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Sample records for population health trial

  1. Considerations for preparing a randomized population health intervention trial: lessons from a South African–Canadian partnership to improve the health of health workers

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    Annalee Yassi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community-based cluster-randomized controlled trials (RCTs are increasingly being conducted to address pressing global health concerns. Preparations for clinical trials are well-described, as are the steps for multi-component health service trials. However, guidance is lacking for addressing the ethical and logistic challenges in (cluster RCTs of population health interventions in low- and middle-income countries. Objective: We aimed to identify the factors that population health researchers must explicitly consider when planning RCTs within North–South partnerships. Design: We reviewed our experiences and identified key ethical and logistic issues encountered during the pre-trial phase of a recently implemented RCT. This trial aimed to improve tuberculosis (TB and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV prevention and care for health workers by enhancing workplace assessment capability, addressing concerns about confidentiality and stigma, and providing onsite counseling, testing, and treatment. An iterative framework was used to synthesize this analysis with lessons taken from other studies. Results: The checklist of critical factors was grouped into eight categories: 1 Building trust and shared ownership; 2 Conducting feasibility studies throughout the process; 3 Building capacity; 4 Creating an appropriate information system; 5 Conducting pilot studies; 6 Securing stakeholder support, with a view to scale-up; 7 Continuously refining methodological rigor; and 8 Explicitly addressing all ethical issues both at the start and continuously as they arise. Conclusion: Researchers should allow for the significant investment of time and resources required for successful implementation of population health RCTs within North–South collaborations, recognize the iterative nature of the process, and be prepared to revise protocols as challenges emerge.

  2. NHS health checks through general practice: randomised trial of population cardiovascular risk reduction

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    Cochrane Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global burden of the major vascular diseases is projected to rise and to remain the dominant non-communicable disease cluster well into the twenty first century. The Department of Health in England has developed the NHS Health Check service as a policy initiative to reduce population vascular disease risk. The aims of this study were to monitor population changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors over the first year of the new service and to assess the value of tailored lifestyle support, including motivational interview with ongoing support and referral to other services. Methods Randomised trial comparing NHS Health Check service only with NHS Health Check service plus additional lifestyle support in Stoke on Trent, England. Thirty eight general practices and 601 (365 usual care, 236 additional lifestyle support patients were recruited and randomised independently between September 2009 and February 2010. Changes in population CVD risk between baseline and one year follow-up were compared, using intention-to-treat analysis. The primary outcome was the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score. Secondary outcomes included individual modifiable risk measures and prevalence of individual risk categories. Additional lifestyle support included referral to a lifestyle coach and free sessions as needed for: weight management, physical activity, cook and eat and positive thinking. Results Average population CVD risk decreased from 32.9% to 29.4% (p Conclusions The NHS Health Check service in Stoke on Trent resulted in significant reduction in estimated population CVD risk. There was no evidence of further benefit of the additional lifestyle support services in terms of absolute CVD risk reduction.

  3. Effectiveness of the population-based Check your health preventive programme conducted in primary care with 4 years follow-up [the CORE trial]: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

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    Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Støvring, Henrik; Sandbaek, Annelli

    2014-08-29

    The periodic health check-up has been a fundamental part of routine medical practice for decades, despite a lack of consensus regarding its value in health promotion and disease prevention. A large-scale Danish population-based preventive programme 'Check your health' was developed based on available evidence of screening and successive accepted treatment, prevention for diseases and health promotion, and is closely aligned with the current health care system.The objective of the 'Check your health' [CORE] trial is to investigate effectiveness on health outcomes of a preventive health check offered at a population-level to all individuals aged 30-49 years, and to establish the cost-effectiveness. The trial will be conducted as a pragmatic household-cluster randomised controlled trial involving 10,505 individuals. All individuals within a well-defined geographical area in the Central Denmark Region, Denmark (DK) were randomised to be offered a preventive health check (Intervention group, n = 5250) or to maintain routine access to healthcare until a delayed intervention (Comparison group, n = 5255). The programme consists of a health examination which yields an individual risk profile, and according to this participants are assigned to one of the following interventions: (a) referral to a health promoting consultation in general practice, (b) behavioural programmes at the local Health Centre, or (c) no need for follow-up.The primary outcomes at 4 years follow-up are: ten-year-risk of fatal cardiovascular event (Heart-SCORE model), physical activity level (self-report and cardiorespiratory fitness), quality of life (SF12), sick leave and labour market attachment. Cost-effectiveness will be evaluated according to life years gained, direct costs and total health costs. Intention to treat analysis will be performed. Results from the largest Danish health check programme conducted within the current healthcare system, spanning the sectors which share responsibility for

  4. Directions for new developments on statistical design and analysis of small population group trials.

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    Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Roes, Kit; Stallard, Nigel

    2016-06-14

    Most statistical design and analysis methods for clinical trials have been developed and evaluated where at least several hundreds of patients could be recruited. These methods may not be suitable to evaluate therapies if the sample size is unavoidably small, which is usually termed by small populations. The specific sample size cut off, where the standard methods fail, needs to be investigated. In this paper, the authors present their view on new developments for design and analysis of clinical trials in small population groups, where conventional statistical methods may be inappropriate, e.g., because of lack of power or poor adherence to asymptotic approximations due to sample size restrictions. Following the EMA/CHMP guideline on clinical trials in small populations, we consider directions for new developments in the area of statistical methodology for design and analysis of small population clinical trials. We relate the findings to the research activities of three projects, Asterix, IDeAl, and InSPiRe, which have received funding since 2013 within the FP7-HEALTH-2013-INNOVATION-1 framework of the EU. As not all aspects of the wide research area of small population clinical trials can be addressed, we focus on areas where we feel advances are needed and feasible. The general framework of the EMA/CHMP guideline on small population clinical trials stimulates a number of research areas. These serve as the basis for the three projects, Asterix, IDeAl, and InSPiRe, which use various approaches to develop new statistical methodology for design and analysis of small population clinical trials. Small population clinical trials refer to trials with a limited number of patients. Small populations may result form rare diseases or specific subtypes of more common diseases. New statistical methodology needs to be tailored to these specific situations. The main results from the three projects will constitute a useful toolbox for improved design and analysis of small

  5. When is a randomised controlled trial health equity relevant? Development and validation of a conceptual framework.

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    Jull, J; Whitehead, M; Petticrew, M; Kristjansson, E; Gough, D; Petkovic, J; Volmink, J; Weijer, C; Taljaard, M; Edwards, S; Mbuagbaw, L; Cookson, R; McGowan, J; Lyddiatt, A; Boyer, Y; Cuervo, L G; Armstrong, R; White, H; Yoganathan, M; Pantoja, T; Shea, B; Pottie, K; Norheim, O; Baird, S; Robberstad, B; Sommerfelt, H; Asada, Y; Wells, G; Tugwell, P; Welch, V

    2017-09-25

    Randomised controlled trials can provide evidence relevant to assessing the equity impact of an intervention, but such information is often poorly reported. We describe a conceptual framework to identify health equity-relevant randomised trials with the aim of improving the design and reporting of such trials. An interdisciplinary and international research team engaged in an iterative consensus building process to develop and refine the conceptual framework via face-to-face meetings, teleconferences and email correspondence, including findings from a validation exercise whereby two independent reviewers used the emerging framework to classify a sample of randomised trials. A randomised trial can usefully be classified as 'health equity relevant' if it assesses the effects of an intervention on the health or its determinants of either individuals or a population who experience ill health due to disadvantage defined across one or more social determinants of health. Health equity-relevant randomised trials can either exclusively focus on a single population or collect data potentially useful for assessing differential effects of the intervention across multiple populations experiencing different levels or types of social disadvantage. Trials that are not classified as 'health equity relevant' may nevertheless provide information that is indirectly relevant to assessing equity impact, including information about individual level variation unrelated to social disadvantage and potentially useful in secondary modelling studies. The conceptual framework may be used to design and report randomised trials. The framework could also be used for other study designs to contribute to the evidence base for improved health equity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Generalizing Evidence From Randomized Clinical Trials to Target Populations

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    Cole, Stephen R.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Properly planned and conducted randomized clinical trials remain susceptible to a lack of external validity. The authors illustrate a model-based method to standardize observed trial results to a specified target population using a seminal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment trial, and they provide Monte Carlo simulation evidence supporting the method. The example trial enrolled 1,156 HIV-infected adult men and women in the United States in 1996, randomly assigned 577 to a highly active antiretroviral therapy and 579 to a largely ineffective combination therapy, and followed participants for 52 weeks. The target population was US people infected with HIV in 2006, as estimated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results from the trial apply, albeit muted by 12%, to the target population, under the assumption that the authors have measured and correctly modeled the determinants of selection that reflect heterogeneity in the treatment effect. In simulations with a heterogeneous treatment effect, a conventional intent-to-treat estimate was biased with poor confidence limit coverage, but the proposed estimate was largely unbiased with appropriate confidence limit coverage. The proposed method standardizes observed trial results to a specified target population and thereby provides information regarding the generalizability of trial results. PMID:20547574

  7. Effects of horticultural therapy on elderly' health: protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

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    Chan, Hui Yu; Ho, Roger Chun-Man; Mahendran, Rathi; Ng, Kheng Siang; Tam, Wilson Wai-San; Rawtaer, Iris; Tan, Chay Hoon; Larbi, Anis; Feng, Lei; Sia, Angelia; Ng, Maxel Kian-Wee; Gan, Goh Lee; Kua, Ee Heok

    2017-08-29

    Due to a rapidly ageing population in the world, it is increasingly pertinent to promote successful ageing strategies which are cost-effective, easily accessible, and more likely to be acceptable to the elderly. Past research associates exposure to natural environments and horticultural therapy (HT) with positive psychological, social and physical health benefits. This Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) is designed to evaluate the efficacy of HT in promoting Asian elderly' mental health, cognitive functioning and physical health. 70 elderly participants aged 60 to 85 years old will be randomized to participate in either the active horticultural therapy group or be in the waitlist control. Sessions will be weekly for 12 weeks, and monthly for 3 months. Mental health will be assessed through self-reports of depressive and anxiety symptomatology, life satisfaction, social connectedness and psychological well-being, collaborated with immunological markers. Outcome measures of cognitive functioning and physical health include neuropsychological tests of cognitive function and basic health screening. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 3 months and 6 months post-intervention. This RCT comprehensively investigates the efficacy of a non-invasive intervention, HT, in enhancing mental health, cognitive functioning and physical health. The results have tremendous potential for supporting future successful ageing programs and applicability to larger populations. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02495194 . Trial registration date: July 13, 2015. Retrospectively registered.

  8. The Cool Little Kids randomised controlled trial: population-level early prevention for anxiety disorders.

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    Bayer, Jordana K; Rapee, Ronald M; Hiscock, Harriet; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Clifford, Susan; Wake, Melissa

    2011-01-05

    The World Health Organization predicts that by 2030 internalising problems (e.g. depression and anxiety) will be second only to HIV/AIDS in international burden of disease. Internalising problems affect 1 in 7 school aged children, impacting on peer relations, school engagement, and later mental health, relationships and employment. The development of early childhood prevention for internalising problems is in its infancy. The current study follows two successful 'efficacy' trials of a parenting group intervention to reduce internalising disorders in temperamentally inhibited preschool children. Cool Little Kids is a population-level randomised trial to determine the impacts of systematically screening preschoolers for inhibition then offering a parenting group intervention, on child internalising problems and economic costs at school entry. This randomised trial will be conducted within the preschool service system, attended by more than 95% of Australian children in the year before starting school. In early 2011, preschool services in four local government areas in Melbourne, Australia, will distribute the screening tool. The ≈16% (n≈500) with temperamental inhibition will enter the trial. Intervention parents will be offered Cool Little Kids, a 6-session group program in the local community, focusing on ways to develop their child's bravery skills by reducing overprotective parenting interactions. Outcomes one and two years post-baseline will comprise child internalising diagnoses and symptoms, parenting interactions, and parent wellbeing. An economic evaluation (cost-consequences framework) will compare incremental differences in costs of the intervention versus control children to incremental differences in outcomes, from a societal perspective. Analyses will use the intention-to-treat principle, using logistic and linear regression models (binary and continuous outcomes respectively) to compare outcomes between the trial arms. This trial addresses gaps

  9. The Cool Little Kids randomised controlled trial: Population-level early prevention for anxiety disorders

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    Hiscock Harriet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization predicts that by 2030 internalising problems (e.g. depression and anxiety will be second only to HIV/AIDS in international burden of disease. Internalising problems affect 1 in 7 school aged children, impacting on peer relations, school engagement, and later mental health, relationships and employment. The development of early childhood prevention for internalising problems is in its infancy. The current study follows two successful 'efficacy' trials of a parenting group intervention to reduce internalising disorders in temperamentally inhibited preschool children. Cool Little Kids is a population-level randomised trial to determine the impacts of systematically screening preschoolers for inhibition then offering a parenting group intervention, on child internalising problems and economic costs at school entry. Methods/Design This randomised trial will be conducted within the preschool service system, attended by more than 95% of Australian children in the year before starting school. In early 2011, preschool services in four local government areas in Melbourne, Australia, will distribute the screening tool. The ≈16% (n≈500 with temperamental inhibition will enter the trial. Intervention parents will be offered Cool Little Kids, a 6-session group program in the local community, focusing on ways to develop their child's bravery skills by reducing overprotective parenting interactions. Outcomes one and two years post-baseline will comprise child internalising diagnoses and symptoms, parenting interactions, and parent wellbeing. An economic evaluation (cost-consequences framework will compare incremental differences in costs of the intervention versus control children to incremental differences in outcomes, from a societal perspective. Analyses will use the intention-to-treat principle, using logistic and linear regression models (binary and continuous outcomes respectively to compare outcomes

  10. [Population Council responsible for RU486 clinical trials in USA].

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    Aguillaume, C J

    1993-04-01

    As a result of the sudden political change that came with the Clinton Administration, RU-486's manufacturer, Roussel-Uclaf, and the Population Council agreed on April 20, 1992, on the manufacture and distribution of RU-486 in the US. In the US, there are less than 1.6 million induced abortions annually. From now on, US women will be able to have a choice between medical and surgical abortion. The Population Council and Roussel-Uclaf have had a contract since 1982. The Council is solely responsible for the phase 2 clinical trial of RU-486 in the US and other countries. It must present to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) an amendment allowing it to begin phase 3 clinical trials. The Council will also lead the US medical facilities in this study. It will identify partners for future production of RU-486 and its distribution in the US. It will also submit to FDA a New Drug Application (NDA). FDA will review the scientific literature on RU-486 and evaluate all data submitted by the Population Council. There are still obstacles to be surmounted. The Population Council must demonstrate good judgment when selecting the criteria for choosing a pharmaceutical firm before a Technical Committee which will be part of a group of players promoting women's health, scientific experts, and other interested parties. It must find the necessary funds to conduct the clinical trials and prepare the NDA. Phase 3 clinical trials in the US must have at least 2000 women. They will test RU-486's efficacy, safety, and acceptability among women choosing medical abortion over surgical abortion. Since the Council operates in almost all countries in the world, has innovated contraceptive research and development activities, and has been endorsed by the UN, product approval of RU-486 in the US will affect policy in all countries concerned about abortion.

  11. METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES OF CLINICAL TRIALS IN THE PEDIATRIC POPULATION

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    S.V. Topolyanskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting clinical trials on children population is a challenge both for organizers and pediatricians involved in trials. Difficulties in recruiting patients, a significant heterogenecity of the population, specific side reactions, difficulties in identifying the objective final points warrant the specific nature of designing clinical trials in pediatrics. The article illustrates key issues and methodology aspects: planning, design, control groups, patient recruitment. It stresses the need to carefully consider specific characteristics of a child’s system and multi-disciplinary approach involving a pediatrician at the early stages of planning, preliminary consultations with parent organizations, children and regulators.Key words: clinical trials, methodology, planning, design, patient recruitment, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(5:6-10

  12. A randomized controlled open trial of population-based disease and case management in a Medicare Plus Choice health maintenance organization.

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    Martin, David C; Berger, Marc L; Anstatt, David T; Wofford, Jonathan; Warfel, DeAnn; Turpin, Robin S; Cannuscio, Carolyn C; Teutsch, Steven M; Mansheim, Bernard J

    2004-10-01

    The object of this study was to examine the effect of population-based disease management and case management on resource use, self-reported health status, and member satisfaction with and retention in a Medicare Plus Choice health maintenance organization (HMO). Study design consisted of a prospective, randomized controlled open trial of 18 months' duration. Participants were 8504 Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older who had been continuously enrolled for at least 12 months in a network model Medicare Plus Choice HMO serving a contiguous nine-county metropolitan area. Members were care managed with an expert clinical information system and frequent telephone contact. Main outcomes included self-reported health status measured by the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), resource use measured by admission rates and bed-days per thousand per year, member satisfaction, and costs measured by paid claims. More favorable outcomes occurred in the intervention group for satisfaction with the health plan (P management and case management led to improved self-reported satisfaction and social function but not to a global net decrease in resource use or improved member retention.

  13. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations.

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    Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue

    2014-11-26

    Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library. www.thecochranelibrary.com (searched 2 November 2012), PubMed (searched 1 November 2012), EMBASE (searched 6 July 2012), Global Health (searched 6 July 2012), IBSS (searched 6 July 2012), WHO Library Database (WHOLIS) (searched 1 November 2012), IDEAS (searched 1 November 2012), ISI-Proceedings (searched 1 November 2012),OpenGrey (changed from OpenSIGLE) (searched 1 November 2012), African Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), BLDS (searched 1 November 2012), Econlit (searched 1 November 2012), ELDIS (searched 1 November 2012), ERIC (searched 1 November 2012), HERDIN NeON Database (searched 1 November 2012), IndMED (searched 1 November 2012), JSTOR (searched 1 November 2012), LILACS(searched 1 November 2012), NTIS (searched 1 November 2012), PAIS (searched 6 July 2012), Popline (searched 1 November 2012), ProQuest Dissertation &Theses Database (searched 1 November 2012), PsycINFO (searched 6 July 2012), SSRN (searched 1 November 2012), Thai Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), World Bank (searched 2 November 2012), WanFang (searched 3 November 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CHKD-CNKI) (searched 2 November 2012).In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and carried out a citation search for the included studies via Web of Science to find other potentially relevant studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies and Interrupted time series (ITS) studies that

  14. Value of information methods to design a clinical trial in a small population to optimise a health economic utility function.

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    Pearce, Michael; Hee, Siew Wan; Madan, Jason; Posch, Martin; Day, Simon; Miller, Frank; Zohar, Sarah; Stallard, Nigel

    2018-02-08

    Most confirmatory randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) are designed with specified power, usually 80% or 90%, for a hypothesis test conducted at a given significance level, usually 2.5% for a one-sided test. Approval of the experimental treatment by regulatory agencies is then based on the result of such a significance test with other information to balance the risk of adverse events against the benefit of the treatment to future patients. In the setting of a rare disease, recruiting sufficient patients to achieve conventional error rates for clinically reasonable effect sizes may be infeasible, suggesting that the decision-making process should reflect the size of the target population. We considered the use of a decision-theoretic value of information (VOI) method to obtain the optimal sample size and significance level for confirmatory RCTs in a range of settings. We assume the decision maker represents society. For simplicity we assume the primary endpoint to be normally distributed with unknown mean following some normal prior distribution representing information on the anticipated effectiveness of the therapy available before the trial. The method is illustrated by an application in an RCT in haemophilia A. We explicitly specify the utility in terms of improvement in primary outcome and compare this with the costs of treating patients, both financial and in terms of potential harm, during the trial and in the future. The optimal sample size for the clinical trial decreases as the size of the population decreases. For non-zero cost of treating future patients, either monetary or in terms of potential harmful effects, stronger evidence is required for approval as the population size increases, though this is not the case if the costs of treating future patients are ignored. Decision-theoretic VOI methods offer a flexible approach with both type I error rate and power (or equivalently trial sample size) depending on the size of the future population for

  15. Informing resource-poor populations and the delivery of entitled health and social services in rural India: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

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    Pandey, Priyanka; Sehgal, Ashwini R; Riboud, Michelle; Levine, David; Goyal, Madhav

    2007-10-24

    A lack of awareness about entitled health and social services may contribute to poor delivery of such services in developing countries, especially among individuals of low socioeconomic status. To determine the impact of informing resource-poor rural populations about entitled services. Community-based, cluster randomized controlled trial conducted from May 2004 to May 2005 in 105 randomly selected village clusters in Uttar Pradesh state in India. Households (548 intervention and 497 control) were selected by a systematic sampling design, including both low-caste and mid- to high-caste households. Four to 6 public meetings were held in each intervention village cluster to disseminate information on entitled health services, entitled education services, and village governance requirements. No intervention took place in control village clusters. Visits by nurse midwife; prenatal examinations, tetanus vaccinations, and prenatal supplements received by pregnant women; vaccinations received by infants; excess school fees charged; occurrence of village council meetings; and development work in villages. At baseline, there were no significant differences in self-reported delivery of health and social services. After 1 year, intervention villagers reported better delivery of several services compared with control villagers: in a multivariate analysis, 30% more prenatal examinations (95% confidence interval [CI], 17%-43%; P India about entitled services enhanced the delivery of health and social services among both low- and mid- to high-caste households. Interventions that emphasize educating resource-poor populations about entitled services may improve the delivery of such services. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00421291.

  16. A systematic review of randomised control trials of sexual health interventions delivered by mobile technologies.

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    Burns, Kara; Keating, Patrick; Free, Caroline

    2016-08-12

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) pose a serious public health problem globally. The rapid spread of mobile technology creates an opportunity to use innovative methods to reduce the burden of STIs. This systematic review identified recent randomised controlled trials that employed mobile technology to improve sexual health outcomes. The following databases were searched for randomised controlled trials of mobile technology based sexual health interventions with any outcome measures and all patient populations: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Global Health, The Cochrane Library (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Methodology Register, NHS Health Technology Assessment Database, and Web of Science (science and social science citation index) (Jan 1999-July 2014). Interventions designed to increase adherence to HIV medication were not included. Two authors independently extracted data on the following elements: interventions, allocation concealment, allocation sequence, blinding, completeness of follow-up, and measures of effect. Trials were assessed for methodological quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. We calculated effect estimates using intention to treat analysis. A total of ten randomised trials were identified with nine separate study groups. No trials had a low risk of bias. The trials targeted: 1) promotion of uptake of sexual health services, 2) reduction of risky sexual behaviours and 3) reduction of recall bias in reporting sexual activity. Interventions employed up to five behaviour change techniques. Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity in trial assessment and reporting. Two trials reported statistically significant improvements in the uptake of sexual health services using SMS reminders compared to controls. One trial increased knowledge. One trial reported promising results in increasing condom use but no trial reported statistically significant increases in condom

  17. Mental health first aid training for nursing students: a protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial in a large university.

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    Crawford, Gemma; Burns, Sharyn K; Chih, Hui Jun; Hunt, Kristen; Tilley, P J Matt; Hallett, Jonathan; Coleman, Kim; Smith, Sonya

    2015-02-19

    The impact of mental health problems and disorders in Australia is significant. Mental health problems often start early and disproportionately affect young people. Poor adolescent mental health can predict educational achievement at school and educational and occupational attainment in adulthood. Many young people attend higher education and have been found to experience a range of mental health issues. The university setting therefore presents a unique opportunity to trial interventions to reduce the burden of mental health problems. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) aims to train participants to recognise symptoms of mental health problems and assist an individual who may be experiencing a mental health crisis. Training nursing students in MHFA may increase mental health literacy and decrease stigma in the student population. This paper presents a protocol for a trial to examine the efficacy of the MHFA training for students studying nursing at a large university in Perth, Western Australia. This randomised controlled trial will follow the CONSORT guidelines. Participants will be randomly allocated to the intervention group (receiving a MHFA training course comprising two face to face 6.5 hour sessions run over two days during the intervention period) or a waitlisted control group (not receiving MHFA training during the study). The source population will be undergraduate nursing students at a large university located in Perth, Western Australia. Efficacy of the MHFA training will be assessed by following the intention-to-treat principle and repeated measures analysis. Given the known burden of mental health disorders among student populations, it is important universities consider effective strategies to address mental health issues. Providing MHFA training to students offers the advantage of increasing mental health literacy, among the student population. Further, students trained in MHFA are likely to utilise these skills in the broader community, when they

  18. Measuring population health in Moldova: health expectancies

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    Cristina Avram

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Health measures are decisive for the development and implementation of population health policies. Monitoring health indicators can lead to improvements in health and decrease in the inequalities among subpopulations. The life expectancy at birth for the Moldovan population did not increase considerably during the last decades, due to the social and economic crisis which led to high mortality and poor health. In Moldova, no aggregated health indicators are utilized for health monitoring. Therefore, the authors calculated health indicators to assess the population health and argue their importance. Mortality and subjective data on self-perceived health and self-rated morbidity from the Household Budget Survey was used for constructing period morbidity-mortality tables. Thus, the authors applied Sullivan’s method to calculate the life expectancy in very good/good/fair health and the life expectancy without chronic morbidity for the period 2006 - 2015. The life expectancies in very good/good/fair health showed a compression of morbidity in the older ages for both sexes, and for rural and urban types of residence. The life expectancies without chronic morbidity for males and for urban dwellers demonstrated an expansion of morbidity. Although the life expectancy is slowly increasing, the trends in population health are contradictory, depending on the applied measures. The health expectancy indicators, based on self-perceived health, depict the actual situation in the population health. These indicators are becoming more essential with the ageing process and can be used for the tailoring of social and health policies and services to the real needs of the population.

  19. Protocol for the development of a CONSORT-equity guideline to improve reporting of health equity in randomized trials.

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    Welch, Vivian; Jull, J; Petkovic, J; Armstrong, R; Boyer, Y; Cuervo, L G; Edwards, Sjl; Lydiatt, A; Gough, D; Grimshaw, J; Kristjansson, E; Mbuagbaw, L; McGowan, J; Moher, D; Pantoja, T; Petticrew, M; Pottie, K; Rader, T; Shea, B; Taljaard, M; Waters, E; Weijer, C; Wells, G A; White, H; Whitehead, M; Tugwell, P

    2015-10-21

    Health equity concerns the absence of avoidable and unfair differences in health. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) can provide evidence about the impact of an intervention on health equity for specific disadvantaged populations or in general populations; this is important for equity-focused decision-making. Previous work has identified a lack of adequate reporting guidelines for assessing health equity in RCTs. The objective of this study is to develop guidelines to improve the reporting of health equity considerations in RCTs, as an extension of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT). A six-phase study using integrated knowledge translation governed by a study executive and advisory board will assemble empirical evidence to inform the CONSORT-equity extension. To create the guideline, the following steps are proposed: (1) develop a conceptual framework for identifying "equity-relevant trials," (2) assess empirical evidence regarding reporting of equity-relevant trials, (3) consult with global methods and content experts on how to improve reporting of health equity in RCTs, (4) collect broad feedback and prioritize items needed to improve reporting of health equity in RCTs, (5) establish consensus on the CONSORT-equity extension: the guideline for equity-relevant trials, and (6) broadly disseminate and implement the CONSORT-equity extension. This work will be relevant to a broad range of RCTs addressing questions of effectiveness for strategies to improve practice and policy in the areas of social determinants of health, clinical care, health systems, public health, and international development, where health and/or access to health care is a primary outcome. The outcomes include a reporting guideline (CONSORT-equity extension) for equity-relevant RCTs and a knowledge translation strategy to broadly encourage its uptake and use by journal editors, authors, and funding agencies.

  20. Integration of priority population, health and nutrition interventions into health systems: systematic review

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    Adeyi Olusoji

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective of the study was to assess the effects of strategies to integrate targeted priority population, health and nutrition interventions into health systems on patient health outcomes and health system effectiveness and thus to compare integrated and non-integrated health programmes. Methods Systematic review using Cochrane methodology of analysing randomised trials, controlled before-and-after and interrupted time series studies. We defined specific strategies to search PubMed, CENTRAL and the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group register, considered studies published from January 1998 until September 2008, and tracked references and citations. Two reviewers independently agreed on eligibility, with an additional arbiter as needed, and extracted information on outcomes: primary (improved health, financial protection, and user satisfaction and secondary (improved population coverage, access to health services, efficiency, and quality using standardised, pre-piloted forms. Two reviewers in the final stage of selection jointly assessed quality of all selected studies using the GRADE criteria. Results Of 8,274 citations identified 12 studies met inclusion criteria. Four studies compared the benefits of Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses in Tanzania and Bangladesh, showing improved care management and higher utilisation of health facilities at no additional cost. Eight studies focused on integrated delivery of mental health and substance abuse services in the United Kingdom and United States of America. Integrated service delivery resulted in better clinical outcomes and greater reduction of substance abuse in specific sub-groups of patients, with no significant difference found overall. Quality of care, patient satisfaction, and treatment engagement were higher in integrated delivery models. Conclusions Targeted priority population health interventions we identified led to improved health

  1. Integration of priority population, health and nutrition interventions into health systems: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat; de Jongh, Thyra E; Secci, Federica V; Ohiri, Kelechi; Adeyi, Olusoji; Car, Josip

    2011-10-10

    Objective of the study was to assess the effects of strategies to integrate targeted priority population, health and nutrition interventions into health systems on patient health outcomes and health system effectiveness and thus to compare integrated and non-integrated health programmes. Systematic review using Cochrane methodology of analysing randomised trials, controlled before-and-after and interrupted time series studies. We defined specific strategies to search PubMed, CENTRAL and the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group register, considered studies published from January 1998 until September 2008, and tracked references and citations. Two reviewers independently agreed on eligibility, with an additional arbiter as needed, and extracted information on outcomes: primary (improved health, financial protection, and user satisfaction) and secondary (improved population coverage, access to health services, efficiency, and quality) using standardised, pre-piloted forms. Two reviewers in the final stage of selection jointly assessed quality of all selected studies using the GRADE criteria. Of 8,274 citations identified 12 studies met inclusion criteria. Four studies compared the benefits of Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses in Tanzania and Bangladesh, showing improved care management and higher utilisation of health facilities at no additional cost. Eight studies focused on integrated delivery of mental health and substance abuse services in the United Kingdom and United States of America. Integrated service delivery resulted in better clinical outcomes and greater reduction of substance abuse in specific sub-groups of patients, with no significant difference found overall. Quality of care, patient satisfaction, and treatment engagement were higher in integrated delivery models. Targeted priority population health interventions we identified led to improved health outcomes, quality of care, patient satisfaction and access to care

  2. Value of information methods to design a clinical trial in a small population to optimise a health economic utility function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pearce

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most confirmatory randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs are designed with specified power, usually 80% or 90%, for a hypothesis test conducted at a given significance level, usually 2.5% for a one-sided test. Approval of the experimental treatment by regulatory agencies is then based on the result of such a significance test with other information to balance the risk of adverse events against the benefit of the treatment to future patients. In the setting of a rare disease, recruiting sufficient patients to achieve conventional error rates for clinically reasonable effect sizes may be infeasible, suggesting that the decision-making process should reflect the size of the target population. Methods We considered the use of a decision-theoretic value of information (VOI method to obtain the optimal sample size and significance level for confirmatory RCTs in a range of settings. We assume the decision maker represents society. For simplicity we assume the primary endpoint to be normally distributed with unknown mean following some normal prior distribution representing information on the anticipated effectiveness of the therapy available before the trial. The method is illustrated by an application in an RCT in haemophilia A. We explicitly specify the utility in terms of improvement in primary outcome and compare this with the costs of treating patients, both financial and in terms of potential harm, during the trial and in the future. Results The optimal sample size for the clinical trial decreases as the size of the population decreases. For non-zero cost of treating future patients, either monetary or in terms of potential harmful effects, stronger evidence is required for approval as the population size increases, though this is not the case if the costs of treating future patients are ignored. Conclusions Decision-theoretic VOI methods offer a flexible approach with both type I error rate and power (or equivalently

  3. The effect of community-based health management on the health of the elderly: a randomized controlled trial from China

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    Chao Jianqian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An aging population poses significant challenges to health care in China. Health management has been implemented to reduce the costs of care, raise health service utilization, increase health knowledge and improve quality of life. Several studies have tried to verify the effectiveness of health management in achieving these goals worldwide. However, there have been insufficient randomized control trials (RCTs to draw reliable conclusions. The few small-scale studies conducted in China include mostly the general population rather than the elderly. Our study is designed to evaluate the impact of community-based health management on the health of the elderly through an RCT in Nanjing, China. Methods Two thousand four hundred participants, aged 60 or older and who gave informed consent, were randomly allocated 1:1 into management and control groups, the randomization schedule was concealed from community health service center staff until allocation. Community-based health management was applied in the former while the latter was only given usual care. After 18 months, three categories of variables (subjective grading health indices, objective health indices and health service utilization were measured based on a questionnaire, clinical monitoring and diagnostic measurements. Differences between the two groups were assessed before and after the intervention and analyzed with t-test, χ2-test, and multiple regression analysis. Results Compared with the control group, the management group demonstrated improvement on the following variables (P Conclusion Community-based health management improved both subjective grading health indices, objective health indices and decreased the number of outpatient clinic visits, demonstrating effectiveness in improving elderly health. Trial registration ChiCTR-OCH-11001716

  4. A health dialogue intervention reduces cardiovascular risk factor levels: a population based randomised controlled trial in Swedish primary care setting with 1-year follow-up

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    Mats Hellstrand

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The total number of cardiovascular (CVD deaths accounted for almost a third of all deaths globally in 2013. Population based randomised controlled trials, managed within primary care, on CVD risk factor interventions are scarce. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a health dialogue intervention in a primary care setting offered to a population at the age of 55 years, focusing on CVD risk factors. Methods The study was performed in five primary health care centres in the county of Västmanland, Sweden between April 2011 and December 2012. Men and women were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 440 and control groups (n = 440. At baseline, both groups filled in a health questionnaire and serum cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, weight, height, waist (WC and hip circumference, waist hip ratio (WHR and systolic/diastolic blood pressure were measured. Intervention group attended a health dialogue, supported by a visualised health profile, with a possibility for further activities. Participation rates at baseline were 53% and 52% respectively. A 1-year follow-up was carried out. Results The intervention group (n = 165 showed reductions compared to the control group (n = 177 concerning body mass index (BMI (0.3 kg/m2, p = .031, WC (2.1 cm, p ≤ .001 and WHR (.002, p ≤ .001 at the 1-year follow-up. No differences between the intervention and control groups were found in other variables. Intervention group, compared to baseline, had reduced weight, BMI, WC, WHR, HbA1c, and diet, while the men in the control group had reduced their alcohol consumption. Conclusions A health dialogue intervention at the age of 55 years, conducted in ordinary primary care, showed a moderate effect on CVD risk factor levels, in terms of BMI, WC and WHR. Trial registration number BioMed Central, ISRCTN22586871 , date assigned; 10/12/2015

  5. Population Health and Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapy practitioners play an important role in improving the health of populations through the development of occupational therapy interventions at the population level and through advocacy to address occupational participation and the multiple determinants of health. This article defines and explores population health as a concept and describes the appropriateness of occupational therapy practice in population health. Support of population health practice as evidenced in the official documents of the American Occupational Therapy Association and the relevance of population health for occupational therapy as a profession are reviewed. Recommendations and directions for the future are included related to celebration of the achievements of occupational therapy practitioners in the area of population health, changes to the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework and educational accreditation standards, and the importance of supporting, recognizing, rewarding, and valuing occupational therapy practitioners who assume roles in which direct care is not their primary function. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  6. Reconciling research and implementation in micro health insurance experiments in India: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Doyle Conor

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microinsurance or Community-Based Health Insurance is a promising healthcare financing mechanism, which is increasingly applied to aid rural poor persons in low-income countries. Robust empirical evidence on the causal relations between Community-Based Health Insurance and healthcare utilisation, financial protection and other areas is scarce and necessary. This paper contains a discussion of the research design of three Cluster Randomised Controlled Trials in India to measure the impact of Community-Based Health Insurance on several outcomes. Methods/Design Each trial sets up a Community-Based Health Insurance scheme among a group of micro-finance affiliate families. Villages are grouped into clusters which are congruous with pre-existing social groupings. These clusters are randomly assigned to one of three waves of implementation, ensuring the entire population is offered Community-Based Health Insurance by the end of the experiment. Each wave of treatment is preceded by a round of mixed methods evaluation, with quantitative, qualitative and spatial evidence on impact collected. Improving upon practices in published Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial literature, we detail how research design decisions have ensured that both the households offered insurance and the implementers of the Community-Based Health Insurance scheme operate in an environment replicating a non-experimental implementation. Discussion When a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial involves randomizing within a community, generating adequate and valid conclusions requires that the research design must be made congruous with social structures within the target population, to ensure that such trials are conducted in an implementing environment which is a suitable analogue to that of a non-experimental implementing environment.

  7. Population Health Management for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkatch, Rifky; Musich, Shirley; MacLeod, Stephanie; Alsgaard, Kathleen; Hawkins, Kevin; Yeh, Charlotte S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The older adult population is expanding, living longer, with multiple chronic conditions. Understanding and managing their needs over time is an integral part of defining successful aging. Population health is used to describe the measurement and health outcomes of a population. Objectives: To define population health as applied to older adults, summarize lessons learned from current research, and identify potential interventions designed to promote successful aging and improved health for this population. Method: Online search engines were utilized to identify research on population health and health interventions for older adults. Results: Population health management (PHM) is one strategy to promote the health and well-being of target populations. Interventions promoting health across a continuum tend to be disease, risk, or health behavior specific rather than encompassing a global concept of health. Conclusion: Many existing interventions for older adults are simply research based with limited generalizability; as such, further work in this area is warranted. PMID:28680938

  8. Health literacy and usability of clinical trial search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Dina; Bickmore, Timothy W; Barry, Barbara; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Several web-based search engines have been developed to assist individuals to find clinical trials for which they may be interested in volunteering. However, these search engines may be difficult for individuals with low health and computer literacy to navigate. The authors present findings from a usability evaluation of clinical trial search tools with 41 participants across the health and computer literacy spectrum. The study consisted of 3 parts: (a) a usability study of an existing web-based clinical trial search tool; (b) a usability study of a keyword-based clinical trial search tool; and (c) an exploratory study investigating users' information needs when deciding among 2 or more candidate clinical trials. From the first 2 studies, the authors found that users with low health literacy have difficulty forming queries using keywords and have significantly more difficulty using a standard web-based clinical trial search tool compared with users with adequate health literacy. From the third study, the authors identified the search factors most important to individuals searching for clinical trials and how these varied by health literacy level.

  9. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A- ... assumed that trial results were valid for other populations as well. Researchers now realize that women and ...

  10. An eHealth program versus a standard care supervised health program and associated health outcomes in individuals with mobility disability: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglind, Daniel; Nyberg, Gisela; Willmer, Mikaela; Persson, Margareta; Wells, Michael; Forsell, Yvonne

    2018-04-27

    Young adults with mobility disability (MD) are less likely to engage in regular physical activity (PA) compared with their able-bodied peers and inactive adults with a MD are more likely to report one or more chronic diseases compared to those who are physically active. Despite the vast amount of research published in the field of PA interventions over the past decades, little attention has been focused on interventions aiming to increase PA among individuals with MD. Thus, we propose to compare the effects of an eHealth program compared to a usual care supervised health program on levels of PA and other health behaviors. The current intervention will use a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design with two treatment groups (an eHealth program and a usual care supervised health program) in young adults with newly acquired MD. In total, 110 young adults (aged 18-40 years) with a MD, acquired within the past 3 years, will be recruited to participate in a 12-week intervention. The primary study outcome is accelerometer-measured time spent in moderate to vigorous PA. Secondary outcomes includes health-related quality of life, depression, stress, fitness, body composition, diet, musculoskeletal pain, motivation to exercise and work ability. There is a lack of RCTs investigating effective ways to increase levels of PA in young adults with MD. Increased levels of PA among this physically inactive population have the potential to substantially improve health-related outcomes, possibly more so than in the general population. The trial will put strong emphasis on optimizing exercise adherence and investigating feasibility in the two treatment programs. The Ethical Review Board (EPN) at Karolinska Institutet has approved the study (2017/1206-31/1). International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN), reference number ISRCTN22387524 . Prospectively registered February 4, 2018.

  11. Measuring Population Health Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Parrish, R. Gibson

    2010-01-01

    An ideal population health outcome metric should reflect a population's dynamic state of physical, mental, and social well-being. Positive health outcomes include being alive; functioning well mentally, physically, and socially; and having a sense of well-being. Negative outcomes include death, loss of function, and lack of well-being. In contrast to these health outcomes, diseases and injuries are intermediate factors that influence the likelihood of achieving a state of health. On the basis...

  12. SARS and Population Health Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2003-01-01

    The recent global outbreak of SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) provides an opportunity to study the use and impact of public health informatics and population health technology to detect and fight a global epidemic. Population health technology is the umbrella term for technology applications that have a population focus and the potential to improve public health. This includes the Internet, but also other technologies such as wireless devices, mobile phones, smart appliances, or smar...

  13. Health, human rights, and the conduct of clinical research within oppressed populations

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    Mills Edward J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials evaluating interventions for infectious diseases require enrolling participants that are vulnerable to infection. As clinical trials are conducted in increasingly vulnerable populations, issues of protection of these populations become challenging. In settings where populations are forseeably oppressed, the conduct of research requires considerations that go beyond common ethical concerns and into issues of international human rights law. Discussion Using examples of HIV prevention trials in Thailand, hepatitis-E prevention trials in Nepal and malaria therapeutic trials in Burma (Myanmar, we address the inadequacies of current ethical guidelines when conducting research within oppressed populations. We review existing legislature in the United States and United Kingdom that may be used against foreign investigators if trial hardships exist. We conclude by making considerations for research conducted within oppressed populations.

  14. A Feasibility Randomised Controlled Trial of the New Orleans Intervention for Infant Mental Health: A Study Protocol

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    Rachel Pritchett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Child maltreatment is associated with life-long social, physical, and mental health problems. Intervening early to provide maltreated children with safe, nurturing care can improve outcomes. The need for prompt decisions about permanent placement (i.e., regarding adoption or return home is internationally recognised. However, a recent Glasgow audit showed that many maltreated children “revolve” between birth families and foster carers. This paper describes the protocol of the first exploratory randomised controlled trial of a mental health intervention aimed at improving placement permanency decisions for maltreated children. This trial compares an infant's mental health intervention with the new enhanced service as usual for maltreated children entering care in Glasgow. As both are new services, the trial is being conducted from a position of equipoise. The outcome assessment covers various fields of a child’s neurodevelopment to identify problems in any ESSENCE domain. The feasibility, reliability, and developmental appropriateness of all outcome measures are examined. Additionally, the potential for linkage with routinely collected data on health and social care and, in the future, education is explored. The results will inform a definitive randomised controlled trial that could potentially lead to long lasting benefits for the Scottish population and which may be applicable to other areas of the world. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NC01485510.

  15. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep ... Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z Grants ... in the Press Research Features All Events Past Events Upcoming ...

  16. Successful recruitment to trials: findings from the SCIMITAR+ Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Emily; Arundel, Catherine; Bailey, Della; Callen, Tracy; Cusack, Christina; Crosland, Suzanne; Foster, Penny; Herlihy, Hannah; Hope, James; Ker, Suzy; McCloud, Tayla; Romain-Hooper, Crystal-Bella; Stribling, Alison; Phiri, Peter; Tait, Ellen; Gilbody, Simon

    2018-01-19

    Randomised controlled trials (RCT) can struggle to recruit to target on time. This is especially the case with hard to reach populations such as those with severe mental ill health. The SCIMITAR+ trial, a trial of a bespoke smoking cessation intervention for people with severe mental ill health achieved their recruitment ahead of time and target. This article reports strategies that helped us to achieve this with the aim of aiding others recruiting from similar populations. SCIMITAR+ is a multi-centre pragmatic two-arm parallel-group RCT, which aimed to recruit 400 participants with severe mental ill health who smoke and would like to cut down or quit. The study recruited primarily in secondary care through community mental health teams and psychiatrists with a smaller number of participants recruited through primary care. Recruitment opened in October 2015 and closed in December 2016, by which point 526 participants had been recruited. We gathered information from recruiting sites on strategies which led to the successful recruitment in SCIMITAR+ and in this article present our approach to trial management along with the strategies employed by the recruiting sites. Alongside having a dedicated trial manager and trial management team, we identified three main themes that led to successful recruitment. These were: clinicians with a positive attitude to research; researchers and clinicians working together; and the use of NHS targets. The overriding theme was the importance of relationships between both the researchers and the recruiting clinicians and the recruiting clinicians and the participants. This study makes a significant contribution to the limited evidence base of real-world cases of successful recruitment to RCTs and offers practical guidance to those planning and conducting trials. Building positive relationships between clinicians, researchers and participants is crucial to successful recruitment.

  17. A Population-Based Clinical Trial of Irinotecan and Carboplatin

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    Derick Lau

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Phase I trials of anticancer drugs are commonly conducted using the method of modified Fibonacci. We have developed a population-based design for phase I trials of combining anticancer drugs such as irinotecan and carboplatin. Patients and Methods. Intrapatient dose escalation of irinotecan and carboplatin was performed according to a predetermined schema to reach individual dose-limiting toxicity (DLT in 50 patients with solid tumors refractory to previous chemotherapy. The individual toxicity-limiting dose levels were analyzed for normal distribution using the method of Ryan-Joiner and subsequently used to determine a population-based maximum tolerated dose (pMTD. For comparison, a simulation study was performed using the method of modified Fibonacci. Results. The most common dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs included neutropenia (58%, thrombocytopenia (16%, and diarrhea (8%. The frequency of individual toxicity-limiting dose levels of 50 patients approximated a normal distribution. The dose levels associated with individual limiting toxicities ranged from level 1 (irinotecan 100 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC = 4 mg/mL x min to level 8 (irinotecan 350 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC = 6. The pMTD was determined to be dose level 3 (150 mg/m2 for irinotecan and AUC = 5 for carboplatin. In contrast, the MTD was determined to be dose level 4 (200 mg/m2 for irinotecan and AUC 5 for carboplatin by modified-Fibonacci simulation. Conclusions. The population-based design of phase I trial allows optimization of dose intensity and derivation of a pMTD. The pMTD has been applied in phase II trial of irinotecan and carboplatin in patients with small-cell lung cancer.

  18. A Randomized Trial to Compare Alternative Educational Interventions to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Hard-to-Reach Urban Minority Population with Health Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E; Zybert, Patricia; Wolf, Randi L; Basch, Corey H; Ullman, Ralph; Shmukler, Celia; King, Fionnuala; Neugut, Alfred I; Shea, Steven

    2015-10-01

    This randomized controlled trial assessed different educational approaches for increasing colorectal cancer screening uptake in a sample of primarily non-US born urban minority individuals, over aged 50, with health insurance, and out of compliance with screening guidelines. In one group, participants were mailed printed educational material (n = 180); in a second, participants' primary care physicians received academic detailing to improve screening referral and follow-up practices (n = 185); in a third, physicians received academic detailing and participants received tailored telephone education (n = 199). Overall, 21.5% of participants (n = 121) received appropriate screening within one year of randomization. There were no statistically significant pairwise differences between groups in screening rate. Among those 60 years of age or older, however, the detailing plus telephone education group had a higher screening rate than the print group (27.3 vs. 7.7%, p = .02). Different kinds of interventions will be required to increase colorectal cancer screening among the increasingly small population segment that remains unscreened. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02392143.

  19. Automated classification of eligibility criteria in clinical trials to facilitate patient-trial matching for specific patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kevin; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2017-07-01

    To develop automated classification methods for eligibility criteria in ClinicalTrials.gov to facilitate patient-trial matching for specific populations such as persons living with HIV or pregnant women. We annotated 891 interventional cancer trials from ClinicalTrials.gov based on their eligibility for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients using their eligibility criteria. These annotations were used to develop classifiers based on regular expressions and machine learning (ML). After evaluating classification of cancer trials for eligibility of HIV-positive patients, we sought to evaluate the generalizability of our approach to more general diseases and conditions. We annotated the eligibility criteria for 1570 of the most recent interventional trials from ClinicalTrials.gov for HIV-positive and pregnancy eligibility, and the classifiers were retrained and reevaluated using these data. On the cancer-HIV dataset, the baseline regex model, the bag-of-words ML classifier, and the ML classifier with named entity recognition (NER) achieved macro-averaged F2 scores of 0.77, 0.87, and 0.87, respectively; the addition of NER did not result in a significant performance improvement. On the general dataset, ML + NER achieved macro-averaged F2 scores of 0.91 and 0.85 for HIV and pregnancy, respectively. The eligibility status of specific patient populations, such as persons living with HIV and pregnant women, for clinical trials is of interest to both patients and clinicians. We show that it is feasible to develop a high-performing, automated trial classification system for eligibility status that can be integrated into consumer-facing search engines as well as patient-trial matching systems. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. CHAMP: Cognitive behaviour therapy for health anxiety in medical patients, a randomised controlled trial

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    Murphy David

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal health anxiety, also called hypochondriasis, has been successfully treated by cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT in patients recruited from primary care, but only one pilot trial has been carried out among those attending secondary medical clinics where health anxiety is likely to be more common and have a greater impact on services. The CHAMP study extends this work to examine both the clinical and cost effectiveness of CBT in this population. Method/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms and equal randomization of 466 eligible patients (assuming a 20% drop-out to an active treatment group of 5-10 sessions of cognitive behaviour therapy and to a control group. The aim at baseline, after completion of all assessments but before randomization, was to give a standard simple explanation of the nature of health anxiety for all participants. Subsequently the control group was to receive whatever care might usually be available in the clinics, which is normally a combination of clinical assessment, appropriate tests and reassurance. Those allocated to the active treatment group were planned to receive between 5 and 10 sessions of an adapted form of cognitive behaviour therapy based on the Salkovskis/Warwick model, in which a set of treatment strategies are chosen aimed at helping patients understand the factors that drive and maintain health anxiety. The therapy was planned to be given by graduate research workers, nurses or other health professionals trained for this intervention whom would also have their competence assessed independently during the course of treatment. The primary outcome is reduction in health anxiety symptoms after one year and the main secondary outcome is the cost of care after two years. Discussion This represents the first trial of adapted cognitive behaviour therapy in health anxiety that is large enough to test not only the clinical benefits of treatment but also

  1. A Novel Mobile App and Population Management System to Manage Rheumatoid Arthritis Flares: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Penny; Luo, Dee; Lu, Fengxin; Elias, Josephine S; Landman, Adam B; Michaud, Kaleb D; Lee, Yvonne C

    2018-04-11

    Rheumatoid arthritis flares have a profound effect on patients, causing pain and disability. However, flares often occur between regularly scheduled health care provider visits and are, therefore, difficult to monitor and manage. We sought to develop a mobile phone app combined with a population management system to help track RA flares between visits. The objective of this study is to implement the mobile app plus the population management system to monitor rheumatoid arthritis disease activity between scheduled health care provider visits over a period of 6 months. This is a randomized controlled trial that lasts for 6 months for each participant. We aim to recruit 190 patients, randomized 50:50 to the intervention group versus the control group. The intervention group will be assigned the mobile app and be prompted to answer daily questionnaires sent to their mobile devices. Both groups will be assigned a population manager, who will communicate with the participants via telephone at 6 weeks and 18 weeks. The population manager will also communicate with the participants in the intervention group if their responses indicate a sustained increase in rheumatoid arthritis disease activity. To assess patient satisfaction, the primary outcomes will be scores on the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication as well as the Perceived Efficacy in Patient-Physician Interactions questionnaire at 6 months. To determine the effect of the mobile app on rheumatoid arthritis disease activity, the primary outcome will be the Clinical Disease Activity Index at 6 months. The trial started in November 2016, and an estimated 2.5 years will be necessary to complete the study. Study results are expected to be published by the end of 2019. The completion of this study will provide important data regarding the following: (1) the assessment of validated outcome measures to assess rheumatoid arthritis disease activity with a mobile app between routinely scheduled health care

  2. Conducting a randomized trial in rural and urban safety-net health centers: Added value of community-based participatory research

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    Meera Muthukrishnan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common cancer in the US. Despite evidence that screening reduces CRC incidence and mortality, screening rates are sub-optimal with disparities by race/ethnicity, income, and geography. Rural-urban differences in CRC screening are understudied even though approximately one-fifth of the US population lives in rural areas. This focus on urban populations limits the generalizability and dissemination potential of screening interventions. Methods: Using community-based participatory research (CBPR principles, we designed a cluster-randomized trial, adaptable to a range of settings, including rural and urban health centers. We enrolled 483 participants across 11 health centers representing 2 separate networks. Both networks serve medically-underserved communities; however one is primarily rural and one primarily urban. Results: Our goal in this analysis is to describe baseline characteristics of participants and examine setting-level differences. CBPR was a critical for recruiting networks to the trial. Patient respondents were predominately female (61.3%, African-American (66.5%, and earned <$1200 per month (87.1%. The rural network sample was older; more likely to be female, white, disabled or retired, and have a higher income, but fewer years of education. Conclusions: Variation in the samples partly reflects the CBPR process and partly reflects inherent differences in the communities. This confirmed the importance of using CBPR when planning for eventual dissemination, as it enhanced our ability to work within diverse settings. These baseline findings indicate that using a uniform approach to implementing a trial or intervention across diverse settings might not be effective or efficient. Keywords: Colorectal cancer screening, Community-based participatory research, Health disparities, Medically underserved populations, Dissemination and implementation, Randomized trial

  3. The Effects of Bikram Yoga on Health: Critical Review and Clinical Trial Recommendations

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    Zoe L. Hewett

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bikram yoga is a style of hatha yoga involving a standarized series of asanas performed to an instructional dialogue in a heated environment (40.6°C, 40% humidity. Several studies evaluating the effect of Bikram yoga on health-related outcomes have been published over the past decade. However, to date, there are no comprehensive reviews of this research and there remains a lack of large-scale, robustly-designed randomised controlled trials (RCT of Bikram yoga training. The purpose of this review is to contextualise and summarise trials that have evaluated the effects of Bikram yoga on health and to provide recommendations for future research. According to published literature, Bikram yoga has been shown to improve lower body strength, lower and upper body range of motion, and balance in healthy adults. Non-RCTs report that Bikram yoga may, in some populations, improve glucose tolerance, bone mineral density, blood lipid profile, arterial stiffness, mindfulness, and perceived stress. There is vast potential for further, improved research into the effects of Bikram yoga, particularly in unhealthy populations, to better understand intervention-related adaptations and their influence on the progression of chronic disease. Future research should adhere to CONSORT guidelines for better design and reporting to improve research quality in this field.

  4. A mHealth Application for Chronic Wound Care: Findings of a User Trial

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    Marcia R. Friesen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of a user trial of a mHealth application for pressure ulcer (bedsore documentation. Pressure ulcers are a leading iatrogenic cause of death in developed countries and significantly impact quality of life for those affected. Pressure ulcers will be an increasing public health concern as the population ages. Electronic information systems are being explored to improve consistency and accuracy of documentation, improve patient and caregiver experience and ultimately improve patient outcomes. A software application was developed for Android Smartphones and tablets and was trialed in a personal care home in Western Canada. The software application provides an electronic medical record for chronic wounds, replacing nurses’ paper-based charting and is positioned for integration with facility’s larger eHealth framework. The mHealth application offers three intended benefits over paper-based charting of chronic wounds, including: (1 the capacity for remote consultation (telehealth between facilities, practitioners, and/or remote communities, (2 data organization and analysis, including built-in alerts, automatically-generated text-based and graph-based wound histories including wound images, and (3 tutorial support for non-specialized caregivers. The user trial yielded insights regarding the software application’s design and functionality in the clinical setting, and highlighted the key role of wound photographs in enhancing patient and caregiver experiences, enhancing communication between multiple healthcare professionals, and leveraging the software’s telehealth capacities.

  5. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue

    2014-01-01

    Background Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. Search methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library. www.thecochranelibrary.com (searched 2 November 2012), PubMed (searched 1 November 2012), EMBASE (searched 6 July 2012), Global Health (searched 6 July 2012), IBSS (searched 6 July 2012), WHO Library Database (WHOLIS) (searched 1 November 2012), IDEAS (searched 1 November 2012), ISI-Proceedings (searched 1 November 2012),OpenGrey (changed from OpenSIGLE) (searched 1 November 2012), African Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), BLDS (searched 1 November 2012), Econlit (searched 1 November 2012), ELDIS (searched 1 November 2012), ERIC (searched 1 November 2012), HERDIN NeON Database (searched 1 November 2012), IndMED (searched 1 November 2012), JSTOR (searched 1 November 2012), LILACS(searched 1 November 2012), NTIS (searched 1 November 2012), PAIS (searched 6 July 2012), Popline (searched 1 November 2012), ProQuest Dissertation &Theses Database (searched 1 November 2012), PsycINFO (searched 6 July 2012), SSRN (searched 1 November 2012), Thai Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), World Bank (searched 2 November 2012), WanFang (searched 3 November 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CHKD-CNKI) (searched 2 November 2012). In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and carried out a citation search for the included studies via Web of Science to find other potentially relevant studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA

  6. Population growth, poverty and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibirige, J S

    1997-07-01

    One of the most popular explanations for the many problems that face Africa is population growth. Africa's population has doubled since 1960. Africa has the highest fertility rate in the world and the rate of population growth is higher than in any other region. At the same time, Africa faces a social and economic situation that is viewed by many as alarming. Among the problems that devastate Africa is that of persistent poor health. Africa has lower life expectancy, higher mortality rates and is affected by more disease and illness conditions than any other region. Focusing on sub-Saharan Africa, this paper examines the relationship between population growth, poverty and poor health. While most analyses have focused on population growth as an original cause of poverty and underdevelopment, this paper argues that while both population growth and poor health play a significant role in exacerbating the problem of poverty, they are themselves primary consequences of poverty rather than its cause.

