Nepalense (Spreng C. Chr. have been recorded for the first time from the valley. The taxonomic description, synonyms, distribution and photographs of each species are given in this article.

  11. The quasi-steady state of the valley wind system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg eSchmidli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quasi-steady-state limit of the diurnal valley wind system is investigated overidealized three-dimensional topography. Although this limit is rarely attained inreality due to ever-changing forcings, the investigation of this limit canprovide valuable insight, in particular on the mass and heat fluxes associatedwith the along-valley wind. We derive a scaling relation for the quasi-steady-state along-valleymass flux as a function of valley geometry, valley size, atmospheric stratification,and surface sensible heat flux forcing. The scaling relation is tested by comparisonwith the mass flux diagnosed from numerical simulations of the valleywind system. Good agreement is found. The results also provide insight into the relationbetween surface friction and the strength of the along-valley pressure gradient.

  12. Abundance and Diversity of Native Bumble Bees Associated with Agricultural Crops: The Willamette Valley Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujaya Rao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are widespread concerns about declining populations of bumble bees due to conversion of native habitats to agroecosystems. Certain cropping systems, however, provide enormous foraging resources, and are beneficial for population build up of native bees, especially eusocial bees such as bumble bees. In this review, we present evidence of a flourishing bumble bee fauna in the Willamette Valley in western Oregon which we believe is sustained by cultivation of bee-pollinated crops which bloom in sequence, and in synchrony with foraging by queens and workers of a complex of bumble bee species. In support of our perspective, we describe the Oregon landscape and ascribe the large bumble bee populations to the presence of a pollen source in spring (cultivated blueberries followed by one in summer (red clover seed crops. Based on our studies, we recommend integration into conservation approaches of multiple agroecosystems that bloom in sequence for sustaining and building bumble bee populations.

  13. Conflict in the Indian Kashmir Valley I: exposure to violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fromm Silke

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India and Pakistan have disputed ownership of the Kashmir Valley region for many years, resulting in several conflicts since the end of partition in 1947. Very little is known about the prevalence of violence and insecurity in this population. Methods We undertook a two-stage cluster household survey in two districts (30 villages of the Indian part of Kashmir to assess experiences with violence and mental health status among the conflict-affected Kashmiri population. The article presents our findings for confrontations with violence. Data were collected for recent events (last 3 months and those occurring since the start of the conflict. Informed consent was obtained for all interviews. Results 510 interviews were completed. Respondents reported frequent direct confrontations with violence since the start of conflict, including exposure to crossfire (85.7%, round up raids (82.7%, the witnessing of torture (66.9%, rape (13.3%, and self-experience of forced labour (33.7%, arrests/kidnapping (16.9%, torture (12.9%, and sexual violence (11.6%. Males reported more confrontations with violence than females, and had an increased likelihood of having directly experienced physical/mental maltreatment (OR 3.9, CI: 2.7–5.7, violation of their modesty (OR 3.6, CI: 1.9–6.8 and injury (OR 3.5, CI: 1.4–8.7. Males also had high odds of self-being arrested/kidnapped (OR 8.0, CI: 4.1–15.5. Conclusion The civilian population in Kashmir is exposed to high levels of violence, as demonstrated by the high frequency of deliberate events as detention, hostage, and torture. The reported violence may result in substantial health, including mental health problems. Males reported significantly more confrontations with almost all violent events; this can be explained by higher participation in outdoor activities.

  14. Palaeodemography of the Nasca valley: reconstruction of the human ecology in the southern Peruvian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusini, A G; Carrara, N; Orefici, G; Rippa Bonati, M

    2001-01-01

    This study is based on skeletons and mummies belonging to 582 individuals excavated at sites of Pueblo Viejo, Cahuachi, Estaqueria and Atarco in the Nasca valley, South Coast of Peru. Archaeological evidence distinguishes three cultural phases: Nasca (400 BC-550 AD), Wari (600-1100 AD) and Chincha (1100-1412 AD). Since the Chincha human remains were too exiguous (27 individuals), only Nasca and Wari were considered. For the Nasca population, sex ratio was 113 men to 100 women (53% of males); for the Wari population, sex ratio was 117 men to 100 women (54% of males). The palaeodemographic data show that the infant mortality rate was 33@1000 for Nasca and 105@1000 for Wari. Life expectancy was 38-43 years for Nasca and 31-36 years for Wari. Death percentages in all the age groups increased from Nasca to Wari phase. ANOVA and t-test for paired comparison were applied in order to examine if dental and bone ages were statistically different. Long bones and teeth showed an allometric development, and the age estimated from the tooth formation and eruption was generally higher than the age estimated from the maximum lengths of long bones. The anthropological study of the Nasca valley skeletal populations confirmed the archaeological hypothesis of worse conditions of the Wari population in comparison with the previous Nasca people.

  15. Chemical-morphological analysis and evaluation of the distribution of particulate matter in the Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero G, E.T.; Sandoval P, A.; Morelos M, J.; Reyes G, L.R.

    2007-01-01

    The breathable fraction of the suspended particles is the main pollutant in the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (ZMVT), to have the bigger number of days outside of standard, especially during the winter and low water time, its registered maximum value is of 367 IMECA points in 2004. The particles present a potential risk for the lungs, its increase the chemical reactions in the atmosphere; its reduce the visibility; its increase the possibility of the precipitation, the fog and the clouds; its reduce the solar radiation, with the changes in the environmental temperature and in the biological growth rates of those plants; and it dirties the soil matters. For that reason it is very important to characterize physicochemical and morphologically by scanning electron microscopy the particulate material of the Toluca Valley, to determine to that type of particles is potentially exposed the population before drastic scenarios of air pollution of the Toluca Valley, as well as to evaluate the distribution of the one particulate material in the ZMVT. (Author)

  16. Impact of valley fills on streamside salamanders in southern West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra Bohall; Williams, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Valley fills associated with mountaintop-removal mining bury stream headwaters and affect water quality and ecological function of reaches below fills. We quantified relative abundance of streamside salamanders in southern West Virginia during 2002 in three streams below valley fills (VFS) and in three reference streams (RS). We surveyed 36 10- × 2-m stream transects, once in summer and fall, paired by order and structure. Of 2,343 salamanders captured, 66.7% were from RS. Total salamanders (adults plus larvae) were more abundant in RS than VFS for first-order and second-order reaches. Adult salamanders had greater abundance in first-order reaches of RS than VFS. Larval salamanders were more abundant in second-order reaches of RS than VFS. No stream width or mesohabitat variables differed between VFS and RS. Only two cover variables differed. Silt cover, greater in VFS than RS first-order reaches, is a likely contributor to reduced abundance of salamanders in VFS. Second-order RS had more boulder cover than second-order VFS, which may have contributed to the higher total and larval salamander abundance in RS. Water chemistry assessments of our VFS and RS reported elevated levels of metal and ion concentrations in VFS, which can depress macroinvertebrate populations and likely affect salamander abundance. Valley fills appear to have significant negative effects on stream salamander abundance due to alterations in habitat structure, water quality and chemistry, and macroinvertebrate communities in streams below fills.