  7. System impact research - increasing public health and health care system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Interventions directed to system features of public health and health care should increase health and welfare of patients and population. To build a new framework for studies aiming to assess the impact of public health or health care system, and to consider the role of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and of Benchmarking Controlled Trials (BCTs). The new concept is partly based on the author's previous paper on the Benchmarking Controlled Trial. The validity and generalizability considerations were based on previous methodological studies on RCTs and BCTs. The new concept System Impact Research (SIR) covers all the studies which aim to assess the impact of the public health system or of the health care system on patients or on population. There are two kinds of studies in System Impact Research: Benchmarking Controlled Trials (observational) and Randomized Controlled Trials (experimental). The term impact covers in particular accessibility, quality, effectiveness, safety, efficiency, and equality. System Impact Research - creating the scientific basis for policy decision making - should be given a high priority in medical, public health and health economic research, and should also be used for improving performance. Leaders at all levels of health and social care can use the evidence from System Impact Research for the benefit of patients and population. Key messages The new concept of SIR is defined as a research field aiming at assessing the impacts on patients and on populations of features of public health and health and social care systems or of interventions trying to change these features. SIR covers all features of public health and health and social care system, and actions upon these features. The term impact refers to all effects caused by the public health and health and social care system or parts of it, with particular emphasis on accessibility, quality, effectiveness, adverse effects, efficiency, and equality of services. SIR creates the

  8. South Asian participation in clinical trials: the views of lay people and health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain-Gambles, Mah; Atkin, Karl; Leese, Brenda

    2006-07-01

    There is little UK-based empirical research on South Asian participation in clinical trials. The predominantly US literature rarely engages with mainstream debates about ethnicity, diversity and difference. This study was prompted by a lack of knowledge about how South Asian people perceive trial involvement and the risks and benefits involved. Face to face interviews were conducted with 25 health professionals (consultants, GPs, nursing staff, academics, non-medically trained trial co-ordinators, LREC and MREC members) and 60 South Asian lay people (20 Indians, 20 Pakistanis and 20 Bangladeshis) who had not taken part in a trial. The study took place in the Leeds and Bradford areas of England. It was found that lay South Asian attitudes towards clinical trial participation focused on similarities rather than differences with the general UK population, suggesting that the relevance of ethnicity should be kept in perspective. There was no evidence of antipathy amongst South Asians to the concept of clinical trials, and awareness was a correlate of social class, education and younger age. Lay factors that might affect South Asian participation in clinical trials included: age; language, social class; feeling of not belonging/mistrust; culture and religion. Approachable patients (of the same gender, social class and fluent in English) tended to be 'cherry picked' to clinical trials. This practice was justified because of a lack of time, resources and inadequate support. South Asian patients might be systematically excluded from trials due to the increased cost and time associated with their inclusion, particularly in relation to the language barrier. Under-representation might also be due to passive exclusion associated with cultural stereotypes. The paper concludes by applying the theoretical framework of institutional racism as a means of making sense of policy and practice. At the same time, caution is advocated against using ethnicity as the only form of

  9. Query Health: standards-based, cross-platform population health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, Jeffrey G; Buck, Michael D; Brown, Jeffrey; Hadley, Marc; Elmore, Richard; Weber, Griffin M; Murphy, Shawn N

    2014-01-01

    Understanding population-level health trends is essential to effectively monitor and improve public health. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) Query Health initiative is a collaboration to develop a national architecture for distributed, population-level health queries across diverse clinical systems with disparate data models. Here we review Query Health activities, including a standards-based methodology, an open-source reference implementation, and three pilot projects. Query Health defined a standards-based approach for distributed population health queries, using an ontology based on the Quality Data Model and Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture, Health Quality Measures Format (HQMF) as the query language, the Query Envelope as the secure transport layer, and the Quality Reporting Document Architecture as the result language. We implemented this approach using Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) and hQuery for data analytics and PopMedNet for access control, secure query distribution, and response. We deployed the reference implementation at three pilot sites: two public health departments (New York City and Massachusetts) and one pilot designed to support Food and Drug Administration post-market safety surveillance activities. The pilots were successful, although improved cross-platform data normalization is needed. This initiative resulted in a standards-based methodology for population health queries, a reference implementation, and revision of the HQMF standard. It also informed future directions regarding interoperability and data access for ONC's Data Access Framework initiative. Query Health was a test of the learning health system that supplied a functional methodology and reference implementation for distributed population health queries that has been validated at three sites. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under

  10. Long-term mother and child mental health effects of a population-based infant sleep intervention: cluster-randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Harriet; Bayer, Jordana K; Hampton, Anne; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Wake, Melissa

    2008-09-01

    Maternal depression is an established risk for adverse child development. Two thirds of clinically significant depressive symptoms occur in mothers reporting an infant sleep problem. We aimed to determine the long-term effects of a behavioral intervention for infant sleep problems on maternal depression and parenting style, as well as on child mental health and sleep, when the children reached 2 years of age. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in well-child centers across 6 government areas of Melbourne, Australia. Participants included 328 mothers reporting an infant sleep problem at 7 months, drawn from a population sample (N = 739) recruited at 4 months. We compared the usual well-child care (n = 154) versus a brief behavior-modification program designed to improve infant sleep (n = 174) delivered by well-child nurses at ages 8 to 10 months and measured maternal depression symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale); parenting practices (Parent Behavior Checklist); child mental health (Child Behavior Checklist); and maternal report of a sleep problem (yes or no). At 2 years, mothers in the intervention group were less likely than control mothers to report clinical depression symptoms: 15.4% vs 26.4% (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale community cut point) and 4.2% vs 13.2% (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale clinical cut point). Neither parenting style nor child mental health differed markedly between the intervention and control groups. A total of 27.3% of children in the intervention group versus 32.6% of control children had a sleep problem. The sleep intervention in infancy resulted in sustained positive effects on maternal depression symptoms and found no evidence of longer-term adverse effects on either mothers' parenting practices or children's mental health. This intervention demonstrated the capacity of a functioning primary care system to deliver effective, universally offered secondary prevention.

  11. Guide to enable health charities to increase recruitment to clinical trials on dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Larry W.; Harris, Megan; Lusk, Elizabeth; Benczkowski, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Alzheimer Society embarked on a project to improve ways that the 60 provincial and local Societies in Canada can work with local researchers to support recruitment of volunteers to clinical trials and studies. A Guide to assist these offices was produced to design ethical recruitment of research volunteers within their client populations. Methods Consultations with individuals from provincial and local Societies, as well as researchers and leaders from health-related organiza...

  12. The challenges and opportunities of conducting a clinical trial in a low resource setting: the case of the Cameroon mobile phone SMS (CAMPS) trial, an investigator initiated trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Thabane, Lehana; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Lang, Trudie

    2011-06-09

    Conducting clinical trials in developing countries often presents significant ethical, organisational, cultural and infrastructural challenges to researchers, pharmaceutical companies, sponsors and regulatory bodies. Globally, these regions are under-represented in research, yet this population stands to gain more from research in these settings as the burdens on health are greater than those in developed resourceful countries. However, developing countries also offer an attractive setting for clinical trials because they often have larger treatment naive populations with higher incidence rates of disease and more advanced stages. These factors can present a reduction in costs and time required to recruit patients. So, balance needs to be found where research can be encouraged and supported in order to bring maximum public health benefits to these communities. The difficulties with such trials arise from problems with obtaining valid informed consent, ethical compensation mechanisms for extremely poor populations, poor health infrastructure and considerable socio-economic and cultural divides. Ethical concerns with trials in developing countries have received attention, even though many other non-ethical issues may arise. Local investigator initiated trials also face a variety of difficulties that have not been adequately reported in literature. This paper uses the example of the Cameroon Mobile Phone SMS trial to describe in detail, the specific difficulties encountered in an investigator-initiated trial in a developing country. It highlights administrative, ethical, financial and staff related issues, proposes solutions and gives a list of additional documentation to ease the organisational process.

  13. The challenges and opportunities of conducting a clinical trial in a low resource setting: The case of the Cameroon mobile phone SMS (CAMPS trial, an investigator initiated trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ongolo-Zogo Pierre

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conducting clinical trials in developing countries often presents significant ethical, organisational, cultural and infrastructural challenges to researchers, pharmaceutical companies, sponsors and regulatory bodies. Globally, these regions are under-represented in research, yet this population stands to gain more from research in these settings as the burdens on health are greater than those in developed resourceful countries. However, developing countries also offer an attractive setting for clinical trials because they often have larger treatment naive populations with higher incidence rates of disease and more advanced stages. These factors can present a reduction in costs and time required to recruit patients. So, balance needs to be found where research can be encouraged and supported in order to bring maximum public health benefits to these communities. The difficulties with such trials arise from problems with obtaining valid informed consent, ethical compensation mechanisms for extremely poor populations, poor health infrastructure and considerable socio-economic and cultural divides. Ethical concerns with trials in developing countries have received attention, even though many other non-ethical issues may arise. Local investigator initiated trials also face a variety of difficulties that have not been adequately reported in literature. This paper uses the example of the Cameroon Mobile Phone SMS trial to describe in detail, the specific difficulties encountered in an investigator-initiated trial in a developing country. It highlights administrative, ethical, financial and staff related issues, proposes solutions and gives a list of additional documentation to ease the organisational process.

  14. Do clinical trials conducted in India match its healthcare needs? An audit of the Clinical Trials Registry of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansi Chaturvedi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India continues to contribute disproportionately to the global burden of disease and public health research output from India is also known to be not commensurate with her healthcare needs. We carried out the present study to assess if clinical trials were in line with the health care needs of the country by auditing the clinical trials registry of India. Materials and Methods: All the clinical studies registered in CTRI between July 20, 2007 and December 31, 2015 were searched in the “Trial Search” section. The total number of studies, their phases of development, and therapeutic areas were assessed. Trials in each therapeutic area was compared with the disease burden (DALYs in that area taken from Global Health Estimates [2014] Summary Tables of the WHO. The number of trials conducted per state in India was also compared with the population of that state [Census 2011]. Results: A total of 6474 studies were registered of which 3325 (51.4% were clinical trials. The state of Maharashtra had the highest number trials [16.4%] followed by Karnataka ( 11.6% and Tamil Nadu (10%. Populous states like Uttar Pradesh (5.3% and Bihar (1.4% had far fewer trials. The largest number of trials was in the area of cancer (16.4%, followed by diabetes (12.1% and cardiovascular diseases (10.1%. Infectious and parasitic diseases had the highest DALYs (82,681 and ranked first in disease burden but accounted for only 5% of the total trials and ranked 7th according to number of trials. Cancer ranked first in the number of trials (16.4%, but ranked 6th based on DALYs. Conclusion: Clinical trials conducted in India are not in consonance with her health care needs. Strengthening the capacity for conducting trials in the populous states and the north-eastern part of the country is necessary to allow a more equitable selection of participants. The government should introduce policies to encourage new drug development in areas where needed the most.

  15. Population Neuroscience: Dementia Epidemiology Serving Precision Medicine and Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Mary; Albanese, Emiliano; Seshadri, Sudha; Bennett, David A; Lyketsos, Constantine; Kukull, Walter A; Skoog, Ingmar; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2018-01-01

    Over recent decades, epidemiology has made significant contributions to our understanding of dementia, translating scientific discoveries into population health. Here, we propose reframing dementia epidemiology as "population neuroscience," blending techniques and models from contemporary neuroscience with those of epidemiology and biostatistics. On the basis of emerging evidence and newer paradigms and methods, population neuroscience will minimize the bias typical of traditional clinical research, identify the relatively homogenous subgroups that comprise the general population, and investigate broader and denser phenotypes of dementia and cognitive impairment. Long-term follow-up of sufficiently large study cohorts will allow the identification of cohort effects and critical windows of exposure. Molecular epidemiology and omics will allow us to unravel the key distinctions within and among subgroups and better understand individuals' risk profiles. Interventional epidemiology will allow us to identify the different subgroups that respond to different treatment/prevention strategies. These strategies will inform precision medicine. In addition, insights into interactions between disease biology, personal and environmental factors, and social determinants of health will allow us to measure and track disease in communities and improve population health. By placing neuroscience within a real-world context, population neuroscience can fulfill its potential to serve both precision medicine and population health.

  16. Trial protocol: a parallel group, individually randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effect of a mobile phone application to improve sexual health among youth in Stockholm County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Anna; De Costa, Ayesha; Bågenholm, Aspasia; Danielsson, Kristina Gemzell; Marrone, Gaetano; Boman, Jens; Salazar, Mariano; Diwan, Vinod

    2018-02-05

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a major public health problem worldwide affecting mostly youth. Sweden introduced an opportunistic screening approach in 1982 accompanied by treatment, partner notification and case reporting. After an initial decline in infection rate till the mid-90s, the number of reported cases has increased over the last two decades and has now stabilized at a high level of 37,000 reported cases in Sweden per year (85% of cases in youth). Sexual risk-taking among youth is also reported to have significantly increased over the last 20 years. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions could be particularly suitable for youth and sexual health promotion as the intervention is delivered in a familiar and discrete way to a tech savvy at-risk population. This paper presents a protocol for a randomized trial to study the effect of an interactive mHealth application (app) on condom use among the youth of Stockholm. 446 youth resident in Stockholm, will be recruited in this two arm parallel group individually randomized trial. Recruitment will be from Youth Health Clinics or via the trial website. Participants will be randomized to receive either the intervention (which comprises an interactive app on safe sexual health that will be installed on their smart phones) or a control group (standard of care). Youth will be followed up for 6 months, with questionnaire responses submitted periodically via the app. Self-reported condom use over 6 months will be the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes will include presence of an infection, Chlamydia tests during the study period and proxy markers of safe sex. Analysis is by intention to treat. This trial exploits the high mobile phone usage among youth to provide a phone app intervention in the area of sexual health. If successful, the results will have implications for health service delivery and health promotion among the youth. From a methodological perspective, this trial is expected to provide

  17. Neighborhood social capital is associated with participation in health checks of a general population: a multilevel analysis of a population-based lifestyle intervention- the Inter99 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Anne Mette; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jørgensen, Torben; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2015-07-22

    Participation in population-based preventive health check has declined over the past decades. More research is needed to determine factors enhancing participation. The objective of this study was to examine the association between two measures of neighborhood level social capital on participation in the health check phase of a population-based lifestyle intervention. The study population comprised 12,568 residents of 73 Danish neighborhoods in the intervention group of a large population-based lifestyle intervention study - the Inter99. Two measures of social capital were applied; informal socializing and voting turnout. In a multilevel analysis only adjusting for age and sex, a higher level of neighborhood social capital was associated with higher probability of participating in the health check. Inclusion of both individual socioeconomic position and neighborhood deprivation in the model attenuated the coefficients for informal socializing, while voting turnout became non-significant. Higher level of neighborhood social capital was associated with higher probability of participating in the health check phase of a population-based lifestyle intervention. Most of the association between neighborhood social capital and participation in preventive health checks can be explained by differences in individual socioeconomic position and level of neighborhood deprivation. Nonetheless, there seems to be some residual association between social capital and health check participation, suggesting that activating social relations in the community may be an avenue for boosting participation rates in population-based health checks. ClinicalTrials.gov (registration no. NCT00289237 ).

  18. Global women's health: current clinical trials in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriel, A; Harb, H M; Williams, H; Lilford, R; Coomarasamy, A

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are necessary to develop evidence-based approaches to improve women's health. Understanding what research is currently being conducted will allow the identification of research gaps, avoidance of duplication, planning of future studies, collaboration amongst research groups, and geographical targeting for research investments. To provide an overview of active women's health trials in LMICs. The World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform was searched for trials registered between 1 April 2012 and 31 March 2014. Selected trials were randomised, conducted in LMICs, active, and with a women's health intervention or a significant outcome for the woman. Two reviewers extracted data. Analysis included geographical spread, speciality areas, pre-enrolment registration, study size, and funders. Of the 8966 records, 509 were eligible for inclusion. Gynaecology trials made up 57% of the research, whereas the remaining 43% of trials were in obstetrics. Research activity focused on fertility (17%), the antenatal period (15%), benign gynaecology (14%), intrapartum care (9%), and pre-invasive disease and cancers (8%). The majority of trials (84%) took place in middle-income countries (MICs). In low-income countries (LICs) 83% of research investigated obstetrics, and in MICs 60% of research investigated gynaecology. Most trials (80%) had a sample size of 500 or fewer participants. The median size of trials in LICs was 815 compared with 128 in MICs. Pre-enrolment registration occurred in 54% of trials. The majority (62%) of trials were funded locally. Many LMICs are active in women's health research. The majority of registered trials are located in MICs; however, the trials in LICs are often larger. The focus of research in MICs may be driven by local priorities and funding, with fertility being highly researched. In LICs, pregnancy is the focus, perhaps reflecting the international

  19. Population health and medicine: Policy and financial drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Jill E; Brown, Jack; Matzke, Gary R

    2017-09-15

    The financial and policy levers of population health and potential opportunities for pharmacists are described. Three long-standing problems drive the focus on population health: (1) the United States suffers far worse population health outcomes compared with those of other developed nations that spend significantly less on healthcare, (2) the U.S. healthcare system's focus on "sick care" fails to address upstream prevention and population health improvement, and (3) financial incentives for healthcare delivery are poorly aligned with improvements in population health outcomes. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) was arguably the first major healthcare legislation since 1965 and had 3 main strategies for improving population health: expand health insurance coverage, control healthcare costs, and improve the healthcare delivery system. Federal and state legislation as well as Medicare and Medicaid financing strategies have designated mechanisms to reward advances in population outcomes since the passage of the ACA. States are responsible for many of the factors that affect population health, and a bipartisan effort that builds upon state and federal collaboration will likely be needed to implement the necessary health policy initiative. Population health issues affect productivity in the United States; conversely, improvements in population health may increase productivity, helping to offset the rising federal debt. Employers are in a position to improve population health and consequently help reduce the federal debt by addressing lifestyle, chronic disease, poverty, and inequality. National pharmacy organizations, regulatory bodies, and journal editors need to collectively agree to a threshold of quality and rigor for publication and endorsement. Knowledge of the policy and financial drivers of population health may both support pharmacists' efforts to improve population outcomes and identify opportunities for professional advancement

  20. Health Activities Project (HAP), Trial Edition III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) trial edition (set III) are a teacher information folio and numerous student activity folios which center around the idea that students in grades 5-8 can control their own health and safety. Each student folio is organized into an Overview, Health Background, Materials, Setting Up, and…

  1. HealthATM: personal health cyberinfrastructure for underserved populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botts, Nathan E; Horan, Thomas A; Thoms, Brian P

    2011-05-01

    There is an opportunity for personal health record (PHR) systems to play a vital role in fostering health self-management within underserved populations. If properly designed and promoted, it is possible that patients will use PHRs to become more empowered in taking an active role toward managing their health needs. This research examines the potential of a cyberinfrastructure-based PHR to encourage patient activation in health care, while also having population health implications. A multi-phased, iterative research approach was used to design and evaluate a PHR system called HealthATM, which utilizes services from a cloud computing environment. These services were integrated into an ATM-style interface aimed at providing a broad range of health consumers with the ability to manage health conditions and encourage accomplishment of health goals. Evaluation of the PHR included 115 patients who were clients of several free clinics in Los Angeles County. The majority of patients perceived ease of use (74%) and confidence (73%) in using the HealthATM system, and thought they would like to use it frequently (73%). Patients also indicated a belief in being responsible for their own health. However, fewer felt as though they were able to maintain necessary life changes to improve their health. Findings from the field tests suggest that PHRs can be a beneficial health management tool for underserved populations. In order for these types of tools to be effective within safety-net communities, they must be technically accessible and provide meaningful opportunities to increase patient engagement in their health care. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Bridging the gap between the randomised clinical trial world and the real world by combination of population-based registry and electronic health record data: A case study in haemato-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbelaar, R E; Oortgiesen, B E; van der Wal-Oost, A M; Boslooper, K; Coebergh, J W; Veeger, N J G M; Joosten, P; Storm, H; van Roon, E N; Hoogendoorn, M

    2017-11-01

    Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) are considered the basis of evidence-based medicine. It is recognised more and more that application of RCT results in daily practice of clinical decision-making is limited because the RCT world does not correspond with the clinical real world. Recent strategies aiming at substitution of RCT databases by improved population-based registries (PBRs) or by improved electronic health record (EHR) systems to provide significant data for clinical science are discussed. A novel approach exemplified by the HemoBase haemato-oncology project is presented. In this approach, a PBR is combined with an advanced EHR, providing high-quality data for observational studies and support of best practice development. This PBR + EHR approach opens a perspective on randomised registry trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ask: a health advocacy program for adolescents with an intellectual disability: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Adolescents with intellectual disability often have poor health and healthcare. This is partly as a consequence of poor communication and recall difficulties, and the possible loss of specialised paediatric services. Methods/Design A cluster randomised trial was conducted with adolescents with intellectual disability to investigate a health intervention package to enhance interactions among adolescents with intellectual disability, their parents/carers, and general practitioners (GPs). The trial took place in Queensland, Australia, between February 2007 and September 2010. The intervention package was designed to improve communication with health professionals and families’ organisation of health information, and to increase clinical activities beneficial to improved health outcomes. It consisted of the Comprehensive Health Assessment Program (CHAP), a one-off health check, and the Ask Health Diary, designed for on-going use. Participants were drawn from Special Education Schools and Special Education Units. The education component of the intervention was delivered as part of the school curriculum. Educators were surveyed at baseline and followed-up four months later. Carers were surveyed at baseline and after 26 months. Evidence of health promotion, disease prevention and case-finding activities were extracted from GPs clinical records. Qualitative interviews of educators occurred after completion of the educational component of the intervention and with adolescents and carers after the CHAP. Discussion Adolescents with intellectual disability have difficulty obtaining many health services and often find it difficult to become empowered to improve and protect their health. The health intervention package proposed may aid them by augmenting communication, improving documentation of health encounters, and improving access to, and quality of, GP care. Recruitment strategies to consider for future studies in this population include ensuring potential

  4. Ask: a health advocacy program for adolescents with an intellectual disability: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennox Nicholas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents with intellectual disability often have poor health and healthcare. This is partly as a consequence of poor communication and recall difficulties, and the possible loss of specialised paediatric services. Methods/Design A cluster randomised trial was conducted with adolescents with intellectual disability to investigate a health intervention package to enhance interactions among adolescents with intellectual disability, their parents/carers, and general practitioners (GPs. The trial took place in Queensland, Australia, between February 2007 and September 2010. The intervention package was designed to improve communication with health professionals and families’ organisation of health information, and to increase clinical activities beneficial to improved health outcomes. It consisted of the Comprehensive Health Assessment Program (CHAP, a one-off health check, and the Ask Health Diary, designed for on-going use. Participants were drawn from Special Education Schools and Special Education Units. The education component of the intervention was delivered as part of the school curriculum. Educators were surveyed at baseline and followed-up four months later. Carers were surveyed at baseline and after 26 months. Evidence of health promotion, disease prevention and case-finding activities were extracted from GPs clinical records. Qualitative interviews of educators occurred after completion of the educational component of the intervention and with adolescents and carers after the CHAP. Discussion Adolescents with intellectual disability have difficulty obtaining many health services and often find it difficult to become empowered to improve and protect their health. The health intervention package proposed may aid them by augmenting communication, improving documentation of health encounters, and improving access to, and quality of, GP care. Recruitment strategies to consider for future studies in this population

  5. Health Activities Project (HAP), Trial Edition II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) trial edition (set II) are a teacher information folio and numerous student activity folios which center around the idea that students in grades 5-8 can control their own health and safety. Each student folio is organized into a Synopsis, Health Background, Materials, Setting Up, and Activities…

  6. Clinical trial registration in oral health journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaïl-Faugeron, V; Fron-Chabouis, H; Durieux, P

    2015-03-01

    Prospective registration of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) represents the best solution to reporting bias. The extent to which oral health journals have endorsed and complied with RCT registration is unknown. We identified journals publishing RCTs in dentistry, oral surgery, and medicine in the Journal Citation Reports. We classified journals into 3 groups: journals requiring or recommending trial registration, journals referring indirectly to registration, and journals providing no reference to registration. For the 5 journals with the highest 2012 impact factors in each group, we assessed whether RCTs with results published in 2013 had been registered. Of 78 journals examined, 32 (41%) required or recommended trial registration, 19 (24%) referred indirectly to registration, and 27 (35%) provided no reference to registration. We identified 317 RCTs with results published in the 15 selected journals in 2013. Overall, 73 (23%) were registered in a trial registry. Among those, 91% were registered retrospectively and 32% did not report trial registration in the published article. The proportion of trials registered was not significantly associated with editorial policies: 29% with results in journals that required or recommended registration, 15% in those that referred indirectly to registration, and 21% in those providing no reference to registration (P = 0.05). Less than one-quarter of RCTs with results published in a sample of oral health journals were registered with a public registry. Improvements are needed with respect to how journals inform and require their authors to register their trials. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  7. The population health approach in historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szreter, Simon

    2003-03-01

    The origin of the population health approach is an historic debate over the relationship between economic growth and human health. In Britain and France, the Industrial Revolution disrupted population health and stimulated pioneering epidemiological studies, informing the early preventive public health movement. A century-long process of political adjustment between the forces of liberal democracy and propertied interests ensued. The 20th-century welfare states resulted as complex political mechanisms for converting economic growth into enhanced population health. However, the rise of a "neoliberal" agenda, denigrating the role of government, has once again brought to the fore the importance of prevention and a population health approach to map and publicize the health impacts of this new phase of "global" economic growth.

  8. A mismatch between population health literacy and the complexity of health information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowlands, Gillian; Protheroe, Joanne; Winkley, John

    2015-01-01

    skills in relation to these. DESIGN AND SETTING: An English observational study comparing health materials with national working-age population skills. METHOD: Health materials were sampled using a health literacy framework. Competency thresholds to understand and use the materials were identified......BACKGROUND: Low health literacy is associated with poorer health and higher mortality. Complex health materials are a barrier to health. AIM: To assess the literacy and numeracy skills required to understand and use commonly used English health information materials, and to describe population...... of health materials and the skills of the English adult working-age population. Those most in need of health information have the least access to it. Efficacious strategies are building population skills, improving health professionals' communication, and improving written health information....

  9. Population Health Research: Early Description of the Organizational Shift Toward Population Health Management and Defining a Vision for Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldararo, Kristi L; Nash, David B

    2017-10-01

    As health care delivery systems adapt to the changing marketplace, many struggle to define a clear strategy that will prove successful in managing the health of entire populations. The federal government continues to put increasing pressure on organizations to shift away from the traditional way of delivering episodic care and move toward managing populations as a whole-before, during, and after a patient presents in a health care facility. Private payers have begun to follow suit as risk-based payer contracts and bundled payment models become increasingly popular. For organizations to adequately influence the health outcomes of a population, they must be responsible for more than just a patient's medical care. They must partner with the community to create a strategy that encompasses the psychosocial and environmental factors that contribute to one's health. Although health care leaders know this industry transformation is imminent, there is minimal research that shares best practices in regard to designing and implementing a successful population health management strategy. Interviews were conducted with leadership from 10 organizations in order to understand the strategic approach taken by delivery systems and health care institutions that view population health as a key aspect of their overall mission. Responses were recorded and outlined in a detailed response grid. The objective is to provide a qualitative overview of how industry leaders are currently responding to population health. Additionally, common themes and recommendations are presented to serve as guidance for other health care organizations that are at the start of their journey toward population health management.

  10. Seven Foundational Principles of Population Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dru; Bhatt, Jay

    2017-10-01

    In 2016, Keyes and Galea issued 9 foundational principles of population health science and invited further deliberations by specialists to advance the field. This article presents 7 foundational principles of population health policy whose intersection with health care, public health, preventive medicine, and now population health, presents unique challenges. These principles are in response to a number of overarching questions that have arisen in over a decade of the authors' collective practice in the public and private sectors, and having taught policy within programs of medicine, law, nursing, and public health at the graduate and executive levels. The principles address an audience of practitioners and policy makers, mindful of the pressing health care challenges of our time, including: rising health-related expenditures, an aging population, workforce shortages, health disparities, and a backdrop of inequities rooted in social determinants that have not been adequately translated into formal policies or practices among the key stakeholders in population health. These principles are meant to empower stakeholders-whether it is the planner or the practitioner, the decision maker or the dedicated caregiver-and inform the development of practical tools, research, and education.

  11. Mental Health Consultation Among Ontario's Immigrant Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Farah; Khanlou, Nazilla; Macpherson, Alison; Tamim, Hala

    2017-11-16

    To determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of past-year mental health consultation for Ontario's adult (18 + years old) immigrant populations. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2012 was used to calculate the prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation by service provider type. Characteristics associated with mental health consultation were determined by carrying out multivariable logistic regression analysis on merged CCHS 2008-2012 data. Adult immigrant populations in Ontario (n = 3995) had lower estimated prevalence rates of past-year mental health consultation across all service provider types compared to Canadian-born populations (n = 14,644). Amongst those who reported past-year mental health consultation, 57.89% of Ontario immigrants contacted their primary care physician, which was significantly higher than the proportion who consulted their family doctor from Canadian-born populations (45.31%). The factors of gender, age, racial/ethnic background, education level, working status, food insecurity status, self-perceived health status, smoking status, alcohol drinking status, years since immigration, and age at time of immigration were significantly associated with past-year mental health consultation for immigrant populations. Ontario's adult immigrant populations most commonly consult their family doctor for mental health care. Potential exists for expanding the mental health care role of primary care physicians as well as efforts to increase accessibility of specialized mental health services. Integrated, coordinated care where primary care physicians, specialized mental health professionals, social workers, and community educators, etc. working together in a sort of "one-stop-shop" may be the most effective way to mitigate gaps in the mental health care system. In order to effectively tailor mental health policy, programming, and promotion to suit the needs of immigrant populations initiatives that focus on

  12. A Population-Level Data Analytics Portal for Self-Administered Lifestyle and Mental Health Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xindi; Warren, Jim; Corter, Arden; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes development of a prototype data analytics portal for analysis of accumulated screening results from eCHAT (electronic Case-finding and Help Assessment Tool). eCHAT allows individuals to conduct a self-administered lifestyle and mental health screening assessment, with usage to date chiefly in the context of primary care waiting rooms. The intention is for wide roll-out to primary care clinics, including secondary school based clinics, resulting in the accumulation of population-level data. Data from a field trial of eCHAT with sexual health questions tailored to youth were used to support design of a data analytics portal for population-level data. The design process included user personas and scenarios, screen prototyping and a simulator for generating large-scale data sets. The prototype demonstrates the promise of wide-scale self-administered screening data to support a range of users including practice managers, clinical directors and health policy analysts.

  13. Future directions in population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, T

    1999-01-01

    The long-term health of the population will be influenced by a number of major forces in the next century. In this brief review, particular emphasis is placed on environmental and economic forces. Major global environmental changes include climate change and global warming, resource depletion, ecotoxicity and reduced biodiversity. We do not yet know the impact on longevity of lifetime exposure to a mix of persistent toxic chemicals in our environment, since it has only been widespread in the past 40-50 years. The health impacts of global warming are only just beginning to be understood and could be profound. But perhaps the most profound threat to population health is economic growth, to the extent that it undermines environmental and social sustainability. We need a new form of capitalism, one that simultaneously increases environmental, social, economic and human capital, if population health is to be maintained in the 21st century.

  14. How Academic Health Systems Can Achieve Population Health in Vulnerable Populations Through Value-Based Care: The Critical Importance of Establishing Trusted Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Donald E; Kitzman, Heather E

    2018-01-16

    Improving population health may require health systems to proactively engage patient populations as partners in the implementation of healthy behaviors as a shared value using strategies that incentivize healthy outcomes for the population as a whole. The current reactive health care model, which focuses on restoring the health of individuals after it has been lost, will not achieve the goal of improved population health. To achieve this goal, health systems must proactively engage in partnerships with the populations they serve. Health systems will need the help of community entities and individuals who have the trust of the population being served to act on behalf of the health system if they are to achieve this effective working partnership. The need for these trusted agents is particularly pertinent for vulnerable and historically underserved segments of the population. In this Invited Commentary, the authors discuss ways by which health systems might identify, engage, and leverage trusted agents to improve the health of the population through value-based care.

  15. [HADASSAH MEDICAL ORGANIZATION - A PIONEER IN POPULATION HEALTH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Levine, Hagai; Israeli, Avi; Paltiel, Ora

    2018-03-01

    Population health is a term encompassing "the health outcomes of a group of individuals, including the distribution of such outcomes within the group." Only recently have hospitals viewed themselves as focal points for promoting health in a community, involving themselves with population health. Hadassah Medical Organization (HMO), however, has been in the business of population health since its founding. Its early programs, promoting and delivering nutritional support, maternal-child health and other services to the Yishuv's inhabitants, showed that the HMO defined its community broadly. Hospital care came later. The HMO was established together with the Hebrew University Israel's first School of Public Health and Community Medicine in the 1960's, contributing >1200 Israeli alumni, and exposing thousands of medical students to population health. The School's founders developed Community-Oriented Primary Care, aimed at assessing and addressing health determinants and outcomes at the community level implemented in many centers worldwide. Reaching beyond Israel's borders, the School has trained a global public health workforce through its International Masters in Public Health with >820 graduates from 92 countries. HMO's researchers have made important contributions in the fields of epidemiology, health economics and policy and population health methodology as well as hospital and community quality of care. This article reviews HMO's contribution to population health at local, municipal, national and international levels. We will demonstrate the unique circumstances in Hadassah, Jerusalem and Israel which have enabled world-class research and training in population health, identifying important contributions to policy and service provision, as well as addressing future population health challenges.

  16. Supportive Mental Health Self-Monitoring among Smartphone Users with Psychological Distress: Protocol for a Fully Mobile Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Till Beiwinkel; Stefan Hey; Olaf Bock; Wulf Rössler; Wulf Rössler; Wulf Rössler

    2017-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons...

  17. Population health metrics: crucial inputs to the development of evidence for health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Joshua A

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Valid, reliable and comparable measures of the health states of individuals and of the health status of populations are critical components of the evidence base for health policy. We need to develop population health measurement strategies that coherently address the relationships between epidemiological measures (such as risk exposures, incidence, and mortality rates and multi-domain measures of population health status, while ensuring validity and cross-population comparability. Studies reporting on descriptive epidemiology of major diseases, injuries and risk factors, and on the measurement of health at the population level – either for monitoring trends in health levels or inequalities or for measuring broad outcomes of health systems and social interventions – are not well-represented in traditional epidemiology journals, which tend to concentrate on causal studies and on quasi-experimental design. In particular, key methodological issues relating to the clear conceptualisation of, and the validity and comparability of measures of population health are currently not addressed coherently by any discipline, and cross-disciplinary debate is fragmented and often conducted in mutually incomprehensible language or paradigms. Population health measurement potentially bridges a range of currently disjoint fields of inquiry relating to health: biology, demography, epidemiology, health economics, and broader social science disciplines relevant to assessment of health determinants, health state valuations and health inequalities. This new journal will focus on the importance of a population based approach to measurement as a way to characterize the complexity of people's health, the diseases and risks that affect it, its distribution, and its valuation, and will attempt to provide a forum for innovative work and debate that bridge the many fields of inquiry relevant to population health in order to contribute to the development of valid

  18. Population-based contracting (population health): part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacofsky, D J

    2017-11-01

    Modern healthcare contracting is shifting the responsibility for improving quality, enhancing community health and controlling the total cost of care for patient populations from payers to providers. Population-based contracting involves capitated risk taken across an entire population, such that any included services within the contract are paid for by the risk-bearing entity throughout the term of the agreement. Under such contracts, a risk-bearing entity, which may be a provider group, a hospital or another payer, administers the contract and assumes risk for contractually defined services. These contracts can be structured in various ways, from professional fee capitation to full global per member per month diagnosis-based risk. The entity contracting with the payer must have downstream network contracts to provide the care and facilities that it has agreed to provide. Population health is a very powerful model to reduce waste and costs. It requires a deep understanding of the nuances of such contracting and the appropriate infrastructure to manage both networks and risk. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1431-4. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  19. System impact research – increasing public health and health care system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Interventions directed to system features of public health and health care should increase health and welfare of patients and population. Aims To build a new framework for studies aiming to assess the impact of public health or health care system, and to consider the role of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and of Benchmarking Controlled Trials (BCTs). Methods The new concept is partly based on the author's previous paper on the Benchmarking Controlled Trial. The validity and generalizability considerations were based on previous methodological studies on RCTs and BCTs. Results The new concept System Impact Research (SIR) covers all the studies which aim to assess the impact of the public health system or of the health care system on patients or on population. There are two kinds of studies in System Impact Research: Benchmarking Controlled Trials (observational) and Randomized Controlled Trials (experimental). The term impact covers in particular accessibility, quality, effectiveness, safety, efficiency, and equality. Conclusions System Impact Research – creating the scientific basis for policy decision making - should be given a high priority in medical, public health and health economic research, and should also be used for improving performance. Leaders at all levels of health and social care can use the evidence from System Impact Research for the benefit of patients and population.Key messagesThe new concept of SIR is defined as a research field aiming at assessing the impacts on patients and on populations of features of public health and health and social care systems or of interventions trying to change these features.SIR covers all features of public health and health and social care system, and actions upon these features. The term impact refers to all effects caused by the public health and health and social care system or parts of it, with particular emphasis on accessibility, quality, effectiveness, adverse effects, efficiency

  20. Raising Public Awareness of Clinical Trials: Development of Messages for a National Health Communication Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massett, Holly A; Dilts, David M; Bailey, Robert; Berktold, Jennifer; Ledsky, Rebecca; Atkinson, Nancy L; Mishkin, Grace; Denicoff, Andrea; Padberg, Rose Mary; Allen, Marin P; Silver, Karen; Carrington, Kelli; Johnson, Lenora E

    2017-05-01

    Clinical trials are essential for developing new and effective treatments and improving patient quality of life; however, many trials cannot answer their primary research questions because they fall short of their recruitment goals. This article reports the results of formative research conducted in two populations, the public and primary care physicians, to identify messages that may raise awareness and increase interest in clinical trials and be used in a national communication campaign. Results suggested that participants were primarily motivated to participate in clinical trials out of a self-interest to help themselves first. Messages illustrated that current treatments were tested via clinical trials, helped normalize trials as routine practices, and reduced concerns over trying something new first. Participants wanted messages that portray trials as state-of-the-art choices that offer some hope, show people like themselves, and are described in a clear, concise manner with actionable steps for them to take. The study revealed some differences in message salience, with healthy audiences exhibiting lower levels of interest. Our results suggest that targeted messages are needed, and that communication with primary health-care providers is an important and necessary component in raising patient awareness of the importance of clinical trials.

  1. mHealth Technology and Nurse Health Coaching to Improve Health in Diabetes: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Sheridan; Dharmar, Madan; Fazio, Sarina; Tang-Feldman, Yajarayma; Young, Heather M

    2018-02-15

    Chronic diseases, including diabetes mellitus, are the leading cause of mortality and disability in the United States. Current solutions focus primarily on diagnosis and pharmacological treatment, yet there is increasing evidence that patient-centered models of care are more successful in improving and addressing chronic disease outcomes. The objective of this clinical trial is to evaluate the impact of a mobile health (mHealth) enabled nurse health coaching intervention on self-efficacy among adults with type-2 diabetes mellitus. A randomized controlled trial was conducted at an academic health system in Northern California. A total of 300 participants with type-2 diabetes were scheduled to be enrolled through three primary care clinics. Participants were randomized to either usual care or intervention. All participants received training on use of the health system patient portal. Participants in the intervention arm received six scheduled health-coaching telephone calls with a registered nurse and were provided with an activity tracker and mobile application that integrated data into the electronic health record (EHR) to track their daily activity and health behavior decisions. All participants completed a baseline survey and follow-up surveys at 3 and 9 months. Primary and secondary outcomes include diabetes self-efficacy, hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ), and quality of life measures. Data collection for this trial, funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, will be completed by December 2017. Results from the trial will be available mid-2018. This protocol details a patient-centered intervention using nurse health coaching, mHealth technologies, and integration of patient-generated data into the EHR. The aim of the intervention is to enhance self-efficacy and health outcomes by providing participants with a mechanism to track daily activity by offering coaching support to set reasonable and attainable health goals, and by creating a complete feedback

  2. The effect of the mental health first-aid training course offered employees in Denmark: study protocol for a randomized waitlist-controlled superiority trial mixed with a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kamilla B; Morthorst, Britt R; Vendsborg, Per B; Hjorthøj, Carsten R; Nordentoft, Merete

    2015-04-14

    Studies show a high and growing prevalence of mental disorders in the population worldwide. 25% of the general population in Europe will during their lifetime experience symptoms related to a mental disorder. The Mental Health First Aid concept (MHFA) was founded in 2000 in Australia by Kitchener and Jorm, in order to provide the population with mental health first aid skills. The aim of the concept is, through an educational intervention (course), to increase confidence in how to help people suffering from mental health problems. Further, secondary aims are to increase the mental health literacy of the public by increasing knowledge, reduce stigma and initiate more supportive actions leading towards professional care. An investigation of the effect of MHFA offered a Danish population is needed. The design is a randomized waitlist-controlled superiority trial, in which 500 participants will be allocated to either the intervention group or the control group. The control group will attend the course six months later, hence waiting list design. From fall 2013 to spring 2014 participants will be educated to be "mental health first-aiders" following a manualized, two days MHFA course. All the participants will answer a questionnaire at base-line and at 6 months follow-up. The questionnaire is a back-translation of the questionnaire used in Australian trials. The trial will be complemented by a qualitative study, in which focus groups will be carried out. Outcomes measured are sensitive to interpretation, hence a challenge to uniform. This trial will add to the use of a mixed-methods design and exemplify how it can strengthen the analysis and take up the challenge of a sensitive outcome. https://clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02334020.

  3. FastStats: Health of Mexican American Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button NCHS Home Health of Mexican American Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Source: Summary Health Statistics Tables for the U.S. Population: National Health Interview Survey, 2015, Table P-1c [ ...

  4. Psidium guajava: A Single Plant for Multiple Health Problems of Rural Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daswani, Poonam G; Gholkar, Manasi S; Birdi, Tannaz J

    2017-01-01

    The rural population in India faces a number of health problems and often has to rely on local remedies. Psidium guajava Linn. (guava), a tropical plant which is used as food and medicine can be used by rural communities due to its several medicinal properties. A literature search was undertaken to gauge the rural health scenario in India and compile the available literature on guava so as to reflect its usage in the treatment of multiple health conditions prevalent in rural communities. Towards this, electronic databases such as Pubmed, Science Direct, google scholar were scanned. Information on clinical trials on guava was obtained from Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Clinicaltrial.gov. The literature survey revealed that guava possesses various medicinal properties which have been reported from across the globe in the form of ethnobotanical/ethnopharmacological surveys, laboratory investigations and clinical trials. Besides documenting the safety of guava, the available literature shows that guava is efficacious against the following conditions which rural communities would encounter. (a) Gastrointestinal infections; (b) Malaria; (c)Respiratory infections; (d) Oral/dental infections; (e) Skin infections; (f) Diabetes; (g) Cardiovascular/hypertension; (h) Cancer; (i) Malnutrition; (j) Women problems; (k) Pain; (l) Fever; (m) Liver problems; (n) Kidney problems. In addition, guava can also be useful for treatment of animals and explored for its commercial applications. In conclusion, popularization of guava, can have multiple applications for rural communities.

  5. Population health state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    General conception on the Chernobyl accident effect on the human health (persons took part in the emergency response, children and adults in the Chernobyl region as a whole) is given. Pattern of population disease incidence in the whole region was compared with that of contaminated regions in Russia. New method for assessment of population disease incidence in the contaminated zones due to the Chernobyl accident is proposed taking into account low dose radiation effects, territory ecological difference, medical-demographic unhomogeneity of the population and personal instability. Methods of complex mathematical analysis were used. Data on the Tula region are presented as an example. 17 figs.; 6 tabs

  6. Integrating smoking cessation and alcohol use treatment in homeless populations: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo-Fati, Olamide; John, Florence; Thomas, Janet; Joseph, Anne M; Raymond, Nancy C; Cooney, Ned L; Pratt, Rebekah; Rogers, Charles R; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Luo, Xianghua; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2015-08-29

    Despite progress in reducing cigarette smoking in the general U.S. population, smoking rates, cancer morbidity and related heart disease remain strikingly high among the poor and underserved. Homeless individuals' cigarette smoking rate remains an alarming 70% or greater, and this population is generally untreated with smoking cessation interventions. Furthermore, the majority of homeless smokers also abuse alcohol and other drugs, which makes quitting more difficult and magnifies the health consequences of tobacco use. Participants will be randomized to one of three groups, including (1) an integrated intensive smoking plus alcohol intervention using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), (2) intensive smoking intervention using CBT or (3) usual care (i.e., brief smoking cessation and brief alcohol counseling). All participants will receive 12-week treatment with a nicotine patch plus nicotine gum or lozenge. Counseling will include weekly individual sessions for 3 months, followed by monthly booster group sessions for 3 months. The primary smoking outcome is cotinine-verified 7-day smoking abstinence at follow-up week 52, and the primary alcohol outcome will be breathalyzer-verified 90-day alcohol abstinence at week 52. This study protocol describes the design of the first community-based controlled trial (n = 645) designed to examine the efficacy of integrating alcohol abuse treatment with smoking cessation among homeless smokers. To further address the gap in effectiveness of evidence-based smoking cessation interventions in the homeless population, we are conducting a renewed smoking cessation clinical trial called Power to Quit among smokers experiencing homelessness. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01932996. Date of registration: 20 November 2014.

  7. The COLOFOL trial: study design and comparison of the study population with the source cancer population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansdotter Andersson P

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pernilla Hansdotter Andersson,1 Peer Wille-Jørgensen,2 Erzsébet Horváth-Puhó,3 Sune Høirup Petersen,2 Anna Martling,4 Henrik Toft Sørensen,3 Ingvar Syk1 On behalf of the COLOFOL Study Group 1Department of Surgery, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden; 2Abdominal Disease Center K, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden Introduction: The COLOFOL trial, a prospective randomized multicenter trial comparing two follow-up regimes after curative surgical treatment for colorectal cancer, focuses on detection of asymptomatic recurrences. This paper aims to describe the design and recruitment procedure in the COLOFOL trial, comparing demographic characteristics between randomized patients and eligible patients not included in the study. Materials and methods: COLOFOL was designed as a pragmatic trial with wide inclusion criteria and few exclusion criteria, in order to obtain a sample reflecting the general patient population. To be eligible, patients had to be 75 years or younger and curatively resected for stage II or III colorectal cancer. Exclusion criteria were hereditary colorectal cancer, no signed consent, other malignancy, and life expectancy less than 2 years due to concomitant disease. In four of the 24 participating centers, we scrutinized hospital inpatient data to identify all colorectal cancer patients who underwent surgery, in order to ascertain all eligible patients who were not included in the study and to compare them with enrolled patients. Results: Of a total of 4,445 eligible patients, 2,509 patients were randomized (56.4% inclusion rate. A total of 1,221 eligible patients were identified in the scrutinized hospitals, of which 684 (56% were randomized. No difference in age or sex distribution was observed between randomized and nonrandomized

  8. The Health Informatics Trial Enhancement Project (HITE: Using routinely collected primary care data to identify potential participants for a depression trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons Ronan A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruitment to clinical trials can be challenging. We identified anonymous potential participants to an existing pragmatic randomised controlled depression trial to assess the feasibility of using routinely collected data to identify potential trial participants. We discuss the strengths and limitations of this approach, assess its potential value, report challenges and ethical issues encountered. Methods Swansea University's Health Information Research Unit's Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL database of routinely collected health records was interrogated, using Structured Query Language (SQL. Read codes were used to create an algorithm of inclusion/exclusion criteria with which to identify suitable anonymous participants. Two independent clinicians rated the eligibility of the potential participants' identified. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using the kappa statistic and inter-class correlation. Results The study population (N = 37263 comprised all adults registered at five general practices in Swansea UK. Using the algorithm 867 anonymous potential participants were identified. The sensitivity and specificity results > 0.9 suggested a high degree of accuracy from the algorithm. The inter-rater reliability results indicated strong agreement between the confirming raters. The Intra Class Correlation Coefficient (Cronbach's Alpha > 0.9, suggested excellent agreement and Kappa coefficient > 0.8; almost perfect agreement. Conclusions This proof of concept study showed that routinely collected primary care data can be used to identify potential participants for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of folate augmentation of antidepressant therapy for the treatment of depression. Further work will be needed to assess generalisability to other conditions and settings and the inclusion of this approach to support Electronic Enhanced Recruitment (EER.

  9. Political economy and population health: is Australia exceptional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, Anne-marie; Short, Stephanie D

    2006-06-01

    It is accepted knowledge that social and economic conditions--like education and income--affect population health. What remains uncertain is whether the degree of inequality in these conditions influences population health and if so, how. Some researchers who argue that inequalities are important, say there is a relationship between political economy, inequality and population health. Their evidence comes from comparative studies showing that countries with neo-liberal political economies generally have poorer population health outcomes than those with social or Christian democratic political economies. According to these researchers, neo-liberal political economies adopt labour market and welfare state policies that lead to greater levels of inequality and poorer population health outcomes for us all. Australia has experienced considerable social and economic reforms over the last 20 years, with both major political parties increasingly adopting neo-liberal policies. Despite these reforms, population health outcomes are amongst the best in the world. Australia appears to contest theories suggesting a link between political economy and population health. To progress our understanding, researchers need to concentrate on policy areas outside health--such as welfare, economics and industrial relations. We need to do longitudinal studies on how reforms in these areas affect levels of social and economic inequality, as well population health. We need to draw on social scientific methods, especially concerning case selection, to advance our understanding of casual relationships in policy studies. It is important to find out if, and why, Australia has resisted the affects of neo-liberalism on population health so we ensure our high standards are maintained in the future.

  10. Oral Health Promotion and Smoking Cessation Program Delivered via Tobacco Quitlines: The Oral Health 4 Life Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B; Bush, Terry; Anderson, Melissa L; Blasi, Paula; Thompson, Ella; Nelson, Jennifer; Catz, Sheryl L

    2018-05-01

    To assess the effects of a novel oral health promotion program (Oral Health 4 Life; OH4L) delivered through state-funded tobacco quitlines. Using a semipragmatic design to balance experimental control and generalizability, we randomized US quitline callers (n = 718) to standard care or standard care plus OH4L. We followed participants for 6 months to assess effects on professional dental care and smoking abstinence. We collected data between 2015 and 2017. Participants were racially diverse (42% non-White) and socioeconomically disadvantaged. Most (71%) reported fair or poor oral health, and all were overdue for routine dental care. At 6 months, professional dental care and abstinence did not significantly differ between arms, but abstinence favored the experimental arm and was significantly higher among experimental participants at 2 months in a complete case sensitivity analysis. OH4L was not effective for promoting dental care, but integrating oral health counseling with quitline counseling may offer some advantage for smoking cessation. Public Health Implications. We offer a model for conducting semipragmatic trials and partnering with tobacco quitlines to evaluate population-level public health interventions.

  11. Happy@Work: protocol for a web-based randomized controlled trial to improve mental well-being among an Asian working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Liu, Su; Tang, Szehang; Zhang, Dexing

    2014-07-04

    Mental health issues pose a serious concern in the workplace for the huge productivity loss and financial burden associated with it. Unlike the traditional 'fixing-what-is-wrong' approach, positive psychology offers a less-stigmatized way to promote mental health. Psychological capital, a concept originated from positive psychology, has been proven effective in improving mental well-being and work performance. However, little evidence exists for its implementation among Asian working population or its cost-benefit for organizations adopting such promotion strategy. The current study is designed to assess the protective effects of a web-based psychology capital intervention among Hong Kong working population on individuals' mental health and work performance, as well as organizations' return-on-investment. A two-arm randomized controlled trial design will be adopted. Eligible working adults will be randomly allocated to either the intervention group or the waiting-list control group, with 177 participants in each arm. The intervention, which consists of four web-based training sessions, each targeting one of the psychological capital components (hope, efficacy, optimism and resilience), will be implemented over a 4-week period. On-line surveys will assess the participants in each group at baseline, intervention completion, 1 and 3 months after the completion. The primary outcome is individuals' psychological capital level; secondary outcomes include individuals' well-being, depressive symptoms, work engagement and productivity. Return-on-investment will be calculated from the employers' perspective based on productivity gain, savings in medical expenditure, as well as operation and time costs. Analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle. This is the first experimental study that explores the applicability of psychological capital development among Asian population. Through investigating changes in individuals' work productivity from absenteeism and

  12. Health providers' perceptions of clinical trials : lessons from Ghana, Kenya and Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angwenyi, Vibian; Asante, Kwaku-Poku; Traoré, Abdoulaye; Febir, Lawrence Gyabaa; Tawiah, Charlotte; Kwarteng, Anthony; Ouédraogo, Alphonse; Sirima, Sodiomon Bienvenue; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Imoukhuede, Egeruan Babatunde; Webster, Jayne; Chandramohan, Daniel; Molyneux, Sassy; Jones, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical trials conducted in Africa often require substantial investments to support trial centres and public health facilities. Trial resources could potentially generate benefits for routine health service delivery but may have unintended consequences. Strengthening ethical practice

  13. SARS and population health technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2003-01-01

    The recent global outbreak of SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) provides an opportunity to study the use and impact of public health informatics and population health technology to detect and fight a global epidemic. Population health technology is the umbrella term for technology applications that have a population focus and the potential to improve public health. This includes the Internet, but also other technologies such as wireless devices, mobile phones, smart appliances, or smart homes. In the context of an outbreak or bioterrorism attack, such technologies may help to gather intelligence and detect diseases early, and communicate and exchange information electronically worldwide. Some of the technologies brought forward during the SARS epidemic may have been primarily motivated by marketing efforts, or were more directed towards reassuring people that "something is being done," ie, fighting an "epidemic of fear." To understand "fear epidemiology" is important because early warning systems monitoring data from a large number of people may not be able to discriminate between a biological epidemic and an epidemic of fear. The need for critical evaluation of all of these technologies is stressed.

  14. Effects of cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia on the mental health of university students: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Daniel; Sheaves, Bryony; Goodwin, Guy M; Yu, Ly-Mee; Harrison, Paul J; Emsley, Richard; Bostock, Sophie; Foster, Russell G; Wadekar, Vanashree; Hinds, Christopher; Espie, Colin A

    2015-05-28

    Insomnia, defined as repeated difficulties getting or staying asleep, is common in the general population. Such sleep difficulties are a problem in their own right, but increasingly it is being recognised that they may also be a contributory factor in the development of a wide range of mental health problems. Our focus is upon the relationship between insomnia and psychotic experiences, such as paranoia and hallucinations. Psychotic experiences commonly occur in mild forms in the general population and have been linked to disrupted sleep. These psychotic-like experiences raise the risk of development of a clinical disorder. Our aim is to reduce insomnia in a large general population group, and examine the effect on paranoia and hallucinations at the age when mental health problems typically emerge. The primary hypotheses are that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for insomnia will reduce insomnia and also levels of paranoia and hallucinations. The theoretical links will be substantiated by a planned mediation analysis. Improvements in a number of other mental health outcomes are also predicted. We will carry out a parallel group, randomised controlled trial of 2,614 students with insomnia in universities across the UK. In the Oxford Access for Students Improving Sleep (OASIS) trial, participants will be randomised to digital CBT for insomnia (in addition to treatment as usual) or treatment as usual. Online assessments will take place at zero, three, 10 (post-treatment), and 22 (follow-up) weeks. Primary outcomes are insomnia and psychotic-like experiences (paranoia or hallucinatory experiences) at 10 weeks. Secondary outcomes are levels of mania, depression, anxiety, nightmares, psychological wellbeing, and the development of mental health disorders. All main analyses will be carried out at the end of the last follow-up assessment and will be based on the intention-to-treat principle. The trial is funded by the Wellcome Trust. This study will be the first large

  15. Effectiveness of a universal health-promoting parenting program: a randomized waitlist-controlled trial of All Children in Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfsdotter, Malin; Enebrink, Pia; Lindberg, Lene

    2014-10-18

    Parenting programs have been highlighted as a way of supporting and empowering parents. As programs designed to promote children's health and well-being are scarce, a new health-promotion program, All Children in Focus, has been developed. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the program in promoting parental self-efficacy and child health and development, as well as to investigate possible moderators of these outcomes. A multicenter randomized waitlist-controlled trial was conducted. The trial included 621 parents with children aged 3-12 years. Parents were randomized to receive the intervention directly or to join a waitlist control group. Parents completed questionnaires at baseline, 2 weeks after the intervention, and 6 months post-baseline. To evaluate potential effects of the program, as well as any moderating variables, multilevel modeling with a repeated-measures design was applied. Parents in the intervention group reported that their self-efficacy (p parents in the control group. One variable was found to moderate both outcomes: parents' positive mental health. Furthermore, parents' educational level and number of children moderated parental self-efficacy, while the children's age moderated child health and development. Having a poor positive mental health, a university-level education, more than one child in the family, and older children, made the families benefit more. In the first randomized controlled trial of All Children in Focus, we found that the program appears to promote both parental self-efficacy and children's health and development in a general population. Additionally, we found that families may benefit differently depending on their baseline characteristics. This contributes to an existing understanding of the advantages of offering universal parenting programs as a public health approach to strengthening families. However, further research is needed to investigate long-term effects and mediating

  16. Pathways to health in a deprived population: relationships between smoking, mental health & physical health

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Recently there has been increasing interest in understanding and addressing health inequalities and enhancing the well-being of the population as a whole through anticipatory care and better health care delivery. The current study aimed to investigate the predictive relationships between smoking behaviour, physical health, and mental health in a deprived population using models of mediation. Method: Participants had attended a Keep Well health check, a natio...