  17. Water quality and processes affecting dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Blackwater River, Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, M.C.; Wiley, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The water quality and environmental processes affecting dissolved oxygen were determined for the Blackwater River in Canaan Valley, West Virginia. Canaan Valley is oval-shaped (14 miles by 5 miles) and is located in the Allegheny Mountains at an average elevation of 3,200 feet above sea level. Tourism, population, and real estate development have increased in the past two decades. Most streams in Canaan Valley are a dilute calcium magnesium bicarbonate-type water. Streamwater typicaly was soft and low in alkalinity and dissolved solids. Maximum values for specific conductance, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved solids occurred during low-flow periods when streamflow was at or near baseflow. Dissolved oxygen concentrations are most sensitive to processes affecting the rate of reaeration. The reaeration is affected by solubility (atmospheric pressure, water temperature, humidity, and cloud cover) and processes that determine stream turbulence (stream depth, width, velocity, and roughness). In the headwaters, photosynthetic dissolved oxygen production by benthic algae can result in supersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations. In beaver pools, dissolved oxygen consumption from sediment oxygen demand and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand can result in dissolved oxygen deficits.

  18. Groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration, Dixie Valley, west-central Nevada, March 2009-September 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Huntington, Jena M; Buto, Susan G.; Moreo, Michael T.; Smith, J. LaRue; Andraski, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    With increasing population growth and land-use change, urban communities in the desert Southwest are progressively looking toward remote basins to supplement existing water supplies. Pending applications by Churchill County for groundwater appropriations from Dixie Valley, Nevada, a primarily undeveloped basin east of the Carson Desert, have prompted a reevaluation of the quantity of naturally discharging groundwater. The objective of this study was to develop a revised, independent estimate of groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration (ETg) from Dixie Valley using a combination of eddy-covariance evapotranspiration (ET) measurements and multispectral satellite imagery. Mean annual ETg was estimated during water years 2010 and 2011 at four eddy-covariance sites. Two sites were in phreatophytic shrubland dominated by greasewood, and two sites were on a playa. Estimates of total ET and ETg were supported with vegetation cover mapping, soil physics considerations, water‑level measurements from wells, and isotopic water sourcing analyses to allow partitioning of ETg into evaporation and transpiration components. Site-based ETg estimates were scaled to the basin level by combining remotely sensed imagery with field reconnaissance. Enhanced vegetation index and brightness temperature data were compared with mapped vegetation cover to partition Dixie Valley into five discharging ET units and compute basin-scale ETg. Evapotranspiration units were defined within a delineated groundwater discharge area and were partitioned as (1) playa lake, (2) playa, (3) sparse shrubland, (4) moderate-to-dense shrubland, and (5) grassland.

  19. Integrated hydrologic model of Pajaro Valley, Santa Cruz and Monterey Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Schmid, Wolfgang; Faunt, Claudia C.; Lear, Jonathan; Lockwood, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Increasing population, agricultural development (including shifts to more water-intensive crops), and climate variability are placing increasingly larger demands on available groundwater resources in the Pajaro Valley, one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. This study provided a refined conceptual model, geohydrologic framework, and integrated hydrologic model of the Pajaro Valley. The goal of this study was to produce a model capable of being accurate at scales relevant to water management decisions that are being considered in the revision and updates to the Basin Management Plan (BMP). The Pajaro Valley Hydrologic Model (PVHM) was designed to reproduce the most important natural and human components of the hydrologic system and related climatic factors, permitting an accurate assessment of groundwater conditions and processes that can inform the new BMP and help to improve planning for long-term sustainability of water resources. Model development included a revision of the conceptual model of the flow system, reevaluation of the previous model transformed into MODFLOW, implementation of the new geohydrologic model and conceptual model, and calibration of the transient hydrologic model.

  20. Potential effects of geothermal energy conversion on Imperial Valley ecosystems. [Seven workshop presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinn, J.H. (ed.)

    1976-12-17

    This workshop on potential effcts of geothermal energy conversion on the ecology of Imperial Valley brought together personnel of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and many collaborators under the sponsorship of the ERDA Imperial Valley Environmental Project (IVEP). The LLL Integrated Assessment Team identified the electric power potential and its associated effluents, discharges, subsidence, water requirements, land use, and noise. The Working Groups addressed the ecological problems. Water resource management problems include forces on water use, irrigation methods and water use for crops, water production, and water allocation. Agricultural problems are the contamination of edible crops and the reclamation of soil. A strategy is discussed for predevelopment baseline data and for identification of source term tracers. Wildlife resources might be threatened by habitat destruction, powerline impacts, noise and disturbance effects, gas emissions, and secondary impacts such as population pressure. Aquatic ecosystems in both the Salton Sea and fresh waters have potential hazards of salinity and trace metal effects, as well as existing stresses; baseline and bioassay studies are discussed. Problems from air pollution resulting from geothermal resource development might occur, particularly to vegetation and pollinator insects. Conversion of injury data to predicted economic damage isneeded. Finally, Imperial Valley desert ecosystems might be threatened by destruction of habitat and the possible effects on community structure such as those resulting from brine spills.

  1. Municipal solid waste characterizations and management strategies for the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Davila, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV or Valley) in Texas, facing the big waste management challenge along the US-Mexico border today, is at the crossroads as a result of the rapid population growth, the scarcity of landfill space, the bi-nation's trade impacts, and the illusive goal of environmental sustainability. This paper offers a unique municipal solid waste investigation with regard to both physical and chemical characteristics leading to illuminate the necessary management policies with greater regional relevancy. With multiple sampling campaigns conducted during the spring of 2005, this study holistically summarizes the composition of solid waste, the statistical distribution patterns of key recyclable items, and the heating value in an uncertain environment. Research findings indicate that high fractions of plastics and paper in the waste stream imply a strong potential for energy recovery. Incineration options are thus bolstered by mildly high heating values across 10 cities in this region, which may lead to save land resources required for final disposal and increase electricity generation in the long run. Additional regression analyses further identify the correlation between recyclable items and heating value, which show that current recycling programs permit no obvious negative impacts on the incineration option. Final statistical hypothesis tests for both the Brownsville-Harlingen-San Benito and the McAllen-Edinburg-Mission metropolitan regions help foster consistent management strategies across the Valley regardless of the trivial differences of waste characteristics in between.

  2. Water resources of Parowan Valley, Iron County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.

    2017-08-29

    Parowan Valley, in Iron County, Utah, covers about 160 square miles west of the Red Cliffs and includes the towns of Parowan, Paragonah, and Summit. The valley is a structural depression formed by northwest-trending faults and is, essentially, a closed surface-water basin although a small part of the valley at the southwestern end drains into the adjacent Cedar Valley. Groundwater occurs in and has been developed mainly from the unconsolidated basin-fill aquifer. Long-term downward trends in groundwater levels have been documented by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since the mid-1950s. The water resources of Parowan Valley were assessed during 2012 to 2014 with an emphasis on refining the understanding of the groundwater and surface-water systems and updating the groundwater budget.Surface-water discharge of five perennial mountain streams that enter Parowan Valley was measured from 2013 to 2014. The total annual surface-water discharge of the five streams during 2013 to 2014 was about 18,000 acre-feet (acre-ft) compared to the average annual streamflow of about 22,000 acre-ft from USGS streamgages operated on the three largest of these streams from the 1940s to the 1980s. The largest stream, Parowan Creek, contributes more than 50 percent of the annual surface-water discharge to the valley, with smaller amounts contributed by Red, Summit, Little, and Cottonwood Creeks.Average annual recharge to the Parowan Valley groundwater system was estimated to be about 25,000 acre-ft from 1994 to 2013. Nearly all recharge occurs as direct infiltration of snowmelt and rainfall on the Markagunt Plateau east of the valley. Smaller amounts of recharge occur as infiltration of streamflow and unconsumed irrigation water near the east side of the valley on alluvial fans associated with mountain streams at the foot of the Red Cliffs. Subsurface flow from the mountain block to the east of the valley is a significant source of groundwater recharge to the basin-fill aquifer

  3. Polyfluoroalkyl substance exposure in the Mid-Ohio River Valley, 1991–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrick, Robert L.; Buckholz, Jeanette; Biro, Frank M.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Xie, Changchun; Pinney, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Industrial discharges of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to the Ohio River, contaminating water systems near Parkersburg, WV, were previously associated with nearby residents' serum PFOA concentrations above US general population medians. Ohio River PFOA concentrations downstream are elevated, suggesting Mid-Ohio River Valley residents are exposed through drinking water. Objectives: Quantify PFOA and 10 other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in Mid-Ohio River Valley resident sera collected between 1991 and 2013 and determine whether the Ohio River and Ohio River Aquifer are exposure sources. Methods: We measured eleven PFAS in 1608 sera from 931 participants. Serum PFOA concentration and water source associations were assessed using linear mixed-effects models. We estimated between-sample serum PFOA using one-compartment pharmacokinetics for participants with multiple samples. Results: In serum samples collected as early as 1991, PFOA (median = 7.6 ng/mL) was detected in 99.9% of sera; 47% had concentrations greater than US population 95th percentiles. Five other PFAS were detected in greater than 82% of samples; median other PFAS concentrations were similar to the US general population. Serum PFOA was significantly associated with water source, sampling year, age at sampling, tap water consumption, pregnancy, gravidity and breastfeeding. Serum PFOA was 40–60% lower with granular activated carbon (GAC) use. Repeated measurements and pharmacokinetics suggest serum PFOA peaked 2000–2006 for participants using water without GAC treatment; where GAC was used, serum PFOA concentrations decreased from 1991 to 2012. Conclusions: Mid-Ohio River Valley residents appear to have PFOA, but not other PFAS, serum concentrations above US population levels. Drinking water from the Ohio River and Ohio River Aquifer, primarily contaminated by industrial discharges 209–666 km upstream, is likely the primary exposure source. GAC treatment of drinking

  4. Conservation Objectives for Wintering and Breeding Waterbirds in California’s Central Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. David Shuford

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available http://escholarship.org/uc/item/5tp5m718Birds associated with wetlands have declined historically across North America from extensive habitat loss and degradation. Among the regions most affected is California’s Central Valley, where over 90% of the wetland base has been lost. Still, this region remains of continental importance to waterbirds. On-the-ground conservation efforts for all bird groups are the focus of the Central Valley Joint Venture, guided by a periodically updated implementation plan. To track progress toward goal attainment, that plan sets time-bound, quantitative conservation goals. Lacking robust data on the size and trends of populations of most species of waterbirds in the Central Valley, we set conservation goals for this group by selecting 10 focal species. These species are of heightened conservation concern or are otherwise representative of the habitat needs of Central Valley waterbirds. Given the great loss of historical habitat, we assumed focal species populations have declined by ≥ 50%. Hence, we defined population objectives for most focal species as increasing their current populations by 10% over 10 years and doubling them in 100 years. The corresponding habitat objectives are to increase wetlands or enhance suitable crops for waterbirds in proportion to the population objectives. These include an increase over 10 years of 7,948 ha (19,641 acres of winter seasonal wetlands, 921 ha (2,276 acres each of semi-permanent and summer seasonal wetlands, and 573 ha (1,416 acres of strategically placed riparian forest. Agricultural needs include additional winter flooding of 15,160 ha (37,461 acres of rice and 2,137 ha (5,281 acres of corn. We distributed the habitat objectives across five planning regions, in some cases favoring proportionally larger increases in those regions with the greatest need. To maximize success, however, conservationists must take into account the specific needs of individual waterbird

  5. Bypassing Evolutionary Roadblocks: Phenotypic Diversity in Isogenic Population Bridges Tradeoff in Evolution of a New Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, K. L.; Meyer, J. R.

    2017-07-01

    A novel mechanism of innovation bridges fitness valleys by violating the one gene-one phenotype dogma. Protein products of a single gene partition into populations, some of which carry out a new function and some the old, avoiding tradeoffs.

  6. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, E.K.; Amos, C.B.; Zielke, O.; Jayko, Angela S.; Burgmann, R.

    2016-01-01

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from ∼1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.3 ± 1.1 m (2σ). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between ∼0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.8 ± 0.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is ∼6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7–11 m and net average of 4.4 ± 1.5 m, corresponding to a geologic Mw ∼7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.1 ± 2.0 m, 12.8 ± 1.5 m, and 16.6 ± 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between ∼0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1σ) over the late Quaternary.

  7. Disposal of Radioactive Wastes in Natural Salt; Elimination des Dechets Radioactifs dans le Sel Naturel; 0423 0414 ; Evacuacion de Desechos Radiactivos en Formaciones Salinas Naturales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, F. L.; Boegly, W. J.; Bradshaw, R. L.; Empson, F. M.; Hemphill, L.; Struxness, E. G.; Tamura, T. [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1960-07-01

    sont actuellement en cours. (author) [Spanish] Las razones por las que se propone utilizar las cavidades en las formaciones salinas como lugar de evacuacion de desechos radiactivos son: 1. La gran antigueedad de los yacimientos de sal; 2. La impermeabilidad de la sal al agua; 3. La amplia distribucion geografica de los yacimientos salinos; 4. Las enormes cantidades de sal disponibles ; 5. La resistencia estructural de la sal; 6. La elevada conductividad termica de la sal comparada con la de otras formaciones geologicas; 7. La posibilidad de recuperar valiosos productos de fision de los desechos evacuados en formaciones salinas; 8. La relativa facilidad con que se puedan formar oquedades por excavacion del yacimiento y la facilidad aun mayor de formar cavidades a bajo coste por disolucion de la sal; 9. La escasez de sismos en las zonas donde existen grandes yacimientos de sal. Los desechos radiactivos liquidos pueden almacenarse en las cavidades de los yacimientos salinos naturales si las propiedades estructurales de la sal no resultan desfavorablemente afectadas por la interaccion quimica y los efectos de la presion, temperatura y radiacion. Los estudios analiticos demuestran que luego de dejarlos enfriar durante dos anos es posible almacenar los desechos resultantes del tratamiento de uranio irradiado a 10,000 MW dia per tonelada y formados a razon de 800 galones/tonelada en una esfera de 10 pies de diametro sin que la temperatura exceda de 200 Degree-Sign F. Los ensayos de laboratorio demuestran que las propiedades estructurales y la conductividad termica de la sal gema no resultan apreciablemente alteradas por grandes dosis de radiacion, aunque las temperaturas elevadas aumentan el indico de fluencia tanto en las muestras irradiadas como en las no irradiadas. Por la accion de los desechos liquidos sobre la sal se forman volumenes moderados de cloro y otros gases clorados. La migracion de los nuclidos a traves de la masa salina y la deformacion de las cavidades