  17. Kettlebell training for musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Frisch, Dennis; Hansen, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to investigate the effectiveness of a worksite intervention using kettlebell training to improve musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health.......The aim of this trial was to investigate the effectiveness of a worksite intervention using kettlebell training to improve musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health....

  18. Population mental health: evidence, policy, and public health practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    ... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well-­ being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...

  19. The effects of pilates on mental health outcomes: A meta-analysis of controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Karl M; Herring, Matthew P

    2018-04-01

    This meta-analysis estimated the population effect size for Pilates effects on mental health outcomes. Articles published prior to August 2017 were located with searches of Pubmed, Medline, Cinahl, SportDiscus, Science Direct, PsychINFO, Web of Science, and Cochrane Controlled Trial Register using combinations of: Pilates, Pilates method, mental health, anxiety, and depression. Eight English-language publications that included allocation to a Pilates intervention or non-active control and a measure of anxiety and/or depressive symptoms at baseline and after the Pilates intervention were selected. Participant and intervention characteristics, anxiety and depressive symptoms and other mental health outcomes, including feelings of energy and fatigue and quality of life, were extracted. Hedges' d effect sizes were computed, study quality was assessed, and random effects models estimated sampling error and population variance. Pilates resulted in significant, large, heterogeneous reductions in depressive (Δ = 1.27, 95%CI: 0.44, 2.09; z = 3.02, p ≤ 0.003; N = 6, n = 261) and anxiety symptoms (Δ = 1.29, 95%CI: 0.24, 2.33; z = 2.40, p ≤ 0.02; N = 5, n = 231) and feelings of fatigue (Δ = 0.93, 95%CI: 0.21, 1.66; z = 2.52, p ≤ 0.012; N = 3, n = 161), and increases in feelings of energy (Δ = 1.49, 95%CI: 0.67, 2.30; z = 3.57, p Pilates improves mental health outcomes. Rigorously designed randomized controlled trials, including those that compare Pilates to other empirically-supported therapies, are needed to better understand Pilates' clinical effectiveness and plausible mechanisms of effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The EPICS Trial: Enabling Parents to Increase Child Survival through the introduction of community-based health interventions in rural Guinea Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frost Chris

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guinea-Bissau is a small country in West Africa with a population of 1.7 million. The WHO and UNICEF reported an under-five child mortality of 203 per 1000, the 10th highest amongst 192 countries. The aim of the trial is to assess whether an intervention package that includes community health promotion campaign and education through health clubs, intensive training and mentoring of village health workers to diagnose and provide first-line treatment for children's diseases within the community, and improved outreach services can generate a rapid and cost-effective reduction in under-five child mortality in rural regions of Guinea-Bissau. Effective Intervention plans to expand the project to a much larger region if there is good evidence after two and a half years that the project is generating a cost-effective, sustainable reduction in child mortality. Methods/design This trial is a cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 146 clusters. The trial will run for 2.5 years. The interventions will be introduced in two stages: seventy-three clusters will receive the interventions at the start of the project, and seventy-three control clusters will receive the interventions 2.5 years after the first clusters have received all interventions if the research shows that the interventions are effective. The impact of the interventions and cost-effectiveness will be measured during the first stage. The package of interventions includes a community health promotion campaign and education through health clubs, and intensive training and mentoring of village health workers to diagnose and provide first-line treatment for common children's diseases within the community. It also includes improved outreach services to encourage provision of antenatal and post natal care and provide ongoing monitoring for village health workers. The primary outcome of the trial will be the proportion of children that die under 5 years of age during the trial

  1. The serious mental illness health improvement profile [HIP]: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swift Louise

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serious mental illness Health Improvement Profile [HIP] is a brief pragmatic tool, which enables mental health nurses to work together with patients to screen physical health and take evidence-based action when variables are identified to be at risk. Piloting has demonstrated clinical utility and acceptability. Methods/Design A single blind parallel group cluster randomised controlled trial with secondary economic analysis and process observation. Unit of randomisation: mental health nurses [MHNs] working in adult community mental health teams across two NHS Trusts. Subjects: Patients over 18 years with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder on the caseload of participating MHNs. Primary objective: To determine the effects of the HIP programme on patients' physical wellbeing assessed by the physical component score of the Medical Outcome Study (MOS 36 Item Short Form Health Survey version 2 [SF-36v2]. Secondary objectives: To determine the effects of the HIP programme on: cost effectiveness, mental wellbeing, cardiovascular risk, physical health care attitudes and knowledge of MHNs and to determine the acceptability of the HIP Programme in the NHS. Consented nurses (and patients will be randomised to receive the HIP Programme or treatment as usual. Outcomes will be measured at baseline and 12 months with a process observation after 12 months to include evaluation of patients' and professionals' experience and observation of any effect on care plans and primary-secondary care interface communication. Outcomes will be analysed on an intention-to-treat (ITT basis. Discussion The results of the trial and process observation will provide information about the effectiveness of the HIP Programme in supporting MHNs to address physical comorbidity in serious mental illness. Given the current unacceptable prevalence of physical comorbidity and mortality in the serious mental illness population, it is

  2. Lessons learned from IDeAl - 33 recommendations from the IDeAl-net about design and analysis of small population clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Bogdan, Malgorzata; Burman, Carl-Fredrik; Dette, Holger; Karlsson, Mats; König, Franz; Male, Christoph; Mentré, France; Molenberghs, Geert; Senn, Stephen

    2018-05-11

    IDeAl (Integrated designs and analysis of small population clinical trials) is an EU funded project developing new statistical design and analysis methodologies for clinical trials in small population groups. Here we provide an overview of IDeAl findings and give recommendations to applied researchers. The description of the findings is broken down by the nine scientific IDeAl work packages and summarizes results from the project's more than 60 publications to date in peer reviewed journals. In addition, we applied text mining to evaluate the publications and the IDeAl work packages' output in relation to the design and analysis terms derived from in the IRDiRC task force report on small population clinical trials. The results are summarized, describing the developments from an applied viewpoint. The main result presented here are 33 practical recommendations drawn from the work, giving researchers a comprehensive guidance to the improved methodology. In particular, the findings will help design and analyse efficient clinical trials in rare diseases with limited number of patients available. We developed a network representation relating the hot topics developed by the IRDiRC task force on small population clinical trials to IDeAl's work as well as relating important methodologies by IDeAl's definition necessary to consider in design and analysis of small-population clinical trials. These network representation establish a new perspective on design and analysis of small-population clinical trials. IDeAl has provided a huge number of options to refine the statistical methodology for small-population clinical trials from various perspectives. A total of 33 recommendations developed and related to the work packages help the researcher to design small population clinical trial. The route to improvements is displayed in IDeAl-network representing important statistical methodological skills necessary to design and analysis of small-population clinical trials. The methods

  3. Determination of the optimal sample size for a clinical trial accounting for the population size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Nigel; Miller, Frank; Day, Simon; Hee, Siew Wan; Madan, Jason; Zohar, Sarah; Posch, Martin

    2017-07-01

    The problem of choosing a sample size for a clinical trial is a very common one. In some settings, such as rare diseases or other small populations, the large sample sizes usually associated with the standard frequentist approach may be infeasible, suggesting that the sample size chosen should reflect the size of the population under consideration. Incorporation of the population size is possible in a decision-theoretic approach either explicitly by assuming that the population size is fixed and known, or implicitly through geometric discounting of the gain from future patients reflecting the expected population size. This paper develops such approaches. Building on previous work, an asymptotic expression is derived for the sample size for single and two-arm clinical trials in the general case of a clinical trial with a primary endpoint with a distribution of one parameter exponential family form that optimizes a utility function that quantifies the cost and gain per patient as a continuous function of this parameter. It is shown that as the size of the population, N, or expected size, N∗ in the case of geometric discounting, becomes large, the optimal trial size is O(N1/2) or O(N∗1/2). The sample size obtained from the asymptotic expression is also compared with the exact optimal sample size in examples with responses with Bernoulli and Poisson distributions, showing that the asymptotic approximations can also be reasonable in relatively small sample sizes. © 2016 The Author. Biometrical Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Protocol for the atWork trial: a randomised controlled trial of a workplace intervention targeting subjective health complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Langjordet Johnsen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subjective health complaints, such as musculoskeletal and mental health complaints, have a high prevalence in the general population, and account for a large proportion of sick leave in Norway. It may be difficult to prevent the occurrence of subjective health complaints, but it may be possible to influence employees’ perception and management of these complaints, which in turn may have impact on sick leave and return to work after sick leave. Long term sick leave has many negative health and social consequences, and it is important to gain knowledge about effective interventions to prevent and reduce long term sick leave. Methods/Design This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effect of the modified atWork intervention, targeting non-specific musculoskeletal complaints and mental health complaints. This intervention will be compared to the original atWork intervention targeting only non-specific musculoskeletal complaints. Kindergartens in Norway are invited to participate in the study and will be randomly assigned to one of the two interventions. Estimated sample size is 100 kindergartens, with a total of approximately 1100 employees. Primary outcome is sick leave at unit level, measured using register data from the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration. One kindergarten equals one unit, regardless of number of employees. Secondary outcomes will be measured at the individual level and include coping, health, job satisfaction, social support, and workplace inclusion, collected through questionnaires distributed at baseline and at 12 months follow up. All employees in the included kindergartens are eligible for participating in the survey. Discussion The effect evaluation of the modified atWork intervention is a large and comprehensive project, providing evidence-based information on prevention of long-term sick leave, which may be of considerable benefit both from a societal

  5. Special features of health services and register based trials – experiences from a randomized trial of childbirth classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevón Tiina

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating complex interventions in health services faces various difficulties, such as making practice changes and costs. Ways to increase research capacity and decrease costs include making research an integral part of health services and using routine data to judge outcomes. The purpose of this article is to report the feasibility of a pilot trial relying solely on routinely collected register data and being based on ordinary health services. Methods The example intervention was education to public health nurses (PHN (childbirth classes to reduce caesarean section rates via pre-delivery considerations of pregnant women. 20 maternity health centers (MHC were paired and of each 10 pairs, one MHC was randomly allocated to an intervention group and the other to a control; 8 pairs with successful intervention were used in the analyses (1601 mothers. The women visiting to the study maternity centers were identified from the Customer Register of Helsinki City. A list of the study women was made using the mother's personal identification number, visit date, the maternity center code, birth date and gestation length. The mode of delivery and health outcomes were retrieved from the Finnish Medical Birth Register (MBR. Process data of the intervention are based on observations, written feedback and questionnaires from PHNs, and project correspondence. Results It took almost two years to establish how to obtain permissions and to actually obtain it for the trial. Obtaining permissions for the customer and outcome data and register linkages was unproblematic and the cluster randomization provided comparable groups. The intervention did not succeed well. Had the main aim of the trial been to cause a change in PHNs behavior, we would have very likely intensified the intervention during the trial. Conclusion Our experiences encourage the use of trials that obtain their outcomes from registers. Changing the behavior of ordinary health

  6. Improving ethical and participatory practice for marginalized populations in biomedical HIV prevention trials: lessons from Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Allman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This paper presents findings from a qualitative investigation of ethical and participatory issues related to the conduct of biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations in Thailand. This research was deemed important to conduct, as several large-scale biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations had closed prematurely in other countries, and a better understanding of how to prevent similar trial closures from occurring in the future was desired. METHODS: In-depth key informant interviews were held in Bangkok and Chiang Mai, Thailand. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analyzed. The Good Participatory Practice Guidelines for Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials (GPP guided this work. RESULTS: Fourteen interviews were conducted: 10 with policymakers, academic and community-based researchers and trial staff and four with representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs. Suggested ways to improve ethical and participatory practice centered on standards of HIV prevention, informed consent, communication and human rights. In particular, the need to overcome language and literacy differences was identified. Key informants felt communication was the basis of ethical understanding and trust within biomedical HIV prevention trial contexts, and thus fundamental to trial participants' ability to exercise free will. DISCUSSION: Biomedical HIV prevention trials present opportunities for inclusive and productive ethical and participatory practice. Key informants suggested that efforts to improve practice could result in better relationships between research stakeholders and research investigative teams and by extension, better, more ethical participatory trials. This research took place in Thailand and its findings apply primarily to Thailand. However, given the universality of many ethical considerations, the results of this study can inform the improvement of ethical

  7. Improving ethical and participatory practice for marginalized populations in biomedical HIV prevention trials: lessons from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Dan; Ditmore, Melissa Hope; Kaplan, Karyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative investigation of ethical and participatory issues related to the conduct of biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations in Thailand. This research was deemed important to conduct, as several large-scale biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations had closed prematurely in other countries, and a better understanding of how to prevent similar trial closures from occurring in the future was desired. In-depth key informant interviews were held in Bangkok and Chiang Mai, Thailand. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analyzed. The Good Participatory Practice Guidelines for Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials (GPP) guided this work. Fourteen interviews were conducted: 10 with policymakers, academic and community-based researchers and trial staff and four with representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Suggested ways to improve ethical and participatory practice centered on standards of HIV prevention, informed consent, communication and human rights. In particular, the need to overcome language and literacy differences was identified. Key informants felt communication was the basis of ethical understanding and trust within biomedical HIV prevention trial contexts, and thus fundamental to trial participants' ability to exercise free will. Biomedical HIV prevention trials present opportunities for inclusive and productive ethical and participatory practice. Key informants suggested that efforts to improve practice could result in better relationships between research stakeholders and research investigative teams and by extension, better, more ethical participatory trials. This research took place in Thailand and its findings apply primarily to Thailand. However, given the universality of many ethical considerations, the results of this study can inform the improvement of ethical and participatory practice in other parts of the world where

  8. Experience Corps: A dual trial to promote the health of older adults and children's academic success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Linda P.; Carlson, Michelle C.; McGill, Sylvia; Seeman, Teresa; Xue, Qian-Li; Frick, Kevin; Tan, Erwin; Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Barron, Jeremy; Frangakis, Constantine; Piferi, Rachel; Martinez, Iveris; Gruenewald, Tara; Martin, Barbara K.; Berry-Vaughn, Laprisha; Stewart, John; Dickersin, Kay; Willging, Paul R.; Rebok, George W.

    2014-01-01

    Background As the population ages, older adults are seeking meaningful, and impactful, post-retirement roles. As a society, improving the health of people throughout longer lives is a major public health goal. This paper presents the design and rationale for an effectiveness trial of Experience Corps™, an intervention created to address both these needs. This trial evaluates (1) whether senior volunteer roles within Experience Corps™ beneficially impact children's academic achievement and classroom behavior in public elementary schools and (2) impact on the health of volunteers. Methods Dual evaluations of (1) an intention-to-treat trial randomizing eligible adults 60 and older to volunteer service in Experience Corps™, or to a control arm of usual volunteering opportunities, and (2) a comparison of eligible public elementary schools receiving Experience Corps™ to matched, eligible control schools in a 1:1 control:intervention school ratio. Outcomes For older adults, the primary outcome is decreased disability in mobility and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). Secondary outcomes are decreased frailty, falls, and memory loss; slowed loss of strength, balance, walking speed, cortical plasticity, and executive function; objective performance of IADLs; and increased social and psychological engagement. For children, primary outcomes are improved reading achievement and classroom behavior in Kindergarten through the 3rd grade; secondary outcomes are improvements in school climate, teacher morale and retention, and teacher perceptions of older adults. Summary This trial incorporates principles and practices of community-based participatory research and evaluates the dual benefit of a single intervention, versus usual opportunities, for two generations: older adults and children. PMID:23680986

  9. [A framework to support action in population mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantoura, Pascale; Roberge, Marie-Claude; Fournier, Louise

    In Quebec, like elsewhere in the world, we are witnessing a growing concern for the population's mental health and for the importance of concentrating efforts on prevention and promotion. In this context, public health actors are invited to adopt a leadership role in advancing mental health promotion and mental disorder prevention goals, and establish the required partnerships with actors from the health and social services and from other sectors who are indispensable to the population mental health agenda. In Canada, public heath actors are not yet sufficiently supported in this role. They express the need to access structuring frameworks which can clarify their action in mental health. This article first presents the momentum for change at the policy level within the field of mental health. A framework to support population mental health action is then presented. The framework identifies the various dimensions underlying the promotion of population mental health as well as the reduction of mental health inequalities. The article finally illustrates how the application of a populational (the application of a populational responsibility perspective) responsibility perspective, as it is defined in the context of Quebec, facilitates the implementation of the various elements of this framework. In the end, public health actors are better equipped to situate their practice in favour of the population's mental health.

  10. Using Matrix and Tensor Factorizations for the Single-Trial Analysis of Population Spike Trains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Onken

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in neuronal recording techniques are leading to ever larger numbers of simultaneously monitored neurons. This poses the important analytical challenge of how to capture compactly all sensory information that neural population codes carry in their spatial dimension (differences in stimulus tuning across neurons at different locations, in their temporal dimension (temporal neural response variations, or in their combination (temporally coordinated neural population firing. Here we investigate the utility of tensor factorizations of population spike trains along space and time. These factorizations decompose a dataset of single-trial population spike trains into spatial firing patterns (combinations of neurons firing together, temporal firing patterns (temporal activation of these groups of neurons and trial-dependent activation coefficients (strength of recruitment of such neural patterns on each trial. We validated various factorization methods on simulated data and on populations of ganglion cells simultaneously recorded in the salamander retina. We found that single-trial tensor space-by-time decompositions provided low-dimensional data-robust representations of spike trains that capture efficiently both their spatial and temporal information about sensory stimuli. Tensor decompositions with orthogonality constraints were the most efficient in extracting sensory information, whereas non-negative tensor decompositions worked well even on non-independent and overlapping spike patterns, and retrieved informative firing patterns expressed by the same population in response to novel stimuli. Our method showed that populations of retinal ganglion cells carried information in their spike timing on the ten-milliseconds-scale about spatial details of natural images. This information could not be recovered from the spike counts of these cells. First-spike latencies carried the majority of information provided by the whole spike train about fine

  11. Management Options for Women at Risk for Inherited Breast Cancer in a Multi-ethnic Health Plan Population: A Randomized Control Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schaefer, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    ...-to-moderate risk women from minority populations. Resulting strategies will be usefully applied in the large, ethnically and economically diverse populations of health maintenance organizations from which increasing...

  12. Management Options for Women at Risk for Inherited Breast Cancer in a Multi-ethnic Health Plan Population: A Randomized Control Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hiatt, Robert

    1997-01-01

    ...-to-moderate risk women from minority populations. Resulting stategies will be usefully applied in the large, ethnically and economically diverse populations of health maintenance organizations from which increasing...

  13. Design and protocol for the Dialysis Optimal Health Program (DOHP) randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Simon R; Ski, Chantal F; Langham, Robyn; O'Flaherty, Emmet; Thompson, David R; Rossell, Susan L; Moore, Gaye; Hsueh, Ya-Seng Arthur; Castle, David J

    2016-09-09

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) are serious and growing health problems with enormous impact on psychological and social functioning. Despite high rates of comorbid depression and anxiety in these patient populations, and the adverse impact these have upon treatment adherence, quality of life, social connectedness and healthcare costs there has been little attention focused on the prevention or management of these problems. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the Dialysis Optimal Health Program (DOHP) that adopts a person-centred approach and engages collaborative therapy to educate and support those diagnosed with ESKD who are commencing dialysis. The study design is a randomised controlled trial. Ninety-six adult patients initiating haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis will be randomly allocated to either the intervention (DOHP) or usual care group. Participants receiving the intervention will receive nine (8 + 1 booster session) sequential sessions based on a structured information/workbook, psychosocial and educational supports and skills building. The primary outcome measures are depression and anxiety (assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HADS). Secondary outcomes include health-related quality of life (assessed by the Kidney Disease Quality of Life instrument; KDQOL), self-efficacy (assessed by General Self-Efficacy Scale) and clinical indices (e.g. albumin and haemoglobin levels). Cost-effectiveness analysis and process evaluation will also be performed to assess the economic value and efficacy of the DOHP. Primary and secondary measures will be collected at baseline and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up time points. We believe that this innovative trial will enhance knowledge of interventions aimed at supporting patients in the process of starting dialysis, and will broaden the focus from physical symptoms to include psychosocial factors such as depression, anxiety, self-efficacy, wellbeing and community

  14. Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc At the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that use ...

  15. Population Analysis of Adverse Events in Different Age Groups Using Big Clinical Trials Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jake; Eldredge, Christina; Cho, Chi C; Cisler, Ron A

    2016-10-17

    Understanding adverse event patterns in clinical studies across populations is important for patient safety and protection in clinical trials as well as for developing appropriate drug therapies, procedures, and treatment plans. The objective of our study was to conduct a data-driven population-based analysis to estimate the incidence, diversity, and association patterns of adverse events by age of the clinical trials patients and participants. Two aspects of adverse event patterns were measured: (1) the adverse event incidence rate in each of the patient age groups and (2) the diversity of adverse events defined as distinct types of adverse events categorized by organ system. Statistical analysis was done on the summarized clinical trial data. The incident rate and diversity level in each of the age groups were compared with the lowest group (reference group) using t tests. Cohort data was obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov, and 186,339 clinical studies were analyzed; data were extracted from the 17,853 clinical trials that reported clinical outcomes. The total number of clinical trial participants was 6,808,619, and total number of participants affected by adverse events in these trials was 1,840,432. The trial participants were divided into eight different age groups to support cross-age group comparison. In general, children and older patients are more susceptible to adverse events in clinical trial studies. Using the lowest incidence age group as the reference group (20-29 years), the incidence rate of the 0-9 years-old group was 31.41%, approximately 1.51 times higher (P=.04) than the young adult group (20-29 years) at 20.76%. The second-highest group is the 50-59 years-old group with an incidence rate of 30.09%, significantly higher (Pgroup. The adverse event diversity also increased with increase in patient age. Clinical studies that recruited older patients (older than 40 years) were more likely to observe a diverse range of adverse events (Page group (older

  16. Participant Recruitment and Engagement in Automated eHealth Trial Registration: Challenges and Opportunities for Recruiting Women Who Experience Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol-McLain, Jane; McLean, Christine; Rohan, Maheswaran; Sisk, Rose; Dobbs, Terry; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Wilson, Denise; Vandal, Alain C

    2016-10-25

    Automated eHealth Web-based research trials offer people an accessible, confidential opportunity to engage in research that matters to them. eHealth trials may be particularly useful for sensitive issues when seeking health care may be accompanied by shame and mistrust. Yet little is known about people's early engagement with eHealth trials, from recruitment to preintervention autoregistration processes. A recent randomized controlled trial that tested the effectiveness of an eHealth safety decision aid for New Zealand women in the general population who experienced intimate partner violence (isafe) provided the opportunity to examine recruitment and preintervention participant engagement with a fully automated Web-based registration process. The trial aimed to recruit 340 women within 24 months. The objective of our study was to examine participant preintervention engagement and recruitment efficiency for the isafe trial, and to analyze dropout through the registration pathway, from recruitment to eligibility screening and consent, to completion of baseline measures. In this case study, data collection sources included the trial recruitment log, Google Analytics reports, registration and program metadata, and costs. Analysis included a qualitative narrative of the recruitment experience and descriptive statistics of preintervention participant engagement and dropout rates. A Koyck model investigated the relationship between Web-based online marketing website advertisements (ads) and participant accrual. The isafe trial was launched on September 17, 2012. Placement of ads in an online classified advertising platform increased the average number of recruited participants per month from 2 to 25. Over the 23-month recruitment period, the registration website recorded 4176 unique visitors. Among 1003 women meeting eligibility criteria, 51.55% (517) consented to participate; among the 501 women who enrolled (consented, validated, and randomized), 412 (82.2%) were

  17. The effects of computer-based mindfulness training on Self-control and Mindfulness within Ambulatorily assessed network Systems across Health-related domains in a healthy student population (SMASH): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Zarah; Wenzel, Mario; Kubiak, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Self-control is an important ability in everyday life, showing associations with health-related outcomes. The aim of the Self-control and Mindfulness within Ambulatorily assessed network Systems across Health-related domains (SMASH) study is twofold: first, the effectiveness of a computer-based mindfulness training will be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Second, the SMASH study implements a novel network approach in order to investigate complex temporal interdependencies of self-control networks across several domains. The SMASH study is a two-armed, 6-week, non-blinded randomized controlled trial that combines seven weekly laboratory meetings and 40 days of electronic diary assessments with six prompts per day in a healthy undergraduate student population at the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany. Participants will be randomly assigned to (1) receive a computer-based mindfulness intervention or (2) to a wait-list control condition. Primary outcomes are self-reported momentary mindfulness and self-control assessed via electronic diaries. Secondary outcomes are habitual mindfulness and habitual self-control. Further measures include self-reported behaviors in specific self-control domains: emotion regulation, alcohol consumption and eating behaviors. The effects of mindfulness training on primary and secondary outcomes are explored using three-level mixed models. Furthermore, networks will be computed with vector autoregressive mixed models to investigate the dynamics at participant and group level. This study was approved by the local ethics committee (reference code 2015_JGU_psychEK_011) and follows the standards laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki (2013). This randomized controlled trial combines an intensive Ambulatory Assessment of 40 consecutive days and seven laboratory meetings. By implementing a novel network approach, underlying processes of self-control within different health domains will be identified. These results will

  18. Rigorous Clinical Trial Design in Public Health Emergencies Is Essential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellenberg, Susan S; Keusch, Gerald T; Babiker, Abdel G

    2018-01-01

    Randomized clinical trials are the most reliable approaches to evaluating the effects of new treatments and vaccines. During the 2014-15 West African Ebola epidemic, many argued that such trials were neither ethical nor feasible in an environment of limited health infrastructure and severe disease...

  19. Gamified physical activation of young men – a Multidisciplinary Population-Based Randomized Controlled Trial (MOPO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahola Riikka

    2013-01-01

    for activating young men can provide a translational model for community use. It can also be utilized as such or tailored to other selected populations or age groups. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01376986

  20. Meta Salud Diabetes study protocol: a cluster-randomised trial to reduce cardiovascular risk among a diabetic population of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo Vucovich, Elsa; Ingram, Maia; Valenica, Celina; Castro Vasquez, Maria del Carmen; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, Eduardo; Geurnsey de Zapien, Jill

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Northern Mexico has among the highest rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes in the world. This research addresses core gaps in implementation science to develop, test and scale-up CVD risk-reduction interventions in diabetics through a national primary care health system. Methods and analysis The Meta Salud Diabetes (MSD) research project is a parallel two-arm cluster-randomised clinical behavioural trial based in 22 (n=22) health centres in Sonora, Mexico. MSD aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the MSD intervention for the secondary prevention of CVD risk factors among a diabetic population (n=320) compared with the study control of usual care. The MSD intervention consists of 2-hour class sessions delivered over a 13-week period providing educational information to encourage sustainable behavioural change to prevent disease complications including the adoption of physical activity. MSD is delivered within the context of Mexico’s national primary care health centre system by health professionals, including nurses, physicians and community health workers via existing social support groups for individuals diagnosed with chronic disease. Mixed models are used to estimate the effect of MSD by comparing cardiovascular risk, as measured by the Framingham Risk Score, between the trial arms. Secondary outcomes include hypertension, behavioural risk factors and psychosocial factors. Ethics and dissemination This work is supported by the National Institutes of Health, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (1R01HL125996-01) and approved by the University of Arizona Research Institutional Review Board (Protocol 1508040144) and the Research Bioethics Committee at the University of Sonora. The first Internal Review Board approval date was 31 August 2015 with five subsequent approved amendments. This article refers to protocol V.0.2, dated 30 January 2017. Results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publication and presentation at

  1. National Surveys of Population Health: Big Data Analytics for Mobile Health Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Bruce R

    2015-12-01

    At the core of the healthcare crisis is fundamental lack of actionable data. Such data could stratify individuals within populations to predict which persons have which outcomes. If baselines existed for all variations of all conditions, then managing health could be improved by matching the measuring of individuals to their cohort in the population. The scale required for complete baselines involves effective National Surveys of Population Health (NSPH). Traditionally, these have been focused upon acute medicine, measuring people to contain the spread of epidemics. In recent decades, the focus has moved to chronic conditions as well, which require smaller measures over longer times. NSPH have long utilized quality of life questionnaires. Mobile Health Monitors, where computing technologies eliminate manual administration, provide richer data sets for health measurement. Older technologies of telephone interviews will be replaced by newer technologies of smartphone sensors to provide deeper individual measures at more frequent timings across larger-sized populations. Such continuous data can provide personal health records, supporting treatment guidelines specialized for population cohorts. Evidence-based medicine will become feasible by leveraging hundreds of millions of persons carrying mobile devices interacting with Internet-scale services for Big Data Analytics.

  2. Randomized trial of a population-based, home-delivered intervention for preschool language delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Melissa; Tobin, Sherryn; Levickis, Penny; Gold, Lisa; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Zens, Naomi; Goldfeld, Sharon; Le, Ha; Law, James; Reilly, Sheena

    2013-10-01

    Population approaches to lessen the adverse impacts of preschool language delay remain elusive. We aimed to determine whether systematic ascertainment of language delay at age 4 years, followed by a 10-month, 1-on-1 intervention, improves language and related outcomes at age 5 years. A randomized trial nested within a cross-sectional ascertainment of language delay. Children with expressive and/or receptive language scores more than 1.25 SD below the mean at age 4 years entered the trial. Children randomly allocated to the intervention received 18 1-hour home-based therapy sessions. The primary outcomes were receptive and expressive language (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals - Preschool, 2(nd) Edition) and secondary outcomes were child phonological skills, letter awareness, pragmatic skills, behavior, and quality of life. A total of 1464 children were assessed for language delay at age 4 years. Of 266 eligible children, 200 (13.6%) entered the trial, with 91 intervention (92% of 99) and 88 control (87% of 101) children retained at age 5 years. At age 5 years, there was weak evidence of benefit to expressive (adjusted mean difference, intervention - control, 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.5 to 4.4; P = .12) but not receptive (0.6; 95% CI -2.5 to 3.8; P = .69) language. The intervention improved phonological awareness skills (5.0; 95% CI 2.2 to 7.8; P language intervention was successfully delivered by non-specialist staff, found to be acceptable and feasible, and has the potential to improve long-term consequences of early language delay within a public health framework.

  3. Emerging health issues: the widening challenge for population health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J; Butler, Colin D

    2006-12-01

    The spectrum of tasks for health promotion has widened since the Ottawa Charter was signed. In 1986, infectious diseases still seemed in retreat, the potential extent of HIV/AIDS was unrecognized, the Green Revolution was at its height and global poverty appeared less intractable. Global climate change had not yet emerged as a major threat to development and health. Most economists forecast continuous improvement, and chronic diseases were broadly anticipated as the next major health issue. Today, although many broadly averaged measures of population health have improved, many of the determinants of global health have faltered. Many infectious diseases have emerged; others have unexpectedly reappeared. Reasons include urban crowding, environmental changes, altered sexual relations, intensified food production and increased mobility and trade. Foremost, however, is the persistence of poverty and the exacerbation of regional and global inequality. Life expectancy has unexpectedly declined in several countries. Rather than being a faint echo from an earlier time of hardship, these declines could signify the future. Relatedly, the demographic and epidemiological transitions have faltered. In some regions, declining fertility has overshot that needed for optimal age structure, whereas elsewhere mortality increases have reduced population growth rates, despite continuing high fertility. Few, if any, Millennium Development Goals (MDG), including those for health and sustainability, seem achievable. Policy-makers generally misunderstand the link between environmental sustainability (MDG #7) and health. Many health workers also fail to realize that social cohesion and sustainability--maintenance of the Earth's ecological and geophysical systems--is a necessary basis for health. In sum, these issues present an enormous challenge to health. Health promotion must address population health influences that transcend national boundaries and generations and engage with the

  4. Participant Recruitment and Engagement in Automated eHealth Trial Registration: Challenges and Opportunities for Recruiting Women Who Experience Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Christine; Rohan, Maheswaran; Sisk, Rose; Dobbs, Terry; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Wilson, Denise; Vandal, Alain C

    2016-01-01

    Background Automated eHealth Web-based research trials offer people an accessible, confidential opportunity to engage in research that matters to them. eHealth trials may be particularly useful for sensitive issues when seeking health care may be accompanied by shame and mistrust. Yet little is known about people’s early engagement with eHealth trials, from recruitment to preintervention autoregistration processes. A recent randomized controlled trial that tested the effectiveness of an eHealth safety decision aid for New Zealand women in the general population who experienced intimate partner violence (isafe) provided the opportunity to examine recruitment and preintervention participant engagement with a fully automated Web-based registration process. The trial aimed to recruit 340 women within 24 months. Objective The objective of our study was to examine participant preintervention engagement and recruitment efficiency for the isafe trial, and to analyze dropout through the registration pathway, from recruitment to eligibility screening and consent, to completion of baseline measures. Methods In this case study, data collection sources included the trial recruitment log, Google Analytics reports, registration and program metadata, and costs. Analysis included a qualitative narrative of the recruitment experience and descriptive statistics of preintervention participant engagement and dropout rates. A Koyck model investigated the relationship between Web-based online marketing website advertisements (ads) and participant accrual. Results The isafe trial was launched on September 17, 2012. Placement of ads in an online classified advertising platform increased the average number of recruited participants per month from 2 to 25. Over the 23-month recruitment period, the registration website recorded 4176 unique visitors. Among 1003 women meeting eligibility criteria, 51.55% (517) consented to participate; among the 501 women who enrolled (consented, validated

  5. What's wrong with John? a randomised controlled trial of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training with nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Sharyn; Crawford, Gemma; Hallett, Jonathan; Hunt, Kristen; Chih, Hui Jun; Tilley, P J Matt

    2017-03-23

    The prevalence of mental health problems have been found to be higher among university students compared to their non-student peers. Nursing students in particular face a range of additional stressors which may impact their undergraduate performance and their careers. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) aims to increase mental health literacy and to reduce stigma and may positively impact on the student population. This paper describes a MHFA randomised controlled trial targeting nursing students at a large Australian university. This study aimed to measure the impact of the MHFA course on mental health literacy, mental health first aid intentions, confidence in helping someone with a mental health problem and stigmatising attitudes including social distance. Participants were first year nursing students (n = 181) randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 92) or control (n = 89) group. Intervention group participants received the standardised MHFA course for nursing students. Online self-report questionnaires were completed at three time intervals: baseline (one week prior to the intervention: T 1 ) (n = 140), post intervention (T 2 ) (n = 120), and two months post intervention (T 3 ) (n = 109). Measures included demographics, mental health knowledge, recognition of depression, confidence in helping, mental health first aid intentions and stigmatising attitudes including social distance. Repeated measures ANOVA was computed to measure if the impact of time (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 ) and group (intervention and control) on the outcome variables. There was a significant improvement among intervention compared to control group participants across the three time periods for knowledge scores (p mental health first aid intentions (p mental health literacy and reduce stigmatising attitudes and social distance. While this course has particular salience for nursing and other health science students, there are broader benefits to the general university population that

  6. South Asian populations in Canada: migration and mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background South Asian populations are the largest visible minority group in Canada; however, there is very little information on the mental health of these populations. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of mental health outcomes for South Asian first-generation immigrant and second-generation Canadian-born populations. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2011 was used to calculate the estimated prevalence rates of the following mental health outcomes: mood disorders, anxiety disorders, fair-poor self-perceived mental health status, and extremely stressful life stress. The characteristics associated with these four mental health outcomes were determined through multivariate logistic regression analysis of merged CCHS 2007–2011 data. Results South Asian Canadian-born (3.5%, 95% CI 3.4-3.6%) and South Asian immigrant populations (3.5%, 95% CI 3.5-3.5%) did not vary significantly in estimated prevalence rates of mood disorders. However, South Asian immigrants experienced higher estimated prevalence rates of diagnosed anxiety disorders (3.4%, 95% CI 3.4-3.5 vs. 1.1%, 95% CI 1.1-1.1%) and self-reported extremely stressful life stress (2.6%, 95% CI 2.6-2.7% vs. 2.4%, 95% CI 2.3-2.4%) compared to their Canadian-born counterparts. Lastly, South Asian Canadian-born populations had a higher estimated prevalence rate of poor-fair self-perceived mental health status (4.4%, 95% CI 4.3-4.5%) compared to their immigrant counterparts (3.4%, 95% CI 3.3-3.4%). Different profiles of mental health determinants emerged for South Asian Canadian-born and immigrant populations. Female gender, having no children under the age of 12 in the household, food insecurity, poor-fair self-rated health status, being a current smoker, immigrating to Canada before adulthood, and taking the CCHS survey in either English or French was associated with greater risk of negative mental health outcomes for South Asian immigrant

  7. Group based prenatal care in a low-and high risk population in the Netherlands: a study protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zwicht, Birgit S; Crone, Matty R; van Lith, Jan M M; Rijnders, Marlies E B

    2016-11-15

    CenteringPregnancy (CP) is a multifaceted group based care-model integrated in routine prenatal care, combining health assessment, education, and support. CP has shown some positive results on perinatal outcomes. However, the effects are less obvious when limited to the results of randomized controlled trials: as there are few trials and there is a variation in reported outcomes. Furthermore, former research was mostly conducted in the United States of America and in specific (often high risk) populations. Our study aims to evaluate the effects of CP in the Netherlands in a general population of pregnant women (low and high risk). Furthermore we aim to explore the mechanisms leading to the eventual effects by measuring potential mediating factors. We will perform a stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial, in a Western region in the Netherlands. Inclusion criteria are care, women in the intervention period (starting at the randomized time-point) will be offered the choice between individual care or CP. Primary outcomes are maternal and neonatal morbidity, retrieved from a national routine database. Secondary outcomes are health behavior, psychosocial outcomes, satisfaction, health care utilization and process outcomes, collected through self-administered questionnaires, group-evaluations and individual interviews. We will conduct intention-to-treat analyses. Also a per protocol analysis will be performed comparing the three subgroups: control group, CP-participants and non-CP-participants, using multilevel techniques to account for clustering effects. This study contributes to the evidence regarding the effect of CP and gives a first indication of the effect and implementation of CP in both low and high-risk pregnancies in a high-income Western society other than the USA. Also, measuring factors that are hypothesized to mediate the effect of CP will enable to explain the mechanisms that lead to effects on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Dutch Trial

  8. MD Anderson's Population Health Approaches to Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxhall, Lewis; Moreno, Mark; Hawk, Ernest

    2018-02-01

    Texas's size and unique population demographics present challenges to addressing the state's cancer burden. The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center is one of 69 National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers across the United States. While these centers traditionally have focused on research, education and training, and providing research-driven patient care, they are in a unique position to collaboratively advance population health through cancer control. Unlike the traditional academic model of a three-legged stool representing research, education, and patient care, MD Anderson's mission includes a fourth leg that incorporates population health approaches. MD Anderson has leveraged state- and national-level data and freely available resources to develop population-health priorities and a set of evidence-based actions across policy, public and professional education, and community-based clinical service domains to address these priorities. Population health approaches complement dissemination and implementation research and treatment, and will be increasingly needed to address the growing cancer burden in Texas and the nation.

  9. Impact of a Population Health Management Intervention on Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Aisha; Berkowitz, Seth A; Ashburner, Jeffrey M; Chang, Yuchiao; Horn, Daniel M; O'Keefe, Sandra M; Atlas, Steven J

    2018-04-01

    decrease (p = 0.73 for LDL and p = 0.69 for BP). The population health management intervention did not decrease disparities. Further efforts should explicitly target improving both healthcare equity and quality. Clinical Trials #: NCT02812303 ( ClinicalTrials.gov ).

  10. A culturally adapted lifestyle intervention addressing a Middle Eastern immigrant population at risk of diabetes, the MEDIM (impact of Migration and Ethnicity on Diabetes In Malmö): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sanjib; Leijon, Matti; Gerdtham, Ulf; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Arvidsson, Daniel; Bennet, Louise

    2013-09-03

    Studies have shown that lifestyle interventions are effective in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk patients. However, research on the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions in high-risk immigrant populations with different cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds is scarce. The aim was to design a culturally adapted lifestyle intervention for an immigrant population and to evaluate its effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. In this randomized controlled trial, 308 participants (born in Iraq, living in Malmö, Sweden and at high risk of type 2 diabetes) will be allocated to either a culturally adapted intervention or a control group. The intervention will consist of 10 group counseling sessions focusing on diet, physical activity and behavioral change over 6 months, and the offer of exercise sessions. Cultural adaptation includes gender-specific exercise sessions, and counseling by a health coach community member. The control group will receive the information about healthy lifestyle habits provided by the primary health care center. The primary outcome is change in fasting glucose level. Secondary outcomes are changes in body mass index, insulin sensitivity, physical activity, food habits and health-related quality of life. Measurements will be taken at baseline, after 3 and 6 months. Data will be analyzed by the intention-to-treat approach. The cost-effectiveness during the trial period and over the longer term will be assessed by simulation modeling from patient, health care and societal perspectives. This study will provide a basis to measure the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention designed for immigrants from the Middle East in terms of improvement in glucose metabolism, and will also assess its cost-effectiveness. Results from this trial may help health care providers and policy makers to adapt and implement lifestyle interventions suitable for this population group that can be conducted in the community. ClinicalTrials

  11. Income inequality and population health in Islamic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, A; Mansouri, S; Moshavash, M

    2011-09-01

    To undertake a fresh examination of the relationship between income inequality and population health for a group of Islamic countries using recent information derived from data resource sites from the World Bank and Islamic countries. Cross-sectional data on different measures of income distribution (prosperity, health care, women's role and environment) and indicators of population health were used to illuminate this issue. The relationship between income inequality and population health for a group of Islamic countries was tested using recent information derived from data resource sites from the World Bank and Islamic countries. After consideration of previous studies, seven dependent variables were determined and tested in six equation formats. According to the equations, the urban population percentage and gross domestic product are the most important significant variables that affect life expectancy and the infant mortality rate in Islamic countries. The income distribution coefficient, regardless of the type of measure, was almost insignificant in all equations. In selected Islamic countries, income level has a positive effect on population health, but the level of income distribution is not significant. Among the other dependent variables (e.g. different measures of income distribution, health care, role of women and environment), only environment and education had significant effects. Most of the Islamic countries studied are considered to be poorly developed. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Protocol for the CHORD project (community health outreach to reduce diabetes): a cluster-randomized community health worker trial to prevent diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nadia; Gepts, Thomas; Lief, Isaac; Gore, Radhika; Levy, Natalie; Tanner, Michael; Fang, Yixin; Sherman, Scott E; Schwartz, Mark D

    2018-04-19

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) affects 9.4% of US adults and children, while another 33.9% of Americans are at risk of DM. Health care institutions face many barriers to systematically delivering the preventive care needed to decrease DM incidence. Community health workers (CHWs) may, as frontline public health workers bridging clinic and community, help overcome these challenges. This paper presents the protocol for a pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial integrating CHWs into two primary care clinics to support DM prevention for at-risk patients. The trial will randomize 15 care teams, stratified by practice site (Bellevue Hospital and Manhattan VA), totaling 56 primary care physicians. The study cohort will consist of ~ 2000 patients who are 18-75 years of age, actively enrolled in a primary care team, able to speak English or Spanish, and have at least one glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) result in the prediabetic range (5.7-6.4%) since 2012. Those with a current DM diagnosis or DM medication prescription (other than metformin) are ineligible. The intervention consists of four core activities - setting health goals, health education, activation for doctor's appointments, and referrals to DM prevention programs - adjustable according to the patient's needs and readiness. The primary outcome is DM incidence. Secondary outcomes include weight loss, HbA1C, and self-reported health behaviors. Clinical variables and health behaviors will be obtained through electronic medical records and surveys, respectively. Implementation outcomes, namely implementation fidelity and physicians' perspectives about CHW integration into the clinic, will be assessed using interviews and CHW activity logs and analyzed for the influence of moderating organizational factors. This is the first rigorous, pragmatic trial to test the effectiveness of integrating CHWs into primary care for DM prevention reaching a population-based sample. Our study's limitations include language

  13. Population-centered Risk- and Evidence-based Dental Interprofessional Care Team (PREDICT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Milgrom, Peter; Shirtcliff, R Michael; Bailit, Howard L; Huebner, Colleen E; Conrad, Douglas; Ludwig, Sharity; Mitchell, Melissa; Dysert, Jeanne; Allen, Gary; Scott, JoAnna; Mancl, Lloyd

    2015-06-20

    To improve the oral health of low-income children, innovations in dental delivery systems are needed, including community-based care, the use of expanded duty auxiliary dental personnel, capitation payments, and global budgets. This paper describes the protocol for PREDICT (Population-centered Risk- and Evidence-based Dental Interprofessional Care Team), an evaluation project to test the effectiveness of new delivery and payment systems for improving dental care and oral health. This is a parallel-group cluster randomized controlled trial. Fourteen rural Oregon counties with a publicly insured (Medicaid) population of 82,000 children (0 to 21 years old) and pregnant women served by a managed dental care organization are randomized into test and control counties. In the test intervention (PREDICT), allied dental personnel provide screening and preventive services in community settings and case managers serve as patient navigators to arrange referrals of children who need dentist services. The delivery system intervention is paired with a compensation system for high performance (pay-for-performance) with efficient performance monitoring. PREDICT focuses on the following: 1) identifying eligible children and gaining caregiver consent for services in community settings (for example, schools); 2) providing risk-based preventive and caries stabilization services efficiently at these settings; 3) providing curative care in dental clinics; and 4) incentivizing local delivery teams to meet performance benchmarks. In the control intervention, care is delivered in dental offices without performance incentives. The primary outcome is the prevalence of untreated dental caries. Other outcomes are related to process, structure and cost. Data are collected through patient and staff surveys, clinical examinations, and the review of health and administrative records. If effective, PREDICT is expected to substantially reduce disparities in dental care and oral health. PREDICT can be

  14. Mental health in war-affected populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses mental health problems in populations in nonwestern war-affected regions, and methods to mitigate these problems through interventions focusing on social reintegration. It describes a number of studies among war-affected populations in widely different areas: refugees from the

  15. Population Consultation: A Powerful Means to Ensure that Health Strategies are Oriented Towards Universal Health Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Katja; Rajan, Dheepa; Schmets, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    We seek to highlight why population consultations need to be promoted more strongly as a powerful means to move health reforms towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC). However, despite this increasing recognition that the "population" is the key factor of successful health planning and high-quality service delivery, there has been very little systematic reflection and only limited (international) attention brought to the idea of specifically consulting the population to improve the quality and soundness of health policies and strategies and to strengthen the national health planning process and implementation. So far, research has done little to assess the significance of population consultations for the health sector and its importance for strategic planning and implementation processes; in addition, there has been insufficient evaluation of population consultations in the health sector or health-related areas. We drew on ongoing programmatic work of World Health Organization (WHO) offices worldwide, as most population consultations are not well-documented. In addition, we analyzed any existing documentation available on population consultations in health. We then elaborate on the potential benefits of bringing the population's voice into national health planning. We briefly mention the key methods used for population consultations, and we put forward recent country examples showing that population consultation is an effective way of assessing the population's needs and expectations, and should be more widely used in strategizing health. Giving the voice to the population is a means to strengthen accountability, to reinforce the commitment of policy makers, decision-makers and influencers (media, political parties, academics, etc.) to the health policy objectives of UHC, and, in the specific case of donor-dependent countries, to sensitize donors' engagement and alignment with national health strategies. The consequence of the current low international interest for

  16. Cardiovascular health promotion in aging women: validating a population health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V; Naimark, Barbara J

    2005-01-01

    Although cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in North American women, most cardiovascular research has focused on men. In addition, while there has been a recent trend toward population health promotion (PHP) and a consequent focus on the broad determinants of health, there is still a dearth of research evidence related to the promotion of cardiovascular health within this context. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the interrelationships between the determinants of health and individual cardiovascular health/risk behaviors in healthy women, within the context of a framework for PHP. A comprehensive inventory of factors affecting the cardiovascular health of women was operationalized in a survey questionnaire, the Cardiovascular Health Promotion Profile. Physical measures were also taken on each participant (n = 206). The multivariate analyses support significant interrelationships between the population health determinants and multiple individual cardiovascular health/risk behaviors in this cohort (p PHP framework, is central to building on the body of knowledge in this area.

  17. Illegal gold miners in French Guiana: a neglected population with poor health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douine, Maylis; Mosnier, Emilie; Le Hingrat, Quentin; Charpentier, Charlotte; Corlin, Florine; Hureau, Louise; Adenis, Antoine; Lazrek, Yassamine; Niemetsky, Florence; Aucouturier, Anne-Laure; Demar, Magalie; Musset, Lise; Nacher, Mathieu

    2017-07-17

    status is precious for health policy planners in French Guiana given the importance of controlling communicable disease, and the severity and range of specific illnesses acquired by this neglected population. Clinical trial registration PRS N° NCT02903706 . Retrospectively registered 09/13/2016.

  18. Building research and evaluation capacity in population health: the NSW Health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Barry; Stickney, Beth; Milat, Andrew; Campbell, Danielle; Thackway, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Issue addressed An organisational culture that values and uses research and evaluation (R&E) evidence to inform policy and practice is fundamental to improving health outcomes. The 2016 NSW Government Program Evaluation Guidelines recommend investment in training and development to improve evaluation capacity. The purpose of this paper is to outline the approaches taken by the NSW Ministry of Health to develop R&E capacity and assess these against existing models of practice. Method The Ministry of Health's Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence (CEE) takes an evidence-based approach to building R&E capacity in population health. Strategies are informed by: the NSW Population Health Research Strategy, R&E communities of practice across the Ministry and health Pillar agencies and a review of the published evidence on evaluation capacity building (ECB). An internal survey is conducted biennially to monitor research activity within the Ministry's Population and Public Health Division. One representative from each of the six centres that make up the Division coordinates completion of the survey by relevant staff members for their centre. Results The review identified several ECB success factors including: implementing a tailored multifaceted approach; an organisational commitment to R&E; and offering experiential training and ongoing technical support to the workforce. The survey of research activity found that the Division funded a mix of research assets, research funding schemes, research centres and commissioned R&E projects. CEE provides technical advice and support services for staff involved in R&E and in 2015, 22 program evaluations were supported. R&E capacity building also includes a series of guides to assist policy makers, practitioners and researchers to commission, undertake and use policy-relevant R&E. Staff training includes workshops on critical appraisal, program logic and evaluation methods. From January 2013 to June 2014 divisional staff published 84

  19. Population health intervention research training: the value of public health internships and mentorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Anne-Marie; Paradis, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    Better alignment between academia and public health practice and policies are critical to improve public health actions. Training of future researchers to address complex issues and to conduct transdisciplinary and collaborative research will help improve this alignment. In this paper, we describe the role of internship placements and mentorship for trainees' skills development in population health intervention research and the benefits of embedding research trainees within public health organizations. This qualitative descriptive study assessed the perceptions of the role and benefits of internships and mentorship for population health intervention research training among former doctoral and postdoctoral students, public health mentors, and senior public health managers who participated in the 4P Program, a research training program which bridges academic training and the public health system in Quebec, Canada. Two types of interviews were conducted: telephone semi-structured interviews by an external evaluator and face-to-face trainee "exit" interviews by the Program co-director. Semi-annual evaluation reports from each trainee were also reviewed. Qualitative data were subjected to a thematic analysis. Internships provided trainees with a working knowledge of the public health system and the context in which decisions and public health interventions are implemented. It was an opportunity for trainees to interact with knowledge-user partners and assess the gap between research and practice. Effective mentorship was key to help trainees interpret the public health reality and develop population health intervention research skills. Trainees learned to ask the "how" questions that are critical for in-depth understanding of complex interventions and the conditions under which they can be best implemented. Conditions of success of internships and mentorship for population health intervention research included the alignment of the interests between the trainee, the

  20. Using Population Dose to Evaluate Community-level Health Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, Lisa T; Kuo, Elena S; Cheadle, Allen; Rauzon, Suzanne; Schwartz, Pamela M; Parnell, Barbara; Kelly, Cheryl; Solomon, Loel

    2018-05-01

    Successful community-level health initiatives require implementing an effective portfolio of strategies and understanding their impact on population health. These factors are complicated by the heterogeneity of overlapping multicomponent strategies and availability of population-level data that align with the initiatives. To address these complexities, the population dose methodology was developed for planning and evaluating multicomponent community initiatives. Building on the population dose methodology previously developed, this paper operationalizes dose estimates of one initiative targeting youth physical activity as part of the Kaiser Permanente Community Health Initiative, a multicomponent community-level obesity prevention initiative. The technical details needed to operationalize the population dose method are explained, and the use of population dose as an interim proxy for population-level survey data is introduced. The alignment of the estimated impact from strategy-level data analysis using the dose methodology and the data from the population-level survey suggest that dose is useful for conducting real-time evaluation of multiple heterogeneous strategies, and as a viable proxy for existing population-level surveys when robust strategy-level evaluation data are collected. This article is part of a supplement entitled Building Thriving Communities Through Comprehensive Community Health Initiatives, which is sponsored by Kaiser Permanente, Community Health. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Are women who work in bars, guesthouses and similar facilities a suitable study population for vaginal microbicide trials in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Vallely

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A feasibility study was conducted to investigate whether an occupational at-risk cohort of women in Mwanza, Tanzania are a suitable study population for future phase III vaginal microbicide trials.1573 women aged 16-54 y working in traditional and modern bars, restaurants, hotels, guesthouses or as local food-handlers were enrolled at community-based reproductive health clinics, provided specimens for HIV/STI and pregnancy testing, and asked to attend three-monthly clinical follow-up visits for 12-months. HIV positive and negative women were eligible to enter the feasibility study and to receive free reproductive health services at any time. HIV prevalence at baseline was 26.5% (417/1573. HIV incidence among 1156 sero-negative women attending at baseline was 2.9/100PYs. Among 1020 HIV sero-negative, non-pregnant women, HIV incidence was 2.0/100PYs, HSV-2 incidence 12.7/100PYs and pregnancy rate 17.8/100PYs. Retention at three-months was 76.3% (778/1020. Among 771 HIV sero-negative, non-pregnant women attending at three-months, subsequent follow-up at 6, 9 and 12-months was 83.7%, 79.6%, and 72.1% respectively. Older women, those who had not moved home or changed their place of work in the last year, and women working in traditional bars or as local food handlers had the highest re-attendance.Women working in food outlets and recreational facilities in Tanzania and other parts of Africa may be a suitable study population for microbicide and other HIV prevention trials. Effective locally-appropriate strategies to address high pregnancy rates and early losses to follow-up are essential to minimise risk to clinical trials in these settings.

  2. A new axiomatic approach to the evaluation of population health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the implications of normative principles for the evaluation of population health. We formalize those principles as axioms for social preferences over distributions of health for a given population. We single out several focal population health evaluation functions, which...

  3. The Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Cohort: design, population and dental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Karen M; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Jensen, Allan Bardow

    2011-01-01

    Gerodontology 2010; doi: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2010.00383.x The Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Cohort: design, population and dental health Background: In order to study the way old age influence oral health, the Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Cohort (COHS) has been established. Objectives: To describe...

  4. Targeting Environmental Quality to Improve Population Health ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key goals of health care reform are to stimulate innovative approaches to improve healthcare quality and clinical outcomes while holding down costs. To achieve these goals value-based payment places the needs of the patient first and encourages multi-stakeholder cooperation. Yet, the stakeholders are typically all within the healthcare system, e.g. the Accountable Care Organization or Patient-Centered Medical Home, leaving important contributors to the health of the population such as the public health and environmental health systems absent. And rarely is the quality of the environment regarded as a modifiable factor capable of imparting a health benefit. Underscoring this point, a PubMed search of the search terms “environmental quality” with “value-based payment”, “value-based healthcare” or “value-based reimbursement” returned no relevant articles, providing further evidence that the healthcare industry largely disregards the quality of the environment as a significant determinant of wellbeing and an actionable risk factor for clinical disease management and population health intervention. Yet, the quality of the environment is unequivocally related to indicators of population health including all-cause mortality. The EPA’s Environmental Quality Index (EQI) composed of five different domains (air, land use, water, built environment and social) has provided new estimates of the associations between environmental quality and health stat

  5. The maturation of randomised controlled trials in mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aims of this paper are: (i) to give an overview of the use and maturation of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in mental health services research, (ii) to indicate areas in which mental health may present particular challenges, and (iii) to outline necessary steps to strengthen the capacity to conduct better quality ...