  8. Uso de águas salinas como alternativa na irrigação e produção de forragem no semiárido nordestino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. de A. Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO A produção de forragem no semiárido brasileiro é limitada, em virtude da variação da quantidade e qualidade da água, e ainda dos solos encontrados na região. Nesse contexto foi desenvolvido um experimento na Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido - UFERSA, em Mossoró-RN. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3, com três repetições. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação de dois tipos de solos, um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo eutrófico (PVAe e um Cambissolo Háplico Ta eutrófico (CXve, com três níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação (A1 - 0,59; A2 - 2,75 e A3 - 5,00 dS m-1. As culturas utilizadas no experimento foram milho e sorgo. As variáveis analisadas ao final do experimento foram: área foliar, matéria seca e teor de proteína bruta. A resposta das culturas à salinidade é dependente das características físicas do solo, sendo mais tolerantes em solo com menor teor de argila. A mistura de águas salinas possibilita a produção satisfatória de forragem sem reduzir o teor protéico. A mistura de águas até se obter condutividade elétrica de 2,75 dS m-1 possibilita economia de 43,3% na água de boa qualidade, com perda de aproximadamente 22% na produção de biomassa.

  9. River analysis and floodplain modeling using HEC-GeoRAS/RAS, GIS and ArcGIS: a case study for the Salinas River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, P. K.; Bernini Campos, H. E.

    2016-12-01

    The lower portion of the Salinas River in Monterey bay, California has a history of flood, lots of study has been made ab out the water quality since the river provides water for the crops around, but is still in need a detailed study about the river behavior and flood analysis. The floods did significant damage, affecting valuable landing farms, residences and businesses in Monterey County. The first step for this study is comprehend and collect the river bathymetry and surroundings and then analyze the discharge and how it is going to change with time. This thesis develops a model about the specific site, recruiting real data from GIS and performing a flow simulation according to flow data provided by USGS, to verify water surface elevation and floodplain. The ArcMap, developed by ESRI, was used along with an extension (HEC-GeoRAS) because it was indeed the most appropriate model to work with the Digital Elevation Model, develop the floodplain and characterizing the land surface accurately in the study site. The HEC-RAS software, developed by US Army Corp of Engineers, was used to compute one-dimension steady flow and two-dimension unsteady flow, providing flow velocity, water surface elevation and profiles, total surface area, head and friction loss and other characteristics, allowing the analysis of the flow. A mean discharge, a mean peak streamflow and a peak discharge were used for the steady flow and a Hydrograph was used for the unsteady flow, both are based on the 1995 flood and discharge history. This study provides important information about water surface elevation and water flow, allowing stakeholders and the government to analyze solutions to avoid damage to the society and landowners.

  10. Teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos em caupi inoculado com rizóbio e em condições salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailma Ribeiro de Andrade

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A salinidade é um fator estressante que limita a produção das culturas quando encontra-se em quantidades além do limiar tolerável pelas mesmas. Nesse sentido objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o teor de clorofila a, b, total e carotenóides em feijoeiro caupi irrigado com diferentes níveis de água salina. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG, a qual, está localizada na zona centro oriental do Estado da Paraíba, no Planalto da Borborema, cujas coordenadas geográficas são latitude sul 7º13’11’’, longitude oeste 35º53’31’’ e altitude de 547,56 m. As variáveis avaliadas foram: clorofilas a, clorofila b, carotenóides, relação clorofila a/clorofila b e relação clorofila total/ carotenóides. A interação de rizóbios e salinidade não teve efeito significativo sobre as variáveis. Já o fator sal isolado foi significativo sobre todas as variáveis avaliadas. Os teores de clorofilas e carotenóides indicam as condições do aparato fotossintético em feijoeiro caupi quando submetido a estresse salino.

  11. Comparative evaluation of impact of Zn and ZnO nanoparticles on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae: effects of particle size and solubility on toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Mehmet; Daniels, James; Arslan, Zikri; Farah, Ibrahim O; Rivera, Hilsamar Félix

    2013-01-01

    Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were exposed to different sizes of zinc (Zn) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) to evaluate their toxicity in marine aquatic ecosystems. Acute exposure was conducted in seawater with 10, 50 and 100 mg L(-1) concentrations of the NPs for 24 h and 96 h. Phase contrast microscope images confirmed the accumulation of the NPs inside the guts. Artemia were unable to eliminate the ingested particles, which was thought to be due to the formation of massive particles in the guts. Although the suspensions of the NPs did not exhibit any significant acute toxicity within 24 h, mortalities increased remarkably in 96 h and escalated with increasing concentration of NP suspension to 42% for Zn NPs (40-60 nm) (LC50∼ 100 mg L(-1)) and to about 34% for ZnO NPs (10-30 nm) (LC50 > 100 mg L(-1)). The suspensions of Zn NPs were more toxic to Artemia than those of ZnO NPs under comparable regimes. This effect was attributed to higher Zn(2+) levels (ca. up to 8.9 mg L(-1)) released to the medium from Zn NPs in comparison to that measured in the suspensions of ZnO NPs (ca. 5.5 mg L(-1)). In addition, the size of the nanopowders appeared to contribute to the observed toxicities. Although the suspensions possessed aggregates of comparable sizes, smaller Zn NPs (40-60 nm) were relatively more toxic than larger Zn NPs (80-100 nm). Likewise, the suspensions of 10-30 nm ZnO NPs caused higher toxicity than those of 200 nm ZnO NPs. Lipid peroxidation levels were substantially higher in 96 h (p < 0.05), indicating that the toxic effects were due to the oxidative stress.

  12. Bioensayo General de Letalidad en Artemia Salina, a Las Fracciones del Extracto Etanólico De Psidium Guajava. L y Psidium Guineense. Sw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth Sánchez

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se centró en la evaluación y verificación de la letalidad de las fracciones acetato de etilo, obtenida de los extractos etanólicos de los frutos en estado de madurez, verde y pintón, utilizando la cáscara y pulpa de las especies guayaba (Psidium guajava L y Choba (Psidium guineense Sw. La valoración se llevó a cabo mediante el bioensayo en Artemia salina, a través del cual, se evidencia el siguiente proceso: determinar la concentración letal 50 (CL50 utilizando el medio artificial a Ph 7-8, burbujear con el fin de saturar de oxígeno la solución, controlar la eclosión de los huevos a 25 °C despuésde 48 horas, preparar la solución madre y las de trabajo a concentraciones de 1500, 1000, 500,100, 10 g/ml, control positivo estricnina a 80, 70, 60, 50 g/ml, blanco solvente etanol a 80 g/ml. El ensayo biológico se realizó siguiendo las metodologías propuestas por Gualdrón, R (1994; Cyted (1995;Martínez, C (1999 y McLaughlin, J (1997. Comprobada la letalidad de las fracciones acetato del extracto etanólico de Psidium guajava. L y Psidium guineense. Sw mostró CL50 de 181.4 y 221.30g/ml respectivamente, los resultados se evaluaron según Gautret (2000.

  13. Genetic diversity analysis in the Hypericum perforatum populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of genetic variability among the Hypericum perforatum populations is critical to the development of effective conservation strategies in the Kashmir valley. To obtain accurate estimates of genetic diversity among and within populations of H. perforatum, inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers were used.

  14. The carbon stable isotope biogeochemistry of streams, Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, W.B.; Leslie, D.L.; Harmon, R.S.; Neumann, K.; Welch, K.A.; Bisson, K.M.; McKnight, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► δ 13 C-DIC reported from McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, streams. ► Stream water δ 13 C PDB values range −9.4‰ to +5.1‰, largely inorganic in character. ► Atmospheric exchange is the dominant control on δ 13 C-DIC. - Abstract: The McMurdo Dry Valleys region of Antarctica is the largest ice-free region on the continent. This study reports the first C stable isotope measurements for dissolved inorganic C present in ephemeral streams in four dry valleys that flow for four to twelve weeks during the austral summer. One of these valleys, Taylor Valley, has been the focus of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long-Term Ecological Research (MCM-LTER) program since 1993. Within Taylor Valley, numerous ephemeral streams deliver water to three perennially ice-covered, closed-basin lakes: Lake Fryxell, Lake Hoare, and Lake Bonney. The Onyx River in the Wright Valley, the longest river in Antarctica, flows for 40 km from the Wright Lower Glacier and Lake Brownworth at the foot of the glacier to Lake Vanda. Streamflow in the McMurdo Dry Valley streams is produced primarily from glacial melt, as there is no overland flow. However, hyporheic zone exchange can be a major hydrogeochemical process in these streams. Depending on landscape position, these streams vary in gradient, channel substrate, biomass abundance, and hyporheic zone extent. This study sampled streams from Taylor, Wright, Garwood, and Miers Valleys and conducted diurnal sampling of two streams of different character in Taylor Valley. In addition, transect sampling was undertaken of the Onyx River in Wright Valley. The δ 13 C PDB values from these streams span a range of greater than 14‰, from −9.4‰ to +5.1‰, with the majority of samples falling between −3‰ and +2‰, suggesting that the C stable isotope composition of dissolved C in McMurdo Dry Valley streams is largely inorganic in character. Because there are no vascular plants on this landscape and no groundwater input to these

  15. Estratégias de irrigação com água salina na mamoneira Irrigation strategies with saline water in castor oil plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia da Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado em campo para avaliar estratégias de irrigação com água salina no crescimento e na produção da mamoneira (BRS Energia, além de identificar eventuais estádios de maior tolerância à salinidade e monitorar alguns atributos químicos do solo. Os tratamentos consistiram da irrigação com águas de CE 0,53; 2,09; 3,66 dS m-1 de acordo com a fase de desenvolvimento da cultura, totalizando cinco estratégias de irrigação com água salina e uma testemunha. As avaliações de crescimento foram realizadas aos 20; 40; 60; 80; 100 dias após a semeadura (DAS. As coletas de solo foram realizadas concomitantemente às avaliações de crescimento, nas camadas 0-0,10; 0,10-0,30; 0,30-0,50 m. A irrigação contínua com água de CE 3,66 dS m-1 reduziu a altura de planta, o comprimento de racemo terciário, o número de frutos por área útil e a produtividade de frutos. Essa estratégia aumentou acentuadamente os teores de Na+ e a CE do solo no final do ciclo. Por outro lado, a irrigação com água salina começando aos 45 DAS não prejudicou as variáveis de crescimento e os componentes de produção. Essa estratégia minimizou os impactos negativos sobre a salinidade/sodicidade do solo no final do ciclo. Comportamento similar foi observado para a irrigação contínua com água de CE 2,09 dS m-1 (mistura de águas com CE de 0,53 e 3,66 dS m-1. A mamoneira não apresentou tolerância diferenciada à salinidade em função da fase de desenvolvimento, embora tenha sido prejudicada quando aumentaram a intensidade e a duração do estresse salino.This experiment was conducted under field conditions to evaluate irrigation strategies with saline water on growth and production of castor oil plant (cv. BRS Energia, identify eventual stages with higher tolerance to salinity and monitor some soil chemical attributes. The treatments consisted of irrigations with water of EC 0.53; 2.09; 3.66 dS m-1 according to the development

  16. Duck Valley Habitat Enhancement and Protection, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, Guy; Pero, Vincent (Shoshone-Paiute Nation, Duck Valley Indian Reservation, Owyhee, NV)

    2000-01-01

    The Duck Valley Indian Reservations' Habitat Enhancement project is an ongoing project designed to enhance and protect the critical riparian areas, natural springs, and native fish spawning areas on the Reservation. The project was begun in 1997 with the hiring of a fisheries biologist and the creation of a new department for the Tribes. The project's goals are to protect and enhance the springs, Owyhee River, its tributaries, and to develop a database that can be used by other fisheries professionals which includes information on water quality and fish composition, health, abundance, and genetic makeup. One habitat portion of the project is a focus on protection the numerous springs that provide clean, cool water to the Owyhee River. This will be accomplished through enclosure fences of the spring heads and water troughs to provide clean cool drinking water for wildlife and livestock. Another habitat portion of the project involves protecting headwater areas of streams with native fish populations. This is accomplished through enclosure fencing and riparian plantings on any eroded or degraded banks in the enclosure area. Finally, we monitor and evaluate the areas protected and enhanced. This is accomplished through biological sampling for temperature, Oxygen, sedimentation, and measurements of water depth, bank height and undercut, and width of stream. With the habitat and biological indices we will be able to evaluate how well protective measures are doing, and where to focus future efforts.

  17. Israeli Infotech Migrants in Silicon Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Gold

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the 1980s, Israel’s national ideology discouraged emigration and entrepreneurship among its citizens. Yet, by the late 1990s, Israeli emigrants were one of the leading immigrant nationalities in Silicon Valley. Drawing on interviews, fieldwork, a literature review, and perusal of social media, I explore the origins of Israeli involvement in high-tech activities and the extensive linkages between Israeli emigrants and the Israeli high-tech industry. I also summarize the patterns of communal cooperation that permit emigrant families to maintain an Israel-oriented way of life in suburban communities south of San Francisco, and I compare these patterns with those of Indians, a nationality engaged in the same pursuit. I conclude by considering the impact of infotech involvement on Israeli immigrants and on the U.S. economy.