  6. A cluster-randomised clinical trial comparing two cardiovascular health education strategies in a child population: the Savinghearts project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Gómez Luis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes a methodology for comparing the effects of an eduentertainment strategy involving a music concert, and a participatory class experience involving the description and making of a healthy breakfast, as educational vehicles for delivering obesity-preventing/cardiovascular health messages to children aged 7–8 years. Methods/design This study will involve a cluster-randomised trial with blinded assessment. The study subjects will be children aged 7–8 years of both sexes attending public primary schools in the Madrid Region. The participating schools (n=30 will be randomly assigned to one of two groups: 1 Group MC, in which the children will attend a music concert that delivers obesity-preventing/cardiovascular health messages, or 2 Group HB, in which the children will attend a participatory class providing the same information but involving the description and making of a healthy breakfast. The main outcome measured will be the increase in the number of correct answers scored on a knowledge questionnaire and in an attitudes test administered before and after the above interventions. The secondary outcome recorded will be the reduction in BMI percentile among children deemed overweight/obese prior to the interventions. The required sample size (number of children was calculated for a comparison of proportions with an α of 0.05 and a β of 0.20, assuming that the Group MC subjects would show values for the measured variables at least 10% higher than those recorded for the subjects of Group HB. Corrections were made for the design effect and assuming a loss to follow-up of 10%. The maximum sample size required will be 2107 children. Data will be analysed using summary measurements for each cluster, both for making estimates and for hypothesis testing. All analyses will be made on an intention-to-treat basis. Discussion The intervention providing the best results could be recommended as part of health

  7. Health informatics to improve the health of homeless and marginalised populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Wurie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marginalised populations experience extremes of poor health due to a combination of poverty, social exclusion, addiction and multi-morbidity. Homeless people (one exemplar group have a broad range of health problems and difficulties accessing services. Specialist services to support the coordination of homeless health care have been established. The use of electronic health records provides an opportunity to evaluate the success of these services and understand the needs of the populations better but there are important privacy issues which require engagement with patients and relevant services to explore views about use of data and information sharing. A specific example of an important health problem in homeless people is tuberculosis (TB. Because of the documented high levels of poor adherence to treatment, directly observed therapy (DOT whereby each dose of treatment is observed by a healthcare professional, is recommended for homeless people and others in whom poor adherence is a concern. Advances in information and communication technology have enabled us to make use of Video Observed Therapy (VOT on smartphones and is currently being evaluated in a NIHR-funded randomised controlled trial (RCT in London, UK. The technology also has the potential to support the management of other conditions such as Hepatitis C in homeless populations. There is a paucity of evidence on the application of behavioural interventions like VOT to marginalised groups to understand what the critical drivers might be to support medication adherence in unsupported homeless populations. For this reason there is a need to understand patients’ and healthcare professionals’ views; firstly to explore the array of practical and ethical aspects of health informatics use but also to understand their contribution and relevance to homeless and marginalised groups to support implementation. AIM: to explore patients’ and healthcare professionals’ views of

  8. Fortification of staple foods with zinc for improving zinc status and other health outcomes in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dheeraj; Sachdev, Harshpal S; Gera, Tarun; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2016-06-09

    Zinc deficiency is a global nutritional problem, particularly in children and women residing in settings where diets are cereal based and monotonous. It has several negative health consequences. Fortification of staple foods with zinc may be an effective strategy for preventing zinc deficiency and improving zinc-related health outcomes. To evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of fortification of staple foods with zinc on health-related outcomes and biomarkers of zinc status in the general population. We searched the following databases in April 2015: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 3 of 12, 2015, the Cochrane Library), MEDLINE & MEDLINE In Process (OVID) (1950 to 8 April 2015), EMBASE (OVID) (1974 to 8 April 2015), CINAHL (1982 to April 2015), Web of Science (1900 to 9 April 2015), BIOSIS (1969 to 9 April 2015), POPLINE (1970 to April 2015), AGRICOLA, OpenGrey, BiblioMap, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI), besides regional databases (April 2015) and theses. We also searched clinical trial registries (17 March 2015) and contacted relevant organisations (May 2014) in order to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. We included randomised controlled trials, randomised either at the level of the individual or cluster. We also included non-randomised trials at the level of the individual if there was a concurrent comparison group. We included non-randomised cluster trials and controlled before-after studies only if there were at least two intervention sites and two control sites. Interventions included fortification (central/industrial) of staple foods (cereal flours, edible fats, sugar, condiments, seasonings, milk and beverages) with zinc for a minimum period of two weeks. Participants were members of the general population who were over two years of age (including pregnant and lactating women) from any country. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion

  9. Evaluation of cluster-randomized trials on maternal and child health research in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Sen, Pranab Kumar

    2009-01-01

    To summarize and evaluate all publications including cluster-randomized trials used for maternal and child health research in developing countries during the last 10 years. METHODS: All cluster-randomized trials published between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed, and those that met our criteria...... for inclusion were evaluated further. The criteria for inclusion were that the trial should have been conducted in maternal and child health care in a developing country and that the conclusions should have been made on an individual level. Methods of accounting for clustering in design and analysis were......, and the trials generally improved in quality. CONCLUSIONS: Shortcomings exist in the sample-size calculations and in the analysis of cluster-randomized trials conducted during maternal and child health research in developing countries. Even though there has been improvement over time, further progress in the way...

  10. Difference in Health Inequity between Two Population Groups due to a Social Determinant of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Bouye, Karen; Penman-Aguilar, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization defines social determinants of health as “complex, integrated, and overlapping social structures and economic systems” that are responsible for most health inequities. Similar to the individual-level risk factors such as behavioral and biological risk factors that influence disease, we consider social determinants of health such as the distribution of income, wealth, influence and power as risk factors for risk of disease. We operationally define health inequity in a disease within a population due to a risk factor that is unfair and avoidable as the difference between the disease outcome with and without the risk factor in the population. We derive expressions for difference in health inequity between two populations due to a risk factor that is unfair and avoidable for a given disease. The difference in heath inequity between two population groups due to a risk factor increases with increasing difference in relative risks and the difference in prevalence of the risk factor in the two populations. The difference in health inequity could be larger than the difference in health outcomes between the two populations in some situations. Compared to health disparities which are typically measured and monitored using absolute or relative disparities of health outcomes, the methods presented in this manuscript provide a different, yet complementary, picture because they parse out the contributions of unfair and avoidable risk factors. PMID:25522048

  11. Self-reported oral health of a metropolitan homeless population in Australia: comparisons with population-level data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E J; Jamieson, L M; Steffens, M A; Cathro, P; Logan, R M

    2011-09-01

    There is limited information on self-perceived oral health of homeless populations. This study quantified self-reported oral health among a metropolitan homeless adult population and compared against a representative sample of the metropolitan adult population obtained from the National Survey of Adult Oral Health. A total of 248 homeless participants (age range 17-78 years, 79% male) completed a self-report questionnaire. Data for an age-matched, representative sample of metropolitan-dwelling adults were obtained from Australia's second National Survey of Adult Oral Health. Percentage responses and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, with non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals used to identify statistically significant differences between the two groups. Homeless adults reported poorer oral health than their age-matched general population counterparts. Twice as many homeless adults reported visiting a dentist more than a year ago and that their usual reason for dental attendance was for a dental problem. The proportion of homeless adults with a perceived need for fillings or extractions was also twice that of their age-matched general population counterparts. Three times as many homeless adults rated their oral health as 'fair' or 'poor'. A significantly greater proportion of homeless adults in an Australian metropolitan location reported poorer oral health compared with the general metropolitan adult population. © 2011 Australian Dental Association.

  12. Using a tailored health information technology- driven intervention to improve health literacy and medication adherence in a Pakistani population with vascular disease (Talking Rx) - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ayeesha Kamran; Muqeet, Abdul; Farhat, Kashfa; Khalid, Wardah; Jamil, Anum; Gowani, Ambreen; Muhammad, Aliya Amin; Zaidi, Fabiha; Khan, Danyal; Elahi, Touseef; Sharif, Shahrukh; Raz, Sibtain; Zafar, Taha; Bokhari, Syedah Saira; Rahman, Nasir; Sultan, Fateh Ali Tipoo; Sayani, Saleem; Virani, Salim S

    2016-03-05

    the intervention and the control arm. We estimate that a sample size of 86 participants in each arm will be able to detect a difference of 1 point on the MMAS with a power of 90 % and significance level of 5 %. Accounting for an attrition rate of 15 %, we plan to enroll 100 participants in each arm (total study population = 200). We hypothesize that a linguistically tailored health IT intervention based on IVR and SMS will be associated with an improvement in adherence (to anti-platelet and lipid-lowering medications) and an improvement in health literacy in Pakistani patients with vascular disease. This innovative study will provide early data for the feasibility of the use of IT based prescriptions in an lower middle incorme country setting with limited numeracy and literacy skills. Clinical Trials.gov: NCT02354040 - 2 February 2015.

  13. Exploiting social influence to magnify population-level behaviour change in maternal and child health: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of network targeting algorithms in rural Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Holly B; Stafford, Derek; Hughes, D Alex; Keegan, Thomas; Negron, Rennie; Broome, Jai; McKnight, Mark; Nicoll, Liza; Nelson, Jennifer; Iriarte, Emma; Ordonez, Maria; Airoldi, Edo; Fowler, James H; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2017-03-13

    Despite global progress on many measures of child health, rates of neonatal mortality remain high in the developing world. Evidence suggests that substantial improvements can be achieved with simple, low-cost interventions within family and community settings, particularly those designed to change knowledge and behaviour at the community level. Using social network analysis to identify structurally influential community members and then targeting them for intervention shows promise for the implementation of sustainable community-wide behaviour change. We will use a detailed understanding of social network structure and function to identify novel ways of targeting influential individuals to foster cascades of behavioural change at a population level. Our work will involve experimental and observational analyses. We will map face-to-face social networks of 30 000 people in 176 villages in Western Honduras, and then conduct a randomised controlled trial of a friendship-based network-targeting algorithm with a set of well-established care interventions. We will also test whether the proportion of the population targeted affects the degree to which the intervention spreads throughout the network. We will test scalable methods of network targeting that would not, in the future, require the actual mapping of social networks but would still offer the prospect of rapidly identifying influential targets for public health interventions. The Yale IRB and the Honduran Ministry of Health approved all data collection procedures (Protocol number 1506016012) and all participants will provide informed consent before enrolment. We will publish our findings in peer-reviewed journals as well as engage non-governmental organisations and other actors through venues for exchanging practical methods for behavioural health interventions, such as global health conferences. We will also develop a 'toolkit' for practitioners to use in network-based intervention efforts, including public

  14. Evaluation of community level interventions to address social and structural determinants of health: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draper Alizon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In London and the rest of the UK, diseases associated with poor diet, inadequate physical activity and mental illness account for a large proportion of area based health inequality. There is a lack of evidence on interventions promoting healthier behaviours especially in marginalised populations, at a structural or ecological level and utilising a community development approach. The Well London project financed by the Big Lottery 'Wellbeing' Fund and implemented by a consortium of London based agencies led by the Greater London Authority and the London Health Commission is implementing a set of complex interventions across 20 deprived areas of London. The interventions focus on healthy eating, healthy physical activity and mental health and wellbeing and are designed and executed with community participation complementing existing facilities and services. Methods/Design The programme will be evaluated through a cluster randomised controlled trial. Forty areas across London were chosen based on deprivation scores. Areas were characterised by high proportion of Black and Minority Ethnic residents, worklessness, ill-health and poor physical environments. Twenty areas were randomly assigned to the intervention arm of Well London project and twenty 'matched' areas assigned as controls. Measures of physical activity, diet and mental health are collected at start and end of the project and compared to assess impact. The quantitative element will be complemented by a longitudinal qualitative study elucidating pathways of influence between intervention activities and health outcomes. A related element of the study investigates the health-related aspects of the structural and ecological characteristics of the project areas. The project 'process' will also be evaluated. Discussion The size of the project and the fact that the interventions are 'complex' in the sense that firstly, there are a number of interacting components with a wide

  15. The effectiveness of a health promotion with group intervention by clinical trial. Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campo Osaba Maria-Antonia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The promotion of health and the interventions in community health continue to be one of the pending subjects of our health system. The most prevalent health problems (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes... are for the most part related to life habits. We propose a holistic and integral approach as the best option for tackling behavior and its determinants. The research team has elaborated the necessary educational material to realize group teaching, which we call "Health Workshops". The goal of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of these Health Workshops in the following terms: Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL, incorporate and maintain a balanced diet, do physical activity regularly, maintain risk factors such as tension, weight, cholesterol within normal limits and diminish cardiovascular risk. Methods/Design Controlled and random clinical testing, comparing a group of persons who have participated in the Health Workshops with a control group of similar characteristics who have not participated in the Health Workshops. Field of study: the research is being done in Health Centers of the city of Barcelona, Spain. Population studied: The group is composed of 108 persons that are actually doing the Health Workshops, and 108 that are not and form the control group. They are assigned at random to one group or the other. Data Analysis: With Student's t-distribution test to compare the differences between numerical variables or their non parametric equivalent if the variable does not comply with the criteria of normality. (Kolmogorov-Smirnof test. Chi-square test to compare the differences between categorical variables and the Logistic Regression Model to analyze different meaningful variables by dichotomous analysis related to the intervention. Discussion The Health Workshop proposed in the present study constitutes an innovative approach in health promotion, placing the emphasis on the person's self

  16. Mental Health and the Transgender Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Tamar C; Erickson-Schroth, Laura

    2016-12-01

    Although research into the physical and mental health disparities faced by transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) populations is becoming more popular, historically it has been limited. It is now recognized that TGNC people experience disproportionate rates of negative mental health outcomes relative to both their gender-normative, heterosexual peers, as well as their gender-normative lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) peers. The theoretical basis of current transgender mental health research is rooted in the Minority Stress Model, which postulates that we live in a hetero-centric, gender-normative society that stigmatizes and discriminates against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, subjecting them to chronic stress (Hendricks & Testa, 2012; Meyer, 1995). This chronic, potentially compounding stress, is responsible for the increased risk of negative mental health outcomes in LGBT populations. TGNC people, in particular, may experience more adverse outcomes than their LGB peers due to rejection and discrimination within society at large as well as within the LGB community. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(12), 44-48.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. An economic assessment of population health risk in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Vladimirovna Zaytseva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method of economic assessment of population health risk as a tool of life qualitymanagement and qualityof labor resources in the region (as factors of a region’s economic security. The technique is based on the cost of reducing the period of disability in the implementation of population health risk and takes into account the effects of risk prevention on levels of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation. The method intends to support making decisions on planning measures to reduce population health risk at the level of regions, territories and separate objects to assess their cost-performance, optimization of investment and operating costs to reduce the population health risk and sustainable development of the territory

  18. Experts' Perspectives Toward a Population Health Approach for Children With Medical Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Coller, Ryan J; Nelson, Bergen B; Thompson, Lindsey R; Chan, Vincent; Padilla, Cesar; Klitzner, Thomas S; Szilagyi, Moira; Chung, Paul J

    2017-08-01

    Because children with medical complexity (CMC) display very different health trajectories, needs, and resource utilization than other children, it is unclear how well traditional conceptions of population health apply to CMC. We sought to identify key health outcome domains for CMC as a step toward determining core health metrics for this distinct population of children. We conducted and analyzed interviews with 23 diverse national experts on CMC to better understand population health for CMC. Interviewees included child and family advocates, health and social service providers, and research, health systems, and policy leaders. We performed thematic content analyses to identify emergent themes regarding population health for CMC. Overall, interviewees conveyed that defining and measuring population health for CMC is an achievable, worthwhile goal. Qualitative themes from interviews included: 1) CMC share unifying characteristics that could serve as the basis for population health outcomes; 2) optimal health for CMC is child specific and dynamic; 3) health of CMC is intertwined with health of families; 4) social determinants of health are especially important for CMC; and 5) measuring population health for CMC faces serious conceptual and logistical challenges. Experts have taken initial steps in defining the population health of CMC. Population health for CMC involves a dynamic concept of health that is attuned to individual, health-related goals for each child. We propose a framework that can guide the identification and development of population health metrics for CMC. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Stigma as a Fundamental Cause of Population Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Jo C.

    2013-01-01

    Bodies of research pertaining to specific stigmatized statuses have typically developed in separate domains and have focused on single outcomes at 1 level of analysis, thereby obscuring the full significance of stigma as a fundamental driver of population health. Here we provide illustrative evidence on the health consequences of stigma and present a conceptual framework describing the psychological and structural pathways through which stigma influences health. Because of its pervasiveness, its disruption of multiple life domains (e.g., resources, social relationships, and coping behaviors), and its corrosive impact on the health of populations, stigma should be considered alongside the other major organizing concepts for research on social determinants of population health. PMID:23488505

  20. Population Health Science: A Core Element of Health Science Education in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Robert A; Engmann, Natalie J; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Amarsi, Yasmin; Macharia, William M; Macfarlane, Sarah B; Ngugi, Anthony K; Rabbani, Fauziah; Walraven, Gijs; Armstrong, Robert W

    2017-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa suffers an inordinate burden of disease and does not have the numbers of suitably trained health care workers to address this challenge. New concepts in health sciences education are needed to offer alternatives to current training approaches.A perspective of integrated training in population health for undergraduate medical and nursing education is advanced, rather than continuing to take separate approaches for clinical and public health education. Population health science educates students in the social and environmental origins of disease, thus complementing disease-specific training and providing opportunities for learners to take the perspective of the community as a critical part of their education.Many of the recent initiatives in health science education in sub-Saharan Africa are reviewed, and two case studies of innovative change in undergraduate medical education are presented that begin to incorporate such population health thinking. The focus is on East Africa, one of the most rapidly growing economies in sub-Saharan Africa where opportunities for change in health science education are opening. The authors conclude that a focus on population health is a timely and effective way for enhancing training of health care professionals to reduce the burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. Development of an online clinical trial recruitment portal for the NIHR mental health BRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In order to test whether or not new treatments for mental health disorders help patients get better according to clinician/patient selected criteria, it is often necessary to test them on patients under safe, carefully monitored conditions called clinical trials. It is necessary to find enough patients to take part in a clinical trial so that the results of the trial are reliable. The NIHR Mental Health BRC (here after abbreviated to BRC) is a centre for research in London which seeks to find out better ways to treat patients with mental health difficulties. The BRC has experienced problems trying to find sufficient numbers of patients to participate in its clinical trials as it appears that insufficient patients were being told by their doctor about opportunities to participate in clinical research. In order to help the BRC find enough patients to volunteer to take part in its clinical trials, the author (a patient representative) of this article and a clinical researcher in the nearby Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience (IoPPN) decided to work together to try to find the best way to let patients know more about what clinical trials are, what it is like to take part in them and which clinical trials are seeking patients to take part. The author and researcher used a report by the Association of Medical Research Charities (AMRC) on patient difficulties in finding clinical trials to take part in, and the recommendations it made, to guide them in building a website to give such patients the information on clinical trials they wanted (including clinical trials run by the BRC). The author and researcher also asked patients, carers, staff at the IoPPN and BRC what they thought of the website and how to make it better. They used the ideas, suggestions and criticisms to improve the website. The author and researcher also asked mental health charities and research organisations if they would advertise the final version of this website on their own websites

  2. Silence is deadly: a cluster-randomised controlled trial of a mental health help-seeking intervention for young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L. Calear

    2017-10-01

    adolescent males, which is currently only delivered in one jurisdiction, could be more widely delivered in Australian high schools. The Silence is Deadly program has the potential to significantly contribute to the mental health of young men in Australia by improving help-seeking for suicidality and mental health problems, allowing this population to better access treatment and support sooner. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12617000658314 . Registered on 8 May 2017.

  3. A mismatch between population health literacy and the complexity of health information: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Gillian; Protheroe, Joanne; Winkley, John; Richardson, Marty; Seed, Paul T; Rudd, Rima

    2015-06-01

    Low health literacy is associated with poorer health and higher mortality. Complex health materials are a barrier to health. To assess the literacy and numeracy skills required to understand and use commonly used English health information materials, and to describe population skills in relation to these. An English observational study comparing health materials with national working-age population skills. Health materials were sampled using a health literacy framework. Competency thresholds to understand and use the materials were identified. The proportion of the population above and below these thresholds, and the sociodemographic variables associated with a greater risk of being below the thresholds, were described. Sixty-four health materials were sampled. Two competency thresholds were identified: text (literacy) only, and text + numeracy; 2515/5795 participants (43%) were below the text-only threshold, while 2905/4767 (61%) were below the text + numeracy threshold. Univariable analyses of social determinants of health showed that those groups more at risk of socioeconomic deprivation had higher odds of being below the health literacy competency threshold than those at lower risk of deprivation. Multivariable analysis resulted in some variables becoming non-significant or reduced in effect. Levels of low health literacy mirror those found in other industrialised countries, with a mismatch between the complexity of health materials and the skills of the English adult working-age population. Those most in need of health information have the least access to it. Efficacious strategies are building population skills, improving health professionals' communication, and improving written health information. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  4. Primary care and public health: exploring integration to improve population health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Integrating Primary Care and Public Health; Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Institute of Medicine

    ...; and the provision of timely, effective, and coordinated health care. Achieving substantial and lasting improvements in population health will require a concerted effort from all these entities, aligned with a common goal...

  5. Disseminating results to clinical trial participants: a qualitative review of patient understanding in a post-trial population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, Julie Lorraine; Price, Hermione Clare

    2012-01-01

    To identify the most appropriate format for results dissemination to maximise understanding of trial results. Qualitative. Of the original 58 4-T trial centres, 34 agreed to take part in this ancillary research. All participants from these centres were eligible. All 343 participants were sent questionnaires. The low response rate meant that we were unable to make any firm conclusions about the patients' preferred method of dissemination; however, we were able to comment on the level of understanding demonstrated by the trial participants. All 40 (12%) returned questionnaires were received from 15 centres. We received no questionnaires from over half of the centres. The questionnaires which were returned demonstrated broad satisfaction with the results letter, general enthusiasm for the trial and a variable level of understanding of the results; however, there was a high proportion of responders who were not clear on why the research was undertaken or what the results meant. The low response rate may be related to delays during the trial set-up process suggesting that interest in a study quickly wanes for both patients and centres. From this we deduce that rapid dissemination of results is needed if it is to have any impact at all. The responders are likely to reflect a biased cohort who were both enthusiastic about the research and who had a good experience during their 3 years in the 4-T trial. It is perhaps not surprising therefore that the overview is positive. That this population was still not fully informed about the purpose of the research would seem to confirm a low level of understanding among the general public which we suggest should be addressed during the consent process.

  6. Health selection into neighborhoods among patients enrolled in a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana C. Arcaya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Health selection into neighborhoods may contribute to geographic health disparities. We demonstrate the potential for clinical trial data to help clarify the causal role of health on locational attainment. We used data from the 20-year United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS to explore whether random assignment to intensive blood-glucose control therapy, which improved long-term health outcomes after median 10 years follow-up, subsequently affected what neighborhoods patients lived in. We extracted postcode-level deprivation indices for the 2710 surviving participants of UKPDS living in England at study end in 1996/1997. We observed small neighborhood advantages in the intensive versus conventional therapy group, although these differences were not statistically significant. This analysis failed to show conclusive evidence of health selection into neighborhoods, but data suggest the hypothesis may be worthy of exploration in other clinical trials or in a meta-analysis. Keywords: Neighborhoods, Self-selection, Health, Equity, Socioeconomic status

  7. Population Health Trial for Smokeless Tobacco Cessation With Military Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Severson, Herbert

    2003-01-01

    ... (chewing tobacco and snuff) has not been a focus of medical services or research, Epidemiological data suggest that while smoking has continued to decline both in the general population and within the military, the use...

  8. Effect on attendance by including focused information on spirometry in preventive health checks: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Løkke, Anders; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2016-12-01

    Early detection of lung diseases can help to reduce their severity. Lung diseases are among the most frequently occurring and serious diseases worldwide; nonetheless, many patients remain undiagnosed. Preventive health checks including spirometry can detect lung diseases at early stages; however, recruitment for health checks remains a challenge, and little is known about what motivates the attendance. The aim of the study is to examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation compared to general information will impact the attendance rate in preventive health checks. This randomized, controlled trial tests the effect of information on spirometry embedded in the Check your Health Preventive Program (CHPP). The CHPP is an open-label, household cluster-randomized, controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30- to -49-year-olds in a Danish municipality from 2012 to 2017 (n = 26,216). During 2015-2016, 4356 citizens aged 30-49 years will be randomized into two groups. The intervention group receives an invitation which highlights the value and contents of spirometry as part of a health check and information about lung diseases. The comparison group receives a standard invitation containing practical information and specifies the contents of the general health check. Outcomes are (1) differences in attendance rates measured by the proportion of citizens attending each of the two study groups and (2) proportion of persons at risk defined by smoking status and self-reported lung symptoms in the study groups. The proportion of participants with abnormal spirometry assessed at the preventive health check will be compared between the two study groups. The results from the present study will inform future recruitment strategies to health checks. The developed material on content, value, and information about lung disease is feasible and transferable to other populations, making it easy to implement if effective. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT

  9. The Use of Telemedicine and Mobile Technology to Promote Population Health and Population Management for Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Carolyn; Fortney, John

    2017-10-16

    This article discusses recent applications in telemedicine to promote the goals of population health and population management for people suffering psychiatric disorders. The use of telemedicine to promote collaborative care, self-monitoring and chronic disease management, and population screening has demonstrated broad applicability and effectiveness. Collaborative care using videoconferencing to facilitate mental health specialty consults has demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of depression, PTSD, and also ADHD in pediatric populations. Mobile health is currently being harnessed to monitor patient symptom trajectories with the goal of using machine learning algorithms to predict illness relapse. Patient portals serve as a bridge between patients and providers. They provide an electronically secure shared space for providers and patients to collaborate and optimize care. To date, research has supported the effectiveness of telemedicine in promoting population health. Future endeavors should focus on developing the most effective clinical protocols for using these technologies to ensure long-term use and maximum effectiveness in reducing population burden of mental health.

  10. Dissemination research: the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Patrick L; Moberg, D Paul; Booske, Bridget C; Ceraso, Marion; Friedsam, Donna; Kindig, David A

    2009-08-01

    Despite significant accomplishments in basic, clinical, and population health research, a wide gap persists between research discoveries (ie, what we know) and actual practice (ie, what we do). The University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute (Institute) researchers study the process and outcomes of disseminating evidence-based public health programs and policies into practice. This paper briefly describes the approach and experience of the Institute's programs in population health assessment, health policy, program evaluation, and education and training. An essential component of this dissemination research program is the active engagement of the practitioners and policymakers. Each of the Institute's programs conducts data collection, analysis, education, and dialogue with practitioners that is closely tied to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of programs and policies. Our approach involves a reciprocal exchange of knowledge with non-academic partners, such that research informs practice and practice informs research. Dissemination research serves an important role along the continuum of research and is increasingly recognized as an important way to improve population health by accelerating the translation of research into practice.

  11. The Mental Vitality @ Work study: design of a randomized controlled trial on the effect of a workers' health surveillance mental module for nurses and allied health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Frank JH

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Employees in health care service are at high risk for developing mental health complaints. The effects of mental health complaints on work can have serious consequences for the quality of care provided by these workers. To help health service workers remain healthy and productive, preventive actions are necessary. A Workers' Health Surveillance (WHS mental module may be an effective strategy to monitor and promote good (mental health and work performance. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a three arm cluster randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a WHS mental module for nurses and allied health professionals. Two strategies for this WHS mental module will be compared along with data from a control group. Additionally, the cost effectiveness of the approaches will be evaluated from a societal perspective. Methods The study is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial consisting of three arms (two intervention groups, 1 control group with randomization at ward level. The study population consists of 86 departments in one Dutch academic medical center with a total of 1731 nurses and allied health professionals. At baseline, after three months and after six months of follow-up, outcomes will be assessed by online questionnaires. In both intervention arms, participants will complete a screening to detect problems in mental health and work functioning and receive feedback on their screening results. In cases of impairments in mental health or work functioning in the first intervention arm, a consultation with an occupational physician will be offered. The second intervention arm offers a choice of self-help e-mental health interventions, which will be tailored based on each individual's mental health state and work functioning. The primary outcomes will be help-seeking behavior and work functioning. Secondary outcomes will be mental health and wellbeing. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness in

  12. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santric-Milicevic, Milena; Jankovic, Janko; Trajkovic, Goran; Terzic-Supic, Zorica; Babic, Uros; Petrovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. To explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Cross-sectional study. This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households - 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index). The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at pinequalities contributed by differences in age, education, employment, marriage and the wealth status of the adult population.

  13. How institutional forces, ideas and actors shaped population health planning in Australian regional primary health care organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanparast, Sara; Freeman, Toby; Baum, Fran; Labonté, Ronald; Ziersch, Anna; Mackean, Tamara; Reed, Richard; Sanders, David

    2018-03-20

    Worldwide, there are competing norms driving health system changes and reorganisation. One such norm is that of health systems' responsibilities for population health as distinct from a focus on clinical services. In this paper we report on a case study of population health planning in Australian primary health care (PHC) organisations (Medicare Locals, 2011-2015). Drawing on institutional theory, we describe how institutional forces, ideas and actors shaped such planning. We reviewed the planning documents of the 61 Medicare Locals and rated population health activities in each Medicare Local. We also conducted an online survey and 50 interviews with Medicare Local senior staff, and an interview and focus group with Federal Department of Health staff. Despite policy emphasis on population health, Medicare Locals reported higher levels of effort and capacity in providing clinical services. Health promotion and social determinants of health activities were undertaken on an ad hoc basis. Regulatory conditions imposed by the federal government including funding priorities and time schedules, were the predominant forces constraining population health planning. In some Medicare Locals, this was in conflict with the normative values and what Medicare Locals felt ought to be done. The alignment between the governmental and the cultural-cognitive forces of a narrow biomedical approach privileged clinical practice and ascribed less legitimacy to action on social determinants of health. Our study also shed light on the range of PHC actors and how their agency influenced Medicare Locals' performance in population health. The presence of senior staff or community boards with a strong commitment to population health were important in directing action towards population health and equity. There are numerous institutional, normative and cultural factors influencing population health planning. The experience of Australian Medicare Locals highlights the difficulties of planning in

  14. The Health of America's Aging Prison Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarupski, Kimberly A; Gross, Alden; Schrack, Jennifer A; Deal, Jennifer A; Eber, Gabriel B

    2018-03-23

    Older incarcerated individuals comprise the fastest growing demographic in the US prison system. Unhealthy lifestyles among incarcerated individuals and inadequate health care lead to earlier onset and more rapid progression of many chronic conditions that are prevalent among community-living older adults. There are limited peer-reviewed epidemiologic data in this area; however, there is growing interest in identifying strategies for housing aging incarcerated individuals, delivering appropriate health care in prisons, and coordinating after-release health care. In this systematic review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence of the health challenges facing the aging US prison population. Our comprehensive literature search focused on health outcomes, including diseases, comorbid conditions, mental health, cognition, and mobility. From 12,486 articles identified from the literature search, we reviewed 21 studies published between 2007 and 2017. All the studies were observational and cross-sectional, and most (n = 17) were based on regional samples. Sample sizes varied widely, ranging from 25 to 14,499 incarcerated people (median, 258). In general, compared with their younger counterparts, older incarcerated individuals reported high rates of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular conditions, and liver disease. Mental health problems were common, especially anxiety, fear of desire for death or suicide, and depression. Activities of daily living were challenging for up to one-fifth of the population. We found no empirical data on cognition among older incarcerated individuals. The findings of this review reveal few empirical data in this area and highlight the need for new data to drive policy and practice patterns that address critical health issues related to the aging prison population.

  15. FastStats: Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Source: Summary Health Statistics Tables for the U.S. Population: National Health Interview Survey, 2015, Table P-1c [ ...

  16. Accessibility to health services in the prison population in Colombia: a public health challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Mery Mejía O

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of a product of a study elaborated with the aim of systematizing the available information related to the accessibility to the health services of the prison population in the penitentiary centers. To this end, we reviewed the literature and systematic collection of the academic available material in the principal university libraries in the city of Medellin, scientific databases and the web pages of national and international organizations that have dealt with this topic. The information was systematized considering some historical references to prisons and health, the record of experiences in some countries and the current regulations for health care in the prison population in the Colombian case. We conclude that although significant progress has been made to ensure health care for the prison population, in the prison there are still obstacles and limitations that infringe the right to health of this population. Likewise, it is evidenced that it has not been considered a public health problem in the country, which it is considered a challenge to incorporate it as such.

  17. The Use of Deception in Public Health Behavioral Intervention Trials: A Case Study of Three Online Alcohol Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim; Kypri, Kypros; Bendtsen, Preben; Porter, John

    2013-01-01

    Some public health behavioral intervention research studies involve deception. A methodological imperative to minimize bias can be in conflict with the ethical principle of informed consent. As a case study, we examine the specific forms of deception used in three online randomized controlled trials evaluating brief alcohol interventions. We elaborate our own decision making about the use of deception in these trials, and present our ongoing findings and uncertainties. We discuss the value of the approach of pragmatism for examining these kinds of ethical issues that can arise in research on public health interventions. PMID:24161181

  18. The emergence of translational epidemiology: from scientific discovery to population health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Muin J; Gwinn, Marta; Ioannidis, John P A

    2010-09-01

    Recent emphasis on translational research (TR) is highlighting the role of epidemiology in translating scientific discoveries into population health impact. The authors present applications of epidemiology in TR through 4 phases designated T1-T4, illustrated by examples from human genomics. In T1, epidemiology explores the role of a basic scientific discovery (e.g., a disease risk factor or biomarker) in developing a "candidate application" for use in practice (e.g., a test used to guide interventions). In T2, epidemiology can help to evaluate the efficacy of a candidate application by using observational studies and randomized controlled trials. In T3, epidemiology can help to assess facilitators and barriers for uptake and implementation of candidate applications in practice. In T4, epidemiology can help to assess the impact of using candidate applications on population health outcomes. Epidemiology also has a leading role in knowledge synthesis, especially using quantitative methods (e.g., meta-analysis). To explore the emergence of TR in epidemiology, the authors compared articles published in selected issues of the Journal in 1999 and 2009. The proportion of articles identified as translational doubled from 16% (11/69) in 1999 to 33% (22/66) in 2009 (P = 0.02). Epidemiology is increasingly recognized as an important component of TR. By quantifying and integrating knowledge across disciplines, epidemiology provides crucial methods and tools for TR.

  19. Roads to health : multi-state modelling of population health and resource use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, Louis Wilhelmus

    2002-01-01

    The book has described the dynamics of disease occurrence in populations and gives an overview of the major known health determinants of mortality decline, health risk factors and health services, and studies the health interventions options in two example diseases i.e. diabetes and stroke. We

  20. A phase II clinical trial of a dental health education program delivered by aboriginal health workers to prevent early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinkhorn Fiona

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities. Methods/Design This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6 months, followed over 2 years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30 months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome. Discussion The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study. Trial registration ACTRN12612000712808

  1. Point-of-care cluster randomized trial in stroke secondary prevention using electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dregan, Alex; van Staa, Tjeerd P; McDermott, Lisa; McCann, Gerard; Ashworth, Mark; Charlton, Judith; Wolfe, Charles D A; Rudd, Anthony; Yardley, Lucy; Gulliford, Martin C; Trial Steering Committee

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the remote introduction of electronic decision support tools into family practices improves risk factor control after first stroke. This study also aimed to develop methods to implement cluster randomized trials in stroke using electronic health records. Family practices were recruited from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and allocated to intervention and control trial arms by minimization. Remotely installed, electronic decision support tools promoted intensified secondary prevention for 12 months with last measure of systolic blood pressure as the primary outcome. Outcome data from electronic health records were analyzed using marginal models. There were 106 Clinical Practice Research Datalink family practices allocated (intervention, 53; control, 53), with 11 391 (control, 5516; intervention, 5875) participants with acute stroke ever diagnosed. Participants at trial practices had similar characteristics as 47,887 patients with stroke at nontrial practices. During the intervention period, blood pressure values were recorded in the electronic health records for 90% and cholesterol values for 84% of participants. After intervention, the latest mean systolic blood pressure was 131.7 (SD, 16.8) mm Hg in the control trial arm and 131.4 (16.7) mm Hg in the intervention trial arm, and adjusted mean difference was -0.56 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -1.38 to 0.26; P=0.183). The financial cost of the trial was approximately US $22 per participant, or US $2400 per family practice allocated. Large pragmatic intervention studies may be implemented at low cost by using electronic health records. The intervention used in this trial was not found to be effective, and further research is needed to develop more effective intervention strategies. http://www.controlled-trials.com. Current Controlled Trials identifier: ISRCTN35701810. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Adult height, nutrition, and population health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S.V.; Davey Smith, George

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence. PMID:26928678

  3. Macroeconomic conditions and population health in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristín Helga Birgisdóttir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Results from recent research on the impact of economic cycles and population health have been mixed, with results appearing to be context-sensitive. Objective: We examine the long-term relationship between economic conditions and population health in Iceland, which has experienced some economically turbulent times in the last years and decades. Methods: We use aggregate annual data for 1981‒2014. We use three aggregate indicators of economic activity to proxy the economic cycle: unemployment rate, real GDP per capita, and real GDP. Life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, and total mortality as well as four cause-specific mortality rates were used as outcome measures. Results: Our results do not suggest a statistically significant relationship between economic conditions and total mortality, infant mortality, or life expectancy. Different responses between causes of death are found, and in some instances between genders, although statistical significance is low. We do, however, find a consistent and statistically significant relationship for females aged 45‒64, where economic downturns are associated with lower all-cause mortality. Conclusions: For the time period studied we do not find a significant relationship between economic cycles and population health, where health is proxied by mortality rates, life expectancy at birth, and infant mortality. Further studies using less extreme health outcomes, such as morbidity rates, are warranted. Contribution: This type of study has not been performed using Icelandic data before and provides a comparison to research from other countries where the relationship has been explored more. Additionally, one of the contributions of this paper is to use a variety of economic indicators as proxies for economic cycles in a study examining their relationship with population health.

  4. Copenhagen infant mental health project: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing circle of security –parenting and care as usual as interventions targeting infant mental health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Skovgaard Væver

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems and psychopathologies. In disadvantaged populations insecure and disorganized attachment are common, which points to the need of identifying early risk and effective methods of addressing such problems. This protocol describes an experimental evaluation of an indicated group-based parental educational program, Circle of Security–Parenting (COS-P, currently being conducted in Denmark. Methods/design In a parallel randomized controlled trial of two intervention groups this study tests the efficacy of COS-P compared to Care as Usual (CAU in enhancing maternal sensitivity and child attachment in a community sample in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314, who agree to participate, will be randomly allocated with a ratio of 2:1 into the COS-P intervention arm and into CAU. Data will be obtained at inclusion (baseline and at follow-up when the child is 12–16 months. The primary outcome is maternal sensitivity. Secondary outcomes include quality of infant attachment, language, cognitive and socioemotional development, family functioning, parental stress, parental mentalizing and maternal mental wellbeing

  5. Adolescent mental health education InSciEd Out: a case study of an alternative middle school population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joanna; Lopez Cervera, Roberto; Tye, Susannah J; Ekker, Stephen C; Pierret, Chris

    2018-04-03

    existence of unique help-seeking barriers in at-risk youth. Increased focus upon community-based programming has potential to bridge gaps in translation, bringing this critical population to clinical care in pursuit of improved mental health for all. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, ID:NCT02680899. Registered 12 February 2016, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02680899.

  6. The ACTIVATE study: results from a group-randomized controlled trial comparing a traditional worksite health promotion program with an activated consumer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul E; Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Xi, Min; Harvey, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. This study compares a traditional worksite-based health promotion program with an activated consumer program and a control program DESIGN. Group randomized controlled trial with 18-month intervention. SETTING. Two large Midwestern companies. SUBJECTS. Three hundred and twenty employees (51% response). INTERVENTION. The traditional health promotion intervention offered population-level campaigns on physical activity, nutrition, and stress management. The activated consumer intervention included population-level campaigns for evaluating health information, choosing a health benefits plan, and understanding the risks of not taking medications as prescribed. The personal development intervention (control group) offered information on hobbies. The interventions also offered individual-level coaching for high risk individuals in both active intervention groups. MEASURES. Health risk status, general health status, consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to evaluate health information. ANALYSIS. Multivariate analyses controlled for baseline differences among the study groups. RESULTS. At the population level, compared with baseline performance, the traditional health promotion intervention improved health risk status, consumer activation, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. Compared with baseline performance, the activated consumer intervention improved consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. At the population level, however, only the activated consumer intervention improved any outcome more than the control group did; that outcome was consumer activation. At the individual level for high risk individuals, both traditional health coaching and activated consumer coaching positively affected health risk status and consumer activation. In addition, both coaching interventions improved participant ability to recognize a reliable health website. Consumer activation coaching also

  7. [Role of "Health" National project in improvement of health parameters in working population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykovskaia, T Iu

    2011-01-01

    The author analyzed results of "Health" National project accomplishment in Rostov region over 2006-2009. Findings are that quality of primary medical care has improved, material and technical basis of municipal health care institutions has progressed, salary of primary health care division specialists has increased. Over this period, infant mortality and mortality among able-bodied population in the region has decreased, birth rate has increased, coefficient of natural loss of population has reduced, life expectancy has increased.

  8. Cardiovascular disease medication health literacy among Indigenous peoples: design and protocol of an intervention trial in Indigenous primary care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crengle, Sue; Smylie, Janet; Kelaher, Margaret; Lambert, Michelle; Reid, Susan; Luke, Joanne; Anderson, Ian; Harré Hindmarsh, Jennie; Harwood, Matire

    2014-07-12

    populations. The study also illustrates the incorporation of Indigenous health research principles and processes in clinical trials and provides insights that may be useful in other contexts. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ACTRN12612001309875; date of registration 18/12/2012).

  9. Does clinical equipoise apply to cluster randomized trials in health research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This article is part of a series of papers examining ethical issues in cluster randomized trials (CRTs) in health research. In the introductory paper in this series, Weijer and colleagues set out six areas of inquiry that must be addressed if the cluster trial is to be set on a firm ethical foundation. This paper addresses the third of the questions posed, namely, does clinical equipoise apply to CRTs in health research? The ethical principle of beneficence is the moral obligation not to harm needlessly and, when possible, to promote the welfare of research subjects. Two related ethical problems have been discussed in the CRT literature. First, are control groups that receive only usual care unduly disadvantaged? Second, when accumulating data suggests the superiority of one intervention in a trial, is there an ethical obligation to act? In individually randomized trials involving patients, similar questions are addressed by the concept of clinical equipoise, that is, the ethical requirement that, at the start of a trial, there be a state of honest, professional disagreement in the community of expert practitioners as to the preferred treatment. Since CRTs may not involve physician-researchers and patient-subjects, the applicability of clinical equipoise to CRTs is uncertain. Here we argue that clinical equipoise may be usefully grounded in a trust relationship between the state and research subjects, and, as a result, clinical equipoise is applicable to CRTs. Clinical equipoise is used to argue that control groups receiving only usual care are not disadvantaged so long as the evidence supporting the experimental and control interventions is such that experts would disagree as to which is preferred. Further, while data accumulating during the course of a CRT may favor one intervention over another, clinical equipoise supports continuing the trial until the results are likely to be broadly convincing, often coinciding with the planned completion of the trial

  10. Employee Health Behaviors, Self-Reported Health Status, and Association With Absenteeism: Comparison With the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Ho; Sim, Jin Ah; Park, Eun-Gee; Park, June Dong; Noh, Dong-Young

    2016-09-01

    To perform a comparison between health behaviors and health status of employees with those of the general population, to evaluate the association between employee health behaviors, health status, and absenteeism. Cross-sectional study enrolled 2433 employees from 16 Korean companies in 2014, and recruited 1000 general population randomly in 2012. The distribution of employee health behaviors, health status, and association with absenteeism were assessed. Employees had significantly worse health status and low rates of health behaviors maintenance compared with the general population. Multiple logistic regression model revealed that regular exercise, smoking cessation, work life balance, proactive living, religious practice, and good physical health status were associated with lower absenteeism. Maintaining health behaviors and having good health status were associated with less absenteeism. This study suggests investment of multidimensional health approach in workplace health and wellness (WHW) programs.

  11. Impact of the National Institutes of Health Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (NIH FSGS) clinical trial on the treatment of steroid-resistant FSGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Pietro A; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2013-03-01

    Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is among the most common, morbid and treatment-resistant conditions faced by nephrologists. While glucocorticoids have traditionally been the mainstay of initial treatment, they induce remission in only a minority of patients. A variety of other immunosuppressants have been utilized against steroid-resistant FSGS, but few have been rigorously examined in well-controlled trials. Recently, the results were published from a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-sponsored multicenter randomized trial comparing cyclosporine (CSA) with a combination of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and pulse dexamethasone (DEX) for the treatment of steroid-resistant FSGS. No difference in treatment effectiveness was shown between the two groups, and adverse effects were comparable. This was the largest randomized trial ever undertaken in FSGS, but it was unfortunately underpowered to show clinically relevant differences in response rates. This shortcoming, along with particularities of the study population and outcome measures, makes it challenging to draw definitive conclusions from the trial results. Despite these limitations, the trial does provide valuable insights into treatment strategies for FSGS and offers important lessons for planning future research.

  12. Are randomised controlled trials positivist? Reviewing the social science and philosophy literature to assess positivist tendencies of trials of social interventions in public health and health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, Chris; Moore, Graham; Warren, Emily; Moore, Laurence

    2018-04-19

    We have previously proposed that trials of social interventions can be done within a "realist" research paradigm. Critics have countered that such trials are irredeemably positivist and asked us to explain our philosophical position. We set out to explore what is meant by positivism and whether trials adhere to its tenets (of necessity or in practice) via a narrative literature review of social science and philosophical discussions of positivism, and of the trials literature and three case studies of trials. The philosophical literature described positivism as asserting: (1) the epistemic primacy of sensory information; (2) the requirement that theoretical terms equate with empirical terms; (3) the aim of developing universal laws; and (4) the unity of method between natural and social sciences. Regarding (1), it seems that rather than embodying the epistemic primacy of sensory data, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of social interventions in health embrace an anti-positivist approach aiming to test hypotheses derived deductively from prior theory. Considering (2), while some RCTs of social interventions appear to limit theorisation to concepts with empirical analogues, others examine interventions underpinned by theories engaging with mechanisms and contextual contingencies not all of which can be measured. Regarding (3), while some trialists and reviewers in the health field do limit their role to estimating statistical trends as a mechanistic form of generalisation, this is not an inevitable feature of RCT-based research. Trials of social interventions can instead aim to generalise at the level of theory which specifies how mechanisms are contingent on context. In terms of (4), while RCTs are used to examine biomedical as well as social interventions in health, RCTs of social interventions are often distinctive in using qualitative analyses of data on participant accounts to examine questions of meaning and agency not pursued in the natural sciences. We

  13. Metabolic syndrome and health-related quality of life in Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizal Sarrafzadegan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the association between Metabolic syndrome (MetS and Health related quality of life (QoL in Iranian population. Methods: We used data from the post-intervention phase of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP, a community trial for cardiovascular disease (CVD prevention and control. We recruited 9570 healthy adults, aged ≥ 19 years who were randomly selected using multistage random sampling method. World Health Organization QoL questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF which contains 26 items was used to assess QoL. It assesses four domains of QoL; Physical health, Psychological health, Social relationship and Environmental issues. MetS was defined based on ATP III criteria. Results: The mean age of participants was 38.8±15.6 years (mean ± SD and the prevalence of MetS was 22.5%. From all participant 18.2% were illiterate and 13.2% had university educational level. Two way multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVA test after adjusting age showed significant difference between women with and without Mets in regard to physical health and social relations domains, while none of QoL domains was different in men with Mets in comparison to men without it. Conclusions: After adjusting the role of socio-demographic factors as components of QoL score, no association was observed between QoL domains and MetS in men, while only social relations and physical health scores were higher in women with Mets compared to those without Mets. Other variety of health-related QoL assessment tools or definitions of MetS may show different relationship in the Iranian socio-cultural context.

  14. Clinical Trials in Dentistry: A Cross-sectional Analysis of World Health Organization-International Clinical Trial Registry Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Gowri; Sridharan, Kannan

    2016-06-01

    Clinical trials are the back bone for evidence-based practice (EBP) and recently EBP has been considered the best source of treatment strategies available. Clinical trial registries serve as databases of clinical trials. As regards to dentistry in specific data on the number of clinical trials and their quality is lacking. Hence, the present study was envisaged. Clinical trials registered in WHO-ICTRP (http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/AdvSearch.aspx) in dental specialties were considered. The details assessed from the collected trials include: Type of sponsors; Health condition; Recruitment status; Study design; randomization, method of randomization and allocation concealment; Single or multi-centric; Retrospective or prospective registration; and Publication status in case of completed studies. A total of 197 trials were identified. Maximum trials were from United States (n = 30) and United Kingdom (n = 38). Seventy six trials were registered in Clinical Trials.gov, 54 from International Standards of Reporting Clinical Trials, 13 each from Australia and New Zealand Trial Register and Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials, 10 from German Clinical Trial Registry, eight each from Brazilian Clinical Trial Registry and Nederland's Trial Register, seven from Japan Clinical Trial Registry, six from Clinical Trial Registry of India and two from Hong Kong Clinical Trial Registry. A total of 78.7% studies were investigator-initiated and 64% were completed while 3% were terminated. Nearly four-fifths of the registered trials (81.7%) were interventional studies of which randomized were the large majority (94.4%) with 63.2% being open label, 20.4% using single blinding technique and 16.4% were doubled blinded. The number, methodology and the characteristics of clinical trials in dentistry have been noted to be poor especially in terms of being conducted multi-centrically, employing blinding and the method for randomization and allocation concealment. More emphasis has to be

  15. Pilot randomised controlled trial of the ENGAGER collaborative care intervention for prisoners with common mental health problems, near to and after release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Charlotte; Kirkpatrick, Tim; Taylor, Rod S; Todd, Roxanne; Greenwood, Clare; Haddad, Mark; Stevenson, Caroline; Stewart, Amy; Shenton, Deborah; Carroll, Lauren; Brand, Sarah L; Quinn, Cath; Anderson, Rob; Maguire, Mike; Harris, Tirril; Shaw, Jennifer; Byng, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Rates of common mental health problems are much higher in prison populations, but access to primary care mental health support falls short of community equivalence. Discontinuity of care on release is the norm and is further complicated by substance use and a range of social problems, e.g. homelessness. To address these problems, we worked with criminal justice, third sector social inclusion services, health services and people with lived experiences (peer researchers), to develop a complex collaborative care intervention aimed at supporting men with common mental health problems near to and following release from prison. This paper describes an external pilot trial to test the feasibility of a full randomised controlled trial. Eligible individuals with 4 to 16 weeks left to serve were screened to assess for common mental health problems. Participants were then randomised at a ratio of 2:1 allocation to ENGAGER plus standard care (intervention) or standard care alone (treatment as usual). Participants were followed up at 1 and 3 months' post release. Success criteria for this pilot trial were to meet the recruitment target sample size of 60 participants, to follow up at least 50% of participants at 3 months' post release from prison, and to deliver the ENGAGER intervention. Estimates of recruitment and retention rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. Descriptive analyses included summaries (percentages or means) for participant demographics, and baseline characteristics are reported. Recruitment target was met with 60 participants randomised in 9 months. The average retention rates were 73% at 1 month [95% CI 61 to 83] and 47% at 3 months follow-up [95% CI 35 to 59]. Ninety percent of participants allocated to the intervention successfully engaged with a practitioner before release and 70% engaged following release. This pilot confirms the feasibility of conducting a randomised trial for prison leavers with common mental health problems. Based

  16. Pilates Method for Women's Health: Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarino, Melissa; Kerr, Debra; Wajswelner, Henry; Morris, Meg E

    2015-12-01

    To critically analyze the benefits of Pilates on health outcomes in women. CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, Science Direct, SPORTDiscus, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science. Databases were searched using the terms Pilates and Pilates Method. Published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included if they comprised female participants with a health condition and a health outcome was measured, Pilates needed to be administered, and the article was published in English in a peer-reviewed journal from 1980 to July 2014. Two authors independently applied the inclusion criteria to potential studies. Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. A best-evidence grading system was used to determine the strength of the evidence. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. PEDro scale values ranged from 3 to 7 (mean, 4.5; median, 4.0), indicating a relatively low quality overall. In this sample, Pilates for breast cancer was most often trialed (n=2). The most frequent health outcomes investigated were pain (n=4), quality of life (n=4), and lower extremity endurance (n=2), with mixed results. Emerging evidence was found for reducing pain and improving quality of life and lower extremity endurance. There is a paucity of evidence on Pilates for improving women's health during pregnancy or for conditions including breast cancer, obesity, or low back pain. Further high-quality RCTs are warranted to determine the effectiveness of Pilates for improving women's health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigators' viewpoint of clinical trials in India: Past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohandas K Mallath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available India's success in producing food and milk for its population (Green Revolution and White Revolution happened because of scientific research and field trials. Likewise improving the health of Indians needs clinical research and clinical trials. A Large proportion of the sick Indians are poor, illiterate with no access to good health care. They are highly vulnerable to inducement and exploitation in clinical trials. The past two decades saw the rise and fall of clinical trials in India. The rise happened when our regulators created a favorable environment, and Indian investigators were invited to participate in global clinical trials. The gap between the demand and supply resulted in inadequate protection of the trial participants. Reports of abuses of the vulnerable trial participants followed by public interest litigations led to strengthening of regulations by the regulators. The stringent new regulations made the conduct of clinical trials more laborious and increased the cost of clinical trials in India. There was a loss of interest in sponsored clinical trials resulting in the fall in global clinical trials in India. Following repeated appeals by the investigators, the Indian regulators have recently relaxed some of the stringent regulations, while continuing to ensure the adequate patient protection. Clinical trials that are relevant to our population and conducted by well-trained investigators and monitored by trained and registered Ethics Committees will increase in the future. We must remain vigilant, avoid previous mistakes, and strive hard to protect the trial participants in the future trials.

  18. Health Literacy Assessment in an Otolaryngology Clinic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megwalu, Uchechukwu C; Lee, Jennifer Y

    2016-12-01

    To assess health literacy in an adult tertiary care otolaryngology clinic population and to explore potential determinants of inadequate health literacy. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary care otolaryngology clinic. The study population included all adult patients treated at 3 of Stanford University's adult otolaryngology clinic sites between March 1 and 11, 2016. Data were collected via an anonymous questionnaire. Health literacy was assessed with the Brief Health Literacy Screen. Ten percent of patients had inadequate health literacy. White race (odds ratio [OR], 0.23) and having English as the primary language (OR, 0.12) were associated with adequate health literacy, while high school or lower level of education (OR, 3.2) was associated with inadequate health literacy. Age, sex, and Hispanic ethnicity were not associated with health literacy. Our study highlights the need for health literacy screening in the otolaryngology clinic setting and identifies sociodemographic risk factors for inadequate health literacy. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of health literacy on patient outcomes and to test specific interventions to address health literacy and health outcomes. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  19. Maximising the value of combining qualitative research and randomised controlled trials in health research: the QUAlitative Research in Trials (QUART) study--a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Thomas, Kate J; Drabble, Sarah J; Rudolph, Anne; Goode, Jackie; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-06-01

    Researchers sometimes undertake qualitative research with randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of health interventions. To systematically explore how qualitative research is being used with trials and identify ways of maximising its value to the trial aim of providing evidence of effectiveness of health interventions. A sequential mixed methods study with four components. (1) Database search of peer-reviewed journals between January 2008 and September 2010 for articles reporting the qualitative research undertaken with specific trials, (2) systematic search of database of registered trials to identify studies combining qualitative research and trials, (3) survey of 200 lead investigators of trials with no apparent qualitative research and (4) semistructured telephone interviews with 18 researchers purposively sampled from the first three methods. Qualitative research was undertaken with at least 12% of trials. A large number of articles reporting qualitative research undertaken with trials (n=296) were published between 2008 and 2010. A total of 28% (82/296) of articles reported qualitative research undertaken at the pre-trial stage and around one-quarter concerned drugs or devices. The articles focused on 22 aspects of the trial within five broad categories. Some focused on more than one aspect of the trial, totalling 356 examples. The qualitative research focused on the intervention being trialled (71%, 254/356), the design and conduct of the trial (15%, 54/356), the outcomes of the trial (1%, 5/356), the measures used in the trial (3%, 10/356), and the health condition in the trial (9%, 33/356). The potential value of the qualitative research to the trial endeavour included improving the external validity of trials and facilitating interpretation of trial findings. This value could be maximised by using qualitative research more at the pre-trial stage and reporting findings with explicit attention to the implications for the trial endeavour. During interviews

  20. Relationships between nurse- and physician-to-population ratios and state health rankings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigbee, Jeri L

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between nurse-to-population ratios and population health, as indicated by state health ranking, and to compare the findings with physician-to-population ratios. Secondary analysis correlational design. The sample consisted of all 50 states in the United States. Data sources included the United Health Foundation's 2006 state health rankings, the 2004 National Sample Survey for Registered Nurses, and the U.S. Health Workforce Profile from the New York Center for Health Workforce Studies. Significant relationships between nurse-to-population ratio and overall state health ranking (rho=-.446, p tf?>=.001) and 11 of the 18 components of that ranking were found. Significant components included motor vehicle death rate, high school graduation rate, violent crime rate, infectious disease rate, percentage of children in poverty, percentage of uninsured residents, immunization rate, adequacy of prenatal care, number of poor mental health days, number of poor physical health days, and premature death rate, with higher nurse-to-population ratios associated with higher health rankings. Specialty (public health and school) nurse-to-population ratios were not as strongly related to state health ranking. Physician-to-population ratios were also significantly related to state health ranking, but were associated with different components than nurses. These findings suggest that greater nurses per capita may be uniquely associated with healthier communities; however, further multivariate research is needed.