  18. Elk Valley Coal innovation paving the way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.; Ednie, H.; Weldon, H.

    2006-09-15

    Elk Valley Coal maintains performance optimization across its six metallurgical coal operations. Performance, personnel issues, and training are discussed. Programmes at Fording River, Greenhills, and Coal Mountain are described. Fording River is implementing new computer systems and high-speed wireless networks. The pit control system and the equipment maintenance and remote maintenance programmes are being improved. The Glider Kit program to rebuild major equipment is described. Safety and productivity measures at Greenhills include testing and evaluation of innovations such as the Drilling and Blasting System (DABS), a payload monitor on a shovel, and two GPS-based systems. Blasting methods, a timing study that examines wall stability, fragmentation simulation, and the Six Mine structure at Coal Mountain are described. 5 photos.

  19. Hydrogeological reconnaissance study: Dyfi Valley, Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendining, S.J.

    1981-10-01

    This report describes work carried out for the Department of the Environment as part of its research programme into radioactive waste management. It presents an account of a hydrogeological reconnaissance study in the Dyfi Valley area of Central Wales. Initially the purposes of such a study are given and the assumptions used in deriving parameters such as flow volume, path length and transit time in areas of massive fractured rocks are described. Using these assumptions with geological, topographic and hydrometeorological data the potential ranges in properties such as bulk hydraulic conductivity, path lengths, hydraulic gradients and volumes of groundwater flow have been determined. These ranges have been used to estimate solute transport model parameters. The limitations and usefulness of the reconnaissance study in planning research and siting exploratory boreholes in the Dyfi area are discussed. (author)

  20. [Ethnic conflicts and environmental degradation in Central Asia. The Ferghana valley and northern Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cordier, B

    1996-01-01

    This work seeks to demonstrate that the combination of ecological degradation, demographic pressure, and ethnic heterogeneity in Central Asia constitute a serious threat to the future stability of the region. The predominantly rural Ferghana Valley and Northern Kazakhstan suffer from shortages of water and land and from unemployment that leads to extensive out-migration to cities suffering from decline in their Soviet-era industries. The problem in the Ferghana Valley began with Tsarist conquest of the valley in 1876 and the subsequent imposition of cotton cultivation, which was greatly expanded by the Soviet Union. The Ferghana Valley, despite being a natural unit, was divided between Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan in the 1920s and 1930s, and remains divided between the independent states. The current population of 11 million is ethnically diverse, with Uzbeks in the majority and increasing most rapidly. Immigration from the Caucasus since 1950 added to the tension. Future peace will depend on such factors as whether the neo-Communist political regime chooses to incite ethnic hostilities, the manner in which land is redistributed, and the outcome of struggles for control of the flourishing narcotics trade. The northern Kazakhstan region was designated a pioneer wheat-growing region by Soviet planners in 1954. Russian and Ukrainian migrants established between 1954 and 1956 are today the predominant population sector, but feel their privileged position threatened by nationalist policies making Kazakh the official language and giving preference in employment to Kazakhs. Resettlement of Kazakhs from Mongolia, China, and Afghanistan in the region and the high Kazakh birth rate increase tensions. Grain production initially grew rapidly, but the mediocre soil and erosion-inducing constant dry winds have caused production to stagnate or decline. Regional disputes within Kazakhstan complicate the situation. Northern Kazakhstan, with its industrial development, is

  1. Teoría y práctica del personaje histórico: 1968, el personaje histórico y el trabajo de memoria. El caso de Tizoc, emperador de Pablo Salinas (1970)

    OpenAIRE

    Meyrán, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Tizoc, tlatoani de México-Tenochtitlan (1481-1486) me permite plantear el problema del papel teórico del personaje histórico puesto en escena en el teatro mexicano contemporáneo, como actor metafórico en el deber de memoria sobre 1968 y la masacre de Tlatelolco. Veremos cómo Pablo Salinas se sirve del personaje «antihistórico» para recordar con imaginación en el teatro su propio presente. Tizoc, the tlatoani of México-Tenochtitlan (1481-1486), raises the problem of the theoreti...

  2. Estudio del comercio electrónico como estrategia de negocios dentro de las empresas que brindan servicios de hospedaje en el Cantón Salinas, provincia de Santa Elena.

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo López, Blanca Annabell

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar los mecanismos de promoción y comercialización, que utilizan los establecimientos que brindan servicios de hospedaje en Salinas, identificando los medios de comunicación que manejan para potenciar sus negocios. Al conocer que a nivel mundial existen varias estrategias soportadas en medios digitales por parte de los hoteles, se ha determinado la necesidad de los empresarios hoteleros de tener en sus empresas una página web, o mejoras...

  3. «Cada página lograda es una letra al más allá». Estudio de la correspondencia Américo Castro-Pedro Salinas

    OpenAIRE

    Zamarreño Méndez, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo explora la correspondencia entre Pedro Salinas y Américo Castro a partir de una edición, que, a causa de la legislación vigente respecto de los derechos de autor, no puede ser publicada. Por tanto, aquí encontramos el estudio introductorio, que analiza ese epistolario desde todas las perspectivas: comenzando con un repaso teórico del subgénero epistolar, pronto se explican las dificultades en torno a la reconstrucción cronológica del epistolario. Temáticamente, se analizan difere...

  4. Functional ecology of an Antarctic Dry Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuki; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pointing, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys are the largest ice-free region in Antarctica and are critically at risk from climate change. The terrestrial landscape is dominated by oligotrophic mineral soils and extensive exposed rocky surfaces where biota are largely restricted to microbial communities, although their ability to perform the majority of geobiological processes has remained largely uncharacterized. Here, we identified functional traits that drive microbial survival and community assembly, using a metagenomic approach with GeoChip-based functional gene arrays to establish metabolic capabilities in communities inhabiting soil and rock surface niches in McKelvey Valley. Major pathways in primary metabolism were identified, indicating significant plasticity in autotrophic, heterotrophic, and diazotrophic strategies supporting microbial communities. This represents a major advance beyond biodiversity surveys in that we have now identified how putative functional ecology drives microbial community assembly. Significant differences were apparent between open soil, hypolithic, chasmoendolithic, and cryptoendolithic communities. A suite of previously unappreciated Antarctic microbial stress response pathways, thermal, osmotic, and nutrient limitation responses were identified and related to environmental stressors, offering tangible clues to the mechanisms behind the enduring success of microorganisms in this seemingly inhospitable terrain. Rocky substrates exposed to larger fluctuations in environmental stress supported greater functional diversity in stress-response pathways than soils. Soils comprised a unique reservoir of genes involved in transformation of organic hydrocarbons and lignin-like degradative pathways. This has major implications for the evolutionary origin of the organisms, turnover of recalcitrant substrates in Antarctic soils, and predicting future responses to anthropogenic pollution. PMID:23671121

  5. Uso da solução salina para manutenção de acessos venosos em adultos: uma revisão Uso de la solución salina para la manutención de sondas venosas en adultos: una revisión Use of saline solutions for the mantenaince of venous catheters in adults: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francimar Tinoco de Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma revisão bibliográfica sobre a prática da salinização em cateteres venosos periféricos. O estudo objetivou analisar os artigos científicos sobre o uso de solução salina na manutenção da permeabilidade de cateteres venosos periféricos em adultos, indexados no MedLine e LILACS no período de 1995 a 2005. A amostra consistiu de 5 artigos os quais foram analisados quanto à procedência e periódico de publicação, ao delineamento do estudo, a amostragem, e ao efeito da solução salina. Dois estudos indicam evidências da salinização, outros dois o oposto e um não é conclusivo. Há pequena produção acerca da temática exigindo-se novas pesquisas para validação do método.Es una revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo de analizar los resúmenes de salinización de catéteres venosos en el banco de dados MedLine y LILACS en el período de 1995 a 2005 y la base de datos OVID. La muestra se ha compuesto con cinco artículos que se han analizado a partir de la procedencia y periódico de publicación, el delineamiento del estudio, el tamaño de las muestras y si los resultados son conclusivos o no para evidencias de salinización. Dos estudios indican evidencias del efecto de la salinización en la permeabilidad, otro dos lo contrario y uno no es conclusivo. Se concluye que hay poca producción lo que valida nuevas encuestas.This article is a bibliography review about the use of saline solution in peripheral venous catheters. The study aimed at analyzing scientific articles about the use of saline solution for the maintenance of peripheral venous catheters patency in adults, indexed at the MedLine and LILACS databases in the periods between 1995 and 2005. The sample consisted of 5 articles analyzed in publication frequency, saline solution effects, study delineation, and nursing periodic publications. The review concluded that this thematic has a modest production and not conclusive about the efficacy of the saline

  6. Willamette Valley Ecoregion: Chapter 3 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara S.; Sorenson, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    The Willamette Valley Ecoregion (as defined by Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997) covers approximately 14,458 km² (5,582 mi2), making it one of the smallest ecoregions in the conterminous United States. The long, alluvial Willamette Valley, which stretches north to south more than 193 km and ranges from 32 to 64 km wide, is nestled between the sedimentary and metamorphic Coast Ranges (Coast Range Ecoregion) to the west and the basaltic Cascade Range (Cascades Ecoregion) to the east (fig. 1). The Lewis and Columbia Rivers converge at the ecoregion’s northern boundary in Washington state; however, the majority of the ecoregion falls within northwestern Oregon. Interstate 5 runs the length of the valley to its southern boundary with the Klamath Mountains Ecoregion. Topography here is relatively flat, with elevations ranging from sea level to 122 m. This even terrain, coupled with mild, wet winters, warm, dry summers, and nutrient-rich soil, makes the Willamette Valley the most important agricultural region in Oregon. Population centers are concentrated along the valley floor. According to estimates from the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (2006), over 2.3 million people lived in Willamette Valley in 2000. Portland, Oregon, is the largest city, with 529,121 residents (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Other sizable cities include Eugene, Oregon; Salem (Oregon’s state capital); and Vancouver, Washington. Despite the large urban areas dotting the length of the Willamette Valley Ecoregion, agriculture and forestry products are its economic foundation (figs. 2,3). The valley is a major producer of grass seed, ornamental plants, fruits, nuts, vegetables, and grains, as well as poultry, beef, and dairy products. The forestry and logging industries also are primary employers of the valley’s rural residents (Rooney, 2008). These activities have affected the watershed significantly, with forestry and agricultural runoff contributing to river

  7. Assessment of the feasibility of studying the potential health effects of the West Valley Solidification Project. Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanoski, G.M.

    The activities at West Valley involve potential exposure to ionizing radiation. The health effects from radiation are well known and the projected levels of exposure in this situation are so low as to pose no known health hazard in the community. In such a situation it is not reasonable to propose an expensive, comprehensive and physically invasive screening program for the public unless one could justify the benefits. This report describes a feasible population-based surveillance or disease monitoring system which could be implemented in the West Valley area in order to assess the relevance of any changes in incidence of disease which might be attributable to radiation. The proposed plan is both practical and inexpensive. It would anticipate any potential changes in the health status of the population and provide a means to objectively interpret such changes before major concerns develop

  8. Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An engineering assessment was made of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Monument Valley millsite in Arizona. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the tailings on the site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact; hence, the two alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the site and returning the windblown tailings to the pile and stabilizing the pile. Both options include remedial action costs for offsite locations where tailings have been placed. Cost estimates for the two options are $585,000 and $1,165,000

  9. Plants and butterflies of a small urban preserve in the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Kenji Nishida; Ichiro Nakamura; Carlos O Morales

    2009-01-01

    Costa Rica’s most populated area, the Central valley, has lost much of its natural habitat, and the little that remains has been altered to varying degrees. Yet few studies have been conducted to assess the need for conservation in this area. We present preliminary inventories of plants, butterflies, and day-flying moths of the Reserva Ecológica Leonelo Oviedo (RELO), a small Premontane Moist Forest preserve within the University of Costa Rica campus, located in the urbanized part of the vall...

  10. Paper birch decline in the Niobrara River Valley, Nebraska: Weather, microclimate, and birch stand conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, Esther D.; Miller, Joel P.

    2009-01-01

    The Niobrara River Valley in north-central Nebraska supports scattered stands of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh), a species more typical of boreal forests. These birch stands are considered to be relictual populations that have persisted since the end of the Wisconsin glaciation, when regional flora was more boreal in nature (Wright 1970, Kaul and others, 1988). Dieback of canopy-sized birch has been observed throughout the Niobrara Valley in recent years, although no onset dates are documented. The current dieback event probably started around or after the early 1980’s. The study objectives were to understand microclimatic conditions in birch stands relative to nearby weather stations and historic weather conditions, and to assess current health conditions of individual birch trees. Temperature was measured every half-hour from June 2005 through October 2007 in 12 birch stands and individual birch tree health was measured as expressed by percent living canopy in these and 13 additional stands in spring 2006 and 2007. Birch site microclimate was compared to data from a National Weather Service station in Valentine, Nebraska, and to an automated weather station at The Nature Conservancy Niobrara Valley Preserve 24 kilometers north of Johnstown, Nebraska. Historic weather data from the Valentine station and another National Weather Service Station at Ainsworth, Nebraska, were used to reconstruct minimum and maximum temperature at The Nature Conservancy and one microclimate monitoring station using Kalman filtering and smoothing algorithms. Birch stand microclimate differed from local weather stations as well as among stands. Birch health was associated with annual minimum temperature regimes; those stands whose annual daily minimum temperature regimes were most like The Nature Conservancy station contained smaller proportions of living trees. Frequency of freeze/thaw conditions capable of inducing rootlet injury and subsequent crown dieback significantly have

  11. Valley-chiral quantum Hall state in graphene superlattice structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H. Y.; Tao, W. W.; Wang, J.; Cui, Y. H.; Xu, N.; Huang, B. B.; Luo, G. X.; Hao, Y. H.