  1. [Health problems of working-age population in the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmerov, N F; Tikhonova, G I

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with health problems of working-age population in the Russian Federation. According to foreign and domestic experts reduction of the able-bodied population and its fraction in the general population will be accompanied by ageing of labour force in the nearest two decades. Despite the growth of life expectancy in 2006-2007 demonstrated by disability, mortality and life expectancy indices for the age group of interest, its health status is considered to be critical. Mathematical simulation of mortality rates allowed for the assessment of potential years of life lost (PYLL) from leading causes of death among active working population. The data obtained provide a basis for the elaboration of medical and social programs aimed at increasing life expectancy. The most essential role in current negative tendencies in the health of active working population belongs to the deterioration of work conditions and safety at industrial enterprises coupled to low efficiency of occupational health prevention system accounting for the significantly reduced accessibility of health services. Restoration of occupational health system in Russia is of crucial importance. Experts of the Institute of Occupational Health have elaborated a draft National Action Plan designed to improve health protection of labour force in this country; its implementation would help to solve demographic problems and increase the amount and quality of labour force.

  2. An online education approach to population health in a global society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utley-Smith, Queen

    2017-07-01

    Health professions education content must keep pace with the ever-evolving and changing health care system. Population-based health care is advocated as a way to improve health outcomes, particularly in a technologically advanced health system like the United States. At the same time, global health knowledge is increasingly valued in health professions education, including nursing. This article describes the design and implementation of an online population health course with a global viewpoint intended to accommodate the need for improved knowledge and skill application for graduate nurses. Attention was also given to faculty efficiency during the process of design and implementation. This population-global health course was piloted in a renovated master's curriculum for two semesters. Administering a Course Improvement Survey after initial course offerings assisted faculty to assess and target essential course changes. Data were collected from 106 registered nurse graduate students. Population and global health course objectives were met and students identified areas for course enhancement. Students (90%-94%) reported achieving increased knowledge of population health and global health. Like other creative works, the first rendition of a course requires pedagogical adjustments and editing. Formal student input, when built into the design and implementation of a course can assist faculty to be efficient when crafting essential course changes for subsequent semesters. Data from the survey showed that major population and global subject matter was being grasped by students, the data also revealed that tweaking specific online strategies like making all course content mobile would enhance the course. The course development process and course improvement evaluation for this Population Health in a Global Society course proved valuable in the education of nurses, and helped maintain faculty work efficiency. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Health literacy among Saudi population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M M; Saad, Sherif Y

    2017-09-12

    Health literacy is a major problem worldwide and adversely affects an individual's health. The aim of the present study was to assess health literacy level among Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a randomly selected population (n = 500) in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire comprised of questions pertaining to demographic characteristics, health literacy and health information. Health literacy was measured by REALM-R test. Internal reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The majority of the respondents had intermediate (43.8%) and basic (34.4%) health literacy levels. A higher percentage among men had intermediate (59.8%) and basic (70.93%) health literacy levels compared with women. About 30% of respondents had difficulty in understanding health screening tests and disease treatment. More than half of participants (52.4%) had difficulty in finding health information. The REALM-R test revealed that about 42.6% of individuals with score of >6 had adequate health literacy compared with 57.4% with score of ≤6 had inadequate health literacy. The present study demonstrated that a majority of Saudi individuals had inadequate health literacy that associated with poor knowledge of health information. Our findings highlighted the importance of understanding the status of health literacy among Saudis and the need for educational programs to raise the health literacy awareness among Saudi population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. [Public spending on health and population health in Algeria: an econometric analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaili, Moussa; Kaïd Tlilane, Nouara

    2017-07-10

    Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of public spending on health, among other determinants of health, on the health of the population in Algeria, using life expectancy (men and women) and infant mortality rates as indicators of health status. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study over the period from 1974 to 2010 using the ARDL (Autoregressive Distributed Lags) approach to co-integration to estimate the short-term and long-term relationship. Results: Public spending on health has a positive, but not statistically significant impact, in the long and short term, on life expectancy (men and women). However, public spending significantly reduces the infant mortality rate. The long-term impact of the number of hospital beds is significant for the life expectancy of men, but not for women and infant mortality, but is significant for all indicators in the short-term relationship. The most important variables in improving the health of the population are real GDP per capita and fertility rate.

  5. Grey literature in meta-analyses of randomized trials of health care interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, S; McDonald, S; Clarke, M; Egger, M

    2007-04-18

    The inclusion of grey literature (i.e. literature that has not been formally published) in systematic reviews may help to overcome some of the problems of publication bias, which can arise due to the selective availability of data. To review systematically research studies, which have investigated the impact of grey literature in meta-analyses of randomized trials of health care interventions. We searched the Cochrane Methodology Register (The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2005), MEDLINE (1966 to 20 May 2005), the Science Citation Index (June 2005) and contacted researchers who may have carried out relevant studies. A study was considered eligible for this review if it compared the effect of the inclusion and exclusion of grey literature on the results of a cohort of meta-analyses of randomized trials. Data were extracted from each report independently by two reviewers. The main outcome measure was an estimate of the impact of trials from the grey literature on the pooled effect estimates of the meta-analyses. Information was also collected on the area of health care, the number of meta-analyses, the number of trials, the number of trial participants, the year of publication of the trials, the language and country of publication of the trials, the number and type of grey and published literature, and methodological quality. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. All five studies showed that published trials showed an overall greater treatment effect than grey trials. This difference was statistically significant in one of the five studies. Data could be combined for three of the five studies. This showed that, on average, published trials showed a 9% greater treatment effect than grey trials (ratio of odds ratios for grey versus published trials 1.09; 95% CI 1.03-1.16). Overall there were more published trials included in the meta-analyses than grey trials (median 224 (IQR 108-365) versus 45(IQR 40-102)). Published trials had more participants on average. The most

  6. Population health and social governance: analyzing the mainstream incorporation of ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Recently, health care workers (researchers, academics, policy writers, clinicians) have begun to view ethnography as an acceptable research methodology for informing public health work. This corresponds with a change in public health practice toward population health, wherein identifiable groups are examined to identify the group-level and contextual factors that affect their health statuses. Although population health-based methodological and outcomes-focused examinations have already occurred regarding ethnography, no extant literature scrutinizes the incorporation of ethnography into mainstream public and population health work from a sociopolitical viewpoint. Consequently, such an investigation occurs here using Foucault's concepts of discipline and Lupton's advancement of Foucault's ideas about the imperative of health. The outcome of this investigation is the assertion that ethnography is a strategic method for disciplining populations that do not respect the imperative of health. In other words, ethnography helps generate the data that can be used to normalize large groups of people.

  7. Economic stress and well-being: Does population health context matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Tahira M; Sinclair, Robert R; Sears, Lindsay E; Gailey, Nicholas J; Black, Kristen Jennings; Cheung, Janelle H

    2018-05-07

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of county-level population health determinants in predicting individual employee reactions to economic stress. Using multilevel modeling and a population health perspective, we tested a model linking nationally representative individual-level data (N = 100,968) on exposure to economic stressors and county-level population health determinants (N = 3,026) to responses on a composite measure of individual well-being that included the facets of purpose, community, physical, and social well-being, as well as life satisfaction. Results indicate that higher income- and employment-related economic stress were significantly related to poorer well-being. Additionally, living in a county with more positive population health determinants was significantly predictive of individual well-being. Finally, the Level-1 relationship between income-related stress and well-being was significantly attenuated for individuals living in counties with more positive population health determinants. In contrast, employment-related stress had a stronger negative relationship with well-being for individuals who lived in counties with more positive population health determinants. We discuss these findings in light of conservation of resources and relative deprivation theories, as well as how they may extend the scientific foundation for evidence-based social policy and evidence-based intervention programs aimed at lessening the effects of economic stress on individual well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Effects of rearing environment and population origin on responses to repeated behavioural trials in cane toads (Rhinella marina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jodie; Whiting, Martin J; Brown, Gregory; Shine, Richard

    2018-05-02

    Behavioural response to repeated trials in captivity can be driven by many factors including rearing environment, population of origin, habituation to captivity/trial conditions and an individual's behavioural type (e.g., bold versus shy). We tested the effect of rearing environment (captive raised common-garden versus wild-caught) and population origin (range-edge versus range-front) on the responses of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) to repeated exploration and risk-taking assays in captivity. We found that behavioural responses to identical assays performed on two occasions were complex and showed few consistent patterns based on rearing environment or population of origin. However, behavioural traits were repeatable across Trial Blocks when all sample populations were grouped together, indicating general consistency in individual toad behaviour across repeated behavioural assays. Our findings exemplify the complexity and unpredictability of behavioural responses and their effects on the repeatability and interpretation of behavioural traits across repeated behavioural assays in captivity. To meaningfully interpret the results from repeated behavioural assays, we need to consider how multiple factors may affect behavioural responses to these tests and importantly, how these responses may affect the repeatability of behavioural traits across time. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Can an alert in primary care electronic medical records increase participation in a population-based screening programme for colorectal cancer? COLO-ALERT, a randomised clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiriguet-Capdevila, Carolina; Fuentes-Peláez, Antonio; Reina-Rodríguez, Dolores; De León-Gallo, Rosa; Mendez-Boo, Leonardo; Torán-Monserrat, Pere; Muñoz-Ortiz, Laura; Rivero-Franco, Irene; Vela-Vallespín, Carme; Vilarrubí-Estrella, Mercedes; Torres-Salinas, Miquel; Grau-Cano, Jaume; Burón-Pust, Andrea; Hernández-Rodríguez, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is an important public health problem in Spain. Over the last decade, several regions have carried out screening programmes, but population participation rates remain below recommended European goals. Reminders on electronic medical records have been identified as a low-cost and high-reach strategy to increase participation. Further knowledge is needed about their effect in a population-based screening programme. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an electronic reminder to promote the participation in a population-based colorectal cancer screening programme. Secondary aims are to learn population’s reasons for refusing to take part in the screening programme and to find out the health professionals’ opinion about the official programme implementation and on the new computerised tool. This is a parallel randomised trial with a cross-sectional second stage. Participants: all the invited subjects to participate in the public colorectal cancer screening programme that includes men and women aged between 50–69, allocated to the eleven primary care centres of the study and all their health professionals. The randomisation unit will be the primary care physician. The intervention will consist of activating an electronic reminder, in the patient’s electronic medical record, in order to promote colorectal cancer screening, during a synchronous medical appointment, throughout the year that the intervention takes place. A comparison of the screening rates will then take place, using the faecal occult blood test of the patients from the control and the intervention groups. We will also take a questionnaire to know the opinions of the health professionals. The main outcome is the screening status at the end of the study. Data will be analysed with an intention-to-treat approach. We expect that the introduction of specific reminders in electronic medical records, as a tool to facilitate and encourage direct referral by

  10. Implications of Big Data Analytics on Population Health Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul S

    2013-09-01

    As healthcare providers transition to outcome-based reimbursements, it is imperative that they make the transition to population health management to stay viable. Providers already have big data assets in the form of electronic health records and financial billing system. Integrating these disparate sources together in patient-centered datasets provides the foundation for probabilistic modeling of their patient populations. These models are the core technology to compute and track the health and financial risk status of the patient population being served. We show how the probabilistic formulation allows for straightforward, early identification of a change in health and risk status. Knowing when a patient is likely to shift to a less healthy, higher risk category allows the provider to intervene to avert or delay the shift. These automated, proactive alerts are critical in maintaining and improving the health of a population of patients. We discuss results of leveraging these models with an urban healthcare provider to track and monitor type 2 diabetes patients. When intervention outcome data are available, data mining and predictive modeling technology are primed to recommend the best type of intervention (prescriptions, physical therapy, discharge protocols, etc.) with the best likely outcome.

  11. Associations among comorbid anxiety, psychiatric symptomatology, and diabetic control in a population with serious mental illness and diabetes: Findings from an interventional randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Awais; Bhat, Chetan; Gunzler, Douglas; Cassidy, Kristin; Thomas, Charles; McCormick, Richard; Dawson, Neal V; Sajatovic, Martha

    2018-05-01

    Objective Serious mental illness and type II diabetes mellitus have a high comorbidity, and both have a higher prevalence of anxiety disorders compared to the general population. Targeted Training in Illness Management is a group-based self-management training approach which targets serious mental illness and type II diabetes mellitus concurrently. This analysis examines data from a randomized controlled trial of Targeted Training in Illness Management intervention to examine the impact of comorbid anxiety on baseline psychiatric symptomatology and diabetic control, and on longitudinal treatment outcomes. Methods We conducted secondary analyses on data from a prospective, 60-week, randomized controlled trial testing Targeted Training in Illness Management versus treatment as usual in 200 individuals with serious mental illness and diabetes. Primary outcomes included measures related to serious mental illness symptoms, functional status, general health status, and diabetes control. Measures were compared between those participants with anxiety disorders versus those without anxiety at baseline as well as over time using linear mixed effects analyses. Results Forty seven percent of the participants had one or more anxiety disorders. At baseline, those with an anxiety diagnosis had higher illness severity, depressive, and other psychiatric symptomatology and disability. Diabetic control (HbA1c) was not significantly different at baseline. In the longitudinal analyses, no significant mean slope differences over time (group-by-time interaction effect) between those with anxiety diagnoses and those without in treatment as usual group were found for primary outcomes. Within the Targeted Training in Illness Management arm, those with anxiety disorders had significantly greater improvement in mental health functioning. Those with anxiety comorbidity in the Targeted Training in Illness Management group demonstrated significantly lower HbA1c levels compared to no anxiety

  12. Protocol for the atWork trial: a randomised controlled trial of a workplace intervention targeting subjective health complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Tone Langjordet; Indahl, Aage; Baste, Valborg; Eriksen, Hege Randi; Tveito, Torill Helene

    2016-08-19

    Subjective health complaints, such as musculoskeletal and mental health complaints, have a high prevalence in the general population, and account for a large proportion of sick leave in Norway. It may be difficult to prevent the occurrence of subjective health complaints, but it may be possible to influence employees' perception and management of these complaints, which in turn may have impact on sick leave and return to work after sick leave. Long term sick leave has many negative health and social consequences, and it is important to gain knowledge about effective interventions to prevent and reduce long term sick leave. This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effect of the modified atWork intervention, targeting non-specific musculoskeletal complaints and mental health complaints. This intervention will be compared to the original atWork intervention targeting only non-specific musculoskeletal complaints. Kindergartens in Norway are invited to participate in the study and will be randomly assigned to one of the two interventions. Estimated sample size is 100 kindergartens, with a total of approximately 1100 employees. Primary outcome is sick leave at unit level, measured using register data from the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration. One kindergarten equals one unit, regardless of number of employees. Secondary outcomes will be measured at the individual level and include coping, health, job satisfaction, social support, and workplace inclusion, collected through questionnaires distributed at baseline and at 12 months follow up. All employees in the included kindergartens are eligible for participating in the survey. The effect evaluation of the modified atWork intervention is a large and comprehensive project, providing evidence-based information on prevention of long-term sick leave, which may be of considerable benefit both from a societal, organisational, and individual perspective. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02396797

  13. Gamified physical activation of young men--a Multidisciplinary Population-Based Randomized Controlled Trial (MOPO study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, Riikka; Pyky, Riitta; Jämsä, Timo; Mäntysaari, Matti; Koskimäki, Heli; Ikäheimo, Tiina M; Huotari, Maija-Leena; Röning, Juha; Heikkinen, Hannu I; Korpelainen, Raija

    2013-01-14

    use. It can also be utilized as such or tailored to other selected populations or age groups. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01376986.

  14. Pragmatic Randomized, Controlled Trial of Patient Navigators and Enhanced Personal Health Records in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneethan, Sankar D; Jolly, Stacey E; Schold, Jesse D; Arrigain, Susana; Nakhoul, Georges; Konig, Victoria; Hyland, Jennifer; Burrucker, Yvette K; Dann, Priscilla Davis; Tucky, Barbara H; Sharp, John; Nally, Joseph V

    2017-09-07

    Patient navigators and enhanced personal health records improve the quality of health care delivered in other disease states. We aimed to develop a navigator program for patients with CKD and an electronic health record-based enhanced personal health record to disseminate CKD stage-specific goals of care and education. We also conducted a pragmatic randomized clinical trial to compare the effect of a navigator program for patients with CKD with enhanced personal health record and compare their combination compared with usual care among patients with CKD stage 3b/4. Two hundred and nine patients from six outpatient clinics (in both primary care and nephrology settings) were randomized in a 2×2 factorial design into four-study groups: ( 1 ) enhanced personal health record only, ( 2 ) patient navigator only, ( 3 ) both, and ( 4 ) usual care (control) group. Primary outcome measure was the change in eGFR over a 2-year follow-up period. Secondary outcome measures included acquisition of appropriate CKD-related laboratory measures, specialty referrals, and hospitalization rates. Median age of the study population was 68 years old, and 75% were white. At study entry, 54% of patients were followed by nephrologists, and 88% were on renin-angiotensin system blockers. After a 2-year follow-up, rate of decline in eGFR was similar across the four groups ( P =0.19). Measurements of CKD-related laboratory parameters were not significantly different among the groups. Furthermore, referral for dialysis education and vascular access placement, emergency room visits, and hospitalization rates were not statistically significant different between the groups. We successfully developed a patient navigator program and an enhanced personal health record for the CKD population. However, there were no differences in eGFR decline and other outcomes among the study groups. Larger and long-term studies along with cost-effectiveness analyses are needed to evaluate the role of patient navigators

  15. 75 FR 54351 - Cell and Gene Therapy Clinical Trials in Pediatric Populations; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ...] Cell and Gene Therapy Clinical Trials in Pediatric Populations; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug... Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) is announcing a public workshop entitled ``Cell and Gene Therapy... Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), gene and cellular therapy clinical researchers, and other stakeholders...

  16. Demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions: are they relevant to population health patterns in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuate Defo, Barthélémy

    2014-01-01

    Studies of trends in population changes and epidemiological profiles in the developing world have overwhelmingly relied upon the concepts of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions, even though their usefulness in describing and understanding population and health trends in developing countries has been repeatedly called into question. The issue is particularly relevant for the study of population health patterns in Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as the history and experience there differs substantially from that of Western Europe and North America, for which these concepts were originally developed. The aim of this study is two-fold: to review and clarify any distinction between the concepts of demographic transition, epidemiological transition and health transition and to identify summary indicators of population health to test how well these concepts apply in Africa. Notwithstanding the characteristically diverse African context, Africa is a continent of uncertainties and emergencies where discontinuities and interruptions of health, disease, and mortality trends reflect the enduring fragility and instability of countries and the vulnerabilities of individuals and populations in the continent. Africa as a whole remains the furthest behind the world's regions in terms of health improvements and longevity, as do its sub-Saharan African regions and societies specifically. This study documents: 1) theoretically and empirically the similarities and differences between the demographic transition, epidemiological transition, and health transition; 2) simple summary indicators that can be used to evaluate their descriptive and predictive features; 3) marked disparities in the onset and pace of variations and divergent trends in health, disease, and mortality patterns as well as fertility and life expectancy trajectories among African countries and regions over the past 60 years; 4) the rapid decline in infant mortality and gains in life expectancy from the

  17. ROMANIAN FOOD CONSUMPTION AND ITS EFFECTS ON POPULATION'S HEALTH CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela CONSTANDACHE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Public health is a top priority for the European Union. The main factor in ensuring population health is food consumption and in particular food quality. The present paper aims at analyzing Romanian population food consumption during the 1990-2012 periods, its evolution in time; it identifies its main features and their effects on population health. Amid the economic crisis the purchasing power of population is impaired leading to insufficient consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables and a low intake of vitamins, calcium, phosphorous and iron (especially in children, women and elderly people, which could be an important risk factor in the development of chronic diseases.

  18. Adaptive genetic variability and differentiation of Croatian and Austrian Quercus robur L. populations at a drought prone field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Bogdan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Provenance trials, where populations of different geographical origin are tested in a common environment (common garden test, are a tool suited to allow the study of intraspecific adaptive genetic variation. Research of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L. adaptive genetic variability through analyses of populations in common garden tests has a long tradition. However, pedunculated oak populations originating south-eastern from the Alps have been scarcely studied in this way. This study addresses the adaptive genetic variability and differentiation of pedunculate oak populations originating from Austria and Croatia in a provenance/progeny field trial. Studied plants were six years old and were growing at the trial for three years. After two years of unusually low precipitations height and survival were analysed. The total mean height of all plants in the trial was 137.8 cm and ranged from 123.0 cm to 151.8 cm. The overall mean survival rate was rather high (0.85. Mean population survival ranged from 0.64 to 0.94. Individual narrow-sense heritabilities (hi2, family mean heritabilities (hf2, the coefficients of additive genetic variation (CVA and quantitative genetic differentiation coefficients (QST were calculated. A multivariate regression tree (MRT analysis was used to determine the pattern of genetic differentiation of the populations. Individual heritabilities for height ranged between 0.00 and 0.39. Family mean heritabilities for height were rather low in most populations as well (<0.5. Family mean heritabilities for survival were higher than for height (ranging between 0.00 and 0.77. Calculated QST coefficients (0.25 for height and 0.14 for survival indicated between-population genetic differentiation. The populations were separated into two clusters by MRT analysis regarding a climatic variable, namely Hargreaves’ reference evapotranspiration. Populations originating from comparatively more humid habitats were grouped in the first

  19. Politics, welfare regimes, and population health: controversies and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo; Espelt, Albert; Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica; Benach, Joan; O'Campo, Patricia

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, a research area has emerged within social determinants of health that examines the role of politics, expressed as political traditions/parties and welfare state characteristics, on population health. To better understand and synthesise this growing body of evidence, the present literature review, informed by a political economy of health and welfare regimes framework, located 73 empirical and comparative studies on politics and health, meeting our inclusion criteria in three databases: PubMed (1948-), Sociological Abstracts (1953-), and ISI Web of Science (1900-). We identified two major research programmes, welfare regimes and democracy, and two emerging programmes, political tradition and globalisation. Primary findings include: (1) left and egalitarian political traditions on population health are the most salutary, consistent, and substantial; (2) the health impacts of advanced and liberal democracies are also positive and large; (3) welfare regime studies, primarily conducted among wealthy countries, find that social democratic regimes tend to fare best with absolute health outcomes yet consistently in terms of relative health inequalities; and (4) globalisation defined as dependency indicators such as trade, foreign investment, and national debt is negatively associated with population health. We end by discussing epistemological, theoretical, and methodological issues for consideration for future research. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Comparing population health in the United States and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huguet Nathalie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the paper is to compare population health in the United States (US and Canada. Although the two countries are very similar in many ways, there are potentially important differences in the levels of social and economic inequality and the organization and financing of and access to health care in the two countries. Methods Data are from the Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health 2002/03. The Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3 was used to measure overall health-related quality of life (HRQL. Mean HUI3 scores were compared, adjusting for major determinants of health, including body mass index, smoking, education, gender, race, and income. In addition, estimates of life expectancy were compared. Finally, mean HUI3 scores by age and gender and Canadian and US life tables were used to estimate health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE. Results Life expectancy in Canada is higher than in the US. For those Conclusions The population of Canada appears to be substantially healthier than the US population with respect to life expectancy, HRQL, and HALE. Factors that account for the difference may include access to health care over the full life span (universal health insurance and lower levels of social and economic inequality, especially among the elderly.

  1. Using systems science for population health management in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Kong, Nan; Lawley, Mark A; Pagán, José A

    2014-10-01

    Population health management is becoming increasingly important to organizations managing and providing primary care services given ongoing changes in health care delivery and payment systems. The objective of this study is to show how systems science methodologies could be incorporated into population health management to compare different interventions and improve health outcomes. The New York Academy of Medicine Cardiovascular Health Simulation model (an agent-based model) and data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to evaluate a lifestyle program that could be implemented in primary care practice settings. The program targeted Medicare-age adults and focused on improving diet and exercise and reducing weight. The simulation results suggest that there would be significant reductions projected in the proportion of the Medicare-age population with diabetes after the implementation of the proposed lifestyle program for a relatively long term (3 and 5 years). Similar results were found for the subpopulations with high cholesterol, but the proposed intervention would not have a significant effect in the proportion of the population with hypertension over a time period of Systems science methodologies can be useful to compare the health outcomes of different interventions. These tools can become an important component of population health management because they can help managers and other decision makers evaluate alternative programs in primary care settings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Silence is deadly: a cluster-randomised controlled trial of a mental health help-seeking intervention for young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calear, Alison L; Banfield, Michelle; Batterham, Philip J; Morse, Alyssa R; Forbes, Owen; Carron-Arthur, Bradley; Fisk, Martin

    2017-10-23

    one jurisdiction, could be more widely delivered in Australian high schools. The Silence is Deadly program has the potential to significantly contribute to the mental health of young men in Australia by improving help-seeking for suicidality and mental health problems, allowing this population to better access treatment and support sooner. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12617000658314 . Registered on 8 May 2017.

  3. FastStats: Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Source: Summary Health Statistics Tables for the U.S. Population: National Health Interview Survey, 2015, Table P-1c [ ...

  4. Evaluation of an Australian health literacy training program for socially disadvantaged adults attending basic education classes: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffery, Kirsten J; Morony, Suzanne; Muscat, Danielle M; Smith, Sian K; Shepherd, Heather L; Dhillon, Haryana M; Hayen, Andrew; Luxford, Karen; Meshreky, Wedyan; Comings, John; Nutbeam, Don

    2016-05-27

    People with low literacy and low health literacy have poorer health outcomes. Literacy and health literacy are distinct but overlapping constructs that impact wellbeing. Interventions that target both could improve health outcomes. This is a cluster randomised controlled trial with a qualitative component. Participants are 300 adults enrolled in basic language, literacy and numeracy programs at adult education colleges across New South Wales, Australia. Each adult education institute (regional administrative centre) contributes (at least) two classes matched for student demographics, which may be at the same or different campuses. Classes (clusters) are randomly allocated to receive either the health literacy intervention (an 18-week program with health knowledge and skills embedded in language, literacy, and numeracy training (LLN)), or the standard Language Literacy and Numeracy (LLN) program (usual LLN classes, specifically excluding health content). The primary outcome is functional health literacy skills - knowing how to use a thermometer, and read and interpret food and medicine labels. The secondary outcomes are self-reported confidence, more advanced health literacy skills; shared decision making skills, patient activation, health knowledge and self-reported health behaviour. Data is collected at baseline, and immediately and 6 months post intervention. A sample of participating teachers, students, and community health workers will be interviewed in-depth about their experiences with the program to better understand implementation issues and to strengthen the potential for scaling up the program. Outcomes will provide evidence regarding real-world implementation of a health literacy training program with health worker involvement in an Australian adult education setting. The evaluation trial will provide insight into translating and scaling up health literacy education for vulnerable populations with low literacy. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials

  5. A Social Work Approach to Policy: Implications for Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel P; Bazzi, Angela R; Allen, Heidi L; Martinson, Melissa L; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Jantz, Kathryn; Crevi, Katherine; Rosenbloom, David L

    2017-12-01

    The substantial disparities in health and poorer outcomes in the United States relative to peer nations suggest the need to refocus health policy. Through direct contact with the most vulnerable segments of the population, social workers have developed an approach to policy that recognizes the importance of the social environment, the value of social relationships, and the significance of value-driven policymaking. This approach could be used to reorient health, health care, and social policies. Accordingly, social workers can be allies to public health professionals in efforts to eliminate disparities and improve population health.

  6. Meta Salud Diabetes study protocol: a cluster-randomised trial to reduce cardiovascular risk among a diabetic population of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Samantha; Denman Champion, Catalina; Bell, Melanie L; Cornejo Vucovich, Elsa; Ingram, Maia; Valenica, Celina; Castro Vasquez, Maria Del Carmen; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, Eduardo; Geurnsey de Zapien, Jill; Rosales, Cecilia B

    2018-03-12

    Northern Mexico has among the highest rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes in the world. This research addresses core gaps in implementation science to develop, test and scale-up CVD risk-reduction interventions in diabetics through a national primary care health system. The Meta Salud Diabetes (MSD) research project is a parallel two-arm cluster-randomised clinical behavioural trial based in 22 (n=22) health centres in Sonora, Mexico. MSD aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the MSD intervention for the secondary prevention of CVD risk factors among a diabetic population (n=320) compared with the study control of usual care. The MSD intervention consists of 2-hour class sessions delivered over a 13-week period providing educational information to encourage sustainable behavioural change to prevent disease complications including the adoption of physical activity. MSD is delivered within the context of Mexico's national primary care health centre system by health professionals, including nurses, physicians and community health workers via existing social support groups for individuals diagnosed with chronic disease. Mixed models are used to estimate the effect of MSD by comparing cardiovascular risk, as measured by the Framingham Risk Score, between the trial arms. Secondary outcomes include hypertension, behavioural risk factors and psychosocial factors. This work is supported by the National Institutes of Health, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (1R01HL125996-01) and approved by the University of Arizona Research Institutional Review Board (Protocol 1508040144) and the Research Bioethics Committee at the University of Sonora. The first Internal Review Board approval date was 31 August 2015 with five subsequent approved amendments. This article refers to protocol V.0.2, dated 30 January 2017. Results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publication and presentation at international conferences and will be shared through meetings with health

  7. Recruiting faith- and non-faith-based schools, adolescents and parents to a cluster randomised sexual-health trial: experiences, challenges and lessons from the mixed-methods Jack Feasibility Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aventin, Áine; Lohan, Maria; Maguire, Lisa; Clarke, Mike

    2016-07-29

    The move toward evidence-based education has led to increasing numbers of randomised trials in schools. However, the literature on recruitment to non-clinical trials is relatively underdeveloped, when compared to that of clinical trials. Recruitment to school-based randomised trials is, however, challenging, even more so when the focus of the study is a sensitive issue such as sexual health. This article reflects on the challenges of recruiting post-primary schools, adolescent pupils and parents to a cluster randomised feasibility trial of a sexual-health intervention, and the strategies employed to address them. The Jack Trial was funded by the UK National Institute for Health Research. It comprised a feasibility study of an interactive film-based sexual-health intervention entitled If I Were Jack, recruiting over 800 adolescents from eight socio-demographically diverse post-primary schools in Northern Ireland. It aimed to determine the facilitators and barriers to recruitment and retention to a school-based sexual-health trial and identify optimal multi-level strategies for an effectiveness study. As part of an embedded process evaluation, we conducted semi-structured interviews and focus groups with principals, vice-principals, teachers, pupils and parents recruited to the study as well as classroom observations and a parents' survey. With reference to social learning theory, we identified a number of individual-, behavioural- and environmental-level factors that influenced recruitment. Commonly identified facilitators included perceptions of the relevance and potential benefit of the intervention to adolescents, the credibility of the organisation and individuals running the study, support offered by trial staff, and financial incentives. Key barriers were prior commitment to other research, lack of time and resources, and perceptions that the intervention was incompatible with pupil or parent needs or the school ethos. Reflecting on the methodological

  8. Socioeconomic characteristics of the population living in Roma settlements and their association with health and health-related behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecková, Andrea Madarasová; Babinská, Ingrid; Bobáková, Daniela; Veselská, Zuzana Dankulincová; Bosáková, Lucia; Kolarcik, Peter; Jarcuska, Peter; Pella, Daniel; Halánová, Monika

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare socioeconomic characteristics of the Roma population living in Roma settlements with the majority population. Moreover, it was aimed to assess socioeconomic differences in health and health-related behaviour within the population living in Roma settlements. Data from the cross-sectional HepaMeta study conducted in Slovakia in 2011 were used. The sample consisted of 452 Roma (mean age = 34.7; 35.2% men) and 403 non-Roma (mean age = 33.5; 45.9% men) respondents. Roma in selected settlements were recruited by local Roma community workers. Respondents from the major population were randomly selected from a list of patients from general practitioners. Data were collected via questionnaire, anthropometric measures and analysed blood samples. Differences in socioeconomic characteristics between the population living in Roma settlements and the majority population were tested using the chi-square test. The contribution of selected socioeconomic characteristics on health and health-related behaviour of the population living in Roma settlements was assessed by logistic regression models adjusted for age and gender. The population living in Roma settlements is characterised by significantly lower socioeconomic standards, and the living conditions are significantly worse compared with the majority. With few exceptions, the study did not confirm any significant association between socioeconomic indicators and health and health-related behaviour within the population living in Roma settlements. The deteriorating effect of living in Roma settlement on health and health-related behaviour seems to be immense regardless differences in socioeconomic characteristics or living condition within the settlement population.

  9. Involving South Asian patients in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain-Gambles, M; Leese, B; Atkin, K; Brown, J; Mason, S; Tovey, P

    2004-10-01

    To investigate how South Asian patients conceptualise the notion of clinical trials and to identify key processes that impact on trial participation and the extent to which communication difficulties, perceptions of risk and attitudes to authority influence these decisions. Also to identify whether 'South Asian' patients are homogeneous in these issues, and which factors differ between different South Asian subgroups and finally how professionals regard the involvement of South Asian patients and their views on strategies to increase participation. A review of the literature on minority ethnic participation in clinical trials was followed by three qualitative interview studies. Interviews were taped and transcribed (and translated if required) and subjected to framework analysis. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 25 health professionals; 60 South Asian lay people who had not taken part in a trial and 15 South Asian trial participants. Motivations for trial participation were identified as follows: to help society, to improve own health or that of family and friends, out of obligation to the doctor and to increase scientific knowledge. Deterrents were concerns about drug side-effects, busy lifestyles, language, previous bad experiences, mistrust and feelings of not belonging to British society. There was no evidence of antipathy amongst South Asians to the concept of clinical trials and, overall, the younger respondents were more knowledgeable than the older ones. Problems are more likely to be associated with service delivery. Lack of being approached was a common response. Lay-reported factors that might affect South Asian participation in clinical trials include age, language, social class, feeling of not belonging/mistrust, culture and religion. Awareness of clinical trials varied between each group. There are more similarities than differences in attitudes towards clinical trial participation between the South Asian and the general population

  10. What are the health benefits of active travel? A systematic review of trials and cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda E Saunders

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing active travel (primarily walking and cycling has been widely advocated for reducing obesity levels and achieving other population health benefits. However, the strength of evidence underpinning this strategy is unclear. This study aimed to assess the evidence that active travel has significant health benefits. METHODS: The study design was a systematic review of (i non-randomised and randomised controlled trials, and (ii prospective observational studies examining either (a the effects of interventions to promote active travel or (b the association between active travel and health outcomes. Reports of studies were identified by searching 11 electronic databases, websites, reference lists and papers identified by experts in the field. Prospective observational and intervention studies measuring any health outcome of active travel in the general population were included. Studies of patient groups were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies from 12 countries were included, of which six were studies conducted with children. Five studies evaluated active travel interventions. Nineteen were prospective cohort studies which did not evaluate the impact of a specific intervention. No studies were identified with obesity as an outcome in adults; one of five prospective cohort studies in children found an association between obesity and active travel. Small positive effects on other health outcomes were found in five intervention studies, but these were all at risk of selection bias. Modest benefits for other health outcomes were identified in five prospective studies. There is suggestive evidence that active travel may have a positive effect on diabetes prevention, which may be an important area for future research. CONCLUSIONS: Active travel may have positive effects on health outcomes, but there is little robust evidence to date of the effectiveness of active transport interventions for reducing obesity. Future evaluations of such

  11. Moving Upstream in U.S. Hospital Care Toward Investments in Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begun, James W; Potthoff, Sandra

    The root causes for most health outcomes are often collectively referred to as the social determinants of health. Hospitals and health systems now must decide how much to "move upstream," or invest in programs that directly affect the social determinants of health. Moving upstream in healthcare delivery requires an acceptance of responsibility for the health of populations. We examine responses of 950 nonfederal, general hospitals in the United States to the 2015 American Hospital Association Population Health Survey to identify characteristics that distinguish those hospitals that are most aligned with population health and most engaged in addressing social determinants of health. Those "upstream" hospitals are significantly more likely to be large, not-for-profit, metropolitan, teaching-affiliated, and members of systems. Internally, the more upstream hospitals are more likely to organize their population health activities with strong executive-level involvement, full-time-equivalent support, and coordination at the system level.The characteristics differentiating hospitals strongly involved in population health and upstream activity are not unlike those characteristics associated with diffusion of many innovations in hospitals. These hospitals may be the early adopters in a diffusion process that will eventually include most hospitals or, at least, most not-for-profit hospitals. Alternatively, the population health and social determinants movements could be transient or could be limited to a small portion of hospitals such as those identified here, with distinctive patient populations, missions, and resources.

  12. A systematic review of population health interventions and Scheduled Tribes in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labonté Ronald

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite India's recent economic growth, health and human development indicators of Scheduled Tribes (ST or Adivasi (India's indigenous populations lag behind national averages. The aim of this review was to identify the public health interventions or components of these interventions that are effective in reducing morbidity or mortality rates and reducing risks of ill health among ST populations in India, in order to inform policy and to identify important research gaps. Methods We systematically searched and assessed peer-reviewed literature on evaluations or intervention studies of a population health intervention undertaken with an ST population or in a tribal area, with a population health outcome(s, and involving primary data collection. Results The evidence compiled in this review revealed three issues that promote effective public health interventions with STs: (1 to develop and implement interventions that are low-cost, give rapid results and can be easily administered, (2: a multi-pronged approach, and (3: involve ST populations in the intervention. Conclusion While there is a growing body of knowledge on the health needs of STs, there is a paucity of data on how we can address these needs. We provide suggestions on how to undertake future population health intervention research with ST populations and offer priority research avenues that will help to address our knowledge gap in this area.

  13. Tailored approaches to stroke health education (TASHE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenell, Joseph; Leighton-Herrmann, Ellyn; Abel-Bey, Amparo; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Teresi, Jeanne; Valdez, Lenfis; Gordillo, Madeleine; Gerin, William; Hecht, Michael; Ramirez, Mildred; Noble, James; Cohn, Elizabeth; Jean-Louis, Giardin; Spruill, Tanya; Waddy, Salina; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Williams, Olajide

    2015-04-19

    Stroke is a leading cause of adult disability and mortality. Intravenous thrombolysis can minimize disability when patients present to the emergency department for treatment within the 3 - 4½ h of symptom onset. Blacks and Hispanics are more likely to die and suffer disability from stroke than whites, due in part to delayed hospital arrival and ineligibility for intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke. Low stroke literacy (poor knowledge of stroke symptoms and when to call 911) among Blacks and Hispanics compared to whites may contribute to disparities in acute stroke treatment and outcomes. Improving stroke literacy may be a critical step along the pathway to reducing stroke disparities. The aim of the current study is to test a novel intervention to increase stroke literacy in minority populations in New York City. In a two-arm cluster randomized trial, we will evaluate the effectiveness of two culturally tailored stroke education films - one in English and one in Spanish - on changing behavioral intent to call 911 for suspected stroke, compared to usual care. These films will target knowledge of stroke symptoms, the range of severity of symptoms and the therapeutic benefit of calling 911, as well as address barriers to timely presentation to the hospital. Given the success of previous church-based programs targeting behavior change in minority populations, this trial will be conducted with 250 congregants across 14 churches (125 intervention; 125 control). Our proposed outcomes are (1) recognition of stroke symptoms and (2) behavioral intent to call 911 for suspected stroke, measured using the Stroke Action Test at the 6-month and 1-year follow-up. This is the first randomized trial of a church-placed narrative intervention to improve stroke outcomes in urban Black and Hispanic populations. A film intervention has the potential to make a significant public health impact, as film is a highly scalable and disseminable medium. Since there is at least one

  14. [Health services utilization by the immigrant population in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Enrique; Sanz, Belén; Pascual, Cruz; Lostao, Lourdes; Sánchez, Elisabeth; Díaz Olalla, José Manuel

    2009-12-01

    To compare health services utilization between the immigrant and indigenous populations in Spain. We used information provided by the following four health surveys carried out around 2005: Catalonia 2005; city of Madrid 2005, Canary Islands 2004 and the Autonomous Community of Valencia 2005. The health services studied were general practice, specialist services, emergency services, hospitalization, and two preventive services: pap smear test and mammography. In general, most health services were less frequently used by the immigrant population than by the Spanish population. The health services showing the least differences between the two populations were general practice and hospitalization, while the greatest differences were found in the use of specialist and preventive services. The most heterogeneous results were found in general practice and hospitalization, since some immigrant groups showed a relatively high frequency of use in some geographical areas and a relatively low frequency in other areas. The results of the present study reproduce those found in other studies carried out in countries with similar social and economic characteristics to Spain. Like previous results, the present results are difficult to explain. Future research should aim to use other study designs and to test hypotheses not put forward by the scientific community to date.

  15. Nutrient supplementation may adversely affect maternal oral health--a randomised controlled trial in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Järnstedt, Jorma; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Per

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy is increasingly recommended especially in low-resource settings, but its oral health impacts have not been studied. Our aim was to examine whether supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements affects dental caries development or periodontal health in a rural Malawian population. The study was embedded in a controlled iLiNS-DYAD trial that enrolled 1391 pregnant women Women were provided with one daily iron-folic acid capsule (IFA), one capsule with 18 micronutrients (MMN) or one sachet of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) containing protein, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids and 21 micronutrients. Oral examination of 1024 participants was conducted and panoramic X-ray taken within 6 weeks after delivery. The supplement groups were similar at baseline in average socio-economic, nutritional and health status. At the end of the intervention, the prevalence of caries was 56.7%, 69.1% and 63.3% (P = 0.004), and periodontitis 34.9%, 29.8% and 31.2% (P = 0.338) in the IFA, MMN and LNS groups, respectively. Compared with the IFA group, women in the MMN group had 0.60 (0.18-1.02) and in the LNS group 0.59 (0.17-1.01) higher mean number of caries lesions. In the absence of baseline oral health data, firm conclusions on causality cannot be drawn. However, although not confirmatory, the findings are consistent with a possibility that provision of MMN or LNS may have increased the caries incidence in this target population. Because of the potential public health impacts, further research on the association between gestational nutrient interventions and oral health in low-income settings is needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Exploring the relationship between population density and maternal health coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanlon Michael

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delivering health services to dense populations is more practical than to dispersed populations, other factors constant. This engenders the hypothesis that population density positively affects coverage rates of health services. This hypothesis has been tested indirectly for some services at a local level, but not at a national level. Methods We use cross-sectional data to conduct cross-country, OLS regressions at the national level to estimate the relationship between population density and maternal health coverage. We separately estimate the effect of two measures of density on three population-level coverage rates (6 tests in total. Our coverage indicators are the fraction of the maternal population completing four antenatal care visits and the utilization rates of both skilled birth attendants and in-facility delivery. The first density metric we use is the percentage of a population living in an urban area. The second metric, which we denote as a density score, is a relative ranking of countries by population density. The score’s calculation discounts a nation’s uninhabited territory under the assumption those areas are irrelevant to service delivery. Results We find significantly positive relationships between our maternal health indicators and density measures. On average, a one-unit increase in our density score is equivalent to a 0.2% increase in coverage rates. Conclusions Countries with dispersed populations face higher burdens to achieve multinational coverage targets such as the United Nations’ Millennial Development Goals.

  17. Health and disease in unacculturated Amerindian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neel, J V

    1977-08-01

    The stereotype of uncontacted tribal populations is that they must reproduce at near capacity to maintain or slightly increase their numbers. This paper argues that the health of minimally contacted Amerindians, as judged by the results of physical examinations and life tables for the Yanomama of Southern Venezuela and Northern Brazil, is relatively good, with population control a feature of the Indian culture. It is further argued that the usual deterioration in health with contacts with western culture probably does not result so much from special innate susceptibilities to certain epidemic diseases and to the diets and ''stresses'' of civilization as from the epidemiological characteristics of newly contacted peoples.

  18. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community singing on mental health-related quality of life of older people: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulton, Simon; Clift, Stephen; Skingley, Ann; Rodriguez, John

    2015-09-01

    As the population ages, older people account for a greater proportion of the health and social care budget. Whereas some research has been conducted on the use of music therapy for specific clinical populations, little rigorous research has been conducted looking at the value of community singing on the mental health-related quality of life of older people. To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community group singing for a population of older people in England. A pilot pragmatic individual randomised controlled trial comparing group singing with usual activities in those aged 60 years or more. A total of 258 participants were recruited across five centres in East Kent. At 6 months post-randomisation, significant differences were observed in terms of mental health-related quality of life measured using the SF12 (mean difference = 2.35; 95% CI = 0.06-4.76) in favour of group singing. In addition, the intervention was found to be marginally more cost-effective than usual activities. At 3 months, significant differences were observed for the mental health components of quality of life (mean difference = 4.77; 2.53-7.01), anxiety (mean difference = -1.78; -2.5 to -1.06) and depression (mean difference = -1.52; -2.13 to -0.92). Community group singing appears to have a significant effect on mental health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression, and it may be a useful intervention to maintain and enhance the mental health of older people. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  19. A controlled trial of implementing a complex mental health intervention for carers of vulnerable young people living in out-of-home care: the ripple project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Helen; Humphreys, Cathy; Halperin, Stephen; Monson, Katherine; Harvey, Carol; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Cotton, Susan; Mitchell, Penelope; Glynn, Tony; Magnus, Anne; Murray, Lenice; Szwarc, Josef; Davis, Elise; Havighurst, Sophie; McGorry, Patrick; Tyano, Sam; Kaplan, Ida; Rice, Simon; Moeller-Saxone, Kristen

    2016-12-07

    Out-of-home care (OoHC) refers to young people removed from their families by the state because of abuse, neglect or other adversities. Many of the young people experience poor mental health and social function before, during and after leaving care. Rigorously evaluated interventions are urgently required. This publication describes the protocol for the Ripple project and notes early findings from a controlled trial demonstrating the feasibility of the work. The Ripple project is implementing and evaluating a complex mental health intervention that aims to strengthen the therapeutic capacities of carers and case managers of young people (12-17 years) in OoHC. The study is conducted in partnership with mental health, substance abuse and social services in Melbourne, with young people as participants. It has three parts: 1. Needs assessment and implementation of a complex mental health intervention; 2. A 3-year controlled trial of the mental health, social and economic outcomes; and 3. Nested process evaluation of the intervention. Early findings characterising the young people, their carers and case managers and implementing the intervention are available. The trial Wave 1 includes interviews with 176 young people, 52% of those eligible in the study population, 104 carers and 79 case managers. Implementing and researching an affordable service system intervention appears feasible and likely to be applicable in other places and countries. Success of the intervention will potentially contribute to reducing mental ill-health among these young people, including suicide attempts, self-harm and substance abuse, as well as reducing homelessness, social isolation and contact with the criminal justice system. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12615000501549 . Retrospectively registered 19 May 2015.

  20. Health benefit for the child and promotion of the common good were the two most important reasons for participation in the FinIP vaccine trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Heta; Syrjänen, Ritva K; Puumalainen, Taneli; Sirén, Päivi; Palmu, Arto A

    2015-07-17

    The Finnish Invasive Pneumococcal disease (FinIP) vaccine trial was a nationwide cluster-randomised double-blind trial designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in vaccinated children and indirect effects in unvaccinated populations. Together with the parallel carriage/AOM trial, over 47,000 children were enrolled, 52% of the initial target. We conducted a questionnaire study to find out which factors affected parents' decision on their child's study participation. A questionnaire designed to evaluate parents' attitudes to vaccine trial participation in general and the FinIP trial in particular was mailed after the trial enrolment period had ended to parents of randomly selected children: 1484 who participated in the trial and 1485 who did not participate. Altogether 1438 parents (48%) responded to the questionnaire. The response rate was higher among FinIP participants (65%, 965/1484) than among FinIP non-participants (32%, 473/1485). The two most important reasons for giving consent to the FinIP trial were the potential benefit of immunisation against pneumococcal diseases (75% of consenters) and the promotion of the common good and public health (11%). The reasons reported as most important for declining consent were suspicions of vaccine safety (36%) and the double-blind trial design (12%). Up to 65% of the non-consenters declared that drug and vaccine trials should not be conducted in children at all. The expected health benefit for the child was by far the most important reason for consenting to the vaccine trial. Safety concern was the main reason for decline. Importance and necessity of clinical drug and vaccine trials among children and the rationale of the blinded studies should be thoroughly explained to the public. This may increase participation in future vaccine trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions: are they relevant to population health patterns in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthélémy Kuate Defo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of trends in population changes and epidemiological profiles in the developing world have overwhelmingly relied upon the concepts of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions, even though their usefulness in describing and understanding population and health trends in developing countries has been repeatedly called into question. The issue is particularly relevant for the study of population health patterns in Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as the history and experience there differs substantially from that of Western Europe and North America, for which these concepts were originally developed. Objective: The aim of this study is two-fold: to review and clarify any distinction between the concepts of demographic transition, epidemiological transition and health transition and to identify summary indicators of population health to test how well these concepts apply in Africa. Results: Notwithstanding the characteristically diverse African context, Africa is a continent of uncertainties and emergencies where discontinuities and interruptions of health, disease, and mortality trends reflect the enduring fragility and instability of countries and the vulnerabilities of individuals and populations in the continent. Africa as a whole remains the furthest behind the world's regions in terms of health improvements and longevity, as do its sub-Saharan African regions and societies specifically. This study documents: 1 theoretically and empirically the similarities and differences between the demographic transition, epidemiological transition, and health transition; 2 simple summary indicators that can be used to evaluate their descriptive and predictive features; 3 marked disparities in the onset and pace of variations and divergent trends in health, disease, and mortality patterns as well as fertility and life expectancy trajectories among African countries and regions over the past 60 years; 4 the rapid decline in infant

  2. Demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions: are they relevant to population health patterns in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuate Defo, Barthélémy

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of trends in population changes and epidemiological profiles in the developing world have overwhelmingly relied upon the concepts of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions, even though their usefulness in describing and understanding population and health trends in developing countries has been repeatedly called into question. The issue is particularly relevant for the study of population health patterns in Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as the history and experience there differs substantially from that of Western Europe and North America, for which these concepts were originally developed. Objective The aim of this study is two-fold: to review and clarify any distinction between the concepts of demographic transition, epidemiological transition and health transition and to identify summary indicators of population health to test how well these concepts apply in Africa. Results Notwithstanding the characteristically diverse African context, Africa is a continent of uncertainties and emergencies where discontinuities and interruptions of health, disease, and mortality trends reflect the enduring fragility and instability of countries and the vulnerabilities of individuals and populations in the continent. Africa as a whole remains the furthest behind the world's regions in terms of health improvements and longevity, as do its sub-Saharan African regions and societies specifically. This study documents: 1) theoretically and empirically the similarities and differences between the demographic transition, epidemiological transition, and health transition; 2) simple summary indicators that can be used to evaluate their descriptive and predictive features; 3) marked disparities in the onset and pace of variations and divergent trends in health, disease, and mortality patterns as well as fertility and life expectancy trajectories among African countries and regions over the past 60 years; 4) the rapid decline in infant mortality and gains

  3. [Methodological quality evaluation of randomized controlled trials for traditional Chinese medicines for treatment of sub-health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Liao, Xing; Zhao, Hui; Li, Zhi-Geng; Wang, Nan-Yue; Wang, Li-Min

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the methodological quality of the randomized controlled trials(RCTs) for traditional Chinese medicines for treatment of sub-health, in order to provide a scientific basis for the improvement of clinical trials and systematic review. Such databases as CNKI, CBM, VIP, Wanfang, EMbase, Medline, Clinical Trials, Web of Science and Cochrane Library were searched for RCTS for traditional Chinese medicines for treatment of sub-health between the time of establishment and February 29, 2016. Cochrane Handbook 5.1 was used to screen literatures and extract data, and CONSORT statement and CONSORT for traditional Chinese medicine statement were adopted as the basis for quality evaluation. Among the 72 RCTs included in this study, 67 (93.05%) trials described the inter-group baseline data comparability, 39(54.17%) trials described the unified diagnostic criteria, 28(38.89%) trials described the unified standards of efficacy, 4 (5.55%) trials mentioned the multi-center study, 19(26.38%) trials disclosed the random distribution method, 6(8.33%) trials used the random distribution concealment, 15(20.83%) trials adopted the method of blindness, 3(4.17%) study reported the sample size estimation in details, 5 (6.94%) trials showed a sample size of more than two hundred, 19(26.38%) trials reported the number of withdrawal, defluxion cases and those lost to follow-up, but only 2 trials adopted the ITT analysis,10(13.89%) trials reported the follow-up results, none of the trial reported the test registration and the test protocol, 48(66.7%) trials reported all of the indicators of expected outcomes, 26(36.11%) trials reported the adverse reactions and adverse events, and 4(5.56%) trials reported patient compliance. The overall quality of these randomized controlled trials for traditional Chinese medicines for treatment of sub-health is low, with methodological defects in different degrees. Therefore, it is still necessary to emphasize the correct application of principles

  4. A Social Work Approach to Policy: Implications for Population Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Angela R.; Allen, Heidi L.; Martinson, Melissa L.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Jantz, Kathryn; Crevi, Katherine; Rosenbloom, David L.

    2017-01-01

    The substantial disparities in health and poorer outcomes in the United States relative to peer nations suggest the need to refocus health policy. Through direct contact with the most vulnerable segments of the population, social workers have developed an approach to policy that recognizes the importance of the social environment, the value of social relationships, and the significance of value-driven policymaking. This approach could be used to reorient health, health care, and social policies. Accordingly, social workers can be allies to public health professionals in efforts to eliminate disparities and improve population health. PMID:29236535

  5. The Children and Parents in Focus project: a population-based cluster-randomised controlled trial to prevent behavioural and emotional problems in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Fabian, Helena; Prinz, Ron; Lucas, Steven; Feldman, Inna; Fairchild, Amanda; Sarkadi, Anna

    2013-10-16

    There is large body of knowledge to support the importance of early interventions to improve child health and development. Nonetheless, it is important to identify cost-effective blends of preventive interventions with adequate coverage and feasible delivery modes. The aim of the Children and Parents in Focus trial is to compare two levels of parenting programme intensity and rate of exposure, with a control condition to address impact and cost-effectiveness of a universally offered evidence-based parenting programme in the Swedish context. The trial has a cluster randomised controlled design comprising three arms: Universal arm (with access to participation in Triple P - Positive Parenting Program, level 2); Universal Plus arm (with access to participation in Triple P - Positive Parenting Program, level 2 as well as level 3, and level 4 group); and Services as Usual arm. The sampling frame is Uppsala municipality in Sweden. Child health centres consecutively recruit parents of children aged 3 to 5 years before their yearly check-ups (during the years 2013-2017). Outcomes will be measured annually. The primary outcome will be children's behavioural and emotional problems as rated by three informants: fathers, mothers and preschool teachers. The other outcomes will be parents' behaviour and parents' general health. Health economic evaluations will analyse cost-effectiveness of the interventions versus care as usual by comparing the costs and consequences in terms of impact on children's mental health, parent's mental health and health-related quality of life. This study addresses the need for comprehensive evaluation of the long-term effects, costs and benefits of early parenting interventions embedded within existing systems. In addition, the study will generate population-based data on the mental health and well-being of preschool aged children in Sweden. ISRCTN16513449.

  6. Do workplace physical activity interventions improve mental health outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, A H Y; Koh, D; Moy, F M; Müller-Riemenschneider, F

    2014-06-01

    Mental health is an important issue in the working population. Interventions to improve mental health have included physical activity. To review evidence for the effectiveness of workplace physical activity interventions on mental health outcomes. A literature search was conducted for studies published between 1990 and August 2013. Inclusion criteria were physical activity trials, working populations and mental health outcomes. Study quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. Of 3684 unique articles identified, 17 met all selection criteria, including 13 randomized controlled trials, 2 comparison trials and 2 controlled trials. Studies were grouped into two key intervention areas: physical activity and yoga exercise. Of eight high-quality trials, two provided strong evidence for a reduction in anxiety, one reported moderate evidence for an improvement in depression symptoms and one provided limited evidence on relieving stress. The remaining trials did not provide evidence on improved mental well-being. Workplace physical activity and yoga programmes are associated with a significant reduction in depressive symptoms and anxiety, respectively. Their impact on stress relief is less conclusive. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Randomised controlled trials and changing public health practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Cockcroft

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One reason for doing randomised controlled trials (RCTs is that experiments can be convincing. Early epidemiological experimenters, such as Jenner and the smallpox vaccine and Snow and his famous Broad Street pump handle, already knew the answer they were demonstrating; they used the experiments as knowledge translation devices to convince others. More sophisticated modern experiments include cluster randomised controlled trials (CRCTs for experiments in the public health setting. The knowledge translation value remains: RCTs and CRCTs can potentially stimulate changes of practice among stakeholders. Capitalising on the knowledge translation value of RCTs requires more than the standard reporting of trials. Those who are convinced by a trial and want to act, need to know how the trial relates to their own context, what contributed to success, and what might make it even more effective. Implementation research unpacks the back-story, examining how and why an intervention worked. The Camino Verde trial of community mobilisation for control of dengue reported a significant impact on entomological indices of the Aedes aegypti vector, and on serological dengue virus infection and self-reported dengue cases. This important study should lead to studies of similar interventions in other contexts, and ultimately to changes in dengue control practices. This supplement is the back-story of the trial, providing information to help researchers and planners to make use of the trial findings. Background articles include the full protocol, a systematic review of CRCTs of approaches for Aedes aegypti control, epidemiological and entomological findings from the baseline survey, and how baseline findings were used to set up the intervention. Secondary analyses of the entomological findings examine associations with the use of the larvicide temephos, and the impact of the intervention in different conditions of water supply and seasons. Other articles

  8. The effect of exercise on prescription on physical activity and wellbeing in a multi-ethnic female population: A controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gademan, Maaike G J; Deutekom, Marije; Hosper, Karen; Stronks, Karien

    2012-09-10

    In Western countries, individuals from multi-ethnic disadvantaged populations are less physically active than the Western population as a whole. This lack of physical activity (PA) may be one of the factors explaining disparities in health. Exercise on Prescription" (EoP), is an exercise program to which persons are referred by primary care. It has been developed to suit the needs of physically inactive women from diverse ethnic backgrounds living in deprived neighborhoods in the Netherlands. The effectiveness of this program has however, not yet been proven. A total of 514 women from diverse ethnic backgrounds were included in this study (192 EoP, 322 control group). Women in the EoP group participated in 18 sessions of supervised PA. The control group received care as usual. At baseline, 6 and 12 months the women attended an interview and a physical examination. Outcome measures were PA, BMI, weight circumference, fat percentage, oxygen uptake, mental well-being, subjective health and use of care. Of the participants 59% had a low educational level and 90% of the women were overweight or obese. Compliance was high, only 14% dropped out during the course of the program. Total PA did not change, PA during leisure time increased at 6 and at 12 months and PA during household activities increased at 12 months (PEoPvsControl < 0.05). EoP had no significant effect on the other outcome variables. EoP was successful in recruiting its target population and compliance was high. The effect of EoP on PA, health and mental well-being was limited. In this format EoP does not seem to be effective for increasing PA and the health status of non-Western migrant women. Dutch Trial register: NTR1294.

  9. The less healthy urban population: income-related health inequality in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Health inequality has been recognized as a problem all over the world. In China, the poor usually have less access to healthcare than the better-off, despite having higher levels of need. Since the proportion of the Chinese population living in urban areas increased tremendously with the urbanization movements, attention has been paid to the association between urban/rural residence and population health. It is important to understand the variation in health across income groups, and in particular to take into account the effects of urban/rural residence on the degree of income-related health inequalities. Methods This paper empirically assesses the magnitude of rural/urban disparities in income-related adult health status, i.e., self-assessed health (SAH) and physical activity limitation, using Concentration Indices. It then uses decomposition methods to unravel the causes of inequalities and their variations across urban and rural populations. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2006 are used. Results The study finds that the poor are less likely to report their health status as “excellent or good” and are more likely to have physical activity limitation. Such inequality is more pronounced for the urban population than for the rural population. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that, for the urban population, 76.47 per cent to 79.07 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic/socioeconomic-related factors, among which income, job status and educational level are the most important factors. For the rural population, 48.19 per cent to 77.78 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic factors. Income and educational attainment appear to have a prominent influence on inequality. Conclusion The findings suggest that policy targeting the poor, especially the urban poor, is needed in order to reduce health inequality. PMID:22989200

  10. The less healthy urban population: income-related health inequality in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Kanavos, Panos

    2012-09-18

    Health inequality has been recognized as a problem all over the world. In China, the poor usually have less access to healthcare than the better-off, despite having higher levels of need. Since the proportion of the Chinese population living in urban areas increased tremendously with the urbanization movements, attention has been paid to the association between urban/rural residence and population health. It is important to understand the variation in health across income groups, and in particular to take into account the effects of urban/rural residence on the degree of income-related health inequalities. This paper empirically assesses the magnitude of rural/urban disparities in income-related adult health status, i.e., self-assessed health (SAH) and physical activity limitation, using Concentration Indices. It then uses decomposition methods to unravel the causes of inequalities and their variations across urban and rural populations. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2006 are used. The study finds that the poor are less likely to report their health status as "excellent or good" and are more likely to have physical activity limitation. Such inequality is more pronounced for the urban population than for the rural population. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that, for the urban population, 76.47 per cent to 79.07 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic/socioeconomic-related factors, among which income, job status and educational level are the most important factors. For the rural population, 48.19 per cent to 77.78 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic factors. Income and educational attainment appear to have a prominent influence on inequality. The findings suggest that policy targeting the poor, especially the urban poor, is needed in order to reduce health inequality.

  11. The less healthy urban population: income-related health inequality in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health inequality has been recognized as a problem all over the world. In China, the poor usually have less access to healthcare than the better-off, despite having higher levels of need. Since the proportion of the Chinese population living in urban areas increased tremendously with the urbanization movements, attention has been paid to the association between urban/rural residence and population health. It is important to understand the variation in health across income groups, and in particular to take into account the effects of urban/rural residence on the degree of income-related health inequalities. Methods This paper empirically assesses the magnitude of rural/urban disparities in income-related adult health status, i.e., self-assessed health (SAH and physical activity limitation, using Concentration Indices. It then uses decomposition methods to unravel the causes of inequalities and their variations across urban and rural populations. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS 2006 are used. Results The study finds that the poor are less likely to report their health status as “excellent or good” and are more likely to have physical activity limitation. Such inequality is more pronounced for the urban population than for the rural population. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that, for the urban population, 76.47 per cent to 79.07 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic/socioeconomic-related factors, among which income, job status and educational level are the most important factors. For the rural population, 48.19 per cent to 77.78 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic factors. Income and educational attainment appear to have a prominent influence on inequality. Conclusion The findings suggest that policy targeting the poor, especially the urban poor, is needed in order to reduce health inequality.

  12. Supportive Mental Health Self-Monitoring among Smartphone Users with Psychological Distress: Protocol for a Fully Mobile Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Beiwinkel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile health (mHealth could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons with moderate to high distress. Over a 4-week period, the intervention will be compared to a self-monitoring without intervention group and a passive control group. Telephone interviews will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention (4 weeks, and 12-week follow-up to assess study outcomes. The primary outcome will be improvement of mental health. Secondary outcomes will include well-being, intentions toward help-seeking and help-seeking behavior, user activation, attitudes toward mental-health services, perceived stigmatization, smartphone app quality, user satisfaction, engagement, and adherence with the intervention. Additionally, data from the user’s daily life as collected during self-monitoring will be used to investigate risk and protective factors of mental health in real-world settings. Therefore, this study will allow us to demonstrate the effectiveness of a smartphone application as a widely accessible and low-cost intervention to improve mental health on a population level. It also allows to identify new assessment approaches in the field of psychiatric epidemiology.

  13. Supportive Mental Health Self-Monitoring among Smartphone Users with Psychological Distress: Protocol for a Fully Mobile Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiwinkel, Till; Hey, Stefan; Bock, Olaf; Rössler, Wulf

    2017-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons with moderate to high distress. Over a 4-week period, the intervention will be compared to a self-monitoring without intervention group and a passive control group. Telephone interviews will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention (4 weeks), and 12-week follow-up to assess study outcomes. The primary outcome will be improvement of mental health. Secondary outcomes will include well-being, intentions toward help-seeking and help-seeking behavior, user activation, attitudes toward mental-health services, perceived stigmatization, smartphone app quality, user satisfaction, engagement, and adherence with the intervention. Additionally, data from the user’s daily life as collected during self-monitoring will be used to investigate risk and protective factors of mental health in real-world settings. Therefore, this study will allow us to demonstrate the effectiveness of a smartphone application as a widely accessible and low-cost intervention to improve mental health on a population level. It also allows to identify new assessment approaches in the field of psychiatric epidemiology. PMID:28983477

  14. Supportive Mental Health Self-Monitoring among Smartphone Users with Psychological Distress: Protocol for a Fully Mobile Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiwinkel, Till; Hey, Stefan; Bock, Olaf; Rössler, Wulf

    2017-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N  = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons with moderate to high distress. Over a 4-week period, the intervention will be compared to a self-monitoring without intervention group and a passive control group. Telephone interviews will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention (4 weeks), and 12-week follow-up to assess study outcomes. The primary outcome will be improvement of mental health. Secondary outcomes will include well-being, intentions toward help-seeking and help-seeking behavior, user activation, attitudes toward mental-health services, perceived stigmatization, smartphone app quality, user satisfaction, engagement, and adherence with the intervention. Additionally, data from the user's daily life as collected during self-monitoring will be used to investigate risk and protective factors of mental health in real-world settings. Therefore, this study will allow us to demonstrate the effectiveness of a smartphone application as a widely accessible and low-cost intervention to improve mental health on a population level. It also allows to identify new assessment approaches in the field of psychiatric epidemiology.

  15. WALK 2.0 - using Web 2.0 applications to promote health-related physical activity: a randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolt, Gregory S; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Savage, Trevor N; Maeder, Anthony J; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Duncan, Mitch J; Caperchione, Cristina M; Tague, Rhys; Hooker, Cindy; Mummery, W Kerry

    2013-05-03

    Physical inactivity is one of the leading modifiable causes of death and disease in Australia. National surveys indicate less than half of the Australian adult population are sufficiently active to obtain health benefits. The Internet is a potentially important medium for successfully communicating health messages to the general population and enabling individual behaviour change. Internet-based interventions have proven efficacy; however, intervention studies describing website usage objectively have reported a strong decline in usage, and high attrition rate, over the course of the interventions. Web 2.0 applications give users control over web content generated and present innovative possibilities to improve user engagement. There is, however, a need to assess the effectiveness of these applications in the general population. The Walk 2.0 project is a 3-arm randomised controlled trial investigating the effects of "next generation" web-based applications on engagement, retention, and subsequent physical activity behaviour change. 504 individuals will be recruited from two sites in Australia, randomly allocated to one of two web-based interventions (Web 1.0 or Web 2.0) or a control group, and provided with a pedometer to monitor physical activity. The Web 1.0 intervention will provide participants with access to an existing physical activity website with limited interactivity. The Web 2.0 intervention will provide access to a website featuring Web 2.0 content, including social networking, blogs, and virtual walking groups. Control participants will receive a logbook to record their steps. All groups will receive similar educational material on setting goals and increasing physical activity. The primary outcomes are objectively measured physical activity and website engagement and retention. Other outcomes measured include quality of life, psychosocial correlates, and anthropometric measurements. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 3, 12 and 18 months. The

  16. Population ageing alongside health care spending growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Mihajlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Silver Tsunami or population ageing has become a globally widespread phenomenon. The purpose of this review is to observe its dynamics and consequences from a local Balkan perspective. The main drivers of this unique demographic evolution are extended longevity, improved early childhood survival, absorption of women into the labor markets, and consequences of sexual revolution leading to falling female fertility. This process lasting well over a century is taking its toll on contemporary societies. Major side effects are shrinking young labor force and growing pool of elderly and retired citizens in many countries. This equation tends to worsen further in the future threatening long-term financial sustainability of public social and health insurance funds. Notable health expenditure growth, accelerating worldwide since the 1960s, is to a large degree attributable to ageing itself. Growing share of senior citizens increases demand for medical services and costs of health care provision. Home-based care provided by the family caregivers presents another important reality putting a huge burden on modern communities. Serbs are no exception in this landscape. Historical demographic evolution of this nation gives a clear evidence of advanced and accelerated ageing, which is well documented in post-World War II era. This synthesis of rich published evidence shows clear upward parallel trend between the pace of population aging and the growth of health expenditure. National authorities shall be forced to consider reform of the current health care financing pattern inherited from the demographic growth era. This might be the only way to smooth out the impact of population ageing on the financial sustainability of the health system and long-term medical care in Serbia. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. OI 175014

  17. Paradigmatic obstacles to improving the health of populations: implications for health policy

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    McKinlay John B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available While there are promising developments in public health, most interventions (both at the individual and community levels remain focused on "downstream" tertiary treatments or one-on-one interventions. These efforts have their origins in the biomedical paradigm and risk factor epidemiology and the behavioral science research methods that serve as their handmaidens. This paper argues for a more appropriate balance of "downstream" efforts with a more appropriate whole population public health approach to health policy -what may be termed a social policy approach to healthy lifestyles rather than the current lifestyle approach to health policy. New, more appropriate research methods must be developed and applied to match these emerging levels of whole population intervention. We must avoid any disjunction between new upstream policy level interventions and the methods used to measure their effect -appropriate unto the intervention level must be the evaluation method thereof.

  18. Climate change, food, water and population health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shilu; Berry, Helen L; Ebi, Kristie; Bambrick, Hilary; Hu, Wenbiao; Green, Donna; Hanna, Elizabeth; Wang, Zhiqiang; Butler, Colin D

    2016-10-01

    Anthropogenic climate change appears to be increasing the frequency, duration and intensity of extreme weather events. Such events have already had substantial impacts on socioeconomic development and population health. Climate change's most profound impacts are likely to be on food, health systems and water. This paper explores how climate change will affect food, human health and water in China. Projections indicate that the overall effects of climate change, land conversion and reduced water availability could reduce Chinese food production substantially - although uncertainty is inevitable in such projections. Climate change will probably have substantial impacts on water resources - e.g. changes in rainfall patterns and increases in the frequencies of droughts and floods in some areas of China. Such impacts would undoubtedly threaten population health and well-being in many communities. In the short-term, population health in China is likely to be adversely affected by increases in air temperatures and pollution. In the medium to long term, however, the indirect impacts of climate change - e.g. changes in the availability of food, shelter and water, decreased mental health and well-being and changes in the distribution and seasonality of infectious diseases - are likely to grow in importance. The potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change can only be avoided if all countries work together towards a substantial reduction in the emission of so-called greenhouse gases and a substantial increase in the global population's resilience to the risks of climate variability and change.

  19. Community health promotion and medical provision for neonatal health-CHAMPION cluster randomised trial in Nagarkurnool district, Telangana (formerly Andhra Pradesh, India.

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    Peter Boone

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the mid-2000s, neonatal mortality accounted for almost 40% of deaths of children under 5 years worldwide, and constituted 65% of infant deaths in India. The neonatal mortality rate in Andhra Pradesh was 44 per 1,000 live births, and was higher in the rural areas and tribal regions, such as the Nagarkurnool division of Mahabubnagar district (which became Nagarkurnool district in Telangana in 2014. The aim of the CHAMPION trial was to investigate whether a package of interventions comprising community health promotion and provision of health services (including outreach and facility-based care could lead to a reduction of the order of 25% in neonatal mortality.The design was a trial in which villages (clusters in Nagarkurnool with a population < 2,500 were randomised to the CHAMPION package of health interventions or to the control arm (in which children aged 6-9 years were provided with educational interventions-the STRIPES trial. A woman was eligible for the CHAMPION package if she was married and <50 years old, neither she nor her husband had had a family planning operation, and she resided in a trial village at the time of a baseline survey before randomisation or married into the village after randomisation. The CHAMPION intervention package comprised community health promotion (including health education via village health worker-led participatory discussion groups and provision of health services (including outreach, with mobile teams providing antenatal check-ups, and facility-based care, with subsidised access to non-public health centres [NPHCs]. Villages were stratified by travel time to the nearest NPHC and tribal status, and randomised (1:1 within strata. The primary outcome was neonatal mortality. Secondary outcomes included maternal mortality, causes of death, health knowledge, health practices including health service usage, satisfaction with care, and costs. The baseline survey (enumeration was carried out between August and

  20. Towards a Unified Taxonomy of Health Indicators: Academic Health Centers and Communities Working Together to Improve Population Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed; Franco, Zeno; Kissack, Anne; Gabriel, Davera; Hurd, Thelma; Ziegahn, Linda; Bates, Nancy J.; Calhoun, Karen; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Eder, Milton “Mickey”; Ferrans, Carol; Hacker, Karen; Rumala, Bernice B.; Strelnick, A. Hal; Wallerstein, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program represents a significant public investment. To realize its major goal of improving the public’s health and reducing health disparities, the CTSA Consortium’s Community Engagement Key Function Committee has undertaken the challenge of developing a taxonomy of community health indicators. The objective is to initiate a unified approach for monitoring progress in improving population health outcomes. Such outcomes include, importantly, the interests and priorities of community stakeholders, plus the multiple, overlapping interests of universities and of the public health and health care professions involved in the development and use of local health care indicators. The emerging taxonomy of community health indicators that the authors propose supports alignment of CTSA activities and facilitates comparative effectiveness research across CTSAs, thereby improving the health of communities and reducing health disparities. The proposed taxonomy starts at the broadest level, determinants of health; subsequently moves to more finite categories of community health indicators; and, finally, addresses specific quantifiable measures. To illustrate the taxonomy’s application, the authors have synthesized 21 health indicator projects from the literature and categorized them into international, national, or local/special jurisdictions. They furthered categorized the projects within the taxonomy by ranking indicators with the greatest representation among projects and by ranking the frequency of specific measures. They intend for the taxonomy to provide common metrics for measuring changes to population health and, thus, extend the utility of the CTSA Community Engagement Logic Model. The input of community partners will ultimately improve population health. PMID:24556775

  1. Preconception healthcare delivery at a population level: construction of public health models of preconception care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Geordan D; Alberg, Corinna; Nacul, Luis; Pashayan, Nora

    2014-08-01

    A key challenge of preconception healthcare is identifying how it can best be delivered at a population level. To review current strategies of preconception healthcare, explore methods of preconception healthcare delivery, and develop public health models which reflect different preconception healthcare pathways. Preconception care strategies, programmes and evaluations were identified through a review of Medline and Embase databases. Search terms included: preconception, pre-pregnancy, intervention, primary care, healthcare, model, delivery, program, prevention, trial, effectiveness, congenital disorders OR abnormalities, evaluation, assessment, impact. Inclusion criteria for review articles were: (1) English, (2) human subjects, (3) women of childbearing age, (4) 1980–current data, (5) all countries, (6) both high risk and universal approaches, (7) guidelines or recommendations, (8) opinion articles, (9) experimental studies. Exclusion criteria were: (1) non-human subjects, (2) non-English, (3) outside of the specified timeframe, (4) articles on male healthcare. The results of the literature review were synthesised into public health models of care: (1) primary care; (2) hospital-based and inter-conception care; (3) specific preconception care clinics; and, (4) community outreach. Fifteen evaluations of preconception care were identified. Community programmes demonstrated a significant impact on substance use, folic acid supplementation, diabetes optimization, and hyperphenylalaninemia. An ideal preconception visits entail risk screening, education, and intervention if indicated. Subsequently, four public health models were developed synthesizing preconception care delivery at a population level. Heterogeneity of risk factors, health systems and strategies of care reflect the lack of consensus about the best way to deliver preconception care. The proposed models aim to reflect differing aspects of preconception healthcare delivery.

  2. Air pollution and population health: a global challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2008-03-01

    "Air pollution and population health" is one of the most important environmental and public health issues. Economic development, urbanization, energy consumption, transportation/motorization, and rapid population growth are major driving forces of air pollution in large cities, especially in megacities. Air pollution levels in developed countries have been decreasing dramatically in recent decades. However, in developing countries and in countries in transition, air pollution levels are still at relatively high levels, though the levels have been gradually decreasing or have remained stable during rapid economic development. In recent years, several hundred epidemiological studies have emerged showing adverse health effects associated with short-term and long-term exposure to air pollutants. Time-series studies conducted in Asian cities also showed similar health effects on mortality associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) to those explored in Europe and North America. The World Health Organization (WHO) published the "WHO Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs), Global Update" in 2006. These updated AQGs provide much stricter guidelines for PM, NO(2), SO(2) and O(3). Considering that current air pollution levels are much higher than the WHO-recommended AQGs, interim targets for these four air pollutants are also recommended for member states, especially for developing countries in setting their country-specific air quality standards. In conclusion, ambient air pollution is a health hazard. It is more important in Asian developing countries within the context of pollution level and population density. Improving air quality has substantial, measurable and important public health benefits.

  3. Protocol for the economic evaluation of a complex intervention to improve the mental health of maltreated infants and children in foster care in the UK (The BeST? services trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deidda, Manuela; Boyd, Kathleen Anne; Minnis, Helen; Donaldson, Julia; Brown, Kevin; Boyer, Nicole R S; McIntosh, Emma

    2018-03-14

    Children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of mental and physical health problems throughout life. This places an enormous burden on individuals, families and society in terms of health services, education, social care and judiciary sectors. Evidence suggests that early intervention can mitigate the negative consequences of child maltreatment, exerting long-term positive effects on the health of maltreated children entering foster care. However, evidence on cost-effectiveness of such complex interventions is limited. This protocol describes the first economic evaluation of its kind in the UK. An economic evaluation alongside the Best Services Trial (BeST?) has been prospectively designed to identify, measure and value key resource and outcome impacts arising from the New Orleans intervention model (NIM) (an infant mental health service) compared with case management (CM) (enhanced social work services as usual). A within-trial economic evaluation and long-term model from a National Health Service/Personal Social Service and a broader societal perspective will be undertaken alongside the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)-Public Health Research Unit (PHRU)-funded randomised multicentre BeST?. BeST? aims to evaluate NIM compared with CM for maltreated children entering foster care in a UK context. Collection of Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and the recent mapping of PedsQL to EuroQol-5-Dimensions (EQ-5D) will facilitate the estimation of quality-adjusted life years specific to the infant population for a cost-utility analysis. Other effectiveness outcomes will be incorporated into a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and cost-consequences analysis (CCA). A long-term economic model and multiple economic evaluation frameworks will provide decision-makers with a comprehensive, multiperspective guide regarding cost-effectiveness of NIM. The long-term population health economic model will be developed to synthesise

  4. A Measure of the Potential Impact of Hospital Community Health Activities on Population Health and Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begun, James W; Kahn, Linda M; Cunningham, Brooke A; Malcolm, Jan K; Potthoff, Sandra

    2017-12-13

    Many hospitals in the United States are exploring greater investment in community health activities that address upstream causes of poor health. Develop and apply a measure to categorize and estimate the potential impact of hospitals' community health activities on population health and equity. We propose a scale of potential impact on population health and equity, based on the cliff analogy developed by Jones and colleagues. The scale is applied to the 317 activities reported in the community health needs assessment implementation plan reports of 23 health care organizations in the Minneapolis-St Paul, Minnesota metropolitan area in 2015. Using a 5-point ordinal scale, we assigned a score of potential impact on population health and equity to each community health activity. A majority (50.2%) of health care organizations' community health activities are classified as addressing social determinants of health (level 4 on the 5-point scale), though very few (5.4%) address structural causes of health equity (level 5 on the 5-point scale). Activities that score highest on potential impact fall into the topic categories of "community health and connectedness" and "healthy lifestyles and wellness." Lower-scoring activities focus on sick or at-risk individuals, such as the topic category of "chronic disease prevention, management, and screening." Health care organizations in the Minneapolis-St Paul metropolitan area vary substantially in the potential impact of their aggregated community health activities. Hospitals can be significant contributors to investment in upstream community health programs. This article provides a scale that can be used not only by hospitals but by other health care and public health organizations to better align their community health strategies, investments, and partnerships with programming and policies that address the foundational causes of population health and equity within the communities they serve.

  5. Mental health first aid training for high school teachers: a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental disorders often have their first onset during adolescence. For this reason, high school teachers are in a good position to provide initial assistance to students who are developing mental health problems. To improve the skills of teachers in this area, a Mental Health First Aid training course was modified to be suitable for high school teachers and evaluated in a cluster randomized trial. Methods The trial was carried out with teachers in South Australian high schools. Teachers at 7 schools received training and those at another 7 were wait-listed for future training. The effects of the training on teachers were evaluated using questionnaires pre- and post-training and at 6 months follow-up. The questionnaires assessed mental health knowledge, stigmatizing attitudes, confidence in providing help to others, help actually provided, school policy and procedures, and teacher mental health. The indirect effects on students were evaluated using questionnaires at pre-training and at follow-up which assessed any mental health help and information received from school staff, and also the mental health of the student. Results The training increased teachers' knowledge, changed beliefs about treatment to be more like those of mental health professionals, reduced some aspects of stigma, and increased confidence in providing help to students and colleagues. There was an indirect effect on students, who reported receiving more mental health information from school staff. Most of the changes found were sustained 6 months after training. However, no effects were found on teachers' individual support towards students with mental health problems or on student mental health. Conclusions Mental Health First Aid training has positive effects on teachers' mental health knowledge, attitudes, confidence and some aspects of their behaviour. Trial registration ACTRN12608000561381

  6. Predicting Participant Consent in mHealth Trials – A Caregiver’s Perspective

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    Yvonne O'Connor

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Informed consent is sought prior to conducting a healthcare intervention on a person. When a healthcare intervention involves a young child, their caregiver is required to provide informed consent on their behalf. However, little is known on the behavioural intentions of participants to provide consent when a mobile health (mHealth intervention is involved in a clinical trial scenario. Understanding this phenomenon is important, without consent appropriate data may not be collected to empirically examine the implications of mHealth initiatives when delivering healthcare services to children in a ‘real world context’. The objective of this paper is to explore the behavioural intentions of caregivers to provide consent for children (under five years of age to participate in mHealth Randomised Control Trials (RCT in developing countries and subsequently develop a predictive model for consent giving. Data was captured vis-à-vis interviews with Malawian caregivers in Africa. The findings reveal that emotional response stimuli play a major role during the participant informed consent process resulting in the involvement (or not of a child within an RCT. The study contributes to, and opens up, avenues for critical research on the role of informed consent as part of RCT-related projects, especially concerning the involvement of children. This new knowledge may be leveraged to address participant uncertainties and subsequently improve the rate of paediatric recruitment in mHealth trial scenarios.

  7. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey

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    Milena Santric Milicevic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. Aims: То explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households – 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5, and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index. The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at p<0.05. Results: Chronic anxiety or depression was seen in 4.9% of the respondents, and poor MHI-5 in 47% of respondents. Low education (Odds Ratios 1.32; 95% confidence intervals=1.16-1.51, unemployment (1.36; 1.18-1.56, single status (1.34; 1.23-1.45, and Wealth Index middle class (1.20; 1.08-1.32 or poor (1.33; 1.21-1.47 were significantly related with poor MHI-5. Unemployed persons in urban settlements had higher odds for poormMHI-5 than unemployed in rural areas (0.73; 0.59-0.89. Single (1.50; 1.26-1.78, unemployed (1.39; 1.07-1.80 and inactive respondents (1.42; 1.10-1.83 had a higher odds of chronic anxiety or depression than married individuals, or

  8. Health and disease in unacculturated Amerindian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neel, J.V.

    1977-08-01

    The stereotype of uncontacted tribal populations is that they must reproduce at near capacity to maintain or slightly increase their numbers. This paper argues that the health of minimally contacted Amerindians, as judged by the results of physical examinations and life tables for the Yanomama of Southern Venezuela and Northern Brazil, is relatively good, with population control a feature of the Indian culture. It is further argued that the usual deterioration in health with contacts with western culture probably does not result so much from special innate susceptibilities to certain epidemic diseases and to the diets and ''stresses'' of civilization as from the epidemiological characteristics of newly contacted peoples.

  9. Hip-Hop to Health Jr. Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Buscemi, Joanna; Stolley, Melinda R.; Schiffer, Linda A.; Kim, Yoonsang; Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez-Perez, Sandra L.; Blumstein, Lara B.; Van Horn, Linda; Dyer, Alan R.; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The preschool years provide a unique window of opportunity to intervene on obesity-related lifestyle risk factors during the formative years of a child’s life. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a preschool-based obesity prevention effectiveness trial at 1-year follow-up. Design RCT. Settings/participants Primarily African American children (aged 3–5 years, N=618) attending Head Start preschool programs administered by Chicago Public Schools. Methods Eighteen preschools were randomly assigned in 2007–2008 to receive either: (1) a 14-week teacher-delivered intervention focused on healthy lifestyle behaviors; or (2) a 14-week teacher-delivered general health curriculum (control group). Main outcome measures The primary outcome, BMI, was measured at baseline, post-intervention, and 1-year follow-up. Diet and screen time behaviors were also assessed at these time points. Multilevel mixed effects models were used to test for between-group differences. Data were analyzed in 2014. Results Significant between-group differences were observed in diet, but not in BMI z-score or screen time at 1-year follow-up. Diet differences favored the intervention arm over controls in overall diet quality (p=0.02) and in subcomponents of diet quality, as measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005, and in fruit intake (servings/day, excludes juice) (p=0.02). Diet quality worsened more among controls than the intervention group at 1-year follow-up. Conclusions The adaptation of Hip-Hop to Health Jr. produced modest benefits in diet quality, but did not significantly impact weight gain trajectory. Not unlike other effectiveness trials, this real-world version delivered by Head Start teachers produced fewer benefits than the more rigorous efficacy trial. It is important to understand and build upon the lessons learned from these types of trials so that we can design, implement, and disseminate successful evidence-based programs more widely and effectively

  10. Mindfulness as a complementary intervention in the treatment of overweight and obesity in primary health care: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Vera; Kristeller, Jean; Marin, Jesus Montero; Sanudo, Adriana; Lourenço, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer; Schveitzer, Mariana Cabral; D'Almeida, Vania; Morillo, Héctor; Gimeno, Suely Godoy Agostinho; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Demarzo, Marcelo

    2018-05-11

    Mindfulness has been applied in the United States and Europe to improve physical and psychological health; however, little is known about its feasibility and efficacy in a Brazilian population. Mindfulness may also be relevant in tackling obesity and eating disorders by decreasing binge eating episodes-partly responsible for weight regain for a large number of people-and increasing awareness of emotional and other triggers for overeating. The aim of the present study protocol is to evaluate and compare the feasibility and efficacy of two mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) addressing overweight and obesity in primary care patients: a general programme called Mindfulness-Based Health Promotion and a targeted mindful eating protocol called Mindfulness-Based Eating Awareness Training. A randomised controlled trial will be conducted to compare treatment as usual separately in primary care with both programmes (health promotion and mindful eating) added to treatment as usual. Two hundred forty adult women with overweight and obesity will be enrolled. The primary outcome will be an assessment of improvement in eating behaviour. Secondary outcomes will be (1) biochemical control; (2) anthropometric parameters, body composition, dietary intake and basal metabolism; and (3) levels of mindfulness, stress, depression, self-compassion and anxiety. At the end of each intervention, a focus group will be held to assess the programme's impact on the participants' lives, diet and health. A feasibility study on access to benefits from and importance of MBIs at primary care facilities will be conducted among primary care health care professionals and participants. Monthly maintenance sessions lasting at least 1 hour will be offered, according to each protocol, during the 3-month follow-up periods. This clinical trial will result in more effective mindfulness-based interventions as a complementary treatment in primary care for people with overweight and obesity. If the findings of

  11. Shaping Policy Change in Population Health: Policy Entrepreneurs, Ideas, and Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béland, Daniel; Katapally, Tarun R

    2018-01-14

    Political realities and institutional structures are often ignored when gathering evidence to influence population health policies. If these policies are to be successful, social science literature on policy change should be integrated into the population health approach. In this contribution, drawing on the work of John W. Kingdon and related scholarship, we set out to examine how key components of the policy change literature could contribute towards the effective development of population health policies. Shaping policy change would require a realignment of the existing school of thought, where the contribution of population health seems to end at knowledge translation. Through our critical analysis of selected literature, we extend recommendations to advance a burgeoning discussion in adopting new approaches to successfully implement evidence-informed population health policies. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  12. A review of health utilities across conditions common in paediatric and adult populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopkins Robert B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-utility analyses are commonly used in economic evaluations of interventions or conditions that have an impact on health-related quality of life. However, evaluating utilities in children presents several challenges since young children may not have the cognitive ability to complete measurement tasks and thus utility values must be estimated by proxy assessors. Another solution is to use utilities derived from an adult population. To better inform the future conduct of cost-utility analyses in paediatric populations, we reviewed the published literature reporting utilities among children and adults across selected conditions common to paediatric and adult populations. Methods An electronic search of Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to November 2008 was conducted to identify studies presenting utility values derived from the Health Utilities Index (HUI or EuroQoL-5Dimensions (EQ-5D questionnaires or using time trade off (TTO or standard gamble (SG techniques in children and/or adult populations from randomized controlled trials, comparative or non-comparative observational studies, or cross-sectional studies. The search was targeted to four chronic diseases/conditions common to both children and adults and known to have a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Results After screening 951 citations identified from the literature search, 77 unique studies included in our review evaluated utilities in patients with asthma (n = 25, cancer (n = 23, diabetes mellitus (n = 11, skin diseases (n = 19 or chronic diseases (n = 2, with some studies evaluating multiple conditions. Utility values were estimated using HUI (n = 33, EQ-5D (n = 26, TTO (n = 12, and SG (n = 14, with some studies applying more than one technique to estimate utility values. 21% of studies evaluated utilities in children, of those the majority being in the area of oncology. No utility values for children were reported in skin

  13. Transparency of outcome reporting and trial registration of randomized controlled trials in top psychosomatic and behavioral health journals: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milette, Katherine; Roseman, Michelle; Thombs, Brett D

    2011-03-01

    The most reliable evidence for evaluating healthcare interventions comes from well-designed and conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The extent to which published RCTs reflect the efficacy of interventions, however, depends on the completeness and accuracy of published results. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement, initially developed in 1996, provides guidelines intended to improve the transparency of published RCT reports. A policy of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, initiated in 2005, requires clinical trials published in member journals to be registered in publicly accessible registries prior to patient enrollment. The objective of this study was to assess the clarity of outcome reporting, proportion of registered trials, and adequacy of outcome registration in RCTs published in top behavioral health journals. Eligible studies were primary or secondary reports of RCTs published in Annals of Behavioral Medicine, Health Psychology, Journal of Psychosomatic Research, and Psychosomatic Medicine from January 2008 to September 2009. Data were extracted for each study on adequacy of outcome reporting and registration. Of 63 articles reviewed, only 25 (39.7%) had adequately declared primary or secondary outcomes, whereas 38 (60.3%) had multiple primary outcomes or did not define outcomes. Only 13 studies (20.6%) were registered. Only 1 study registered sufficiently precise outcome information to compare with published outcomes, and registered and published outcomes were discrepant in that study. Greater attention to outcome reporting and trial registration by researchers, peer reviewers, and journal editors will increase the likelihood that effective behavioral health interventions are readily identified and made available to patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lessons for successful study enrollment from the Veterans Affairs/National Institutes of Health Acute Renal Failure Trial Network Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Susan T; Chertow, Glenn M; Vitale, Joseph; O'Connor, Theresa; Zhang, Jane; Schein, Roland M H; Choudhury, Devasmita; Finkel, Kevin; Vijayan, Anitha; Paganini, Emil; Palevsky, Paul M

    2008-07-01

    Design elements of clinical trials can introduce recruitment bias and reduce study efficiency. Trials involving the critically ill may be particularly prone to design-related inefficiencies. Enrollment into the Veterans Affairs/National Institutes of Health Acute Renal Failure Trial Network Study was systematically monitored. Reasons for nonenrollment into this study comparing strategies of renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury were categorized as modifiable or nonmodifiable. 4339 patients were screened; 2744 fulfilled inclusion criteria. Of these, 1034 were ineligible by exclusion criteria. Of the remaining 1710 patients, 1124 (65.7%) enrolled. Impediments to informed consent excluded 21.4% of potentially eligible patients. Delayed identification of potential patients, physician refusal, and involvement in competing trials accounted for 4.4, 2.7, and 2.3% of exclusions. Comfort measures only status, chronic illness, chronic kidney disease, and obesity excluded 11.8, 7.8, 7.6, and 5.9% of potential patients. Modification of an enrollment window reduced the loss of patients from 6.6 to 2.3%. The Acute Renal Failure Trial Network Study's enrollment efficiency compared favorably with previous intensive care unit intervention trials and supports the representativeness of its enrolled population. Impediments to informed consent highlight the need for nontraditional acquisition methods. Restrictive enrollment windows may hamper recruitment but can be effectively modified. The low rate of physician refusal acknowledges clinical equipoise in the study design. Underlying comorbidities are important design considerations for future trials that involve the critically ill with acute kidney injury.

  15. Health Law 2015: Individuals and Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peter D; Dahlen, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we assess two particular trends in judicial doctrine that are likely to emerge in the post-ACA era. The first trend is the inevitable emergence of enterprise medical liability (EML) that will supplant tort law's unstable attempt to apportion liability between physicians and institutions. Arguments favoring EML in health law date back to the early 1980s. But health care's ongoing consolidation suggests that the time has arrived for courts or state legislatures to develop legal doctrine that more closely resembles the ways in which health care is now delivered. This would result in a more appropriate allocation of liability to the institutional level. The second judicial trend will be the convergence of health law and public health law concepts. Because the ACA arguably stimulates closer engagement between health systems and public health departments, health systems will have greater responsibility for keeping their communities healthy along with obligations for individual patient care (i.e., individuals and populations). If so, courts will need to incorporate elements from health law and public health law in resolving disputes. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  16. Measuring the Health of an Invisible Population: Lessons from the Colorado Transgender Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Robin; Mellies, Amy Anderson; Bui, Alison Grace; Lee, Rita; Kattari, Leo; Gray, Courtney

    2018-05-15

    Transgender people, those whose gender identity does not match their sex assigned at birth, face barriers to receiving health care. These include discrimination, prohibitive cost, and difficulty finding transgender-inclusive providers. As transgender identities are not typically recognized in public health research, the ability to compare the health of the transgender population to the overall population is limited. The Colorado Transgender Health Survey sought to explore current disparities and their effects on the health of transgender people in Colorado. The Colorado Transgender Health Survey, based on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), was developed by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, transgender advocates, and transgender community members. Outreach was targeted to transgender-inclusive events and organizations. Responses to the 2014 Colorado Transgender Health Survey were compared side by side to Colorado 2014 BRFSS data. Results from 406 transgender or gender-nonconforming adults who live in Colorado were included in the analysis. Forty percent of respondents report delaying medical care due to cost, inadequate insurance, and/or fear of discrimination. Respondents report significant mental health concerns, with 43% reporting depression, 36% reporting suicidal thoughts, and 10% attempting suicide in the past year. Respondents with a transgender-inclusive provider were more likely to receive wellness exams (76 versus 48%), less likely to delay care due to discrimination (24 versus 42%), less depressed (38 versus 54%), and less likely to attempt suicide (7 versus 15%) than those without. The transgender community in Colorado faces significant disparities, especially around mental health. However, a transgender-inclusive provider is associated with improved mental and physical health and health behaviors. Further population-level research and provider education on transgender health should to be incorporated into

  17. Profiling the mobile-only population in Australia: insights from the Australian National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffour, Bernard; Haynes, Michele; Dinsdale, Shane; Western, Mark; Pennay, Darren

    2016-10-01

    The Australian population that relies on mobile phones exclusively has increased from 5% in 2005 to 29% in 2014. Failing to include this mobile-only population leads to a potential bias in estimates from landline-based telephone surveys. This paper considers the impacts on selected health prevalence estimates with and without the mobile-only population. Using data from the Australian Health Survey - which, for the first time, included a question on telephone status - we examined demographic, geographic and health differences between the landline-accessible and mobile-only population. These groups were also compared to the full population, controlling for the sampling design and differential non-response patterns in the observed sample through weighting and benchmarking. The landline-accessible population differs from the mobile-only population for selected health measures resulting in biased prevalence estimates for smoking, alcohol risk and private health insurance coverage in the full population. The differences remain even after adjusting for age and gender. Using landline telephones only for conducting population health surveys will have an impact on prevalence rate estimates of health risk factors due to the differing profiles of the mobile-only population from the landline-accessible population. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. Enhanced invitation methods to increase uptake of NHS health checks: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Alice S; Burgess, Caroline; McDermott, Lisa; Wright, Alison J; Dodhia, Hiten; Conner, Mark; Miller, Jane; Rudisill, Caroline; Cornelius, Victoria; Gulliford, Martin C

    2014-08-30

    NHS Health Checks is a new program for primary prevention of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and vascular dementia in adults aged 40 to 74 years in England. Individuals without existing cardiovascular disease or diabetes are invited for a Health Check every 5 years. Uptake among those invited is lower than anticipated. The project is a three-arm randomized controlled trial to test the hypothesis that enhanced invitation methods, using the Question-Behaviour Effect (QBE), will increase uptake of NHS Health Checks compared with a standard invitation. Participants comprise individuals eligible for an NHS Health Check registered in two London boroughs. Participants are randomized into one of three arms. Group A receives the standard NHS Health Check invitation letter, information sheet, and reminder letter at 12 weeks for nonattenders. Group B receives a QBE questionnaire 1 week before receiving the standard invitation, information sheet, and reminder letter where appropriate. Group C is the same as Group B, but participants are offered a £5 retail voucher if they return the questionnaire. Participants are randomized in equal proportions, stratified by general practice. The primary outcome is uptake of NHS Health Checks 6 months after invitation from electronic health records. We will estimate the incremental health service cost per additional completed Health Check for trial groups B and C versus trial arm A, as well as evaluating the impact of the QBE questionnaire, and questionnaire plus voucher, on the socioeconomic inequality in uptake of Health Checks.The trial includes a nested comparison of two methods for implementing allocation, one implemented manually at general practices and the other implemented automatically through the information systems used to generate invitations for the Health Check. The research will provide evidence on whether asking individuals to complete a preliminary questionnaire, by using the QBE, is effective

  19. The time dimension in measurements of population health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Lauer (Jeremy)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAs recently attested by the Millennium Declaration (United Nations, 2000), the health of populations is a concern for both governments and civil society: three of the eight Millennium Development Goals are defined in terms of health objectives. It is therefore reasonable to enquire what

  20. A web- and mobile phone-based intervention to prevent obesity in 4-year-olds (MINISTOP): a population-based randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Christine; Sandin, Sven; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Silfvernagel, Kristin; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2015-02-07

    Childhood obesity is an increasing health problem globally. Overweight and obesity may be established as early as 2-5 years of age, highlighting the need for evidence-based effective prevention and treatment programs early in life. In adults, mobile phone based interventions for weight management (mHealth) have demonstrated positive effects on body mass, however, their use in child populations has yet to be examined. The aim of this paper is to report the study design and methodology of the MINSTOP (Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial. A two-arm, parallel design randomized controlled trial in 300 healthy Swedish 4-year-olds is conducted. After baseline measures, parents are allocated to either an intervention- or control group. The 6- month mHealth intervention consists of a web-based application (the MINSTOP app) to help parents promote healthy eating and physical activity in children. MINISTOP is based on the Social Cognitive Theory and involves the delivery of a comprehensive, personalized program of information and text messages based on existing guidelines for a healthy diet and active lifestyle in pre-school children. Parents also register physical activity and intakes of candy, soft drinks, vegetables as well as fruits of their child and receive feedback through the application. Primary outcomes include body fatness and energy intake, while secondary outcomes are time spent in sedentary, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, physical fitness and intakes of fruits and vegetables, snacks, soft drinks and candy. Food and energy intake (Tool for Energy balance in Children, TECH), body fatness (pediatric option for BodPod), physical activity (Actigraph wGT3x-BT) and physical fitness (the PREFIT battery of five fitness tests) are measured at baseline, after the intervention (six months after baseline) and at follow-up (12 months after baseline). This novel study will evaluate the effectiveness of a mHealth program for

  1. Assessing the population coverage of a health demographic surveillance system using satellite imagery and crowd-sourcing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Di Pasquale

    Full Text Available Remotely sensed data can serve as an independent source of information about the location of residential structures in areas under demographic and health surveillance. We report on results obtained combining satellite imagery, imported from Bing, with location data routinely collected using the built-in GPS sensors of tablet computers, to assess completeness of population coverage in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Malawi. The Majete Malaria Project Health and Demographic Surveillance System, in Malawi, started in 2014 to support a project with the aim of studying the reduction of malaria using an integrated control approach by rolling out insecticide treated nets and improved case management supplemented with house improvement and larval source management. In order to support the monitoring of the trial a Health and Demographic Surveillance System was established in the area that surrounds the Majete Wildlife Reserve (1600 km2, using the OpenHDS data system. We compared house locations obtained using GPS recordings on mobile devices during the demographic surveillance census round with those acquired from satellite imagery. Volunteers were recruited through the crowdcrafting.org platform to identify building structures on the images, which enabled the compilation of a database with coordinates of potential residences. For every building identified on these satellite images by the volunteers (11,046 buildings identified of which 3424 (ca. 30% were part of the censused area, we calculated the distance to the nearest house enumerated on the ground by fieldworkers during the census round of the HDSS. A random sample of buildings (85 structures identified on satellite images without a nearby location enrolled in the census were visited by a fieldworker to determine how many were missed during the baseline census survey, if any were missed. The findings from this ground-truthing effort suggest that a high population coverage was

  2. Respiratory Health in Migrant Populations: A Crisis Overlooked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguin, Fernando; Moughrabieh, M. Anas; Ojeda, Victoria; Patel, Sanjay R.; Peyrani, Paula; Pinedo, Miguel; Celedón, Juan C.; Douglas, Ivor S.; Upson, Dona J.

    2017-01-01

    The crisis in the Middle East has raised awareness about the challenges encountered by migrant populations, in particular, health-care access and delivery. Similar challenges are encountered by migrant populations around the world, including those entering the United States as refugees and/or survivors of torture as well as Mexicans and other Latin Americans crossing the border. During the 2016 International American Thoracic Society Meeting held in San Francisco, California, a group of researchers and health-care providers discussed these challenges at a minisymposium devoted to the respiratory health of migrants. The discussion focused on the increased incidence of airway diseases among individuals migrating to more developed countries, the problems created by sleep disorders and their implications for cardiovascular and mental health, the challenges inherent in the control of infections in refugee populations, and the problems resulting from deportation. The group also discussed the potential impact of novel strategies made available by Internet-based technologies and how these strategies could be deployed to support worldwide efforts in assisting migrants and refugees, even in countries that find themselves in the direst circumstances. These presentations are summarized in this document, which is not meant to be exhaustive, but to improve awareness about the challenges confronted by migrants and their host nations regarding respiratory health-care access and delivery, and about the need for adequate investment of resources to better define these challenges through research and for the development of efficient strategies for intervention. PMID:28146384

  3. Trial-based economic evaluations in occupational health: principles, methods, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Johanna M; van Wier, Marieke F; Tompa, Emile; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J; van Tulder, Maurits W; Bosmans, Judith E

    2014-06-01

    To allocate available resources as efficiently as possible, decision makers need information on the relative economic merits of occupational health and safety (OHS) interventions. Economic evaluations can provide this information by comparing the costs and consequences of alternatives. Nevertheless, only a few of the studies that consider the effectiveness of OHS interventions take the extra step of considering their resource implications. Moreover, the methodological quality of those that do is generally poor. Therefore, this study aims to help occupational health researchers conduct high-quality trial-based economic evaluations by discussing the theory and methodology that underlie them, and by providing recommendations for good practice regarding their design, analysis, and reporting. This study also helps consumers of this literature with understanding and critically appraising trial-based economic evaluations of OHS interventions.

  4. Investigating the effect of a 3-month workplace-based pedometer-driven walking programme on health-related quality of life in meat processing workers: a feasibility study within a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansi, Suliman; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Tumilty, Steve; Hendrick, Paul; Higgs, Chris; Baxter, David G

    2015-04-22

    In New Zealand, meat processing populations face many health problems as a result of the nature of work in meat processing industries. The primary aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of using a pedometer-based intervention to increase physical activity and improve health-related outcomes in a population of meat processing workers. A single-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted. A convenience sample of meat workers (n = 58; mean age 41.0 years; range: 18-65) participated in the trial. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups. Intervention participants (n = 29) utilized a pedometer to self monitor their activity, whilst undertaking a brief intervention, and educational material. Control participants (n = 29) received educational material only. The primary outcomes of ambulatory activity, and health-related quality of life, were evaluated at baseline, immediately following the 12-week intervention and three months post-intervention. Fifty three participants completed the program (91.3% adherence). Adherence with the intervention group was high, 93% (n = 27/29), and this group increased their mean daily step count from 5993 to 9792 steps per day, while the control group steps changed from 5788 to 6551 steps per day from baseline. This increase in step counts remained significant within the intervention group p workplace setting over the short term. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12613000087752.

  5. Population disparities in mental health: insights from cultural neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y; Blizinsky, Katherine D

    2013-10-01

    By 2050, nearly 1 in 5 Americans (19%) will be an immigrant, including Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians, compared to the 1 in 8 (12%) in 2005. They will vary in the extent to which they are at risk for mental health disorders. Given this increase in cultural diversity within the United States and costly population health disparities across cultural groups, it is essential to develop a more comprehensive understanding of how culture affects basic psychological and biological mechanisms. We examine these basic mechanisms that underlie population disparities in mental health through cultural neuroscience. We discuss the challenges to and opportunities for cultural neuroscience research to determine sociocultural and biological factors that confer risk for and resilience to mental health disorders across the globe.

  6. Study Protocol- An exploratory trial on health promoting schools at Dutch secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, Vincent; Leeuw, Rob J. de; Schrijvers, A.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent studies show adolescent health-related behaviours to co-occur synergistically. This paper describes the study design for an exploratory trial on the effects of a comprehensive, whole-school health promoting school intervention. This intervention tackles seven different behavioural

  7. Income inequality, trust, and population health in 33 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J

    2010-11-01

    I examined the association between income inequality and population health and tested whether this association was mediated by interpersonal trust or public expenditures on health. Individual data on trust were collected from 48 641 adults in 33 countries. These data were linked to country data on income inequality, public health expenditures, healthy life expectancy, and adult mortality. Regression analyses tested for statistical mediation of the association between income inequality and population health outcomes by country differences in trust and health expenditures. Income inequality correlated with country differences in trust (r = -0.51), health expenditures (r = -0.45), life expectancy (r = -0.74), and mortality (r = 0.55). Trust correlated with life expectancy (r = 0.48) and mortality (r = -0.47) and partly mediated their relations to income inequality. Health expenditures did not correlate with life expectancy and mortality, and health expenditures did not mediate links between inequality and health. Income inequality might contribute to short life expectancy and adult mortality in part because of societal differences in trust. Societies with low levels of trust may lack the capacity to create the kind of social supports and connections that promote health and successful aging.

  8. Nature Appropriation and Associations with Population Health in Canada’s Largest Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Jason

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Earth is a finite system with a limited supply of resources. As the human population grows, so does the appropriation of Earth’s natural capital, thereby exacerbating environmental concerns such as biodiversity loss, increased pollution, deforestation and global warming. Such concerns will negatively impact human health although it is widely believed that improving socio-economic circumstances will help to ameliorate environmental impacts and improve health outcomes. However, this belief does not explicitly acknowledge the fact that improvements in socio-economic position are reliant on increased inputs from nature. Gains in population health, particularly through economic means, are disconnected from the appropriation of nature to create wealth so that health gains become unsustainable. The current study investigated the sustainability of human population health in Canada with regard to resource consumption or “ecological footprints” (i.e., the resources required to sustain a given population. Ecological footprints of the 20 largest Canadian cities, along with several important determinants of health such as income and education, were statistically compared with corresponding indicators of human population health outcomes. A significant positive relationship was found between ecological footprints and life expectancy, as well as a significant negative relationship between ecological footprints and the prevalence of high blood pressure. Results suggest that increased appropriation of nature is linked to improved health outcomes. To prevent environmental degradation from excessive appropriation of natural resources will require the development of health promotion strategies that are de-coupled from ever-increasing and unsustainable resource use. Efforts to promote population health should focus on health benefits achieved from a lifestyle based on significantly reduced consumption of natural resources.

  9. Message design strategies to raise public awareness of social determinants of health and population health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Bu, Q Lisa; Borah, Porismita; Kindig, David A; Robert, Stephanie A

    2008-09-01

    Raising public awareness of the importance of social determinants of health (SDH) and health disparities presents formidable communication challenges. This article reviews three message strategies that could be used to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities: message framing, narratives, and visual imagery. Although few studies have directly tested message strategies for raising awareness of SDH and health disparities, the accumulated evidence from other domains suggests that population health advocates should frame messages to acknowledge a role for individual decisions about behavior but emphasize SDH. These messages might use narratives to provide examples of individuals facing structural barriers (unsafe working conditions, neighborhood safety concerns, lack of civic opportunities) in efforts to avoid poverty, unemployment, racial discrimination, and other social determinants. Evocative visual images that invite generalizations, suggest causal interpretations, highlight contrasts, and create analogies could accompany these narratives. These narratives and images should not distract attention from SDH and population health disparities, activate negative stereotypes, or provoke counterproductive emotional responses directed at the source of the message. The field of communication science offers valuable insights into ways that population health advocates and researchers might develop better messages to shape public opinion and debate about the social conditions that shape the health and well-being of populations. The time has arrived to begin thinking systematically about issues in communicating about SDH and health disparities. This article offers a broad framework for these efforts and concludes with an agenda for future research to refine message strategies to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities.

  10. Validation of self-reported health literacy questions among diverse English and Spanish-speaking populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Urmimala; Schillinger, Dean; López, Andrea; Sudore, Rebecca

    2011-03-01

    Limited health literacy (HL) contributes to poor health outcomes and disparities, and direct measurement is often time-intensive. Self-reported HL questions have not been validated among Spanish-speaking and diverse English-speaking populations. To evaluate three self-reported questions: 1 "How confident are you filling out medical forms?"; 2 "How often do you have problems learning about your medical condition because of difficulty understanding written information?"; and 3 "How often do you have someone help you read hospital materials?" Answers were based on a 5-point Likert scale. This was a validation study nested within a trial of diabetes self-management support in the San Francisco Department of Public Health. English and Spanish-speaking adults with type 2 diabetes receiving primary care. Using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (s-TOFHLA) in English and Spanish as the reference, we classified HL as inadequate, marginal, or adequate. We calculated the C-index and test characteristics of the three questions and summative scale compared to the s-TOFHLA and assessed variations in performance by language, race/ethnicity, age, and education. Of 296 participants, 48% were Spanish-speaking; 9% were White, non-Hispanic; 47% had inadequate HL and 12% had marginal HL. Overall, 57% reported being confident with forms "somewhat" or less. The "confident with forms" question performed best for detecting inadequate (C-index = 0.82, (0.77-0.87)) and inadequate plus marginal HL (C index = 0.81, (0.76-0.86); pSpanish and English speakers with adequate HL and those with inadequate and/or inadequate plus marginal HL. The "confident with forms" question or the summative scale may be useful for estimating HL in clinical research involving Spanish-speaking and English-speaking, chronically-ill, diverse populations.

  11. Effect of health risk assessment and counselling on health behaviour and survival in older people: a pragmatic randomised trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas E Stuck

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Potentially avoidable risk factors continue to cause unnecessary disability and premature death in older people. Health risk assessment (HRA, a method successfully used in working-age populations, is a promising method for cost-effective health promotion and preventive care in older individuals, but the long-term effects of this approach are unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of an innovative approach to HRA and counselling in older individuals for health behaviours, preventive care, and long-term survival.This study was a pragmatic, single-centre randomised controlled clinical trial in community-dwelling individuals aged 65 y or older registered with one of 19 primary care physician (PCP practices in a mixed rural and urban area in Switzerland. From November 2000 to January 2002, 874 participants were randomly allocated to the intervention and 1,410 to usual care. The intervention consisted of HRA based on self-administered questionnaires and individualised computer-generated feedback reports, combined with nurse and PCP counselling over a 2-y period. Primary outcomes were health behaviours and preventive care use at 2 y and all-cause mortality at 8 y. At baseline, participants in the intervention group had a mean ± standard deviation of 6.9 ± 3.7 risk factors (including unfavourable health behaviours, health and functional impairments, and social risk factors and 4.3 ± 1.8 deficits in recommended preventive care. At 2 y, favourable health behaviours and use of preventive care were more frequent in the intervention than in the control group (based on z-statistics from generalised estimating equation models. For example, 70% compared to 62% were physically active (odds ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.16-1.77, p = 0.001, and 66% compared to 59% had influenza vaccinations in the past year (odds ratio 1.35, 95% CI 1.09-1.66, p = 0.005. At 8 y, based on an intention-to-treat analysis, the estimated proportion alive was 77.9% in

  12. Including pork in the Mediterranean diet for an Australian population: Protocol for a randomised controlled trial assessing cardiovascular risk and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Alexandra T; Davis, Courtney R; Dyer, Kathryn A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Woodman, Richard J; Keage, Hannah A D; Murphy, Karen J

    2017-12-22

    The Mediterranean diet is characterised by the high consumption of extra virgin olive oil, fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes and nuts; moderate consumption of fish, poultry, eggs and dairy; and low consumption of red meat and sweets. Cross sectional, longitudinal and intervention studies indicate that a Mediterranean diet may be effective for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and dementia. However, previous research suggests that an Australian population may find red meat restrictions difficult, which could affect long term sustainability of the diet. This paper outlines the protocol for a randomised controlled trial that will assess the cardiovascular and cognitive benefits of a Mediterranean diet modified to include 2-3 weekly serves of fresh, lean pork. A 24-week cross-over design trial will compare a modified Mediterranean diet with a low-fat control diet in at-risk men and women. Participants will follow each of the two diets for 8 weeks, with an 8-week washout period separating interventions. Home measured systolic blood pressure will be the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes will include body mass index, body composition, fasting blood lipids, C-reactive protein, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, erythrocyte fatty acids, cognitive function, psychological health and well-being, and dementia risk. To our knowledge this research is the first to investigate whether an alternate source of protein can be included in the Mediterranean diet to increase sustainability and feasibility for a non-Mediterranean population. Findings will be significant for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and age-related decline, and may inform individuals, clinicians and public health policy. ACTRN12616001046493 . Registered 5 August 2016.

  13. Psychedelics and mental health: a population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri S Krebs

    Full Text Available The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline.To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population.Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale, mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive, symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis, and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events.21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote, or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems.We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems.

  14. Marginalization and health service coverage among indigenous, rural, and urban populations: a public health problem in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, José; Álvarez, Marsela; Carrasco, María; Guarneros, Noé; Ledesma, José; Cuchillo-Hilario, Mario; Chávez, Adolfo

    2017-12-01

      Marginalization is a significant issue in Mexico, involving a lack of access to health services with differential impacts on Indigenous, rural and urban populations. The objective of this study was to understand Mexico’s public health problem across three population areas, Indigenous, rural and urban, in relation to degree of marginalization and health service coverage.   The sampling universe of the study consisted of 107 458 geographic locations in the country. The study was retrospective, comparative and confirmatory. The study applied analysis of variance, parametric and non-parametric, correlation and correspondence analyses.   Significant differences were identified between the Indigenous, rural and urban populations with respect to their level of marginalization and access to health services. The most affected area was Indigenous, followed by rural areas. The sector that was least affected was urban.   Although health coverage is highly concentrated in urban areas in Mexico, shortages are mostly concentrated in rural areas where Indigenous groups represent the extreme end of marginalization and access to medical coverage. Inadequate access to health services in the Indigenous and rural populations throws the gravity of the public health problem into relief.