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the quantum Hall effect in a graphene superlattice (GS) system, in which the two valleys of graphene are coupled together. In the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, an ordinary quantum Hall effect is found with the sequence σxy=ν e^2/h(ν=0,+/-1,+/-2,\\cdots) . At the zeroth Hall platform, a valley-chiral Hall state stemming from the single K or K' valley is found and it is localized only on one sample boundary contributing to the longitudinal conductance but not to the Hall conductivity. Our findings may shed light on the graphene-based valleytronics applications.

  12. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Fox, W.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1979-12-01

    Results of a radiological survey that was conducted at the inactive uranium-mill site at Monument Valley, Arizona, in March 1976, in cooperation with a team from Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc., are presented. Consideration of these data and of previously published information on radiological conditions at the site lead to the conclusion that potential health effects from exposure to radionuclides in the mill tailings are relatively small. The occupants of three residences within 0.8 km (0.5 mile) of the tailings constitute the principal population at risk, but direct gamma-exposure rate measurements near the two residences closest to the tailings and calculations of radon dispersion indicate that the tailings do not raise either pathway of radiation exposure significantly above the background level. Data are not available to evaluate fully other possible exposure pathways, but the available information indicates that it is unlikely that doses through these pathways will add significantly to the total population dose. The low estimates of potential health effects from exposure to direct radiation and to exposure to radionuclides in the Monument Valley tailings piles are ascribed to the low 226 Ra inventory, to almost complete absence of small particles that are readily moved by wind and water, and to a small population in the vicinity of the tailings

  13. 76 FR 18542 - Copper Valley Electric Association; Notice of Scoping Document 2 and Soliciting Scoping Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13124-002] Copper Valley.... Applicant: Copper Valley Electric Association (Copper Valley) d. Name of Project: Allison Creek Project. e.... 791(a)-825(r). g. Applicant Contact: Robert A. Wilkinson, CEO, Copper Valley Electric Association, P.O...

  14. Abundance and sexual size dimorphism of the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) in the Sacramento valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, G.D.; Casazza, Michael L.; Gregory, C.J.; Halstead, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Giant Gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) is restricted to wetlands of the Central Valley of California. Because of wetland loss in this region, the Giant Gartersnake is both federally and state listed as threatened. We conducted markrecapture studies of four populations of the Giant Gartersnake in the Sacramento Valley (northern Central Valley), California, to obtain baseline data on abundance and density to assist in recovery planning for this species. We sampled habitats that ranged from natural, unmanaged marsh to constructed managed marshes and habitats associated with rice agriculture. Giant Gartersnake density in a natural wetland (1.90 individuals/ha) was an order of magnitude greater than in a managed wetland subject to active season drying (0.17 individuals/ha). Sex ratios at all sites were not different from 1 1, and females were longer and heavier than males. Females had greater body condition than males, and individuals at the least disturbed sites had significantly greater body condition than individuals at the managed wetland. The few remaining natural wetlands in the Central Valley are important, productive habitat for the Giant Gartersnake, and should be conserved and protected. Wetlands constructed and restored for the Giant Gartersnake should be modeled after the permanent, shallow wetlands representative of historic Giant Gartersnake habitat. ?? 2010 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  15. Bibliography of literature pertaining to Long Valley Caldera and associated volcanic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, John W.; Harpel, Christopher J.; Brooks, Suzanna K.; Marcaida, Mae

    2011-01-01

    On May 25-27, 1980, Long Valley caldera was rocked by four M=6 earthquakes that heralded the onset of a wave of seismic activity within the caldera which has continued through the present. Unrest has taken the form of seismic swarms, uplift of the resurgent dome, and areas of vegetation killed by increased CO2 emissions, all interpreted as resulting from magma injection into different levels beneath the caldera, as well as beneath Mammoth Mountain along the southwest rim of the caldera. Continuing economic development in the Mammoth Lakes area has swelled the local population, increasing the risk to people and property if an eruption were to occur. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been monitoring geophysical activity in the Long Valley area since the mid-1970s and continues to track the unrest in real time with a sophisticated network of geophysical sensors. Hazards information obtained by this monitoring is provided to local, State, and Federal officials and to the public through the Long Valley Observatory. The Long Valley area also was scientifically important before the onset of current unrest. Lying at the eastern foot of the Sierra Nevada, the deposits from this active volcanic system have provided fertile ground for research into Neogene tectonics, Quaternary geology and geomorphology, regional stratigraphy, and volcanology. In the early 1970s, intensive studies of the area began through the USGS Geothermal Investigations Program, owing to the presence of a large young silicic volcanic system. The paroxysmal eruption of Long Valley caldera about 760,000 years ago produced the Bishop Tuff and associated Bishop ash. The Bishop Tuff is a well-preserved ignimbrite deposit that has continued to provide new and developing insights into the dynamics of ignimbrite-forming eruptions. Another extremely important aspect of the Bishop Tuff is that it is the oldest known normally magnetized unit of the Brunhes Chron. Thus, the age of the Bishop Tuff is used to

  16. Human impacts on fire occurrence: a case study of hundred years of forest fires in a dry alpine valley in Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zumbrunnen, T.; Menéndez, P.; Bugmann, H.; Conedera, M.; Gimmi, U.; Bürgi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Forest fire regimes are sensitive to alterations of climate, fuel load, and ignition sources. We investigated the impact of human activities and climate on fire occurrence in a dry continental valley of the Swiss Alps (Valais) by relating fire occurrence to population and road density, biomass

  17. EXAMINATION OF HABITAT USE AND DISPERSAL OF EXOTIC BULLFROGS AND THEIR POTENTIAL IMPACT ON NATIVE AMPHIBIAN COMMUNITIES IN THE WILLAMETTE VALLEY, OREGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) are exotic in the west and have been implicated in the decline of western pond turtles and native ranids. Habitat alterations that favor bullfrogs have enhanced populations, particularly in agricultural areas such as the Willamette Valley. I will pres...

  18. Gravity and magnetic data of Midway Valley, southwest Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; Sikora, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed gravity and ground magnetic data collected along five traverses across Midway Valley on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada are described. These data were collected as part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of proposed surface facilities for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Geophysical data show that Midway Valley is bounded by large gravity and magnetic anomalies associated with the Bow Ridge and Paintbrush Canyon faults, on the west side of Exile Hill and on the west flank of Fran Ridge, respectively. In addition, Midway Valley itself is characterized by a number of small-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect small-scale faulting beneath Midway Valley

  19. Sutter Buttes-the lone volcano in California's Great Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausback, Brain P.; Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Clynne, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The volcanic spires of the Sutter Buttes tower 2,000 feet above the farms and fields of California's Great Valley, just 50 miles north-northwest of Sacramento and 11 miles northwest of Yuba City. The only volcano within the valley, the Buttes consist of a central core of volcanic domes surrounded by a large apron of fragmental volcanic debris. Eruptions at the Sutter Buttes occurred in early Pleistocene time, 1.6 to 1.4 million years ago. The Sutter Buttes are not part of the Cascade Range of volcanoes to the north, but instead are related to the volcanoes in the Coast Ranges to the west in the vicinity of Clear Lake, Napa Valley, and Sonoma Valley.

  20. San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Center, located at the University of California-Davis, researchers will investigate the properties of particles that...