  15. Staff/population ratios in South African public sector mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To document existing staff/population ratios per 100 000 population in South African public sector mental health services. Design. Cross-sectional survey. ... The staff/population ratios per 100 000 population for selected personnel categories (with the interprovincial ranges in brackets) were as follows: total nursing staff 15.6 ...

  16. INCREASING THE REPRESENTATION OF THE BLACK POPULATION IN THE HEALTH PROFESSIONS IN CANADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukic, Adele; Steenbeek, Audrey; Muxlow, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    Increased representation of the Black population in the health care system is central to decrease health disparities, enhance access to services, and improve health outcomes and quality of care. Current strategies for recruitment and retention of the Black population in higher education in the health fields are explored. The added value of mentorship programs are presented as a promising approach for addressing the high rates of attrition of the Black population in health professional education institutions.

  17. A study protocol of a three-group randomized feasibility trial of an online yoga intervention for mothers after stillbirth (The Mindful Health Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Jennifer; Matthews, Jeni; Leiferman, Jenn; Cacciatore, Joanne; Gold, Katherine J

    2018-01-01

    In the USA, stillbirth (in utero fetal death ≥20 weeks gestation) is a major public health issue. Women who experience stillbirth, compared to women with live birth, have a nearly sevenfold increased risk of a positive screen for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a fourfold increased risk of depressive symptoms. Because the majority of women who have experienced the death of their baby become pregnant within 12-18 months and the lack of intervention studies conducted within this population, novel approaches targeting physical and mental health, specific to the needs of this population, are critical. Evidence suggests that yoga is efficacious, safe, acceptable, and cost-effective for improving mental health in a variety of populations, including pregnant and postpartum women. To date, there are no known studies examining online-streaming yoga as a strategy to help mothers cope with PTSD symptoms after stillbirth. The present study is a two-phase randomized controlled trial. Phase 1 will involve (1) an iterative design process to develop the online yoga prescription for phase 2 and (2) qualitative interviews to identify cultural barriers to recruitment in non-Caucasian women (i.e., predominately Hispanic and/or African American) who have experienced stillbirth ( N  = 5). Phase 2 is a three-group randomized feasibility trial with assessments at baseline, and at 12 and 20 weeks post-intervention. Ninety women who have experienced a stillbirth within 6 weeks to 24 months will be randomized into one of the following three arms for 12 weeks: (1) intervention low dose (LD) = 60 min/week online-streaming yoga ( n  = 30), (2) intervention moderate dose (MD) = 150 min/week online-streaming yoga ( n  = 30), or (3) stretch and tone control (STC) group = 60 min/week of stretching/toning exercises ( n  = 30). This study will explore the feasibility and acceptability of a 12-week, home-based, online-streamed yoga intervention, with varying doses

  18. Oral health behaviours of parents and young children in a practice-based caries prevention trial in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Lucy; Worthington, Helen V; Donaldson, Michael; O'Neil, Ciaran; Birch, Stephen; Noble, Solveig; Killough, Seamus; Murphy, Lynn; Greer, Margaret; Brodison, Julie; Verghis, Rejina; Tickle, Martin

    2018-06-01

    The NICPIP trial evaluated the costs and effects of a caries prevention intervention delivered to 2- to 3-year-old children attending dental practices in Northern Ireland. This supplementary study explored the oral health behaviours of children and their parents to help understand the reasons for the trial's findings. A mixed methods study that included a questionnaire completed by all parents (n = 1058) at the time they brought their child for the NICPIP final clinical assessment. The questionnaire collected data on frequency of toothbrushing and sugar consumption. Questionnaire data were analysed by trial group and caries status. Parents of trial participants (n = 42) were invited to take part in telephone interviews. Parents were purposively sampled according to trial group and whether or not their child developed caries. The interviews explored how and why oral health behaviours happened. Interview data were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. The questionnaire data indicated that toothbrushing and between-meal sugar snacking were common in the majority of children. The children of parents who automatically reminded their child to brush their teeth were more likely to remain caries-free (Odds Ratio 1.24; 95% CI 1.08, 1.41; P = .002). Frequency of sweet drink consumption was associated with the child developing caries (Odds Ratio 0.88; 95% CI 0.79, 0.98; P = .021). The interview data showed that parents had positive attitudes towards brushing both in terms of perceived importance and expected outcomes. Attitudes towards sugar snacking were more complex, with parents reporting difficulties in controlling this behaviour. Sugar was described as being something that was "ever present" in children's lives. Toothbrushing was widely adopted from a young age, but between-meal sugar consumption was highly prevalent. The results suggest that effective family-level and population-level interventions are needed to reduce sugar consumption

  19. Describing the population health burden of depression: health-adjusted life expectancy by depression status in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Steensma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Few studies have evaluated the impact of depression in terms of losses to both premature mortality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL on the overall population. Health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE is a summary measure of population health that combines both morbidity and mortality into a single summary statistic that describes the current health status of a population. Methods: We estimated HALE for the Canadian adult population according to depression status. National Population Health Survey (NPHS participants 20 years and older (n = 12 373 were followed for mortality outcomes from 1994 to 2009, based on depression status. Depression was defined as having likely experienced a major depressive episode in the previous year as measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form. Life expectancy was estimated by building period abridged life tables by sex and depression status using the relative risks of mortality from the NPHS and mortality data from the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System (2007-2009. The Canadian Community Health Survey (2009/10 provided estimates of depression prevalence and Health Utilities Index as a measure of HRQOL. Using the combined mortality, depression prevalence and HRQOL estimates, HALE was estimated for the adult population according to depression status and by sex. Results: For the population of women with a recent major depressive episode, HALE at 20 years of age was 42.0 years (95% CI: 40.2-43.8 compared to 57.0 years (95% CI: 56.8-57.2 for women without a recent major depressive episode. For the population of Canadian men, HALE at 20 was 39.0 years (95% CI: 36.5-41.5 for those with a recent major depressive episode compared to 53.8 years (95% CI: 53.6-54.0 for those without. For the 15.0-year difference in HALE between women with and without depression, 12.3 years can be attributed to the HRQOL gap and the remaining 2.7 years to the mortality gap. The 14.8 fewer

  20. [Mental Health Promotion Among the Chronic Disabled Population in the Community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chuan; Wang, Li-Hua; Chang, Hsiu-Ju

    2015-08-01

    Societal ageing and the rising prevalence of chronic disease are important causes that underlie the growth in the number of disabled individuals. The disease-induced psychological distress experienced by this population not only decreases quality of life but also increases demand for healthcare. The healthcare policy for the disabled population currently focuses on community healthcare. Therefore, developing appropriate programs to promote mental health among the disabled population in community settings is a critical issue. The present paper reviews current mental health promotion initiatives that target the disabled population in the community and addresses mental healthcare issues that are prevalent among the chronically disabled; strategies of mental health promotion that use music therapy, reminiscence therapy, and horticultural therapy; and the roles and responsibilities of community professionals in mental healthcare. We offer these perspectives as a reference to promote mental health and to establish holistic community healthcare for chronically disabled individuals.

  1. Multinational Population-Based Health Surveys Linked to Outcome Data: An Untapped Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Fisher

    2017-04-01

    This study provides initial support for the methodological feasibility of pooling linked population health surveys however, challenges introduced by dissimilarities will require the use of innovative methodologies, and discussions regarding how to manage jurisdictional data restrictions and privacy issues are needed. Pooled population health data has the potential to improve national and international health surveillance and public health.

  2. Dairy consumption and cardiometabolic health: outcomes of a 12-month crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crichton Georgina E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of research suggests that regular consumption of dairy foods may counteract obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome. However, human intervention trials are lacking. We aimed to determine the cardiometabolic health effects of increasing the consumption of reduced fat dairy foods in adults with habitually low dairy intakes in the absence of energy restriction. Methods An intervention trial was undertaken in 61 overweight or obese adults who were randomly assigned to a high dairy diet (HD, 4 serves of reduced fat dairy/day or a low dairy control diet (LD, ≤1 serve/day for 6 months then crossed over to the alternate diet for a further 6 months. A range of anthropometric and cardiometabolic parameters including body composition, metabolic rate, blood lipids, blood pressure and arterial compliance were assessed at the end of each diet phase. Results Total energy intake was 1120 kJ/day higher during the HD phase, resulting in slight weight gain during this period. However, there were no significant differences between HD and LD in absolute measures of waist circumference, body weight, fat mass or any other cardiometabolic parameter. Conclusion Recommended intakes of reduced fat dairy products may be incorporated into the diet of overweight adults without adversely affecting markers of cardiometabolic health. Trial Registration The trial was registered with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12608000538347 on 24th October, 2008.

  3. Health Education Research and Practice Literature on Hispanic Health Issues: Have We Lost Sight of the Largest Minority Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish

    2016-03-01

    Hispanics constitute the largest racial/ethnic minority population in the United States and are the fastest growing segment of the population. Knowledge about health needs and practices, effective health promotion programs, and health policy making for Hispanics has the potential to improve population health outcomes for this group. Continued research and practice literature will aid in accomplishing these objectives. However, little is known about the extent of health education-related literature available on Hispanic health issues. In this review, we analyzed research and practice publications in all health education-related journals to assess the volume of articles published on Hispanic health issues. We found that the portion of journal articles devoted to Hispanic health issues varied widely among the journals and that there was a very limited emphasis on Hispanic health-related issues. Journal editors and editorial board members may need to be more proactive in soliciting manuscripts on Hispanic health, and our practitioners may have to improve their professional skills and cultural competence in order to work with Hispanic populations to produce research and practice literature that is of adequate quantity and quality to help improve Hispanics' health. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  4. FastStats: Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... 2015, table 1 [PDF – 2.7 MB] Leading causes of death for Asian or Pacific Islander population ...

  5. The Ethics of Health Care Delivery in a Pediatric Malaria Vaccine Trial: The Perspectives of Stakeholders From Ghana and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Claire Leonie; Shaw, David; Anane-Sarpong, Evelyn; Sankoh, Osman; Tanner, Marcel; Elger, Bernice

    2018-02-01

    This study explores ethical issues raised in providing medical care to participants and communities of low-resource settings involved in a Phase II/III pediatric malaria vaccine trial (PMVT). We conducted 52 key informant interviews with major stakeholders of an international multi-center PMVT (GSK/PATH-MVI RTS,S) (NCT00866619) in Ghana and Tanzania. Based on their stakeholder experiences, the responses fell into three main themes: (a) undue inducement, (b) community disparities, and (c) broad therapeutic misconceptions. The study identified the critical ethical aspects, from the perspectives of stakeholders, of delivering health care during a PMVT. The study showed that integrating research into health care services needs to be addressed in a manner that upholds the favorable risk-benefit ratio of research and attends to the health needs of local populations. The implementation of research should aim to improve local standards of care through building a collaborative agenda with local institutions and systems of health.

  6. Climate change and population health in Africa: where are the scientists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byass, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Despite a growing awareness of Africans’ vulnerability to climate change, there is relatively little empirical evidence published about the effects of climate on population health in Africa. This review brings together some of the generalised predictions about the potential continent-wide effects of climate change with examples of the relatively few locally documented population studies in which climate change and health interact. Although ecologically determined diseases such as malaria are obvious candidates for susceptibility to climate change, wider health effects also need to be considered, particularly among populations where adequacy of food and water supplies may already be marginal. PMID:20052421

  7. A Comparative Effectiveness Education Trial for Lifestyle Health Behavior Change in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Bellamy, Scarlett; Briggs, Vanessa; Delmoor, Ernestine; Purnell, Joseph; Rogers, Rodney; Weathers, Benita; Johnson, Jerry C.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and excess weight are significant clinical and public health issues that disproportionately affect African Americans because of physical inactivity and unhealthy eating. We compared the effects of alternate behavioral interventions on obesity-related health behaviors. We conducted a comparative effectiveness education trial in a…

  8. Economic return from the Women's Health Initiative estrogen plus progestin clinical trial: a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Joshua A; Etzioni, Ruth; Waters, Teresa M; Pettinger, Mary; Rossouw, Jacques E; Anderson, Garnet L; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Manson, Joann E; Hlatky, Mark; Johnson, Karen C; Ramsey, Scott D

    2014-05-06

    The findings of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) estrogen plus progestin (E+P) trial led to a substantial reduction in use of combined hormone therapy (cHT) among postmenopausal women in the United States. The economic effect of this shift has not been evaluated relative to the trial's $260 million cost (2012 U.S. dollars). To estimate the economic return from the WHI E+P trial. Decision model to simulate health outcomes for a "WHI scenario" with observed cHT use and a "no-WHI scenario" with cHT use extrapolated from the pretrial period. Primary analyses of WHI outcomes, peer-reviewed literature, and government sources. Postmenopausal women in the United States, aged 50 to 79 years, who did not have a hysterectomy. 2003 to 2012. Payer. Combined hormone therapy. Disease incidence, expenditure, quality-adjusted life-years, and net economic return. The WHI scenario resulted in 4.3 million fewer cHT users, 126,000 fewer breast cancer cases, 76,000 fewer cardiovascular disease cases, 263,000 more fractures, 145,000 more quality-adjusted life-years, and expenditure savings of $35.2 billion. The corresponding net economic return of the trial was $37.1 billion ($140 per dollar invested in the trial) at a willingness-to-pay level of $100,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. The 95% CI for the net economic return of the trial was $23.1 to $51.2 billion. No evaluation of indirect costs or outcomes beyond 2012. The WHI E+P trial made high-value use of public funds with a substantial return on investment. These results can contribute to discussions about the role of public funding for large, prospective trials with high potential for public health effects. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

  9. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about your health or fill out forms about how you feel. Some people will need to travel or stay in hospitals to take part in clinical trials. For example, the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, runs clinical trials. Many other clinical trials take place ...

  10. [The scientometric analysis of dissertation studies in the field of specialty public health and health care concerning children population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albitskiy, V S; Ustinova, N V; Antonova, Ye V

    2014-01-01

    The article considers trends and priority directions of research studies of the field of public health and health care of children population. The interpretative content analysis was applied to study dissertations in the field of public health and health care in 1991-2012. The sampling included 4194 units of information. The first stage of study established that problems of children population are considered in 14.8% dissertations defended on the mentioned specialty. The next stage the categories of content-analysis were examined. They were divided on the following axes: axis I "Main problem of study", axis II "Localization of study", axis III "Examined age groups", axis IV "Distribution of studies on gender of examined contingent", axis V "Examined contingent", axis VI "Additional medical specialty". It is established that in dissertations on public health and health care of children population on axis I prevails organizational subject matter (27.2%). The health condition of various contingents of children population (16.8%), preventive aspects of pediatrics (12.2%), examination of particular conditions/diseases/classes of diseases (10.8%) are fixed as priority directions. In the most dissertations the regional character of studies is presented (98.2%). The prevailing age group in studies is the adolescent group (19.9%). The inter-disciplinary relationships of dissertations on problems of public health and health care of children population are revealed with such specialties as "Pediatrics" (16.2%), "Obstetrics and gynecology" (3.8%) and "Hygiene" (3.4%). With consideration for recognition of health promotion and optimization of health care of children population as priority directions of public health policy amount of research studies in this field is to be admitted as inadequate. With purpose of optimization of scientific knowledge and development of system of medical social care to children population it is needed to promote research studies of problems of

  11. Indigenous and tribal peoples' health (The Lancet-Lowitja Institute Global Collaboration): a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ian; Robson, Bridget; Connolly, Michele; Al-Yaman, Fadwa; Bjertness, Espen; King, Alexandra; Tynan, Michael; Madden, Richard; Bang, Abhay; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Pesantes, Maria Amalia; Amigo, Hugo; Andronov, Sergei; Armien, Blas; Obando, Daniel Ayala; Axelsson, Per; Bhatti, Zaid Shakoor; Bhutta, Zulfiqar Ahmed; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bjertness, Marius B; Briceno-Leon, Roberto; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild; Bustos, Patricia; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Chu, Jiayou; Deji; Gouda, Jitendra; Harikumar, Rachakulla; Htay, Thein Thein; Htet, Aung Soe; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Kamaka, Martina; King, Malcolm; Kodavanti, Mallikharjuna Rao; Lara, Macarena; Laxmaiah, Avula; Lema, Claudia; Taborda, Ana María León; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Lobanov, Andrey; Melhus, Marita; Meshram, Indrapal; Miranda, J Jaime; Mu, Thet Thet; Nagalla, Balkrishna; Nimmathota, Arlappa; Popov, Andrey Ivanovich; Poveda, Ana María Peñuela; Ram, Faujdar; Reich, Hannah; Santos, Ricardo V; Sein, Aye Aye; Shekhar, Chander; Sherpa, Lhamo Y; Skold, Peter; Tano, Sofia; Tanywe, Asahngwa; Ugwu, Chidi; Ugwu, Fabian; Vapattanawong, Patama; Wan, Xia; Welch, James R; Yang, Gonghuan; Yang, Zhaoqing; Yap, Leslie

    2016-07-09

    International studies of the health of Indigenous and tribal peoples provide important public health insights. Reliable data are required for the development of policy and health services. Previous studies document poorer outcomes for Indigenous peoples compared with benchmark populations, but have been restricted in their coverage of countries or the range of health indicators. Our objective is to describe the health and social status of Indigenous and tribal peoples relative to benchmark populations from a sample of countries. Collaborators with expertise in Indigenous health data systems were identified for each country. Data were obtained for population, life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, low and high birthweight, maternal mortality, nutritional status, educational attainment, and economic status. Data sources consisted of governmental data, data from non-governmental organisations such as UNICEF, and other research. Absolute and relative differences were calculated. Our data (23 countries, 28 populations) provide evidence of poorer health and social outcomes for Indigenous peoples than for non-Indigenous populations. However, this is not uniformly the case, and the size of the rate difference varies. We document poorer outcomes for Indigenous populations for: life expectancy at birth for 16 of 18 populations with a difference greater than 1 year in 15 populations; infant mortality rate for 18 of 19 populations with a rate difference greater than one per 1000 livebirths in 16 populations; maternal mortality in ten populations; low birthweight with the rate difference greater than 2% in three populations; high birthweight with the rate difference greater than 2% in one population; child malnutrition for ten of 16 populations with a difference greater than 10% in five populations; child obesity for eight of 12 populations with a difference greater than 5% in four populations; adult obesity for seven of 13 populations with a difference greater than 10% in

  12. Mobile health interventions in Indigenous populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Onyinyechi Umaefulam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans are social beings and communication is vital and necessary for every cultural group which may be the primary motivator, why many populations worldwide have taken up mobile phones (1. Communication via mobile has significant cultural and identity implications for Indigenous people worldwide particularly those living in rural and hard to reach communities because due to globalization, a number of people now live away from their local communities for trade, employment, education, etc. Thus, mobile phones are devices for social networking and communication; and enables cultural connection and identification with family and friends. Its affordability, versatility of features, and portability create an opportunity for utilizing mobile technology to positively impact the health via health education, promotion, and provision of remote health services among others.

  13. The Mental Vitality @ Work study: design of a randomized controlled trial on the effect of a workers' health surveillance mental module for nurses and allied health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Fania R; Ketelaar, Sarah M; Smeets, Odile; Bolier, Linda; Fischer, Eva; van Dijk, Frank J H; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Sluiter, Judith K

    2011-05-10

    Employees in health care service are at high risk for developing mental health complaints. The effects of mental health complaints on work can have serious consequences for the quality of care provided by these workers. To help health service workers remain healthy and productive, preventive actions are necessary. A Workers' Health Surveillance (WHS) mental module may be an effective strategy to monitor and promote good (mental) health and work performance. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a three arm cluster randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a WHS mental module for nurses and allied health professionals. Two strategies for this WHS mental module will be compared along with data from a control group. Additionally, the cost effectiveness of the approaches will be evaluated from a societal perspective. The study is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial consisting of three arms (two intervention groups, 1 control group) with randomization at ward level. The study population consists of 86 departments in one Dutch academic medical center with a total of 1731 nurses and allied health professionals. At baseline, after three months and after six months of follow-up, outcomes will be assessed by online questionnaires. In both intervention arms, participants will complete a screening to detect problems in mental health and work functioning and receive feedback on their screening results. In cases of impairments in mental health or work functioning in the first intervention arm, a consultation with an occupational physician will be offered. The second intervention arm offers a choice of self-help e-mental health interventions, which will be tailored based on each individual's mental health state and work functioning. The primary outcomes will be help-seeking behavior and work functioning. Secondary outcomes will be mental health and wellbeing. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness in both intervention arms will be assessed, and

  14. Design and methodology of a randomized clinical trial of home-based telemental health treatment for U.S. military personnel and veterans with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton, David D; Pruitt, Larry D; O'Brien, Karen; Stanfill, Katherine; Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A; Johnson, Kristine; Wagner, Amy; Thomas, Elissa; Gahm, Gregory A

    2014-05-01

    Home-based telemental health (TMH) treatments have the potential to address current and future health needs of military service members, veterans, and their families, especially for those who live in rural or underserved areas. The use of home-based TMH treatments to address the behavioral health care needs of U.S. military healthcare beneficiaries is not presently considered standard of care in the Military Health System. The feasibility, safety, and clinical efficacy of home-based TMH treatments must be established before broad dissemination of home-based treatment programs can be implemented. This paper describes the design, methodology, and protocol of a clinical trial that compares in-office to home-based Behavioral Activation for Depression (BATD) treatment delivered via web-based video technology for service members and veterans with depression. This grant funded three-year randomized clinical trial is being conducted at the National Center for Telehealth and Technology at Joint-base Lewis-McChord and at the Portland VA Medical Center. Best practice recommendations regarding the implementation of in-home telehealth in the military setting as well as the cultural and contextual factors of providing in-home care to active duty and veteran military populations are also discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Effects of a Psychological Intervention in a Primary Health Care Center for Caregivers of Dependent Relatives: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; Patino-Alonso, Maria C.; Mora-Simon, Sara; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A.; Perez-Penaranda, Anibal; Losada-Baltar, Andres; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess, in the context of Primary Health Care (PHC), the effect of a psychological intervention in mental health among caregivers (CGs) of dependent relatives. Design and Methods: Randomized multicenter, controlled clinical trial. The 125 CGs included in the trial were receiving health care in PHC. Inclusion criteria: Identifying…

  16. An oral health intervention for people with serious mental illness (Three Shires Early Intervention Dental Trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hannah F; Adams, Clive E; Clifton, Andrew; Simpson, Jayne; Tosh, Graeme; Liddle, Peter F; Callaghan, Patrick; Yang, Min; Guo, Boliang; Furtado, Vivek

    2013-05-29

    Oral health is an important part of general physical health and is essential for self-esteem, self-confidence and overall quality of life. There is a well-established link between mental illness and poor oral health. Oral health problems are not generally well recognized by mental health professionals and many patients experience barriers to treatment. This is the protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomised trial that has been designed to fit within standard care. Dental awareness training for care co-ordinators plus a dental checklist for service users in addition to standard care will be compared with standard care alone for people with mental illness. The checklist consists of questions about service users' current oral health routine and condition. Ten Early Intervention in Psychosis (EIP) teams in Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and Lincolnshire will be cluster randomised (five to intervention and five to standard care) in blocks accounting for location and size of caseload. The oral health of the service users will be monitored for one year after randomisation. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN63382258.

  17. Estimating small area health-related characteristics of populations: a methodological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizur Rahman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of health-related characteristics at a fine local geographic level is vital for effective health promotion programmes, provision of better health services and population-specific health planning and management. Lack of a micro-dataset readily available for attributes of individuals at small areas negatively impacts the ability of local and national agencies to manage serious health issues and related risks in the community. A solution to this challenge would be to develop a method that simulates reliable small-area statistics. This paper provides a significant appraisal of the methodologies for estimating health-related characteristics of populations at geographical limited areas. Findings reveal that a range of methodologies are in use, which can be classified as three distinct set of approaches: i indirect standardisation and individual level modelling; ii multilevel statistical modelling; and iii micro-simulation modelling. Although each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses, it appears that microsimulation- based spatial models have significant robustness over the other methods and also represent a more precise means of estimating health-related population characteristics over small areas.

  18. The beta-carotene and retinol efficacy trial (CARET) for chemoprevention of lung cancer in high risk populations: smokers and asbestos-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omenn, G S; Goodman, G; Thornquist, M; Grizzle, J; Rosenstock, L; Barnhart, S; Balmes, J; Cherniack, M G; Cullen, M R; Glass, A

    1994-04-01

    CARET is a multicenter, two-armed, double-masked randomized chemoprevention trial in Seattle, Portland, San Francisco, Baltimore, Connecticut, and Irvine, to test whether oral administration of beta-carotene (30 mg/day) plus retinyl palmitate (25,000 IU/day) can decrease the incidence of lung cancer in high risk populations, namely, heavy smokers and asbestos-exposed workers. The intervention combines the antioxidant action of beta-carotene and the tumor suppressor mechanism of vitamin A. As of April 30, 1993, CARET had randomized 1,845 participants in the 1985-1988 pilot phase plus 13,260 "efficacy" participants since 1989; of these, 4,000 are asbestos-exposed males and 11,105 are smokers and former smokers (44% female). Accrual is complete everywhere except Irvine, which was the last center added (1991), and the safety profile of the regimen to date has been excellent. With 14,420 smokers, 4,010 asbestos-exposed participants, and 114,100 person-years through February 1998, we expect CARET to be capable of detecting a 23% reduction in lung cancer incidence in the two populations combined and 27, 49, 32, and 35% reductions in the smokers, female smokers, male smokers, and asbestos-exposed subgroups, respectively. CARET is highly complementary to the alpha-tocopherol-beta-carotene study in Finland and the Harvard Physicians Health Study (beta-carotene alone) in the National Cancer Institute portfolio of major cancer chemoprevention trials.

  19. International Clinical Trials in Latin American and Caribbean Countries: Research and Development to Meet Local Health Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo E. da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although international health research involves some benefits for the host countries, such as access to innovative treatments, the research itself may not be aligned with their communities' actual health needs.Objective: To map the global landscape of clinical trials run in Latin American and Caribbean countries and discuss the addressing of local health needs in the agenda of international clinical trials.Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional overview and used data referent to studies registered between 01/01/2014 and 12/31/2014 in the World Health Organization's (WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP.Results: Non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and asthma—studies which were financed mainly by industries—were the conditions investigated most in the region of Latin America and the Caribbean. The neglected diseases, on the other hand, such as Chagas disease, and dengue, made up 1% of the total number of studies. Hospitals and nonprofit nongovernmental organizations prioritize resources for investigating new drugs for neglected diseases, such as Chagas disease and dengue.Conclusion: The international multicenter clinical trials for investigating new drugs are aligned with the health needs of the region of Latin America and the Caribbean, when one considers the burden resulting from the non-communicable diseases in this region. However, the transmissible diseases, such as tuberculosis and AIDS, and the neglected diseases, such as Chagas disease and dengue, which have an important impact on public health in this region, continue to arouse little interest among the institutions which finance the clinical trials.

  20. Health expectancy and the problem of substitute morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Water, H P

    1997-12-29

    During the past century, the developed world has not only witnessed a dramatic increase in life expectancy (ageing), but also a concomitant rise in chronic disease and disability. Consequently, the tension between 'living longer' on the one hand and health-related 'quality of life' on the other has become an increasingly important health policy problem. The paper deals with two consequences of this so-called epidemiological transition in population health. The first one concerns the question of how--given the impressive changes--population health can be measured in an adequate and policy relevant present-day fashion. The second one is the so-called phenomenon of 'substitute morbidity and mortality': more and more acute fatal diseases are replaced by non-fatal delayed degenerative diseases like dementia and arthritis. How the phenomenon of substitute morbidity and mortality affects the development of population health is illustrated with the epidemiological transitions, worldwide shifts in the main causes of death, assumptions used in models, adverse consequences of medical technologies and some results from intervention trials. Substitute morbidity and mortality may thwart our disease-specific expectations of interventions and asks for a shift to a 'total population health' perspective when judging potential health gains of interventions. Better understanding of the dynamics that underly the changes in population health is necessary. Implications for data collections are more emphasis on morbidity data and their relation with mortality, more longitudinal studies, stricter requirements for intervention trials and more use of modelling as a tool. A final recommendation is the promotion of integrative measures of population health. For the latter several results are presented suggesting that, although the amount of morbidity and disability is growing with an increasing life expectancy, this is mild unhealthiness in particular. This finding supports the 'dynamic

  1. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Expect During a clinical trial, doctors, nurses, social workers, and other health care providers might be part of your treatment ... phase II clinical trials. The risk of side effects might be even greater for ... treatments. Health insurance and health care providers don't always ...

  2. Community-based population-level interventions for promoting child oral health.

    OpenAIRE

    de Silva, AM; Hegde, S; Akudo Nwagbara, B; Calache, H; Gussy, MG; Nasser, M; Morrice, HR; Riggs, E; Leong, PM; Meyenn, LK; Yousefi-Nooraie, R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dental caries and gingival and periodontal disease are commonly occurring, preventable chronic conditions. Even though much is known about how to treat oral disease, currently we do not know which community-based population-level interventions are most effective and equitable in preventing poor oral health. OBJECTIVES: Primary • To determine the effectiveness of community-based population-level oral health promotion interventions in preventing dental caries and gingival and period...

  3. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to main content U.S. Department of Health & Human ... of people. Clinical trials produce the best data available for health care decisionmaking. The purpose of clinical trials is research, ...

  4. Prediction of black box warning by mining patterns of Convergent Focus Shift in clinical trial study populations using linked public data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Handong; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    To link public data resources for predicting post-marketing drug safety label changes by analyzing the Convergent Focus Shift patterns among drug testing trials. We identified 256 top-selling prescription drugs between 2003 and 2013 and divided them into 83 BBW drugs (drugs with at least one black box warning label) and 173 ROBUST drugs (drugs without any black box warning label) based on their FDA black box warning (BBW) records. We retrieved 7499 clinical trials that each had at least one of these drugs for intervention from the ClinicalTrials.gov. We stratified all the trials by pre-marketing or post-marketing status, study phase, and study start date. For each trial, we retrieved drug and disease concepts from clinical trial summaries to model its study population using medParser and SNOMED-CT. Convergent Focus Shift (CFS) pattern was calculated and used to assess the temporal changes in study populations from pre-marketing to post-marketing trials for each drug. Then we selected 68 candidate drugs, 18 with BBW warning and 50 without, that each had at least nine pre-marketing trials and nine post-marketing trials for predictive modeling. A random forest predictive model was developed to predict BBW acquisition incidents based on CFS patterns among these drugs. Pre- and post-marketing trials of BBW and ROBUST drugs were compared to look for their differences in CFS patterns. Among the 18 BBW drugs, we consistently observed that the post-marketing trials focused more on recruiting patients with medical conditions previously unconsidered in the pre-marketing trials. In contrast, among the 50 ROBUST drugs, the post-marketing trials involved a variety of medications for testing their associations with target intervention(s). We found it feasible to predict BBW acquisitions using different CFS patterns between the two groups of drugs. Our random forest predictor achieved an AUC of 0.77. We also demonstrated the feasibility of the predictor for identifying long

  5. Do health care workforce, population, and service provision significantly contribute to the total health expenditure? An econometric analysis of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santric-Milicevic, M; Vasic, V; Terzic-Supic, Z

    2016-08-15

    In times of austerity, the availability of econometric health knowledge assists policy-makers in understanding and balancing health expenditure with health care plans within fiscal constraints. The objective of this study is to explore whether the health workforce supply of the public health care sector, population number, and utilization of inpatient care significantly contribute to total health expenditure. The dependent variable is the total health expenditure (THE) in Serbia from the years 2003 to 2011. The independent variables are the number of health workers employed in the public health care sector, population number, and inpatient care discharges per 100 population. The statistical analyses include the quadratic interpolation method, natural logarithm and differentiation, and multiple linear regression analyses. The level of significance is set at P Total health expenditure increased by 1.21 standard deviations, with an increase in health workforce growth rate by 1 standard deviation. Furthermore, this rate decreased by 1.12 standard deviations, with an increase in (negative) population growth rate by 1 standard deviation. Finally, the growth rate increased by 0.38 standard deviation, with an increase of the growth rate of inpatient care discharges per 100 population by 1 standard deviation (P < 0.001). Study results demonstrate that the government has been making an effort to control strongly health budget growth. Exploring causality relationships between health expenditure and health workforce is important for countries that are trying to consolidate their public health finances and achieve universal health coverage at the same time.

  6. Health Effects of Job Insecurity among Employees in Swiss General Population

    OpenAIRE

    Gianfranco DOMENIGHETTI; Barbara D'AVANZO; Brigitte BISIG

    1999-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate at national level the association between health and the social distress in which the whole employed population is plunged as a consequence of job insecurity. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Switzerland. Subjects. Individuals working full or part time as employees drawn from a random sample (N=2024) of the Swiss general population interviewed by phone. Main outcome measures. Prevalence rates of ten self reported health and health related behaviour indicators...

  7. Socioeconomic determinants of health inequalities among the older population in India: a decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Srinivas; Singh, Lucky; Jain, Kshipra; Pou, Ladumai Maikho Apollo

    2014-12-01

    This study quantified and decomposed health inequalities among the older population in India and analyzes how health status varies for populations between 60 to 69 years and 70 years and above. Data from the 60th round of the National Sample Survey (NSS) was used for the analyses. Socioeconomic inequalities in health status were measured by using Concentration Index (CI) and further decomposed to find critical determinants and their relative contributions to total health inequality. Overall, CI estimates were negative for the older population as a whole (CI = -0.1156), as well as for two disaggregated groups, 60 to 69 years (CI = -0.0943) and 70 years and above (CI = -0.08198). This suggests that poor health status is more concentrated among the socioeconomically disadvantaged older population. Decomposition analyses revealed that poor economic status (54 %) is the dominant contributor to total health inequalities in the older population, followed by illiteracy (24 %) and rural place of residence (20 %). Other indicators, such as religion, gender and marital status were positive, while Caste was negatively associated with health inequality in the older populations. Finally, a comparative assessment of decomposition results suggest that critical contributors for health inequality vary for the older population of 60 to 69 years and 70 years and above. These findings provide important insights on health inequalities among the older population in India. Implications are advanced.

  8. "Health divide" between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Kerala, India: population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Slim; Mohindra, Katia Sarla; Siekmans, Kendra; Màk, Geneviève; Narayana, Delampady

    2012-05-29

    The objective of this study is to investigate the magnitude and nature of health inequalities between indigenous (Scheduled Tribes) and non-indigenous populations, as well as between different indigenous groups, in a rural district of Kerala State, India. A health survey was carried out in a rural community (N = 1660 men and women, 18-96 years). Age- and sex-standardised prevalence of underweight (BMI populations. Multi-level weighted logistic regression models were used to estimate the predicted prevalence of morbidity for each age and social group. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition was used to further explore the health gap between tribes and non-tribes, and between subgroups of tribes. Social stratification remains a strong determinant of health in the progressive social policy environment of Kerala. The tribal groups are bearing a higher burden of underweight (46.1 vs. 24.3%), anaemia (9.9 vs. 3.5%) and goitre (8.5 vs. 3.6%) compared to non-tribes, but have similar levels of tuberculosis (21.4 vs. 20.4%) and hypertension (23.5 vs. 20.1%). Significant health inequalities also exist within tribal populations; the Paniya have higher levels of underweight (54.8 vs. 40.7%) and anaemia (17.2 vs. 5.7%) than other Scheduled Tribes. The social gradient in health is evident in each age group, with the exception of hypertension. The predicted prevalence of underweight is 31 and 13 percentage points higher for Paniya and other Scheduled Tribe members, respectively, compared to Forward Caste members 18-30 y (27.1%). Higher hypertension is only evident among Paniya adults 18-30 y (10 percentage points higher than Forward Caste adults of the same age group (5.4%)). The decomposition analysis shows that poverty and other determinants of health only explain 51% and 42% of the health gap between tribes and non-tribes for underweight and goitre, respectively. Policies and programmes designed to benefit the Scheduled Tribes need to promote their well-being in general but

  9. Health education for microcredit clients in Peru: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernald Lia CH

    2011-01-01

    that the intervention did not have sufficient intensity to change behavior, or that microcredit organizations may not be an appropriate setting for the administration of child health educational interventions of this type. Trial Registration This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01047033.

  10. Supporting Policy In health with Research: an Intervention Trial (SPIRIT)—protocol for a stepped wedge trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Governments in different countries have committed to better use of evidence from research in policy. Although many programmes are directed at assisting agencies to better use research, there have been few tests of the effectiveness of such programmes. This paper describes the protocol for SPIRIT (Supporting Policy In health with Research: an Intervention Trial), a trial designed to test the effectiveness of a multifaceted programme to build organisational capacity for the use of research evidence in policy and programme development. The primary aim is to determine whether SPIRIT results in an increase in the extent to which research and research expertise is sought, appraised, generated and used in the development of specific policy products produced by health policy agencies. Methods and analysis A stepped wedge cluster randomised trial involving six health policy agencies located in Sydney, Australia. Policy agencies are the unit of randomisation and intervention. Agencies were randomly allocated to one of three start dates (steps) to receive the 1-year intervention programme, underpinned by an action framework. The SPIRIT intervention is tailored to suit the interests and needs of each agency and includes audit, feedback and goal setting; a leadership programme; staff training; the opportunity to test systems to assist in the use of research in policies; and exchange with researchers. Outcome measures will be collected at each agency every 6 months for 30 months (starting at the beginning of step 1). Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was granted by the University of Western Sydney Human Research and Ethics Committee HREC Approval H8855. The findings of this study will be disseminated broadly through peer-reviewed publications and presentations at conferences and used to inform future strategies. PMID:24989620

  11. Rationale and design of the Baptist Employee Healthy Heart Study: a randomized trial assessing the efficacy of the addition of an interactive, personalized, web-based, lifestyle intervention tool to an existing health information web platform in a high-risk employee population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Janisse M; Ali, Shozab S; Roberson, Lara L; Aneni, Ehimen C; Shaharyar, Sameer; Younus, Adnan; Jamal, Omar; Ahmad, Rameez; Aziz, Muhammad A; Malik, Rehan; Spatz, Erica S; Feldman, Theodore; Fialkow, Jonathan; Veledar, Emir; Cury, Ricardo C; Agatston, Arthur S; Nasir, Khurram

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes confer a high risk for developing subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Persons with MetS constitute 24-34 % of the employee population at Baptist Health South Florida (BHSF), a self-insured healthcare organization. The Baptist Employee Healthy Heart Study (BEHHS) aims to assess the addition of a personalized, interactive, web-based, nutrition-management and lifestyle-management program to the existing health-expertise web platform available to BHSF employees in reducing and/or stabilizing CVD and lifestyle risk factors and markers of subclinical CVD. Subjects with MetS or Type II Diabetes will be recruited from an employee population at BHSF and randomized to either an intervention or a control arm. The intervention arm will be given access to a web-based personalized diet-modification and weight-modification program. The control arm will be reminded to use the standard informational health website available and accessible to all BHSF employees. Subjects will undergo coronary calcium testing, carotid intima-media thickness scans, peripheral arterial tonometry, and advanced lipid panel testing at visit 1, in addition to lifestyle and medical history questionnaires. All tests will be repeated at visits 2 and 4 with the exception of the coronary calcium test, which will only be performed at baseline and visit 4. Visit 3 will capture vitals, anthropometrics, and responses to the questionnaires only. Results of this study will provide information on the effectiveness of personalized, web-based, lifestyle-management tools in reducing healthcare costs, promoting healthy choices, and reducing cardiovascular risk in an employee population. It will also provide information about the natural history of carotid atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction in asymptomatic but high-risk populations. ClinicalTrials.gov registry, NCT01912209 . Registered on 3 July 2013.

  12. Population preferences for health care in liberia: insights for rebuilding a health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Margaret E; Rockers, Peter C; Tornorlah Varpilah, S; Macauley, Rose

    2011-12-01

    OBJECTIVE. To quantify the influence of health system attributes, particularly quality of care, on preferences for health clinics in Liberia, a country with a high burden of disease that is rebuilding its health system after 14 years of civil war. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING. Informed by focus group discussions, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) was designed to assess preferences for structure and process of care at health clinics. The DCE was fielded in rural, northern Liberia as part of a 2008 population-based survey on health care utilization. DATA COLLECTION. The survey response rate was 98 percent with DCE data available for 1,431 respondents. Mixed logit models were used to estimate the influence of six attributes on choice of hypothetical clinics for a future illness. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Participants' choice of clinic was most influenced by provision of a thorough physical exam and consistent availability of medicines. Respectful treatment and government (versus NGO) management marginally increased utility, whereas waiting time was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Liberians value technical quality of care over convenience, courtesy, and public management in selecting clinics for curative care. This suggests that investments in improved competence of providers and availability of medicines may increase population utilization of essential services as well as promote better clinical outcomes. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  13. Recruiting South Asians to a lifestyle intervention trial: experiences and lessons from PODOSA (Prevention of Diabetes & Obesity in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomilehto Jaakko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the growing emphasis on the inclusion of ethnic minority patients in research, there is little published on the recruitment of these populations especially to randomised, community based, lifestyle intervention trials in the UK. Methods We share our experience of recruitment to screening in the PODOSA (Prevention of Diabetes and Obesity in South Asians trial, which screened 1319 recruits (target 1800 for trial eligibility. A multi-pronged recruitment approach was used. Enrolment via the National Health Service included direct referrals from health care professionals and written invitations via general practices. Recruitment within the community was carried out by both the research team and through our partnerships with local South Asian groups and organisations. Participants were encouraged to refer friends and family throughout the recruitment period. Results Health care professionals referred only 55 potential participants. The response to written invitations via general practitioners was 5.2%, lower than reported in other general populations. Community orientated, personal approaches for recruitment were comparatively effective yielding 1728 referrals (82% to the screening stage. Conclusions The PODOSA experience shows that a community orientated, personal approach for recruiting South Asian ethnic minority populations can be successful in a trial setting. We recommend that consideration is given to cover recruitment costs associated with community engagement and other personalised approaches. Researchers should consider prioritising approaches that minimise interference with professionals' work and, particularly in the current economic climate, keep costs to a minimum. The lessons learned in PODOSA should contribute to future community based trials in South Asians. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN25729565

  14. The effects of public health policies on population health and health inequalities in European welfare states: protocol for an umbrella review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Katie; Bambra, Clare; McNamara, Courtney; Huijts, Tim; Todd, Adam

    2016-04-08

    The welfare state is potentially an important macro-level determinant of health that also moderates the extent, and impact, of socio-economic inequalities in exposure to the social determinants of health. The welfare state has three main policy domains: health care, social policy (e.g. social transfers and education) and public health policy. This is the protocol for an umbrella review to examine the latter; its aim is to assess how European welfare states influence the social determinants of health inequalities institutionally through public health policies. A systematic review methodology will be used to identify systematic reviews from high-income countries (including additional EU-28 members) that describe the health and health equity effects of upstream public health interventions. Interventions will focus on primary and secondary prevention policies including fiscal measures, regulation, education, preventative treatment and screening across ten public health domains (tobacco; alcohol; food and nutrition; reproductive health services; the control of infectious diseases; screening; mental health; road traffic injuries; air, land and water pollution; and workplace regulations). Twenty databases will be searched using a pre-determined search strategy to evaluate population-level public health interventions. Understanding the impact of specific public health policy interventions will help to establish causality in terms of the effects of welfare states on population health and health inequalities. The review will document contextual information on how population-level public health interventions are organised, implemented and delivered. This information can be used to identify effective interventions that could be implemented to reduce health inequalities between and within European countries. PROSPERO CRD42016025283.

  15. The Development of a Minority Recruitment Plan for Cancer Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Monica; Padalecki, Susan; Karnad, Anand; Parra, Alberto; Weitman, Steve; Nashawati, Melissa; Pollock, Brad H; Ramirez, Amelie; Thompson, Ian M

    2013-09-01

    Cancer does not occur in all ethnic and racial groups at similar rates. In addition, responses to treatment also vary in certain ethnic and racial groups. For Hispanics, the overall cancer incidence is generally lower yet for some specific tumor types, the incidence rates are higher compared to other populations. Although disparities are recognized for treatment outcomes and prevention methodologies for Hispanics and other minority populations, specific recruiting and reporting of minorities remains a challenge. In order to circumvent this problem, the Cancer Therapy and Research Center (CTRC) has developed a new minority recruitment plan for all cancer related clinical trials at this Institute. The overall goal of this initiative is to increase the accrual of minorities in cancer clinical trials by implementing several key interventions. The Cancer Therapy & Research Center (CTRC) at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio established the Clinical Trials Accrual Task Force to develop and monitor interventions designed to increase accrual to cancer clinical trials, specifically the accrual of minorities with a focus on the Hispanic population that makes up 68% of the CTRC's catchment area. A Minority Accrual Plan (MAP) was implemented in March 2013 as part of the process for initiating and conducting cancer-related clinical trials at the CTRC. The Minority Accrual Plan focuses on Hispanic enrollment due to the characteristics of the South Texas population served by the CTRC but could be easily adapted to other populations. The CTRC has designed a process to prospectively address the challenge of deliberately enrolling minority subjects and accurately accounting for the results by implementing a Minority Accrual Plan for every cancer-related clinical trial at CTRC.

  16. Regulatory challenges associated with conducting multicountry clinical trials in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndebele, Paul; Blanchard-Horan, Christina; Shahkolahi, Akbar; Sanne, Ian

    2014-01-01

    International public health and infectious diseases research has expanded to become a global enterprise transcending national and continental borders in organized networks addressing high-impact diseases. In conducting multicountry clinical trials, sponsors and investigators have to ensure that they meet regulatory requirements in all countries in which the clinical trials will be conducted. Some of these requirements include review and approval by national drug regulatory authorities and recognized research ethics committees. A limiting factor to the efficient conduct of multicountry clinical trials is the regulatory environment in each collaborating country, with significant differences determined by various factors including the laws and the procedures used in each country. The long regulatory processes in resource-limited countries may hinder the efficient implementation of multisite clinical trials, delaying research important to the health of populations in these countries and costing millions of dollars a year.

  17. Neighborhood deprivation is strongly associated with participation in a population-based health check

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Anne Mette; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jørgensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We sought to examine whether neighborhood deprivation is associated with participation in a large population-based health check. Such analyses will help answer the question whether health checks, which are designed to meet the needs of residents in deprived neighborhoods, may increase...... participation and prove to be more effective in preventing disease. In Europe, no study has previously looked at the association between neighborhood deprivation and participation in a population-based health check. METHODS: The study population comprised 12,768 persons invited for a health check including...... screening for ischemic heart disease and lifestyle counseling. The study population was randomly drawn from a population of 179,097 persons living in 73 neighborhoods in Denmark. Data on neighborhood deprivation (percentage with basic education, with low income and not in work) and individual socioeconomic...

  18. Effectiveness of a worksite mindfulness-related multi-component health promotion intervention on work engagement and mental health: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantien van Berkel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a worksite mindfulness-related multi-component health promotion intervention on work engagement, mental health, need for recovery and mindfulness. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial design, 257 workers of two research institutes participated. The intervention group (n = 129 received a targeted mindfulness-related training, followed by e-coaching. The total duration of the intervention was 6 months. Data on work engagement, mental health, need for recovery and mindfulness were collected using questionnaires at baseline and after 6 and 12 months follow-up. Effects were analyzed using linear mixed effect models. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in work engagement, mental health, need for recovery and mindfulness between the intervention and control group after either 6- or 12-months follow-up. Additional analyses in mindfulness-related training compliance subgroups (high and low compliance versus the control group as a reference and subgroups based on baseline work engagement scores showed no significant differences either. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not show an effect of this worksite mindfulness-related multi-component health promotion intervention on work engagement, mental health, need for recovery and mindfulness after 6 and 12 months. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register NTR2199.

  19. Impact of an Electronic Health Record-Integrated Personal Health Record on Patient Participation in Health Care: Development and Randomized Controlled Trial of MyHealthKeeper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Borim; Kim, Nari; Heo, Eunyoung; Yoo, Sooyoung; Lee, Keehyuck; Hwang, Hee; Kim, Jeong-Whun; Kim, Yoojung; Lee, Joongseek; Jung, Se Young

    2017-12-07

    Personal health record (PHR)-based health care management systems can improve patient engagement and data-driven medical diagnosis in a clinical setting. The purpose of this study was (1) to demonstrate the development of an electronic health record (EHR)-tethered PHR app named MyHealthKeeper, which can retrieve data from a wearable device and deliver these data to a hospital EHR system, and (2) to study the effectiveness of a PHR data-driven clinical intervention with clinical trial results. To improve the conventional EHR-tethered PHR, we ascertained clinicians' unmet needs regarding PHR functionality and the data frequently used in the field through a cocreation workshop. We incorporated the requirements into the system design and architecture of the MyHealthKeeper PHR module. We constructed the app and validated the effectiveness of the PHR module by conducting a 4-week clinical trial. We used a commercially available activity tracker (Misfit) to collect individual physical activity data, and developed the MyHealthKeeper mobile phone app to record participants' patterns of daily food intake and activity logs. We randomly assigned 80 participants to either the PHR-based intervention group (n=51) or the control group (n=29). All of the study participants completed a paper-based survey, a laboratory test, a physical examination, and an opinion interview. During the 4-week study period, we collected health-related mobile data, and study participants visited the outpatient clinic twice and received PHR-based clinical diagnosis and recommendations. A total of 68 participants (44 in the intervention group and 24 in the control group) completed the study. The PHR intervention group showed significantly higher weight loss than the control group (mean 1.4 kg, 95% CI 0.9-1.9; Phealth tracker system and its potential to improve patient clinical profiles. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03200119; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03200119 (Archived by WebCite at http

  20. Speaking of Health: Assessing Health Communication Strategies for Diverse Populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this project was provided by the Institute of Medicine. The views presented in this report are those of the Institute of Medicine Committee on Communication for Behavior Change in the 21st Century: Improving the Health of Diverse Populations and are not necessarily those of ...

  1. Occupational Health and Sleep Issues in Underserved Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliny, Medhat; McKenzie, Judith Green

    2017-03-01

    Sleep disorders and occupational hazards, injuries, and illnesses impact an individual's overall health. In the United States, substantial racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities exist in sleep and occupational health. Primary care physicians working in underserved communities should be aware of this disparity and target these higher-risk populations for focused evaluation and intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. World Health Organization "School Mental Health Manual"-based training for school teachers in Urban Lahore, Pakistan: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Nazish; Rahman, Atif; Chaudhry, Nakhshab; Asif, Aftab

    2018-05-24

    The teacher's role in school mental health initiatives cannot be overemphasized. Despite global evidence of educational interventions in improving teachers' knowledge and attitudes regarding mental health, this area remains under researched in Pakistan. This paper presents a study protocol of a pilot randomized controlled trial to examine the effectiveness of a teacher training intervention for improving mental health literacy and self-efficacy among school teachers in urban Lahore, Pakistan. The randomized controlled trial will follow the CONSORT guidelines. Participants will be allocated to the Intervention group (receiving the World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO-EMRO) School Mental Health Manual-based intervention in three 6-h, face-to-face sessions) or a waitlist control group (not receiving training during the study period). Participants will be teachers of private schools with similar broad demographic characteristics in an inner city area of Lahore. The primary outcome measures for the trial is teachers' mental health literacy. It will be assessed by using the previously applied (during WHO training of Master Trainers) self-administered questionnaire in both groups pre and post training and at 3 months' follow-up. Secondary outcomes include: for teachers: Teachers' self-efficacy (assessed by the Teachers' Sense of Self Efficacy Scale (TSES) short form.); for students (11-16 years): socio-emotional skills and psychological problems measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (assessed at baseline and 3 months post intervention); for schools: the WHO School Psychosocial Profile Questionnaire (baseline and 3 months post intervention). Given the high prevalence of child mental health problems, stigma and lack of services, it is important to consider alternate avenues for promoting positive mental health among youth. This pilot study should establish the effectiveness of the WHO-EMRO School Mental Health Manual

  3. Initial Readability Assessment of Clinical Trial Eligibility Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tian; Elhadad, Noémie; Weng, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Various search engines are available to clinical trial seekers. However, it remains unknown how comprehensible clinical trial eligibility criteria used for recruitment are to a lay audience. This study initially investigated this problem. Readability of eligibility criteria was assessed according to (i) shallow and lexical characteristics through the use of an established, generic readability metric; (ii) syntactic characteristics through natural language processing techniques; and (iii) health terminological characteristics through an automated comparison to technical and lay health texts. We further stratified clinical trials according to various study characteristics (e.g., source country or study type) to understand potential factors influencing readability. Mainly caused by frequent use of technical jargons, a college reading level was found to be necessary to understand eligibility criteria text, a level much higher than the average literacy level of the general American population. The use of technical jargons should be minimized to simplify eligibility criteria text. PMID:26958204

  4. Dietary adherence in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    This article describes adherence to a low-fat dietary pattern (less than 20% energy from fat, five or more fruit/vegetable and six or more grain servings daily) in Years 1 and 5 of the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial, which was designed to examine the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on risk of breast and colorectal cancers and other chronic diseases in postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat dietary intervention arm (40%, n=19,542) or a usual diet control arm (60%, n=29,294). Women in the intervention arm completed 18 group sessions during the first year, followed by quarterly annual maintenance sessions. Adherence was assessed as control minus intervention (C-I) group differences in percent total energy from fat as estimated by a food frequency questionnaire. Based on these self-reported dietary data, mean C-I was 10.9 percentage points of energy from fat at Year 1, decreasing to 9.0 at Year 5. Factors associated with poorer adherence were being older, being African American or Hispanic (compared with white), having low income, and being obese. Group session attendance was strongly associated with better dietary adherence. There are many limitations of self-reported dietary data, particularly related to social desirability and intervention-associated bias. Nonetheless, these data indicate that long-term dietary change was achieved in this clinical trial setting and reinforce the potential of the ongoing trial to answer questions of public health importance.

  5. Population health improvement: a community health business model that engages partners in all sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindig, David A; Isham, George

    2014-01-01

    Because population health improvement requires action on multiple determinants--including medical care, health behaviors, and the social and physical environments--no single entity can be held accountable for achieving improved outcomes. Medical organizations, government, schools, businesses, and community organizations all need to make substantial changes in how they approach health and how they allocate resources. To this end, we suggest the development of multisectoral community health business partnership models. Such collaborative efforts are needed by sectors and actors not accustomed to working together. Healthcare executives can play important leadership roles in fostering or supporting such partnerships in local and national arenas where they have influence. In this article, we develop the following components of this argument: defining a community health business model; defining population health and the Triple Aim concept; reaching beyond core mission to help create the model; discussing the shift for care delivery beyond healthcare organizations to other community sectors; examining who should lead in developing the community business model; discussing where the resources for a community business model might come from; identifying that better evidence is needed to inform where to make cost-effective investments; and proposing some next steps. The approach we have outlined is a departure from much current policy and management practice. But new models are needed as a road map to drive action--not just thinking--to address the enormous challenge of improving population health. While we applaud continuing calls to improve health and reduce disparities, progress will require more robust incentives, strategies, and action than have been in practice to date. Our hope is that ideas presented here will help to catalyze a collective, multisectoral response to this critical social and economic challenge.

  6. Commentary: Advancing an implementation science agenda on mental health and psychosocial responses in war-affected settings: comment on trials of a psychosocial intervention for youth affected by the Syrian crisis - by Panter-Brick et al. (2018).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Fazel, Mina

    2018-05-01

    Syria's civil conflict has created the largest humanitarian disaster of our time, causing massive population displacement, tremendous exposure to trauma, and loss. Advancing the mental health and psychosocial responses of war-affected populations both during acute humanitarian emergencies and in post-conflict transition is imperative in forging a constructive implementation agenda. This study makes an important contribution in building evidence toward effective interventions to advance the mental health and well-being of those affected by the Syrian crisis. Using an innovative approach, this work demonstrates that a thoughtful, ethical, and scientifically valid trial can be carried out in the midst of mass displacement. Further research is urgently needed on the effectiveness of interventions for vulnerable populations, with a growing need to embed studies of evidence-based mental health interventions within humanitarian responses. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  7. Population health status of South Asian and African-Caribbean communities in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Calvert, Melanie; Duffy, Helen; Freemantle, Nick; Davis, Russell; Lip, Gregory YH; Gill, Paramjit

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009) ...

  8. Discrimination, Mental Health, and Substance Use Disorders Among Sexual Minority Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Bryant, Kendall J.; Zaller, Nickolas D.; Operario, Don

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual) populations have a higher prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Such disparities have been attributed, in part, to minority stressors, including distal stressors such as discrimination. However, few studies have examined associations between discrimination, mental health, and substance use disorders by gender among sexual minority populations.

  9. A randomized controlled trial of intensive care management for disabled Medicaid beneficiaries with high health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Janice F; Krupski, Antoinette; Joesch, Jutta M; West, Imara I; Atkins, David C; Court, Beverly; Mancuso, David; Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate outcomes of a registered nurse-led care management intervention for disabled Medicaid beneficiaries with high health care costs. Washington State Department of Social and Health Services Client Outcomes Database, 2008-2011. In a randomized controlled trial with intent-to-treat analysis, outcomes were compared for the intervention (n = 557) and control groups (n = 563). A quasi-experimental subanalysis compared outcomes for program participants (n = 251) and propensity score-matched controls (n = 251). Administrative data were linked to describe costs and use of health services, criminal activity, homelessness, and death. In the intent-to-treat analysis, the intervention group had higher odds of outpatient mental health service use and higher prescription drug costs than controls in the postperiod. In the subanalysis, participants had fewer unplanned hospital admissions and lower associated costs; higher prescription drug costs; higher odds of long-term care service use; higher drug/alcohol treatment costs; and lower odds of homelessness. We found no health care cost savings for disabled Medicaid beneficiaries randomized to intensive care management. Among participants, care management may have the potential to increase access to needed care, slow growth in the number and therefore cost of unplanned hospitalizations, and prevent homelessness. These findings apply to start-up care management programs targeted at high-cost, high-risk Medicaid populations. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  10. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and treatments that work best. How Clinical Trials Work If you take part in a clinical trial, ... Center for Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health ...

  11. Air pollution and population health: a global challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2008-01-01

    “Air pollution and population health” is one of the most important environmental and public health issues. Economic development, urbanization, energy consumption, transportation/motorization, and rapid population growth are major driving forces of air pollution in large cities, especially in megacities. Air pollution levels in developed countries have been decreasing dramatically in recent decades. However, in developing countries and in countries in transition, air pollution levels are still...

  12. Nutritional and health challenges of pastoralist populations in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines nutritional and health challenges facing pastoralists who inhabit fragile rangelands and are one of the most nutritionally vulnerable population groups in Kenya. The review is based on a synthesis of literature on pastoralist food security, nutrition and health status and livelihoods in Kenya's rangelands.

  13. Digital health promotion in sexual health clinics: results of a feasibility trial of the Men’s Safer Sex website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia V Bailey

    2015-10-01

    The best way to assess the impact of the MenSS website was by recording STI diagnoses from clinical records. Response rates for the online questionnaire were poor despite offers of incentives. There were many challenges to conducting an online trial of a sexual health website including ethical committee concerns about email content, poor reliability of trial-related software, balancing data protection and security protocols against ease of access for participants, barriers to patient access to IT in NHS clinics, and trying to ensure that participants engage with a digital intervention for long enough. Whilst digital interventions have great potential for health promotion, we encountered significant obstacles to online research, and to implementation of an IDI in an NHS clinical setting.

  14. Effects of ParentCorps in Prekindergarten on Child Mental Health and Academic Performance: Follow-up of a Randomized Clinical Trial Through 8 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther J; Goldfeld, Keith; Petkova, Eva

    2016-12-01

    Low-income minority children living in urban neighborhoods are at high risk for mental health problems and underachievement. ParentCorps, a family-centered, school-based intervention in prekindergarten, improves parenting and school readiness (ie, self-regulation and preacademic skills) in 2 randomized clinical trials. The longer-term effect on child mental health and academic performance is not known. To examine whether ParentCorps delivered as an enhancement to prekindergarten programs in high-poverty urban schools leads to fewer mental health problems and increased academic performance in the early elementary school years. This is a 3-year follow-up study of a cluster randomized clinical trial of ParentCorps in public schools with prekindergarten programs in New York City. Ten elementary schools serving a primarily low-income, black student population were randomized in 2005, and 4 consecutive cohorts of prekindergarten students were enrolled from September 12, 2005, through December 31, 2008. We report follow-up for the 3 cohorts enrolled after the initial year of implementation. Data analysis was performed from September 1, 2014, to December 31, 2015. ParentCorps included professional development for prekindergarten and kindergarten teachers and a program for parents and prekindergarten students (13 two-hour group sessions delivered after school by teachers and mental health professionals). Annual teacher ratings of mental health problems and academic performance and standardized tests of academic achievement in kindergarten and second grade by testers masked to the intervention or control group randomization. A total of 1050 children (4 years old; 518 boys [49.3%] and 532 girls [50.7%]) in 99 prekindergarten classrooms participated in the trial (88.1% of the prekindergarten population), with 792 students enrolled from 2006 to 2008. Most families in the follow-up study (421 [69.6%]) were low income; 680 (85.9%) identified as non-Latino black, 78 (9.8%) as

  15. A comparison of the health status and health care utilization patterns between foreigners and the national population in Spain: new evidence from the Spanish National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina; Jiménez-Rubio, Dolores

    2009-08-01

    The increasing proportion of immigrants in Spanish society is placing pressure on the National Health Care System to accommodate the needs of this population group while keeping costs under control. In the year 2000, a law was approved in Spain according to which all people, regardless of their nationality, are entitled to use health care services under the same conditions as Spanish citizens, provided that they are registered in the local population census. However, empirical evidence about differences in health status and health care utilization between the immigrant and the Spanish population is insufficient. This paper uses the 2003 and 2006 Spanish National Health Surveys to explore the existence of inequalities in health and in the access to health services for the immigrant population living in Spain, relative to that of Spaniards. Our results show that there are different patterns in the level of health and the medical care use between the national and the foreign population in Spain: while immigrants' self-reported health relative to that of the Spanish population depends upon individual nationality, all immigrants, regardless of their nationality, seem to face barriers of entry to specialized care. Further research is needed to understand the nature of these barriers in order to design more effective health policies.

  16. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical trials produce the best data available for health care decisionmaking. The purpose of clinical trials is research, ... and advance medical care. They also can help health care decisionmakers direct resources to the strategies and treatments ...

  17. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for trials with cutting-edge approaches, such as gene therapy or new biological treatments. Health insurance and health ... trials that involve high-risk procedures (such as gene therapy) or vulnerable patients (such as children). A DSMB's ...

  18. Health-economic evaluation in implant trials: design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Volker; Pavlidis, Theodoros; Szalay, Gabor; Heiss, Christian; Schnettler, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    In today's world, demonstration of the safety, efficacy, and quality of a new treatment strategy is no longer sufficient in many countries for market entry and reimbursement in the public healthcare system. This implies that new implants in orthopedic and orthopedic trauma surgery not only must be shown to lead to better medical outcome compared with the standard of care implant, but also must be shown to exhibit "good value" for the money for the public health-care system based on sound economic data from health-economic studies. The purpose of this article is to elucidate a framework for health-economic aspects alongside implant trials, with the assumption that the new implant is more costly but potentially better than the control implant. Cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, and cost-benefit studies are suitable for the assessment of the health-economic value of a new implant. The following criteria should be considered for a health-economic study design in the context with an implant: i) it should state medical benefits of the new implant compared with the control implant; ii) it should precise the type of health economic study; iii) it should define the methodological approach, perspective of the study, and types of costs; iv) if necessary, it should state discount costs and/benefits; and v) a sound sensitivity analysis should be included. Furthermore, close cooperation between researchers, clinicians, and health economists is essential.

  19. Population Preferences for Health Care in Liberia: Insights for Rebuilding a Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Margaret E; Rockers, Peter C; Tornorlah Varpilah, S; Macauley, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Objective To quantify the influence of health system attributes, particularly quality of care, on preferences for health clinics in Liberia, a country with a high burden of disease that is rebuilding its health system after 14 years of civil war. Data Sources/Study Setting Informed by focus group discussions, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) was designed to assess preferences for structure and process of care at health clinics. The DCE was fielded in rural, northern Liberia as part of a 2008 population-based survey on health care utilization. Data Collection The survey response rate was 98 percent with DCE data available for 1,431 respondents. Mixed logit models were used to estimate the influence of six attributes on choice of hypothetical clinics for a future illness. Principal Findings Participants' choice of clinic was most influenced by provision of a thorough physical exam and consistent availability of medicines. Respectful treatment and government (versus NGO) management marginally increased utility, whereas waiting time was not significant. Conclusions Liberians value technical quality of care over convenience, courtesy, and public management in selecting clinics for curative care. This suggests that investments in improved competence of providers and availability of medicines may increase population utilization of essential services as well as promote better clinical outcomes. PMID:21517835

  20. Neglected populations: safeguarding the health of street-involved children in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei-Twum, Jo-Ann; Wasan, Kishor M

    2012-10-01

    Ensuring the health of street-involved children is a growing public health challenge. These children are vulnerable, neglected, and rarely a priority for basic service providers and governments. Sizable populations of street-involved children are present in major urban areas worldwide and current trends in urbanization suggest these populations will grow in the coming years. Although migration offers employment and training opportunities, the health and wellbeing of children is negatively impacted by their interactions with the streets. However, systemic barriers may also prevent these children from achieving an adequate health status. The situation of street-involved children in Ghana, West Africa will be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Health needs of the Roma population in the Czech and Slovak Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koupilová, I; Epstein, H; Holcík, J; Hajioff, S; McKee, M

    2001-11-01

    In the growing literature on the human rights of Roma people in Central Europe, their relatively poor health status is often mentioned. However, little concrete information exists about the contemporary health status of the Roma in this region. We sought information on the health of the Roma in two of countries with significant Roma minorities, the Czech and Slovak Republics, by means of systematic searches for literature on the health of Roma people published in Czech or Slovak or by authors from the two countries. Published research on health of the Roma population is sparse. The topics that have received attention suggest a focus on concepts of contagion or social Darwinism, indicating a greater concern with the health needs of the majority populations with which they live. What limited evidence exists indicates that the health needs of the Roma population are considerable. With very few exceptions, the health status of Roma is worse than that of non-Roma population in both countries. The burden of communicable disease among Roma is high and diseases associated with poor hygiene seem to be particularly important. Evidence on health care suggests poor communication between Roma and health workers and low uptake of preventative care. The health needs of Roma lack visibility, not only because of the absence of research but also the absence of advocacy on their behalf. Since 1989, Czech and Slovak researchers have largely turned away from health research on particular ethnic groups. This probably reflects a growing sensitivity about stigmatising Roma, but it also makes it difficult to know how their circumstances might be improved. There is a need for further research into the health of Roma people with particular emphasis on non-communicable disease and for interventions that would improve their health.

  2. Electronic Cigarette Trial and Use among Young Adults: Reasons for Trial and Cessation of Vaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Lois; Song, Eunyoung; Sutfin, Erin L; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2015-12-17

    This paper identifies predictors of trial and current use, and reasons for trying and ceasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among young adults, with particular attention to former and never smokers. Data are from a mail survey of a population-based sample of adults aged 18 to 35 (N = 4740) in three U.S. metropolitan areas. Survey items assessed trial and use of e-cigarettes, cigarette smoking status, and reasons for trial and for ceasing use of e-cigarettes. Almost 23% reported trial of e-cigarettes, and 8.4% reported using them in the past month. Current smokers were much more likely to have tried e-cigarettes (70.2%) than both former (32.3%) and never smokers (7.6%; p e-cigarettes. Never-smokers cite curiosity as the reason for trying e-cigarettes and also that their friends used them. The most frequent reason for ceasing use among never and former smokers was health concerns. For virtually none of them were e-cigarettes their first exposure to nicotine.

  3. Population Aging at Cross-Roads: Diverging Secular Trends in Average Cognitive Functioning and Physical Health in the Older Population of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiber, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses individual-level data from the German Socio-Economic Panel to model trends in population health in terms of cognition, physical fitness, and mental health between 2006 and 2012. The focus is on the population aged 50–90. We use a repeated population-based cross-sectional design. As outcome measures, we use SF-12 measures of physical and mental health and the Symbol-Digit Test (SDT) that captures cognitive processing speed. In line with previous research we find a highly significant Flynn effect on cognition; i.e., SDT scores are higher among those who were tested more recently (at the same age). This result holds for men and women, all age groups, and across all levels of education. While we observe a secular improvement in terms of cognitive functioning, at the same time, average physical and mental health has declined. The decline in average physical health is shown to be stronger for men than for women and found to be strongest for low-educated, young-old men aged 50–64: the decline over the 6-year interval in average physical health is estimated to amount to about 0.37 SD, whereas average fluid cognition improved by about 0.29 SD. This pattern of results at the population-level (trends in average population health) stands in interesting contrast to the positive association of physical health and cognitive functioning at the individual-level. The findings underscore the multi-dimensionality of health and the aging process. PMID:26323093

  4. Dissemination, Implementation, and Improvement Science Research in Population Health: Opportunities for Public Health and CTSAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tony; Gase, Lauren N; Inkelas, Moira

    2015-12-01

    The complex, dynamic nature of health systems requires dissemination, implementation, and improvement (DII) sciences to effectively translate emerging knowledge into practice. Although they hold great promise for informing multisector policies and system-level changes, these methods are often not strategically used by public health. More than 120 stakeholders from Southern California, including the community, federal and local government, university, and health services were convened to identify key priorities and opportunities for public health departments and Clinical and Translational Science Awards programs (CTSAs) to advance DII sciences in population health. Participants identified challenges (mismatch of practice realities with narrowly focused research questions; lack of iterative learning) and solutions (using methods that fit the dynamic nature of the real world; aligning theories of change across sectors) for applying DII science research to public health problems. Pragmatic steps that public health and CTSAs can take to facilitate DII science research include: employing appropriate study designs; training scientists and practicing professionals in these methods; securing resources to advance this work; and supporting team science to solve complex-systems issues. Public health and CTSAs represent a unique model of practice for advancing DII research in population health. The partnership can inform policy and program development in local communities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Mental health differences between German gay and bisexual men and population-based controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Frank A; Franke, Gabriele H; Christiansen, Hanna

    2017-07-21

    International studies have revealed that gay and bisexual men present more mental health problems than the general male population. Furthermore, there is evidence that minority stress predicts mental health problems in gay and bisexual men. The aim of the present study is to provide initial data on mental health differences in Germany and to analyze the effect of minority stress. Mental health data on n = 1903 German gay and bisexual men and n = 958 men from a population-based sample were assessed using a shortened version of the SCL-90-S. The mental health of the two samples was compared. Furthermore, a linear regression was conducted for the gay and bisexual sample: mental health was used as the criterion and minority stressors as predictors. As compared to our population sample, gay and bisexual men demonstrated more mental health problems with a moderate effect size. In the regression, minority stress predicted mental health problems in the gay and bisexual sample. We observed pronounced mental health differences between gay and bisexual men versus the population sample. These differences could be at least partly due to the minority stress gay and bisexual men face. Research should focus on how to reduce and cope with minority stress.

  6. PopHR: a knowledge-based platform to support integration, analysis, and visualization of population health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban-Nejad, Arash; Lavigne, Maxime; Okhmatovskaia, Anya; Buckeridge, David L

    2017-01-01

    Population health decision makers must consider complex relationships between multiple concepts measured with differential accuracy from heterogeneous data sources. Population health information systems are currently limited in their ability to integrate data and present a coherent portrait of population health. Consequentially, these systems can provide only basic support for decision makers. The Population Health Record (PopHR) is a semantic web application that automates the integration and extraction of massive amounts of heterogeneous data from multiple distributed sources (e.g., administrative data, clinical records, and survey responses) to support the measurement and monitoring of population health and health system performance for a defined population. The design of the PopHR draws on the theories of the determinants of health and evidence-based public health to harmonize and explicitly link information about a population with evidence about the epidemiology and control of chronic diseases. Organizing information in this manner and linking it explicitly to evidence is expected to improve decision making related to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of population health and health system interventions. In this paper, we describe the PopHR platform and discuss the architecture, design, key modules, and its implementation and use. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Population health and urban form : a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    A review examining the links between public health and living spaces was presented. The aim of the review was to explore whether different urban forms created communities that encouraged healthy living and resulted in a healthier population as well as to suggest avenues and approaches for further research of the subject in British Columbia. The historical links between public health and community planning were examined. A conceptual model of the linkages of urban form and population health was developed and used to identify ways in which urban form and population health are linked. Areas of concern include vehicle emissions, water quality and heat build-up as well as noise pollution. Issues concerning health inequalities related to income and access to health services were examined, as well as the role that urban form plays as a barrier to physical activity. Findings indicated that there is a strong correlation between urban form and health. Lower density urban forms that require a vehicle generated more miles travelled by car with more traffic crashes and higher risks to pedestrians and cyclists. A growing body of evidence has indicated that community contacts are scarcer in low density areas. In addition, low density dwellers seemed to have higher stress levels. Car dependent lifestyles had negative impacts on children's play, growth and development. Urban forms which promoted a range of housing options in terms of affordability, tenure and type allowed people to remain within their neighbourhoods. Disadvantaged groups fared better in denser areas where there were more public facilities. 62 refs. 1 tab., 2 figs

  8. Medication therapy disease management: Geisinger's approach to population health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laney K; Greskovic, Gerard; Grassi, Dante M; Graham, Jove; Sun, Haiyan; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Murray, Michael F; Manickam, Kandamurugu; Nathanson, Douglas C; Wright, Eric A; Evans, Michael A

    2017-09-15

    Pharmacists' involvement in a population health initiative focused on chronic disease management is described. Geisinger Health System has cultivated a culture of innovation in population health management, as highlighted by its ambulatory care pharmacy program, the Medication Therapy Disease Management (MTDM) program. Initiated in 1996, the MTDM program leverages pharmacists' pharmacotherapy expertise to optimize care and improve outcomes. MTDM program pharmacists are trained and credentialed to manage over 16 conditions, including atrial fibrillation (AF) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Over a 15-year period, Geisinger Health Plan (GHP)-insured patients with AF whose warfarin therapy was managed by the MTDM program had, on average, 18% fewer emergency department (ED) visits and 18% fewer hospitalizations per year than GHP enrollees with AF who did not receive MTDM services, with 23% lower annual total care costs. Over a 2-year period, GHP-insured patients with MS whose pharmacotherapy was managed by pharmacists averaged 28% fewer annual ED visits than non-pharmacist-managed patients; however, the mean annual total care cost was 21% higher among MTDM clinic patients. The Geisinger MTDM program has evolved over 20 years from a single pharmacist-run anticoagulation clinic into a large program focused on managing the health of an ever-growing population. Initial challenges in integrating pharmacists into the Geisinger patient care framework as clinical experts were overcome by demonstrating the MTDM program's positive impact on patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mental health first aid training for high school teachers: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Anthony F; Kitchener, Betty A; Sawyer, Michael G; Scales, Helen; Cvetkovski, Stefan

    2010-06-24

    Mental disorders often have their first onset during adolescence. For this reason, high school teachers are in a good position to provide initial assistance to students who are developing mental health problems. To improve the skills of teachers in this area, a Mental Health First Aid training course was modified to be suitable for high school teachers and evaluated in a cluster randomized trial. The trial was carried out with teachers in South Australian high schools. Teachers at 7 schools received training and those at another 7 were wait-listed for future training. The effects of the training on teachers were evaluated using questionnaires pre- and post-training and at 6 months follow-up. The questionnaires assessed mental health knowledge, stigmatizing attitudes, confidence in providing help to others, help actually provided, school policy and procedures, and teacher mental health. The indirect effects on students were evaluated using questionnaires at pre-training and at follow-up which assessed any mental health help and information received from school staff, and also the mental health of the student. The training increased teachers' knowledge, changed beliefs about treatment to be more like those of mental health professionals, reduced some aspects of stigma, and increased confidence in providing help to students and colleagues. There was an indirect effect on students, who reported receiving more mental health information from school staff. Most of the changes found were sustained 6 months after training. However, no effects were found on teachers' individual support towards students with mental health problems or on student mental health. Mental Health First Aid training has positive effects on teachers' mental health knowledge, attitudes, confidence and some aspects of their behaviour. ACTRN12608000561381.

  10. Comparative efficacy of simultaneous versus sequential multiple health behavior change interventions among adults: A systematic review of randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Erica; Freund, Megan; Booth, Angela; Duncan, Mitch J; Johnson, Natalie; Short, Camille E; Wolfenden, Luke; Stacey, Fiona G; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-08-01

    Growing evidence points to the benefits of addressing multiple health behaviors rather than single behaviors. This review evaluates the relative effectiveness of simultaneous and sequentially delivered multiple health behavior change (MHBC) interventions. Secondary aims were to identify: a) the most effective spacing of sequentially delivered components; b) differences in efficacy of MHBC interventions for adoption/cessation behaviors and lifestyle/addictive behaviors, and; c) differences in trial retention between simultaneously and sequentially delivered interventions. MHBC intervention trials published up to October 2015 were identified through a systematic search. Eligible trials were randomised controlled trials that directly compared simultaneous and sequential delivery of a MHBC intervention. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Six trials met the inclusion criteria and across these trials the behaviors targeted were smoking, diet, physical activity, and alcohol consumption. Three trials reported a difference in intervention effect between a sequential and simultaneous approach in at least one behavioral outcome. Of these, two trials favoured a sequential approach on smoking. One trial favoured a simultaneous approach on fat intake. There was no difference in retention between sequential and simultaneous approaches. There is limited evidence regarding the relative effectiveness of sequential and simultaneous approaches. Given only three of the six trials observed a difference in intervention effectiveness for one health behavior outcome, and the relatively consistent finding that the sequential and simultaneous approaches were more effective than a usual/minimal care control condition, it appears that both approaches should be considered equally efficacious. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015027876. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gesundes Kinzigtal Integrated Care: improving population health by a shared health gain approach and a shared savings contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hildebrandt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Integrated care solutions need supportive financial incentives. In this paper we describe the financial architecture and operative details of the integrated pilot Gesundes Kinzigtal.Description of integrated care case: Located in Southwest Germany, Gesundes Kinzigtal is one of the few population-based integrated care approaches in Germany, organising care across all health service sectors and indications. The system serving around half of the population of the region is run by a regional health management company (Gesundes Kinzigtal GmbH in coope­ration with the physicians' network in the region (MQNK, a German health care management company with a background in medical sociology and health economics (OptiMedis AG and with two statutory health insurers (among them is the biggest health insurer in Southwest Germany: AOK Baden-Württemberg.Discussion and (preliminary conclusion: The shared savings contract between Gesundes Kinzigtal GmbH and the two health insurers, providing financial incentives for managers and health care providers to realize a sub­stantial efficiency gain, could be an appropriate contractual base of Gesundes Kinzigtal's population health gain approach. This approach is based on the assumption that a more effective trans-sector organisation of Germany's health care system and increased investments in well-designed preventive programmes will lead to a reduction in  morbidity, and in particular to a reduced incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases. This, in turn, is to lead to a comparative reduction in health care cost. Although the comparative cost in the Kinzigtal region has been reduced from the onset of Gesundes Kinzigtal Integrated Care, only future research will have to demonstrate whether - and to what extent - cost reduction may be attributed to a real population health gain.

  12. Gesundes Kinzigtal Integrated Care: improving population health by a shared health gain approach and a shared savings contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hildebrandt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Integrated care solutions need supportive financial incentives. In this paper we describe the financial architecture and operative details of the integrated pilot 'Gesundes Kinzigtal'. Description of integrated care case: Located in Southwest Germany, 'Gesundes Kinzigtal' is one of the few population-based integrated care approaches in Germany, organising care across all health service sectors and indications. The system serving around half of the population of the region is run by a regional health management company (Gesundes Kinzigtal GmbH in coope­ration with the physicians' network in the region (MQNK, a German health care management company with a background in medical sociology and health economics (OptiMedis AG and with two statutory health insurers (among them is the biggest health insurer in Southwest Germany: AOK Baden-Württemberg. Discussion and (preliminary conclusion: The shared savings contract between Gesundes Kinzigtal GmbH and the two health insurers, providing financial incentives for managers and health care providers to realize a sub­stantial efficiency gain, could be an appropriate contractual base of Gesundes Kinzigtal's population health gain approach. This approach is based on the assumption that a more effective trans-sector organisation of Germany's health care system and increased investments in well-designed preventive programmes will lead to a reduction in  morbidity, and in particular to a reduced incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases. This, in turn, is to lead to a comparative reduction in health care cost. Although the comparative cost in the Kinzigtal region has been reduced from the onset of Gesundes Kinzigtal Integrated Care, only future research will have to demonstrate whether - and to what extent - cost reduction may be attributed to a real population health gain.

  13. Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Yuan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. Methods: We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Results: In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Conclusions: Inequity in maternal

  14. Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Beibei; Qian, Xu; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-04-03

    China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Inequity in maternal health continues to be an issue worthy of greater programmatic and

  15. The effect of economic development on population health: a review of the empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Simon; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Economic growth is considered an important determinant of population health. Relevant studies investigating the effect of economic growth on health outcomes were identified from Google Scholar and PubMed searches in economics and medical journals. Additional resources generated through economic growth are potentially useful for improving population health. The empirical evidence on the aggregate effect of economic growth on population health is rather mixed and inconclusive. The causal pathways from economic growth to population health are crucial and failure or success in completing the pathways explains differences in empirical findings. Future research should investigate how additional resources can more effectively reach those in need and how additional resources can be used more efficiently. It is particularly relevant to understand why preventive health care in developing countries is very price elastic whereas curative health care is very health inelastic and how this understanding can inform public health policy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. The basic principles of migration health: Population mobility and gaps in disease prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushulak, Brian D; MacPherson, Douglas W

    2006-01-01

    Currently, migrants and other mobile individuals, such as migrant workers and asylum seekers, are an expanding global population of growing social, demographic and political importance. Disparities often exist between a migrant population's place of origin and its destination, particularly with relation to health determinants. The effects of those disparities can be observed at both individual and population levels. Migration across health and disease disparities influences the epidemiology of certain diseases globally and in nations receiving migrants. While specific disease-based outcomes may vary between migrant group and location, general epidemiological principles may be applied to any situation where numbers of individuals move between differences in disease prevalence. Traditionally, migration health activities have been designed for national application and lack an integrated international perspective. Present and future health challenges related to migration may be more effectively addressed through collaborative global undertakings. This paper reviews the epidemiological relationships resulting from health disparities bridged by migration and describes the growing role of migration and population mobility in global disease epidemiology. The implications for national and international health policy and program planning are presented. PMID:16674820

  17. Enrolling Minority and Underserved Populations in Cancer Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Sherrie F; Dash, Chiranjeev; Sheppard, Vanessa B; Goode, Tawara D; Oppong, Bridget A; Dodson, Everett E; Hamilton, Rhonda N; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that community involvement is integral to solving public health problems, including involvement in clinical trials-a gold standard. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in the accrual of participants for clinical trials. Location and cultural aspects of clinical trials influence recruitment and accrual to clinical trials. It is increasingly necessary to be aware of defining characteristics, such as location and culture of the populations from which research participants are enrolled. Little research has examined the effect of location and cultural competency in adapting clinical trial research for minority and underserved communities on accrual for clinical trials. Utilizing embedded community academic sites, the authors applied cultural competency frameworks to adapt clinical trial research in order to increase minority participation in nontherapeutic cancer clinical trials. This strategy resulted in successful accrual of participants to new clinical research trials, specifically targeting participation from minority and underserved communities in metropolitan Washington, DC. From 2012 to 2014, a total of 559 participants enrolled across six nontherapeutic clinical trials, representing a 62% increase in the enrollment of blacks in clinical research. Embedding cancer prevention programs and research in the community was shown to be yet another important strategy in the arsenal of approaches that can potentially enhance clinical research enrollment and capacity. The analyses showed that the capacity to acquire cultural knowledge about patients-their physical locales, cultural values, and environments in which they live-is essential to recruiting culturally and ethnically diverse population samples. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Public Health Exposome: A Population-Based, Exposure Science Approach to Health Disparities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Juarez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of progress in reducing health disparities suggests that new approaches are needed if we are to achieve meaningful, equitable, and lasting reductions. Current scientific paradigms do not adequately capture the complexity of the relationships between environment, personal health and population level disparities. The public health exposome is presented as a universal exposure tracking framework for integrating complex relationships between exogenous and endogenous exposures across the lifespan from conception to death. It uses a social-ecological framework that builds on the exposome paradigm for conceptualizing how exogenous exposures “get under the skin”. The public health exposome approach has led our team to develop a taxonomy and bioinformatics infrastructure to integrate health outcomes data with thousands of sources of exogenous exposure, organized in four broad domains: natural, built, social, and policy environments. With the input of a transdisciplinary team, we have borrowed and applied the methods, tools and terms from various disciplines to measure the effects of environmental exposures on personal and population health outcomes and disparities, many of which may not manifest until many years later. As is customary with a paradigm shift, this approach has far reaching implications for research methods and design, analytics, community engagement strategies, and research training.

  19. The Public Health Exposome: A Population-Based, Exposure Science Approach to Health Disparities Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Paul D.; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Hood, Darryl B.; Im, Wansoo; Levine, Robert S.; Kilbourne, Barbara J.; Langston, Michael A.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William L.; Estes, Maurice G.; Estes, Sue M.; Agboto, Vincent K.; Robinson, Paul; Wilson, Sacoby; Lichtveld, Maureen Y.

    2014-01-01

    The lack of progress in reducing health disparities suggests that new approaches are needed if we are to achieve meaningful, equitable, and lasting reductions. Current scientific paradigms do not adequately capture the complexity of the relationships between environment, personal health and population level disparities. The public health exposome is presented as a universal exposure tracking framework for integrating complex relationships between exogenous and endogenous exposures across the lifespan from conception to death. It uses a social-ecological framework that builds on the exposome paradigm for conceptualizing how exogenous exposures “get under the skin”. The public health exposome approach has led our team to develop a taxonomy and bioinformatics infrastructure to integrate health outcomes data with thousands of sources of exogenous exposure, organized in four broad domains: natural, built, social, and policy environments. With the input of a transdisciplinary team, we have borrowed and applied the methods, tools and terms from various disciplines to measure the effects of environmental exposures on personal and population health outcomes and disparities, many of which may not manifest until many years later. As is customary with a paradigm shift, this approach has far reaching implications for research methods and design, analytics, community engagement strategies, and research training. PMID:25514145

  20. Mobile Link - a theory-based messaging intervention for improving sexual and reproductive health of female entertainment workers in Cambodia: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Carinne; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Swendenman, Dallas; Kaplan, Kathryn C; Yi, Siyan

    2018-04-19

    In Cambodia, HIV prevalence is concentrated in key populations including among female entertainment workers (FEWs) who may engage in direct or indirect sex work. Reaching FEWs with sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services has been difficult because of their hidden and stigmatized nature. Mobile-phone-based interventions may be an effective way to reach this population and connect them with the existing services. This article describes study design and implementation of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a mobile health intervention (the Mobile Link) aiming to improve SRH and related outcomes among FEWs in Cambodia. A two-arm RCT will be used to determine the effectiveness of a mobile-phone-based text/voice messaging intervention. The intervention will be developed through a participatory process. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews have been conducted to inform and tailor behavior change theory-based text and voice messages. During the implementation phase, 600 FEWs will be recruited and randomly assigned into one of the two arms: (1) a control group and (2) a mobile phone message group (either text messages [SMS] or voice messages [VM], a delivery method chosen by participants). Participants in the control group will also receive a weekly monitoring survey, which will provide real-time information to implementing partners to streamline outreach efforts and be able to quickly identify geographic trends. The primary outcome measures will include self-reported HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing and treatment, condom use, contraceptive use, and gender-based violence (GBV). If the Mobile Link trial is successful, participants will report an increase in condom use, linkages to screening and treatment for HIV and STI, and contraception use as well as a reduction in GBV. This trial is unique in a number of ways. First, the option of participation mode (SMS or VM) allows participants to choose the message medium that best links them

  1. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of clinical trials contribute to medical knowledge and practice. Why Clinical Trials Are Important Clinical trials are a key ... Enterprise NHLBI has a strong tradition of supporting clinical trials that have not only shaped medical practice around the world, but have improved the health ...

  2. Consistency in Physical Activity and Increase in Mental Health in Elderly over a Decade: Are We Achieving Better Population Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler C. Smith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Over the past century, advances in medicine and public health have resulted in an extraordinary increase in life expectancy. As a result, focus has shifted from infectious to chronic diseases. Though current guidelines for healthy behaviors among the elderly exist, it remains unclear whether this growing segment of the population has shifted their behaviors in response to public health campaigns. The objective of this study was to investigate mental health and physical activity trends that may be leading indicators for healthier living and increased life expectancy. Methods: Using nearly a decade of continuous serial cross-sectional data collected in the nationwide Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, this study investigated trends of health behaviors and mental health in a population of nearly 750,000 who were 65 or older from 2003 through 2011. Weighted univariate and multivariable analyses were utilized including investigation of trend analyses over the decade, producing adjusted annual odds of physical activity and mental health. Results: After controlling for demographic and other factors, higher education and income, lower BMI, and current or previous smoking was associated with higher odds of adverse mental health and lower odds of physical activity engagement. Adjusted odds of adverse mental health climbed over the decade of observation whereas the odds of physical activity remained static. Conclusions: These data, encompassing a very large population over a decade of time, suggest that physical activity is stable though mental health challenges are on the rise in this older population. Public health campaigns may face greater barriers in an elderly population due to lifelong habits, dissemination and educational approaches, or decreasing gains. Further research should be conducted to identify more effective approaches towards increasing physical activity in this important and growing subset of the population and

  3. Comprehensive and integrated district health systems strengthening: the Rwanda Population Health Implementation and Training (PHIT) Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobac, Peter C; Basinga, Paulin; Condo, Jeanine; Farmer, Paul E; Finnegan, Karen E; Hamon, Jessie K; Amoroso, Cheryl; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Kakoma, Jean Baptise; Lu, Chunling; Murangwa, Yusuf; Murray, Megan; Ngabo, Fidele; Rich, Michael; Thomson, Dana; Binagwaho, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Nationally, health in Rwanda has been improving since 2000, with considerable improvement since 2005. Despite improvements, rural areas continue to lag behind urban sectors with regard to key health outcomes. Partners In Health (PIH) has been supporting the Rwanda Ministry of Health (MOH) in two rural districts in Rwanda since 2005. Since 2009, the MOH and PIH have spearheaded a health systems strengthening (HSS) intervention in these districts as part of the Rwanda Population Health Implementation and Training (PHIT) Partnership. The partnership is guided by the belief that HSS interventions should be comprehensive, integrated, responsive to local conditions, and address health care access, cost, and quality. The PHIT Partnership represents a collaboration between the MOH and PIH, with support from the National University of Rwanda School of Public Health, the National Institute of Statistics, Harvard Medical School, and Brigham and Women's Hospital. The PHIT Partnership's health systems support aligns with the World Health Organization's six health systems building blocks. HSS activities focus across all levels of the health system - community, health center, hospital, and district leadership - to improve health care access, quality, delivery, and health outcomes. Interventions are concentrated on three main areas: targeted support for health facilities, quality improvement initiatives, and a strengthened network of community health workers. The impact of activities will be assessed using population-level outcomes data collected through oversampling of the demographic and health survey (DHS) in the intervention districts. The overall impact evaluation is complemented by an analysis of trends in facility health care utilization. A comprehensive costing project captures the total expenditures and financial inputs of the health care system to determine the cost of systems improvement. Targeted evaluations and operational research pieces focus on specific

  4. Internet information-seeking in mental health: population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, John; Clarke, Aileen

    2006-09-01

    A major use of the of the internet is for health information-seeking. There has been little research into its use in relation to mental health. To investigate the prevalence of internet use for mental health information-seeking and its relative importance as a mental health information source. General population survey. Questions covered internet use, past psychiatric history and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Eighteen per cent of all internet users had used the internet for information related to mental health. The prevalence was higher among those with a past history of mental health problems and those with current psychological distress. Only 12% of respondents selected the internet as one of the three most accurate sources of information, compared with 24% who responded that it was one of the three sources they would use. The internet has a significant role in mental health information-seeking. The internet is used more than it is trusted.

  5. Assessment of periodontal health among the rural population of Moradabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Batra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health is an integral component of general health and is essential for well-being. India is one of the most populated countries in the world and majority of them resides in rural areas. Moradabad is one of the oldest cities of Uttar Pradesh with diverse culture and beliefs. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the periodontal health status of the rural Moradabad population. Materials and Methods: A representative transversal study on 550 adults aged 20-49 years of rural Moradabad was conducted from February 2011 to June 2011. The survey was carried out using a self-designed questionnaire. Periodontal health was assessed using WHO criteria (1997. Results: Overall the prevalence of periodontal diseases among study subjects was overall 91.6%. Males had a higher prevalence of periodontal disease (93.8% as compared to females (89.5%. Out of total subjects 37.8% had Community Periodontal Index (CPI score 4 and 32.5% had score 3. About 7.3% of subjects had loss of attachment (LOA with 20.2% of them having LOA score 1. Statistically, there was a significant difference (P 35 years, smoking, tobacco chewing (independent risk factors were significantly associated with CPI > 2 (dependent variable (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The current periodontal health status of rural adult population of Moradabad city can be attributed to low literacy along with socio economic status and oral habits. To improve the periodontal health status of the rural population of Moradabad, it is suggested that a community-based approach can be designed.

  6. Inequalities in mental health in the working population of Spain: a National Health Survey-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-de la Torre, Jorge; Artazcoz, Lucía; Molina, Antonio José; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Martín, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    In the working population, poor mental health is a significant problem whose prevalence rates and associated factors could differ by gender, especially in a period of socioeconomic changes. The aims of this study were: a) to determine the prevalence of poor mental health in the working population of Spain in 2011; b) to identify the association of this prevalence with socioeconomic and work-related variables for men and women separately; c) to determine if the patterns differ by gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted with data from the National Health Survey of Spain (2011). Of the 21,007 participants in the survey, we selected 7396 whose employment status was described as "working" The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used as a screening tool to detect poor mental health. Prevalences were calculated and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to verify the association between variables. The prevalence of poor mental health was higher among women (19.9%) than men (13.9%), the overall prevalence being 16.8%. The variables associated with a higher prevalence were type of contract and work-related variables in men, and age and socioeconomic variables in women. This study shows that, in the working population of Spain, the prevalence of poor mental health and its related factors differ by gender. Poor mental health is mainly related to socioeconomic variables in women but is mostly associated with work-related variables in men. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Discrimination, work and health in immigrant populations in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Gil-González, Diana; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Porthé, Victoria; Paramio-Pérez, Gema; García, Ana M; Garí, Aitana

    2009-05-01

    One of the most important social phenomena in the global context is the flow of immigration from developing countries, motivated by economic and employment related issues. Discrimination can be approached as a health risk factor within the immigrant population's working environment, especially for those immigrants at greater risk from social exclusion and marginalisation. The aim of this study is to research perceptions of discrimination and the specific relationship between discrimination in the workplace and health among Spain's immigrant population. A qualitative study was performed by means of 84 interviews and 12 focus groups held with immigrant workers in five cities in Spain receiving a large influx of immigrants (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Alicante and Huelva), covering representative immigrant communities in Spain (Romanians, Moroccans, Ecuadorians, Colombians and Sub-Saharan Africans). Discourse narrative content analysis was performed using pre-established categories and gradually incorporating other emerging categories from the immigrant interviewees themselves. The participants reported instances of discrimination in their community and working life, characterised by experiences of racism, mistreatment and precarious working conditions in comparison to the Spanish-born population. They also talked about limitations in terms of accessible occupations (mainly construction, the hotel and restaurant trade, domestic service and agriculture), and described major difficulties accessing other types of work (for example public administration). They also identified political and legal structural barriers related with social institutions. Experiences of discrimination can affect their mental health and are decisive factors regarding access to healthcare services. Our results suggest the need to adopt integration policies in both the countries of origin and the host country, to acknowledge labour and social rights, and to conduct further research into individual

  8. Estimate of the benefits of a population-based reduction in dietary sodium additives on hypertension and its related health care costs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffres, Michel R; Campbell, Norm R C; Manns, Braden; Tu, Karen

    2007-05-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk factor for mortality worldwide. One-quarter of the adult Canadian population has hypertension, and more than 90% of the population is estimated to develop hypertension if they live an average lifespan. Reductions in dietary sodium additives significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and population reductions in dietary sodium are recommended by major scientific and public health organizations. To estimate the reduction in hypertension prevalence and specific hypertension management cost savings associated with a population-wide reduction in dietary sodium additives. Based on data from clinical trials, reducing dietary sodium additives by 1840 mg/day would result in a decrease of 5.06 mmHg (systolic) and 2.7 mmHg (diastolic) blood pressures. Using Canadian Heart Health Survey data, the resulting reduction in hypertension was estimated. Costs of laboratory testing and physician visits were based on 2001 to 2003 Ontario Health Insurance Plan data, and the number of physician visits and costs of medications for patients with hypertension were taken from 2003 IMS Canada. To estimate the reduction in total physician visits and laboratory costs, current estimates of aware hypertensive patients in Canada were used from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Reducing dietary sodium additives may decrease hypertension prevalence by 30%, resulting in one million fewer hypertensive patients in Canada, and almost double the treatment and control rate. Direct cost savings related to fewer physician visits, laboratory tests and lower medication use are estimated to be approximately $430 million per year. Physician visits and laboratory costs would decrease by 6.5%, and 23% fewer treated hypertensive patients would require medications for control of blood pressure. Based on these estimates, lowering dietary sodium additives would lead to a large reduction in hypertension prevalence and result in health care cost savings in Canada.

  9. Designing "Real-World" trials to meet the needs of health policy makers at marketing authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Melanie; Wood, John; Freemantle, Nick

    2011-07-01

    There is increasing interest in conducting "Real-World" trials that go beyond traditional assessment of efficacy and safety to examine market access and value for money questions before marketing authorization of a new pharmaceutical product or health technology. This commentary uses practical examples to demonstrate how high-quality evidence of the cost-effectiveness of an intervention may be gained earlier in the development process. Issues surrounding the design and analysis of "Real-World" trials to demonstrate relative cost-effectiveness early in the life of new technologies are discussed. The modification of traditional phase III trial designs, de novo trial designs, the combination of trial-based and epidemiological data, and the use of simulation model-based approaches to address reimbursement questions are described. Modest changes to a phase III trial protocol and case report form may be undertaken at the design stage to provide valid estimates of health care use and the benefits accrued; however, phase III designs often preclude "real-life" practice. Relatively small de novo trials may be used to address adherence to therapy or patient preference, although simply designed studies with active comparators enrolling large numbers of patients may provide evidence on long-term safety and rare adverse events. Practical examples demonstrate that it is possible to provide high-quality evidence of the cost-effectiveness of an intervention earlier in the development process. Payers and decision makers should preferentially adopt treatments with such evidence than treatments for which evidence is lacking or of lower quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of hypertriglyceridemia using non-fasting health checkup data in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Mitsuyoshi; Katakami, Naoto; Kaneto, Hideaki; Noguchi, Midori; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2013-01-01

    Some employees have difficulty undergoing health checkups in the workplace in a fasting state. However, hypertriglyceridemia is usually diagnosed based on fasting triglyceride (TG) measurements. The current study investigated the performance of non-fasting health checkup data for predicting hypertriglyceridemia in a Japanese population. We recruited a total of 1,959 Japanese employees who had their fasting TG levels reexamined after undergoing initial health checkups under either a fasting (the fasting population; n= 856) or non-fasting state (the non-fasting population; n= 1103). Hypertriglyceridemia was defined as a fasting TG level of ≥ 1.7 mmol/l. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the initial TG measurements for reexamination-detected hypertriglyceridemia was 0.85 in the fasting population and 0.83 in the non-fasting population. The area under the ROC curve of the initial TG measurements in the non-fasting population was not inferior to that of the multivariate model where other non-fasting health checkup data were added. The optimal non-fasting TG cutoff point was 2.0 mmol/l. The cutoff point was further lowered when the population was limited to patients undergoing health checkups four or more hours after their last meal and when the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in the population was simulated to be reduced. The non-fasting workplace TG measurements by themselves exhibited a tolerable performance for predicting hypertriglyceridemia. The optimal cutoff point in Japanese employees appears to be lower than 2.3 mmol/l, the recently proposed Western cutoff point.

  11. Four-level evaluation of health promotion intervention for preventing early childhood caries: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Basir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood caries (ECC is the most common dental disease among children, which can affect children’s primary teeth during their teething. This study evaluates an intervention for preventing early childhood caries in a pediatric population in Ahvaz, Iran. Method The population of this study (IRCT2017070210804N10 consists of 104 women with 12 to 36 months of age without dental caries referred to a health care center in Ahvaz, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group in equal numbers. First, the demographic information of participants was collected through a questionnaire containing components of perceived threat, health literacy, and oral health behaviors using a valid and reliable questionnaire. The ECC status of the children was established by a dentist. Control group received “standard well baby care”. The experimental group received standard well baby care in addition to educational interventions, including lecture and group discussion. After 6 months, the participant completed the questionnaire for the second time, and the children’s teeth were reexamined. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15 at a significance level of p  0.05. However, after the intervention, a significant difference was observed between the perceived threats (41.15 ± 4.46 in the experimental group and 38.26 ± 4.21 in the control group, p = 0.001, health literacy (20.98 ± 2.15 in the experimental group and 19.76 ± 2.70 in the control group, p = 0.01, oral health behaviors (7.75 ± 2.30 in the experimental group and 6.15 ± 2.65 in the control group, p = 0.01, and the incidence of ECC (13% in the experimental group and 35% in the control group, p = 0.001. Conclusion This intervention had positive effects on the perceived threat, health literacy, and health behaviors; and the intervention could reduce the incidence of ECC. The finding of this study provided a suggestion

  12. 'MATRI-SUMAN' a capacity building and text messaging intervention to enhance maternal and child health service utilization among pregnant women from rural Nepal: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jitendra Kumar; Kadel, Rajendra; Acharya, Dilaram; Lombard, Daniel; Khanal, Saval; Singh, Shri Prakash

    2018-06-14

    Capacity development of health volunteers and text messaging to pregnant women through mobile phones have shown improved maternal and child health (MCH) outcomes and is associated with increased utilisation of MCH services. However, such interventions are uncommon in Nepal. We aim to carry out an intervention with the hypothesis that capacity building and text messaging intervention will increase the MCH service utilisation. MATRI-SUMAN is a 12-month cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT). The trial involves pregnant women from 52 clusters of six village development committees (VDCs) covering 66,000 populations of Dhanusha district of Nepal. In the intervention clusters, Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHVs) will receive capacity development skills through reinforcement training, supervision and monitoring skills for the promotion of health seeking behaviour among pregnant women and study participants will receive periodic promotional text messaging service about MCH components through mobile phones. A sample of 354with equal numbers in each study arm is estimated using power calculation formula. The primary outcomes of this study are the rate of utilization of skilled birth attendants and consumption of a specified diversified meal. The secondary outcomes are: four antenatal (ANC) visits, weight gain of women during pregnancy, delivery of a baby at the health facility, postnatal care (PNC) visits, positive changes in child feeding practices among mothers, performance of FCHVs in MCH service utilization. The intervention is designed to enhance the capacity of health volunteers for the promotion of health seeking behaviour among pregnant women and text messaging through a mobile phone to expecting mothers to increase MCH service utilization. The trial if proven effective will have policy implications in poor resource settings. ISRCTN60684155, ( https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN60684155 ). The trial was registered retrospectively.

  13. Internal migration and the health of the returned population: a nationally representative study of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luwen; Liu, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Guoying; Wu, Shaolong

    2015-07-28

    China had 236 million internal migrants in 2012 and the majority of them migrated from rural to urban areas. The research based on medical and epidemical records found that the migrants had worse health than the urban residents, but the household and working place investigations reported better health status. The sick or unhealthy migrants are likely to return to their hometowns, which in turn may cause a report bias or over-estimation of the health status of rural-to-urban migrants in China. This paper explores the association of migration status and the physical and psychological health of Chinese internal migrants. Nationally representative household survey data from the China Labor-force Dynamics Survey 2012 (CLDS) were used to analyze the association between the migration status and the health status of internal migrants in China. Migration status of the respondents was measured by hukou status and migration experience and all respondents were divided into four groups: returned population, migrant population, urban residents, and rural residents. Health status of respondents was measured by self-reported physical and psychological health. Migration experience was associated with the physical health of the returned population. The physical health of the returned population was worse than the migrant population and was distinguished by age and sex. The physical health status of migrant population was significantly better than rural residents, but not significantly better than urban residents. However, the association between migration status and psychological health was not statistically significant. Besides migration status, the socioeconomic status (SES) had a positive correlation with both physical and psychological health status, while occupational hazards exerted negative influence. The results indicate a tight association between migration experience and health status. The internal unhealthy migrants were more likely to return to their hometown and the

  14. [Analysis of self-rated health status of the floating population in a district of Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jun-Jie; Wang, Dong; Nie, Jun

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the self-rated health status of the floating population in a district of Guangzhou. Cluster stratified random sampling was applied to survey 219 floating people from a community in Guangzhou, who were assessed with self-rated health status was assessed with Self-Rated Health Measurement Scale. The scores of the floating population were significantly higher than the normal individuals in physical health sub-scales (Pfloating population were significantly lower in psychological and social health sub-scales (Panxiety, depression and obsession, and those in the subscale of social health mainly in participation in social activities and seeking help from others. To improve the health status of the floating population, campaigns of health education need to be launched periodically and psychological counseling should be provided for these individuals. Additionally, interactive activities should be increased in their daily social life.

  15. Phase II Trials for Heterogeneous Patient Populations with a Time-to-Event Endpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a single-arm phase II trial with a time-to-event end-point. We assume that the study population has multiple subpopulations with different prognosis, but the study treatment is expected to be similarly efficacious across the subpopulations. We review a stratified one-sample log-rank test and present its sample size calculation method under some practical design settings. Our sample size method requires specification of the prevalence of subpopulations. We observe that the power of the resulting sample size is not very sensitive to misspecification of the prevalence.

  16. Track: A randomized controlled trial of a digital health obesity treatment intervention for medically vulnerable primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Perry; Steinberg, Dori; Levine, Erica; Askew, Sandy; Batch, Bryan C; Puleo, Elaine M; Svetkey, Laura P; Bosworth, Hayden B; DeVries, Abigail; Miranda, Heather; Bennett, Gary G

    2016-05-01

    Obesity continues to disproportionately affect medically vulnerable populations. Digital health interventions may be effective for delivering obesity treatment in low-resource primary care settings. Track is a 12-month randomized controlled trial of a digital health weight loss intervention in a community health center system. Participants are 351 obese men and women aged 21 to 65years with an obesity-related comorbidity. Track participants are randomized to usual primary care or to a 12-month intervention consisting of algorithm-generated tailored behavior change goals, self-monitoring via mobile technologies, daily self-weighing using a network-connected scale, skills training materials, 18 counseling phone calls with a Track coach, and primary care provider counseling. Participants are followed over 12months, with study visits at baseline, 6, and 12months. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, fasting lipids, glucose and HbA1C and self-administered surveys are collected. Follow-up data will be collected from the medical record at 24months. Participants are 68% female and on average 50.7years old with a mean BMI of 35.9kg/m(2). Participants are mainly black (54%) or white (33%); 12.5% are Hispanic. Participants are mostly employed and low-income. Over 20% of the sample has hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Almost 27% of participants currently smoke and almost 20% score above the clinical threshold for depression. Track utilizes an innovative, digital health approach to reduce obesity and chronic disease risk among medically vulnerable adults in the primary care setting. Baseline characteristics reflect a socioeconomically disadvantaged, high-risk patient population in need of evidence-based obesity treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Current status and trends in the health of the Moscow population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishuk, E A; Plavunov, N F; Soboleva, N P

    1997-01-01

    Based on vast comprehensive medical statistical database, the authors analyze the health status of the population and the efficacy of public health service in Moscow. The pre-crisis tendencies and the modern status of public health under modern socioeconomic conditions are noted.

  18. Internet and social media for health-related information and communication in health care: preferences of the Dutch general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Belt, Tom H; Engelen, Lucien J L P G; Berben, Sivera A A; Teerenstra, Steven; Samsom, Melvin; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2013-10-02

    Health care is increasingly featured by the use of Web 2.0 communication and collaborative technologies that are reshaping the way patients and professionals interact. These technologies or tools can be used for a variety of purposes: to instantly debate issues, discover news, analyze research, network with peers, crowd-source information, seek support, and provide advice. Not all tools are implemented successfully; in many cases, the nonusage attrition rates are high. Little is known about the preferences of the Dutch general population regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. To determine the preferences of the general population in the Netherlands regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. A cross-sectional survey was disseminated via a popular Dutch online social network. Respondents were asked where they searched for health-related information, how they qualified the value of different sources, and their preferences regarding online communication with health care providers. Results were weighed for the Dutch population based on gender, age, and level of education using official statistics. Numbers and percentages or means and standard deviations were presented for different subgroups. One-way ANOVA was used to test for statistical differences. The survey was completed by 635 respondents. The Internet was found to be the number one source for health-related information (82.7%), closely followed by information provided by health care professionals (71.1%). Approximately one-third (32.3%) of the Dutch population search for ratings of health care providers. The most popular information topics were side effects of medication (62.5%) and symptoms (59.7%). Approximately one-quarter of the Dutch population prefer to communicate with a health care provider via social media (25.4%), and 21.2% would like to communicate via a webcam. The Internet is the main source of health-related information for the Dutch population

  19. ChroPac-Trial: Duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection versus pancreatoduodenectomy for chronic pancreatitis. Trial protocol of a randomised controlled multicentre trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlitt Hans

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recently published systematic review indicated superiority of duodenum-preserving techniques when compared with pancreatoduodenectomy, for the treatment of patients with chronic pancreatitis in the head of the gland. A multicentre randomised trial to confirm these results is needed. Methods/Design ChroPac aims to investigate differences in quality of life, mortality and morbidity during 24 months after surgery (duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection versus pancreatoduodenectomy in patients with chronic pancreatitis of the pancreatic head. ChroPac is a randomised, controlled, observer and patient blinded multicentre surgical trial with two parallel comparison groups. The primary outcome measure will be the average quality of life during 24 months after surgery. Statistical analysis is based on the intention-to-treat population. Analysis of covariance will be applied for the intervention group comparison adjusting for age, centre and quality of life before surgery. Level of significance is set at 5% (two-sided and sample size (n = 100 per group is determined to assure a power of 90%. Discussion The ChroPac trial will explore important outcomes from different perspectives (e.g. surgeon, patient, health care system. Its pragmatic approach promises high external validity allowing a comprehensive evaluation of the surgical strategy for treatment of patients with chronic pancreatitis. Trial registration Controlled-trials.com ISRCTN38973832

  20. Measuring culture: a critical review of acculturation and health in Asian immigrant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, Talya; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2003-07-01

    The number of studies examining how acculturation affects the health of Asian immigrants has increased in recent years. The proliferation of studies reflects the growing size and heterogeneity of Asian immigrant populations in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. This paper compares various approaches to acculturation within the health literature on Asian immigrants by reviewing the literature in three-health domains (1) mental health (2) physical health and (3) health services use. The review critically examines the conceptualizations and measures of acculturation in these three domains and presents major findings. We observe that measurement difficulties posed by the experiences of heterogeneous Asian groups compound theoretical and disciplinary disparities between acculturation instruments. The extent to which conceptual and methodological critiques of acculturation studies in Hispanic populations apply to studies of Asian populations is also discussed. The critical review thus provides insights into the diverse ways that the relationship between culture and health is measured in this complicated and growing literature.

  1. Health-related quality of life after laparoscopic and open surgery for rectal cancer in a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, J; Angenete, E; Gellerstedt, M

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies comparing laparoscopic and open surgical techniques have reported improved health-related quality of life (HRQL). This analysis compared HRQL 12¿months after laparoscopic versus open surgery for rectal cancer in a subset of a randomized trial.......Previous studies comparing laparoscopic and open surgical techniques have reported improved health-related quality of life (HRQL). This analysis compared HRQL 12¿months after laparoscopic versus open surgery for rectal cancer in a subset of a randomized trial....

  2. Influences on recruitment to randomised controlled trials in mental health settings in England: a national cross-sectional survey of researchers working for the Mental Health Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borschmann, Rohan; Patterson, Sue; Poovendran, Dilkushi; Wilson, Danielle; Weaver, Tim

    2014-02-17

    Recruitment to trials is complex and often protracted; selection bias may compromise generalisability. In the mental health field (as elsewhere), diverse factors have been described as hindering researcher access to potential participants and various strategies have been proposed to overcome barriers. However, the extent to which various influences identified in the literature are operational across mental health settings in England has not been systematically examined. A cross-sectional, online survey of clinical studies officers employed by the Mental Health Research Network in England to recruit to trials from National Health Service mental health services. The bespoke questionnaire invited participants to report exposure to specified influences on recruitment, the perceived impact of these on access to potential participants, and to describe additional positive or negative influences on recruitment. Analysis employed descriptive statistics, the framework approach and triangulation of data. Questionnaires were returned by 98 (58%) of 170 clinical studies officers who reported diverse experience. Data demonstrated a disjunction between policy and practice. While the particulars of trial design and various marketing and communication strategies could influence recruitment, consensus was that the culture of NHS mental health services is not conducive to research. Since financial rewards for recruitment paid to Trusts and feedback about studies seldom reaching frontline services, clinicians were described as distanced from research. Facing continual service change and demanding clinical workloads, clinicians generally did not prioritise recruitment activities. Incentives to trial participants had variable impact on access but recruitment could be enhanced by engagement of senior investigators and integrating referral with routine practice. Comprehensive, robust feasibility studies and reciprocity between researchers and clinicians were considered crucial to

  3. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Trials About Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, ... required to have an IRB. Office for Human Research Protections The U.S. Department of Health and Human ...

  4. Most children with cancer are not enrolled on a clinical trial in Canada: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pole, Jason D; Barber, Randy; Bergeron, Rose-Émilie; Carret, Anne Sophie; Dix, David; Kulkarni, Ketan; Martineau, Emilie; Randall, Alicia; Stammers, David; Strahlendorf, Caron; Strother, Douglas R; Truong, Tony H; Sung, Lillian

    2017-06-05

    Primary objective was to describe the proportion of children newly diagnosed with cancer enrolled on a therapeutic clinical trial. Secondary objectives were to describe reasons for non-enrollment and factors associated with enrollment on tria